Sample records for suspended structures

  1. Electronic structure of cobalt nanocrystals suspended inliquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongjian; Guo, Jinghua; Yin, Yadong; Augustsson, Andreas; Dong, Chungli; Nordgren, Joseph; Chang, Chinglin; Alivisatos, Paul; Thornton, Geoff; Ogletree, D. Frank; Requejo, Felix G.; de Groot, Frank; Salmeron, Miquel


    The electronic structure of cobalt nanocrystals suspended in liquid as a function of size has been investigated using in-situ x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. A sharp absorption peak associated with the ligand molecules is found that increases in intensity upon reducing the nanocrystal size. X-ray Raman features due to d-d and to charge-transfer excitations of ligand molecules are identified. The study reveals the local symmetry of the surface of {var_epsilon}-Co phase nanocrystals, which originates from a dynamic interaction between Co nanocrystals and surfactant + solvent molecules.

  2. Periodization of Duffing oscillators suspended on elastic structure: Mechanical explanation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czolczynski, K. [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)]. E-mail:; Kapitaniak, T. [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Perlikowski, P. [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Stefanski, A. [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)


    We consider the dynamics of chaotic oscillators suspended on the elastic structure. We show that for the given conditions of the structure, initially uncorrelated chaotic oscillators can synchronize both in chaotic and periodic regimes. The phenomena of the periodization, i.e., the behavior of nonlinear oscillators become periodic as a result of interaction with elastic structure, have been observed. We formulate the criterion for periodization of double well-potential Duffing oscillator evolution in terms of the forces and displacements in the spring elements. We argue that the observed phenomena are generic in the parameter space and independent of the number of oscillators and their location on the elastic structure.

  3. MEMS-Based Fuel Reformer with Suspended Membrane Structure (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Sung; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We report a MEMS-based fuel reformer for supplying hydrogen to micro-fuel cells for portable applications. A combustor and a reforming chamber are fabricated at either side of a suspended membrane structure. This design is used to improve the overall thermal efficiency, which is a critical issue to realize a micro-fuel reformer. The suspended membrane structure design provided good thermal isolation. The micro-heaters consumed 0.97W to maintain the reaction zone of the MEMS-based fuel reformer at 200°C, but further power saving is necessary by improving design and fabrication. The conversion rate of methanol to hydrogen was about 19% at 180°C by using evaporated copper as a reforming catalyst. The catalytic combustion of hydrogen started without any assistance of micro-heaters. By feeding the fuel mixture of an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the temperature of the suspended membrane structure was maintained stable at 100°C with a combustion efficiency of 30%. In future works, we will test a micro-fuel reformer by using a micro-combustor to supply heat.

  4. Structure and Dynamics of Freely Suspended Liquid Crystals (United States)

    Clark, Noel A.


    Smectic liquid crystals are phases of rod shaped molecules organized into one dimensionally (1 D) periodic arrays of layers, each layer being between one and two molecular lengths thick. In the least ordered smectic phases, the smectics A and C, each layer is a two dimensional (2D) liquid. Additionally there are a variety of more ordered smectic phases having hexatic short range translational order or 2D crystalline or quasi long range translational order within the layers. The inherent fluid-layer structure and low vapor pressure of smectic liquid crystals enables the long term stabilization of freely suspended, single component, layered fluid films as thin as 30A, a single molecular layer. The layering forces the films to be an integral number of smectic layers thick, quantizing their thickness in layer units and forcing a film of a particular number of layers to be physically homogeneous with respect to its layer structure over its entire area. Optical reflectivity enables the precise determination of the number of layers. These ultrathin freely suspended liquid crystal films are structures of fundamental interest in condensed matter and fluid physics. They are the thinnest known stable fluid structures and have the largest surface-to-volume ratio of any stable fluid preparation, making them ideal for the study of the effects of reduced dimensionality on phase behavior and on fluctuation and interface phenomena. Their low vapor pressure and quantized thickness enable the effective use of microgravity to extend the study of basic capillary phenomena to ultrathin fluid films. Freely suspended films have been a wellspring of new LC physics. They have been used to provide unique experimental conditions for the study of condensed phase transitions in two dimensions. They are the only system in which the hexatic has been unambiguously identified as a phase of matter, and the only physical system in which fluctuations of a 2D XY system and Kosterlitz Thouless phase

  5. Structure, Hydrodynamics, and Phase Transition of Freely Suspended Liquid Crystals (United States)

    Clark, Noel A.


    Smectic liquid crystals are phases of rod shaped molecules organized into one dimensionally (1D) periodic arrays of layers, each layer being between one and two molecular lengths thick. In the least ordered smectic phases, the smectics A and C, each layer is a two dimensional (2D) liquid. Additionally there are a variety of more ordered smectic phases having hexatic short range translational order or 2D crystalline quasi long range translational order within the layers. The inherent fluid-layer structure and low vapor pressure of smectic liquid crystals enable the long term stabilization of freely suspended, single component, layered fluid films as thin as 30A, a single molecular layer. The layering forces the films to be an integral number of smectic layers thick, quantizing their thickness in layer units and forcing a film of a particular number of layers to be physically homogeneous with respect to its layer structure over its entire area. Optical reflectivity enables the precise determination of the number of layers. These ultrathin freely suspended liquid crystal films are structures of fundamental interest in condensed matter and fluid physics. They are the thinnest known stable condensed phase fluid structures and have the largest surface-to-volume ratio of any stable fluid preparation, making them ideal for the study of the effects of reduced dimensionality on phase behavior and on fluctuation and interface phenomena. Their low vapor pressure and quantized thickness enable the effective use of microgravity to extend the study of basic capillary phenomena to ultrathin fluid films. Freely suspended films have been a wellspring of new liquid crystal physics. They have been used to provide unique experimental conditions for the study of condensed phase transitions in two dimensions. They are the only system in which the hexatic has been unambiguously identified as a phase of matter, and the only physical system in which fluctuations of a 2D XY system and

  6. Suspended chains damp wind-induced oscillations of tall flexible structures (United States)

    Reed, W. H., III


    Hanging-chain system, which is a form of impact damper, suppresses wind-induced bending oscillations of tall cylindrical antenna masts. A cluster of chains enclosed in a neoprene shroud is suspended inside the tip of the antenna mast, forming a simple method of damping structural vibrations.

  7. Monolithic carbon structures including suspended single nanowires and nanomeshes as a sensor platform. (United States)

    Lim, Yeongjin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Madou, Marc; Shin, Heungjoo


    With the development of nanomaterial-based nanodevices, it became inevitable to develop cost-effective and simple nanofabrication technologies enabling the formation of nanomaterial assembly in a controllable manner. Herein, we present suspended monolithic carbon single nanowires and nanomeshes bridging two bulk carbon posts, fabricated in a designed manner using two successive UV exposure steps and a single pyrolysis step. The pyrolysis step is accompanied with a significant volume reduction, resulting in the shrinkage of micro-sized photoresist structures into nanoscale carbon structures. Even with the significant elongation of the suspended carbon nanowire induced by the volume reduction of the bulk carbon posts, the resultant tensional stress along the nanowire is not significant but grows along the wire thickness; this tensional stress gradient and the bent supports of the bridge-like carbon nanowire enhance structural robustness and alleviate the stiction problem that suspended nanostructures frequently experience. The feasibility of the suspended carbon nanostructures as a sensor platform was demonstrated by testing its electrochemical behavior, conductivity-temperature relationship, and hydrogen gas sensing capability.

  8. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian


    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  9. An at-grade stabilization structure impact on runoff and suspended sediment (United States)

    Minks, Kyle R.; Lowery, Birl; Madison, Fred W.; Ruark, Matthew; Frame, Dennis R.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.


    In recent years, agricultural runoff has received more attention as a major contributor to surface water pollution. This is especially true for the unglaciated area of Wisconsin, given this area's steep topography, which makes it highly susceptible to runoff and soil loss. We evaluated the ability of an at-grade stabilization structure (AGSS), designed as a conservation practice to reduce the amount of overland runoff and suspended sediment transported to the surface waters of an agricultural watershed. Eight years of storm and baseflow data collected by the US Geological Survey–Wisconsin Water Science Center on a farm in west central Wisconsin were analyzed for changes in precipitation, storm runoff volume, and suspended sediment concentration before and after installation of an AGSS. The agricultural research site was designed as a paired watershed study in which monitoring stations were installed on the perennial streams draining both control and treatment watersheds. Linear mixed effects model analyses were conducted to determine if any statistically significant changes occurred in the water quality parameters before and after the AGSS was installed. Results indicated no significant changes (p = 0.51) in average event precipitation and runoff volumes before and after installation of the AGSS in either the treatment (NW) or control (SW) watersheds. However, the AGSS did significantly reduce the average suspended sediment concentration in the event runoff water (p = 0.02) in the NW from 972 to 263 mg L–1. In addition, particle size analyses, using light diffraction techniques, were conducted on soil samples taken from within the AGSS and adjacent valley and ridge top to determine if suspended sediments were being retained within the structure. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly (p < 0.001) larger proportion of clay inside the AGSS (37%) than outside (30%). These results indicate that the AGSS was successful in reducing the amount of suspended

  10. Electrical isolation of dislocations in Ge layers on Si(001 substrates through CMOS-compatible suspended structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Ajit Shah, Maksym Myronov, Chalermwat Wongwanitwatana, Lewis Bawden, Martin J Prest, James S Richardson-Bullock, Stephen Rhead, Evan H C Parker, Terrance E Whall and David R Leadley


    Full Text Available Suspended crystalline Ge semiconductor structures are created on a Si(001 substrate by a combination of epitaxial growth and simple patterning from the front surface using anisotropic underetching. Geometric definition of the surface Ge layer gives access to a range of crystalline planes that have different etch resistance. The structures are aligned to avoid etch-resistive planes in making the suspended regions and to take advantage of these planes to retain the underlying Si to support the structures. The technique is demonstrated by forming suspended microwires, spiderwebs and van der Pauw cross structures. We finally report on the low-temperature electrical isolation of the undoped Ge layers. This novel isolation method increases the Ge resistivity to 280 Ω cm at 10 K, over two orders of magnitude above that of a bulk Ge on Si(001 layer, by removing material containing the underlying misfit dislocation network that otherwise provides the main source of electrical conduction.

  11. Leakage-flow induced vibrations of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.


    This paper presents the results of flow-induced vibration tests conducted to assess the vibration characteristics of a chimney structure suspended in a liquid flow. The test article is a full-scale model of a flow chimney used in a nuclear reactor as a part of reactor upper internals. Tests were performed by simulating all pertinent prototype conditions achievable in a laboratory environment. The test results show that there exists a fluid-elastic instability of the chimney motion which has a distinct lock-in phenomenon with respect to the flow rate. This unstable vibration is associated with the leakage-flow-modulated excitation through the small clearances between the chimney and its supports

  12. Three-Dimensional Printing of Complex Structures by Freeform Reversible Embedding of Suspended Hydrogels (FRESH) (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam

    We demonstrate the additive manufacturing of complex three-dimensional (3D) structures using soft protein and polysaccharide hydrogels that are challenging or impossible to create using traditional fabrication approaches. These structures are built by embedding the printed hydrogel within a secondary hydrogel that serves as a temporary, thermoreversible, and biocompatible support. This process, termed freeform reversible embedding of suspended hydrogels (FRESH), enables 3D printing of hydrated materials with an elastic modulus less than 500 kPa including alginate, collagen, hyaluronic acid and fibrin. A range of crosslinking mechanisms can be used depending on the polymer being printed, including ionic, enzymatic, pH, thermal and light based approaches. CAD models of 3D optical, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging data can be 3D printed at a resolution of 100 μm and at low cost by leveraging open-source hardware and software tools. Proof-of-concept structures based on femurs, branched coronary arteries, trabeculated embryonic hearts, and human brains are mechanically robust and recreate complex 3D internal and external anatomical architectures. Recent advances have improved the resolution and broadened the range of materials that can be FRESH 3D printed. This work was supported in part by the NIH Director's New Innovator Award (DP2HL117750) and the NSF CAREER Award (1454248).

  13. Colloidal stability of suspended and agglomerate structures of settled carbon nanotubes in different aqueous matrices. (United States)

    Schwyzer, Irène; Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura; Nowack, Bernd


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are often processed in suspended form and therefore a release of CNT-suspensions into the aquatic environment is plausible. In this study, the behaviour of two physico-chemically very different CNT types in the presence of varying, environmentally relevant calcium-containing media was investigated, including the long-term colloidal stability and the sedimentary structures of settled CNTs. Calcium induced CNT flocculation, however, the stability of the CNTs in the medium did not monotonously decrease with increasing calcium concentration. At intermediate calcium concentrations (0.5-1.5 mM Ca) pre-dispersed CNTs were stabilized in humic acid medium to similar, temporarily even to higher degree than in the absence of calcium. Between pH 5 and 8 only at the highest pH an influence on CNT stability was observed by either promoting flocculation or stabilisation depending on the CNT type. Humic acid stabilized CNTs much better than fulvic acid. Generally, the colloidal stability of the long, thick CNTs with higher surface oxygen content was less affected by the media composition. An investigation of the settled CNT material using analytical electron microscopy revealed the presence of spheroidal, bundle-like and net like CNT-agglomerate structures. Calcium possibly acted as bridging agent linking CNTs in a network like manner, temporarily increasing the CNT concentrations stabilized in the supernatants due to the low density of these structures. With increasing settling time the CNTs formed a fluffy sediment layer at the bottom of the reaction vessels. Bundle-like CNT agglomerates were also observed within that layer of settled CNTs, possibly caused by calcium neutralizing the surface charges. Furthermore, the CNT suspensions contained spheroidal CNT agglomerates, most likely residues from the original dry powder that were not disaggregated. The analysis of settled CNT material is a novelty and illustrates CNT agglomerate structures possibly

  14. Effects of suspended culture of the seaweed Laminaria japonica aresch on the flow structure and sedimentation processes (United States)

    Zhang, Zehua; Huang, Haijun; Liu, Yanxia; Yan, Liwen; Bi, Haibo


    The culture of suspended kelp, such as Laminaria japonica Aresch, has arisen in nearshore areas for approximately 30 years since the 1980s. This long-term activity has significant impact on the regional hydrodynamic and sedimentary environments. In this study the impact was investigated, based on synchronized multi-station data from continuous observations made within and around the culture area. In total, three current velocity profiles were identified inside and on the landward side of the culture area. Based on the current velocity profiles we calculated the boundary layer parameters, the fluxes of erosion/deposition, and the rate of sediment transport in different times at each observation site. Comparison between culture and non-culture periods showed that the presence of suspended kelp caused the reduction in the average flow velocity by approximately 49.5%, the bottom friction velocity by 24.8%, the seabed roughness length by 62.7%, and the shear stress and the flux of resuspended sediment by approximately 50%. From analyses in combination with the corresponding vertical variation of the suspended sediment distribution, it is revealed that the lifted sediments by resuspension is mixed with the upper suspended material, which will modify the regional distribution of suspended sediment. These changes in flow structure and sediment movement will accelerate seabed siltation, which corresponds to the changes in seabed erosion/deposition. However, under the influences of the seasonal changes in kelp growth the magnitude of change with the seabed siltation was not obvious inside the culture area, but a fundamental change was apparent around the culture area.

  15. Variable fractal dimension : A major control for floc structure and flocculation kinematics of suspended cohesive sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.


    While the fractal dimension of suspended flocs of cohesive sediment is known to vary with the shear rate, electrochemical properties of the sediment and environment, geometrical restructuring, and presence of organic matter, experimental data presented in this work suggest changes in fractal

  16. A multi-material topology optimization approach for wrinkle-free design of cable-suspended membrane structures (United States)

    Luo, Yangjun; Niu, Yanzhuang; Li, Ming; Kang, Zhan


    In order to eliminate stress-related wrinkles in cable-suspended membrane structures and to provide simple and reliable deployment, this study presents a multi-material topology optimization model and an effective solution procedure for generating optimal connected layouts for membranes and cables. On the basis of the principal stress criterion of membrane wrinkling behavior and the density-based interpolation of multi-phase materials, the optimization objective is to maximize the total structural stiffness while satisfying principal stress constraints and specified material volume requirements. By adopting the cosine-type relaxation scheme to avoid the stress singularity phenomenon, the optimization model is successfully solved through a standard gradient-based algorithm. Four-corner tensioned membrane structures with different loading cases were investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in automatically finding the optimal design composed of curved boundary cables and wrinkle-free membranes.

  17. Muddied waters: suspended sediment impacts on gill structure and aerobic scope in an endangered native and an invasive freshwater crayfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosewarne, P.J.; Svendsen, Jon Christian; Mortimer, R.J.G.


    Suspended sediment (SS) loadings in freshwater habitats have increased over the past century and SS is now a significant environmental stressor. Greater tolerance to environmental stressors has been proposed as a factor in the success of aquatic invasive species. Further, parasites may interact...... with environmental stressors to increase host susceptibility to loss of fitness and mortality. We compared the effects of SS exposure on the gill structure and aerobic scope of the endangered white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes), and the invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), and assessed...... impacts in relation to parasite burden. SS caused gill fouling and reduction in aerobic scope in both species, though A. pallipes was more susceptible than invasive P. leniusculus. The parasite Branchiobdella astaci, a crayfish worm that infests the gills, interacted with the sediment to affect gill...

  18. Magnetic and Structural Studies of CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Suspended in an Organic Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Babić-Stojić


    Full Text Available We present a study of magnetic and structural properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles suspended in an organic liquid. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanoparticles have a narrow size distribution of average particle size 5.9 ± 1.0 nm. X-ray diffraction shows that the particles are of cubic spinel crystal structure. Dynamic light scattering measurements reveal the existence of an organic shell around the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 14.4 nm. Coercive magnetic field at T=5 K is found to be 11.8 kOe. Disappearance of the coercive field and remanent magnetization at about 170 K suggests that the CoFe2O4 nanoparticles are superparamagnetic at higher temperatures which is confirmed by the room temperature Mössbauer spectrum analysis. Saturation magnetization of the nanoparticles of 80.8 emu/g(CoFe2O4 at 5 K reaches the value detected in the bulk material and remains very high also at room temperature. The cobalt ferrite nanoparticle system synthesized in this work exhibits magnetic properties which are very suitable for various biomedical applications.

  19. Raman on suspended DNA: Novel super-hydrophobic approach for structural studies

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica


    The A- and B-form are two of the most common structural conformations of double strand DNA present in nature and they can interchange on the basis of the helices hydration [1,2]. Herein we demonstrate that the use of non-destructive techniques such as Raman spectroscopy coupled with the use of a super-hydrophobic device, allows the clear identification of the DNA hydration state, of the backbone (phosphate + deoxyribose sugar) conformation and of the nucleotides. There is a wide prospect for an increase of knowledge in biomolecules using this combined approach resulting in a significant impact in the study of more complex supramolecular assemblies and of fine chemical variation along the genomic loci undergoing to epigenetic variations.

  20. Effect of an electric field on the structural and optical properties of fluorinated freely suspended smectic films (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Zakharov, A. V.


    Within the framework of the generalized mean-field model that takes into account the anisotropic interactions between the nearest neighbors of molecules forming freely suspended smectic films (FSSFs) and the stabilizing effects of the smectic-A (SmA)-air interface, a numerical study was performed of the structural, thermodynamic, and optical properties of these systems in the process of their layer-by-layer thinning. The results of calculating the disjoining pressure P, the average thickness of the smectic layers L, and the reflectivity index R of a FSSF formed by 5- n-alkyl-2-(4- n-(perfluoroalkyl-methylene oxide)-pentyl) (H10F5MOPP) molecules showed that these values undergo precipitous changes in the process of layer-bylayer thinning of the film. Calculations of R( T) as a function of temperature T exceeding the phase transition temperature of SmA into an isotropic state in the bulk of the liquid crystal material are in good agreement with the experimentally obtained data for the reflectivity of the FSSF formed by H10F5MOPP molecules.

  1. Exposure of clownfish larvae to suspended sediment levels found on the Great Barrier Reef: Impacts on gill structure and microbiome. (United States)

    Hess, Sybille; Wenger, Amelia S; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Rummer, Jodie L


    Worldwide, increasing coastal development has played a major role in shaping coral reef species assemblages, but the mechanisms underpinning distribution patterns remain poorly understood. Recent research demonstrated delayed development in larval fishes exposed to suspended sediment, highlighting the need to further understand the interaction between suspended sediment as a stressor and energetically costly activities such as growth and development that are essential to support biological fitness. We examined the gill morphology and the gill microbiome in clownfish larvae (Amphiprion percula) exposed to suspended sediment concentrations (using Australian bentonite) commonly found on the inshore Great Barrier Reef. The gills of larvae exposed to 45 mg L(-1) of suspended sediment had excessive mucous discharge and growth of protective cell layers, resulting in a 56% thicker gill epithelium compared to fish from the control group. Further, we found a shift from 'healthy' to pathogenic bacterial communities on the gills, which could increase the disease susceptibility of larvae. The impact of suspended sediments on larval gills may represent an underlying mechanism behind the distribution patterns of fish assemblages. Our findings underscore the necessity for future coastal development to consider adverse effects of suspended sediments on fish recruitment, and consequently fish populations and ecosystem health.

  2. Large-scale coherent structures of suspended dust concentration in the neutral atmospheric surface layer: A large-eddy simulation study (United States)

    Zhang, Yangyue; Hu, Ruifeng; Zheng, Xiaojing


    Dust particles can remain suspended in the atmospheric boundary layer, motions of which are primarily determined by turbulent diffusion and gravitational settling. Little is known about the spatial organizations of suspended dust concentration and how turbulent coherent motions contribute to the vertical transport of dust particles. Numerous studies in recent years have revealed that large- and very-large-scale motions in the logarithmic region of laboratory-scale turbulent boundary layers also exist in the high Reynolds number atmospheric boundary layer, but their influence on dust transport is still unclear. In this study, numerical simulations of dust transport in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer based on an Eulerian modeling approach and large-eddy simulation technique are performed to investigate the coherent structures of dust concentration. The instantaneous fields confirm the existence of very long meandering streaks of dust concentration, with alternating high- and low-concentration regions. A strong negative correlation between the streamwise velocity and concentration and a mild positive correlation between the vertical velocity and concentration are observed. The spatial length scales and inclination angles of concentration structures are determined, compared with their flow counterparts. The conditionally averaged fields vividly depict that high- and low-concentration events are accompanied by a pair of counter-rotating quasi-streamwise vortices, with a downwash inside the low-concentration region and an upwash inside the high-concentration region. Through the quadrant analysis, it is indicated that the vertical dust transport is closely related to the large-scale roll modes, and ejections in high-concentration regions are the major mechanisms for the upward motions of dust particles.

  3. Development of a micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscope


    Damrongsak, Badin


    In this thesis, a new approach based on an electrostatically suspended gyroscope (ESG) was explored in order to improve the performance of micromachined gyroscopes. Typically, a conventional micromachined gyroscope consists of a vibrating mass suspended on elastic beams that are anchored to a substrate. It measures the rotation rate of a body of interest by detecting rotation-induced Coriolis acceleration of a vibrating structure. Such a gyro is sensitive to fabrication imperfections an...

  4. Light Absorption by Suspended Particles in the Red Sea: Effect of Phytoplankton Community Size Structure and Pigment Composition (United States)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Ouhssain, Mustapha; Organelli, Emanuele; Bricaud, Annick; Jones, Burton H.


    The light absorption properties of phytoplankton (aph(λ)) and nonalgal particles (anap(λ)) associated with phytoplankton pigments were analyzed across the Red Sea, in the upper 200 m depth, between October 2014 and August 2016. The contribution by nonalgal particles to the total particulate light absorption (aph(λ) + anap(λ)) was highly variable (23 ± 17% at 440 nm) and no relationship between anap(440) and chlorophyll a concentration, [TChl a], was observed. Phytoplankton-specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 440 and 676 nm for a given [TChl a], aph*(440), and aph∗(676) were slightly higher than those derived from average relationships for open ocean waters within the surface layer as well as along the water column. Variations in the concentration of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments were noticeable by changes in phytoplankton community size structure as well as in aph∗(λ). This study revealed that a higher proportion of picophytoplankton and an increase in photoprotective pigments (mainly driven by zeaxanthin) tended to be responsible for the higher aph∗(λ) values found in the Red Sea as compared to other oligotrophic regions with similar [TChl a]. Understanding this variability across the Red Sea may help improve the accuracy of biogeochemical parameters, such as [TChl a], derived from in situ measurements and ocean color remote sensing at a regional scale.

  5. Light Absorption by Suspended Particles in the Red Sea: Effect of Phytoplankton Community Size Structure and Pigment Composition

    KAUST Repository

    Kheireddine, Malika


    The light absorption properties of phytoplankton (aph(λ)) and non-algal particles (anap(λ)) associated with phytoplankton pigments were analyzed across the Red Sea, in the upper 200 m depth, between October 2014 and August 2016. The contribution by non-algal particles to the total particulate light absorption (aph(λ)+ anap(λ)) was highly variable (23 ± 17% at 440 nm) and no relationship between anap(440) and chlorophyll a concentration, [TChl a], was observed. Phytoplankton specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients at 440 and 676 nm for a given [TChl a], aph*(440) and aph*(676), were slightly higher than those derived from average relationships for open ocean waters within the surface layer as well as along the water column. Variations in the concentration of photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments were noticeable by changes in phytoplankton community size structure as well as in aph*(λ). This study revealed that a higher proportion of picophytoplankton and an increase in photoprotective pigments (mainly driven by zeaxanthin) tended to be responsible for the higher aph*(λ) values found in the Red Sea as compared to other oligotrophic regions with similar [TChl a]. Understanding this variability across the Red Sea may help improve the accuracy of biogeochemical parameters, such as [TChl a], derived from in situ measurements and ocean color remote sensing at a regional scale.

  6. Remote Sensing and Water Quality Indicators in the West Flood Canal Semarang City: Spatio-temporal Structures of Lansat-8 Derived Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solids (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri


    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters of West Flood Canal in Semarang City which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the Western City of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So, it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in the estuary of the West Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Lansat-8 Satellite images data from April, June, and August, 2017 and there are three selected algorithms. Based on the results of TSS and Chlorophyll-A processing, the TSS shows values greater than or equal to 100 which can be said that West Flood Canal is damaged (hypertrophic). While the chlorophyll-a shows a value less than 100 indicating Eutrophic status (threatened). This is caused by the number of suspended materials in the water surface and also because of the disturbance of water vegetation in the form of weeds that destroy the function of the actual West Canal Flood.

  7. Remote sensing and water quality indicators in the Korean West coast: Spatio-temporal structures of MODIS-derived chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids. (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Cheol; Son, Seunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Nam, Jungho; Chang, Won Keun; Lee, Jung-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, Jongseong


    The Yellow Sea is a shallow marginal sea with a large tidal range. In this study, ten areas located along the western coast of the Korean Peninsula are investigated with respect to remotely sensed water quality indicators derived from NASA MODIS aboard of the satellite Aqua. We found that there was a strong seasonal trend with spatial heterogeneity. In specific, a strong six-month phase-lag was found between chlorophyll-a and total suspended solid owing to their inversed seasonality, which could be explained by different dynamics and environmental settings. Chlorophyll-a concentration seemed to be dominantly influenced by temperature, while total suspended solid was largely governed by local tidal forcing and bottom topography. This study demonstrated the potential and applicability of satellite products in coastal management, and highlighted find that remote-sensing would be a promising tool in resolving orthogonality of large spatio-temporal scale variabilities when combining with proper time series analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design, analysis and control of cable-suspended parallel robots and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zi, Bin


    This book provides an essential overview of the authors’ work in the field of cable-suspended parallel robots, focusing on innovative design, mechanics, control, development and applications. It presents and analyzes several typical mechanical architectures of cable-suspended parallel robots in practical applications, including the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae, hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robots, and cooperative cable parallel manipulators for multiple mobile cranes. It also addresses the fundamental mechanics of cable-suspended parallel robots on the basis of their typical applications, including the kinematics, dynamics and trajectory tracking control of the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae. In addition it proposes a novel hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robot that uses integrated mechanism design methods to improve the performance of traditional cable-suspended parallel robots. A comparative study on error and performance indices of hybr...

  9. Electrostatically suspended torsion pendulum (United States)

    Willemenot, E.; Touboul, P.


    A torsion pendulum without a torsion wire has been designed and realized, in order to measure very weak forces. The arm of this torsion pendulum (5.40 g, 1.32×10-6 kg m2 of inertia) is electrostatically suspended. Its 6 degrees of freedom are controlled thanks to electrostatic forces, and capacitive position sensing with a noise spectral density between 10-10 and 10-13 m/√Hz . The torque noise spectral density is 1.3×10-14 Nm/√Hz around 0.05 Hz with a 1/√f increase at lower frequency, corresponding to 10-8 rad/s2/√Hz , and 2×10-10 ms-2/√Hz with a lever arm of 2 cm. The residual seismic noise limit the performances above 0.1 Hz. The free oscillating mode has a torsion stiffness of 5.14×10-8 Nm/rad and a Q of 217. This new instrument allows on ground experiments on very weak parasitic forces inside space accelerometers developed in ONERA, with a good representativeness. For example, it is possible to measure electrostatic stiffnesses with high resolution thanks to the low torque noise spectral density; the electrostatic damping phenomenon is also well seen as illustrated by the rather low Q. The instrument design and operation are described, the main performances are given, and the possibilities offered are discussed.

  10. Centimeter-scale suspended photonic crystal mirrors. (United States)

    Moura, João P; Norte, Richard A; Guo, Jingkun; Schäfermeier, Clemens; Gröblacher, Simon


    Demand for lightweight, highly reflective and mechanically compliant mirrors for optics experiments has seen a significant surge. In this aspect, photonic crystal (PhC) membranes are ideal alternatives to conventional mirrors, as they provide high reflectivity with only a single suspended layer of patterned dielectric material. However, due to limitations in nanofabrication, these devices are usually not wider than 300 μm. Here we experimentally demonstrate suspended PhC mirrors spanning areas up to 10 × 10 mm 2 . We overcome limitations imposed by the size of the PhC and measure reflectivities greater than 90 % on 56 nm thick mirrors at a wavelength of 1550 nm-an unrivaled performance compared to PhC mirrors with micro scale diameters. These structures bridge the gap between nano scale technologies and macroscopic optical elements.

  11. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.


    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  12. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.


    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo...

  13. Cable Tension Preslack Method Construction Simulation and Engineering Application for a Prestressed Suspended Dome


    Liu, Xuechun; Zhang, Ailin; Fu, Wanlin


    To solve the shortage of traditional construction simulation methods for suspended dome structures, based on friction elements, node coupling technology, and local cooling, the cable tension preslack method is proposed in this paper, which is suitable for the whole process construction simulation of a suspended dome. This method was used to simulate the construction process of a large-span suspended dome case study. The effects on the simulation results of location deviation of joints, constr...

  14. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.


    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly

  15. Vertical dimensions of suspended horses. (United States)

    Clutton, R E; Chase-Topping, M; Squires, R; Lawson, H; Minard, H; Rose, S


    The dimensions of anaesthetised hobbled horses during suspension and transfer onto the operating table are unknown. These data are required for the cost-effective construction of equine surgical facilities. To measure the distance from the toe to dependent back margin (Bsusp) and poll (Psusp) of anaesthetised suspended horses and correlate them with readily obtained measures from standing animals. Digital photographs of suspended horses were taken in the anaesthesia induction box at a fixed position that allowed trigonometric determination of Bsusp and Psusp. These values were linked with body mass, height at the withers (Wstand), the length of the crest from the poll to the withers (crest) and of the back (back) from the withers to the crop, by deriving an equine morphological index (EMI) using principal component analysis. The EMI and other linear variables were then subjected to single variable regression analysis. EMI was 0.531mass((kg)) + 0.528Wstand((cm)) + 0.469crest((cm)) + 0.468back((cm)) . Bsusp was most accurately estimated using the expression Bsusp= 118.71 + 0.128EMI while Psusp was most strongly associated with Wstand, i.e. Psusp= 46.9 + 1.01Wstand((cm)) . The height of suspended horses at the most ventral margin of the back and the poll can be estimated from measures taken from the standing animal. The data will allow the more informed planning and construction of equine surgical facilities in which mechanical hoists are used. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  16. Distribution and transportation of suspended sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubel, J.R.


    A number of studies of the distribution and character of suspended matter in the waters of the Atlantic shelf have documented the variations in the concentration of total suspended matter in both time and space. Very little is known, however, about the ultimate sources of inorganic suspended matter, and even less is known about the routes and rates of suspended sediment transport in shelf waters. Suspended particulate matter constitutes a potential vehicle for the transfer of energy-associated contaminants, radionuclides and oil, back to the coast and therefore to man. The concentrations of total suspended matter in shelf waters are typically so low, however, that the mechanism is ineffective. Studies of suspended particulate matter have a high scientific priority, but in this investigator's opinion the state of knowledge is adequate for preparation of the environmental impact statements that would be required for siting of offshore nuclear power plants and for oil drilling on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

  17. Suspended and Stitched (Mother and Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Barker


    Full Text Available Suspended and Stitched (Mother and Child (2013 incorporates large pieces of stone that have been split apart, drilled, stitched back together with rusty wire, and then embedded with latex casts of the artist's nipples. One piece of stone hangs, suspended from a beam; it is connected to a smaller piece using delicate rusty wire, and both pieces balance precariously over a poured piece of rubber, one that appears to be a split pool of milk. Attached to the upper piece of stone are the artist's latex cast nipples, emerging organically, they are thus called 'The Nipple Flowers', and were first made by Barker twenty years ago. Here they are here remade, to engage with the theme of ageing and progression as well as that of fertility and breast-feeding one's child. The overall work at once creates and destroys balance. Fragile, creaturely structures break free and are at the same time connected to the strong, grounded and weighty. Broken, split and cracked, materials are then healed and repaired. Elements are connected, but inevitably they move apart.

  18. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.


    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  19. Suspended DNA structural characterization by TEM diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica


    In this work, micro-fabrication, super-hydrophobic properties and a physiologically compatible preparation step are combined and tailored to obtain background free biological samples to be investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) diffraction technique. The validation was performed evaluating a well-known parameter such as the DNA interbases value. The diffraction spacing measured is in good agreement with those obtained by HRTEM direct metrology and by traditional X-Ray diffraction. This approach addresses single molecule studies in a simplified and reproducible straightforward way with respect to more conventional and widely used techniques. In addition, it overcomes the need of long and elaborated samples preparations: the sample is in its physiological environment and the HRTEM data acquisition occurs without any background interference, coating, staining or additional manipulation. The congruence in the results reported in this paper makes the application of this approach extremely promising towards those molecules for which crystallization remains a hurdle, such as cell membrane proteins and fibrillar proteins.

  20. Suspended dust in Norwegian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    According to calculations, at least 80 000 people in Oslo and 8 000 in Trondheim were annoyed by too much suspended dust in 2000. The dust concentration is greatest in the spring, presumably because dust is swirling up from melting snow and ice on the streets. Car traffic is the main source of the dust, except for some of the most highly exposed regions where wood-firing from old stoves contributes up to 70 percent of the dust. National targets for air quality include suspended dust, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene. Calculations show that nitrogen dioxide emissions exceeding the limit affected 4 000 people in Oslo and 1 000 people in Trondheim. The sulphur dioxide emissions in the major cities did non exceed the national quality limit; they did exceed the limit in some of the smaller industrial centres. In Trondheim, measurements show that the national limit for benzene was exceeded. Most of the emission of nitrogen dioxide comes from the road traffic. Local air pollution at times causes considerable health- and well-being problems in the larger cities and industrial centres, where a great part of the population may be at risk of early death, infection of the respiratory passage, heart- and lung diseases and cancer

  1. Measuring suspended sediment in small mountain streams (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas


    Measuring suspended sediment concentration in streams provides a way of monitoring the effects of forest management activities on water quality. Collecting data on suspended sediment is an act of sampling. The nature of the delivery process and the circumstances under which data are collected combine to produce highly variable results that are difficult to analyze and...

  2. 78 FR 63007 - Suspended Counterparty Program (United States)


    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1227 RIN 2590-AA60 Suspended Counterparty Program... that generally codifies the procedures FHFA follows under its existing Suspended Counterparty Program... reports to FHFA when they become aware that an individual or institution and any affiliates thereof with...

  3. Wave transmission by suspended pipe breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mani, J.S.; Jayakumar, S.

    and suspended between the support piles spaced far apart. Experimental studies conducted to determine the wave transmission characteristics indicate that by suspending a row of closely spaced pipes (with a gap to diameter ratio of 0.22 and draft to water depth...

  4. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  5. An analysis of bedload and suspended load interactions (United States)

    Recking, alain; Navratil, Oldrich


    Several approaches were used to develop suspension equations. It includes semi-theoretical equations based on the convection diffusion equation (Einstein 1950; Van Rijn 1984; Camenen and Larson 2008; Julien 2010), semi-empirical tools based on energy concept (Velikanov 1954; Bagnold 1966), empirical adjustments (Prosser and Rusttomji 2000). One essential characteristic of all these equations is that most of them were developed by considering continuity between bedload and suspended load, and that the partitioning between these two modes of transport evolves progressively with increasing shear stress, which is the case for fine bed materials. The use of these equations is thus likely to be welcome in estuaries or lowland sandy rivers, but may be questionable in gravel-bed rivers and headwater streams where the bed is usually structured vertically and fine sediments potentially contributing to suspension are stored under a poorly mobile surface armour comprising coarse sediments. Thus one question this work aimed to answer is does the presence of an armour at the bed surface influence suspended load? This was investigated through a large field data set comprising instantaneous measurements of both bedload and suspension. We also considered the river characteristics, distinguishing between lowland rivers, gravel bed rivers and headwater streams. The results showed that a correlation exist between bedload and suspension for lowland and gravel bed rivers. This suggests that in gravel bed rivers a large part of the suspended load is fed by subsurface material, and depends on the remobilization of the surface material. No correlation was observed for head water streams where the sediment production is more likely related to hillslope processes. These results were used with a bedload transport equation for proposing a method for suspended load estimate. The method is rough, but especially for gravel bed rivers, it predicts suspended load reasonably well when compared to

  6. Improving suspended sediment measurements by automatic samplers. (United States)

    Gettel, Melissa; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud; DeGroot, Gregory; Brand, Joshua; Mohseni, Omid; Erickson, Andrew J


    Suspended solids either as total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is an integral particulate water quality parameter that is important in assessing particle-bound contaminants. At present, nearly all stormwater runoff quality monitoring is performed with automatic samplers in which the sampling intake is typically installed at the bottom of a storm sewer or channel. This method of sampling often results in a less accurate measurement of suspended sediment and associated pollutants due to the vertical variation in particle concentration caused by particle settling. In this study, the inaccuracies associated with sampling by conventional intakes for automatic samplers have been verified by testing with known suspended sediment concentrations and known particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 μm to 355 μm under various flow rates. Experimental results show that, for samples collected at a typical automatic sampler intake position, the ratio of sampled to feed suspended sediment concentration is up to 6600% without an intake strainer and up to 300% with a strainer. When the sampling intake is modified with multiple sampling tubes and fitted with a wing to provide lift (winged arm sampler intake), the accuracy of sampling improves substantially. With this modification, the differences between sampled and feed suspended sediment concentration were more consistent and the sampled to feed concentration ratio was accurate to within 10% for particle sizes up to 250 μm.

  7. Suspended particles, colloids and radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.; McKinley, I.; Shea, M.; Smellie, J.


    Radionuclide can be transported either in true solution or associated with suspended particles and colloids. The definitions of colloids and suspended particles are introduced and the mechanisms by which they can influence radionuclide transport discussed. The aim of the Pocos de Caldas investigations was to characterise the natural particulate material in the groundwater, to investigate the association of trace elements with this material and to obtain information on the stability and mobility of the particles. The concentration of suspended particles measured in the groundwater samples were low; the particles also appear to be immobile. (author) 4 figs

  8. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , zinc and nickel) transported in ... Suspended sediment concentration; heavy metal concentration; regression model; particle size distribution;. Kojour watershed; Iran. ..... contaminants in a uranium mine pite–Lake; Water Res. 39 3055–3061.

  9. Humification and Humic Acid Composition of Suspended Soil in Oligotrophous Environments in South Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Abakumov


    Full Text Available Humification is considered to be a global process that is implemented in soils and organic sediments and also in natural water and air. The term “suspended soils” has become increasingly common in recent years. Suspended soils are defined as the part of the organic matter that has not undergone the full decomposition process and has not turned into the humus of terrestrial soils. Suspended soils were shown to contain higher total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents than the forest soil, but the moisture content in suspended soils was significantly lower. Our study of the structural composition of humic substances in suspended soils was conducted with an aim of evaluating the humification rates and structural composition of humic acids in the suspended soil in tropical forests of South Vietnam. Soil samples from three selected areas were investigated: the soil under phorophytes (mineral soil presented by samples of topsoil of the typical dry savanna landscape and two soils from epiphytous formations. Samples were collected from savanna-type sparse communities, located on oligotrophous plains in Phú Quốc Island (South Vietnam in 2015. General properties of the soil and the elemental composition of suspended soils were determined, and the humic substance chemical composition was evaluated using solid state 13C-NMR. Data obtained showed that the pH of the soils under phorophytes was higher than in the suspended soils; basal respiration did not tend to change indices between soils under phorophytes and suspended soils, but the suspended soil was less enriched by nitrogen than the soil under phorophytes. This can be related to the total amount of organic matter exposed to humification in various soils and to the presence of an essential portion of mineral particles in the soil under phorophytes. Data on elemental composition of the humic acids (HAs indicated that one method of humification is implemented in all three soils that were

  10. Abrasion properties of self-suspended hairy titanium dioxide nanomaterials (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-xia; Liu, Si; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Ya-ming; Li, Shi-yun


    Considering the excellent solubility of pyrrolidone ring organic compounds, the synthesized N-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl- N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone chlorides was tethered onto titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to improve dispersion of TiO2, and then polyethylene oxide (PEO) oligomer through ion exchange embraced the tethered TiO2 to obtain a novel self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials without any solvent. A variety of techniques were carried out to illustrate the structure and properties of the self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials. It was found that TiO2 nanoparticles embody monodispersity in the hybrid system though the "false reunion" phenomenon occurring due to nonpermanent weak physical cross-linking. Remarkably, self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials exhibit lower viscosity, facilitating maneuverable and outstanding antifriction and wear resistance properties, due to the synergistic lubricating effect between spontaneously forming lubricating film and nano-lubrication of TiO2 cores, overcoming the deficiency of both solid and liquid lubricants. This make them promising candidates for the micro-electromechanic/nano-electromechanic systems (MEMS/NEMS).

  11. Simplified Entropic Model for the Evaluation of Suspended Load Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Mirauda


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentration is a key aspect in the forecasting of river evolution dynamics, as well as in water quality assessment, evaluation of reservoir impacts, and management of water resources. The estimation of suspended load often relies on empirical models, of which efficiency is limited by their analytic structure or by the need for calibration parameters. The present work deals with a simplified fully-analytical formulation of the so-called entropic model in order to reproduce the vertical distribution of sediment concentration. The simplification consists in the leading order expansion of the generalized spatial coordinate of the entropic velocity profile that, strictly speaking, applies to the near-bed region, but that provides acceptable results also near the free surface. The proposed closed-form solution, which highlights the interplay among channel morphology, stream power, secondary flows, and suspended transport features, allows reducing the needed number of field measurements and, therefore, the time of field activities. Its accuracy and robustness were successfully tested based on the comparison with laboratory data reported in literature.

  12. Suspended Morphology in Serbian: Clitics vs. Affixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloje Despić


    Full Text Available This article offers a case study of what appears to be an instance of “suspended affixation” in Serbian. The phenomenon in question is particularly interesting and potentially theoretically significant since it occurs in a language in which suspended affixation is generally impossible. The account I am led to suggests, however, that what is being “suspended” is not an affix but a second position clitic disguised as an affix. This is not a surprising outcome, since Serbian second position clitics, unlike ordinary affixes, can be elided quite easily. The phenomena examined in this paper provide further support to certain aspects of the theoretical model developed in Embick (2007; 2010 and offer new insights into the interaction between linearization, ellipsis and Local Dislocation. In particular, I show that the forms which allow ‘suspended affixation’ are formed in a special way, namely, via Local Dislocation, which affixes a second position enclitic to its host at PF under linear adjacency. Forms which are created by regular head movement, on the other hand disallow suspended affixation, on the assumption that elements that form complex heads (i.e., Subwords cannot be elided. This article is part of Special Collection:Suspended Affixation

  13. Ballistic magnetotransport in a suspended two-dimensional electron gas with periodic antidot lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, E. Yu., E-mail:; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Pokhabov, D. A.; Bakarov, A. K. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)


    The magnetoresistance of suspended semiconductor nanostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas structured by periodic square antidot lattices is studied. It is shown that the ballistic regime of electron transport is retained after detaching the sample from the substrate. Direct comparative analysis of commensurability oscillations of magnetoresistance and their temperature dependences in samples before and after suspension is performed. It is found that the temperature dependences are almost identical for non-suspended and suspended samples, whereas significant differences are observed in the nonlinear regime, caused by direct current passage. Commensurability oscillations in the suspended samples are more stable with respect to exposure to direct current, which can be presumably explained by electron–electron interaction enhancement after detaching nanostructures from the high-permittivity substrate.

  14. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse


    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  15. Air flow around suspended cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołębiowska Irena


    Full Text Available The impact of wind on construction structures is essential issue in design and operation. In particular, the wind can cause the dengerous vibrations of slender structures with low rigidity, eg. vibrations of cables of suspension and cable-stayed bridges or high voltage transmision lines, thus understanding of wind flow around such constructions is significant. In the paper the results of the analysis of wind flow around the cables for different Reynolds number is presented. The analysed flow meets the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations. The circle and elipse section of the cable is analysed. The discusion of vorticity, drag and lift coefficients and cases due to different angle of wind flow action is presented. The boundary layer and its infuence on total flow is analysed.

  16. Flow fields, bed shear stresses, and suspended bed sediment dynamics in bifurcations of a large river (United States)

    Szupiany, R. N.; Amsler, M. L.; Hernandez, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Best, J. L.; Fornari, E.; Trento, A.


    Channel bifurcations associated with bars and islands are important nodes in braided rivers and may control flow partitioning and thus affect downstream confluences, as well as the formation and dynamics of bars. However, the morphodynamic processes associated with bar formation are poorly understood, and previous studies have largely concerned laboratory experiments, small natural streams, or numerical analyses with large Froude numbers, high slopes, and low Shields stresses. In these cases, the morphologic changes at bifurcations are relatively rapid, with predominant bed load transport and the suspended load playing a minor role. In this paper, the evolution of the flow structure and suspended bed sediment transport along four expansion-diffluence units in the Rio Paraná, Argentina, are described. The Rio Paraná is a large multichannel river with a bed composed of medium and fine sands and possesses low Froude numbers and high suspended bed material transport. Primary and secondary flow velocity components were measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) along the expansion-diffluence units, and the backscatter signal of the ADCP was calibrated to allow simultaneous measurements of suspended bed sediment concentrations. The interactions between these variables show that the cores of primary flow velocity and suspended bed sediment concentration do not necessarily follow the thalweg at the bifurcation and that inertial effects on the suspended bed sediment may influence the morphodynamics of bar formation. It is suggested that changes in flow stage, as well as the presence of vegetation, may further increase the deposition of suspended bed sediment at the bar head. This study suggests that the ratio of suspended bed material to bed load is an important factor controlling the morphodynamics of bifurcations in large sand bed braided rivers.

  17. Static Elongation of a Suspended Slinky™ (United States)

    Sawicki, Mikolaj ``Mik''


    Elongation of a vertically suspended Slinky under its own weight and a weight hung from it is discussed using elementary considerations. Displacement of the center of mass of Slinky is also found. The results are verified experimentally using a 1 apparatus.

  18. 7 CFR 1212.28 - Suspend. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.28 Suspend. “Suspend” means to issue...

  19. Optomechanics for thermal characterization of suspended graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolleman, R.J.; Houri, S.; Davidovikj, D.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; Blanter, Y.M.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steeneken, P.G.


    The thermal response of graphene is expected to be extremely fast due to its low heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal response of suspended single-layer graphene membranes is investigated by characterization of their mechanical motion in response to a

  20. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.


    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  1. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust) samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological ...

  2. (suspended solids and metals) removal efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu,. Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database.

  3. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.

    Energy components of suspended matter included phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus inclusive of microorganisms adsorbed to detritus. Of these, detritus contributed most of the energy (98%). The average caloric content of suspended detritus...

  4. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  5. Fatigue Performance Assessment of Composite Arch Bridge Suspenders Based on Actual Vehicle Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen


    Full Text Available In the through arch bridges, the suspenders are the key components connecting the arch rib and the bridge deck in the middle, and their safety is an increasing focus in the field of bridge engineering. In this study, various vehicle traffic flow parameters are investigated based on the actual vehicle data acquired from the long-term structural health monitoring system of a composite arch bridge. The representative vehicle types and the probability density functions of several parameters are determined, including the gross vehicle weight, axle weight, time headway, and speed. A finite element model of the bridge structure is constructed to determine the influence line of the cable force for various suspenders. A simulated vehicle flow, generated using the Monte Carlo method, is applied on the influence lines of the target suspender to determine the stress process, and then the stress amplitude spectrum is obtained based on the statistical analysis of the stress process using the rainflow counting method. The fatigue performance levels of various suspenders are analyzed according to the Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory, which helps to manage the safety of the suspenders.

  6. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.


    We report a fabrication method, which uses standard UV-lithography to pattern the catalyst for the chemical vapour deposition(CVD) of suspended double clamped single walled carbon nanotubes. By using an aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 the patterning of the catalyst material onto microelectrodes can...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...... is not only mechanically stable but also electrical conducting. This method could be used to fabricate nanoelectromechanical systems based on suspended double clamped CNTs depending only on photolithography and standard Cleanroom processes....

  7. Photothermoelectric Effect in Suspended Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Aspitarte, Lee; Deborde, Tristan; Sharf, Tal; Kevek, Josh; Minot, Ethan


    We have performed scanning photocurrent microscopy measurements of field-effect transistors (FETs) made from individual suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs).Photocurrent generation in individual carbon nanotube based devices has been previously attributed the photovoltaic effect, in contrast to graphene based devices which are dominated by the photothermoelectric effect. In this work, we present the first measurements of strong photothermoelectric currents in individual suspended carbon nanotube field-effect transistors. In certain electrostatic doping regimes light induced temperature gradients lead to significant thermoelectric currents which oppose and overwhelm the photovoltaic contribution. Our measurements give new insight into the tunable and spatially inhomogeneous Seebeck coefficient of electrostatically-gated CNTs and demonstrate a new mechanism for optimizing CNT-based photodetectors and energy harvesting devices.

  8. Inclusions in freely suspended smectic films (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Harth, Kirsten

    Smectic liquid crystal phases have a unique property: Like soap solutions, they can form stable freely suspended films. Their aspect ratios can be larger than one million to one. Such films can serve as models for two-dimensional (2D) uids, with or without in-plane anisotropy. Solid or liquid inclusions trapped in these films by capillary forces can move in the film plane and interact with other inclusions, with film thickness gradients or the film boundaries, and even with the local orientation field. We describe preparation techniques to incorporate particles or droplets in thin smectic films, and optical observation methods. Several aspects make inclusions in freely suspended films interesting research objects: They provide rich information on capillary forces as well as surface and interfacial tensions, they can serve as platforms for hydrodynamic studies in 2D, and they may help to understand coalescence dynamics at the transition from 2D to 3D...

  9. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera


    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  10. Characteristics of Suspended Sediment Loadings under Asian Summer Monsoon Climate Using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hong Jeon


    Full Text Available The extreme variation in the amount of annual precipitation and rainfall during single events is typical of the East Asian monsoon climate and may greatly influence the characteristics of the suspended sediment load. The turbidity in Lake Imha which is the eighth largest multipurpose dam in Korea has been the cause of major water quality problems for use as drinking water. The turbidity rose to 882 NTU, and it remained over 30 NTU continuously for 170 days during 2002, as the result of significant amounts of soil erosion from the watershed during the Asian monsoon typhoon. In this study, characteristics of suspended sediment loadings under the Asian summer monsoon climate was investigated by comparing the variation of yearly suspended sediment loads and the ratio of maximum suspended sediment loads in a single event to yearly suspended sediment load from Lake Imha watershed using the Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF. The model calibration is performed according to the 2009–2010 events, and simulation results characterized suspended sediment loadings under the Asian summer monsoon climate for 2001–2010. Water sampling and flow rate measurements were performed every 4–6 h, and calibration was performed using hourly simulated sediment loads. The calibration results demonstrated good agreement with the observed data. The characteristics of suspended sediment loadings under the Asian summer monsoon climate are a high variance of the yearly suspended sediment load and a significant of amount of suspended sediment load during a single event influenced by the typhoon intensity. The maximum yearly suspended sediment load was 10 times higher than the minimum yearly value. About half of the yearly suspended sediment load was loaded with a single event under the Asian summer monsoon climate and the ratio of suspended sediment loads by a single event to total yearly loads ranged from 29% to 90%. Structural best management practices (BMPs to

  11. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  12. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter


    Thermo Active Building Systems (TABS), described as radiant heating or cooling systems with pipes embedded in the building structure, represent a sustainable alternative to replace conventional systems by using source temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of suspended ceiling in office...... buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages...

  13. High energy electron beam inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase suspended in different aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, A.; Popescu, A.; Butan, C.; Oproiu, C.; Hategan, D.; Morariu, V.V.


    The direct and indirect effects of 5 MeV electron beam irradiation in the range (0-400 Gy) at 20 degC, 0 degC, -3 degC and -196 degC, as well as the influence of the aqueous suspending medium (ultrapure water and heavy water) on the total enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) have been studied. Our results showed an exponential decrease on the enzymatic activity of irradiated LDH, at all irradiation temperatures, independently of the direct or indirect action of radiation. The temperature gradient used to lower the temperature of the samples to -196 degC drastically influences the results. Freeze-thawing in two steps down to -196 degC protects LDH to radiation, in the dose range used. The data obtained here inform on the high energy electrons effects on the enzymatic activity loss during irradiation and during thawing, when the subsequent growth of the water crystals influences the three dimensional structure of the enzyme. A 99.98% concentration of D 2 O in the suspending medium of the enzyme decreases the global enzymatic activity, but reduces the rate of radiation inactivation of the enzyme. The rate of radiation inactivation of the enzyme suspended in ultrapure water is reduced when compared to the enzyme suspended in bidistilled water, but compared to the D 2 O suspended enzyme is lightly increased. (author)

  14. Finite Element Analysis of the Rotor System of a Magnetically Suspended Compound Molecule Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pingfan; Zhao Lei; Shi Zhengang; Yang Guojun


    A novel magnetically suspended compound molecule pump has been designed, which has been supported by the active magnetic bearings (AMBs) system with 5 degrees of freedom. According to the characteristics of the high speed and AMBs, the rotor system of the magnetically suspended compound molecule pump has been analyzed by the finite element method. Modal analysis has been performed for the rotor, thus modal frequencies and corresponding modal shapes have been obtained. For the high rotating speed the blades usually have tended to be destroyed as the results of the centrifugal deformation and vibration. So several static parameters have been analyzed, such as stress distributions and deformations. Simulation results provide a theoretical foundation for the design of the magnetically suspended compound molecule pump’s controllers. The reliability and safety of the structure have been verified completely. Furthermore, this paper is of great significance for the pumps’ future developments. (author)

  15. Desorption of pyrethroids from suspended solids. (United States)

    Fojut, Tessa L; Young, Thomas M


    Pyrethroid insecticides have been widely detected in sediments at concentrations that can cause toxicity to aquatic organisms. Desorption rates play an important role in determining the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds, such as pyrethroids, because these compounds are more likely to be sorbed to solids in the environment, and times to reach sorptive equilibrium can be long. In the present study, sequential Tenax desorption experiments were performed with three sorbents, three aging times, and four pyrethroids. A biphasic rate model was fit to the desorption data with r(2)  > 0.99, and the rapid and slow compartment desorption rate constants and compartment fractions are reported. Suspended solids from irrigation runoff water collected from a field that had been sprayed with permethrin 1 d before were used in the experiments to compare desorption rates for field-applied pyrethroids with those for laboratory-spiked materials. Suspended solids were used in desorption experiments because suspended solids can be a key source of hydrophobic compounds in surface waters. The rapid desorption rate parameters of field-applied permethrin were not statistically different from those of laboratory spiked permethrin, indicating that desorption of the spiked pyrethroids is comparable to desorption of the pyrethroids added and aged in the field. Sorbent characteristics had the greatest effect on desorption rate parameters; as organic carbon content of the solids increased, the rapid desorption fractions and rapid desorption rate constants both decreased. The desorption rate constant of the slow compartment for sediment containing permethrin aged for 28 d was significantly different compared to aging for 1 d and 7 d, whereas desorption in the rapid and slow compartments did not differ between these treatments. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan


    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  17. Suspended-sediment inflows to Watts Bar Reservoir. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, L.K.


    Suspended-sediment inflows to Watts Bar Reservoir are important data that are required in numerical modeling of transport and deposition of sediment in the reservoir. Acceptable numerical modeling requires sediment inflow rates and locations in order to be able to compute the location and quantity of sediment deposited within the reservoir. Therefore, the representativeness of modeling results is highly dependent on the characteristics of sediment input to the model. The following recommendations, that account for suspended-sediment inflows to be used in the numerical modeling of sediment transport and deposition in Watts Bar Reservoir, were developed through an evaluation of available watershed and sediment deposition data. (1) Use the suspended-sediment rating regression equations of Gaydos et al., for Emory River at Oakdale, TN, and for Poplar Creek near Oak Ridge, TN, to represent the suspended-sediment inflows into Watts Bar Reservoir from its tributaries; (2) Use a suspended-sediment rating regression equation that was derived from suspended-sediment and streamflow data of the Little Tennessee River at McGhee, TN, to represent sediment inflow from the Little Tennessee River for simulation of any historical year before the completion of Tellico Dam; (3) Check the appropriateness of any assumption for suspended-sediment inflows from upstream reservoirs by using its long-term relationship to local suspended-sediment inflows and to the suspended-sediment outflow through Watts Bar Dam; and (4) Focus refinements to suspended-sediment inflow rates on the Clinch arm of Watts Bar Reservoir.

  18. Acoustic measuring techniques for suspended sediment (United States)

    Gruber, P.; Felix, D.; Storti, G.; Lattuada, M.; Fleckenstein, P.; Deschwanden, F.


    Acoustic signals can be used in various ways for suspended sediment monitoring. One possibility which lends itself particularly well in the context of hydropower plants (HPPs), is to use installations for acoustic discharge measurement (ADM). Such installations already exist at waterways of many HPPs. Similar to certain turbidimeters, the attenuation of the forward scattered signal travelling through the water-sediment mixture is correlated with suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This correlation can be based on reference SSCs, e.g. from gravimetric analyses of bottle samples. Without the need of additional sensors and practically maintenance-free, this method is used successfully in the HPP Fieschertal to warn the HPP operator of high SSC to prevent excessive turbine abrasion. Acoustic methods and systems that allow for estimating both SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) are under development. The simultaneous determination of SSC and PSD is not possible using a single frequency. Therefore, multi-frequency approaches are investigated for generally scattered signals. When backscattered signals are used, a stronger frequency dependency can be exploited. However, the reliable simultaneous determination of particle size (and distribution) and concentration is still a major challenge due to a low signal-to-noise ratio and an ill- posed problem of estimating concentration and size from recorded signals. The optimal setup configuration (angles, frequencies) for such a system is not unique and further investigations are recommended.

  19. Giant magneto-photoelectric effect in suspended graphene (United States)

    Sonntag, Jens; Kurzmann, Annika; Geller, Martin; Queisser, Friedemann; Lorke, Axel; Schützhold, Ralf


    We study the optical response of a suspended, monolayer graphene field-effect transistor structure in magnetic fields of up to 9 T (quantum Hall regime). With an illumination power of only 3 μW, we measure a photocurrent of up to 400 nA (without an applied bias) corresponding to a photo-responsivity of 0.13 A W-1, which we believe to be one of the highest values ever measured in single-layer graphene. We discuss possible mechanisms for generating this strong photo-response (17 electron-hole pairs per 100 incident photons). Based on our experimental findings, we believe that the most likely scenario is a ballistic two-stage process including carrier multiplication via Auger-type inelastic Coulomb scattering at the graphene edge.

  20. Two-dimensional Lagrangian simulation of suspended sediment (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.


    A two-dimensional laterally averaged model for suspended sediment transport in steady gradually varied flow that is based on the Lagrangian reference frame is presented. The layered Lagrangian transport model (LLTM) for suspended sediment performs laterally averaged concentration. The elevations of nearly horizontal streamlines and the simulation time step are selected to optimize model stability and efficiency. The computational elements are parcels of water that are moved along the streamlines in the Lagrangian sense and are mixed with neighboring parcels. Three applications show that the LLTM can accurately simulate theoretical and empirical nonequilibrium suspended sediment distributions and slug injections of suspended sediment in a laboratory flume.

  1. Energy loss mechanism for suspended micro- and nanoresonators due to the Casimir force


    Gusso, André


    A so far not considered energy loss mechanism in suspended micro- and nanoresonators due to noncontact acoustical energy loss is investigated theoretically. The mechanism consists on the conversion of the mechanical energy from the vibratory motion of the resonator into acoustic waves on large nearby structures, such as the substrate, due to the coupling between the resonator and those structures resulting from the Casimir force acting over the separation gaps. Analytical expressions for the ...

  2. Toward multi-day-ahead forecasting of suspended sediment concentration using ensemble models. (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mohamad Javad; Jafari Nodoushan, Ehsan; Kalarestaghi, Naghi; Chau, Kwok Wing


    This study explores two ideas to made an improvement on the artificial neural network (ANN)-based models for suspended sediment forecasting in several time steps ahead. In this regard, both observed and forecasted time series are incorporated as input variables of the models when applied for more than one lead time. Secondly, least-square ensemble models employing multiple wavelet-ANN models are developed to increase the performance of the single model. For this purpose, different wavelet families are linked with the ANN model and performance of each model is evaluated using error measures. The Skagit River near Mount Vernon in Washington county is selected as the case study. The daily flow discharge and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the current day are considered as input variables to predict suspended sediment concentration in the next day. For more lead times, the input structure is updated by adding the forecast of SSC in the previous time step. Results of this study demonstrate that incorporating both observed and predicted variables in the input structure improves performance of conventional models in which those only employ observed time series as input variables. Moreover, ensemble model developed for each lead time outperforms the best single wavelet-ANN model which indicates superiority of the ensemble model over the other one. Findings of this study reveal that acceptable forecasts of daily suspended sediment concentration up to 3 days in advance can be achieved using the proposed methodology.

  3. Improved algal harvesting using suspended air flotation. (United States)

    Wiley, Patrick E; Brenneman, Kristine J; Jacobson, Arne E


    Current methods to remove algae from a liquid medium are energy intensive and expensive. This study characterized algae contained within a wastewater oxidation pond and sought to identify a more efficient harvesting technique. Analysis of oxidation pond wastewater revealed that algae, consisting primarily of Chlorella and Scenedesmus, composed approximately 80% of the solids inventory during the study period. Results demonstrated that suspended air flotation (SAF) could harvest algae with a lower air:solids (A/S) ratio, lower energy requirements, and higher loading rates compared to dissolved air flotation (DAF) (P plants by enabling cost effective means to reduce solids content of the final effluent. Furthermore, use of SAF to harvest commercially grown Chlorella and Scenedesmus may reduce manufacturing costs of algal-based products such as fuel, fertilizer, and fish food.

  4. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood


    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  5. Desorption of radioactive cesium by seawater from the suspended particles in river water. (United States)

    Onodera, Masaki; Kirishima, Akira; Nagao, Seiya; Takamiya, Kouichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Daisuke; Sato, Nobuaki


    but is strongly related to structural changes in the clay minerals in the suspended particles. Hydrated Na + ions expand the interlayer distance of the clay minerals, resulting in the facile desorption of cesium; in contrast, dehydrated K + ions reduce the interlayer distance and inhibit the desorption of cesium. In conclusion, the desorption of cesium from the suspended particles is controlled by the presence of sodium and potassium ions and the preloaded cesium concentration in the suspended particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Raman study of lysozyme amyloid fibrils suspended on super-hydrophobic surfaces by shear flow

    KAUST Repository

    Moretti, Manola


    The shear flow generated at the rim of a drop evaporating on a micro-fabricated super-hydrophobic surface has been used to suspend and orient single/few lysozyme amyloid fibrils between two pillars for substrate-free characterization. Micro Raman spectroscopy performed on extended fibers evidenced a shift of the Amide I band main peak to the value attributed to β-sheet secondary structure, characteristic of the amyloid fibers. In addition, given the orientation sensitivity of the anisotropic molecule, the Raman signal of the main secondary structure was nicely enhanced for a fiber alignment parallel to the polarization direction of the laser. The substrate-free sample generated by this suspending technique is suitable for other structural analysis methods, where fiber crystals are investigated. It could be further employed for generation of arrays and patterns in a controllable fashion, where bio-compatible material is needed.

  7. Evaluation of the suspending property of grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending properties evaluated included the sedimentation rate, sedimentation volume, ease of redispersibility, apparent viscosity and degree of flocculation. Results obtained after 8 weeks of storage showed that the optimum suspending concentration for grewia gum in the drug was 1% w/v. The sedimentation rate ...

  8. Turbulence Flow Characteristics of Suspended Sediments and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an attempt to describe velocity distribution of suspended sediment laden flow by using a theory based on Monin-Obukhov Length L. It will be shown that experimental results from open channel flow with suspended sediments are better accounted for by this theory. The method involves the coupling of ...

  9. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la


    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy

  10. The suspending properties of Cissus rubiginosa fruit mucilage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Materials with suspending properties like mucilage have been obtained from natural sources and used to stabilize liquid formulations containing poorly dispersible solids. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suspending properties of Cissus rubiginosa fruit mucilage (CRM) in paracetamol oral ...

  11. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Co- precipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, viscosity, and pH. The effect of ... solution of the solid in the continuous phase [1]. There are two ... When two gums are co-precipitated, their ability to suspend a drug tends to increase more than their individual abilities. This work sought to evaluate the suspending ...

  12. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many natural gums are employed as suspending agents in the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The search to develop locally available natural gum from apparently a waste product as an alternative suspending agent stimulated the interest in this present study. Cola acuminata gum (CAG) extracted from Cola ...

  13. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  14. Properties of freely suspended liquid crystal films and their applications (United States)

    Yablonskii, S. V.; Bodnarchuk, V. V.; Yoshino, K.


    We report the review on the physical properties of the liquid crystal freely suspended films. The importance of the freely suspended films for the study of the fundamental problems of the self-confined systems as well as their practical implementations are demonstrated.

  15. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  16. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity. (United States)


    ..., particulate specific gravity, particle shape, and physical and chemical properties of particle surfaces. (b... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates..., usually smaller than silt, and organic particles. Suspended particulates may enter water bodies as a...

  17. Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats (United States)

    Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.


    A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

  18. Ensemble Modeling of Suspended Sediment in Steep Mountain Catchments (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Raseman, W. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Livneh, B.


    Climatic and land cover changes present important uncertainties into the rates of soil erosion and sedimentation in watersheds. Soil erosion adds constituents to streams, altering water chemistry and streambed morphology, which can adversely affect aquatic life and poses a critical challenge for water treatment and reservoir management. The goal of this research is to establish estimates of sediment transport within large-scale mountainous catchments (>1000 km2). As sedimentation rates are impacted by numerous physical processes including soil, land cover, slope and climate; the results from seven models will be presented to quantify uncertainty and improve predictability. A broader inquiry made here is into the efficacy of model structure under different conditions. We present the results from empirical, stochastic, conceptual and physical models. These include empirical models: monovariate rating curve, multivariate regression and the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE), to models with conceptual components: Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to more physically based models: Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Key uncertainties will be characterized resulting from forcing inputs, parameter selection, scale discretization, and model structure. Calibration results from a multi-objective optimization routine will be presented that optimize parameters and identify performance trade-offs that will be used to develop uncertainty estimates in both streamflow and sediment projections. The outcomes of this research will highlight critical issues relevant to large-scale hydrologic and suspended sediment prediction initiatives.

  19. Influence of charge carriers on corrugation of suspended graphene (United States)

    Kirilenko, Demid A.; Gorodetsky, Andrei; Baidakova, Marina V.


    Electronic degrees of freedom are predicted to play a significant role in mechanics of two-dimensional crystalline membranes. Here we show that appearance of charge carriers may cause a considerable impact on suspended graphene corrugation, thus leading to additional mechanism resulting in charge carriers mobility variation with their density. This finding may account for some details of suspended graphene conductivity dependence on its doping level and suggests that proper modeling of suspended graphene-based device properties must include the influence of charge carriers on its surface corrugation.

  20. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas


    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  1. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.


    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  2. Air pollution in Aleppo city, gases,suspended particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Sabra, Sh.; Al-Kharfan, K.


    Total suspended particulates measured by using High Volume Air Sampler. The Co and O 3 were measured during weekday and weekend. The concentration of all pollutants at city center are higher than other measured areas. (author). 10 figs., 10 tabs

  3. 40 CFR 1042.335 - Reinstating suspended certificates. (United States)


    ... Testing Production-line Engines § 1042.335 Reinstating suspended certificates. (a) Send us a written.... (b) Give us data from production-line testing that shows the remedied engine family complies with all...

  4. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.


    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  5. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage - Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter


    .... We have conceived and documented "suspended animation for delayed resuscitation" with the use of hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 minute of no blood flow, using novel...

  6. Suspended-sediment and suspended-sand concentrations and loads for selected streams in the Mississippi River Basin, 1940-2009 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Cline, Teri L.; Glaspie, Lori M.


    This report presents suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow data, describes load-estimation techniques used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment loads, and presents annual suspended-sediment loads for 48 streamgaging stations within the Mississippi River Basin. Available published, unpublished, and computed annual total suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads are presented for water years 1940 through 2009. When previously published annual loads were not available, total suspended-sediment and sand loads were computed using available data for water years 1949 through 2009. A table of suspended-sediment concentration and daily mean streamflow data used in the computation of annual loads is presented along with a table of compiled and computed annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads, annual streamflows, and flow-weighted concentrations for the 48 stations.

  7. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine


    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  8. Suspended particles and the gravitational instability of a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, K.C.


    The gravitational instability of an infinite homogeneous self-graviting and finitely conducting, rotating gas-particle medium, in the presence of a uniform vertical magnetic field, is studied to include finite Larmor radius and suspended particles effects. The particular cases of the effects of rotation, finite conductivity, finite Larmor radius and suspended particles on the waves propagated along and perpendicular to magnetic field have been discussed. Jeans's criterion determines the gravitational instability. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the suspending properties of the co-precipitate from Irvingia gabonensis gum variety Excelsa (Fam: Irvingiaceae) and gelatin. Methods: The gum from Irvingia gabonensis was extracted and co-precipitated with gelatin in gum/gelatin ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:0 and 0:1. The suspending ability of the ...

  10. Thermal emission spectra from individual suspended carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Liu, Zuwei; Bushmaker, Adam; Aykol, Mehmet; Cronin, Stephen B


    We study the thermal emission spectra of individual suspended carbon nanotubes induced by electrical heating. Semiconducting and metallic devices exhibit different spectra, based on their distinctive band structures. These spectra are compared with the ideal blackbody emission spectrum. In the visible wavelength range, the thermal emission spectra of semiconducting devices agree well with Planck's law, while the spectra of metallic devices show an additional peak between 1.5 and 1.9 eV. In the near-infrared wavelength range, the semiconducting nanotubes exhibit a peak around 1 eV. These additional peaks are attributed to the E11M and E22SC transitions that are thermally driven under these high applied bias voltages. These peaks show a strong polarization dependence, while the blackbody tail is unpolarized, which provides further evidence for electron-hole recombination in thermal emission. For semiconducting devices, the temperature of the nanotube is fit to Planck's law and compared with the temperatures obtained from the G band and 2D band Raman downshifts, as well as the anti-Stokes/Stokes intensity ratio. For devices showing thermal non-equilibrium, the electron temperature agrees well with G+ downshift but deviates from G_ downshift.

  11. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  12. Cable Tension Preslack Method Construction Simulation and Engineering Application for a Prestressed Suspended Dome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Liu


    Full Text Available To solve the shortage of traditional construction simulation methods for suspended dome structures, based on friction elements, node coupling technology, and local cooling, the cable tension preslack method is proposed in this paper, which is suitable for the whole process construction simulation of a suspended dome. This method was used to simulate the construction process of a large-span suspended dome case study. The effects on the simulation results of location deviation of joints, construction temperature, construction temporary supports, and friction of the cable-support joints were analyzed. The cable tension preslack method was demonstrated by comparing the data from the construction simulation with measured results, providing the control cable tension and the control standards for construction acceptance. The analysis demonstrated that the position deviation of the joint has little effect on the control value; the construction temperature and the friction of the cable-support joint significantly affect the control cable tension. The construction temperature, the temporary construction supports, and the friction of the cable-support joints all affect the internal force and deflection in the tensioned state but do not significantly affect the structural bearing characteristics at the load state. The forces should be primarily controlled in tensioned construction, while the deflections are controlled secondarily.

  13. Impacts of bottom and suspended cultures of mussels Mytilus spp. on the surrounding sedimentary environment and macrobenthic biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ysebaert, T.; Hart, M.; Herman, P.M.J.


    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of bottom and suspended mussel cultures, cultured in different physical environments, on the sedimentary environmental conditions and thereby the biodiversity structure of the associated macrofaunal community. We compared two bottom cultures

  14. Writing and functionalisation of suspended DNA nanowires on superhydrophobic pillar arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Miele, Ermanno


    Nanowire arrays and networks with precisely controlled patterns are very interesting for innovative device concepts in mesoscopic physics. In particular, DNA templates have proven to be versatile for the fabrication of complex structures that obtained functionality via combinations with other materials, for example by functionalisation with molecules or nanoparticles, or by coating with metals. Here, the controlled motion of the a three-phase contact line (TCL) of DNA-loaded drops on superhydrophobic substrates is used to fabricate suspended nanowire arrays. In particular, the deposition of DNA wires is imaged in situ, and different patterns are obtained on hexagonal pillar arrays by controlling the TCL velocity and direction. Robust conductive wires and networks are achieved by coating the wires with a thin layer of gold, and as proof of concept conductivity measurements are performed on single suspended wires. The plastic material of the superhydrophobic pillars ensures electrical isolation from the substrate. The more general versatility of these suspended nanowire networks as functional templates is outlined by fabricating hybrid organic-metal-semiconductor nanowires by growing ZnO nanocrystals onto the metal-coated nanowires.

  15. Low-energy electron point projection microscopy of suspended graphene, the ultimate 'microscope slide'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutus, J Y; Livadaru, L; Urban, R; Salomons, M H; Cloutier, M; Wolkow, R A; Robinson, J T


    Point projection microscopy (PPM) is used to image suspended graphene by using low-energy electrons (100-205 eV). Because of the low energies used, the graphene is neither damaged nor contaminated by the electron beam for doses of the order of 10 7 electrons per nm 2 . The transparency of graphene is measured to be 74%, equivalent to electron transmission through a sheet twice as thick as the covalent radius of sp 2 -bonded carbon. Also observed is rippling in the structure of the suspended graphene, with a wavelength of approximately 26 nm. The interference of the electron beam due to diffraction off the edge of a graphene knife edge is observed and is used to calculate a virtual source size of 4.7±0.6 A for the electron emitter. It is demonstrated that graphene can serve as both the anode and the substrate in PPM, thereby avoiding distortions due to strong field gradients around nanoscale objects. Graphene can be used to image objects suspended on the sheet using PPM and, in the future, electron holography.

  16. Self-assembly of suspended graphene wrinkles with high pre-tension and elastic property (United States)

    Yang, Liusi; Niu, Tianxiao; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Xu, Lu; Cao, Guoxin; Cao, Anyuan


    Wrinkles exist universally in graphene-based structures, yet their controlled fabrication remains challenging; most graphene wrinkles have been produced either in attachment to elastic substrates or limited in small single sheets. Here, we utilize the phenomenon of gel-cracking to generate uniaxial strains locally on solution-precipitated graphene oxide (GO) sheets, thus creating suspended and aligned wrinkles over the trenches between cracked TiO2 islands. In particular, those GO wrinkles are subjected to a high pre-tension, which is important for making stable suspended configuration, as confirmed by theoretical calculations based on the wrinkle geometry and measured spring constants, respectively. As a result, in situ atomic force microscope indentation reveals elastic deformation with tunable spring constants depending on the gap width. We further obtain chemically reduced GO wrinkles with enhanced spring constants and reversible behavior after 1000 indentation cycles. Our suspended and aligned graphene wrinkles have potential applications in many areas such as sensors, actuators, and micro/nano electromechanical systems.

  17. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie


    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  18. Attached and suspended microbial communities in a pristine confined aquifer (United States)

    Flynn, Theodore M.; Sanford, Robert A.; Bethke, Craig M.


    We compare the community of microbes attached to the sediments in a pristine confined aquifer to the free-floating community suspended in the groundwater there. We sampled the attached microbial community at 19 wells completed in the glacial Mahomet aquifer in east central Illinois using in situ samplers, and we sampled the suspended community by filtering microbes from groundwater. At each well, we profiled the two communities using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and compared the profiles we obtained with multivariate statistical analyses. Some populations at a well are detected both in the attached and suspended communities, but the shared populations represent, on average, only one third of each community; the remaining populations are detected exclusively in one community or the other. Clones closely related to the iron-reducing bacteria Geobacter and Geothrix represent more than 20% of the total attached community detected at many wells, but at no well do they make up more than 1% of the suspended community. To fully characterize the microbial community in an aquifer, it may be necessary to sample the attached as well as suspended communities.

  19. Combined Discrete Space Voltage Vector with Direct Torque Control for Bearingless Brushless DC Motor and Closed-Loop Suspended Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiran Wang


    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of bearingless brushless DC motor, a closed-loop suspended force controller combining the discrete space voltage vector modulation is applied and the direct torque control is presented in this paper. Firstly, we increase the number of the control vector to reduce the torque ripple. Then, the suspending equation is constructed which is spired by the direct torque control algorithm. As a result, the closed-loop suspended force controller is built. The simulated and experimental results evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The more advantage is that the proposed algorithm can achieve the fast torque response, reduce the torque ripple, and follow ideal stator flux track. Furthermore, the motor which implants the closed-loop suspended force controller cannot onlyobtain the dynamic response rapidly and displacement control accurately, but also has the characteristics of bearingless brushless DC motor (such as simple structure, high energy efficiency, small volume and low failure rate.

  20. Probing charged impurities in suspended graphene using Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ni, Zhen Hua; Yu, Ting; Luo, Zhi Qiang; Wang, Ying Ying; Liu, Lei; Wong, Choun Pei; Miao, Jianmin; Huang, Wei; Shen, Ze Xiang


    Charged impurity (CI) scattering is one of the dominant factors that affects the carrier mobility in graphene. In this paper, we use Raman spectroscopy to probe the charged impurities in suspended graphene. We find that the 2D band intensity is very sensitive to the CI concentration in graphene, while the G band intensity is not affected. The intensity ratio between the 2D and G bands, I(2D)/I(G), of suspended graphene is much stronger compared to that of nonsuspended graphene, due to the extremely low CI concentration in the former. This finding is consistent with the ultrahigh carrier mobility in suspended graphene observed in recent transport measurements. Our results also suggest that at low CI concentrations that are critical for device applications, the I(2D)/I(G) ratio is a better criterion in selecting high quality single layer graphene samples than is the G band blue shift.

  1. System for concentrating and analyzing particles suspended in a fluid (United States)

    Fiechtner, Gregory J [Bethesda, MD; Cummings, Eric B [Livermore, CA; Singh, Anup K [Danville, CA


    Disclosed is a device for separating and concentrating particles suspended in a fluid stream by using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to trap and/or deflect those particles as they migrate through a fluid channel. The method uses fluid channels designed to constrain a liquid flowing through it to uniform electrokinetic flow velocities. This behavior is achieved by connecting deep and shallow sections of channels, with the channel depth varying abruptly along an interface. By careful design of abrupt changes in specific permeability at the interface, an abrupt and spatially uniform change in electrokinetic force can be selected. Because these abrupt interfaces also cause a sharp gradient in applied electric fields, a DEP force also can be established along the interface. Depending on the complex conductivity of the suspended particles and the immersion liquid, the DEP force can controllably complement or oppose the local electrokinetic force transporting the fluid through the channel allowing for manipulation of particles suspended in the transporting liquid.

  2. Optimal estimation of suspended-sediment concentrations in streams (United States)

    Holtschlag, D.J.


    Optimal estimators are developed for computation of suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The estimators are a function of parameters, computed by use of generalized least squares, which simultaneously account for effects of streamflow, seasonal variations in average sediment concentrations, a dynamic error component, and the uncertainty in concentration measurements. The parameters are used in a Kalman filter for on-line estimation and an associated smoother for off-line estimation of suspended-sediment concentrations. The accuracies of the optimal estimators are compared with alternative time-averaging interpolators and flow-weighting regression estimators by use of long-term daily-mean suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow data from 10 sites within the United States. For sampling intervals from 3 to 48 days, the standard errors of on-line and off-line optimal estimators ranged from 52.7 to 107%, and from 39.5 to 93.0%, respectively. The corresponding standard errors of linear and cubic-spline interpolators ranged from 48.8 to 158%, and from 50.6 to 176%, respectively. The standard errors of simple and multiple regression estimators, which did not vary with the sampling interval, were 124 and 105%, respectively. Thus, the optimal off-line estimator (Kalman smoother) had the lowest error characteristics of those evaluated. Because suspended-sediment concentrations are typically measured at less than 3-day intervals, use of optimal estimators will likely result in significant improvements in the accuracy of continuous suspended-sediment concentration records. Additional research on the integration of direct suspended-sediment concentration measurements and optimal estimators applied at hourly or shorter intervals is needed.

  3. Longitudinal standing waves on a vertically suspended slinky (United States)

    Young, Richard A.


    The vertically suspended slinky is a system where variable tension, and variable mass density, combine to produce a simple solution for the longitudinal normal modes. The time taken for a longitudinal wave to traverse a single turn of the slinky is found to be constant for a variety of slinky configurations. For the freely suspended slinky this constant traverse time yields standing wave frequencies that depend only on the length of the hanging slinky and not on the material, radius, or stiffness of the slinky. Data, obtained by students in a laboratory setting, are presented to illustrate the application of these results.

  4. Optical fiber end-facet polymer suspended-mirror devices (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A. Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P. K. A.


    This paper presents a novel optical fiber device based on a polymer suspended mirror on the end facet of an optical fiber. With an own-developed optical 3D micro-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-mirror devices (SMDs) were successfully fabricated on the top of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated SU- 8 SMDs were measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The proposed technology paves a way towards 3D microengineering of the small end-facet of optical fibers to develop novel fiber-optic sensors.

  5. Suspended 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Keller, Stephan Sylvest


    the mechanical stability, shrinkage and material properties. The smallest feature size fabricated in the suspended carbon layer was 2 μm. A three electrode microelectrode chip with 3D pyrolytic carbon microstructures as the working electrode was designed and fabricated. The electrodes were characterized...... resistance as compared to 2D carbon electrodes. The higher sensitivity of 3D carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical sensing was illustrated by dopamine detection.......Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes...

  6. Design of a LC-tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope (United States)

    Jin, Lichuan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong


    A inductor-capacitor (LC) tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope prototype is designed and analyzed. High permeability ferrite cores are used for providing suspension force, and the rotation system is designed using the switched reluctance motor (SRM) principle. According to the LC-tuned principle, magnetic suspension force expression has been derived. The electromagnetic properties of the gyroscope are simulated by the Ansoft Maxwell software. And our result is expected to be able to serve as a prototype of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope in future practical applications.

  7. Daily Suspended Sediment Discharge Prediction Using Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network (United States)

    Uca; Toriman, Ekhwan; Jaafar, Othman; Maru, Rosmini; Arfan, Amal; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari


    Prediction of suspended sediment discharge in a catchments area is very important because it can be used to evaluation the erosion hazard, management of its water resources, water quality, hydrology project management (dams, reservoirs, and irrigation) and to determine the extent of the damage that occurred in the catchments. Multiple Linear Regression analysis and artificial neural network can be used to predict the amount of daily suspended sediment discharge. Regression analysis using the least square method, whereas artificial neural networks using Radial Basis Function (RBF) and feedforward multilayer perceptron with three learning algorithms namely Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), Scaled Conjugate Descent (SCD) and Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno Quasi-Newton (BFGS). The number neuron of hidden layer is three to sixteen, while in output layer only one neuron because only one output target. The mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (R2 ) and coefficient of efficiency (CE) of the multiple linear regression (MLRg) value Model 2 (6 input variable independent) has the lowest the value of MAE and RMSE (0.0000002 and 13.6039) and highest R2 and CE (0.9971 and 0.9971). When compared between LM, SCG and RBF, the BFGS model structure 3-7-1 is the better and more accurate to prediction suspended sediment discharge in Jenderam catchment. The performance value in testing process, MAE and RMSE (13.5769 and 17.9011) is smallest, meanwhile R2 and CE (0.9999 and 0.9998) is the highest if it compared with the another BFGS Quasi-Newton model (6-3-1, 9-10-1 and 12-12-1). Based on the performance statistics value, MLRg, LM, SCG, BFGS and RBF suitable and accurately for prediction by modeling the non-linear complex behavior of suspended sediment responses to rainfall, water depth and discharge. The comparison between artificial neural network (ANN) and MLRg, the MLRg Model 2 accurately for to prediction suspended sediment discharge (kg

  8. Do different components of terrestrial sources contribute to the riverine suspended load? (United States)

    Voss, B. M.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Galy, V.


    Establishing the relationship between source (bedrock, soil, floodplain sediments, vegetation) and mobilized materials (bedload and suspended load) within a river drainage network is critical to understanding the fate of particulate matter exported to the coastal ocean. First, linking material carried in river channels to its terrestrial sources aides in predicting the reactivity of organic matter associated with mineral particles and understanding which portions of a watershed contribute substantially to organic carbon fluxes and transformations in these systems. Second, identifying terrestrial reservoirs of future riverine suspended material can enhance our ability to comprehensively characterize the chemical and physical nature of fluvial sediments. We present a study of sedimentological and bulk organic carbon properties of sediments from across the Fraser River watershed in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Bulk samples and size fractions from surface soils and riverbank sediments, as well as vegetation, are analyzed for metrics including carbon and nitrogen content, 13C and 14C composition, and specific surface area. These are compared with measurements of riverine suspended sediments and size fractions of sediments deposited in the Fraser estuary. The correspondence of suspended sediment properties with different portions of soil, alluvial, and vegetation pools from different sites suggests a complex link between source materials and exported material. Such variability may stem from the heterogeneous nature of soil types, hillslope morphology, and runoff regimes in different portions of the drainage basin; settling/resuspension processes during river transit; and/or modification of particle structure and organic matter between mobilization of terrestrial material and arrival at distant downstream sites. The preferential loss/preservation of different size fractions within mineral source materials highlights the unequal importance of different mineral

  9. Thermal and quantum phase slips in niobium-nitride nanowires based on suspended carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Kohei; Takagi, Tasuku; Hashimoto, Takayuki [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Moriyama, Satoshi, E-mail:; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Morita, Yoshifumi, E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Miki, Norihisa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Tanabe, Takasumi [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Maki, Hideyuki, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); JST-PRESTO, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)


    Superconducting nanowires have attracted considerable attention due to their unique quantum-mechanical properties, as well as their potential as next-generation quantum nanodevices, such as single-photon detectors, phase-slip (PS) qubits, and other hybrid structures. In this study, we present the results of one-dimensional (1D) superconductivity in nanowires fabricated by coating suspended carbon nanotubes with a superconducting thin niobium nitride (NbN) film. In the resistance-temperature characteristic curves, hallmarks of 1D superconductivity with PS events are observed with unconventional negative magnetoresistance. We also confirm that a crossover occurs between thermal and quantum PSs as the temperature is lowered.

  10. Evaluation of the Suspending Property of Grewia Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending properties evaluated included the sedimentation rate, sedimentation volume, ease of redispersibility, apparent viscosity and degree of flocculation. The effect of electrolyte, pH, temperature and ageing on the viscosity of the suspension was also investigated. Results obtained after 8 weeks of storage ...

  11. Evaluation of Local Gum of Acacia polyacantha as a Suspending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The local gum of Acacia polyacantha was evaluated as a suspending agent in metronidazole benzoate suspensions in comparison with Acacia senegal and NaCMC at concentration range of 1-4% (w/v). The resulting suspensions were evaluated for their sedimentation volume (%), degree of flocculation, rheology, ...

  12. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fit was found to be better than those relating mean annual specific suspended sediment yield to basin area or runoff only. Since many stream gauging stations in the country have no records on fluvial sediment, the empirical equation can be used to obtain preliminary estimates of expected sediment load of streams for ...

  13. Calamine lotion: experimenting with a new suspending agent. (United States)

    Al-Achi, A; Greenwood, R; Akin-Isijola, A; Bullard, J


    The use of a new suspending agent is investigated. Calamine lotion, USP contains bentonite magma as a suspending agent. In this study, bentonite magma was partially or completely replaced with a new suspending agent called tahini. Tahini is sesame paste composed of crushed sesame seeds in sesame oil. It is frequently used in middle eastern food as a thickening and suspending agent. Calamine lotion was prepared, generally, according to the USP method. The formula contained 40% v/v magma. Tahini was added instead of bentonite magma by replacing 100%, 99%, 90%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the magma. The sedimentation volume and the degree of flocculation were calculated for the resulting preparations. Rheological characteristics of bentonite- and tahini-containing lotions were also determined. Sedimentation volume showed 0.723 and 0.851 (p=0.05) for the lotions containing 100% bentonite and 100% tahini, respectively. The degree of flocculation was 2.00 and 2.35 (p=0.05) for the 100% bentonite and 100% tahini lotions, respectively. The rheograms of all the suspensions showed pseudoplastic flow. Overall, the use of tahini in calamine lotion has improved the physical stability of the formula.

  14. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.


    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  15. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    vations are inadequate to understand the sedi- ment dispersion by the alternating tidal currents in regions like Gulf of Kachchh, while numerical. Keywords. Suspended sediment concentrations; OCM; sediment transport model; tide. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 121, No. 5, October 2012, pp. 1201–1213. cO Indian Academy of Sciences.

  16. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan


    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  17. Center of Mass of a Suspended Slinky: An Experiment (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence P.


    Articles, notes, and letters1,2,3 in recent issues of The Physics Teacher have described the location of the center of mass of a Slinky™ spring toy suspended vertically. To determine the center of mass, we performed a simple experiment that is described here.

  18. Heavy metal ions adsorption by suspended particle and sediment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 10, 2012 ... 7000, and 11000 mg/l, increased the samples of river water; and then they are mixed in JAR TEST apparatus twice for one and ... Key words: Chalus River, adsorption, heavy metal, suspended particle, sediment. INTRODUCTION .... concentrations using the conventional method of flame atomic absorption ...

  19. Suspended sediments of the modern Amazon and Orinoco rivers (United States)

    Meade, R.H.


    The Amazon and Orinoco Rivers are massive transcontinental conveyance systems for suspended sediment. They derive about 90% of their sediment from the Andes that support their western headwaters, transport it for thousands of kilometers across the breadth of the continent and deposit it in the coastal zones of the Atlantic. At their points of maximum suspended-sediment discharge, the Amazon transports an average of 1100-1300 ?? 106 tons per year and the Orinoco transports about 150 ?? 106 tons per year. Relations of sediment discharge to water discharge are complicated by unusual patterns of seasonal storage and remobilization, increased storage and reduced transport of sediment in the middle Orinoco during periods of peak water discharge, and storage of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon during rising discharge and resuspension during falling discharge. Spatial distributions of suspended sediment in cross-sections of both rivers are typically heterogeneous, not only in the vertical sense but also in the lateral. The cross-channel mixing of tributary inputs into the mainstem waters is a slow process that requires several hundred kilometers of downriver transport to complete. Considerable fine-grained sediment is exchanged between rivers and floodplains by the combination of overbank deposition and bank erosion. ?? 1994.

  20. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  1. Transport of suspended particles in turbulent open channel flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugem, W.A.


    Two experiments are performed in order to investigate suspended sediment transport in a turbulent open channel flow. The first experiment used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure the fluid velocity with a high spatial resolution, while particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was used to measure

  2. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS)are important constituents of organic matter.However,very little is known about their cycling in marine waters.In this research,we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal.For this purpose,samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM)were collected from 8 ...

  3. Assessments of lake profiling on temperature, Total Suspended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation were performed on temperature, total suspended solid (TSS) and turbidity (TUR) based on in-situ and ex-situ analyses according to the correlation matrix and linear regression at 14 different depths for the Chomor River and Mahadir Island. The result showed outlet significantly decreased over depth caused the ...

  4. Discrete Dynamics of Nanoparticle Channelling in Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Andersen, Henrik


    We have observed a previously undescribed stepwise oxidation of mono- and few layer suspended graphene by silver nanoparticles in situ at subnanometer scale in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Over the range of 600–850 K, we observe crystallographically oriented channelling...

  5. Microwave-induced nonequilibrium temperature in a suspended carbon nanotube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, H.L.; Öztürk, A.; Zeng, P.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Klapwijk, T.M.


    Antenna-coupled suspended single carbon nanotubes exposed to 108?GHz microwave radiation are shown to be selectively heated with respect to their metal contacts. This leads to an increase in the conductance as well as to the development of a power-dependent DC voltage. The increased conductance

  6. Suspended Education Department Official Had Approved Waiver for Former Employer (United States)

    Basken, Paul


    Matteo Fontana, the student-aid official in the U.S. Department of Education who was suspended last month in an ethics case, issued a controversial high-stakes legal ruling in 2004 that benefited his former employer, Sallie Mae, on the day before the nation's top student lender completed its transition from a government-founded lender into a…

  7. Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 1, 2001 ... total phosphates and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured in the Lourens River at the beginning of April 1999 prior to the .... via the glass pipe. Water samples (500 to 900 ml) were solid-phase extracted (SPE) using C18 columns (Chromabond) which had previously been prepared with 6 ml ...

  8. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  9. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    have described the effective use of satellite remote sensing data in modelling sediment transport. Quillon et al. (2004) have coupled remote sens- ing data with in situ measurements to simulate suspended sediment transport in New Caledonia. Lagoon. Initial distribution of sediment concentrations are of critical importance ...

  10. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family Mimosoideae) were evaluated comparatively with those of Compound Tragacanth, Acacia and Gelatin at concentration range of 0.5 – 4.0%w/v in Sulphadimidine suspension. Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum. Sedimentation ...

  11. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 5 ... Suspended sediment concentrations; OCM; sediment transport model; tide. ... Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are realized with respect to the sediment size distribution and the bottom ...

  12. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia


    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths...

  13. Spin Transport in High-Quality Suspended Graphene Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimaraes, Marcos H. D.; Veligura, A.; Zomer, P. J.; Maassen, T.; Vera-Marun, I. J.; Tombros, N.; van Arees, B. J.; Wees, B.J. van

    We measure spin transport in high mobility suspended graphene (mu approximate to 10(5)cm(2)/(V s)), obtaining a (spin) diffusion coefficient of 0.1 m(2)/s and giving a lower bound on the spin relaxation time (tau(s) approximate to 150 ps) and spin relaxation length (lambda(s) = 4.7 mu m) for

  14. Suspended matter and heavy metal content of the Elbe Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, K.


    (1) In the River Elbe estuary there is a turbidity zone which is closely bound to the region of brackish waters. Its suspended matter content changes strongly with the tidal rhythm. Suspended matter and river bed sediments influence each other by exchanging their particles. Owing to that mechanism, the heavy metal ions bound or taken up by the suspended matter (sorption) enter the sediments. To obtain an estimation of the estuary's ability to cope with ( self purify ) a strong burden of industrial wastes, it is neccessary to take into consideration the absorbing capacity of both the mean suspension load and the sediments. (2) The concentration of nearly all heavy metal ions investigated in the suspension load decreases remarkably at the very beginning of the turbid zone already, in the Hamburg region. It indicates that the binding process are going on very rapidly and that the metal ion absorbing capacity of the Elbe estuary still requires only the first few miles of this self purification system. The results gained indicate that the suspended matter in Hamburg waters could bind or take up more heavy metal ions than are discharged into this area. (3) The concentration of most ions bound to the suspension material correlates very well with the grain size distribution of the (anorganic) particles. The concentration values decrease along the estuary and lead to a continuous transition to the values of the open sea. Cu, Ni and Cd appear to be captured preferably by organic suspended matter. This behaviour, however, is solely restricted to the turbid zone. In the open sea, after oxidation of the binding organic material, Cu and Ni correspond to the anorganic grain size distribution. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Organic compounds and suspended matter in the marine ice of the Eastern Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.


    Data on the composition of organic compounds in Antarctic sea ice are virtually non-existent, as most works concentrate on the structure, physical composition and biological properties of the ice. Data is needed for the study of the global carbon cycle and the estimation of background values and anthropogenic compounds. Specific features of the hydrometeorological regime near Antarctica affect the structure of the ice cover and its properties. The transportation of large volumes of snow to the ocean results in the formation of a snow sludge layer which gradually accumulates on the sea surface and freezes into young slush ice. The irregular distribution of snow at the ice surface and seawater infiltration results in the formation of ice with a specific crystalline structure and physiochemical properties. This paper discussed the dissolved and suspended lipids and hydrocarbons, as well as suspended matter (SM) concentrations in snow, sea ice and sub-ice water in coastal zones of the East Antarctic. The data was obtained during the Russian Antarctic Expedition in 2003. Variations in the concentration and distribution of the various substances suggest that they are related to ice forming conditions and to the processes that occur when ice forms, as well as in the interaction of the substances with ice, snow and sub-ice water. The SM and organic compounds are accumulated in layers characterized by intense autochthonous processes. It was noted that the zones stay biogeochemically active even under low temperature conditions. The highest concentrations of organic compounds, along with the biggest variations in their proportions have been discovered in the areas surrounded by penguin colonies near Buromsky Island and Haswell Island's Lake. The presence of significant quantities of PAHs in both pack and seasonal ice of high latitudes indicates that their formation is relatively rapid even at low temperatures. Many biochemical processes are intense under the influence of ice

  16. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  17. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.


    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  18. 32 CFR 552.81 - Agents or companies with suspended solicitation privileges. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agents or companies with suspended solicitation... Military Reservations § 552.81 Agents or companies with suspended solicitation privileges. Quarterly, HQDA will publish the names of agents and companies whose solicitation privileges have been suspended...

  19. 31 CFR 363.132 - Can the sale of the certificate of indebtedness be suspended? (United States)


    ... indebtedness be suspended? 363.132 Section 363.132 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... REGULATIONS GOVERNING SECURITIES HELD IN TREASURYDIRECT Certificate of Indebtedness § 363.132 Can the sale of the certificate of indebtedness be suspended? The Secretary may suspend and rescind the suspension of...

  20. Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobing Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.

  1. Suspended sediment in a high-Arctic river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard-Pedersen, Pernille; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Kroon, Aart


    -2012) of daily measurements from the high-Artic Zackenberg River in Northeast Greenland to estimate annual suspended sediment fluxes based on four commonly used methods: M1) is the discharge weighted mean and uses direct measurements, while M2-M4) are one uncorrected and two bias corrected rating curves......-1 and 61,000±16,000ty-1. Extreme events with high discharges had a mean duration of 1day. The average suspended sediment flux during extreme events was 17,000±5000ty-1, which constitutes a year-to-year variation of 20-37% of the total annual flux. The most accurate sampling strategy was bi......-agreements and accuracies sediment concentrations. The discharge weighted mean...

  2. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  3. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.


    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  4. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.R.


    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  5. Mechanical Characterization of Ultrathin DLC Suspended Membranes for CMUT Applications (United States)

    Thibert, Sébastien; Ghis, Anne; Delaunay, Marc

    To increase the spatial resolution of CMUT based ultrasound imaging, the feasibility of devices made of arrays of vibrating areas in the square micrometer range is investigated. The manufacturing and characterization of ultrathin diamond like carbon suspended membranes that can act as the mobile electrode of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers are described. To get significant displacements, the membrane thickness must be reduced to the nanometer range. Consequently, a 5 to 20 nm thick Ni/DLC/Ni stack is first deposited by electron cyclotron resonance. The three-layer stack is then transferred on test devices to form suspended membranes over 0.5 to 2 μm wide trenches. The device characterization includes SEM imaging and AFM force measurements. The mechanical properties of the suspended sheets were extracted, which allows the determination of the bending rigidity (1 x 10-14 to 20 x10-14N.m) of the mobile part of the transducer. This parameter is required for device modelling as it integrates the properties of the final membrane (material, thickness, surface alteration, etc.).

  6. Photodegradation of chlorpyrifos with humic acid-bound suspended matter. (United States)

    Amarathunga, A A D; Kazama, F


    Land exploitation in several developing countries, including tropical areas, has caused a rapid change of the landscape, from forest to farms. This has led to an increase of pesticide use and concentration of suspended matter in river waters, which may cause soil erosion of these areas. Humic acid (HA), one of the main components in the soil particulate organic matter, has a positive effect on the photodegradation of organic matter in water; however, the efficiency of HA-bound suspended matter (HABSM) for pesticide photodegradation is not known. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of HABSM on the photodegradation of chlorpyrifos employed in artificial soil particulate covered with HA. Experiments were carried out in liquid HA phase, with/without HABSM phase and HABSM with additional LHA phase under light. The adsorption procedure of the pesticide on HABSM was also studied. Our results reveal that adsorption takes place within a short time period on HABSM and that photodegradation is successfully achieved. The additional LHA+HABSM phase have not demonstrated any significant effect of HA concentration to photodegradation of chlorpyrifos. For instance, when 2.0mg/L chlorpyrifos was used in the experiments, concentration reductions caused by adsorption, photodegradation under suspended matter and HABSM were found to be 19.3, 17.7, and 61.7% respectively. This finding suggests that HABSM can be considered as a potential catalyst for pesticide photodegradation under sunlight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Studying Suspended Sediment Mechanism with Two-Phase PIV (United States)

    Matinpour, H.; Atkinson, J. F.; Bennett, S. J.; Guala, M.


    Suspended sediment transport affects soil erosion, agriculture and water resources quality. Turbulent diffusion is the most primary force to maintain sediments in suspension. Although extensive previous literature have been studying the interactions between turbulent motion and suspended sediment, mechanism of sediments in suspension is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate suspension of sediments as two distinct phases: one phase of sediments and another phase of fluid with turbulent motions. We designed and deployed a state-of-the-art two-phase PIV measurement technique to discriminate these two phases and acquire velocities of each phase separately and simultaneously. The technique that we have developed is employing a computer-vision based method, which enables us to discriminate sediment particles from fluid tracer particles based on two thresholds, dissimilar particle sizes and different particle intensities. Results indicate that fluid turbulence decreases in the presence of suspended sediments. Obtaining only sediment phase consecutive images enable us to compute fluctuation sediment concentration. This result enlightens understanding of complex interaction between the fluctuation velocities and the fluctuation of associated mass and compares turbulent viscosity with turbulent eddy diffusivity experimentally.

  8. Suspended Particles: Their Role in Estuarine Biogeochemical Cycles (United States)

    Turner, A.; Millward, G. E.


    Suspended particles are instrumental in controlling the reactivity, transport and biological impacts of substances in aquatic environments, and provide a crucial link for chemical constituents between the water column, bed sediment and food chain. This article reviews the role of suspended particles in the chemical and biological cycling of trace constituents (trace metals, organo-metallic compounds and hydrophobic organic micropollutants; HOMs) in estuaries, with particular emphasis on the effects of and changes to particle reactivity and composition. The partitioning (or distribution coefficient, KD ) and bioavailability of chemical constituents, and assimilation efficiency (AE) of such by bivalve suspension feeders, are identified as key parameters requiring definition for accurate biogeochemical modelling, and the discussion centres around the determination of and controls on these parameters. Particle-water interactions encompass a variety of physical, biological, electrostatic and hydrophobic effects, and are largely dependent on the character and concentration of suspended particles and salinity. The salinity-dependence results from the competing and complexing effects of seawater ions for trace metals, and the compression of water in the presence of dissolved seawater ions and consequent salting out of neutral solute (HOMs, organo-metallic compounds and some trace metal complexes). The extent of biological solubilization of chemical constituents from suspended particles is dependent on the nature of chemical components of the gastro-intestinal environment and their interactions with ingested particles, and the physiological (e.g. gut passage time) and chemical (e.g. redox conditions and pH) constraints imposed on these interactions. Generally, chemicals that associate with fine, organic-rich particles (or, for some HOMs, fine inorganic particles), and desorb at pH 5-6 and/or complex with digestive enzymes or surfactants are most readily solubilized in the

  9. First-principles simulations on suspended coinage-metal nanotubes composed of different atomic species. (United States)

    Fa, Wei; Zhou, Jian; Dong, Jinming


    Substitutional doping of gold and copper atoms in a (4, 4) silver single-wall nanotube has been investigated using first-principles simulations. It is found that the Au- and Cu-substitutional doping of the tip-suspended (4, 4) Ag tube can maintain the hollow tubular structure at different alloy compositions due to the existence of a local minimum in the string tension variation with their unit cell lengths. The bonding energy differences between the mono-elements and hetero-elements and string tension may play important roles in suppressing the "self-purification" effects so that the nanoalloy tubes can be formed. Analysis of the band structure suggests that the number of conduction channels of the Ag-Au alloy tubes may lie between the pure (4, 4) Ag and Au tubes.

  10. Pile driving into the skull and suspending the bridging veins? An undescribed role of arachnoid granulations. (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Ono, Hideo; Yasumoto, Yukimasa


    Arachnoid granulations (AGs) occasionally appear to protrude into the calvarial convexity, lying close to the bridging veins (BVs). This study aims to characterize such AGs and BVs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study. Initially, stepwise frontal craniotomy was performed in an injected cadaver head. Next, examinations with contrast MRI were performed involving the whole cranial vault. In cadaveric dissection, the AGs located in the parasagittal regions appeared as outward protrusions through the dura mater and in contact with the diploic veins. Forming tent-shaped sleeves, these AGs and the continuous arachnoid membranes suspended the BVs coursing just below. A total of 237 AGs were identified on contrast MRI that protruded into the skull, lying close to the BVs. Among them, 78 % were located in parasagittal regions as AG-BV pairs. These pairs were most frequently found in the middle third of the calvarial hemisphere, followed by the anterior and posterior thirds. In 34 %, the BV segments were lodged in the AGs. Some AGs located in the parasagittal regions and cerebral convexity pass through the dura mater and pile drive into the skull, which contribute to forming hanging-type arachnoid sleeves suspending the BVs. These structures may underpin the predisposition of BVs to injury following mechanical impacts.

  11. Suspending re-offending? Comparing the effects of suspended prison sentences and short-term imprisonment on recidivism in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarten, P.G.M.; Denkers, A.J.M.; Borgers, M.J.; van der Laan, P.H.


    In the Netherlands, suspended sentences are increasingly imposed as alternatives to short-term imprisonment in an attempt to reduce recidivism. However, little research has been done to examine recidivism outcomes after suspended sentences. This study used official data on adult offenders sentenced

  12. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen


    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors observed using experiments performed on time scales of tens of seconds can be projected to obtain maps of their dynamical response on geological time scales. That such extraordinarily slow dynamic processes can be uncovered from real-time measurements by simply stretching a system provides a simple but powerful tool for interrogating extremely slow motions in other jammed physical states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. A Passively-Suspended Tesla Pump Left Ventricular Assist Device (United States)

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J.; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K.; Paterson, Eric G.; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B.; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E.; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson


    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type LAVD blood pump are described. CFD analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 liters/min at a 70 mmHg head rise at 8000 RPM. The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below .02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned as well as endurance testing of the device. PMID:19770799

  14. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis


    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70. wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8. emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12. wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2. emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  15. Electrooptical behaviour and control of a suspended particle device (United States)

    Vergaz, R.; Pena, J. M. S.; Barrios, D.; Pérez, I.; Torres, J. C.


    A suspended particle device is made by electrophoretic rod-shape particles suspended in an organic gel. These particles can twist and order with an applied voltage. The light crossing the material suffers more or less scattering according to that voltage. A commercial device is analyzed in this work. Several electrical models are tested, being the best one a series configuration including a shunt double layer capacitance and a Warburg element. Main parameter errors are below 2%, showing the quality of this new electrical model for this kind of devices. A quick method to improve the manufacturing process on-line is also proposed. Impedance measurements will be fitted to the selected electrical model, in order to check physical aspects such as charge diffusion lengths and response times. An electronic driver to obtain several levels of device transmission has been also developed, being its linearity demonstrated too. Colour changes are negligible for the main part of the bleaching process. All these features allow the use of this set in domotics application.

  16. Water and suspended sediment dynamics in Selangor River estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Kamarudin Samuding; Nazrol Hizam Yusoff


    Observations of salinity, temperature, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and tidal current velocity were made in the lower and along the longitudinal axis of Sungai Selangor estuary over neap-spring cycles. The variations of these parameters at the measurement stations and along the channel are presented to illustrate the water and sediment dynamics in the estuary. The results shows that the Sungai Selangor estuary changes from a partially-mixed type during neaps to a well-mixed one during springs, promoted by stronger tidal energy during the higher tidal ranges. The strong neap density stratification is also promoted by the high river discharges during the measurement period. Maximum concentration of suspended sediment (> 2000 mg/l) occurs during maximum current velocities both during flood and ebb. The maximum salinity was achieved during high water slack but the salt water was totally flushed out of estuary during low water springs. The longitudinal axis measurement indicates that a partially-developed zone of turbidity maximum with a sediment concentration over 1000 mg/l was observed at the limit of salt water intrusion in salinity range less than 1 ppt. Tidal pumping as oppose to the estuarine circulation is the more dominant factor in the maximum formation as the salt water is totally excluded at low water. (Author)

  17. IUTAM symposium on hydrodynamic diffusion of suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.H. [ed.


    Hydrodynamic diffusion refers to the fluctuating motion of nonBrownian particles (or droplets or bubbles) which occurs in a dispersion due to multiparticle interactions. For example, in a concentrated sheared suspension, particles do not move along streamlines but instead exhibit fluctuating motions as they tumble around each other. This leads to a net migration of particles down gradients in particle concentration and in shear rate, due to the higher frequency of encounters of a test particle with other particles on the side of the test particle which has higher concentration or shear rate. As another example, suspended particles subject to sedimentation, centrifugation, or fluidization, do not generally move relative to the fluid with a constant velocity, but instead experience diffusion-like fluctuations in velocity due to interactions with neighboring particles and the resulting variation in the microstructure or configuration of the suspended particles. In flowing granular materials, the particles interact through direct collisions or contacts (rather than through the surrounding fluid); these collisions also cause the particles to undergo fluctuating motions characteristic of diffusion processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Gas Raman sensing with multi-opened-up suspended core fiber. (United States)

    Wang, Guanjun; Liu, Jiansheng; Yang, Yi; Zheng, Zheng; Xiao, Jing; Li, Ruichao


    Gas sensing and fluid-guiding response properties of a suspended core fiber Raman analyzer with side-opened and strut microfluid-guiding array are explored. A Raman sensing model is introduced for effective mode area optimization and normalized intensity overlap enhancement between Raman sensing light and analyte. Calculations predict that there is a trade-off between the overlap and the effective mode area, while the optimal trade-off depends on the refractive index of the background material, core diameter, and strut's thickness. Furthermore, the multi-opened-up structure ensures a fast gases diffusing into/out of each hole for real-time Raman sensing. Simulation results confirm a limited gas sensing response time of less than 6 s could be feasible and, thus, a new approach to real-time gas sensing applications is identified. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  19. Dynamics of suspended sediment concentration, flow discharge and sediment particle size interdependency to identify sediment source (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Singh, Vijay P.


    Spatiotemporal behavior of sediment yield is a key for proper watershed management. This study analyzed statistical characteristics and trends of suspended sediment concentration (SCS), flow discharge (FD) and sediment particle sizes using data from 24 gage stations scattered throughout the United States. Analysis showed significant time- and location-specific differences of these variables. The median values of SSC, FD and percentage of particle sizes smaller than 63 μm (P63) for all 24 gage stations were found to be 510.236 mg l-1 (right skewed), 45.406 m3 s-1 (left skewed) and 78.648% (right skewed), respectively. Most of the stations exhibited significant trends (P type and erosivity, watershed area, and soil erodibility) and human-affected (i.e., land use and hydraulic structures and water resources management) factors governing the study variables.

  20. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.


    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  1. International Odra project (IOP) 'Interdisciplinary German Polish studies on the behaviour of pollutants in the Oder system'. Sub project 4: the state of suspended particulate matter in the Odra River system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.H.; Damke, H.; Kasbohm, J.; Puff, T.; Breitenbach, E.; Theel, O.; Kiessling, A.


    The purpose of the present project was to characterise the pollutant freight of suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments in the Oder river system on the basis of large samples drawn at selected sampling sites. One of the major goals was to assess and draw up a balance of the transport regime of suspended matter between the compartments water, suspended matter and sediments. Special attention was given to the composition and structure of suspended matter as well as to the distribution of trace elements in the various components. Furthermore, the study was intended to provide ecology-related information on the basis of selected biogenic components. Statements on the time course of pollution of estuarine waters and the Baltic Sea by way of the Oder can be derived from a characterisation of current fluviatile solids (suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments) and determination of their quantitative proportions. The following research strategy was derived from these goals: for a characterisation of suspended matter in terms of composition, structure and biogenic origin it is necessary to determine the concentration of suspended matter, its granulometric composition, carbon and sulphur content, biogenic opal content, mineral content, phase composition, metal content, structure of suspended flakes and association of diatoms in the suspended flakes and on the periphyton. [German] Das Vorhaben ist darauf ausgerichtet, den Belastungszustand der Schwebstoffe und schwebstoffbuertigen Sedimente im Oderflusssystem anhand von Grossproben ausgewaehlter Probenahmeorte zu charakterisieren. Ein wesentliches Ziel ist die Beurteilung des Transportregimes der Schwebstoffe zwischen den Kompartimenten Wasser, Schwebstoff und Sediment sowie seine Bilanzierung. Dabei gilt die besondere Aufmerksamkeit der Zusammensetzung und der Struktur der Schwebstoffe sowie die Spurenelementspeziation an die unterschiedlichen Bestandteile. Weiterhin werden oekologische Aussagen

  2. Electrochemical sensor having suspended element counter electrode and deflection method for current sensing (United States)

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Brown, Gilbert M.


    An electrochemical suspended element-based sensor system includes a solution cell for holding an electrolyte comprising solution including at least one electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species. A working electrode (WE), reference electrode (RE) and a counter electrode (CE) are disposed in the solution. The CE includes an asymmetric suspended element, wherein one side of the suspended element includes a metal or a highly doped semiconductor surface. The suspended element bends when current associated with reduction or oxidation of the electrochemically reducible or oxidizable species at the WE passes through the suspended element. At least one measurement system measures the bending of the suspended element or a parameter which is a function of the bending.

  3. Production and properties of a thickener with ability of suspending sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, B.; Wang, D.; Li, Z.; Chen, J. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Mineral and Safety Engineering


    To overcome the shortcomings of pouring sands, a thickener with the ability to suspend sands was developed. It is mixed with sands to form densified slurry, and can insure the sands against deposition, jamming pipelines and dehydration. The chemical structure of the thickener is introduced in this paper and the production process is studied. The main processes include immersion, decomposition, dilution and addition of additives. In order to produce a thickener with high viscosity to suspend sands, key factors must be controlled in each process: the immersion time is 2 h; the mass fraction of formaldehyde is 0.01% and mass of NaCO{sub 3} accounts for 15% of dry material; the water temperature is 65{sup o}C in summer and 72{sup o}C in winter and the decomposition time is 2 h in the reaction; the densified decomposition solution should be diluted to 1% mass fraction; the additives of calcium ions and pH indicators must be added to the diluted liquid; the mass fraction of CaCl{sub 2} is 0.048% and the pH value of the solution is 7.5. The thickener is a gel with three-dimensional network structure, a liquid with non-Newtonian behaviour and the characteristics of pseudo-plastic material, a solution with little resistance and the ability to revive its oral primary viscosity. It has been successfully applied in Shendong Mines and has great value and wide-spread prospective use. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Suspended liquid particle disturbance on laser-induced blast wave and low density distribution (United States)

    Ukai, Takahiro; Zare-Behtash, Hossein; Kontis, Konstantinos


    The impurity effect of suspended liquid particles on the laser-induced gas breakdown was experimentally investigated in quiescent gas. The focus of this study is the investigation of the influence of the impurities on the shock wave structure as well as the low density distribution. A 532 nm Nd:YAG laser beam with an 188 mJ/pulse was focused on the chamber filled with suspended liquid particles 0.9 ± 0.63 μm in diameter. Several shock waves are generated by multiple gas breakdowns along the beam path in the breakdown with particles. Four types of shock wave structures can be observed: (1) the dual blast waves with a similar shock radius, (2) the dual blast waves with a large shock radius at the lower breakdown, (3) the dual blast waves with a large shock radius at the upper breakdown, and (4) the triple blast waves. The independent blast waves interact with each other and enhance the shock strength behind the shock front in the lateral direction. The triple blast waves lead to the strongest shock wave in all cases. The shock wave front that propagates toward the opposite laser focal spot impinges on one another, and thereafter a transmitted shock wave (TSW) appears. The TSW interacts with the low density core called a kernel; the kernel then longitudinally expands quickly due to a Richtmyer-Meshkov-like instability. The laser-particle interaction causes an increase in the kernel volume which is approximately five times as large as that in the gas breakdown without particles. In addition, the laser-particle interaction can improve the laser energy efficiency.

  5. The Prediction Methods for Potential Suspended Solids Clogging Types during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Du


    Full Text Available The implementation and development of managed aquifer recharge (MAR have been limited by the clogging attributed to physical, chemical, and biological reactions. In application field of MAR, physical clogging is usually the dominant type. Although numerous studies on the physical clogging mechanism during MAR are available, studies on the more detailed suspended clogging types and its prediction methods still remain few. In this study, a series of column experiments were inducted to show the process of suspended solids clogging process. The suspended solids clogging was divided into three types of surface clogging, inner clogging and mixed clogging based on the different clogging characteristics. Surface clogging indicates that the suspended solids are intercepted by the medium surface when suspended solids grain diameter is larger than pore diameter of infiltration medium. Inner clogging indicates that the suspended solids particles could transport through the infiltration medium. Mixed clogging refers to the comprehensive performance of surface clogging and inner clogging. Each suspended solids clogging type has the different clogging position, different changing laws of hydraulic conductivity and different deposition profile of suspended solids. Based on the experiment data, the ratio of effective medium pore diameter (Dp and median grain size of suspended solids (d50 was proposed as the judgment index for suspended solids clogging types. Surface clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was less than 5.5, inner clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was greater than 180, and mixed clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was between 5.5 and 180. In order to improve the judgment accuracy and applicability, Bayesian method, which considered more ratios of medium pore diameter (Dp and different level of grain diameter of suspended solids (di, were developed to predict the potential suspended solids types.

  6. Source and dispersal of suspended sediment in the macro-tidal Gulf of Kachchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nath, B.N.; Vethamony, P.; Ilangovan, D.

    for Rubidium and Gallium. The suspended sediments and geochemical standards were dis- solved following acid dissolution procedure of Balaram and Rao (2002). Analysis of the resulting solutions for trace and rare earth elements was carried out with induc- tively... and movement of suspended material Movement of suspended material largely depends on prevailing hydrodynamics of the water body. Modeling the hydrodynamics coupled with dispersion can lead to a reasonable prediction for the movement pattern of sus- pended...

  7. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing


    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  8. Tracking influent inorganic suspended solids through wastewater treatment plants. (United States)

    Ekama, G A; Wentzel, M C; Sötemann, S W


    From an experimental and theoretical investigation of the continuity of influent inorganic suspended solids (ISS) along the links connecting the primary settling tank (PST), fully aerobic or N removal activated sludge (AS) and anaerobic and aerobic sludge digestion unit operations, it was found that the influent wastewater (fixed) ISS concentration is conserved through primary sludge anaerobic digestion, activated sludge and aerobic digestion unit operations. However, the measured ISS flux at different stages through a series of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) unit operations is not equal to the influent ISS flux, because the ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHO) biomass contributes to the ISS flux by differing amounts depending on the active fraction of the VSS solids at that stage.

  9. Drift of suspended ferromagnetic particles due to the Magnus effect (United States)

    Denisov, S. I.; Pedchenko, B. O.


    A minimal system of equations is introduced and applied to study the drift motion of ferromagnetic particles suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to a time-periodic driving force and a nonuniformly rotating magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the synchronized translational and rotational oscillations of these particles are accompanied by their drift in a preferred direction, which occurs under the action of the Magnus force. We calculate both analytically and numerically the drift velocity of particles characterized by single-domain cores and nonmagnetic shells and show that there are two types of drift, unidirectional and bidirectional, which can be realized in suspensions composed of particles with different core-shell ratios. The possibility of using the phenomenon of bidirectional drift for the separation of core-shell particles in suspensions is also discussed.

  10. Heat Transfer Correlations for Free Convection from Suspended Microheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GOSSELIN


    Full Text Available Portability and autonomy for biomedical diagnostic devices are two rising requirements. It is recognized that low-energy heating of such portable devices is of utmost importance for molecular recognition. This work focuses on screen-printed microheaters based on on Joule effect, which constitute an interesting solution for low-energy heating. An experimental study of the natural convection phenomena occurring with such microheaters is conducted. When they are suspended in the air, and because of the thinness of the supporting film, it is shown that the contributions of both the upward and downward faces have to be taken into account. A total Nusselt number and a total convective heat transfer coefficient have been used to describe the natural convection around these microheaters. In addition a relation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is derived, leading to an accurate prediction of the heating temperature (MRE< 2 %.

  11. Elemental composition of suspended particles released in refuse incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira


    Suspended particles released in refuse incineration were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The analytical results were compared with the elemental concentrations observed in the urban atmosphere, and the contribution of the refuse incineration to the urban atmosphere was roughly estimated. Greenberg et al. pointed out on the basis of their analyses that the refuse incineration can account for major portions of the Zn, Cd and Sb observed on urban aerosols. According to our results, the contribution of the refuse incineration for Zn, Cd and Sb is not negligible, but not so serious as in U.S.A. big cities. In Japan big cities there must be other more important sources of these elements. (author)

  12. Interactions of radionuclides with sediments and suspended particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.


    This chapter reviews fundamental principles of the rates and extents of radionuclide uptake by sedimentary and suspended particles, defines sediment-water partition coefficients, and shows how they can explain first order features of radionuclide partitioning in aquatic environments. It then explains how sediment accumulation and mixing rates can be calculated from profiles of radionuclide activity measured in sediment cores. Such rates can be combined with profiles of other chemicals to establish the extent of temporal changes in chemical composition of the overlying water body. Since sediment processing and counting in the laboratory take much longer than the time required to collect the sample, suggestions are made to ensure that the sediment samples are not ruined or comprised during collection and handling in the field, and so are worth all the subsequent time and effort to analyze. (author)

  13. Payload isolation and stabilization by a Suspended Experiment Mount (SEM) (United States)

    Bailey, Wayne L.; Desanctis, Carmine E.; Nicaise, Placide D.; Schultz, David N.


    Many Space Shuttle and Space Station payloads can benefit from isolation from crew or attitude control system disturbances. Preliminary studies have been performed for a Suspended Experiment Mount (SEM) system that will provide isolation from accelerations and stabilize the viewing direction of a payload. The concept consists of a flexible suspension system and payload-mounted control moment gyros. The suspension system, which is rigidly locked for ascent and descent, isolates the payload from high frequency disturbances. The control moment gyros stabilize the payload orientation. The SEM will be useful for payloads that require a lower-g environment than a manned vehicle can provide, such as materials processing, and for payloads that require stabilization of pointing direction, but not large angle slewing, such as nadir-viewing earth observation or solar viewing payloads.

  14. Geomorphic versus land use controls on suspended sediment rating curves (United States)

    Belmont, P.; Vaughan, A. A.; Fisher, A. C. N.


    The relation between river discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) concentration reflects the degree to which sediment sources are accessed or depleted across the range of flow conditions. Increased availability of high resolution topography and land use data greatly enhance our ability to evaluate linkages between characteristics of these sediment rating curves (SRCs) and the geomorphic features that influence them. We evaluated Q-SS relations at 45 gages throughout Minnesota, USA representing a wide variety of landscape settings in terms of topography, land use, and geologic history. We characterized the SRCs according to the overall shape, steepness (exponent), vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow (90% exceedance) conditions. Rivers exhibited three distinct SRC shapes, simple power functions, threshold power functions and peaked power functions. We used random forest models to analyze relations between SRC parameters and attributes of the watershed as well as the near-channel environment. The model correctly classified 78% of SRC shapes and explained 60% of variance in the SRC exponent, 43% of the SRC coefficient for rising limb samples, and 45% of variance under low flow conditions. Notably, the random forest models predict that near-channel morphology predominately controls both the shape and steepness of the sediment rating curves. Land use predominately controls the vertical offset (coefficient) and SS concentration under low flow conditions. These findings suggest that land use and watershed restoration practices may have little capacity to alter the shape and steepness of these curves as these characteristics may be dictated by the geologic and geomorphic setting. Rather, human influences in the watershed may exhibit the greatest influence on suspended sediment concentrations at moderate to low flows. Criteria to evaluate improvements in water quality as a result of changes in land management might be most meaningful if they

  15. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration in rivers using acoustic methods. (United States)

    Elçi, Sebnem; Aydin, Ramazan; Work, Paul A


    Acoustic Doppler current meters (ADV, ADCP, and ADP) are widely used in water systems to measure flow velocities and velocity profiles. Although these meters are designed for flow velocity measurements, they can also provide information defining the quantity of particulate matter in the water, after appropriate calibration. When an acoustic instrument is calibrated for a water system, no additional sensor is needed to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This provides the simultaneous measurements of velocity and concentration required for most sediment transport studies. The performance of acoustic Doppler current meters for measuring SSC was investigated in different studies where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and suspended sediment concentration were related using different formulations. However, these studies were each limited to a single study site where neither the effect of particle size nor the effect of temperature was investigated. In this study, different parameters that affect the performance of an ADV for the prediction of SSC are investigated. In order to investigate the reliability of an ADV for SSC measurements in different environments, flow and SSC measurements were made in different streams located in the Aegean region of Turkey having different soil types. Soil samples were collected from all measuring stations and particle size analysis was conducted by mechanical means. Multivariate analysis was utilized to investigate the effect of soil type and water temperature on the measurements. Statistical analysis indicates that SNR readings ob tained from the ADV are affected by water temperature and particle size distribution of the soil, as expected, and a prediction model is presented relating SNR readings to SSC mea surements where both water temperature and sediment characteristics type are incorporated into the model. The coefficients of the suggested model were obtained using the multivariate anal ysis. Effect of high turbidity

  16. Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian


    The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport

  17. Dynamics of Single Chains of Suspended Ferrofluid Particles (United States)

    Cutillas, S.; Liu, J.


    We present an experimental study of the dynamics of isolated chains made of super-paramagnetic particles under the influence of a magnetic field. The motivation of this work is to understand if the chain fluctuations exist and, if it does, how does the fluctuation affect chain aggregation. We find that single chains strongly fluctuate and that the characteristic frequency of their fluctuations is inversely proportional to the magnetic field strength. The higher the field the lower the characteristic frequency of the chain fluctuations. In the high magnetic field limit, chains behave like rigid rods without any internal motions. In this work, we used ferrofluid particles suspended in water. These particles do not have any intrinsic magnetization. Once a magnetic field is applied, a dipole moment is induced in each particle, proportional to the magnetic field. A dipolar magnetic interaction then occurs between particles. If dipole-dipole magnetic energy is higher than the thermal energy, the result is a structure change inside the dipolar fluid. The ratio of these two energies is expressed by a coupling constant lambda as: lambda = (pi(a(exp 3))(chi(exp 2))(mu(sub 0))(H(sub 0))(exp 2))/18kT Where a is the particle radius, mu(sub 0) is the vacuum magnetic permeability, H(sub 0) the applied magnetic field, k the Boltzmann constant and T the absolute temperature. If lambda > 1, magnetic particles form chains along the field direction. The lateral coalescence of several chains may form bigger aggregates especially if the particle volume fraction is high. While many studies and applications deal with the rheological properties and the structural changes of these dipolar fluids, this work focuses on the understanding of the chain dynamics. In order to probe the chain dynamics, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) in self-beating mode as our experimental technique. The experimental geometry is such that the scattering plane is perpendicular to the magnetic field

  18. Nature of suspended particles in hydrothermal plume at 3°40'N Carlsberg ridge: A comparison with deep oceanic suspended matter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ray, D.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; SuryaPrakash, L

    relatively enriched with Fe, P, Mn, rare earth elements (except Ce) and U, but had other trace element concentration analogous to that found in deep-oceanic suspended matter. Efficient scavenging of elements from hydrothermal fluid and sea water makes...

  19. Mechanical properties of freely suspended semiconducting graphene-like layers based on MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Poot, M.; Steele, G.A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Agrait, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G.


    We fabricate freely suspended nanosheets of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) which are characterized by quantitative optical microscopy and high-resolution friction force microscopy. We study the elastic deformation of freely suspended nanosheets of MoS2 using an atomic force microscope. The Young’s

  20. Suspended sediment behavior in a coastal dry-summer subtropical catchment: Effects of hydrologic preconditions (United States)

    Variation in fluvial suspended sediment–discharge behavior is generally thought to be the product of changes in processes governing the delivery of sediment and water to the channel. The objective of this study was to infer sediment supply dynamics from the response of suspended ...

  1. 77 FR 44233 - Clothianidin; Emergency Petition To Suspend; Notice of Availability (United States)


    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0344; FRL-9355-1] Clothianidin; Emergency.... SUMMARY: PANNA and others submitted a request for the EPA to immediately suspend Clothianidin and take... the EPA suspend registrations for the insecticide clothianidin for the four following reasons: (1) To...

  2. Cricket inspired sensory hairs on suspended membranes with capacitive displacement detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.


    This paper presents the fabrication of artificial hairs of siliconnitride and SU-8 on suspended membranes for flow sensing applications. The suspended membranes contain electrodes for capacitive sensing of the rotation of the hairs. For the siliconnitride hairs a silicon wafer is used as mould and

  3. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in suspended matter and sediments from the Schelde Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.


    The C/N and stable C and N isotope ratios (delta(13)C, delta(15)N) of sedimentary and suspended particulate matter were determined in the Schelde Estuary. Suspended matter was divided into 2 to 5 size fractions by centrifugation. Four major pools of organic matter were recognized: riverine,

  4. Physical and biological changes of suspended particles in a free surface flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; Claassen, T.H.L.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.


    Suspended particles are considered as contaminants in treated wastewater and can have profound effects on the biological, physical and chemical properties of receiving aquatic ecosystems, depending on the concentration, type and nature of the suspended particles. Constructed wetlands are known to

  5. Satellite estimates of wide-range suspended sediment concentrations in Changjiang (Yangtze) estuary using MERIS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, F.; Verhoef, W.; Zhou, Y.; Salama, M.S.; Liu, X.


    The Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters are characterized by suspended sediments over a wide range of concentrations from 20 to 2,500 mg l-1. Suspended sediment plays important roles in the estuarine and coastal system and environment. Previous algorithms for satellite estimates of

  6. Intrinsic thermal vibrations of suspended doubly clamped single-wall carbon nanotubes


    Babic, B.; Furer, J.; Sahoo, S.; Farhangfar, Sh.; Schonenberger, C.


    We report the observation of thermally driven mechanical vibrations of suspended doubly clamped carbon nanotubes, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several experimental procedures are used to suspend carbon nanotubes. The vibration is observed as a blurring in images taken with a scanning electron microscope. The measured vibration amplitudes are compared with a model based on linear continuum mechanics.

  7. On the influence of suspended sediment transport on the generation of offshore sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van den Berg, J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Uijttewaal, Wim


    Sand waves are bed-forms occurring in shallow seas. Although their characteristics are mainly affected by bed load transport, during rough weather suspended sediment transport can influence their characteristics. As a first step to model these influences, we added suspended sediment transport to a

  8. Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulses, C.; Estournel, C.; Durrieu de Madron, X.; Palanques, A.


    In situ observations were combined with 3D modeling to gain understanding of and to quantify the suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea). The outputs of a hydrodynamic–sediment transport coupled model were compared to near-bottom current and suspended sediment

  9. Exciton dynamics in suspended monolayer and few-layer MoS₂ 2D crystals. (United States)

    Shi, Hongyan; Yan, Rusen; Bertolazzi, Simone; Brivio, Jacopo; Gao, Bo; Kis, Andras; Jena, Debdeep; Xing, Huili Grace; Huang, Libai


    Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and microscopy were employed to study exciton dynamics in suspended and Si₃N₄ substrate-supported monolayer and few-layer MoS₂ 2D crystals. Exciton dynamics for the monolayer and few-layer structures were found to be remarkably different from those of thick crystals when probed at energies near that of the lowest energy direct exciton (A exciton). The intraband relaxation rate was enhanced by more than 40 fold in the monolayer in comparison to that observed in the thick crystals, which we attributed to defect assisted scattering. Faster electron-hole recombination was found in monolayer and few-layer structures due to quantum confinement effects that lead to an indirect-direct band gap crossover. Nonradiative rather than radiative relaxation pathways dominate the dynamics in the monolayer and few-layer MoS₂. Fast trapping of excitons by surface trap states was observed in monolayer and few-layer structures, pointing to the importance of controlling surface properties in atomically thin crystals such as MoS₂ along with controlling their dimensions.

  10. Status of Suspended Particulate Matters Pollution at Traditional Markets in Makassar City (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Fahrunnisa


    Research on the status of suspended particulate matters pollution in four traditional markets located in Makassar city has been done. The purpose of this research is to know the air quality in the traditional market areas, especially caused by suspended particulate matters. The background of this research is because traders who trade in traditional markets generally peddle their goods along dusty roads and suspended particulate matters in dust can be inhaled when the vehicle passes. These suspended particulate matters pollutant can cause lung diseases. The results showed that the level of suspended particulate matters pollution fluctuates every year depending on the local wind speed, humidity, and temperature. Research results also showed the values were over the standard value according to the governor of South Sulawesi regulation.

  11. Suspended HOPG nanosheets for HOPG nanoresonator engineering and new carbon nanostructure synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, F; Debray, A; Martin, P; Fujita, H; Kawakatsu, H


    Suspended highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) nanosheets (10-300 nm thick) were created by direct mechanical cleavage of a bulk HOPG crystal onto silicon micropillars and microtracks. We show that suspended HOPG nanosheets can be used to engineer HOPG nanoresonators such as membranes, bridges, and cantilevers as thin as 28 carbon atom layers. We measured by Doppler laser heterodyne interferometry that the discrete vibration modes of an HOPG nanosheet membrane and the resonance frequency of a FIB-created HOPG microcantilever lie in the MHz frequency regime. Moreover, a new carbon nanostructure, named 'nanolace', was synthesized by focused ion beam (FIB) sputtering of suspended HOPG nanosheets. Graphite nanosheets suspended on micropillars were eroded by a FIB to create self-oriented pseudo-periodical ripples. Additional sputtering and subsequent milling of these ripples led to the formation of honeycomb-like shaped nanolaces suspended and linked by ribbons

  12. Ultraclean individual suspended single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistor (United States)

    Liu, Siyu; Zhang, Jian; Nshimiyimana, Jean Pierre; Chi, Xiannian; Hu, Xiao; Wu, Pei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Gongtang; Sun, Lianfeng


    In this work, we report an effective technique of fabricating ultraclean individual suspended single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) transistors. The surface tension of molten silver is utilized to suspend an individual SWNT between a pair of Pd electrodes during annealing treatment. This approach avoids the usage and the residues of organic resist attached to SWNTs, resulting ultraclean SWNT devices. And the resistance per micrometer of suspended SWNTs is found to be smaller than that of non-suspended SWNTs, indicating the effect of the substrate on the electrical properties of SWNTs. The ON-state resistance (˜50 kΩ), mobility of 8600 cm2 V-1 s-1 and large on/off ratio (˜105) of semiconducting suspended SWNT devices indicate its advantages and potential applications.

  13. Field evaluation of the error arising from inadequate time averaging in the standard use of depth-integrating suspended-sediment samplers (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Rubin, David M.; Wright, Scott A.; Melis, Theodore S.


    Several common methods for measuring suspended-sediment concentration in rivers in the United States use depth-integrating samplers to collect a velocity-weighted suspended-sediment sample in a subsample of a river cross section. Because depth-integrating samplers are always moving through the water column as they collect a sample, and can collect only a limited volume of water and suspended sediment, they collect only minimally time-averaged data. Four sources of error exist in the field use of these samplers: (1) bed contamination, (2) pressure-driven inrush, (3) inadequate sampling of the cross-stream spatial structure in suspended-sediment concentration, and (4) inadequate time averaging. The first two of these errors arise from misuse of suspended-sediment samplers, and the third has been the subject of previous study using data collected in the sand-bedded Middle Loup River in Nebraska. Of these four sources of error, the least understood source of error arises from the fact that depth-integrating samplers collect only minimally time-averaged data. To evaluate this fourth source of error, we collected suspended-sediment data between 1995 and 2007 at four sites on the Colorado River in Utah and Arizona, using a P-61 suspended-sediment sampler deployed in both point- and one-way depth-integrating modes, and D-96-A1 and D-77 bag-type depth-integrating suspended-sediment samplers. These data indicate that the minimal duration of time averaging during standard field operation of depth-integrating samplers leads to an error that is comparable in magnitude to that arising from inadequate sampling of the cross-stream spatial structure in suspended-sediment concentration. This random error arising from inadequate time averaging is positively correlated with grain size and does not largely depend on flow conditions or, for a given size class of suspended sediment, on elevation above the bed. Averaging over time scales >1 minute is the likely minimum duration required

  14. Quantification of suspended sediment transfers in a lowland agricultural catchment (United States)

    Salvador-Blanes, Sebastien; Manière, Louis; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Vandromme, Rosalie


    Lowland agricultural landscapes underwent important changes since the second half of the XXth century such as hedges removal, implementation of drainage systems, stream redesign and land reallocation. It resulted in changes in sediment transfer processes, and in widespread morphological alterations of water bodies. However, little is known about the sediment dynamics in these environments. The Louroux catchment (25 km2) is located in central France. It is a typical intensively cultivated and tile drained lowland catchment. The Xth century pond located at its outlet (52 ha) is undergoing large siltation, with a current sedimentation rate 60 fold higher than the pre-1950 period. Five monitoring stations, measuring water levels and turbidity at high frequency (15 mn and 1 mn respectively), combined with automatic samplers, were implemented in 2013. Three stations are located at the main tributaries outlets of the pond, one in a sub-catchment, and one at a tile drain outlet. 45 floods were observed during the three studied hydrological years. They occurred mostly between December and March (33 floods) and in May-June (8 floods). Specific sediment yields ranged from 0.02 to 0.38 t.ha-1.yr-1 depending on the monitoring site and the considered year. The vast majority of suspended sediment transfers occur during the winter floods. While large water volumes were also measured during spring floods, the sediment yields remained low. Suspended sediment yields present large inter-annual (ratio ranging between 2 and 6 depending on the monitoring station) and spatial variations, due to significant differences in total rainfall amounts during the winter season and variations in land use, respectively. The processes related to sediment transfers are most likely linked to soil saturation during winter despite the presence of a tile drainage network, with transfers occurring both at the soil surface and through the drainage system. While sediment transfer rates can be considered as

  15. Study of glyphosate transport through suspended particulate matter (United States)

    Amiot, Audrey; Landry, David; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sourice, Stéphane; Ballouche, Aziz


    complete (95% in 2 min). (ii) Kd obtained on the erodible fraction are two times higher than on 2 mm sieved soils. (iii) Desorption showed that glyphosate is desorbed from the erodible fraction at 40% after 25 desorptions. The aim of this study was to show the potential transport of glyphosate through suspended particulate matter. The adsorption on the erodible fraction argued to a significant transport potential of glyphosate on this fraction. The desorption of glyphosate from the erodible water fraction have revealed that the adsorption of glyphosate is reversible but it is much slower. These results demonstrate that glyphosate may be stored on the erodible fraction and be transported by these fractions. Keywords: Adsorption, Desorption, Glyphosate, Suspended Solids, Erosion.

  16. A viscosity and density meter with a magnetically suspended rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bano, Mikulas; Strharsky, Igor; Hrmo, Igor


    A device for measuring the viscosity and density of liquids is presented. It is a Couette-type viscometer that uses a submerged rotor to measure the viscosity without errors originating in the contact of the rotor with the sample/air boundary. The inner cylinder is a glass rotor suspended in the liquid, and the outer cylinder is also made of glass. The rotor is stabilized on the axis of the outer cylinder by an electromagnetic force controlled by feedback from the rotor's vertical position. In the lower part of the rotor is an aluminum cylinder located in a magnetic field generated by rotating permanent magnets. The interaction of this rotating magnetic field with eddy currents generated in the aluminum cylinder causes rotation of the rotor. This rotation is optically detected, and viscosity is calculated from the measured angular velocity of rotor. The density of the liquid is calculated from the applied vertical equilibrating force. A computer controls the whole measurement. The device works at constant temperature or while scanning temperature. The sample volume is 1.6 ml, and the accuracy of measurement of both viscosity and density is ∼0.1%. The range of measured densities is (0.7-1.4) g/ml, and viscosity can be measured in the range (3x10 -4 -0.3) Pa s. The shear rate of the viscosity measurement varies in the range (20-300) s-1. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.02 K

  17. Development of suspended conchocelis of Porphyra haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Rong; Fei, Xiu-Geng


    This Mar. 1993 to Aug. 1994 study on suspended conchocelis of Porphyra haitanensis showed that there were three patterns for development of vegetative filaments: filaments to filaments by “budding”; filaments to sporangial branchlets by “budding”, or cell swelling. There were also three patterms for sporangial branchlet development: vegetatively propagating, changing into conchospores, or dying. Each developmental stage had one or more different developmental directions between vegetative filaments and sporangial branchlets. Developments from conchosporangial branchlets to conchospores were sequential and irreversible. Although sporangial branchlets formed at 29°C could give rise to filaments, they could not propagate as healthily under the same conditions as those formed at 25°C did. Probably the crucial period of plant cell differentiation is in the late stage of sporangial branchlets. In line with the developmental directions of different stages, the authors regulated the development of conchocelis to get ideal different developmental stages materials to obtain very developmentally homogeneous stages, including filaments and sporangial branchlets.

  18. Self-rewetting fluids with suspended carbon nanostructures. (United States)

    Savino, R; Di Paola, R; Gattia, D Mirabile; Marazzi, R; Antisari, M Vittori


    Thermal management is very important in modern electronic systems. Recent researches have been dedicated to the study of the heat transfer performances of binary or multi-component heat transfer fluids with peculiar surface tension properties and in particular to "self-rewetting fluids," i.e., liquids with a surface tension increasing with temperature and concentration. Thermophysical properties like surface tension, wettability and thermal conductivity, at different temperatures, have been measured not only for binary mixtures, but also for a number of ternary aqueous solutions with relatively low freezing point and for nanoparticles suspensions (so called nanofluids). Some of them interestingly exhibit the same anomalous positive surface tension gradient with temperature as binary self-rewetting solutions. Since in the course of liquid/vapour phase change, self-rewetting fluids behaviour induces a rather strong liquid inflow (caused by both temperature and concentration gradients) from the cold region (where liquid condensates) to the hot evaporator region, several interesting applications may be envisaged, e.g., the development of advanced wickless heat pipes for utilization in reduced gravity environments. The present work is dedicated to the study of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids based on water/alcohol solutions with suspended carbon nanostructures, in particular single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNH), synthesised by an homemade apparatus with an AC arc discharge in open air. The potential interest of the proposed studies stems from the large number of possible industrial applications, including space technologies and terrestrial applications, such as cooling of electronic components.

  19. Freely suspended perforated polymer nanomembranes for protein separations. (United States)

    Schuster, Christian; Rodler, Agnes; Tscheliessnig, Rupert; Jungbauer, Alois


    Selective removal of nanometer-sized compounds such as proteins from fluids is an often challenging task in many scientific and industrial areas. Addressing such tasks with highly efficient and selective membranes is desirable since commonly used chromatographic approaches are expensive and difficult to scale up. Nanomembranes, molecularly thin separation layers, have been predicted and shown to possess outstanding properties but in spite ultra-fast diffusion times and high-resolution separation, to date they generally lack either of two crucial characteristics: compatibility with biological fluids and low-cost production. Here we report the fast and easy fabrication of highly crosslinked polymer membranes based on a thermoset resin (poly[(o-cresyl glycidyl ether)-co-formaldehyde (PCGF) cured with branched polyethyleneimine (PEI)) with nanoscale perforations of 25 nm diameter. During spin casting, microphase separation of a polylactide-co-glycolide induces the formation of nanometer sized domains that serve as templates for perforations which penetrate the 80 nm thick membranes. Ultrathin perforated nanomembranes can be freely suspended on the cm scale, exhibit high mechanical strength, low surface energies and a sharp permeability cutoff at a hydrodynamic diameter of 10 nm suitable for protein separations.

  20. Monitoring suspended sediments and turbidity in Sahelian basins (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Nogmana, Soumaguel


    Suspended matter can carry viruses and bacteria that are pathogenic to humans and can foster their development. Therefore, turbidity can be considered a vector of microbiological contaminants, which cause diarrheal diseases, and it can be used as a proxy for fecal bacteria. Few studies have focused on water turbidity in rural Africa, where many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Diarrheal diseases are indeed the second cause of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, in this region, environment survey is minimal or inexistent. Monitoring water turbidity therefore represents a challenge for health improvement. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and it is well suited to monitoring by remote sensing. Because it varies in space and time and because the small water bodies (dry seasons however differ markedly, with a secondary maximum of SSSC in February occurring in 2016, possibly caused by wind-driven sediments remobilization or cattle trampling. The Niger River in Niamey displays a rapid increase in turbidity between mid-June and late August associated to the 'red' flood, with a maximum in late July-early August and then a sharp decline associated with the black flood. Overall, the high turbidity observed at these sites indicates clear risks for human health. The methods developed here for the AMMA-CATCH, RBV sites will be applied to all inland waters in West Africa.

  1. Modelling mussel growth in ecosystems with low suspended matter loads (United States)

    Duarte, P.; Fernández-Reiriz, M. J.; Filgueira, R.; Labarta, U.


    Over the last decades a large number of bivalve growth models were described in the literature with most emphasis on cultivated species with important economic value. These models describe the rates of energy absorption and utilization as a function of environmental conditions. Some of the most important issues in bivalve modelling are water pumping, filtration, pre-ingestive rejection/pseudofaeces production and ingestion of living and non-living organic and inorganic matter. According to some authors, bivalve suspension-feeders may selectively ingest and/or digest different food items whilst making adjustments to maximize the utilization of chlorophyll rich particles. In clear water ecosystems such as the Galician Rias (total particulate matter ( TPM) TPM loads. The main objectives of this work were to develop, implement and calibrate an Individual Based Model of mussel growth, configured and parameterized for the environmental conditions of ecosystems with low suspended matter loads such as the Galician Rias. Model runs were made for a large number of individual mussels, each with a random parameter set, selected among possible parameter ranges reported in the literature, allowing a quick model calibration and an evaluation of those parameters explaining most of the variance in predicted mussel growth. Obtained results provide a useful feedback for upcoming experimental work where efforts should be concentrated on accurate estimates of these more influential parameters to improve model results.

  2. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi


    Full Text Available Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high levels of all measured elements. Concentrations of most elements at the two sites exhibit strong spatial gradients and concentrations of elements at these sites are higher than other locations. The highest concentrations of elements were observed during June–August because of dust storms, significant increase in energy consumption, and active surface winds. Enrichment factors of elements at the high-level sites have values in the range >10~60 while for Cu and Zn the enrichment factors are much higher (~0–>700 indicating that greater percentage of TSP composition for these three elements in air comes from anthropogenic activities.

  3. Algorithm for total suspended solids mapping using digital camera images (United States)

    Mat Jafri, Mohammad Z.; Abdullah, Khiruddin; Lim, Hwe San; Abu Bakar, Mohd Noordin b.; Din, Zubir B.; Marshall, Steve


    An algorithm was developed based on reflectance model of inherent properties of seawater. A digital camera was used to capture digital images of river estuaries of Prai, Muda, and Merbok from a low altitude flying light aircraft. Water samples were collected simultaneously with the airborne image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory. Vertical images were captured through a special hole at the floor of the aircraft. Atmospheric correction for multidate images was performed by selecting average digital number of grass as a reference. The digital colour images of the study areas were separated into three bands (red, green and blue) for multi-spectral analysis. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and used to calibrate the algorithm. The calibrated total suspended solids (TSS) algorithm was then used to generate the water quality maps of the study areas. This study indicates that a digital camera can be a useful tool for airborne remote sensing. The newly developed algorithm can estimate TSS concentration with linear correlation coefficient square (R2) of 0.94.

  4. Composite fingerprinting of suspended-sediments in Sorsogon , Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.D.; Sta Maria, E.J.; Madrid, J.F.; Asa, A.D.D.; Aniago, R.J.; Bulos, A.D.; Zombrito, E.Z.


    Sediment-related environmental problems pose a threat not only in land management sustainability but also in management of aquatic ecosystem. Sediments often serve as sinks of nutrients and contaminants that regularly recharge overlying waters and could trigger harmful algal blooms (HAB) together with unfavorable environment conditions. One HAB affected area in the southernmost tip of Luzon, Philippines is Sorsogon Bay. In Sorsogon Bay, the harvest and consumption ban was declared for several years due to the level of toxins in shellfish which exceeded the regulatory limit. Identification of sediment sources is useful tool in planning effective sediment management strategies. A method to determine possible sources of sediment-associated nutrients is sediment fingerprinting. It characterizes land-based sediment sources to derive estimates of the portions of suspended sediment originating from discrete upstream source areas. There are wide ranges of diagnostic properties which can be possible fingerprints such as mineralogic, mineral-magnetic, geochemical, organic, isotopic, physical and radiometric parameters. This study investigates on potential source of sediments from Sampaloc River using different chemical, radiometric and isotopic parameters, Range test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test were employed and indicated that the calcium, titanium, δ”1”3C signal, and to tal carbon content are possible fingerprint parameters that will identify the sources of sediments. Results of a mathematical mixing model showed that channel banks (81.0%) are the largest sediment load contributors in Sampaloc River, followed by cultivated areas (15.5%) and woodlands (3.5%). (author)

  5. Strain and thermal conductivity in ultrathin suspended silicon nanowires (United States)

    Fan, Daniel; Sigg, Hans; Spolenak, Ralph; Ekinci, Yasin


    We report on the uniaxial strain and thermal conductivity of well-ordered, suspended silicon nanowire arrays between 10 to 20 nm width and 22 nm half-pitch, fabricated by extreme-ultraviolet (UV) interference lithography. Laser-power-dependent Raman spectroscopy showed that nanowires connected monolithically to the bulk had a consistent strain of ˜0.1 % , whereas nanowires clamped by metal exhibited variability and high strain of up to 2.3%, having implications in strain engineering of nanowires. The thermal conductivity at room temperature was measured to be ˜1 W /m K for smooth nanowires and ˜0.1 W /m K for rougher ones, similar to results by other investigators. We found no modification of the bulk properties in terms of intrinsic scattering, and therefore, the decrease in thermal conductivity is mainly due to boundary scattering. Different types of surface roughness, such as constrictions and line-edge roughness, may play roles in the scattering of phonons of different wavelengths. Such low thermal conductivities would allow for very efficient thermal energy harvesting, approaching and passing values achieved by state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials.

  6. Surface tension of Nanofluid-type fuels containing suspended nanomaterials. (United States)

    Tanvir, Saad; Qiao, Li


    The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and boron (B) nanoparticles as well as dispersible multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured using the pendant drop method by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, size and the presence of a dispersing agent (surfactant) on surface tension were determined. The results show that surface tension increases both with particle concentration (above a critical concentration) and particle size for all cases. This is because the Van der Waals force between particles at the liquid/gas interface increases surface free energy and thus increases surface tension. At low particle concentrations, however, addition of particles has little influence on surface tension because of the large distance between particles. An exception is when a surfactant was used or when (MWCNTs) was involved. For such cases, the surface tension decreases compared to the pure base fluid. The hypothesis is the polymer groups attached to (MWCNTs) and the surfactant layer between a particle and the surround fluid increases the electrostatic force between particles and thus reduce surface energy and surface tension.

  7. Event-based total suspended sediment particle size distribution model (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer; Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Warner, Richard C.


    One of the most challenging modelling tasks in hydrology is prediction of the total suspended sediment particle size distribution (TSS-PSD) in stormwater runoff generated from exposed soil surfaces at active construction sites and surface mining operations. The main objective of this study is to employ gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to develop a new model with the ability to more accurately predict the TSS-PSD by taking advantage of both event-specific and site-specific factors in the model. To compile the data for this study, laboratory scale experiments using rainfall simulators were conducted on fourteen different soils to obtain TSS-PSD. This data is supplemented with field data from three construction sites in Ontario over a period of two years to capture the effect of transport and deposition within the site. The combined data sets provide a wide range of key overlooked site-specific and storm event-specific factors. Both parent soil and TSS-PSD in runoff are quantified by fitting each to a lognormal distribution. Compared to existing regression models, the developed model more accurately predicted the TSS-PSD using a more comprehensive list of key model input parameters. Employment of the new model will increase the efficiency of deployment of required best management practices, designed based on TSS-PSD, to minimize potential adverse effects of construction site runoff on aquatic life in the receiving watercourses.

  8. Dramatic switching behavior in suspended MoS2 field-effect transistors (United States)

    Chen, Huawei; Li, Jingyu; Chen, Xiaozhang; Zhang, David; Zhou, Peng


    When integrating MoS2 flakes into scaling-down transistors, the short-channel effect, which is severe in silicon technology below 5-nanometer, can be avoided effectively. MoS2 transistors not only exhibit a high on/off ratio but also demonstrate a rapid switching speed. According to the theoretical calculation, the thermionic limit subthreshold slope (SS) of the ideal device could reach 60 mV/dec. However, due to the confinement of defects from substrates or contamination during the process, the SS deteriorates to more than 300 mV/dec, causing serious power consumption. In this work, we optimize the SS through structure design of MoS2 transistors. The suspended transistors exhibit a high on/off ratio of 107 and a minimum SS of 63 mV/dec with an ultralow standby power at room temperature. This study demonstrates the promising potential of structure design for electronic devices with ultralow-power switching behaviors.

  9. Dynamic performance of a suspended reinforced concrete footbridge under pedestrian movements (United States)

    Drygala, I.; Dulinska, J.; Kondrat, K.


    In the paper the dynamic analysis of a suspended reinforced concrete footbridge over a national road located in South Poland was carried out. Firstly, modes and values of natural frequencies of vibration of the structure were calculated. The results of the numerical modal investigation shown that the natural frequencies of the structure coincided with the frequency of human beings during motion steps (walking fast or running). Hence, to consider the comfort standards, the dynamic response of the footbridge to a runner dynamic motion should be calculated. Secondly, the dynamic response of the footbridge was calculated taking into consideration two models of dynamic forces produced by a single running pedestrian: a ‘sine’ and ‘half-sine’ model. It occurred that the values of accelerations and displacements obtained for the ‘half-sine’ model of dynamic forces were greater than those obtained for the ‘sine’ model up 20%. The ‘sine’ model is appropriate only for walking users of the walkways, because the nature of their motion has continues characteristic. In the case of running users of walkways this theory is unfitting, since the forces produced by a running pedestrian has a discontinuous nature. In this scenario of calculations, a ‘half-sine’ model seemed to be more effective. Finally, the comfort conditions for the footbridge were evaluated. The analysis proved that the vertical comfort criteria were not exceeded for a single user of footbridge running or walking fast.

  10. Investigating suspended sediment dynamics in contrasting agricultural catchments using ex situ turbidity-based suspended sediment monitoring (United States)

    Sherriff, S. C.; Rowan, J. S.; Melland, A. R.; Jordan, P.; Fenton, O.; hUallachain, D. O.


    Soil erosion and suspended sediment (SS) pose risks to chemical and ecological water quality. Agricultural activities may accelerate erosional fluxes from bare, poached or compacted soils, and enhance connectivity through modified channels and artificial drainage networks. Storm-event fluxes dominate SS transport in agricultural catchments; therefore, high temporal-resolution monitoring approaches are required, but can be expensive and technically challenging. Here, the performance of in situ turbidity sensors, conventionally installed submerged at the river bankside, is compared with installations where river water is delivered to sensors ex situ, i.e. within instrument kiosks on the riverbank, at two experimental catchments (Grassland B and Arable B). The in situ and ex situ installations gave comparable results when calibrated against storm-period, depth-integrated SS data, with total loads at Grassland B estimated at 12 800 and 15 400 t, and 22 600 and 24 900 t at Arable B, respectively. The absence of spurious turbidity readings relating to bankside debris around the in situ sensor and its greater security make the ex situ sensor more robust. The ex situ approach was then used to characterise SS dynamics and fluxes in five intensively managed agricultural catchments in Ireland which feature a range of landscape characteristics and land use pressures. Average annual suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was below the Freshwater Fish Directive (78/659/EEC) guideline of 25 mg L-1, and the continuous hourly record demonstrated that exceedance occurred less than 12 % of the observation year. Soil drainage class and proportion of arable land were key controls determining flux rates, but all catchments reported a high degree of inter-annual variability associated with variable precipitation patterns compared to the long-term average. Poorly drained soils had greater sensitivity to runoff and soil erosion, particularly in catchments with periods of bare soils. Well

  11. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.


    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  12. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm. (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C


    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  13. The effects of Hurricane Hugo on suspended-sediment loads, Lago Loiza Basin, Puerto Rico (United States)

    Gellis, A.


    In the two main tributaries that enter Lago Loiza, Rio Grande de Loiza and Rio Gurabo, 99 600 tonnes of suspended sediment was transported by 58.2??106 m3 of runoff in a 48 h period. The storm-average suspended-sediment concentration in the Rio Grande de Loiza for Hurricane Hugo was 2290 mgl-1, the second lowest for the 12 storms that have been monitored at this site. In Rio Gurabo the storm-average suspended-sediment concentration was 1420 mg l -1, the sixth lowest recorded out of 15 monitored storms. In Quebrada Salvatierra, a small tributary to Rio Grande de Loiza, suspended-sediment concentrations were as low as 33 mg l-1 during peak runoff of 20m3s-1. Normally the suspended-sediment concentrations at this discharge are 300 mg l-1. Hurricane force winds seem to be the most important factor contributing to the lower than expected suspended-sediment loads. High winds caused vegetation and debris to be dislodged and displaced. Debris accumulated on hillslopes and in small channels, blocked bridges and formed debris dams. These dams caused local backwater effects that reduced stream velocities and decreased suspended-sediment loads. -from Author

  14. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)


    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  15. Aerial Photo Utilization in Estimating Suspended Sediment in the Wuryantoro Watershed, Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Budi Santoso


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment load flowing out from a watershed is normally predicated by analysis os suspended sediment of water sample, and the volume of suspended sediment be calculated based on sediment concentration and river discharge. Such field measurements need a lot of field data and they are time consuming. Another method for prediction of suspended sediment by using remote sensing imagery data and recorded rainfall data. The objective of this research is to 1 examine the capability of remote sensing technique to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land in the prediction of suspended sediment; 2 examine the accuracy of the model for prediction suspended sediment. This research is carried out in Wuryantoro watershed, Wonogiri. The main data to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land is infrared aerial photograph on scale 1 : 10.000. the method that used in this research is interpretation of remote sensing imagery data, combined with rainfall data. The result show that the accuracy of landuse is 88.5%, the accuracy of slope is 87.67%. the accuracy of the prediction of suspended sediment by model A3 87.07%, model C1 86.63%, model C2 90.57%, model A8 84.13%, model A9 80.1%, and model C4 78.6%.

  16. Mucous Secretion and Cilia Beating Defend Developing Coral Larvae from Suspended Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard F Ricardo

    Full Text Available Suspended sediments produced from dredging activities, or added to the sediment budget via river runoff, are a concern for marine resource managers. Understanding the impact of suspended sediments on critical life history stages of keystone species like corals is fundamental to effective management of coastlines and reefs. Coral embryos (Acropora tenuis and A. millepora and larvae (A. tenuis, A. millepora and Pocillopora acuta were subjected to a range of suspended sediment concentrations of different sediment types (siliciclastic and carbonate to assess concentration-response relationships on ecologically relevant endpoints, including survivorship and ability to metamorphose. Embryos were subjected to short (12 h suspended sediment exposures from ages of 3-12 hours old or a long (30 h exposure at 6 hours old. Neither the survivorship nor metamorphosis function of embryos were significantly affected by realistic sediment exposures to ~1000 mg L-1. However, some embryos exhibited a previously undescribed response to dynamically suspended sediments, which saw 10% of the embryos form negatively buoyant cocoons at siliciclastic suspended sediment concentrations ≥35 mg L-1. Scanning electron and optical microscopy confirmed the presence of a coating on these embryos, possibly mucus with incorporated sediment particles. Cocoon formation was common in embryos but not in larvae, and occurred more often after exposure to siliciclastic rather than carbonate sediments. Once transferred into sediment-free seawater, functional ~36-h-old embryos began emerging from the cocoons, coinciding with cilia development. Ciliated (> 36-h-old larvae exposed to suspended sediments for 60 h were also observed to secrete mucus and were similarly unaffected by suspended sediment concentrations to ~800 mg L-1. This study provides evidence that mucous secretion and cilia beating effectively protect coral embryos and larvae from suspended sediment and that these mechanisms

  17. 2 CFR 901.1010 - Suspending official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180... (United States)


    ... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 901.1010 Suspending official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). The suspending official for the Department of Energy... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending official (Department of Energy...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. (United States)


    ... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of the...

  19. Intrinsic Properties of Suspended MoS2on SiO2/Si Pillar Arrays for Nanomechanics and Optics. (United States)

    Chaste, Julien; Missaoui, Amine; Huang, Si; Henck, Hugo; Ben Aziza, Zeineb; Ferlazzo, Laurence; Naylor, Carl; Balan, Adrian; Johnson, Alan T Charlie; Braive, Rémy; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim


    Semiconducting two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), are emerging in nanomechanics, optoelectronics, and thermal transport. In each of these fields, perfect control over 2D material properties including strain, doping, and heating is necessary, especially on the nanoscale. Here, we study clean devices consisting of membranes of single-layer MoS 2 suspended on pillar arrays. Using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we have been able to extract, separate, and simulate the different contributions on the nanoscale and to correlate these to the pillar array design. This control has been used to design a periodic MoS 2 mechanical membrane with a high reproducibility and to perform optomechanical measurements on arrays of similar resonators with a high-quality factor of 600 at ambient temperature, hence opening the way to multiresonator applications with 2D materials. At the same time, this study constitutes a reference for the future development of well-controlled optical emissions within 2D materials on periodic arrays with reproducible behavior. We measured a strong reduction of the MoS 2 band gap induced by the strain generated from the pillars. A transition from direct to indirect band gap was observed in isolated tent structures made of MoS 2 and pinched by a pillar. In fully suspended devices, simulations were performed allowing both the extraction of the thermal conductance and doping of the layer. Using the correlation between the influences of strain and doping on the MoS 2 Raman spectrum, we have developed a simple, elegant method to extract the local strain in suspended and nonsuspended parts of a membrane. This opens the way to experimenting with tunable coupling between light emission and vibration.

  20. Conditions of concentration and composition of suspended load in the Vistula River between Wyszogród and Chełmno (United States)

    Kaszubski, Michal


    The main objective of the study is to explain causes of variations of concentration, particle size distribution and composition of suspended load in the riverbed of the lower Vistula between Wyszogród and Chełmno. The study was conducted in seven bridge cross-sections (three above and four below the Włocławek reservoir). In each cross-section, three water samples were collected in the characteristic parts of the riverbed. Since July 2012 fifteen measurement series were carried out. During each measurement series 22 samples of water were collected. In each sample the overall concentration of suspended load, the proportion of the organic matter and particle size distribution of the mineral fraction were measured. Variation of concentration and characteristics of suspended load were studied both in the cross-sections of the Vistula riverbed and along its longitudinal profile. The study focus primarily on determining the qualitative and quantitative variation in the properties of suspended load in the cross-sections located in different morphological riverbed type, various level of its hydrotechnical management, including the operation on the Włocławek reservoir, and the diversity of the water flow conditions. The author tested the correlation occurring between the size of suspended load concentration as well as the flow rate and flow velocity at the water sampling sites. Moreover, the author determined the effect of morphological variation of the Vistula riverbed (the riverbed depth and the location of points of collecting water samples relative to the riverbed mesoforms) on the concentration size, composition structure and the particle size distribution of suspended load. Measurement sessions were chosen in such a way as to cover the widest possible spectrum of the water flow conditions in the riverbed of the Vistula. In addition to the low and medium flow the variability in concentration during flood flows of various types (ice jam, snowmelt and rainfall) were

  1. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.


    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  2. Is hydrogen sulfide-induced suspended animation general anesthesia? (United States)

    Li, Rosie Q; McKinstry, Andrew R; Moore, Jason T; Caltagarone, Breanna M; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F; Eckenhoff, Roderic G; Kelz, Max B


    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) depresses mitochondrial function and thereby metabolic rates in mice, purportedly resulting in a state of "suspended animation." Volatile anesthetics also depress mitochondrial function, an effect that may contribute to their anesthetic properties. In this study, we ask whether H(2)S has general anesthetic properties, and by extension, whether mitochondrial effects underlie the state of anesthesia. We compared loss of righting reflex, electroencephalography, and electromyography in mice exposed to metabolically equipotent concentrations of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and H(2)S. We also studied combinations of H(2)S and anesthetics to assess additivity. Finally, the long-term effects of H(2)S were assessed by using the Morris water maze behavioral testing 2 to 3 weeks after exposures. Exposure to H(2)S decreases O(2) consumption, CO(2) production, and body temperature similarly to that of the general anesthetics, but fails to produce a loss of righting reflex or muscle atonia at metabolically equivalent concentrations. When combined, H(2)S antagonizes the metabolic effects of isoflurane, but potentiates the isoflurane-induced loss of righting reflex. We found no effect of prior H(2)S exposure on memory or learning. H(2)S (250 ppm), not itself lethal, produced delayed lethality when combined with subanesthetic concentrations of isoflurane. H(2)S cannot be considered a general anesthetic, despite similar metabolic suppression. Metabolic suppression, presumably via mitochondrial actions, is not sufficient to account for the hypnotic or immobilizing components of the anesthetic state. Combinations of H(2)S and isoflurane can be lethal, suggesting extreme care in the combination of these gases in clinical situations.

  3. The features of ballistic electron transport in a suspended quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevyrin, A. A.; Budantsev, M. V.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.; Pogosov, A. G.; Ishutkin, S. V.; Shesterikov, E. V.


    A suspended quantum point contact and the effects of the suspension are investigated by performing identical electrical measurements on the same experimental sample before and after the suspension. In both cases, the sample demonstrates conductance quantization. However, the suspended quantum point contact shows certain features not observed before the suspension, namely, plateaus at the conductance values being non-integer multiples of the conductance quantum, including the “0.7-anomaly.” These features can be attributed to the strengthening of electron-electron interaction because of the electric field confinement within the suspended membrane. Thus, the suspended quantum point contact represents a one-dimensional system with strong electron-electron interaction

  4. 40 CFR 1051.335 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.335 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a...

  5. 40 CFR 1068.440 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (United States)


    ... Auditing § 1068.440 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a) Send us a written report... failure, propose a remedy, and commit to a date for carrying it out. In your proposed remedy include any...

  6. Suspended sediment transport and shoaling in the Munambam fishery harbour, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Abraham, P.; Josanto, V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Results of the monthly synoptic field observations of vertical profiles of suspended sediment concentration, current velocity and salinity carried out in the Azhicode Estuary are presented with a view to understand the shoaling and siltation...

  7. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage-Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter


    ...). We have conceived and documented the concept of "suspended animation (SA) for delayed resuscitation" using a hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 min of CA, using novel clinically relevant outcome models in dogs...

  8. Novel Resuscitation From Lethal Hemorrhage Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation, Year 7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kochanek, Patrick


    ...). We have conceived and documented the concept of "suspended animation (SA) for delayed resuscitation" using a hypothermic saline flush into the aorta after rapid (over 5 min) exsanguination (Ex...

  9. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  10. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.


    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  11. Increase in suspended sediment discharge of the Amazon River assessed by monitoring network and satellite data


    Martinez, Jean-Michel; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Filizola, N.; Sondag, Francis


    This study addresses the quantification of the Amazon River sediment budget which has been assessed by looking at data from a suspended sediment discharge monitoring network and remote sensing estimates derived from MODIS spaceborne sensor. Surface suspended sediment concentration has been sampled every 10 days since 1995 (390 samples available) by the international HYBAM program at the Obidos station which happens to be the last gauged station of the Amazon River before the Atlantic Ocean. R...

  12. Effect of suspended-sediment concentration on nitrification in river water: importance of suspended sediment-water interface. (United States)

    Xia, Xinghui; Yang, Zhifeng; Zhang, Xueqing


    High suspended sediment (SPS) concentrations exist in many Asian river systems. In this research, the effects of SPS concentration on nitrification in river water systems were studied. With orwithout introducing ammonium-oxidizing bacteria isolated from the water and sediment samples of the Yellow River, the microbially mediated nitrification rate increased with SPS concentration as described by the power function y = a x x(b), where y is the nitrification rate, x is the SPS concentration, and a and b are constants. With an indigenous ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, nitrification rate constants, i.e., K4 (micromax/Ks) values obtained from the Monod model, were 0.0016, 0.0036, 0.0040, 0.0063, 0.0066, 0.0071, and 0.0077 day(-1) microM(-1) for the systems with SPS concentrations of 0, 0.2 1.0, 5.0, 10, 20, and 40 g/L, respectively. The sorption percentage of NH4+-N increased with SPS concentration as a power function. Bacteria tend to attach onto SPS, and the maximum specific growth rate at the SPS-water interface was about twice that in the water phase. An increase of bacterial population and nitrification rate constant with SPS as a power function resulted in an increase of nitrification rate with SPS as a power function. Therefore, the high SPS concentration caused by erosion and bottom sediment resuspension and other factors will accelerate ammonium oxidation in many turbid river systems. This has useful implications for nitrogen removal from river systems.

  13. Comparison of phosphorus fraction distribution and influencing factors of suspended and surface sediments in the Tiaoxi watershed, China. (United States)

    Ye, Hongmeng; Yuan, Xuyin; Han, Lei; Yin, Heng; Jin, Jing


    Suspended and surface sediments from the Tiaoxi watershed, fed by the Xitiaoxi and Dongtiaoxi rivers, were analyzed for total phosphorus (TP) and the inorganic P fractions of loosely adsorbed P that were extractable with NH 4 Cl (NH 4 Cl-P), reductant P (BD-P), metal oxide-bound P extractable with NaOH (NaOH-P), and calcium-bound, HCl-extractable P (HCl-P), while other physicochemical compositions were also determined. The spatial variations of P fractions in these sediments were investigated, and the major factors influencing the various fractions were explored by multivariate statistics. Compared to surface sediments, suspended sediments contained considerably higher concentrations of total nitrogen, TP, organic matter, Al, Fe, Mn and biologically available P (BAP, given as NH 4 Cl-P, BD-P and NaOH-P combined) and lower concentrations of Si, Ca and HCl-P in the studied catchments. Dongtiaoxi sediments had higher TP, inorganic phosphorus and HCl-P concentrations and a lower BAP content compared with Xitiaoxi sediments, trends that were associated with local geological backgrounds, landscapes and anthropogenic characteristics. The results of principal component analysis showed different effects of sediment properties on P fraction distributions for Xitiaoxi and Dongtiaoxi sediments. The sediment components and structure exert a strong influence on BAP in Xitiaoxi sediments, in contrast to Dongtiaoxi sediments, where P fractions are mainly affected by urbanization and other anthropogenic activities such as shipping.

  14. Arrays of suspended silicon nanowires defined by ion beam implantation: mechanical coupling and combination with CMOS technology (United States)

    Llobet, J.; Rius, G.; Chuquitarqui, A.; Borrisé, X.; Koops, R.; van Veghel, M.; Perez-Murano, F.


    We present the fabrication, operation, and CMOS integration of arrays of suspended silicon nanowires (SiNWs). The functional structures are obtained by a top-down fabrication approach consisting in a resistless process based on focused ion beam irradiation, causing local gallium implantation and silicon amorphization, plus selective silicon etching by tetramethylammonium hydroxide, and a thermal annealing process in a boron rich atmosphere. The last step enables the electrical functionality of the irradiated material. Doubly clamped silicon beams are fabricated by this method. The electrical readout of their mechanical response can be addressed by a frequency down-mixing detection technique thanks to an enhanced piezoresistive transduction mechanism. Three specific aspects are discussed: (i) the engineering of mechanically coupled SiNWs, by making use of the nanometer scale overhang that it is inherently-generated with this fabrication process, (ii) the statistical distribution of patterned lateral dimensions when fabricating large arrays of identical devices, and (iii) the compatibility of the patterning methodology with CMOS circuits. Our results suggest that the application of this method to the integration of large arrays of suspended SiNWs with CMOS circuitry is interesting in view of applications such as advanced radio frequency band pass filters and ultra-high-sensitivity mass sensors.

  15. High temporal resolution in situ measurement of the effective particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment. (United States)

    Williams, N D; Walling, D E; Leeks, G J L


    This paper reports the use of a LISST-100 device to monitor the effective particle size characteristics of suspended sediment in situ, and at a quasi-continuous temporal resolution. The study site was located on the River Exe at Thorverton, Devon, UK. This device has not previously been utilized in studies of fluvial suspended sediment at the storm event scale, and existing studies of suspended sediment dynamics have not involved such a high temporal resolution for extended periods. An evaluation of the field performance of the instrument is presented, with respect to innovative data collection and analysis techniques. It was found that trends in the effective particle size distribution (EPSD) and degree of flocculation of suspended sediment at the study site were highly complex, and showed significant short-term variability that has not previously been documented in the fluvial environment. The collection of detailed records of EPSD facilitated interpretation of the dynamic evolution of the size characteristics of suspended sediment, in relation to its likely source and delivery and flocculation mechanisms. The influence of measurement frequency is considered in terms of its implications for future studies of the particle size of fluvial suspended sediment employing in situ data acquisition.

  16. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying


    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.

  17. Trends in suspended-sediment loads and concentrations in the Mississippi River Basin, 1950–2009 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Sprague, Lori A.; Blevins, Dale W.


    Trends in loads and concentrations of suspended sediment and suspended sand generally were downward for stations within the Mississippi River Basin during the 60-, 34-, and 12-year periods analyzed. Sediment transport in the lower Mississippi River has historically been, and continues to be, most closely correlative to sediment contributions from the Missouri River, which generally carried the largest annual suspended-sediment load of the major Mississippi River subbasins. The closure of Fort Randall Dam in the upper Missouri River in 1952 was the single largest event in the recorded historical decline of suspended-sediment loads in the Mississippi River Basin. Impoundments on tributaries and sediment reductions as a result of implementation of agricultural conservation practices throughout the basin likely account for much of the remaining Mississippi River sediment transport decline. Scour of the main-stem channel downstream from the upper Missouri River impoundments is likely the largest source of suspended sand in the lower Missouri River. The Ohio River was second to the Missouri River in terms of sediment contributions, followed by the upper Mississippi and Arkansas Rivers. Declines in sediment loads and concentrations continued through the most recent analysis period (1998–2009) at available Mississippi River Basin stations. Analyses of flow-adjusted concentrations of suspended sediment indicate the recent downward temporal changes generally can be explained by corresponding decreases in streamflows.

  18. Total Suspended Load and Sediment Yield of Kayan River, Bulungan District, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Dibyosaputro


    Full Text Available This research was carried out the the drainage system of Kayan river, Bulungan District, East Kalimantan. The purpose of the research were to study the physical conditions of the Kayan catchment area, calculate the suspended sediment load, and to define the total sediment yield of Kayan River. Observation method were used in this research both of direct field observation as well as laboratory observation. Data acquired in this study were include of climatic data, geology, geomorphology, soil and land cover data. Besides also rain-fall data, temperature, river discharge and suspended sediment load. The total sediment yield were calculated by mean of mathematical and statistical analysis especially of linier regression analysis. The result of the research show that total the sediment yield of Kayan River with drainage area of 6,329.452 km² is about 236,921.25 m³/km²/year. The interesting result of the statistical analysis was that the existing negative correlation between river discharge and suspended sediment load. It is the effect of the location of discharge and suspended measurement. This condition caused by sea tide effect on river discharge at the apex delta. During high tide water river trend rising up on discharge but not on suspended sediment load. Instead, also existing setting down processes takes places of the suspended sediment load into the river bottom upper stream and the apex.

  19. Suspended-sediment concentrations, yields, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011 (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.


    Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, as well as transporting harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples were collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011. Analyses of these data indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. The single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River during the 2011 spring runoff. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been known to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. For this study, comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong

  20. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011 (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.


    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines

  1. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madder, Ryan D., E-mail:; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David


    Background: Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Results: Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30 weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, p < 0.001; head: 0.5 [1.9] μSv vs 14.9 [51.5] μSv, p < 0.001). Chest-level radiation exposure during robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) or suspended lead (p = 0.046). In robotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) and 80.0% less than manual PCI performed with suspended lead (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Utilization of suspended lead and robotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. - Highlights: • Use of suspended lead during manual PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 97%. • Robotic PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 99%. • Suspended lead and robotics together achieved the lowest levels of radiation exposure.

  2. Sources of suspended sediment in the Waikele watershed, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.


    Data from streamflow/sediment gages and measurements of changes in channel-bed sediment storage were gathered between October 1, 2007, and September 30, 2010, to assess the sources of suspended sediment in the Waikele watershed, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi. Streamflow from the watershed averaged 33 cubic feet per second during the study period, with interannual variations corresponding with variations in the frequency and magnitude of storm-flow peaks. Average streamflow during the study period was lower than the long-term average, but the study period included a storm on December 11, 2008, that caused record-high streamflows in parts of the watershed. Suspended-sediment yield from the Waikele watershed during the study period averaged 82,500 tons per year, which is 2.7 times higher than the long-term average. More than 90 percent of the yield during the study period was discharged during the December 11, 2008, storm. The study-period results are consistent with long-term records that show that the vast majority of suspended-sediment transport occurs during a few large storms. Results of this study also show that all but a small percentage of the suspended-sediment yield came from hillslopes. Only a small fraction of bed sediments is fine enough to be transported as suspended load; most bed sediments in the watershed are coarse. Silt and clay constitute less than 3 percent of the bed-sediment volume on average. Some larger clasts, however, can disintegrate during transport and contribute to the suspended load downstream. During the study period, suspended-sediment yield from the urbanized Mililani subbasin averaged 25 tons per year per square mile (tons/yr/mi2), which was much smaller than the yield from any other subbasin; these results indicate that urban land use yields much less sediment than other land uses. The wet, forested Kipapa subbasin had an average normalized hillslope suspended-sediment yield of 386 tons/yr/mi2; the average yield for forested areas in the

  3. Effects of urban best management practices on streamflow and phosphorus and suspended-sediment transport on Englesby Brook in Burlington, Vermont, 2000-2010 (United States)

    Medalie, Laura


    An assessment of the effectiveness of several urban best management practice structures, including a wet extended detention facility and a shallow marsh wetland (together the "wet extended detention ponds"), was made using data collected from 2000 through 2010 at Englesby Brook in Burlington, Vermont. The purpose of the best management practices was to reduce high streamflows and phosphorus and suspended-sediment loads and concentrations and to increase low streamflows. Englesby Brook was monitored for streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended-sediment concentrations at a streamgage downstream of the best management practice structures for 5 years before the wet extended detention ponds were constructed in 2005 and for 4 years (phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations) or 5 years (streamflow) after they were constructed. The period after construction of the best management practice structures was wetter and had higher discharges than the period before construction. Despite the wetter conditions, streamflow duration curves provided evidence that the streamflow regime appeared to have shifted so that the percentages of low streamflows have increased and those of high streamflows may have slightly decreased. Two other hydrologic measures showed improvements in the years following construction of the best management practices: the percentage of annual discharge transported during the 3 days with highest discharges and the number of days with zero streamflow have both decreased. Evidence was mixed for the effectiveness of the best management practices in reducing phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations and loads. Annual phosphorus and suspended-sediment loads, monthly loads, low-streamflow concentrations, storm-averaged streamflow-adjusted concentrations, and total storm loads either did not change significantly or increased in the period after construction. These results likely were because of the wetter conditions in the period after construction. For

  4. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail:; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank


    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  5. Technical note: False low turbidity readings from optical probes during high suspended-sediment concentrations (United States)

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.; Griffiths, Ronald E.


    Turbidity, a measure of water clarity, is monitored for a variety of purposes including (1) to help determine whether water is safe to drink, (2) to establish background conditions of lakes and rivers and detect pollution caused by construction projects and stormwater discharge, (3) to study sediment transport in rivers and erosion in catchments, (4) to manage siltation of water reservoirs, and (5) to establish connections with aquatic biological properties, such as primary production and predator-prey interactions. Turbidity is typically measured with an optical probe that detects light scattered from particles in the water. Probes have defined upper limits of the range of turbidity that they can measure. The general assumption is that when turbidity exceeds this upper limit, the values of turbidity will be constant, i.e., the probe is pegged; however, this assumption is not necessarily valid. In rivers with limited variation in the physical properties of the suspended sediment, at lower suspended-sediment concentrations, an increase in suspended-sediment concentration will cause a linear increase in turbidity. When the suspended-sediment concentration in these rivers is high, turbidity levels can exceed the upper measurement limit of an optical probe and record a constant pegged value. However, at extremely high suspended-sediment concentrations, optical turbidity probes do not necessarily stay pegged at a constant value. Data from the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, and a laboratory experiment both demonstrate that when turbidity exceeds instrument-pegged conditions, increasing suspended-sediment concentration (and thus increasing turbidity) may cause optical probes to record decreasing false turbidity values that appear to be within the valid measurement range of the probe. Therefore, under high-turbidity conditions, other surrogate measurements of turbidity (e.g., acoustic-attenuation measurements or suspended-sediment samples) are necessary to

  6. Elemental compositions of suspended particles released from iron and steel works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira; Kubota, Torahide


    Suspended particles released from iron and steel works were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and their characteristics in elemental composition were examined in detail. Elemental compositions of suspended particles from electric furnaces producing medium steel and special steel were rather similar with each other. The suspended particles from these electric steel furnaces were found to be enriched in the elements listed below. Fe (Geometric mean of measured concentrations: 16%), Zn (5.2%), Ca (4.5%), Cl (3.4%), Mn (2.2%), Na (1.4%), Pb (1.4%), K (1.3%), Al (1.0%), Cu (0.4%), Cr (0.3%), Ni (0.3%) and Ti (0.1%). elemental compositions of suspended particles from cupolas were found to be similar with those of the suspended particles from the electric steel furnaces, but, it was noticed that the cupola particles were condiderably higher in Si concentration (--25%). Suspended particles from heating furnaces for processing various iron and steel products, which are heated by oil combustion, were found to be quite similar in elemental composition with suspended particles released from heavy oil boilers, as was expected, being quite different from the particles from the electric steel furnaces and the cupolas. The electric steel furnace particles were 15 to 180 times more enriched in the elements, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Sb and Pb, and one 70th less enriched in the element V than oil boiler particles. The contributions of iron and steel works to aerosols over two big cities, Osaka and Kawasaki, in a particle size range below several micron, were roughly estimated under simple assumptions. High contributions of iron and steel works were found for various elements, being especially large for Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cl, Fe and so on. (J.P.N.)

  7. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A.; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank


    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata

  8. Estuarine Suspended Sediment Dynamics: Observations Derived from over a Decade of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reisinger


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment dynamics of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, a shallow-water wind-driven estuary, were investigated by combining field and satellite measurements of total suspended solids (TSS. An algorithm was developed to transform 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua satellite reflectance data into estimated TSS values. The algorithm was developed using a reflectance ratio regression of MODIS Band 1 (red and Band 3 (green with TSS measurements (n = 54 collected by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for Corpus Christi Bay and other Texas estuaries. The algorithm was validated by independently collected TSS measurements during the period of 2011–2014 with an uncertainty estimate of 13%. The algorithm was applied to the period of 2002–2014 to create a synoptic time series of TSS for Corpus Christi Bay. Potential drivers of long-term variability in suspended sediment were investigated. Median and IQR composites of suspended sediments were generated for seasonal wind regimes. From this analysis it was determined that long-term, spatial patterns of suspended sediment in the estuary are related to wind-wave resuspension during the predominant northerly and prevalent southeasterly seasonal wind regimes. The impact of dredging is also apparent in long-term patterns of Corpus Christi Bay as concentrations of suspended sediments over dredge spoil disposal sites are higher and more variable than surrounding areas, which is most likely due to their less consolidated sediments and shallower depths requiring less wave energy for sediment resuspension. This study highlights the advantage of how long-synoptic time series of TSS can be used to elucidate the major drivers of suspended sediments in estuaries.

  9. Statistical analysis and estimation of annual suspended sediments of major rivers in Japan. (United States)

    Luo, Pingping; He, Bin; Chaffe, Pedro Luiz Borges; Nover, Daniel; Takara, Kaoru; Mohd Remy Rozainy, M A Z


    We evaluate the spatiotemporal trends of recent suspended sediment conditions in Japanese rivers. Statistical and spatiotemporal trend analysis is conducted on the 92 major rivers in Japan based on water quality monitoring data from 1992 to 2005. The Mann-Kendall non-parametric method was used to investigate the spatial and temporal trends for the suspended sediment indicator. Results show that the mean concentration of suspended sediments in Japanese rivers has generally declined in recent years, although there are still water quality problems at some monitoring sites (Kanto, Chubu, Kinki and Kyushu regions). A positive relationship between observed yearly discharge and suspended sediment load was found. Land use maps with 100 meter spatial resolution were used to apply an empirical model and develop a regression model for estimating annual suspended sediment loads directly from land use and hydrologic data. Rivers were assigned to three groups according to statistical cluster analysis of suspended sediment (SS) concentration. The correlation between the simulation result from the empirical model and the observed data had R(2) values of 0.62 and 0.71 for groups 2 and 3, and the correlation between the simulation result from the regression model and the observed data had R(2) values of 0.48 and 0.34 for groups 2 and 3. Results show that the proposed simulation technique can be used to predict the pollutant loads to river basins in Japan. Results also suggest prioritization methods and strategies that policy-makers can use to address suspended sediment pollution in rivers and water quality management in general.

  10. [Distributions of phosphorus fractions in suspended sediments and surface sediments of Tiaoxi mainstreams and cause analysis]. (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Long; Yuan, Xu-Yin; Wang, Huan; Li, Zheng-Yang; Xu, Hai-Yan


    Phosphorus is a primary nutrient showing the water quality status of river and inducing eutrophication, and a different phosphorus fraction can make diverse contributions to water quality. Four phosphorus forms of suspended sediments and surface sediments in Tiaoxi mainstreams were measured using a sequential extraction procedure, and the distributions of their forms were discussed. The results showed that the tropic status of Xitiaoxi River was inferior to that of Dongtiaoxi River as a whole, and the water quality in the middle reach of Dongtiaoxi River was better than that in the upper and lower reaches. The contents of nutrient elements in suspended sediments were significantly higher than those in surface sediment, which indicated an enrichment of nutrient in fine sediment. The percentages of the loosely absorbed phosphorus ( NH4Cl-P), the reductant phosphorus (BD-P) and the metal oxide bound phosphorus (NaOH-P) in the suspended sediment were higher than those in surface sediment, while the percentage of the calcium bound phosphorus (HCl-P) showed a reverse trend. Correlation analyses between phosphorus forms and chemical compositions of suspended sediments and surface sediments were performed. The results showed the phosphorus forms in suspended sediments and surface sediments of Xitiaoxi River had weak relationships with mineral components, while those in the Dongtiaoxi River had strong relationships with mineral, especially OM and clay mineral. The cause was associated with the geological setting and material sources in Tiaoxi watershed.

  11. Muscular contribution to low-back loading and stiffness during standard and suspended push-ups. (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P


    Push-up exercises are normally performed to challenge muscles that span upper extremity joints. However, it is also recognized that push-ups provide an effective abdominal muscle challenge, especially when the hands are in contact with a labile support surface. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activation levels and resultant intervertebral joint (IVJ) loading when standard and suspended push-ups were performed, and to quantify and compare the contribution of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness in both exercises. Eleven recreationally trained male volunteers performed sets of standard and suspended push-ups. Upper body kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected and input into a 3D biomechanical model of the lumbar torso to quantify lumbar IVJ loading and the contributions of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness. When performing suspended push-ups, muscles of the abdominal wall and the latissimus dorsi were activated to levels that were significantly greater than those elicited when performing standard push-ups (pups. Also directly resulting from the increased activation levels of the abdominal muscles and the latissimus dorsi during suspended push-ups was increased muscular contribution to lumbar IVJ rotational stiffness (pups appear to provide a superior abdominal muscle challenge. However, for individuals unable to tolerate high lumbar IVJ compressive loads, potential benefits gained by incorporating suspended push-ups into their resistance training regimen may be outweighed by the risk of overloading low-back tissues.

  12. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention. (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, probotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analisa Kadar Total Suspended Solid (Tss), Amoniak (Nh3), Sianida (Cn-) Dan Sulfida (S2-) Pada Limbah Cair Bapedaldasu


    Margareth Elisa Karina Purba


    Telah dilakukan analisa kadar Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Amoniak (NH3), Sianida (CN-) dan Sulfida (S2-) dari limbah cair laboratorium BAPEDALDASU. Pemeriksaan kadar Total Suspended Solid, Amoniak, Sianida dan Sulfida dilakukan dengan Spektrophotometer Portable. Dimana panjang gelombang untuk Total Suspended Solid 810 nm, panjang gelombang untuk Amoniak 655 nm, panjang gelombang untuk Sianida 612 nm dan panjang gelombang untuk Sulfida 665 nm. Analisa terhadap limbah cair berdasarkan atas p...

  14. Laboratory and field measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of suspended James River sediments near Hopewell, Virginia (United States)

    Whilock, C. H.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.; Usry, J. W.


    Spectral reflectance characteristics of suspended Bermuda Hundred and Bailey Bay bottom sediments taken from the Hopewell, Va., area were measured in the laboratory for water mixture total suspended solids concentrations between 4 and 173 parts per million. Field spectral reflectance measurements were made of the James River waters near Bermuda Hundred on two occasions. The results of these tests indicate that both Bermuda Hundred and Bailey Bay suspended sediments produce their strongest reflectance in the green and red regions of the spectrum.

  15. Understanding the ice nucleation characteristics of feldspars suspended in solution (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Marcolli, Claudia; Kaufmann, Lukas; Krieger, Ulrich; Peter, Thomas


    Freezing of liquid droplets and subsequent ice crystal growth affects optical properties of clouds and precipitation. Field measurements show that ice formation in cumulus and stratiform clouds begins at temperatures much warmer than those associated with homogeneous ice nucleation in pure water, which is ascribed to heterogeneous ice nucleation occurring on the foreign surfaces of ice nuclei (IN). Various insoluble particles such as mineral dust, soot, metallic particles, volcanic ash, or primary biological particles have been suggested as IN. Among these the suitability of mineral dusts is best established. The ice nucleation ability of mineral dust particles may be modified when secondary organic or inorganic substances are accumulating on the dust during atmospheric transport. If the coating is completely wetting the mineral dust particles, heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs in immersion mode also below 100 % RH. A previous study by Zobrist et al. (2008) Arizona test dust, silver iodide, nonadecanol and silicon dioxide suspensions in various solutes showed reduced ice nucleation efficiency (in immersion mode) of the particles. Though it is still quite unclear how surface modifications and coatings influence the ice nucleation activity of the components present in natural dust particles at a microphysical scale. To improve our understanding how solute and mineral dust particle surface interaction, we run freezing experiments using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with microcline, sanidine, plagioclase, kaolinite and quartz particles suspended in pure water and solutions containing ammonia, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid. Methodology Suspensions of mineral dust samples (2 - 5 wt%) are prepared in water with varying solute concentrations (0 - 15 wt%). 20 vol% of this suspension plus 80 vol% of a mixture of 95 wt% mineral oil (Aldrich

  16. The use of modeling and suspended sediment concentration measurements for quantifying net suspended sediment transport through a large tidally dominated inlet (United States)

    Erikson, Li H.; Wright, Scott A.; Elias, Edwin; Hanes, Daniel M.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Largier, John; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.


    Sediment exchange at large energetic inlets is often difficult to quantify due complex flows, massive amounts of water and sediment exchange, and environmental conditions limiting long-term data collection. In an effort to better quantify such exchange this study investigated the use of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) measured at an offsite location as a surrogate for sediment exchange at the tidally dominated Golden Gate inlet in San Francisco, CA. A numerical model was calibrated and validated against water and suspended sediment flux measured during a spring–neap tide cycle across the Golden Gate. The model was then run for five months and net exchange was calculated on a tidal time-scale and compared to SSC measurements at the Alcatraz monitoring site located in Central San Francisco Bay ~ 5 km from the Golden Gate. Numerically modeled tide averaged flux across the Golden Gate compared well (r2 = 0.86, p-value

  17. Assessing the occurrence and distribution of pyrethroids in water and suspended sediments (United States)

    Hladik, M.L.; Kuivila, K.M.


    The distribution of pyrethroid insecticides in the environment was assessed by separately measuring concentrations in the dissolved and suspended sediment phases of surface water samples. Filtered water was extracted by HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges, while the sediment on the filter was sonicated and cleaned up using carbon and aluminum cartridges. Detection limits for the 13 pyrethroids analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were 0.5 to 1 ng L-1 for water and 2 to 6 ng g for the suspended sediments. Seven pyrethroids were detected in six water samples collected from either urban or agricultural creeks, with bifenthrin detected the most frequently and at the highest concentrations. In spiked water samples and field samples, the majority of the pyrethroids were associated with the suspended sediments.

  18. Comparison of the Physiology of the Spaceflight and Hindlimb Suspended Rat (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Booth, F. W.


    The suspended rat has been used extensively as a simulation of the spaceflight animal. In suspension, hindlimbs are unloaded from the acceleration of gravity, much as they are in spaceflight. Comparisons of data from spaceflight (microgravity) and suspended (1G) rats have suggested that suspension my be an appropriate model, but no direct comparisons had been made between the spaceflight and suspended rat. Cosmos 2044 afforded the first opportunity to directly compare the effects of hindlimb suspension (HS) and spaceflight (SF) on a broad range of physiological and histological parameters. This paper reports on the comparison of skelton, skeletal muscle, heart, neural, pulmonary, kidney, liver, intestine, blood plasma, immune function, red blood cells, and endocrine and reproductive functions and systems.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Suspended Sediment Transportation Based on Particle Tracking Model (United States)

    Yao, W. W.; Ying, C.; Mu, J. B.


    Coastal engineering that carried out on the muddy seabed were always accompanied by diffusion of suspended sediment, and that would impact on the surrounding marine environment. A 2-D tidal flow mathematical model of the Yueqing Bay was established based on the Lagrange particle tracking model, the diffusion of suspended sediment in pile foundation construction process of a new wharf in the Yueqing Bay was simulated through a continuous moving points method, the calculation results were compared with the one calculated by the traditional convection diffusion method, it showed that the results calculated from the two different methods were similar, therefore it proved the suitability of the Lagrange particle tracing model in the suspended sediment diffusion problems.

  20. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei, Hasan, E-mail:, E-mail: [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2906 (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5341 (United States); Khodadadi, J. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849-5341 (United States); Sinha, Sanjiv [Mechanical Science and Engineering Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-2906 (United States)


    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS{sub 2} utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS{sub 2} on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} to peak at ∼2.8 × 10{sup 4} μW/m K{sup 2} at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}. This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS{sub 2} may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltier coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized.

  1. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arbiol, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); CELLS-ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola, Catalonia (Spain)


    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.

  2. Apparatus and method for concentrating and filtering particles suspended in a fluid (United States)

    Fiechtner, Gregory J [Bethesda, MD; Cummings, Eric B [Livermore, CA; Singh, Anup K [Danville, CA


    Disclosed is a device for separating and concentrating particles suspended in a fluid stream by using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to trap and/or deflect those particles as they migrate through a fluid channel. The method uses fluid channels designed to constrain a liquid flowing through it to uniform electrokinetic flow velocities. This behavior is achieved by connecting deep and shallow sections of channels, with the channel depth varying abruptly along an interface. By careful design of abrupt changes in specific permeability at the interface, an abrupt and spatially uniform change in electrokinetic force can be selected. Because these abrupt interfaces also cause a sharp gradient in applied electric fields, a DEP force also can be established along the interface. Depending on the complex conductivity of the suspended particles and the immersion liquid, the DEP force can controllably complement or oppose the local electrokinetic force transporting the fluid through the channel allowing for manipulation of particles suspended in the transporting liquid.

  3. Vertical transport of suspended particulate trace elements in the North Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuss, J.; Kremling, K.; Scholten, J.


    Suspended marine particles play a key role in the exchange processes between rapidly sinking particles and seawater because of their large surface area and long residence times. They are involved in the transport processes of rapidly sinking particles (∼ 100 m/day) through aggregation and disaggregation. This mechanism results in a net downward transport of suspended particulate trace elements (TE). To provide more information to these processes TE in suspended particulate material (SPM) have been measured on three cruises from 1995 to 1997 along 20 deg. W using a large volume in situ filtration between 25 m and 4150 m depth in addition to particle flux measurements with sediment traps. These studies were performed under the framework of German JGOFS

  4. Solid and suspended/dissolved waste (N, P, O) from rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg


    Quantifying aquaculture waste into different waste fractions will make it possible to design different treatment setups for obtaining specific cleaning objectives. The aim of this study was therefore to measure “all” solid and suspended/dissolved (i.e. unsedimented) waste from juvenile rainbow...... differences between the dietary treatment groups in the waste produced. On average, 48% of the ingestedNwas recovered in thewater (TANconstituting 64–79%of this)and7% inthesolids. In comparison, 1% of the ingested P was recovered in the water and 43% in the solids. A breakpoint value of 5.6 g standardized...... available P kg−1 dry feedwas found, belowwhich the dissolved P excretionwasminimal and above which it increased rapidly. More COD was recovered as solid waste than as suspended/dissolved waste, while it was opposite for BOD5. A BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5 indicated that the suspended/dissolved waste...

  5. Large theoretical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer MoS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaei, Hasan; Khodadadi, J. M.; Sinha, Sanjiv


    We have calculated the semi-classical thermoelectric power factor of suspended single-layer (SL)- MoS 2 utilizing electron relaxation times derived from ab initio calculations. Measurements of the thermoelectric power factor of SL-MoS 2 on substrates reveal poor power factors. In contrast, we find the thermoelectric power factor of suspended SL-MoS 2 to peak at ∼2.8 × 10 4 μW/m K 2 at 300 K, at an electron concentration of 10 12 cm −2 . This figure is higher than that in bulk Bi 2 Te 3 , for example. Given its relatively high thermal conductivity, suspended SL-MoS 2 may hold promise for in-plane thin-film Peltier coolers, provided reasonable mobilities can be realized

  6. Impacts of large dams on the complexity of suspended sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River (United States)

    Wang, Yuankun; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Wang, Dong; Wu, Jichun; Zhang, Xiao


    The Yangtze River is one of the largest and most important rivers in the world. Over the past several decades, the natural sediment regime of the Yangtze River has been altered by the construction of dams. This paper uses multi-scale entropy analysis to ascertain the impacts of large dams on the complexity of high-frequency suspended sediment dynamics in the Yangtze River system, especially after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD). In this study, the complexity of sediment dynamics is quantified by framing it within the context of entropy analysis of time series. Data on daily sediment loads for four stations located in the mainstem are analyzed for the past 60 years. The results indicate that dam construction has reduced the complexity of short-term (1-30 days) variation in sediment dynamics near the structures, but that complexity has actually increased farther downstream. This spatial pattern seems to reflect a filtering effect of the dams on the on the temporal pattern of sediment loads as well as decreased longitudinal connectivity of sediment transfer through the river system, resulting in downstream enhancement of the influence of local sediment inputs by tributaries on sediment dynamics. The TGD has had a substantial impact on the complexity of sediment series in the mainstem of the Yangtze River, especially after it became fully operational. This enhanced impact is attributed to the high trapping efficiency of this dam and its associated large reservoir. The sediment dynamics "signal" becomes more spatially variable after dam construction. This study demonstrates the spatial influence of dams on the high-frequency temporal complexity of sediment regimes and provides valuable information that can be used to guide environmental conservation of the Yangtze River.

  7. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since many stream gauging stations in the country have no records on fluvial sediment, the empirical equation can be used to obtain preliminary estimates of expected sediment load of streams for engineering design of hydraulic structures such as reservoirs. Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST) , Vol. 5, Nos.

  8. Serum-Free Cryopreservation of Five Mammalian Cell Lines in Either a Pelleted or Suspended State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsini Joe


    Full Text Available Herein we have explored two practical aspects of cryopreserving cultured mammalian cells during routine laboratory maintenance. First, we have examined the possibility of using a serum-free, hence more affordable, cryopreservative. Using five mammalian lines (Crandell Feline Kidney, MCF7, A72, WI 38 and NB324K, we found that the serum-free alternative preserves nearly as efficiently as the serum-containing preservatives. Second, we compared cryostorage of those cells in suspended versus a pellet form using both aforementioned cryopreservatives. Under our conditions, cells were in general recovered equally well in a suspended versus a pellet form.

  9. Dispersion of suspended material from an operating sand suction dredge in the Øresund (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.


    The concentration of suspended material in the immediate vicinity of an operating sand suction dredge in the Oresund was 3-5000mg/l. Concentrations > 100 mg/l were restricted to a downstream distance of .apprx. 150m and ambient levels were reached within .apprx. 1 km of the dredge. The natural...... variation in the concentration of suspended material was between 0-6 mg/l during 3/4 yr. Deleterious effects to flora and fauna of concentrations > 100 mg/l were of limited interest, due to the restricted area impacted by high concentration. Significant, negative effects of concentrations

  10. Quantifying suspended sediment loads delivered to Cheney Reservoir, Kansas: Temporal patterns and management implications (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Juracek, Kyle E.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Foster, Guy


    Cheney Reservoir, constructed during 1962 to 1965, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita, the largest city in Kansas. Sediment is an important concern for the reservoir as it degrades water quality and progressively decreases water storage capacity. Long-term data collection provided a unique opportunity to estimate the annual suspended sediment loads for the entire history of the reservoir. To quantify and characterize sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, discrete suspended sediment samples and continuously measured streamflow data were collected from the North Fork Ninnescah River, the primary inflow to Cheney Reservoir, over a 48-year period. Continuous turbidity data also were collected over a 15-year period. These data were used together to develop simple linear regression models to compute continuous suspended sediment concentrations and loads from 1966 to 2013. The inclusion of turbidity as an additional explanatory variable with streamflow improved regression model diagnostics and increased the amount of variability in suspended sediment concentration explained by 14%. Using suspended sediment concentration from the streamflow-only model, the average annual suspended sediment load was 102,517 t (113,006 tn) and ranged from 4,826 t (5,320 tn) in 1966 to 967,569 t (1,066,562 tn) in 1979. The sediment load in 1979 accounted for about 20% of the total load over the 48-year history of the reservoir and 92% of the 1979 sediment load occurred in one 24-hour period during a 1% annual exceedance probability flow event (104-year flood). Nearly 60% of the reservoir sediment load during the 48-year study period occurred in 5 years with extreme flow events (9% to 1% annual exceedance probability, or 11- to 104-year flood events). A substantial portion (41%) of sediment was transported to the reservoir during five storm events spanning only eight 24-hour periods during 1966 to 2013. Annual suspended sediment load estimates based on streamflow were, on

  11. High Average Power Mid-infrared Supercontinuum Generation in a Suspended Core Chalcogenide Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg


    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 2.0 to 6.1 μm is generated in a 9 cm suspended core chalcogenide fiber by pumping close to the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength at 3.5 μm with an OPA system......Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 2.0 to 6.1 μm is generated in a 9 cm suspended core chalcogenide fiber by pumping close to the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength at 3.5 μm with an OPA system...

  12. Equilibrium shape of a suspended graphene sheet under electrostatic and van der Waals forces (United States)

    Inui, Norio


    The equilibrium shape of a graphene sheet suspended over a silicon substrate with a narrow gap is investigated by introducing a continuum model. The displacement of the suspended graphene sheet, subject to electrostatic and van der Waals forces, was obtained by solving the equation of motion including the dissipation terms. The van der Waals force was calculated based on the quantum theory by considering the unique optical properties of graphene and their temperature dependence. The van der Waals force has a large effect on the equilibrium shape near the threshold value, below which a pull-in phenomenon occurs.

  13. The Response of Suspended Sediment, Turbidity, and Velocity to Historical Alterations of the Missouri River (United States)

    Blevins, Dale W.


    The heavy sediment load and large amounts of floating debris generated by the constantly caving banks of the Missouri River was documented in the first written description of the river by Father Jacques Marquette in 1673 as he approached the mouth of the Missouri River from the upper Mississippi River: '[We]' heard the noise of a rapid, into which we were about to run. I have seen nothing more dreadful. An accumulation of large and entire trees, branches, and floating islands, was issuing from the mouth of the river Pekitanoui (Missouri River), with such impetuosity that we could not without great danger risk passing through it. So great was its agitation that the water was so very muddy, and could not become clear.' However, large changes in suspended sediment and turbidity in the lower Missouri River below Gavins Point Dam have occurred in response to extensive structural changes that have been imposed on the Missouri River and its watershed during the last two centuries. Efforts to shape the channel, remove snags and sawyers, dredge shallows, and stabilize banks for navigation began as early as 1838 ( , Chittenden, 1903). However, bank stabilization efforts were sporadic and scattered in comparison to large scale changes that occurred after 1929. In the early 1930s the numerous small channels were combined into a single-fixed channel with 4,745 stone and wood-pile dikes, 3,371 dike extensions, streambank protection works on concave banks, man-made cutoffs, the closing of chutes with dikes, the removal of snags, and dredging (Keown and others, 1981). The resulting navigation channel was 6-ft (feet) deep by 200-ft wide and was expanded to 9 by 300 ft in the 1950s and early 1960s. Construction of six dams was started in 1933 and their reservoirs were filled by 1967. Three of these reservoirs are among the five largest in the United States. Nearly one-third of the Missouri River is now submerged below these massive

  14. 3D Suspended Polymeric Microfluidics (SPMF3 with Flow Orthogonal to Bending (FOB for Fluid Analysis through Kinematic Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostapha Marzban


    Full Text Available Measuring of fluid properties such as dynamic viscosity and density has tremendous potential for various applications from physical to biological to chemical sensing. However, it is almost impossible to affect only one of these properties, as dynamic viscosity and density are coupled. Hence, this paper proposes kinematic viscosity as a comprehensive parameter which can be used to study the effect of fluid properties applicable to various fluids from Newtonian fluids, such as water, to non-Newtonian fluids, such as blood. This paper also proposes an ideal microplatform, namely polymeric suspended microfluidics (SPMF3, with flow plane orthogonal to the bending plane of the structure, along with tested results of various fluids covering a wide range of engineering applications. Kinematic viscosity, also called momentum diffusivity, considers changes in both fluid intermolecular forces and molecular inertia that define dynamic viscosity and fluid density, respectively. In this study a 3D suspended polymeric microfluidic system (SPMF3 was employed to detect changes in fluid parameters such as dynamic viscosity and density during fluid processes. Using this innovative design along with theoretical and experimental results, it is shown that, in fluids, the variations of fluid density and dynamic viscosity are not easily comprehensible due to their interconnectivity. Since any change in a fluid will affect both density and dynamic viscosity, measuring both of them is necessary to identify the fluid or process status. Finally, changes in fluid properties were analyzed using simulation and experiments. The experimental results with salt-DI water solution and milk with different fat concentrations as a colloidal fluid show that kinematic viscosity is a comprehensive parameter that can identify the fluids in a unique way using the proposed microplatform.

  15. Monitoring bound HA1(H1N1) and HA1(H5N1) on freely suspended graphene over plasmonic platforms with infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Chakraborty, Sumit; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Grebel, Haim


    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provides fingerprinting of the energy and orientation of molecular bonds. The IR signals are generally weak and require amplification. Here we present a new plasmonic platform, made of freely suspended graphene, which was coating periodic metal structures. Only monolayer thick films were needed for a fast signal recording. We demonstrated unique IR absorption signals of bound proteins: these were the hemagglutinin area (HA1) of swine influenza (H1N1) and the avian influenza (H5N1) viruses bound to their respective tri-saccharides ligand receptors. The simplicity and sensitivity of such approach may find applications in fast monitoring of binding events.

  16. Concentrations and transport of suspended sediment, nutrients, and pesticides in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin during the 2011 Mississippi River flood, April through July (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Coupe, Richard H.; Aulenbach, Brent T.


    High streamflow associated with the April–July 2011 Mississippi River flood forced the simultaneous opening of the three major flood-control structures in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin for the first time in history in order to manage the amount of water moving through the system. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected samples for analysis of field properties, suspended-sediment concentration, particle-size, total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and up to 136 pesticides at 11 water-quality stations and 2 flood-control structures in the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin from just above the confluence of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers downstream from April through July 2011. Monthly fluxes of suspended sediment, suspended sand, total nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor were estimated at 9 stations and 2 flood-control structures during the flood period. Although concentrations during the 2011 flood were within the range of what has been observed historically, concentrations decreased during peak streamflow on the lower Mississippi River. Prior to the 2011 flood, high concentrations of suspended sediment and nitrate were observed in March 2011 at stations downstream of the confluence of the upper Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, which probably resulted in a loss of available material for movement during the flood. In addition, the major contributor of streamflow to the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River subbasin during April and May was the Ohio River, whose water contained lower concentrations of suspended sediment, pesticides, and nutrients than water from the upper Mississippi River. Estimated fluxes for the 4-month flood period were still quite high and contributed approximately 50 percent of the estimated annual suspended sediment, nitrate, and total phosphorus fluxes in 2011; the largest fluxes were estimated at

  17. Estimating total suspended matter concentration in tropical waters of the Berau estuary, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwulan, W.; Verhoef, W.; Mannaerts, C.M.; Salama, M.S.


    This study presents the application of a semi-empirical approach, based on the Kubelka–Munk (K-M) model, to retrieve the total suspended matter (TSM) concentration of water bodies from ocean colour remote sensing. This approach is validated with in situ data sets compiled from the tropical waters of

  18. Removal of antibiotic sulfamethoxazole by anoxic/anaerobic/oxic granular and suspended activated sludge processes. (United States)

    Kang, Abbass Jafari; Brown, Alistair K; Wong, Charles S; Yuan, Qiuyan


    This study investigates the removal of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in two sets of anoxic/anaerobic/oxic sequencing batch reactors inoculated with either suspended or granular activated sludge. Continuously, for three months, 2 μg/L SMX was spiked into the reactor feeds in a synthetic municipal wastewater with COD, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) of 400, 43 and 7 mg/L, respectively. The presence of SMX had no significant impact on treatment performance of the suspended and granular biomass. After 12 h of hydraulic retention time, SMX removal efficiencies of 84 and 73% were obtained for the granular and suspended biomass, respectively. Mixing without aeration did not remove SMX, confirming the insignificance of SMX removal via sorption. The pseudo-first order SMX removal rate constants in the granular and suspended biomass were 2.25 ± 0.30 and 1.34 ± 0.39 L/gVSS·d, respectively. The results suggest that granules with advantages such as elevated biomass retention and greater biomass concentration could be effective for the removal of this class of antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The particle size characteristics of fluvial suspended sediment in the Humber and Tweed catchments, UK (United States)

    Walling; Owens; Waterfall; Leeks; Wass


    This paper presents information on the absolute (chemically-dispersed) particle size characteristics of the suspended sediment transported by rivers in the Humber and Tweed basins during the period 1994-1998. For most of the rivers, > 95% of the suspended sediment load at the time of sampling was 63 microm (i.e. sand-sized material). The sediment transported in the two basins were similar. There were, however, noticeable spatial variations in the particle size composition of suspended sediment within the study basins, which reflected the particle size of the sediment sources and their spatial variation, and the selectivity of the sediment mobilization and delivery processes. When particle size parameters were plotted against discharge, there were no significant relationships, although there was some evidence of trends varying between sites. The lack of significant relationships with discharge reflects the fact that sediment particle size is largely supply-controlled, rather than a function of flow and hydraulics. When particle size variations were examined during individual storm events, there was evidence of a pulse of coarse sediment on the rising limb of the hydrograph. This may reflect the remobilization of coarse channel bed sediment as flow velocity and shear stress increase. Finer sediment was transported subsequently during the hydrograph peak and on the falling limb. The findings reported have important implications for understanding and modelling suspended sediment, and associated contaminant, dynamics in river basins.

  20. Levels of As, Pb, Cd and Fe in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) collected from three different artisans' workshops was analyzed for As, Cd, Pb and Fe by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The range of SPM concentrations for the three workshops was 583-20,166Bg/m3. The highest concentrations of these elements were observed in Motor ...

  1. Monitoring of total suspended air particulate in the ambient air of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of total suspended air particulate in the ambient air of welding, car painting and. V. C. IKAMAISE, I. B. OBIOH, I. E. OFOZIE, F. A. AKEREDOLU. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ·

  2. Seasonal variations of total suspended matter (TSM) in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Misra, A.; ManiMurali, R.; Sukumaran, S.; Vethamony, P.

    of the water body In the present study, total suspended matter (TSM) was derived from multi-temporal MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) Terra images Red-band reflectance with a spatial resolution of 250 m was used to study the sediment dynamics...

  3. Floc size and aspects of flocculation processes of suspended particulate matter in the North Sea area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.


    Investigations on the size of suspended particulate matter in the North Sea and two adjacent estuaries were carried out using an in situ technique: image analysis of photographs from an underwater camera system. The results obtained from such an in situ method gave a new knowledge on the size

  4. Analysis of achievable disturbance attenuation in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system (United States)

    Kuzin, Alexander V.; Holmes, Michael L.; Behrouzjou, Roxana; Trumper, David L.


    The results of the analysis of the achievable disturbance attenuation to get an Angstrom motion control resolution and macroscopic travel in a precision magnetically-suspended motion control system are presented in this paper. Noise sources in the transducers, electronics, and mechanical vibrations are used to develop the control design.

  5. Substantial export of suspended sediment to the global oceans from glacial erosion in Greenland (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Hudson, B. D.; Syvitski, J. P. M.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Hasholt, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Noël, B. P. Y.; Morlighem, M.


    Limited measurements along Greenland's remote coastline hamper quantification of the sediment and associated nutrients draining the Greenland ice sheet, despite the potential influence of river-transported suspended sediment on phytoplankton blooms and carbon sequestration. Here we calibrate satellite imagery to estimate suspended sediment concentration for 160 proglacial rivers across Greenland. Combining these suspended sediment reconstructions with numerical calculations of meltwater runoff, we quantify the amount and spatial pattern of sediment export from the ice sheet. We find that, although runoff from Greenland represents only 1.1% of the Earth's freshwater flux, the Greenland ice sheet produces approximately 8% of the modern fluvial export of suspended sediment to the global ocean. Sediment loads are highly variable between rivers, consistent with observed differences in ice dynamics and thus with control by glacial erosion. Rivers that originate from deeply incised, fast-moving glacial tongues form distinct sediment-export hotspots: just 15% of Greenland's rivers transport 80% of the total sediment load of the ice sheet. We conclude that future acceleration of melt and ice sheet flow may increase sediment delivery from Greenland to its fjords and the nearby ocean.

  6. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School. Executive Summary (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan


    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  7. Influence of sugars, pre-treatment with acid and suspending medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Change in the suspending medium from PBS to immunogold buffer did not alter the con-A reactivity of ST and SE. Interactions of lectins with microorganisms have great diagnostic clinical laboratory value in microbial typing, taxonomic classification and epidemiology. © 2007 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved ...

  8. Polishing of POME by Chlorella sp. in suspended and immobilized system (United States)

    Lahin, F. A.; Sarbatly, R.; Suali, E.


    The effect of using suspended and immobilized growth of Chlorella sp. to treat POME was studied. Cotton and nylon ropes were used as the immobilization material in a rotating microalgae biofilm reactor. The result showed that POME treated in suspended growth system was able to remove 81.9% and 55.5% of the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) respectively. Whereas the immobilized system showed lower removal of 77.22% and 53.02% for TN and TP. Lower performance of immobilized microalgae is due to the limited light penetration and supply of CO2 inside the immobilization materials. The rotating microalgae biofilm reactor was able to reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to 90 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to 720 mg/L. Higher BOD and COD reading were obtained in suspended growth due to the presence of small number of microalgae cell in the samples. This study shows that suspended growth system is able to remove higher percentages of nitrogen and phosphorus. However, an efficient separation method such as membrane filtration is required to harvest the cultivated microalgae cell to avoid organic matter release into water bodies.

  9. Turbidity and total suspended solid concentration dynamics in streamflow from California oak woodland watersheds (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Kenneth W. Tate; Randy A. Dahlgren; Jacob Newell


    Resource agencies, private landowners, and citizen monitoring programs utilize turbidity (water clarity) measurements as a water quality indicator for total suspended solids (TSS – mass of solids per unit volume) and other constituents in streams and rivers. The dynamics and relationships between turbidity and TSS are functions of watershed-specific factors and...

  10. Measuring a Pig's Preference for Suspended Toys by Using an Automated Recording Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Vermeer, H.M.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Spoolder, H.A.M.


    Not all suspended materials for finishing pigs are equally suited to meet the natural behavior of the animal, but the required physical properties of the toys have yet to be identified. The present study aimed to develop a labor saving electronic recording device for animal-material interactions.

  11. Filtration of contaminated suspended solids for the treatment of surface water. (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Davarpanah, Neginmalak; Fukue, Masaharu; Inoue, Tomohiro


    As few technologies exist worldwide for the treatment of contaminated surface water, a new approach is currently under development consisting of an in situ water treatment system based on a floating filtration process for adsorbed contaminants such as heavy metals. Laboratory filtration tests were performed for the removal of contaminated suspended solids (SS) from surface water. SS, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and organic carbon (OC) were monitored. Of the four filters (two non-woven geotextiles, a woven geotextile and a sand filter) evaluated, filter 1 (a non-woven geotextile) was the most effective for removal % of the total suspended solids. The results demonstrated excellent efficiency by filter No. 1, for reducing turbidity by 93-98%, as well as SS by up to 98.9% and COD by 65-71% for three sites with initial turbidities of 70, 20, and 120 NTU, respectively. The level of heavy metal removal was 98.9% due the heavy metal content of the suspended solids (60 mg kg(-1) of Cu, 90 mg kg (-1) of Ni, 130 mg kg(-1) of Zn, 200 mg kg(-1) of Cr, and 80 mg kg(-1) of Pb). The development of this technology could potentially protect the public and aquatic plants and animals from dangerous contaminants such as heavy metals adsorbed onto the suspended solids.

  12. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle (United States)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.


    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  13. 22 CFR 208.700 - When may the suspending official issue a suspension? (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may the suspending official issue a suspension? 208.700 Section 208.700 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE...) through (d); and (c) Immediate action is necessary to protect the public interest. ...

  14. Characterization of suspended bacteria from processing units in an advanced drinking water treatment plant of China. (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Weiying; Zhang, Junpeng; Qi, Wanqi; Zhou, Yanyan; Xiang, Yuan; Shi, Nuo


    For the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), the organic pollutant removal was the primary focus, while the suspended bacterial was always neglected. In this study, the suspended bacteria from each processing unit in a DWTP employing an ozone-biological activated carbon process was mainly characterized by using heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs), a flow cytometer, and 454-pyrosequencing methods. The results showed that an adverse changing tendency of HPC and total cell counts was observed in the sand filtration tank (SFT), where the cultivability of suspended bacteria increased to 34%. However, the cultivability level of other units stayed below 3% except for ozone contact tank (OCT, 13.5%) and activated carbon filtration tank (ACFT, 34.39%). It meant that filtration processes promoted the increase in cultivability of suspended bacteria remarkably, which indicated biodegrading capability. In the unit of OCT, microbial diversity indexes declined drastically, and the dominant bacteria were affiliated to Proteobacteria phylum (99.9%) and Betaproteobacteria class (86.3%), which were also the dominant bacteria in the effluent of other units. Besides, the primary genus was Limnohabitans in the effluents of SFT (17.4%) as well as ACFT (25.6%), which was inferred to be the crucial contributors for the biodegradable function in the filtration units. Overall, this paper provided an overview of community composition of each processing units in a DWTP as well as reference for better developing microbial function for drinking water treatment in the future.

  15. Suspended-sediment loads in the lower Stillaguamish River, Snohomish County, Washington, 2014–15 (United States)

    Anderson, Scott A.; Curran, Christopher A.; Grossman, Eric E.


    Continuous records of discharge and turbidity at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage in the lower Stillaguamish River were paired with discrete measurements of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in order to estimate suspended-sediment loads over the water years 2014 and 2015. First, relations between turbidity and SSC were developed and used to translate the continuous turbidity record into a continuous estimate of SSC. Those concentrations were then used to predict suspended-sediment loads based on the current discharge record, reported at daily intervals. Alternative methods were used to in-fill a small number of days with either missing periods of turbidity or discharge records. Uncertainties in our predictions at daily and annual time scales were estimated based on the parameter uncertainties in our turbidity-SSC regressions. Daily loads ranged from as high as 121,000 tons during a large autumn storm to as low as –56 tons, when tidal return flow moved more sediment upstream than river discharge did downstream. Annual suspended-sediment loads for both water years were close to 1.4 ± 0.2 million tons.

  16. A spatially explicit suspended-sediment load model for western Oregon (United States)

    Wise, Daniel R.; O'Connor, Jim


    We calibrated the watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes) to give estimates of suspended-sediment loads for western Oregon and parts of northwestern California. Estimates of suspended-sediment loads were derived from a nonlinear least squares regression that related explanatory variables representing landscape and transport conditions to measured suspended-sediment loads at 68 measurement stations. The model gives estimates of model coefficients and their uncertainty within a spatial framework defined by the National Hydrography Dataset Plus hydrologic network. The resulting model explained 64 percent of the variability in suspended-sediment yield and had a root mean squared error value of 0.737. The predictor variables selected for the final model were (1) generalized lithologic province, (2) mean annual precipitation, and (3) burned area (by recent wildfire). Other landscape characteristics also were considered, but they were not significant predictors of sediment transport, were strongly correlated with another predictor variable, or were not as significant as the predictors selected for the final model.

  17. Experimental study of the viscosity of suspensions: effect of solid fraction, particle size and suspending liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, B.J.; Sanderink, O.B.J.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.


    The behaviour of nearly neutrally-buoyant suspensions has been studied experimentally, using a concentric-cylinder rheometer. The effect on the suspension viscosity of: (i) solid fraction, (ii) diameter of the solid, spherical particles, (iii) viscosity of the suspending liquid, and (iv) shear rate

  18. Modelling microbial fuel cells with suspended cells and added electron transfer mediator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picoreanu, C.; Katuri, K.P.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Head, I.M.; Scott, K.


    Derivation of a mathematical model for microbial fuel cells (MFC) with suspended biomass and added electron-transfer mediator is described. The model is based on mass balances for several dissolved chemical species such as substrate, oxidized mediator and reduced mediator. Biological, chemical and

  19. Vertical Distribution of Suspended Sediment under Steady Flow: Existing Theories and Fractional Derivative Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Nie


    Full Text Available The fractional advection-diffusion equation (fADE model is a new approach to describe the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. However, the advantages and parameter definition of the fADE model in describing the sediment suspension distribution are still unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study first reviews seven models, including the fADE model, for the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. The fADE model, among others, describes both Fickian and non-Fickian diffusive characteristics of suspended sediment, while the other six models assume that the vertical diffusion of suspended sediment follows Fick’s first law. Second, this study explores the sensitivity of the fractional index of the fADE model to the variation of particle sizes and sediment settling velocities, based on experimental data collected from the literatures. Finally, empirical formulas are developed to relate the fractional derivative order to particle size and sediment settling velocity. These formulas offer river engineers a substitutive way to estimate the fractional derivative order in the fADE model.

  20. Sorption and desorption kinetics of some radionuclides on suspended matter: comparison of different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciffroy, P.; Siclet, F.; Garnier, J.M.; Pham Mai, K.


    To obtain suitable data for modelling radionuclides migration in freshwater streams, the sorption and desorption kinetics of some radionuclides (54Mn, 58Co, 134Cs) on suspended matter were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The experimental results show that: -for some radionuclides (58Co, 54Mn), the adsorption process is progressive and slow; after 5 days, an important fraction of the radioactivity is associated to the particles. For 134Cs, very fast sorption is followed by much slower and extended uptake. -the retention of 134Cs, and above all of 54Mn and 58Co, on suspended matter is stronger when the particles have been previously in contact with the radionuclides during a long period. This retention could be due to the slow transfer of 54Mn and 58Co to non-exchangeable sites of the particles. This effect of contact time during preliminary adsorption is less important for 134Cs. The results of uptake and release experiments were used to test models describing the radionuclides interactions with suspended solids. Two kinetic models are compared in this paper. The model taking into account two distinct types of sites on the solid phase and irreversible processes better describes the interactions of radionuclides with suspended matter

  1. Interaction response of maglev masses moving on a suspended beam shaken by horizontal ground motion (United States)

    Yau, J. D.


    As a maglev transport route has to cross a region with occasional earthquakes, the train/guideway interaction is an issue of great concern in dominating safety of the maglev system. This paper intends to present a computational framework of interaction analysis for a maglev train traveling over a suspension bridge shaken by horizontal earthquakes. The suspended guideway girder is modeled as a single-span suspended beam and the maglev train traveling over it as a series of maglev masses. Due to motion- dependent nature of magnetic forces in a maglev suspension system, appropriate adjustments of the magnetic forces between magnets and guide-rail require the air gaps be continuously monitored. Thus an on-board hybrid LQR+PID controller with constraint rule base is designed to control the dynamic response of a running maglev mass. Then the governing equations of motion for the suspended beam associated with all the controlled maglev masses are transformed into a set of generalized equations by Galerkin's method, and solved using an incremental-iterative procedure. Numerical investigations demonstrate that when a controlled maglev train travels over a suspended guideway shaken by horizontal earthquakes, the proposed hybrid controller has the ability to adjust the levitation gaps in a prescribed stable region for safety reasons and to reduce the vehicle's acceleration response for ride quality.

  2. Impact of suspended solids concentration on sludge filterability in Full-scale membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousada Ferreira, M.D.C.; Van Lier, J.B.; Van der Graaf, J.H.J.M.


    The relation between activated sludge filterability and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is framed in a single hypothesis, explaining results seemingly contradictory. A total of 44 activated sludge samples were collected and analyzed on a variety of

  3. Modeling suspended sediment discharge from the Waipaoa River system, New Zealand : The last 3000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kettner, A.J.; Gomez, B.; Syvitski, J.P.M.


    HydroTrend, a hydrologic-transport model, is used to simulate the water and suspended sediment discharge of the Waipaoa River system over the last 3 Kyr, a time period in which a well-documented sequence of natural events and anthropogenic activities that profoundly impacted drainage basin processes

  4. Development of a field test method for total suspended solids analysis. (United States)


    Total suspended solids (TSS) are all particles in water that will not pass through a glass fiber filter with a pore size less : than 2 m, including sediments, algae, nutrients, and metals. TSS is an important water quality parameter because of its ...

  5. Temporal variability in the suspended sediment load and streamflow of the Doce River (United States)

    Oliveira, Kyssyanne Samihra Santos; Quaresma, Valéria da Silva


    Long-term records of streamflow and suspended sediment load provide a better understanding of the evolution of a river mouth, and its adjacent waters and a support for mitigation programs associated with extreme events and engineering projects. The aim of this study is to investigate the temporal variability in the suspended sediment load and streamflow of the Doce River to the Atlantic Ocean, between 1990 and 2013. Streamflow and suspended sediment load were analyzed at the daily, seasonal, and interannual scales. The results showed that at the daily scale, Doce River flood events are due to high intensity and short duration rainfalls, which means that there is a flashy response to rainfall. At the monthly and season scales, approximately 94% of the suspended sediment supply occurs during the wet season. Extreme hydrological events are important for the interannual scale for Doce River sediment supply to the Atlantic Ocean. The results suggest that a summation of anthropogenic interferences (deforestation, urbanization and soil degradation) led to an increase of extreme hydrological events. The findings of this study shows the importance of understanding the typical behavior of the Doce River, allowing the detection of extreme hydrological conditions, its causes and possible environmental and social consequences.

  6. 40 CFR 1054.335 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (United States)


    ... problem from happening again. (b) Give us data from production-line testing that shows the remedied engine... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.335 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a...

  7. 40 CFR 1048.335 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.335 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a... problem from happening again. (b) Give us data from production-line testing that shows the remedied engine...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.335 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.335 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate... problem from happening again. (b) Give us data from production-line testing that shows the remedied engine...

  9. Impacts of Land-Cover Change on Suspended Sediment Transport in Two Agricultural Watersheds (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Isenhart, T.M.; Palmer, J.A.; Wolter, C.F.; Spooner, J.


    Suspended sediment is a major water quality problem, yet few monitoring studies have been of sufficient scale and duration to assess the effectiveness of land-use change or conservation practice implementation at a watershed scale. Daily discharge and suspended sediment export from two 5,000-ha watersheds in central Iowa were monitored over a 10-year period (water years 1996-2005). In Walnut Creek watershed, a large portion of land was converted from row crop to native prairie, whereas in Squaw Creek land use remained predominantly row crop agriculture. Suspended sediment loads were similar in both watersheds, exhibiting flashy behavior typical of incised channels. Modeling suggested that expected total soil erosion in Walnut Creek should have been reduced 46% relative to Squaw Creek due to changes in land use, yet measured suspended sediment loads showed no significant differences. Stream mapping indicated that Walnut Creek had three times more eroding streambank lengths than did Squaw Creek suggesting that streambank erosion dominated sediment sources in Walnut Creek and sheet and rill sources dominated sediment sources in Squaw Creek. Our results demonstrate that an accounting of all sources of sediment erosion and delivery is needed to characterize sediment reductions in watershed projects combined with long-term, intensive monitoring and modeling to account for possible lag times in the manifestation of the benefits of conservation practices on water quality. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association.

  10. Supercontinuum generation and analysis in extruded suspended-core As2S3 chalcogenide fibers (United States)

    Si, Nian; Sun, Lihong; Zhao, Zheming; Wang, Xunsi; Zhu, Qingde; Zhang, Peiqing; Liu, Shuo; Pan, Zhanghao; Liu, Zijun; Dai, Shixun; Nie, Qiuhua


    Compared with the traditional fluoride fibers and tellurite fibers that can work in the near-infrared region, suspended-core fibers based on chalcogenide glasses have wider transmitting regions and higher nonlinear coefficients, thus the mid-infrared supercontinuum generations can be achieved easily. Rather than adopting the traditional fabrication technique of hole-drilling and air filling, we adopted a totally novel extrusion technique to fabricate As2S3 suspended-core fibers with four holes, and its mid-infrared supercontinuum generation was investigated systematically by integrating theoretical simulation and empirical results. The generalized nonlinear SchrÖdinger equation was used to simulate the supercontinuum generation in the As2S3 suspended-core fibers. The simulated supercontinuum generation in the As2S3 suspended-core fibers with different pump wavelengths (2-5 µm), increasing powers (0.3-4 kW), and various fiber lengths (1-50 cm) was obtained by a simulative software, MATLAB. The experimental results of supercontinuum generation via femtosecond optical parametric amplification (OPA) were recorded by changing fiber lengths (5-25 cm), pump wavelengths (2.9-5 µm), and pump powers (10-200 kW). The simulated consulting spectra are consistent with the experimental results of supercontinuum generation only if the fiber loss is sufficiently low.

  11. Observations of suspended sediment from ADCP and OBS measurements in a mud-dominated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Hoekstra, P.


    The ability of a 1.2-MHz Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and particle size variation in a mud-dominated environment has been investigated. Experiments were conducted in the Bay of Banten, Indonesia, where clays and silts in the range of 3-55

  12. Personal exposure to total suspended particulates of adolescents living in Vanderbijlpark, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Terblanche, APS


    Full Text Available Personal monitoring of exposure to air pollution is becoming increasingly important in health studies as a method of characterizing total exposure. We monitored the exposure of 31 teenagers to total suspended particulates (TSP) over a 12-hour period...

  13. Distinct mechanical behavior of HEK293 cells in adherent and suspended states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ali Haghparast


    Full Text Available The mechanical features of individual animal cells have been regarded as indicators of cell type and state. Previously, we investigated the surface mechanics of cancer and normal stromal cells in adherent and suspended states using atomic force microscopy. Cancer cells possessed specific mechanical and actin cytoskeleton features that were distinct from normal stromal cells in adherent and suspended states. In this paper, we report the unique mechanical and actin cytoskeletal features of human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Unlike normal stromal and cancer cells, the surface stiffness of adherent HEK293 cells was very low, but increased after cell detachment from the culture surface. Induced actin filament depolymerization revealed that the actin cytoskeleton was the underlying source of the stiffness in suspended HEK293 cells. The exclusive mechanical response of HEK293 cells to perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton resembled that of adherent cancer cells and suspended normal stromal cells. Thus, with respect to their special cell-surface mechanical features, HEK293 cells could be categorized into a new class distinct from normal stromal and cancer cells.

  14. 77 FR 10520 - Notice of Intent To Suspend Certain Pesticide Registrations (United States)


    ... printing this Notice of Intent to Suspend Drexel Basic Copper Sulfate Technical. This notice is issued by... Chemical Company....... Copper Compounds. 19713-72 Drexel Basic February 8, 2012. Copper Sulfate Technical...), estimation by liquid chromatography. 19713-72......... 830.7840 Water solubility: 12/14/2007 12/24/2007 8/20...

  15. Effects of suspended sediment on the development and hatching of herring (Clupea harengus) eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Frantsen, Erik; Jensen, Carsten


    made to test the effect of the increased turbidity near marine mining, spoil disposal or dredging operations. Embryonic development was unaffected by suspended silt. Mortality rates varied significantly between aquaria, but the variation was unrelated to the experimental treatment with silt. Refs....

  16. A differentiation method for separating a mixture of suspended particle size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Q. Wang


    Full Text Available A simple method is proposed to partition a mixture of two populations in suspended particle size data. The method, termed here 'the differentiation method' is based on the function of the lognormal distribution. Suspended material in marine or estuarine situations often consists of difficult-to-interpret complex populations. The treatment of particle size data by the method described enables the confirmation of the lognormal law and also the demonstration of the occurrence of a combination of a number of populations which may not be distinguished by the classical Gaussian transformation or automatic methods. A simple combination of graphical and numerical techniques permits the decomposition and the easy determination of the various statistical parameters (median diameter, mean diameter, etc.... The method is applied to interpret observed size distributions of suspended particulate matter in the Seine estuary. The method enables the determination of the relative sizes of the constituent sub-populations that comprise the total suspended matter. In the example used to illustrate the method, particles are shown to be resuspended as a function of different hydrodynamic parameter.

  17. Impact of mining on suspended materials in the Mandovi and Zuari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Why suspended matter is important ? Turbidity in the estuaries · PowerPoint Presentation ... Slide 12 · At the regular station -- SPM is controlled by River run off, resuspension and interaction of freshwater- seawater. -- SPM at high salinity is mixture of land- derived (kaolinite) and resuspended (smectite) material. -- High Fe ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, Charles; Amer, Nabil M.


    Optical measurements of smectic A layer spacings in freely suspended thin films of three liquid crystals are reported. Although the measured spacings are close to those reported for the bulk, some anomalous behavior is noted. In addition, we report that the smectic A phase in the film can exist at unusually high temperatures.

  19. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a suspended core chalcogenide fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Gai, Xin

    control [2], gas sensing [3] and medical diagnostics [4] . We have used a low-loss suspended core As 38 Se 62 fiber with core diameter of 4.5 μ m and a zero - dispersion wavelength of 3.5 μ m to generate mid-infrared supercontinuum by pumping with an optical parametric amplifier delivering 320 fs pulses...

  20. Suspended matter and fluid mud off Alleppey, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Samiksha, S.V.; Vethamony, P.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Babu, M.T.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    Time series measurements on suspended particulate matter (SPM) were made at one non-mud bank (M1) and two mud bank stations (M2 and M3) off Alleppey, south west coast of India. The mean SPM was low in surface (6.2 mg/l) and mid-depth (3.7 mg...

  1. 33 CFR 330.5 - Issuing, modifying, suspending, or revoking nationwide permits and authorizations. (United States)


    ...; progress inspections of individual activities occurring under an NWP; cumulative adverse environmental..., the extent to which asserting discretionary authority would adversely affect plans, investments, and... matter. After completion of the meeting (or within a reasonable period of time after suspending the...

  2. Delivery of suspended sediment and associated phosphorus and heavy metals to small rural Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubel, A. R.

    The aim of this study is to examine delivery pathways for suspended sediment, and particulate phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from open rural areas to small Danish streams. A further aim is to quantify the contribution from different path-ways and source areas. Such studies are useful as a basis...

  3. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water; Caracterizacion y morfologia de solidos suspendidos en agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy.

  4. 2 CFR 601.1010 - Suspending Official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180... (United States)


    ... SUSPENSION Definitions § 601.1010 Suspending Official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending Official (Department of Energy supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). 601.1010 Section 601.1010 Grants and Agreements...

  5. 76 FR 64107 - Uranium From Russia; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Suspended Investigation on Uranium From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice... of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  6. 2 CFR 2700.1010 - Suspending official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). (United States)


    ... government-wide definition at 2 CFR 180.1010). 2700.1010 Section 2700.1010 Grants and Agreements Federal... SUSPENSION Definitions § 2700.1010 Suspending official (SBA supplement to government-wide definition at 2 CFR... Office of Credit Risk Management; for all other programs, the suspending official is the Associate...

  7. Particle Size Characteristics of Fluvial Suspended Sediment in Proglacial Streams, King George Island, South Shetland Island (United States)

    Szymczak, Ewa


    In this study, the characterization of particle size distribution of suspended sediment that is transported by streams (Ornithologist Creek, Ecology Glacier Creeks, Petrified Forest Creek, Czech Creek, Vanishing Creek, Italian Creek) in the area of the Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station is presented. During the first period of the summer season, the aforementioned streams are supplied by the melting snow fields, while later on, by thawing permafrost. The water samples were collected from the streams at monthly intervals during the Antarctic summer season (January - March) of 2016. The particle size distribution was measured in the laboratory with a LISST-25X laser diffraction particle size analyser. According to Sequoia Scientific Inc., LISST-25X can measure particle sizes (Sauter Mean Diameter) between 2.50 and 500 μm. The results of particle size measurements were analysed in relation to flow velocity (0.18–0.89 m/s), the cross-sectional parameters of the streams, suspended sediment concentration (0.06–167.22 mg/dm3) and the content of particulate organic matter (9.8–84.85%). Overall, the mean particle size ranged from 28.8 to 136 μm. The grain size of well-sorted sediments ranged from 0.076 to 0.57, with the skewness and kurtosis values varying from -0.1 to 0.4, and from 0.67 to 1.3, respectively. Based on the particle size characteristics of suspended sediment, the streams were divided into two groups. For most of the streams, the sediment was very well sorted, while fine sand and very fine sand were dominant fractions displaying symmetric and platykurtic distributions, respectively. Only in two streams, the suspended sediment consisted of silt-size grains, well or moderately well sorted, with coarse-skewness and mostly mesokurtic distribution. The C-M chart suggested that the transportation processes of suspended sediment included the suspended mode only. The grain-size distribution of suspended sediment was mainly influenced by the stream runoff

  8. A Spatially Distributed Conceptual Model for Estimating Suspended Sediment Yield in Alpine catchments (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Anghileri, Daniela


    Suspended sediment is associated with nutrient and contaminant transport in water courses. Estimating suspended sediment load is relevant for water-quality assessment, recreational activities, reservoir sedimentation issues, and ecological habitat assessment. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) along channels is usually reproduced by suspended sediment rating curves, which relate SSC to discharge with a power law equation. Large uncertainty characterizes rating curves based only on discharge, because sediment supply is not explicitly accounted for. The aim of this work is to develop a source-oriented formulation of suspended sediment dynamics and to estimate suspended sediment yield at the outlet of a large Alpine catchment (upper Rhône basin, Switzerland). We propose a novel modelling approach for suspended sediment which accounts for sediment supply by taking into account the variety of sediment sources in an Alpine environment, i.e. the spatial location of sediment sources (e.g. distance from the outlet and lithology) and the different processes of sediment production and transport (e.g. by rainfall, overland flow, snowmelt). Four main sediment sources, typical of Alpine environments, are included in our model: glacial erosion, hillslope erosion, channel erosion and erosion by mass wasting processes. The predictive model is based on gridded datasets of precipitation and air temperature which drive spatially distributed degree-day models to simulate snowmelt and ice-melt, and determine erosive rainfall. A mass balance at the grid scale determines daily runoff. Each cell belongs to a different sediment source (e.g. hillslope, channel, glacier cell). The amount of sediment entrained and transported in suspension is simulated through non-linear functions of runoff, specific for sediment production and transport processes occurring at the grid scale (e.g. rainfall erosion, snowmelt-driven overland flow). Erodibility factors identify different lithological units

  9. SMARTer for magnetic structure studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thus, magnetism in solid state physics and condensed matter research is an important application of neutron scattering. The. SANS technique probing structures on the nanometer scale finds applications in micromagnetism, magnetic clusters embedded in a solid nonmagnetic matrix, mag- netic clusters suspended in fluids ...

  10. Comparability of river suspended-sediment sampling and laboratory analysis methods (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Johnson, Gregory D.


    Accurate measurements of suspended sediment, a leading water-quality impairment in many Minnesota rivers, are important for managing and protecting water resources; however, water-quality standards for suspended sediment in Minnesota are based on grab field sampling and total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis methods that have underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment in rivers compared to U.S. Geological Survey equal-width-increment or equal-discharge-increment (EWDI) field sampling and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) laboratory analysis methods. Because of this underrepresentation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, collected concurrent grab and EWDI samples at eight sites to compare results obtained using different combinations of field sampling and laboratory analysis methods.Study results determined that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis results were biased substantially low compared to EWDI sampling and SSC laboratory analysis results, respectively. Differences in both field sampling and laboratory analysis methods caused grab and TSS methods to be biased substantially low. The difference in laboratory analysis methods was slightly greater than field sampling methods.Sand-sized particles had a strong effect on the comparability of the field sampling and laboratory analysis methods. These results indicated that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods fail to capture most of the sand being transported by the stream. The results indicate there is less of a difference among samples collected with grab field sampling and analyzed for TSS and concentration of fines in SSC. Even though differences are present, the presence of strong correlations between SSC and TSS concentrations provides the opportunity to develop site specific relations to address transport processes not captured by grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods.

  11. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki


    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  12. Summertime Suspended Sediment Transport Patterns in the Partially-mixed Changjiang Estuary (United States)

    Niroomandi, A.; Ma, G.


    Sediment deposition in the Northern Passage of the Changjiang Estuary, where the Deepwater Navigation Channel (DNC) is located, has been a major concern in the past decades. To understand the sediment transport patterns and sediment sources in the navigational channel, field data on tidal flow and suspended sediment concentration are collected and analyzed in this study. It is shown that sediment transport processes are dominated by ebb currents. As a result, the total sediment flux is generally toward the ocean and the maximum value is found to be in the middle of the passage. At the mouth of the estuary, the total sediment flux is toward the river in the lower layer of the water column confirming a two-layer tide-averaged flow pattern in this region. The effects of sediment on stratification and mixing in the northern passage is examined by calculating eddy viscosity. Results show that strong mixing occurs during ebb in the upper reach of the passage where river discharge has high influence on the estuary. Suspended sediment can dampen turbulence and reduce mixing in the water column. To reveal the major suspended sediment sources, bed shear stresses over the entire passage are calculated. It is found that, during ebb, the bed shear stress is generally larger than the critical value for sediment suspension. Sediment in the water column is suspended from the bed. During flood, the suspended sediment in the northern passage are likely coming from a neighboring shoal, where the water depth is shallow and bed shear stress is large.

  13. Calibration of Optical Back Scatterance for Suspended Sediment Concentration With San Francisco Bay Sediment (United States)

    Keller, B.


    Optical back scatterance (OBS) is used by USGS to indirectly quantify suspended sediment concentration in the waters of San Francisco Bay. The use of one of the types of OBS instruments that is used in the Bay was evaluated for quantification of discharge water from sand yards, where dredged bay floor sand is brought on land for commercial purposes. The instrument response was calibrated with synthetic samples prepared from settled, previously suspended fine sediment, collected on various dates and derived from the same general area of central San Francisco Bay. The sediment samples were washed with fresh water, oven dried, sieved, and mixed into water in a test chamber. The responses of various sediment samples were compared with that of silica flour, a commercially available industrial material with similar particle size and density, that is white in color. Multiple tests with sediment samples from individual dates yielded extremely repeatable, almost linear instrument responses as a function of varying concentration. Sediment samples from different dates yielded varying responses, ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 times the response of silica flour. This response difference, a factor of approximately 1.4, is interpreted to be due to small differences in the darkness ("color") of the sediment samples. In a comparison with an EPA test method that uses filtration and weighing, performed at commercial laboratories, the "total suspended solids" (TSS, used synonymously with the term "suspended sediment concentration") analyses of the mixed synthetic sample waters yielded very poor results. Saline water samples were often associated with TSS test results that were higher than the known synthetic sample concentrations, indicating that the lab tests were often measuring dissolved salt rather than suspended sediment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Chalov


    Full Text Available We synthesized recent field-based estimates of the dissolved ions (K+ Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Cl- SO42- HCO3-, biogens (NO3-, NO2-, PO43-(C, mg/l, heavy metal (Fesum, Mn, Pb and dissolved load (DL, kg/day, as far as suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg/l and suspended load (SL, kg/day along upper Selenga river and its tributaries based on literature review and preliminary results of our 2011 field campaign. The crucial task of this paper is to provide full review of Russian, Mongolian and English-language literature which concern the matter fluxes in the upper part of Selenga river (within Mongolia. The exist estimates are compared with locations of 3 main matter sources within basin: mining and industry, river-bank erosion and slope wash. The heaviest increase of suspended and dissolved matter transport is indicated along Tuul-Orkhon river system (right tributary of the Selenga River where Mongolia capital Ulanbaatar, gold mine Zaamar and few other mines are located. In measurement campaigns conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2008 the increase directly after the Zaamar mining site was between 167 to 383 kg/day for Fe, between 15 and 5260 kg/day for Mn. Our field campaign indicated increase of suspended load along Tuul river from 4280 kg/day at the upstream point to 712000 kg/day below Ulaanbaatar and Zaamar. The results provide evidence on a potential connection between increased dissolved and suspended matter fluxes in transboundary rivers and zones of matter supply at industrial and mining centers, along eroded river banks and pastured lands. The gaps in the understanding of matter load fluxes within this basin are discussed with regards to determining further goals of hydrological and geochemical surveys.

  15. Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, D.A.; Brunkov, P.N.


    Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm −1 . At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq 4 law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q −3.15 but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.

  16. Runoff and suspended sediment transport after plantation interventions in experimental catchments with contrasting rainfall conditions, Chile (United States)

    Iroume, A.; Schuller, P.; Bronstert, A.; Carey, P.; Palacios, H.; Ulloa, H.


    Experimental catchments located in sites with contrasting annual rainfall (Nacimiento, 37° 28" S, 72° 42" W, long term mean annual rainfall ~ 1,200 mm, and Los Ulmos, 40° 02" S, 73° 06" W, long term mean annual rainfall ~ 2,500 mm) are been monitored to study the long term effects of different forest plantation practices on runoff and suspended sediment transport. In each site, one control and one treatment catchment (12.6 and 7.7 ha in Nacimiento and 19.8 and 7.7 ha in Los Ulmos) are monitored. All the catchments are controlled by purpose-built V-notch weir gauging stations equipped with continuous water level recorders and suspended sediment is quantified in these stations from automatically collected integrated water samples. After a calibration period the plantation of one paired catchment in each site was clearfelled. Treated and control catchments will be from now on identified as NT and LUT and NC and LUT respectively. The Pinus radiata plantation in NT was clearfelled during the first half of April 2010, while the Eucalyptus globulus plantation in LUT was partially clearfelled in November 2009 and then completed in April 2010. After clearfelling runoff increases were observed in both harvested catchments as compared with the pre-treatment runoff trend between treatment and control catchments. In the Nacimiento site, mean monthly values for suspended sediment loads registered for the pre, during and post-treatment periods are not much different for NT and NC. For the pre-treatment period (April 2008 to March 2010), mean monthly suspended sediment loads were 12.8 kg/ha in NC and 16.2 kg/ha in NT, and 0.9 kg/ha in NC and 2.7 kg/ha in NT during the harvesting operations (April 2010). Mean monthly suspended sediment loads during the first year of the post-harvesting period (May to December 2010) were 69.9 kg/ha in NC and 59 kg/ha in NT and 0.9 kg/ha in NC and 6.2 kg/ha in NT during the year after clearfelling (January to June 2011). Year 2010 was extremely

  17. Quantifying suspended sediment sources during flood events in headwater catchments using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Legout, Cédric; Poulenard, Jérôme; Nemery, Julien; Navratil, Oldrich; Grangeon, Thomas; Evrard, Olivier; Esteves, Michel


    Increasing the understanding of the hydro-sedimentary dynamics at the catchment scale requires data on the origin of suspended sediments in addition to the classical measurements of suspended sediment concentrations and discharge. In mountainous environments the extremely high spatial and temporal variability of suspended sediment fluxes suggests that the proportions of suspended sediment sources transiting at outlets may also exhibit strong variations during flood events. However, conventional fingerprinting techniques based on geochemical and radionuclide measurements are time-consuming and rather expensive. They constitute a major limitation to conduct routine characterisation of the source of suspended sediment transiting at outlets that would require the analysis of a large number of samples. We investigated how visible or infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares chemometrics techniques could be used to predict the proportion of source material in suspended sediment samples and how it could help understanding the hydro-sedimentary processes occurring during floods. The studied catchment is located in the southern French Alps, draining an area of 22-km². It is composed of black marls, limestones, molasses, undifferentiated deposits and gypsum. Forty-eight source material samples were collected in badlands areas and 328 suspended sediment samples were collected at the outlet during 23 flood events. Spectroscopic measurements were carried out on dried samples. Given that the erosion processes are particle size selective, five size fractions of source material were measured in order to assess the potential alteration of the signatures. As the biogeochemical processes occurring in the river such as iron oxidation could also affect the signatures, source materials that were immersed in the river for durations ranging from 1 day to 9 weeks were analysed. Finally, partial least-squares regression models were constructed on 81

  18. Quantifying ratios of suspended sediment sources in forested headwater streams following timber-harvesting operations (United States)

    Rachels, A. A.; Bladon, K. D.; Bywater-Reyes, S.


    Historically, timber-harvesting has increased fine sediment inputs to streams due to increased hillslope and streambank erosion and mass wasting along roads. However, under modern best management practices, the relative importance and variability of these sources is poorly understood. We present preliminary results from an ongoing study investigating the primary sources of suspended sediment in Oregon Coast Range streams influenced by timber harvesting. We instrumented two catchments, Enos Creek (harvested 2016) and Scheele Creek (reference) in fall 2016. Phillips samplers (5-6 per catchment) have been deployed longitudinally down the streams to enable robust characterization of suspended sediments—the collected samples integrate the chemical signatures of upstream sediment exports. We will collect samples monthly over 2 wet seasons and return to the laboratory to analyze the sediment using source fingerprinting approaches. The fingerprinting technique compares the chemical properties of stream sediment samples with the chemical properties of potential source areas, including 1) roads, 2) stream banks, and 3) hillslopes. To design a robust model for sediment-source identification, different types of chemical data are required—we will analyze sediment samples using a combination of: a) stable isotopes and C/N ratios (i.e., δ15N, δ13C, and C/N), b) geochemistry (Fe, K, and Ca), and c) radiogenic isotopes (137Cs and 210Pb). At the harvested site, the C/N ratios of the streambanks (17.9 ± 3.8) and the hillslopes (26.4 ± 4.8) are significantly different from one another (p = .016). C/N ratios of the suspended sediment (20.5 ± 2.0) are intermediate values between potential endmembers and behave conservatively with transport. The C/N ratios of the suspended sediment appear unaffected by roads (18.9 ± 8.7) along specific sections of the stream, suggesting that roads are not a primary sediment contributor. Under this assumption, the suspended sediment is, on

  19. Complete Evaluation of Suspended Air Particles and Their Composition in the Central Area of Yazd City

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    M Younesian


    Full Text Available Introduction: Air pollution is one of the problems of the recent century caused by vehicles, industries and other urban activities. The City of Yazd faces air pollution due to its high population, vehicular traffic and industrial places around the city. One of the important parameters of air pollution is suspended air particles that have harmful effects on the health of people, plants and objects. Methods: This research has been carried out by first determining a station in the central area of the city (Shahid Beheshti Square of Yazd. The suspended particles were measured during a five-month period from March to July, 2006. A high volume sampler was used for measuring Total Suspended Particles (TSP. The amount of lead content of TSP was measured in samples by using atomic absorption method. In the next stage, the percentage of organic and inorganic particles in the TSP of all samples was measured by using gravimetric methods and by burning in the oven. Results: The results of this study showed that amount of suspended particles in the city of Yazd is higher than national standard and the general mean average of the suspended particles of air in five months was 233 micrograms per cubic meter. The average concentration of suspended air particles from end of March to August during the five month period was 118, 193, 231, 267and 333, respectively. The average concentration of lead was 0.04 microgram per cubic meter and amount of organic and inorganic particles in TSP was 25.31% and 74.68%, respectively. Conclusion: With respect to the results, the minimum amount of TSP concentration was in March. This could be due to reduction in trading and industrial activities and New Year vacations. In addition, the average monthly TSP increased from March to July; the cause of which could be relative decrease in humidity and increase in temperature. The amount of lead in samples was much less than standard, which could be due to omission of lead from petrol

  20. Concentration Measurements of Suspended Load using ADV with Influence of the Particle Size (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula


    ADV backscatter data can be used under certain conditions to gain information about the concentrations of suspended loads. This was shown in many studies before (Fugate and Friedrichs 2002; Chanson et al 2008; Ha et al. 2009). This paper reports on a pre-study to investigate the influence of particle size on concentration measurements for suspended sediment load with ADV. The study was conducted in a flume in the Oskar-von-Miller-Institute using fresh water from a river including the natural suspended load. The ADV used in the experiments was a Vectrino Profiler (Nortek). In addition water samples were taken for TSS and TOC. For the measurements a surge was generated in the flume to ensure that also particles of larger size will be present in the water phase. The measurements and samples were taken during the whole surge event. Therefore we were able to find a good correlation between the backscatter data of the ADV and the TSS as well as TOC results. For the decreasing part of the flow event the concentration of TOC in the suspended load of the water phase is decreasing much slower than the TSS and results in a damped decrease of the backscatter values. This means that the results for concentration measurements might be slightly influenced by the size of the particles. Further evaluations of measurements conducted with a LISST SL (Sequoia) will be investigated to show the trend of the particle sizes during this process and fortify this result. David C. Fugate, Carl T. Friedrichs, Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 22, Issues 11-13, 2002 H.K. Ha, W.-Y. Hsu, J.P.-Y. Maa, Y.Y. Shao, C.W. Holland, Using ADV backscatter strength for measuring suspended cohesive sediment concentration, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 29, Issue 10, 2009 Hubert Chanson, Maiko Takeuchi, Mark Trevethan, Using turbidity and acoustic backscatter intensity as surrogate measures of

  1. Characteristics of suspended and streambed sediment within constructed chutes and the main channel at Upper Hamburg and Glovers Point Bends, Missouri River, Nebraska, 2008 (United States)

    Woodward, Brenda K.; Rus, David L.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District, as part of the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Mitigation Project, has constructed 17 off-channel chutes along the channelized Missouri River, downstream from Sioux City, Iowa, to increase habitat diversity. To better understand characteristics of suspended and streambed sediment within these constructed chutes, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated specific aspects of chute design and function in relation to sediment characteristics including: (1) effects of inlet structures; (2) changes occurring between the inlet and the outlet of a chute; (3) effects of chutes on sediment characteristics in the main channel; and (4) differences in chute dynamics between sampled chutes. Two chutes differing in design, location, and dynamics were studied, Upper Hamburg Bend near Nebraska City, Nebr., and Glovers Point Bend near Winnebago, Nebr. Each site was characterized using five or more sampling transects (two in the chute and three to four in the main channel) designed to bracket sediment exchanges between chutes and the main channel. A sixth transect was included at the Upper Hamburg Bend study site to account for the effects of a nontarget chute having its inlet midway between the inlet and outlet of the primary chute. Representative samples of suspended and streambed sediment were collected at each transect, along with measurements of turbidity and streamflow, between June and November 2008. Four sets of samples were collected at the Glovers Point Bend study site and five sample sets were collected from the Upper Hamburg Bend study site. Results from paired t-tests and standard t-tests indicated that the inlet structure design, passing inflow only from the top of the main-channel water column, reduced the supply of coarse-grained suspended sediment entering the chutes. Statistical comparisons did not indicate differences between the inlet and outlet of either chute; however, anecdotal evidence of recent

  2. Element Geochemical Analysis of the Contribution of Aeolian Sand to Suspended Sediment in Desert Stream Flash Floods

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    Xiaopeng Jia


    Full Text Available The interaction of wind and water in semiarid and arid areas usually leads to low-frequency flash flood events in desert rivers, which have adverse effects on river systems and ecology. In arid zones, many aeolian dune-fields terminate in stream channels and deliver aeolian sand to the channels. Although aeolian processes are common to many desert rivers, whether the aeolian processes contribute to fluvial sediment loss is still unknown. Here, we identified the aeolian-fluvial cycling process responsible for the high rate of suspended sediment transport in the Sudalaer desert stream in the Ordos plateau of China. On the basis of element geochemistry data analysis, we found that aeolian sand was similar to suspended sediment in element composition, which suggests that aeolian sand contributes to suspended sediment in flash floods. Scatter plots of some elements further confirm that aeolian sand is the major source of the suspended sediment. Factor analysis and the relation between some elements and suspended sediment concentration prove that the greater the aeolian process, the higher the suspended sediment concentration and the greater the contribution of aeolian sand to suspended sediment yield. We conclude that aeolian sand is the greatest contributor to flash floods in the Sudalaer desert stream.

  3. Element geochemical analysis of the contribution of aeolian sand to suspended sediment in desert stream flash floods. (United States)

    Jia, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haibing


    The interaction of wind and water in semiarid and arid areas usually leads to low-frequency flash flood events in desert rivers, which have adverse effects on river systems and ecology. In arid zones, many aeolian dune-fields terminate in stream channels and deliver aeolian sand to the channels. Although aeolian processes are common to many desert rivers, whether the aeolian processes contribute to fluvial sediment loss is still unknown. Here, we identified the aeolian-fluvial cycling process responsible for the high rate of suspended sediment transport in the Sudalaer desert stream in the Ordos plateau of China. On the basis of element geochemistry data analysis, we found that aeolian sand was similar to suspended sediment in element composition, which suggests that aeolian sand contributes to suspended sediment in flash floods. Scatter plots of some elements further confirm that aeolian sand is the major source of the suspended sediment. Factor analysis and the relation between some elements and suspended sediment concentration prove that the greater the aeolian process, the higher the suspended sediment concentration and the greater the contribution of aeolian sand to suspended sediment yield. We conclude that aeolian sand is the greatest contributor to flash floods in the Sudalaer desert stream.

  4. Chemical composition of sediments, suspended matter, river water and ground water of the Nile (Aswan-Sohag traverse). (United States)

    Dekov, V M; Komy, Z; Araújo, F; Van Put, A; Van Grieken, R


    Sediment, suspended matter, river water and ground water samples were collected at twelve sites in the drainage valley of the Nile River, around Sohag (Central Egypt) and close to the Aswan High Dam. Elemental composition of the river water (27 elements), ground water (eight elements), suspended matter (12 elements) and sediments (12 elements) was studied. Aswan High Dam construction, agricultural and industrial human activities have led to dramatic changes in the Nile River chemistry. Nowadays, the Nile River has the highest dissolved salt content among the major African rivers. Dissolved transport is a major process for Ca, K, Sr, Zn, Cu, Ni and V. Manganese, Fe and Cr are mainly carried by suspended matter. The Nile suspended matter is exhausted in almost all elements studied (except for Mn) compared to the world average river suspended matter. Along the course of the river, the distribution of elements in the suspended matter and sediments is generally controlled by natural processes: the relative importance of elemental transport phases; and the oxidation, precipitation and sedimentation of mineral species through the varying physico-chemical conditions of the environment. Pollution input in the Nile particulate load is not major, as compared to the natural inputs. Eight genetic particle types describe the composition of the Nile suspended matter and sediments: (1) biogenous-aeolian (or silica); (2) terrigenous (Fe-aluminosilicate); (3) authigenic (calcium carbonate); (4) biogenous (apatite); (5) authigenous-terrigenous (Fe-oxyhydroxide-montmorillonite); (6) diagenetic (iron-sulfide); (7) terrigenous (titanium oxide); (8) authigenous (Mn-Fe-oxyhydroxide).

  5. Suspended sediment load in northwestern South America (Colombia): A new view on variability and fluxes into the Caribbean Sea (United States)

    Restrepo López, Juan Camilo; Orejarena R, Andrés F.; Torregroza, Ana Carolina


    Monthly averaged suspended sediment load data from seven rivers in northern Colombia (Caribbean alluvial plain) draining into the Caribbean Sea were analyzed to quantify magnitudes, estimate long-term trends, and evaluate variability patterns of suspended sediment load. Collectively these rivers deliver an average of around 146.3 × 106 t yr-1 of suspended sediments to the Colombian Caribbean coast. The largest sediment supply is provided by the Magdalena River, with a mean suspended sediment load of 142.6 × 106 t yr-1, or 38% of the total fluvial discharge estimated for the whole Caribbean littoral zone. Between 2000 and 2010, the annual suspended sediment load of these rivers increased by as much as 36%. Wavelet spectral analyses identified periods of intense variability between 1987-1990 and 1994-2002, where major oscillation processes appeared simultaneously. The semi-annual, annual and quasi-decadal bands are the main factors controlling suspended sediment load variability in fluvial systems, whereas the quasi-biennial and interannual bands constitute second-order sources of variability. The climatic and oceanographic drivers of the oscillations identified through wavelet spectral analyses define a signal of medium-long-term variability for the suspended sediment load, while the physiographic and environmental characteristics of the basins determine their ability to magnify, attenuate or modify this signal.

  6. 36 CFR 1201.20 - What is the extent of the Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend... (United States)


    ... Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend or terminate collection action on such... Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend or terminate collection action on such debts? (a) The Archivist may compromise, suspend, or terminate collection action on those debts owed to...

  7. An atomistic investigation of the effect of strain on frictional properties of suspended graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingshun Bai


    Full Text Available We performed molecular dynamics (MD simulations of a diamond probe scanned on a suspended graphene to reveal the effect of strain on the frictional properties of suspended graphene. The graphene was subjected to some certain strain along the scanning direction. We compared the friction coefficient obtained from different normal loads and strain. The results show that the friction coefficient can be decreased about one order of magnitude with the increase of the strain. And that can be a result of the decreased asymmetry of the contact region which is caused by strain. The synthetic effect of potential energy and the fluctuation of contact region were found to be the main reason accounting for the fluctuation of the friction force. The strain can reduce the fluctuation of the contact region and improve the stability of friction.

  8. Suspended-Sediment Budget for the North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Water Years 2005-08 (United States)

    Bragg, Heather M.; Uhrich, Mark A.


    Significant Findings An analysis of sediment transport in the North Santiam River basin during water years 2005-08 indicated that: Two-thirds of sediment input to Detroit Lake originated in the upper North Santiam River subbasin. Two-thirds of the sediment transported past Geren Island originated in the Little North Santiam River subbasin. The highest annual suspended-sediment load at any of the monitoring stations was the result of a debris flow on November 6, 2006, on Mount Jefferson. About 86 percent of the total sediment input to Detroit Lake was trapped in the lake, whereas 14 percent was transported farther downstream. More than 80 percent of the sediment transport in the basin was in November, December, and January. The variance in the annual suspended-sediment loads was better explained by the magnitude of the annual peak streamflow than by the annual mean streamflow.

  9. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Liquid Density in Air Using Suspended Microcapillary Resonators

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    Oscar Malvar


    Full Text Available We report the use of commercially available glass microcapillaries as micromechanical resonators for real-time monitoring of the mass density of a liquid that flows through the capillary. The vibration of a suspended region of the microcapillary is optically detected by measuring the forward scattering of a laser beam. The resonance frequency of the liquid filled microcapillary is measured for liquid binary mixtures of ethanol in water, glycerol in water and Triton in ethanol. The method achieves a detection limit in an air environment of 50 µg/mL that is only five times higher than that obtained with state-of-the-art suspended microchannel resonators encapsulated in vacuum. The method opens the door to novel advances for miniaturized total analysis systems based on microcapillaries with the add-on of mechanical transduction for sensing the rheological properties of the analyzed fluids without the need for vacuum encapsulation of the resonators.

  10. Enhanced contrast separation in scanning electron microscopes via a suspended-thin sample approach. (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Wang, Li; Guo, Zhenxi; Wei, Bin; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yinqi; Sui, Manling; Han, Xiaodong


    A suspended-thin-sample (STS) approach for signal selection and contrast separation is developed in scanning electron microscopes with commonly used primary beam energies and traditional detectors. Topography contrast, electron channeling contrast and composition contrast are separated and largely enhanced from suspended thin samples of several hundred nanometers in thickness, which is less than the escape depth of backscattered electrons. This imaging technique enables to detect relatively pure secondary electron and elastic backscattered electron singles, whereas suppress multiple inelastic scattering effects. The provided contrast features are different from those of bulk samples, which are largely mixed with inelastic scattering effects. The STS imaging concept and method could be expected to have more applications in distinguishing materials of nanostructures, multilayers, compounds and composites, as well as in SEM-based electron backscatter diffraction, cathodoluminesence, and x-ray microanalysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent

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    S. S. Deshmukh


    Full Text Available Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose.

  12. The Scientific and Societal Need for Accurate Global Remote Sensing of Marine Suspended Sediments (United States)

    Acker, James G.


    Population pressure, commercial development, and climate change are expected to cause continuing alteration of the vital oceanic coastal zone environment. These pressures will influence both the geology and biology of the littoral, nearshore, and continental shelf regions. A pressing need for global observation of coastal change processes is an accurate remotely-sensed data product for marine suspended sediments. The concentration, delivery, transport, and deposition of sediments is strongly relevant to coastal primary production, inland and coastal hydrology, coastal erosion, and loss of fragile wetland and island habitats. Sediment transport and deposition is also related to anthropogenic activities including agriculture, fisheries, aquaculture, harbor and port commerce, and military operations. Because accurate estimation of marine suspended sediment concentrations requires advanced ocean optical analysis, a focused collaborative program of algorithm development and assessment is recommended, following the successful experience of data refinement for remotely-sensed global ocean chlorophyll concentrations.

  13. Thermal-accommodation measurement of helium on a suspended water droplet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, K.H.; Tang, I.N.


    An innovative method for determining the thermal-accommodation coefficients of gases by means of monitoring the Mie scattering from a single suspended water droplet is described. The heat exchange between the gas molecules and the suspended droplet is analyzed by considering the simultaneous mass- and heat-transfer processes during droplet growth by condensation in a gas--water-vapor environment. Measurements have been carried out for helium with water-vapor-to-helium ratios in the range of 1:0.5 to 1:2.5. The thermal conductivity of this mixture is found to be best represented by its reciprocal average. The thermal-accommodation coefficient of helium on water surfaces is determined to be 0.65 +- 0.05, as compared to unity for water vapor on water surfaces

  14. Highly sensitive measurement of liquid density in air using suspended microcapillary resonators. (United States)

    Malvar, Oscar; Ramos, Daniel; Martínez, Carmen; Kosaka, Priscila; Tamayo, Javier; Calleja, Montserrat


    We report the use of commercially available glass microcapillaries as micromechanical resonators for real-time monitoring of the mass density of a liquid that flows through the capillary. The vibration of a suspended region of the microcapillary is optically detected by measuring the forward scattering of a laser beam. The resonance frequency of the liquid filled microcapillary is measured for liquid binary mixtures of ethanol in water, glycerol in water and Triton in ethanol. The method achieves a detection limit in an air environment of 50 µg/mL that is only five times higher than that obtained with state-of-the-art suspended microchannel resonators encapsulated in vacuum. The method opens the door to novel advances for miniaturized total analysis systems based on microcapillaries with the add-on of mechanical transduction for sensing the rheological properties of the analyzed fluids without the need for vacuum encapsulation of the resonators.

  15. Storage and remobilization of suspended sediment in the lower amazon river of Brazil (United States)

    Meade, R.H.; Dunne, T.; Richey, J.E.; Santos, U.De. M.; Salati, E.


    In the lower Amazon River, suspended sediment is stored during rising stages of the river and resuspended during falling river stages. The storage and resuspension in the reach are related to the mean slope of the flood wave on the river surface; this slope is smaller during rising river stages than during falling stages. The pattern of storage and resuspension damps out the extreme values of high and low sediment discharge and tends to keep them near the mean value between 3.0 ?? 106 and 3.5 ?? 106 metric tons per day. Mean annual discharge of suspended sediment in the lower Amazon is between 1.1 ?? 109 and 1.3 ?? 109 metric tons per year.

  16. Lateral-electric-field-induced spin polarization in a suspended GaAs quantum point contact (United States)

    Pokhabov, D. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Shevyrin, A. A.; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.


    The conductance of a GaAs-based suspended quantum point contact (QPC) equipped with lateral side gates has been experimentally studied in the absence of the external magnetic field. The half-integer conductance plateau ( 0.5 ×2 e2/h ) has been observed when an asymmetric voltage between the side gates is applied. The appearance of this plateau has been attributed to the spin degeneracy lifting caused by the spin-orbit coupling associated with the lateral electric field in the asymmetrically biased QPC. We have experimentally demonstrated that, despite the relatively small g-factor in GaAs, the observation of the spin polarization in the GaAs-based QPC became possible after the suspension due to the enhancement of the electron-electron interaction and the effect of the electric field guiding. These features are caused by a partial confinement of the electric field lines within a suspended semiconductor layer with a high dielectric constant.

  17. Inherent optical properties of suspended particulate matter in the southern Baltic Sea

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    Joanna Stoń-Egiert


    Full Text Available The inherent optical properties (IOPs of suspended particulate matter and their relations with the main biogeochemical characteristics of particles have been examined in the surface waters of the southern Baltic Sea. The empirical data were gathered at over 300 stations in open Baltic Sea waters as well as in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Gdansk. The measurements included IOPs such as the absorption coefficient of particles, absorption coefficient of phytoplankton, scattering and backscattering coefficients of particles, as well as biogeochemical characteristics of suspended matter such as concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM, particulate organic matter (POM, particulate organic carbon (POC and chlorophyll a (Chl a. Our data documented the very extensive variability in the study area of particle concentration measures and IOPs (up to two orders of magnitude. Although most of the particle populations encountered were composed primarily of organic matter (av. POM/SPM = ca 0.8, the different particle concentration ratios suggest that the particle composition varied significantly. The relations between the optical properties and biogeochemical parameters of suspended matter were examined. We found significant variability in the constituent-specific IOPs (coefficients of variation (CVs of at least 30% to 40%, usually more than 50%. Simple best-fit relations between any given IOP versus any constituent concentration parameter also highlighted the significant statistical errors involved. As a result, we conclude that for southern Baltic samples an easy yet precise quantification of particle IOPs in terms of the concentration of only one of the following parameters - SPM, POM, POC or Chl a- is not achievable. Nevertheless, we present a set of best statistical formulas for a rough estimate of certain seawater constituent concentrations based on relatively easily measurable values of seawater IOPs. These equations can be implemented in

  18. Automatic high-sensitivity control of suspended pollutants in drinking and natural water (United States)

    Akopov, Edmund I.; Karabegov, M.; Ovanesyan, A.


    This article presents a description of the new instrumental method and device for automatic measurement of water turbidity (WT) by means of photoelectron flow ultramicroscope (PFU). The method presents the WT determination by measuring the number concentration (number of particles suspended in 1 cm3 of water under study) using the PFU and demonstrates much higher sensitivity and accuracy in comparison with the usual methods--turbidimetry and nephelometry.



    Malviya Rishabha; Sharma Pramod Kumar; Srivastava Pranati; C.S. Bhargava; Kumar Upendra


    The present study aims to search for a cheap and effective natural excipient that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. So in this research suspending properties of different natural polymers were evaluated comparatively with each other .Tamarind seed polysaccharide, Tragacanth, Acacia and Gelatin at concentration range of 1 ? 4.5%w/v are used to prepare paracetamol suspension. Characterization tests were carried out on each of polysacchari...

  20. Physical Conditions Regulate the Fungal to Bacterial Ratios of a Tropical Suspended Soil

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    Julian Donald


    Full Text Available As a source of ‘suspended soils’, epiphytes contribute large amounts of organic matter to the canopy of tropical rain forests. Microbes associated with epiphytes are responsible for much of the nutrient cycling taking place in rain forest canopies. However, soils suspended far above the ground in living organisms differ from soil on the forest floor, and traditional predictors of soil microbial community composition and functioning (nutrient availability and the activity of soil organisms are likely to be less important. We conducted an experiment in the rain forest biome at the Eden Project in the U.K. to explore how biotic and abiotic conditions determine microbial community composition and functioning in a suspended soil. To simulate their natural epiphytic lifestyle, bird’s nest ferns (Asplenium nidus were placed on a custom-built canopy platform suspended 8 m above the ground. Ammonium nitrate and earthworm treatments were applied to ferns in a factorial design. Extracellular enzyme activity and Phospholipid Fatty Acid (PLFA profiles were determined at zero, three and six months. We observed no significant differences in either enzyme activity or PLFA profiles between any of the treatments. Instead, we observed decreases in β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity, and an increase in phenol oxidase activity across all treatments and controls over time. An increase in the relative abundance of fungi during the experiment meant that the microbial communities in the Eden Project ferns after six months were comparable with ferns sampled from primary tropical rain forest in Borneo.

  1. Transfer of suspended particles from liquid effluents of nuclear generating stations through the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereaux, F.J.


    Due to the complexity of the environmental transfer of suspended particles in aquatic systems, the available literature usually deals with specific pathways and mechanisms of the transfer process. This paper attempts to give a brief overview of the entire transfer process. Potential routes of transfer in both the marine and freshwater environments are examined, and tentative conclusions presented. This work was performed while the author was employed by Atomic Energy Control Board under the McMaster University cooperative program

  2. Mixing Model Analysis of Suspended Sediment and Particulate Organic Carbon Sources in White Clay Creek, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Karwan, D. L.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Aalto, R. E.; Marquard, J.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Newbold, J. D.


    Material exports from watersheds have consequences to upstream catchment elemental budgets, downstream ecosystem processes and water resources management. Despite this importance, quantifying exports of all major and trace elements associated with suspended sediments is challenging due to the highly episodic nature of that export. Constraining sediment sources using various mixing model approaches is further complicated by the diversity of potential sources. In this study, we leveraged the infrastructure of the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (CRB-CZO) to collect large volume (200 L) samples from 17 storms, including some of the biggest storms of the decade (i.e. Hurricane Irene and Sandy), and 95 potential source soils and sediments within the White Clay Creek watershed, a third-order watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania. On all samples we analyzed major and minor elements, rare earth elements, and radioisotopes in order to determine the erosional source category of stream suspended material, such that differences in the chemical composition of source materials can be used in a multivariate statistical model to predict the chemical composition of suspended sediment. For example, 137Cs is higher in surface and near-surface terrestrial soils and low in streambanks, deeper soils, road cuts, and road dust. Elemental chromium is much higher in road dust than any other source. We integrate sediment fingerprinting analyses common in geomorphological studies of mineral suspended material with biological and ecological characterizations of particulate organic carbon. Through this combination, we determine particle source, a necessary first step to calculating the amount of excess carbon that has complexed with particles during erosion and transit through the watershed. This interdisciplinary project is conducted as one of many studies in the CRB-CZO and directly contributes to the overall research focus of this CZO: to quantify the net carbon sink or

  3. Scalable Electrophysiology in Intact Small Animals with Nanoscale Suspended Electrode Arrays


    Gonzales, Daniel L.; Badhiwala, Krishna N.; Vercosa, Daniel G.; Avants, Ben W.; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Weiwei; Robinson, Jacob T.


    Electrical measurements from large populations of animals would help reveal fundamental properties of the nervous system and neurological diseases. Small invertebrates are ideal for these large-scale studies; however, patch-clamp electrophysiology in microscopic animals typically requires low-throughput and invasive dissections. To overcome these limitations, we present nano-SPEARs: suspended electrodes integrated into a scalable microfluidic device. Using this technology, we have made the fi...

  4. Vanadium Inhalation in a Mouse Model for the Understanding of Air-Suspended Particle Systemic Repercussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Fortoul


    Full Text Available There is an increased concern about the health effects that air-suspended particles have on human health which have been dissected in animal models. Using CD-1 mouse, we explore the effects that vanadium inhalation produce in different tissues and organs. Our findings support the systemic effects of air pollution. In this paper, we describe our findings in different organs in our conditions and contrast our results with the literature.

  5. Total suspended particulates in Milan, Italy. Studi sul particolato nell'atmosfera milanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, M.; Verderio, C.; Maugeri, M. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Generale Applicata); Novo, A. (Ente Nazionale per l' Energia Elettrica, Milan (Italy). Centro Termica e Nucleare)


    The paper describes a group of measurements taken of the suspended particulate in the Milan atmosphere. The samples were collected on membrane filters and then analyzed using fluorescence methods. Many elements were found and quantitatively determined, from sulphur to lead. The collection of particulate, at a height of 25 meters above ground level, was made over a period of three years at the Brera Tower Air Quality Station.

  6. Numerical Modelling of Suspended Transport and Deposition of Highway Deposited Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Larsen, Torben; Bach, Christine

    Good data for calibration and validation of numerical models are of high importance. In the natural environment data can be hard to archive and the stochastic nature have governing influence on the data archived. Hence for modelling of suspended transport and deposition of particles, originating...... from the highway surfaces, in highway detention ponds, four experiments are carried out. To simplify the complexity of a real pond and for easy control and measurement the sediment transports where carried out in two rectangular channels....

  7. Suspended sediment assessment by combining sound attenuation and backscatter measurements - analytical method and experimental validation (United States)

    Guerrero, Massimo; Di Federico, Vittorio


    The use of acoustic techniques has become common for estimating suspended sediment in water environments. An emitted beam propagates into water producing backscatter and attenuation, which depend on scattering particles concentration and size distribution. Unfortunately, the actual particles size distribution (PSD) may largely affect the accuracy of concentration quantification through the unknown coefficients of backscattering strength, ks2, and normalized attenuation, ζs. This issue was partially solved by applying the multi-frequency approach. Despite this possibility, a relevant scientific and practical question remains regarding the possibility of using acoustic methods to investigate poorly sorted sediment in the spectrum ranging from clay to fine sand. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of combining the measurement of sound attenuation and backscatter to determine ζs for the suspended particles and the corresponding concentration. The proposed method is moderately dependent from actual PSD, thus relaxing the need of frequent calibrations to account for changes in ks2 and ζs coefficients. Laboratory tests were conducted under controlled conditions to validate this measurement technique. With respect to existing approaches, the developed method more accurately estimates the concentration of suspended particles ranging from clay to fine sand and, at the same time, gives an indication on their actual PSD.

  8. Suspended sediment diffusion mechanisms in the Yangtze Estuary influenced by wind fields (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Zhou, Yunxuan; Shen, Fang


    The complexity of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) distribution and diffusion has been widely recognized because it is influenced by sediment supply and various hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. Sediment suspended by waves and transported by currents are the dominant sediment transport mechanisms in estuarine and coastal areas. However, it is unclear to what extent the SSC distribution is impacted by each hydrodynamic factor. Research on the quantitative influence of wind fields on the SSC diffusion range will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of sediment transport change and sedimentary geomorphic evolution. This study determined SSC from three Envisat Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer acquisitions, covering the Yangtze Estuary and adjacent water area under the same season and tidal conditions but with varying wind conditions. SSC was examined based on the Semi-Empirical Radiative Transfer model, which has been well validated with the observation data. Integrating the corresponding wind field information from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts further facilitated the discussion of wind fields affecting SSC, and in turn the influence of water and suspended sediment transportation and diffusion in the Yangtze estuarine and coastal area. The results demonstrated that the SSC present much more distinctive fluvial features in the inner estuary and wind fields are one of the major factors controlling the range of turbid water diffusion.

  9. Ultra-sensitive suspended atomically thin-layered black phosphorus mercury sensors. (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Dongzhi; Jiang, Chuanxing; Zong, Xiaoqi; Cao, Yuhua


    The extraordinary properties of black phosphorus (BP) make it a promising candidate for next-generation transistor chemical sensors. However, BP films reported so far are supported on substrate, and substrate scattering drastically deteriorates its electrical properties. Consequentially, the potential sensing capability of intrinsic BP is highly underestimated and its sensing mechanism is masked. Additionally, the optimum sensing regime of BP remains unexplored. This article is the first demonstration of suspended BP sensor operated in subthreshold regime. BP exhibited significant enhancement of sensitivity for ultra-low-concentration mercury detection in the absence of substrate, and the sensitivity reached maximum in subthreshold regime. Without substrate scattering, the suspended BP device demonstrated 10 times lower 1/f noise which contributed to better signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, rapid label-free trace detection of Hg 2+ was achieved with detection limit of 0.01 ppb, lower than the world health organization (WHO) tolerance level (1 ppb). The time constant for ion detection extracted was 3s. Additionally, experimental results revealed that good stability, repeatability, and selectivity were achieved. BP sensors also demonstrated the ability of detecting mercury ions in environment water samples. The underling sensing mechanism of intrinsic BP was ascribed to the carrier density variation resulted from surface charge gating effect, so suspended BP in subthreshold regime with optimum gating effect demonstrated the best sensitivity. Our results show the prominent advantages of intrinsic BP as a sensing material. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Raspberry wine fermentation with suspended and immobilized yeast cells of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Djordjević, Radovan; Gibson, Brian; Sandell, Mari; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M; Bugarski, Branko; Leskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Vunduk, Jovana; Nikićević, Ninoslav; Nedović, Viktor


    The objectives of this study were to assess the differences in fermentative behaviour of two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EC1118 and RC212) and to determine the differences in composition and sensory properties of raspberry wines fermented with immobilized and suspended yeast cells of both strains at 15 °C. Analyses of aroma compounds, glycerol, acetic acid and ethanol, as well as the kinetics of fermentation and a sensory evaluation of the wines, were performed. All fermentations with immobilized yeast cells had a shorter lag phase and faster utilization of sugars and ethanol production than those fermented with suspended cells. Slower fermentation kinetics were observed in all the samples that were fermented with strain RC212 (suspended and immobilized) than in samples fermented with strain EC1118. Significantly higher amounts of acetic acid were detected in all samples fermented with strain RC212 than in those fermented with strain EC1118 (0.282 and 0.602 g/l, respectively). Slightly higher amounts of glycerol were observed in samples fermented with strain EC1118 than in those fermented with strain RC212. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am


    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  12. Sediment acoustic index method for computing continuous suspended-sediment concentrations (United States)

    Landers, Mark N.; Straub, Timothy D.; Wood, Molly S.; Domanski, Marian M.


    Suspended-sediment characteristics can be computed using acoustic indices derived from acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM) backscatter data. The sediment acoustic index method applied in these types of studies can be used to more accurately and cost-effectively provide time-series estimates of suspended-sediment concentration and load, which is essential for informed solutions to many sediment-related environmental, engineering, and agricultural concerns. Advantages of this approach over other sediment surrogate methods include: (1) better representation of cross-sectional conditions from large measurement volumes, compared to other surrogate instruments that measure data at a single point; (2) high temporal resolution of collected data; (3) data integrity when biofouling is present; and (4) less rating curve hysteresis compared to streamflow as a surrogate. An additional advantage of this technique is the potential expansion of monitoring suspended-sediment concentrations at sites with existing ADVMs used in streamflow velocity monitoring. This report provides much-needed standard techniques for sediment acoustic index methods to help ensure accurate and comparable documented results.

  13. Numerical modelling of hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment in a stormwater pond (United States)

    Guan, Mingfu; Ahilan, Sangaralingam; Yu, Dapeng; Peng, Yong; Wright, Nigel


    Fine sediment plays crucial and multiple roles in the hydrological, ecological and geomorphological functioning of river systems. This study employs a two-dimensional (2D) numerical model to track the hydro-morphological processes dominated by fine suspended sediment, including the prediction of sediment concentration in flow bodies, and erosion and deposition caused by sediment transport. The model is governed by 2D full shallow water equations with which an advection-diffusion equation for fine sediment is coupled. Bed erosion and sedimentation are updated by a bed deformation model based on local sediment entrainment and settling flux in flow bodies. The model is initially validated with the three laboratory-scale experimental events where suspended load plays a dominant role. Satisfactory simulation results confirm the model's capability in capturing hydro-morphodynamic processes dominated by fine suspended sediment at laboratory-scale. Applications to sedimentation in a stormwater pond are conducted to develop the process-based understanding of fine sediment dynamics over a variety of flow conditions. Urban flows with 5-year, 30-year and 100-year return period and the extreme flood event in 2012 are simulated. The modelled results deliver a step change in understanding fine sediment dynamics in stormwater ponds. The model is capable of quantitatively simulating and qualitatively assessing the performance of a stormwater pond in managing urban water quantity and quality.

  14. Performance of suspended and attached growth MBR systems in treating high strength synthetic wastewater. (United States)

    Jamal Khan, S; Ilyas, Shazia; Javid, Sadaf; Visvanathan, C; Jegatheesan, V


    The performance of laboratory-scale attached growth (AG) and suspended growth (SG) membrane bioreactors (MBRs) was evaluated in treating synthetic wastewater simulating high strength domestic wastewater. This study investigated the influence of sponge suspended carriers in AG-MBR system, occupying 15% reactor volume, on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), and compared it to that of SG-MBR. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and TP in AG-MBR were 98%, 89% and 58%, respectively as compared to 98%, 74% and 38%, respectively in SG-MBR. Improved TN removal in AG-MBR systems was primarily based on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process. These results infer that the presence of small bio-particles having higher microbial activity and the growth of complex biomass captured within the suspended sponge carriers resulted in improved TN and TP removal in AG-MBR. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Suspended solids moderate the degradation and sorption of waste water-derived pharmaceuticals in estuarine waters. (United States)

    Aminot, Yann; Fuster, Laura; Pardon, Patrick; Le Menach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hélène


    This study focuses on the fate of pharmaceuticals discharged into an estuarine environment, particularly into the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ). Batch experiments were set up to investigate the factors regulating the degradation of 53 selected pharmaceuticals. Treated effluents from Bordeaux city (France) were mixed with water from the estuarine Garonne River during 4weeks under 6 characterized conditions in order to assess the influence of suspended particulates, sterilization, untreated wastewater input and dilution on the degradation kinetics. Of the 53 pharmaceuticals monitored, 43 were quantified at the initial time. Only 7 exhibited a persistent behavior (e.g. carbamazepine, meprobamate) while biotic degradation was shown to be the main attenuation process for 38 molecules (e.g. abacavir, ibuprofen highly degradable). Degradation was significantly enhanced by increasing concentrations of suspended solids. A persistence index based on the half-lives of the compounds has been calculated for each of the 43 pharmaceuticals to provide a practical estimate of their relative stability. The stability of pharmaceuticals in estuarine environments is likely to be highly variable and attenuated primarily by changes in suspended solid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Unravelling the relative contribution of bed and suspended sediment load on a large alluvial river (United States)

    Darby, S. E.; Hackney, C. R.; Parsons, D. R.; Leyland, J.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.; Best, J.


    The world's largest rivers transport 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually, often supporting large deltas that rely on this sediment load to maintain their elevation in the face of rising sea level, and to sustain high levels of agricultural productivity and biodiversity. However, the majority of estimates of sediment delivery to coastal regions pertain solely to the suspended fraction of the sediment load, with the bedload fraction often being neglected due to the difficulty in estimating bedload flux and the assumption that bedload contributes a minor (define suspended sediment rating curves using the inversion of acoustic return data from a series of acoustic Doppler current profiler surveys conducted through the Lower Mekong River in Cambodia, and into the bifurcating channels of the Mekong delta in Vietnam. Additionally, we detail estimates of bed-load sediment transport determined using repeat multibeam echo sounder surveys of the channel bed. By combining estimates of both fractions of the sediment load, we show the spatial and temporal contribution of bedload to the total sediment load of the Mekong and refine estimates of sediment transport to the Mekong delta. Our results indicate that the time-averaged suspended load transport rates for the Mekong River are 87 MT/yr, whilst bedload transport forms c. < 5% of the total sediment load within the Mekong River. Such estimates are integral to future channel management within this highly threatened river basin.

  17. A combined use of acoustic and optical devices to investigate suspended sediment in rivers (United States)

    Guerrero, Massimo; Rüther, Nils; Haun, Stefan; Baranya, Sandor


    The use of acoustic and optic devices has become more and more common for estimating suspended sediment loads in rivers. The echo intensity levels (EIL) recorded by means of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) have been applied in different methods, which provided relationships between scattering particles features derived from samples (i.e., concentration and grain size) and corresponding backscattering strength and sound attenuation. At the same time, the laser diffraction was applied by an in-stream sampler (LISST-SL) to measure suspended sediment concentration and the corresponding particle size distribution (PSD). These two techniques exhibited different limitations in terms of the measured range of concentration, sensitivity to a certain spectrum of particle sizes, and instruments deploy feasibility especially in large rivers, in a way that the use of sampled PSD by LISST-SL to validate ADCP methods may not be trivial. The aim of this study was to combine the vertical profiling of EIL by an ADCP with results from LISST-SL, eventually demonstrating the possibility of using moving ADCP measurements to detect different suspended matters along a Danube River section characterized by a small tributary junction. At the same time, this work elucidates optical to acoustic method deviations that hinders an actual validation of ADCP methods based on LISST-SL rather than with physical samplings.

  18. Frequency Selection for Multi-frequency Acoustic Measurement of Suspended Sediment (United States)

    Chen, X.; HO, H.; Fu, X.


    Multi-frequency acoustic measurement of suspended sediment has found successful applications in marine and fluvial environments. Difficult challenges remain in regard to improving its effectiveness and efficiency when applied to high concentrations and wide size distributions in rivers. We performed a multi-frequency acoustic scattering experiment in a cylindrical tank with a suspension of natural sands. The sands range from 50 to 600 μm in diameter with a lognormal size distribution. The bulk concentration of suspended sediment varied from 1.0 to 12.0 g/L. We found that the commonly used linear relationship between the intensity of acoustic backscatter and suspended sediment concentration holds only at sufficiently low concentrations, for instance below 3.0 g/L. It fails at a critical value of concentration that depends on measurement frequency and the distance between the transducer and the target point. Instead, an exponential relationship was found to work satisfactorily throughout the entire range of concentration. The coefficient and exponent of the exponential function changed, however, with the measuring frequency and distance. Considering the increased complexity of inverting the concentration values when an exponential relationship prevails, we further analyzed the relationship between measurement error and measuring frequency. It was also found that the inversion error may be effectively controlled within 5% if the frequency is properly set. Compared with concentration, grain size was found to heavily affect the selection of optimum frequency. A regression relationship for optimum frequency versus grain size was developed based on the experimental results.

  19. Spatio-temporal Analysis of suspended sediment Concentration in the Yongjiang Estuary Based on GOCI (United States)

    Kang, Yanyan; Dong, Chuan


    The concentration and spatio-temporal variation of suspended sediment concentration in the estuary area are of great significance to the nearshore engineering, port construction and coastal evolution. Based on multi-period GOCI images and corresponding measured suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data, three inversion models (the linear regression model, the power exponent model and the neural network model) were established after rapid atmospheric correction. The results show that the absolute error of the three models is 0.20, 0.16 and 0.10kg/m3 respectively, and the relative errors are 38%, 23% and 18% respectively. The accuracy of the neural network (8-17-17-1) is the best. The SSC distribution diagrams in an ebb and flow cycle are obtained using this ANN model. The results show that with Yongjiang estuary for segmentation, the high concentration area is located in the north and the lower is in the south around Jintang Island deeper water area. When the tide rises, the water flow disturbs a large amount of sediment, and then the sediment concentration increases and high area high concentrations water body moves along the SE-NW. When the tide falls, flow rate decreases and the sediment concentration decreases. However, with the falling tide, the concentration of suspended sediment in the northern sea areas gradually increases, and is higher than 1kg/m3, and gradually moves along the NW-SE until to the estuary.

  20. Temporal dynamics of suspended sediment transport in a glacierized Andean basin (United States)

    Mao, Luca; Carrillo, Ricardo


    Suspended sediment transport can affect water quality and aquatic ecosystems, and its quantification is of the highest importance for river and watershed management. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge were measured at two locations in the Estero Morales, a Chilean Andean stream draining a small basin (27 km2) hosting glacierized areas of about 1.8 km2. Approximately half of the suspended sediment yield (470 t year- 1 km- 2) was transported during the snowmelt period and half during glacier melting. The hysteresis patterns between discharge and SSC were calculated for each daily hydrograph and were analysed to shed light on the location and activity of different sediment sources at the basin scale. During snowmelt, an unlimited supply of fine sediments is provided in the lower and middle part of the basin and hysteresis patterns tend to be clockwise as the peaks in SSC precede the peak of discharge in daily hydrographs. Instead, during glacier melting the source of fine sediments is the proglacial area, producing counterclockwise hysteresis. It is suggested that the analysis of hysteretic patterns over time provides a simple concept for interpreting variability of location and activity of sediment sources at the basin scale.

  1. Suspended sediment measurements and calculation of the particle load at HPP Fieschertal (United States)

    Felix, D.; Albayrak, I.; Abgottspon, A.; Boes, R. M.


    In the scope of a research project on hydro-abrasive erosion of Pelton turbines, a field study was conducted at the high-head HPP Fieschertal in Valais, Switzerland. The suspended sediment mass concentration (SSC) and particle size distribution (PSD) in the penstock have been continuously measured since 2012 using a combination of six measuring techniques. The SSC was on average 0.52 g/l and rose to 50 g/l in a major flood event in July 2012. The median particle size d 50 was usually 15 pm, rising up to 100 μm when particles previously having settled in the headwater storage tunnel were re-suspended at low water levels. The annual suspended sediment loads (SSL) varied considerably depending on flood events. Moreover, so-called particle loads (PLs) according to the relevant guideline of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62364) were calculated using four relations between particle size and the relative abrasion potential. For the investigated HPP, the time series of the SSL and the PLs had generally similar shapes over the three years. The largest differences among the PLs were observed during re-suspension events when the particles were considerably coarser than usual. Further investigations on the effects of particle sizes on hydroabrasive erosion of splitters and cut-outs of coated Pelton turbines are recommended.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of suspended sediment yield in the Kamchatka Krai, Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kuksina


    Full Text Available Research into the spatial and temporal variability of suspended sediment flux (SSF, t year−1 has been conducted for rivers in the Kamchatka Krai (in the far east of the Russian Federation. The study of long-term fluctuations in SSF was based on difference-integral curve analysis. Most of the rivers in the region are characterized by two relatively long-term trends in SSF; increases from the late 1970s to the early 1980s, followed by a subsequent decline. Kamchatka was divided into regions based on similar conditions of specific suspended sediment yield (SSSY, t km−2 year−1 followed by a determination of the various factors controlling it. New maps of suspended sediment concentration (SSC, mg L−1 and SSSY for Kamchatka also were constructed and, based on this study, there currently appear to be 18 SSC and 13 SSSY regions, as opposed to 4 and 2 regions, respectively, as had been determined in the 1970s. The influence of volcanoes on SSF can be substantial, and can increase up to 5-fold after eruptions; SSC can reach 6∙105 mg L−1 in rivers draining the flanks of volcanoes.

  3. Measurement of suspended solids in lakes and oceans using satellite remote sensing data (United States)

    Sydor, M. (Principal Investigator)


    Using satellite remote sensing data to measure low concentrations of suspended solids in lakes and oceans requires careful evaluation of background signals from the atmosphere and the water surface. Typical background corrections for Lake Superior are presented and the spectral distribution of the residual radiance from three major categories of turbidity in the lake are determined. The results indicate that for large bodies of water, some general information on atmospheric scattering, water clarity, and the optical properties of suspended solids allows estimates of concentrations of suspended solids to within + or - 0.5 mg/L without using real time ground truth data. Under calibrated conditions the threshold detection level is 0.3 mg/L for the fine particulates dispersed throughout the lake and 1 mg/L for the highly light absorbing effluent from rivers. Comparisons of the minimum reflectance over the open lake areas with reflection from the highly absorbing tannin water from rivers provides a check on the clarity of the atmosphere and the excessive background scatter from the water surface.

  4. Measurement of light attenuation extends the application of suspended sediment monitoring in rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Hughes


    Full Text Available Turbidity is often monitored continuously as a proxy for suspended sediment in catchment sediment load studies, but is less often applied to measuring optical ‘loads’ as they affect water quality in downstream waters. We added measurements of visual clarity, from which light (beam attenuation can be estimated, to auto-sampler monitoring over storm events in tributary rivers of the Kaipara Harbour, a large barrier enclosed estuary complex in northern New Zealand. This paper presents, for the first time, evidence of the mutual relationships between turbidity, total suspended sediment (TSS, and visual clarity, from water samples collected under event flow conditions. The mutual relationships between turbidity, TSS and visual clarity for our monitoring sites were fairly close over about three orders of magnitude (TSS ranging from about 1–1000 mg L−1. Our results show that visual clarity (and hence light attenuation can be predicted from turbidity, at least as precisely as more traditional predictions of TSS from turbidity. The estimation of light attenuation and corresponding load estimates from visual clarity measurements, for relatively little marginal extra effort, extends the environmental relevance and application of suspended sediment monitoring.

  5. Seasonal trends of benzo(apyrene in suspended particulate matter in urban areas of Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Matić-Besarabić


    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(apyrene (BaP concentration in total suspended particles (TSP in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health Institute of Belgrade and funded by Belgrade’s Municipality. Air samples for analysis of BaP in suspended particleshave been collected (as 24 h sample once per month at selected onitoring sites within the municipal air quality monitoring network. At the beginning, according to National Regulation, all samples were taken as total suspended particles (TSP. Since mid-2008, the procedure of sampling methodology was harmonized with EU requirements and solid fraction PM10 has been collected and analyzed using GC/MS. In this study, we have analyzed results of TSP collected between 2005 and 2008. Looking through the results obtained during the period of a whole year, it can be noticed that concentrations of BaP were much higher during winter season at almost all measuring sites.

  6. Study of Hydrophilic Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Filtration of Micro and Nanosize Suspended Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurxat Nuraje


    Full Text Available Polymeric nanofiber membranes of polyvinyl chloride (PVC blended with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP were fabricated using an electrospinning process at different conditions and used for the filtration of three different liquid suspensions to determine the efficiency of the filter membranes. The three liquid suspensions included lake water, abrasive particles from a water jet cutter, and suspended magnetite nanoparticles. The major goal of this research work was to create highly hydrophilic nanofiber membranes and utilize them to filter the suspended liquids at an optimal level of purification (i.e., drinkable level. In order to overcome the fouling/biofouling/blocking problems of the membrane, a coagulation process, which enhances the membrane’s efficiency for removing colloidal particles, was used as a pre-treatment process. Two chemical agents, Tanfloc (organic and Alum (inorganic, were chosen for the flocculation/coagulation process. The removal efficiency of the suspended particles in the liquids was measured in terms of turbidity, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS. It was observed that the coagulation/filtration experiments were more efficient at removing turbidity, compared to the direct filtration process performed without any coagulation and filter media.

  7. Spatio-temporal monitoring of suspended sediments in the Solimões River (2000-2014) (United States)

    Espinoza-Villar, Raul; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Armijos, Elisa; Espinoza, Jhan-Carlo; Filizola, Naziano; Dos Santos, Andre; Willems, Bram; Fraizy, Pascal; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe


    The Amazon River sediment discharge has been estimated at between 600 and 1200 Mt/year, of which more than 50% comes from the Solimões River. Because of the area's inaccessibility, few studies have examined the sediment discharge spatial and temporal pattern in the upper Solimões region. In this study, we use MODIS satellite images to retrieve and understand the spatial and temporal behaviour of suspended sediments in the Solimões River from Peru to Brazil. Six virtual suspended sediment gauging stations were created along the Solimões River on a 2050-km-long transect. At each station, field-derived river discharge estimates were available and field-sampling trips were conducted for validation of remote-sensing estimates during different periods of the annual hydrological cycle between 2007 and 2014. At two stations, 10-day surface suspended sediment data were available from the SO-HYBAM monitoring program (881 field SSS samples). MODIS-derived sediment discharge closely matched the field observations, showing a relative RMSE value of 27.3% (0.48 Mtday) overall. Satellite-retrieved annual sediment discharge at the Tamshiyacu (Peru) and Manacapuru (Brazil) stations is estimated at 521 and 825 Mt/year, respectively. While upstream the river presents one main sediment discharge peak during the hydrological cycle, a secondary sediment discharge peak is detected downstream during the declining water levels, which is induced by sediment resuspension from the floodplain, causing a 72% increase on average from June to September.

  8. Self-assembly and transfer of photoresist suspended over trenches for microbeam fabrication in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zi Yang; Yang, Heng; Li, Xin Xin; Wang, Yue Lin


    A novel technique of self-assembly and transfer of a photoresist thin film assisted by metallization is presented for planarization in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in this paper. The AZ5214 photoresist thin film was self-assembled on the water–gas interface and then the entire film was transferred to the wafer surface. The photoresist suspended over trenches to form a planar surface proved to be useful as a bridge layer for the subsequent processes in MEMS. Metal layers were then sputtered on the photoresist and patterned by dry etching. After sacrificially etching the photoresist bridge layer, metal beams and cantilevers were released and suspended over the trenches. It was found that the suspension capability of the AZ5214 photoresist thin film increased with the film thickness and a 300 nm thick photoresist was sufficient to span a 50 µm trench without breaking. Both 350 nm thick Cu double-clamped beams and cantilevers, suspended over trenches, were successfully prepared using the proposed method

  9. SDRE controller for motion design of cable-suspended robot with uncertainties and moving obstacles (United States)

    Behboodi, Ahad; Salehi, Seyedmohammad


    In this paper an optimal control approach for nonlinear dynamical systems was proposed based on State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) and its robustness against uncertainties is shown by simulation results. The proposed method was applied on a spatial six-cable suspended robot, which was designed to carry loads or perform different tasks in huge workspaces. Motion planning for cable-suspended robots in such a big workspace is subjected to uncertainties and obstacles. First, we emphasized the ability of SDRE to construct a systematic basis and efficient design of controller for wide variety of nonlinear dynamical systems. Then we showed how this systematic design improved the robustness of the system and facilitated the integration of motion planning techniques with the controller. In particular, obstacle avoidance technique based on artificial potential field (APF) can be easily combined with SDRE controller with efficient performance. Due to difficulties of exact solution for SDRE, an approximation method was used based on power series expansion. The efficiency and robustness of the SDRE controller was illustrated on a six-cable suspended robot with proper simulations.

  10. Regional regression models of watershed suspended-sediment discharge for the eastern United States (United States)

    Roman, David C.; Vogel, Richard M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.


    Estimates of mean annual watershed sediment discharge, derived from long-term measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow, often are not available at locations of interest. The goal of this study was to develop multivariate regression models to enable prediction of mean annual suspended-sediment discharge from available basin characteristics useful for most ungaged river locations in the eastern United States. The models are based on long-term mean sediment discharge estimates and explanatory variables obtained from a combined dataset of 1201 US Geological Survey (USGS) stations derived from a SPAtially Referenced Regression on Watershed attributes (SPARROW) study and the Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating Streamflow (GAGES) database. The resulting regional regression models summarized for major US water resources regions 1–8, exhibited prediction R2 values ranging from 76.9% to 92.7% and corresponding average model prediction errors ranging from 56.5% to 124.3%. Results from cross-validation experiments suggest that a majority of the models will perform similarly to calibration runs. The 36-parameter regional regression models also outperformed a 16-parameter national SPARROW model of suspended-sediment discharge and indicate that mean annual sediment loads in the eastern United States generally correlates with a combination of basin area, land use patterns, seasonal precipitation, soil composition, hydrologic modification, and to a lesser extent, topography.

  11. Partitioning of metals between the aqueous phase and suspended insoluble material in fog droplets. (United States)

    Mancinelli, Valeriana; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Mangani, Filippo


    This paper discusses the partitioning of metals (K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) between the aqueous phase and the suspended insoluble material in fog samples collected in the Po Valley during two extensive fields campaigns. Metals represent on average 11% of the mass of suspended insoluble matter, while the main component is carbon (both organic carbon, OC = 35%, and black carbon, BC = 8%). The unaccounted suspended matter mass is very high, on average 46%, and is attributable to non metallic species, such as O and N and of Si. The principal metals in the insoluble suspended fraction are Fe and Al (2-5%), while the contributions of other metals (Na, Mg, Cu, Pb and Zn) are lower than 1%. Ca and K exhibited high blank values and could not be detected above blank detection limit threshold. The main components in the aqueous phase are NO3- (34%), WSOC (23%), SO4(2-) (18%) and NH4+ (19%), while trace metals and remaining cations and anions accounted for less than 1% of solute mass. The main dissolved trace metals in fog droplets are Zn, Al and Fe, while the main metallic cations are Na and Ca. Fe and Al are the only metals preferentially distributed in the suspended insoluble matter of fog droplets (partitioning ratio respectively 37% and 33%). All other metals are mostly dissolved in the aqueous phase (mean partitioning ratios of Mg, Pb, Zn, Cu and Na are 69%, 70%, 77%, 81% and 87%). These findings are in agreement with literature data on metal speciation in cloud and rain samples. The dependence of partitioning ratios on pH is investigated for the different metals, with only Al showing a clear partitioning ratio decrease with increasing pH. Conversely, the other metals show no dependence or a complex and highly variable behaviour. The partitioning ratio of iron (mean 37%) observed in the Po Valley fog samples is much higher than the water extractable iron in aerosol particles (typically 1-2 %): this fact can be explained by differences in the aerosol sources

  12. Effect of the exposure to suspended solids on the enzymatic activity in the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Yang


    Full Text Available Aquatic animals are susceptible to sudden changes of their living environment but they adopt strategies to cope with adverse environmental challenges. Contamination by suspended solids, often associated with a dramatic change in the concentrations of important water-quality variables is a frequent occurrence in China's coastal waters and estuaries. Here we studied the impact of suspended solids on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, as well as adenosine triphosphates (including Na+ K+-ATPase, Mg+ +-ATPase, Ca+ +-ATPase and H+ K+-ATPase in the gills and visceral mass tissues of the molluscan bivalve Sinonovacula constricta exposed (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 days to various concentrations of suspended solids. Our results showed that the antioxidant enzymes cooperated closely to effectively scavenge superoxide anion free radicals and H2O2 (which can ultimately inhibit gill activity through the modification of SOD and/or CAT enzymatic activities. ATPases activity (considered to be a sensitive indicator of toxicity could play an effective role in the maintenance of functional integrity of the plasma membranes as well as some other intracellular functions. After the exposure, a decrease in the Na+ K+-ATPase, Mg+ +-ATPase, and Ca+ +-ATPase activity of the gills was observed suggesting that they were inhibited by the treatments. These results also indicated that, from day 4 to day 16, exposure to high concentrations of suspended solids had an inhibitory effect on the activity of H+-K+-ATPase in the visceral mass of S. constricta. However, after a period of adaptation the H+-K+-ATPase activity was restored to original levels. Our results suggest that long-term exposure to high levels of suspended solids disturb osmoregulation, gastric acid secretion and digestion, cause oxidative damage, as a consequence of antioxidant enzymes inactivation which eventually damages the gills, affect the food intake

  13. Decreasing Suspended Sediment Concentrations and Loads in the Lower Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, 1980 through 2015 (United States)

    Mize, S.


    Suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and suspended-sediment load (SSL) trends were determined for the lower portion of the Mississippi and the Atchafalaya Rivers from 1980 through 2015 using suspended-sediment data from two stations in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network. The Weighted Regressions on Time, Season and Discharge (WRTDS) model was used to derive estimates of SSC and SSL; to relate SSC and SSL with season and discharge; and to identify trends. Use of the WRTDS model reduces uncertainty in suspended-sediment concentrations related to variable streamflow conditions. Flow-normalized SSCs in each river were similar, and decreased by about half from 1980 through 2015 - from about 260 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 130 mg/L. The annual SSL in both rivers combined decreased from about 200 million metric tons per year (MT/y) to about 100 MT/y over the same time period. SSC and SSL declined in both rivers from 1980 through 2015, although more slowly from 2005 through 2015 and these declines show signs of stabilizing. SSC and streamflow differed in an important way between the two rivers. SSC increased as streamflow increased for the entire range of observed streamflow in the Atchafalaya River. In contrast, in the Mississippi River, SSC followed the same increasing pattern during low and moderate streamflow, but concentrations decreased during the highest streamflow events which tended to occur between January and July. Since much of the water flowing in the Atchafalaya originates from the Mississippi River, the difference suggests a within-basin source of suspended sediment for the Atchafalaya River that is absent in the lower Mississippi River. Accurate estimates of the SSC and SSL available in each river are crucial for understanding how effective diversions of river water into adjacent estuaries will be in sustaining these wetlands. Our study demonstrates that there might be far less sediment available than previously

  14. Surface- and tip-enhanced Raman scattering of bradykinin onto the colloidal suspended Ag surface. (United States)

    Swiech, D; Ozaki, Y; Kim, Y; Proniewicz, E


    In this paper, surface- (SERS) and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) techniques were used to determine the adsorption mode of bradykinin (BK), a small peptide implicated in, for example, carcinoma growth, onto colloidal suspended Ag surfaces under various environmental conditions, including: peptide concentrations (10(-5)-10(-7) M), excitation wavelengths (514.5 and 785.0 nm), and pH of aqueous sol solutions (from pH = 3 to pH = 11). The metal surface plasmon and rheology of the colloidal suspended Ag surface were explored by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and atomic force/scanning electron microscopy (AFM/SEM). The SERS results indicated that the peptide concentration of 10(-5) M was the optimal peptide concentration for monolayer colloidal coverage. The Phe(5/8) and Arg(9) residues of BK generally participated in the interactions with colloidal suspended Ag surfaces. The amide group appeared to be arranged in the same manner to the Ag surface in the pH range of 3 to 11. At acidic pH of the solution (pH = 3 to 5), the BK -COO(-) terminal group binds to the Ag surface as a bidentate (at pH = 3) or monodentate (at pH = 5) chelating ligand. At pH = 11, the imino group of Arg(9), probably due to its -C[double bond, length as m-dash]N(⊕)H2 protonation state, was not involved in the interaction with Ag. The reduction in the solution alkalinity (pH = 9) produced the deprotonation of the -C=N(⊕)H2 group followed by group rearrangement in a way favoring the interaction between the lone electron pair on N and Ag. The TERS studies confirmed the proposed, on the basis of SERS, behavior of BK onto the colloidal suspended Ag at pH = 7 and showed that in different points of the colloidal suspended Ag surface the same peptide fragments approximately having the same orientations with respect to this surface interact with it.

  15. Evaluation of the suspending properties of two local Opuntia spp. mucilages on paracetamol suspension. (United States)

    Gebresamuel, Naod; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige


    Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The purpose of this study is to develop cheap and effective natural excipient that can be used as an effective alternative for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The suspending properties of Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta mucilages (family Cactaceae) were evaluated comparatively with that of NaCMC at concentration range of 2-6% (w/v) in Paracetamol suspension. Sedimentation volume (%) (with and without electrolyte), rheology, redispersibility, and dissolution rate of the suspensions were employed as evaluation parameters. The values obtained were used as basis for comparison of the suspending agents. The apparent viscosities of the suspensions in all the suspending agents concentration levels and applied shear rates were in the order of NaCMC>OS>OFI with non-Newtonian flow and accordingly the flow rates of the suspensions were in the order of OFI > OS > NaCMC. The sedimentation volumes (%) of the suspensions in all the suspending agent concentration levels were higher for OS followed by OFI and then NaCMC. The high sedimentation volumes (%) of suspensions, in turn, were accompanied by ease of redispersibility of that order. The effect of electrolyte on sedimentation volume (%) had dual effect. It was only the suspensions that had NaCMC that showed increase in sedimentation volume (%) in all molar NaCl concentration. However, in suspensions that had mucilages of OS and OFI, an initial increase in sediment volumes (%) were accompanied by decrease after 1x10(-3)M and 1x10(-2)M of NaCl, respectively. Dissolution of the suspensions which had mucilages attained the acceptable ranges (> 80% drug release in 30 min) in 5 min. Similarly, except A6 formulations A2, A3, A4 and A5 have attained the limit but the release was not as quick as the previous formulations. Hence, it can be concluded that mucilages of Opuntia spp. (Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia stricta

  16. Transport of phosphorus, wash load and suspended sediment in the River Varde A in southwest Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodsen, Hans; Hasholt, Bent; Pejrup, Morten


    Total phosphorus (TP) concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and wash load have been measured at three river monitoring stations in the River Varde Angstrom system since 1998. This provides the possibility of studying the link between SSC and wash load and concentrations of TP....... Transport rates of TP, suspended sediment and wash load at the three stations, calculated using rating curves, indicate the dependence of TP transport on the transport of suspended sediment and wash load. Two stations are located on tributaries flowing upstream of the third station located at a weir...... at the end of a small impoundment. Transport rates at the upstream stations were 57% higher for suspended sediment and 27% higher for wash load than at the downstream station, while transport of TP was the same. This indicates that phosphorus is transported adhered to the finest grain size fractions that do...

  17. Residual fluxes and suspended sediment transport in the lower reaches of Muvattupuzha River, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Balachandran, K.K.; Xavier, J.K.; Rejendran, N.C.

    Spatial and seasonal variation of different physical processes governing the transport of salt and sediment of the Muvattupuzha River, in Kerala, India are discussed. Salt and suspended sediment due to tidal pumping was directed upstream, salt...

  18. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport (United States)

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  19. Transformation and sorption of illicit drug biomarkers in sewer systems: understanding the role of suspended solids in raw wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio


    substrates (primary metabolic processes) and transformation of illicit drug biomarkers (secondary metabolic processes) by suspended biomass. Sixteen drug biomarkers were targeted, including mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, heroin, codeine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and their major human metabolites. Batch...

  20. Hydromagnetic thermosolutal instability of Rivlin-Ericksen rotating fluid permeated with suspended particles and variable gravity field in porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana G. C.


    Full Text Available The thermosolutal instability of Rivlin-Ericksen elasticoviscous rotating fluid permeated with suspended particles (fine dust and variable gravity field in porous medium in hydromagnetics is considered. By applying normal mode analysis method, the dispersion relation has been derived and solved analytically. It is observed that the rotation, magnetic field, gravity field, suspended particles and viscoelasticity introduce oscillatory modes. For stationary convection, the rotation and stable solute gradient has stabilizing effects and suspended particles are found to have destabilizing effect on the system whereas the medium permeability has stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the system under certain conditions. The magnetic field has destabilizing effect in the absence of rotation whereas in the presence of rotation, magnetic field has stabilizing or destabilizing effect under certain conditions. The effect of rotation, suspended particles, magnetic field, stable solute gradient and medium permeability has also been shown graphically.

  1. Simulation modes of movement the drive rollers of suspension of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.


    Full Text Available Mathematical model of conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive which allows to simulate the dynamics of suspension at various modes of movement of the drive roller is developed. The modeling results are presented in the article.

  2. 78 FR 9573 - Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and... (United States)


    ... Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD... Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114; 22 U.S.C. 6021-6091), as...

  3. Variations in some environmental characteristics including C and N stable isotopic composition of suspended organic matter in the Mandovi estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maya, M.V.; Soares, M.A.; Agnihotri, R.; Pratihary, A.K.; Karapurkar, S.; Naik, H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) of suspended organic matter produced/transported during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of year 2007 provides a baseline dataset for future isotopic studies in such type of tropical estuaries...

  4. Sources and fate of organic matter in suspended and bottom sediments of the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Western India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Kessarkar, P.M.; ManiMurali, R.

    Organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN) and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions were measured in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediment along estuaries of Mandovi and Zuari rivers, two small mountainous river systems...

  5. Can foreign aid donors credibly threaten to suspend aid? Evidence from a cross-national survey of donor officials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swedlund, H.J.


    Under what conditions are foreign aid donors willing to suspend foreign aid to punish political transgressions, such as election fraud, corruption scandals or political repression? Prior scholarship has emphasized that political sanctions, including foreign aid suspensions, are constrained by the

  6. Insights into particle cycling in the Sargasso Sea from lipid biomarkers in suspended particles: Seasonality and physical forcing (United States)

    Pedrosa Pàmies, R.; Conte, M. H.; Weber, J.


    Lipid biomarkers elucidate organic material (OM) sources and cycling within the water column. Biomarker composition and bulk properties (organic carbon (OC), nitrogen (N), OC/N ratio, CaCO3 and stable isotopes) were determined in suspended particles (30-4400 m, 100 mab) collected at Oceanic Flux Program site offshore Bermuda in April/November 2015 and October 2016, three periods of contrasting oceanographic conditions. Key lipid biomarkers were used to evaluate the relative importance of phytoplankton-, bacterial- and zooplankton-OM sources, diagenetic reprocessing, and the impact of upper ocean environmental forcing on the carbon pump. Additionally, we assessed benthic remineralization by comparing particles above and within the nepheloid layer (4400 m). N-fatty acids, n-alcohols and sterols comprise up to 85%, 12% and 7%, respectively, of total extractable lipids. Higher lipid concentrations in April vs November 2015 mirror seasonality in primary production, while change in sterol composition reflect shifts in phytoplankton community structure. In the mesopelagic zone, increased cholesterol/phytosterol ratios and percentages of C16 and C18 n-alcohols, odd-chain and branched n-fatty acids document a transition from algal to animal OM sources as well as bacterial reprocessing of labile OM. The impact of Hurricane Nicole (October 2016) on the mixed layer and subsequent increases in production/flux was evident in higher concentrations as well as greater depth penetration of particulate N and fresh/labile algal biomarkers (e.g. 18:5 ω3 and 22:6 ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) in the upper 1000 m. Suspended particles in the nepheloid layer had higher concentrations of OC and N and were more depleted in d13C than particles at 4200 m for all dates. While nepheloid lipid composition was similar for all dates, lipid concentrations in April 2015 (seasonal production peak) and October 2016 (hurricane physical forcing) were higher than in November 2015, consistent with the

  7. Mathematical model of failure the drives suspensions of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive at jamming rollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolkachev E.N.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the topical issue, which is related to simulation of the failures of drives suspensions of the conveyor with suspended belt and distributed drive. A mathematical model of the failure of individual drives of suspensions due to the jamming of the rollers has been developed. Dynamic characteristics of the basic version of a conveyor with suspended belt were simulated.

  8. Hydrogenation of cyclohexene with LaNi5−xAlxHn metal hydrides suspended in cyclohexane or ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, E.D.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van


    The hydrogenation of cyclohexene on the metal hydride forming alloys LaNi4.8Al0.2, LaNi4.9Al0.1 and LaNi5, all suspended in cyclohexane and LaNi5 suspended in ethanol, has been investigated. Two sources for hydrogen are recognized: hydrogen supplied by the gas phase and hydrogen which is available

  9. Hydrogenation of cyclohexene with LaNi@#5@#-@#x@#Al@#x@#Hn metal hydrides, suspended in cyclohexane or ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, E.D.; Snijder, E.D.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    The hydrogenation of cyclohexene on the metal hydride forming alloys LaNi4.8Al0.2, LaNi4.9Al0.1 and LaNi5, all suspended in cyclohexane and LaNi5 suspended in ethanol, has been investigated. Two sources for hydrogen are recognized: hydrogen supplied by the gas phase and hydrogen which is available

  10. Effects of Suspended Moxibustion on Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: A Randomized Controlled Double-Blind Pilot Study


    Ding Meng, Dong Xiaosheng, Wang Xuhui, Wang Xu, Zhang Xijin


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of suspended moxibustion upon tender point on delayed onset muscle soreness. The study was a randomized double-blind controlled trial with 50 subjects in each group. Subjects in moxibustion group received suspended moxibustion upon tender point (by palpation) twice. The controls received no treatment. Each subject received treatments twice, 24 hr and 48 hr after the delayed onset muscle soreness induction. The measurements of Pain Vis...

  11. Frequency of Morning Ketosis After Overnight Insulin Suspension Using an Automated Nocturnal Predictive Low Glucose Suspend System


    Beck, Roy W.; Raghinaru, Dan; Wadwa, R. Paul; Chase, H. Peter; Maahs, David M.; Buckingham, Bruce A.


    OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of overnight insulin pump suspension in an automated predictive low glucose suspend system on morning blood glucose and ketone levels in an attempt to determine whether routine measurement of ketone levels is useful when a closed-loop system that suspends insulin delivery overnight is being used. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data from an in-home randomized trial of 45 individuals with type 1 diabetes (age range 15?45 years) were analyzed, evaluating an automated ...

  12. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Carmelo [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering (ABC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Luzi, Guido [Centre Tecnòlogic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Division of Geomatics, Av. Gauss, 7 E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)


    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  13. Load characteristics of a suspended carbon nanotube film heater and the fabrication of a fast-response thermochromic display prototype. (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Duanliang; Wei, Yang; Jiang, Kaili; Wang, Jiaping; Zhang, Lina; Li, Qunqing; Fan, Shoushan


    The influence of heating load on the thermal response of a CNT film heater has been studied. Two kinds of heat dissipation modes, thermal radiation in a vacuum and convection in the atmosphere, are investigated, respectively. It is found that the thermal response slows down with the load quantities in the both cases. We have further studied the thermal response of a CNT film loaded with thermochromic pigment, which is a kind of phase change material. In addition to the thermal response slowing down with the load quantity, it is also found that the phase change of the thermochromic pigments can also slow down the thermal response. With a suspended CNT film heater structure, we have fabricated a thermochromic display prototype, which can switch from room temperature to 50 °C in about 1 s with a brightness contrast of 4.8 under normal indoor illumination. A 16 × 16 pixel thermochromic display prototype can dynamically display Chinese characters driven by a homemade circuit.

  14. Ultrasonic method for microscopic analysis of suspended particle aggregation and floc properties - new developments in the water industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spengler, J.F. [Gelsenwasser AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany). Abt. PIA; Jekel, M. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Water Quality Control; Coakley, W.T. [Cardiff Univ., Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Biosciences


    This work reports the investigation, development and optimisation of methods employing MHz ultrasonic standing waves (USSW) for analytical applications in the water industry. The performance of large-scale processing methods for suspensions a significantly influenced by aggregate properties. Laboratory-scale studies on the aggregation efficiency and the settling behaviour of suspensions under varied suspension stability ('Jar-Test') is e.g. a common method to optimise focculation/sedimentation processes. A novel microscopic method, employing an acoustic 'mini-chamber', has been introduced here. The set-up facilitates the observation of aggregation processes under defined conditions in real-time and in-situ. It was successfully used with a number of suspensions to visualise floc growth, the final aggregate structure and other aggregate properties of practical importance (strength, settling velocity, density). Image analysis was employed for quantitative floc characterisation by e.g. the fractal dimension. The findings were consistent with the DLVO theory of suspension stability and qualitative models of particle aggregation dynamics. Aggregation kinetics has been quantitatively studied by particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis. These novel investigations suggest the principal applicability of the mini-chamber/microscope system for various research fields and suspended particle investigations, which are of interest not only for water industry purposes but also for the processing of heterogeneous systems in general. Design studies of simple, low-cost and disposable ultrasonic devices for such studies have been developed and a prototype tested successfully. (orig.)

  15. Near-Bed Monitoring of Suspended Sediment during a Major Flood Event Highlights Deficiencies in Existing Event-Loading Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Grinham


    Full Text Available Rates of fluvial sediment discharge are notoriously difficult to quantify, particularly during major flood events. Measurements are typically undertaken using event stations requiring large capital investment, and the high cost tends to reduce the spatial coverage of monitoring sites. This study aimed to characterise the near-bed suspended sediment dynamics during a major flood event using a low-cost approach. Monitoring nodes consisted of a total suspended sediment (TSS logger, a single stage sampler, and a time-lapse camera for a total cost of less than US$420. Seven nodes were deployed across an elevation gradient on the stream bank of Laidley Creek, Queensland, Australia, and two of these nodes successfully characterised the near-bed suspended sediment dynamics across a major flood event. Near-bed TSS concentrations were closely related to stream flow, with the contribution of suspended bed material dominating the total suspended load during peak flows. Observed TSS concentrations were orders of magnitude higher than historical monitoring data for this site collected using the State government event station. This difference was attributed to the event station pump inlet screening the suspended bed material prior to sample collection. The ‘first flush’ phenomenon was detected and attributed to a local resuspension of muddy crusts immediately upstream of the study site. This low-cost approach will provide an important addition to the existing monitoring of fluvial sediment discharge during flood events.

  16. Sources of suspended-sediment flux in streams of the chesapeake bay watershed: A regional application of the sparrow model (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Ator, S.W.; Schwarz, G.E.


    We describe the sources and transport of fluvial suspended sediment in nontidal streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed and vicinity. We applied SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes, which spatially correlates estimated mean annual flux of suspended sediment in nontidal streams with sources of suspended sediment and transport factors. According to our model, urban development generates on average the greatest amount of suspended sediment per unit area (3,928 Mg/km2/year), although agriculture is much more widespread and is the greatest overall source of suspended sediment (57 Mg/km2/year). Factors affecting sediment transport from uplands to streams include mean basin slope, reservoirs, physiography, and soil permeability. On average, 59% of upland suspended sediment generated is temporarily stored along large rivers draining the Coastal Plain or in reservoirs throughout the watershed. Applying erosion and sediment controls from agriculture and urban development in areas of the northern Piedmont close to the upper Bay, where the combined effects of watershed characteristics on sediment transport have the greatest influence may be most helpful in mitigating sedimentation in the bay and its tributaries. Stream restoration efforts addressing floodplain and bank stabilization and incision may be more effective in smaller, headwater streams outside of the Coastal Plain. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association. No claim to original U.S. government works.

  17. Suspended shellfish culture impacts on the benthic layer: a case study in Brazilian subtropical waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Moraes Rudorff


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess benthic impacts of suspended shellfish cultures in two marine farms located in South Bay, Florianópolis (SC, Brazil. The goal was to detect changes in the benthic layer and evaluate the influence of local conditions, such as hydrodynamics and geomorphology, on the degree of impact at each site. The method included analysis of three groups of oceanographic descriptors: hydrodynamic; morpho-sedimentological (bathymetry, grain size and organic content, and ecological (foraminiferal fauna. Data sets were analyzed using geostatistical and multivariate techniques. Ecological descriptors seemed to be more effective under different environmental conditions than sedimentological variables. Those that best identified culture-related biodeposits, were: dominance of Ammonia tepida; test size; and living: total population ratio. Only slight differences were observed within and outside the culture structures. However, a greater alteration was observed at the site with weaker hydrodynamics and located in shallower depths. The conclusion is that biodeposition at studied still causes little alteration in the local benthic environment. However, local factors such as hydrodynamics and geomorphology were shown to be important in minimizing these impacts. These are criteria that should be considered in site selection programs for the development of this productive activity.O presente trabalho investigou os impactos de cultivos suspensos de moluscos sobre a camada bêntica em duas fazendas marinhas na Baía Sul, Florianópolis (SC, Brasil. O objetivo foi detectar mudanças no ambiente de fundo e avaliar a influência de condições locais, como a hidrodinâmica e geomorfologia, no grau de impacto em cada sítio. O método empregado compreendeu análises de três grupos de descritores oceanográficos: hidrodinâmicos, morfossedimentológicos (batimetria, granulometria e constituintes orgânicos e ecológicos (fauna foraminífera. Os dados

  18. Cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill: Design and Tests (United States)

    Wang, Rusheng; Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Chen; Xu, Huiwen; Xue, Hong; Xue, Jun; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Gong, Da; Liu, Chunpeng; Han, Junjie; Yu, Chengfeng; Hong, Jialing; Wang, Lili


    Directly obtaining the subglacial bedrock samples is one of the most important tasks of Antarctic exploration in the future, which has great significance to research the formation and evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, research the environment at the junction of the ice and bedrock, and research the geologic structure in Polar Regions. To drill through ice and bedrock, a new modified version of the cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill 'IBED' is designed. IBED drill has modulus construction. The upper part includes four sections: cable termination, slip rings section, antitorque system, electronic pressure chamber. The motor-gear system is differed by rotation speed of the output shaft of the gear-reducer. All modulus contain 3 kW AC3 × 380 V submersible motor. Gear-reducer for drilling in ice lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 100 rpm; gear reducer for subglacial drilling lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 500 rpm. In addition, module for dry core drilling contains vacuum pump for near bottom air reverse circulation instead of liquid-driven pump that is installed into other two variants. The rotation speed of air-driven pump is increased by the gear to 6000 rpm. In modules for drilling with liquid the gear pump is used with capacity of 38-41 L/min and maximal pressure of 0.2 MPa. IBED lower part for drilling in ice consists from two parts: chip chamber for filtration of drilling fluid and collecting chips, and core barrel with the drill bit. The outer/inner diameter of the ice core drill bit is 134/110 mm. Length of the core barrel is 2.5 m. Lower part of the bedrock drill is adapted for coring bedrock and contains standard 2-m length core barrel borrowed from conventional diamond drill string, chip chamber for gravity separation of rock cuttings and dead weights (appr. 200 kg) for increasing of the load on the diamond drill bit. The outer/inner diameters of the diamond bit are 59/41 mm. The IBED drill was tested in order to solve

  19. Heavy metal toxicity and bioavailability of dissolved nutrients to a bacterivorous flagellate are linked to suspended particle physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenigk, Jens; Wiedlroither, Anneliese; Pfandl, Karin


    Many dissolved substances attach easily to sediment particles. In the presence of suspended sediments bioavailability of dissolved substances is therefore, usually reduced and clays are even applied to 'wash' natural waters upon pollution. In organisms which feed on food organisms in the size range of these suspended sediment particles, however, bioavailability of such substances may even increase. For microorganisms the interaction with dissolved substances and suspended sediment particles so far has hardly been investigated. We specifically tested: (1) the importance of suspended particles as an uptake route for dissolved substances; and (2) the significance of particle surface properties, i.e. surface load and mineralogy. As a model system we used an axenically cultured strain of a widespread and often abundant flagellate ('Spumella-like' flagellate strain JBM10). We tested the toxicity of cadmium (II) and mercury (II) as well as availability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the absence as well as in the presence of different natural clays, i.e. a kaolinite, a montmorillonite, and a mixed clay, and of artificial silicate particles of different surface charge. When applied separately the presence of the heavy metals cadmium and mercury as well as of suspended particles negatively affected the investigated flagellate but nutritive organics supported growth of the investigated flagellate. Toxic stress response comprises behavioral changes including enhanced swimming activity and stress egestion of ingested particles and was generally similar for a variety of different flagellate species. In combination with suspended particles, the respective effect of trace metals and nutritive substances decreased. Regarding the particle quality, cadmium toxicity increased with increasingly negative surface charge, i.e. increasing surface density of silanol groups (Pearson's product moment, P = 0.005). For mercury particle mineralogy still had a significant effect (P < 0

  20. Contemporary suspended sediment yield of a partly glaciated catchment, Riffler Bach (Tyrol, Austria) (United States)

    Weber, Martin; Baewert, Henning; Morche, David


    Due to glacier retreat since the LIA (Little Ice Age) proglacial areas in high mountain landscapes are growing. These systems are characterized by a high geomorphological activity, especially in the fluvial subsystem. Despite the long tradition of geomorphological research in the European Alps there is a still a lack of understanding in the interactions between hydrology, sediment sources, sediments sinks and suspended sediment transport. As emphasized by ORWIN ET AL. (2010) those problems can be solved by gathering data in a higher frequency and/or in a higher spatial resolution or density - both leading to a big amount of data. In 2012 a gauging station was installed at the outlet of the partly glaciated catchment of the Riffler Bach (Kaunertal valley, Tyrol). During the ablation seasons in 2012 and 2013 water stage was logged automatically every 15 minutes. In both seasons discharge was measured at different water levels to calculate a stage-discharge relation. Additionally, water samples were taken by an automatic water sampler. Within 16 sampling cycles with sampling frequencies ranging from 1 to 24 hours 389 water samples have been collected. The samples were filtered to calculate the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of each sample. Furthermore, the climate station Weißsee provided meteorological data at a 15 minute interval. Due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport in proglacial rivers it is impossible to compute a robust annual Q-SSC-relation. Hence, two other approaches were used to calculate the suspended sediment load (SSL) and the suspended sediment yield (SSY): A) Q-SSC-relations for every single sampling cycle (e.g. GEILHAUSEN ET AL. 2013) B) Q-SSC-relations based on classification of dominant runoff-generating processes (e.g. ORWIN AND SMART 2004). The first approach uses commonly operated analysis methods that are well understood. While the hydro-climatic approach is more feasible to explain discharge generation and to

  1. Variability of suspended sediment yields within the Loire river basin (France) (United States)

    Gay, A.; Cerdan, O.; Delmas, M.; Desmet, M.


    Suspended sediment fluxes and their variability in time and space have received much attention over the past decades. Large databases compiling suspended sediment load (SL) data are often used to serve these purposes. Analyses of these databases have highlighted the following two major limitations: (i) the role of lowland areas in sediment production and transfer has been minimised, and studies on small-scale catchments (with a drainage area of ⩽ 102 km2) are practically non-existent in the literature; and (ii) inhomogeneous data and calculation methods are used to estimate and compare the SL values. In this context, the present study aims to complete the existing studies by providing a reliable comparison of SL values for various catchments within lowland river basins. Therefore, we focused on the Loire and Brittany river basins (France). 111 small to large catchments covering 78% of this area and representative of the basins landscape diversity were chosen. We first present a large database of area-specific suspended sediment yields (SY) calculated from the suspended sediment concentration and flow discharge data over 7-40 yr of measurements at gauging stations. Two calculation methods are used, and the calculated loads are confined within a factor of 0.60-1.65 of the real values. Second, we analyse the temporal and spatial variability of the calculated SY values. Finally, using a nested catchment approach, we provide insight into sediment transport from upstream to downstream gauging stations and into the role of small- and medium- scale catchments in sediment production and transfers. The SL values at the outlet of the catchments range from 2.5 * 102 to 8.6 * 105 t yr-1, and the SY values range from 2.9 to 32.4 t km-2 yr-1. A comparison with the limited values available in the literature for this region corroborates our estimations. Sediment exports from the Loire and Brittany river basins are very low compared with mountainous regions and European exports

  2. Suspended sediment transport in a semiarid watershed, Wadi Abd, Algeria (1973 1995) (United States)

    Achite, Mohamed; Ouillon, Sylvain


    SummaryA quantification of the fine sediment budget of a wadi (dryland river) in NW Algeria is presented for a period of 22 hydrological years (1973-1995). The climate is Mediterranean over the Wadi Abd basin (2480 km 2), the mean annual precipitation is 250 mm and the mean annual discharge is 1.0 m 3 s -1 at the gauging station. Regression relationships between water discharge Q and suspended sediment concentration C are calculated from 1432 paired measurements in the Wadi Abd, leading to power-law equations of the type C = a Qb. The variability of coefficients a and b, calculated for 138 floods and flood stages, is analyzed. The median value of b is 0.757, indicating that C is almost proportional to Q3/4. Given that the ( a, b) pairs are correctly aligned ( r2 = 0.578), the coefficients a and b are not independent. Regression relationships between daily Q and daily suspended sediment concentration and discharge Qs are calculated from 702 input data. The performances of these regression relationships are shown to be equivalent, leading to over-estimations of 20-25% of the suspended sediment flux. The non-biased C- Q sediment rating curve is used to extrapolate a time series of C measurements, and thus to analyze the long-term patterns in suspended sediment transport. Average sediment wash-down (136 t km -2 yr -1) is similar to the mean global value. The ratio of sediment wash-down to the river water discharge is 10.7 × 10 6 t km 3, 20 times greater than the average ratio in the Earth's eastern hemisphere, and illustrates the highly erosive power of wadis. Variability is shown to be significant at the seasonal scale (CV = 89%) and higher at the interannual scale (CV = 139%). The fine sediment flux mainly occurs in autumn (48.4%) and spring (32.7%). Although precipitation decreased, it was more irregular from one year to another over the period 1985-1995 than during the period 1973-1985, and the Wadi Abd, which was a perennial river, became intermittent in the late

  3. Total nitrogen and suspended-sediment loads and identification of suspended-sediment sources in the Laurel Hill Creek watershed, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, water years 2010-11 (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Gellis, Allen C.; Galeone, Daniel G.


    Laurel Hill Creek is a watershed of 125 square miles located mostly in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, with small areas extending into Fayette and Westmoreland Counties. The upper part of the watershed is on the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection 303(d) list of impaired streams because of siltation, nutrients, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate the annual sediment load, (2) estimate the annual nitrogen load, and (3) identify the major sources of fine-grained sediment using the sediment-fingerprinting approach. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was done in cooperation with the Somerset County Conservation District. Discharge, suspended-sediment, and nutrient data were collected at two streamflow-gaging stations—Laurel Hill Creek near Bakersville, Pa., (station 03079600) and Laurel Hill Creek at Ursina, Pa., (station 03080000)—and one ungaged stream site, Laurel Hill Creek below Laurel Hill Creek Lake at Trent (station 03079655). Concentrations of nutrients generally were low. Concentrations of ammonia were less than 0.2 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and concentrations of phosphorus were less than 0.3 mg/L. Most concentrations of phosphorus were less than the detection limit of 0.02 mg/L. Most water samples had concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite less than 1.0 mg/L. At the Bakersville station, concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.63 to 1.3 mg/L in base-flow samples and from 0.57 to 1.5 mg/L in storm composite samples. Median concentrations were 0.88 mg/L in base-flow samples and 1.2 mg/L in storm composite samples. At the Ursina station, concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.25 to 0.92 mg/L in base-flow samples; the median concentration was 0.57 mg/L. The estimated total nitrogen load at the Bakersville station was 262 pounds (lb) for 11 months of the 2010 water year (November 2009 to September 2010) and 266 lb for the 2011 water year. Most of the total

  4. Suspended-sediment trapping in the tidal reach of an estuarine tributary channel (United States)

    Downing-Kunz, Maureen; Schoellhamer, David H.


    Evidence of decreasing sediment supply to estuaries and coastal oceans worldwide illustrates the need for accurate and updated estimates. In the San Francisco Estuary (Estuary), recent research suggests a decrease in supply from its largest tributaries, implying the increasing role of smaller, local tributaries in sediment supply to this estuary. Common techniques for estimating supply from tributaries are based on gages located above head of tide, which do not account for trapping processes within the tidal reach. We investigated the effect of a tidal reach on suspended-sediment discharge for Corte Madera Creek, a small tributary of the Estuary. Discharge of water (Q) and suspended-sediment (SSD) were observed for 3 years at two locations along the creek: upstream of tidal influence and at the mouth. Comparison of upstream and mouth gages showed nearly 50 % trapping of upstream SSD input within the tidal reach over this period. At the storm time scale, suspended-sediment trapping efficiency varied greatly (range −31 to 93 %); storms were classified as low- or high-yield based on upstream SSD. As upstream peak Q increased, high-yield storms exhibited significantly decreased trapping. Tidal conditions at the mouth—ebb duration and peak ebb velocity—during storms had a minor effect on sediment trapping, suggesting fluvial processes dominate. Comparison of characteristic fluvial and tidal discharges at the storm time scale demonstrated longitudinal differences in the regulating process for SSD. These results suggest that SSD from gages situated above head of tide overestimate sediment supply to the open waters beyond tributary mouths and thus trapping processes within the tidal reach should be considered.

  5. Characterization and radionuclides sorption of suspended particulate matters in freshwater according to their settling kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brach-Papa, C.; Boyer, P.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.


    In freshwater, the transfers of radionuclides depend both on exchanges between liquid and solid phases and on mass transfers between suspended matter and bottom sediment. Whereas the former ones depend on chemical processes (such as sorption/desorption, complexation, the latter ones are regulated by hydrological and sedimentary considerations (dispersion, erosion, deposit closely related to the interactions between flow, suspended matter and bed sediment. Some of our previous studies highlight the need to consider the matter heterogeneity and its specific sediment dynamics to correctly report the inhomogeneity of fluxes in time and in space. These considerations lead us to develop experimental methods to distinguish the different matter classes, present in natural water, mainly according to their erosion threshold and settling kinetics. In this context, this paper presents the experimental protocol TALISMEN to characterize a natural bulk suspension according the identification of its main settling kinetics groups. In a first step, this identification is achieved by the use of a settling tank, that allows the monitoring of the suspended solid concentration at various depths, combined to a vertical mono-dimensional settling model applying a multi-class approach. In a second step, the particle groups are isolated and their physico-chemical properties are determined ( i.e mineral composition, specific surface area, particulate organic carbon, in order to fully characterized them. In a last one, the sorption property of each group toward radionuclides is determined by the measurements of its distribution coefficients (Kd). The results confirm the interest to consider these heterogeneities for the modelling of the radionuclides transfer in freshwater. From one group to other, these heterogeneities appear at two levels: 1) their sediment dynamics and 2) their radionuclides sorption properties. These conclusions can be equally applying to others xenobiotics as heavy metals

  6. Hydrogenase activity of mineral-associated and suspended populations of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans Essex 6. (United States)

    Reardon, C L; Magnuson, T S; Boyd, E S; Leavitt, W D; Reed, D W; Geesey, G G


    The interactions between sulfate-reducing microorganisms and iron oxides influence a number of important redox-sensitive biogeochemical processes including the formation of iron sulfides. Enzymes, such as hydrogenase which catalyze the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen, are known to mediate electron transfer to metals and may contribute to the formation and speciation of ferrous sulfides formed at the cell-mineral interface. In the present study, we compared the whole cell hydrogenase activity of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain Essex 6 growing as biofilms on hematite (hematite-associated) or as suspended populations using different metabolic pathways. Hematite-associated cells exhibited significantly greater hydrogenase activity than suspended populations during sulfate respiration but not during pyruvate fermentation. The enhanced activity of the hematite-associated, sulfate-grown cells appears to be dependent on iron availability rather than a general response to surface attachment since the activity of glass-associated cells did not differ from that of suspended populations. Hydrogenase activity of pyruvate-fermenting cells was stimulated by addition of iron as soluble Fe(II)Cl2 and, in the absence of added iron, both sulfate-reducing and pyruvate-fermenting cells displayed similar rates of hydrogenase activity. These data suggest that iron exerts a stronger influence on whole cell hydrogenase activity than either metabolic pathway or mode of growth. The location of hydrogenase to the cell envelope and the enhanced activity at the hematite surface in sulfate-reducing cells may influence the redox conditions that control the species of iron sulfides on the mineral surface.

  7. Numerical Simulations of Suspended Sediment Dynamics Due to Seasonal Forcing in the Mekong Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Duy Vinh


    Full Text Available The Mekong River is ranked as the 8th in terms of water discharge and as the 10th in terms of sediment load in the world. During the last 4500 years, its delta prograded more than 250 km to the south due to a tremendous amount of sediments deposited, and turned from a “tide-dominated” delta into a “wave-and-tide dominated” delta. This study aims at completing our knowledge on the fate of sediments that may be stored in estuarine or coastal systems, or dispersed over the continental shelf and slope. Sediment transport in the Mekong River Delta (MRD coastal area was studied by numerical simulations using the Delft3D model. The model configuration was calibrated and validated from data collected in situ during 4 periods from 2012 to 2014. Then, 50 scenarios corresponding to different wave conditions (derived from the wave climate and river discharge values typical of low flow and flood seasons enabled us to quantify the dispersal patterns of fluvial sediments close to the mouths and along the coast. Sediments mostly settled in the estuary and close to the mouths under calm conditions, and suspended sediment with higher concentrations extend further offshore with higher waves. Waves from the Southeast enhanced the concentration all along the MRD coastal zone. Waves from the South and Southwest induced coastal erosion, higher suspended sediment concentrations in front of the southern delta, and a net transport towards the Northeast of the delta. Because of episodes of Southern and Southwestern waves during the low flow season, the net alongshore suspended sediment transport is oriented Northeastward and decreases from the Southwestern part of the coastal zone (~960 × 103 t yr−1 to the Northeastern part (~650 × 103 t yr−1.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Molloy


    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter

  9. Sediment Size Effects in Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter-Derived Estimates of Suspended Sediment Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Öztürk


    Full Text Available Backscatter output from a 10 MHz acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV was used to quantify suspended sediment concentrations in a laboratory setting using sand-sized particles. The experiments included (a well-sorted sand samples ranging in size from 0.112 to 0.420 mm, obtained by the sieving of construction sand, (b different, known mixtures of these well-sorted fractions, and (c sieved natural beach sand with median sizes ranging from 0.112 to 0.325 mm. The tested concentrations ranged from 25 to 3000 mg•L−1. The backscatter output was empirically related to concentration and sediment size, and when non-dimensionalized by acoustic wavelength, a dimensionless sediment size gradation coefficient. Size-dependent upper and lower bounds on measurable concentrations were also established empirically. The range of measurable conditions is broad enough to make the approach useful for sand sizes and concentrations commonly encountered in nature. A new method is proposed to determine concentrations in cases of mixed-size sediment suspensions when only calibration data for well-sorted constituent sands are available. This approach could potentially allow better estimates when the suspended load is derived from but is not fully representative of the bed material, and when the size characteristics of the suspended material are varying in time over the period of interest. Differences in results between the construction and beach sands suggest that sediment shape may also need to be considered, and point to the importance of calibrating to sediments encountered at the site of interest.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy


    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter.

  11. Optoelectronic system to measure the concentration and turbidity of suspended solids in the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, E.S.


    The selection of the site where a nuclear power plant is to be built requires intensive study of the environmental conditions. This work presents the results reached on the development of a measurement system of suspended solids based on turbidity characteristics of the water. The system consists of an optical transducer composed of an emitter and a detector of infrared light, both solid state type, whose electrical signal is electronically treated. The equipment was calibrated and certified against turbidity and concentration standards in laboratory use. The obtained results indicate the reliability of the experimental method. The utilization of the equipment at the shore reinforces its flexibility and commodity of use. (author)

  12. Detection of adsorbed explosive molecules using thermal response of suspended microfabricated bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Dechang; Greve, Anders; Hales, Jan Harry


    Here we present a thermophysical technique that is capable of differentiating vapor phase adsorbed explosives from nonexplosives and is additionally capable of differentiating individual species of common explosive vapors. This technique utilizes pairs of suspended microfabricated silicon bridges...... that can be heated in a controlled fashion. The differential thermal response of the bridges with and without adsorbed explosive vapor shows unique and reproducible characteristics depending on the nature of the adsorbed explosives. The tunable heating rate method described here is capable of providing...... unique signals for subnanogram quantities of adsorbed explosives within 50 ms. (C) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  13. A passive collection system for whole size fractions in river suspended solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato; Seiya Nagao


    In order to solve difficulties in collection of river suspended solids (SS) such as frequent observations during stochastic rainfall events, a simple passive collection system of SS has been developed. It is composed of sequentially connected two large-scale filter vessels. A portion of river water flows down into the filter vessels utilizing a natural drop of streambed. The system enable us to carry out long-term, unmanned SS collection. It is also compatible with dissolved component collection. Its performance was validated in a forested catchment by applying to radiocesium and stable carbon transport. (author)

  14. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration from turbidity measurements for agrarian watersheds of Navarre (Spain) (United States)

    Madrona, Cecilia; Campo-Bescós, Miguel A.; Giménez, Rafael


    Studies of soil erosion at watershed scales have addressed this phenomenon from a holistic perspective, linking and prioritizing the dominant influence of the different factors involved in this complex process. Thus, the pattern of sediment transport in a watershed is an excellent indicator of the type and intensity of the dominant erosion processes as well as of the relationships between precipitation, infiltration and runoff. An optimal characterization of the dynamics of sediment requires reliable measurements and recording of the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) at the watershed outlet at a small time scale (minutes) since SSC normally fluctuates rapidly during storm events. But the latter is economically feasible only through indirect measurements; for example, by using turbidimeter. In fact, turbidity is a common subrogate of suspended sediment concentration; but for this purpose it is necessary first to define a suitable (empirical) turbidity-SSC model. But this is not an easy task since the wide range of possible suspended particles of different nature and composition (e.g., silt, clay, organic matter and microorganisms) often lead to a weak association between SSC and turbidity. In Navarre (Spain), soil erosion is an important problem affecting agricultural land. For this reason, the local Government owns and maintains a network of four experimental watersheds to assess the impact on the environment of typical agrarian activities. So that, the amount of sediment and solutes evacuated at the exit of each watershed has been recorded, along with other relevant hydrological and meteorological data. Furthermore, turbidity has been measured every ten minutes. But turbidity-SSC model - determined from average daily data of SSC- currently in use is unsatisfactory, especially for spring and summer events. The aim of this study is to find an appropriate turbidity-SSC relationship for (each of) the agrarian experimental watersheds of Navarre. Regression

  15. Phosphorous recovery from sewage sludge ash suspended in water in a two-compartment electrodialytic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie


    Phosphorus (P) is indispensable for all forms of life on Earth and as P is a finite resource, it is highly important to increase recovery of P from secondary resources. This investigation is focused on P recovery from sewage sludge ash (SSA) by a two-compartment electrodialytic separation (EDS...... was suspended in water in the anolyte, which was separated from the catholyte by a cation exchange membrane. Electrolysis at the anode acidified the SSA suspension, and hereby P, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn were extracted. The heavy metal ions electromigrated into the catholyte and were thus separated from the filtrate...

  16. Deformation and burst of a liquid droplet freely suspended in a linear shear field (United States)

    Barthes-Biesel, D.; Acrivos, A.


    A theoretical method is presented for predicting the deformation and the conditions for breakup of a liquid droplet freely suspended in a general linear shear field. This is achieved by expanding the solution to the creeping-flow equations in powers of the deformation parameter epsilon and using linear stability theory to determine the onset of bursting. When compared with numerical solutions and with the available experimental data, the theoretical results are generally found to be of acceptable accuracy although, in some cases, the agreement is only qualitative.

  17. Detectable elements in a particles pattern of suspended urban matter analysed by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Beltran, C.; Alemon, E.; Ortiz, M.E.


    The multielement composition of a Standard Reference Material 1648 pattern certified is reported and it is used for the suspended in air aerosol samples analysis from urban localities of the Valley of Mexico, which was irradiated in the same geometry of the sample. The bottom of laboratory is analysed where was made the gamma spectrometry and it is compared the ratio of country up of bottom photo peaks with pattern photo peaks in nearer interest regions. The bottom natural gamma transmitters were identified and those of the activated pattern in the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor. (Author)

  18. Radon remediation of dwellings with suspended timber floors -case studies from the Building Research Establishment (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, P.; Stephen, R.


    Dwellings with suspended floors and high radon levels are proving difficult to remediate. This paper reports on the experience of the Building Research Establishment in dealing with such dwellings. Brief details of the remediation of 14 houses are given, and comparisons are made between the effectiveness of the different techniques adopted. Natural ventilation, mechanical supply ventilation and mechanical extract ventilation are three techniques that have been used successfully as radon remedial measures. Preliminary results suggest that supply ventilation is more effective than extract ventilation. (author)

  19. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pandey, P.; Kunte, P.D.

    for the study region, due to data gaps in Landsat ETM+ and secondly due to limited availability of good quality data. 5. The present study assisted in knowing the quantum and dispersal patterns of the suspended sediments in the Bay of Bengal region, which..., University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, for the permission to pursue this summer internship program and their unforgettable help and assistance. Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS 13    data, Landsat 7 ETM, and ETM+ data are downloaded from http...

  20. Development of a suspended-mass RSE interferometer using third harmonic demodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Osamu; Somiya, Kentaro; Heinzel, Gerhard; Kawamura, Seiji


    The most important point of a resonant sideband extraction (RSE) experiment is the signal extraction for control of the interferometer. We proposed a new signal-sensing method for the single modulation scheme. This method uses the third harmonic demodulation (THD) with a particular asymmetry in the interferometer which makes the third-order sidebands vanish at the detecting port. We have successfully locked a suspended-mass RSE interferometer for the first time by the THD method. The transfer function of the interferometer was measured to confirm the RSE effect

  1. Construction of gas suspended bearings (radial and axial gas ball bearings)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspar, G.


    This report contains practical and theoretical results that were obtained at IPP in the section of gas suspended bearings. The two air-cushioned, air-driven revolving mirrors and an air-cushioned, air measuring coil drive were built. The latter has a double radial bearing and a single axial bearing. The axial bearing is shaped in such a way that, with slight throttling of the air feed, i.e. at low air intake pressure, a relatively high bearing load can be imposed and the bearing remains at the same time free of the so-called air hammer effect. (orig.) [de

  2. Suspended graphene devices with local gate control on an insulating substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Florian R; Cui, Zheng; Vojvodin, Cameron; Papaj, Michał; Deng, Chunqing; Bal, Mustafa; Lupascu, Adrian; Yurtalan, Muhammet A; Orgiazzi, Jean-Luc F X


    We present a fabrication process for graphene-based devices where a graphene monolayer is suspended above a local metallic gate placed in a trench. As an example we detail the fabrication steps of a graphene field-effect transistor. The devices are built on a bare high-resistivity silicon substrate. At temperatures of 77 K and below, we observe the field-effect modulation of the graphene resistivity by a voltage applied to the gate. This fabrication approach enables new experiments involving graphene-based superconducting qubits and nano-electromechanical resonators. The method is applicable to other two-dimensional materials. (paper)

  3. The role of suspension events in cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport in the surf zone (United States)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.


    Suspension of sand in the surf zone is intermittent. Especially striking in a time series of concentration are periods of intense suspension, suspension events, when the water column suspended sediment concentration is an order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration. The prevalence, timing, and contribution of suspension events to cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport are explored using field data collected in the inner half of the surf zone during a large storm at Duck, NC. Suspension events are defined as periods when the concentration is above a threshold. Events tended to occur during onshore flow under the wave crest, resulting in an onshore contribution to the suspended sediment transport. Even though large events occurred less than 10 percent of the total time, at some locations onshore transport associated with suspension events was greater than mean-current driven offshore-directed transport during non-event periods, causing the net suspended sediment transport to be onshore. Events and fluctuations in longshore velocity were not correlated. However, events did increase the longshore suspended sediment transport by approximately the amount they increase the mean concentration, which can be up to 35%. Because of the lack of correlation, the longshore suspended sediment transport can be modeled without considering the details of the intensity and time of events as the vertical integration of the product of the time-averaged longshore velocity and an event-augmented time-averaged concentration. However, to accurately model cross-shore suspended sediment transport, the timing and intensity of suspension events must be reproduced.

  4. Spatial and temporal dynamics of suspended load at-a-cross-section: the lowermost Ebro River (Catalonia, Spain). (United States)

    Rovira, A; Alcaraz, C; Ibáñez, C


    Suspended load dynamics were analyzed for the period 2007-2009 in a semi-meandering cross-section under different hydrological conditions. Samples were collected at four different points of the cross-section. During "low discharges" (≤ 600 m³/s) suspended load samples were collected at-a-monthly basis, whereas at "high discharges" (> 600 m³/s) sampling was conducted intensively (at-a-daily basis during the first stages of the flood event). Results indicated that during low discharges, both organic and inorganic suspended load concentrations tended to be uniformly distributed across the fluvial section; but during high discharges, two distinct areas were found: an area extending from the "Inner-bank" to the "Channel centre" (Area-I) with higher suspended concentrations (organic and inorganic) than those recorded in the "Outer bank" (Area-II). This phenomenon was likely related to the formation of secondary flow velocity cells and the activation of new sources of sediment. In addition, a non-significant relationship between organic suspended load and water flow was observed in the outer-bank. At-a-monthly basis, the analysis of the suspended load showed the existence of an intra-annual cycle of the inorganic concentrations, with a progressive increase from October to March followed by a decrease from March to September. Nevertheless, the organic suspended load did not show any trend, being equally distributed along the year, suggesting that other sources of organic matter besides phytoplankton are predominant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution of suspended sediment in the coastal sea off the Ganges Brahmaputra River mouth: observation from TM data (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rezwanul; Begum, Syeda Fahliza; Yamaguchi, Yasushi; Ogawa, Katsuro


    Remote sensing technique was applied to estimate suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and to understand transportation, distribution and deposition of suspended sediment in the estuary and throughout the coastal sea, off the Ganges-Brahmaputra River mouth. During low river discharge period, zone of turbidity maximum is inferred in the estuary near the shore. SSC map shows that maximum SSC reaches 1050 mg/l in this period. Magnitude of SSC is mainly owing to resuspension of the bottom surface sediments induced by tidal currents flowing over shallow water depths. The influence of depth on resuspension is farther revealed from the distribution and magnitude of SSC along the head of Swatch of No Ground (SNG) submarine canyon. During high river discharge period, huge river outflow pushed the salt wedge and flashes away the suspended sediments in the coastal sea off the river mouth. Zone of turbidity maximum is inferred in the coastal water approximately within 5-10 m depth of water, where the maximum SSC reaches 1700 mg/l. In this period, huge fluvial input of the suspended sediments including the resuspended bottom sediments and the particles remaining in suspension for longer period of time since their initial entry control mainly the magnitude of SSC. In the estuary near the shore, seasonal variation in the magnitude of SSC is not evident. In the coastal sea (>5 m water depth), seasonal influence in the magnitude of SSC could be concluded from the discrepancy between SSC values of two different seasons. Transportation and deposition of suspended sediments also experiences seasonal variations. At present, suspended sediments are being accumulated on the shallow shelf (between 5 and 10 m water depth) in low discharge period and on the mid-shelf (between 10 and 75 m water depth) during high discharge period. An empirical (exponential) relationship was found between gradual settle down of suspended sediments in the coastal sea and its lateral distance from the

  6. Super-structure and building performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V


    Full Text Available The super-structure consists predominantly of the load- and no-load-bearing walls-including all doors and windows and suspended floor slabs. The building envelope plays a significant role in the performance of a building, especially with regard...

  7. Fractal Structures For Mems Variable Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.


    In accordance with the present disclosure, one embodiment of a fractal variable capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure, wherein the capacitor body has an upper first metal plate with a fractal shape separated by a vertical distance from a lower first metal plate with a complementary fractal shape; and a substrate above which the capacitor body is suspended.

  8. Kinetics of heavy metal removal in a suspended and immobilized bioreactors (United States)

    Kutty, S. R. M.; Ezechi, E. H.; Khaw, S. G.; Lai, C. L.; Isa, M. H.


    The capacity of microorganisms to remove heavy metal from wastewater has been a subject of diverse interest. Whereas some heavy metals are essential for effective microbial activity, some heavy metals could be toxic to the microorganisms at concentrations higher than their minimal inhibitory limit. The kinetics of Zn2+ removal from aqueous solution was evaluated in terms of substrate removal rate for two identical suspended and immobilized bioreactors. The suspended growth bioreactor was used as a control system (CS) and contains only biomass. The immobilized bioreactor (IB) contains both biomass and microwave incinerated rice husk ash (MIRHA). The bioreactors were operated at a fixed HRT of 29.1 hours, whereas Zn2+ influent concentration was varied in the range of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L. At steady state conditions, the results show that Zn2+ removal was in the range of 72, 75, 72.5, 68.2, 70.3 and 58.7% for CS, whereas it was in the range of 88, 90, 83, 88.6, 86.2 and 83.7% for IB. The substrate removal rate was found as 1.1856 g/L.d for CS and 4.2693 g/L.d for IB. The results clearly show that Zn2+ removal was more favorable in IB, indicating that the performance of the bioreactor was enhanced by the addition of MIRHA.

  9. Daily suspended sediment concentration simulation using ANN and neuro-fuzzy models. (United States)

    Rajaee, Taher; Mirbagheri, Seyed Ahmad; Zounemat-Kermani, Mohammad; Nourani, Vahid


    In the present study, artificial neural networks (ANNs), neuro-fuzzy (NF), multi linear regression (MLR) and conventional sediment rating curve (SRC) models are considered for time series modeling of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in rivers. As for the artificial intelligence systems, feed forward back propagation (FFBP) method and Sugeno inference system are used for ANNs and NF models, respectively. The models are trained using daily river discharge and SSC data belonging to Little Black River and Salt River gauging stations in the USA. Obtained results demonstrate that ANN and NF models are in good agreement with the observed SSC values; while they depict better results than MLR and SRC methods. For example, in Little Black River station, the determination coefficient is 0.697 for NF model, while it is 0.457, 0.257 and 0.225 for ANN, MLR and SRC models, respectively. The values of cumulative suspended sediment load estimated by ANN and NF models are closer to the observed data than the other models. In general, the results illustrate that NF model presents better performance in SSC prediction in compression to other models.

  10. Trace element contents in atmospheric suspended particles: inferences from instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Boix, A.; Sanfeliu, T.; Martynov, V.V.; Piven, P.I.; Kabina, L.P.; Souschov, P.A.


    This study focuses on the determination of trace element concentrations in total suspended particles by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in two different areas in Northeastern Spain (a rural area influenced by the emissions of a large coal-fired power station, and the urban and industrial areas of Castellon). Total suspended particles were sampled by means of standard MCV high- and medium-volume captors, using cellulose membrane filters of 0.8 and 0.45 μm pore size. Preliminary research was performed on the homogeneous distribution of elements in the sample filters and on the study of blank filters for the calculations of the background average element contents. The results obtained allowed to distinguish different major anthropogenic sources of trace elements in the atmosphere at the sampling sites: (a) Zr, Hf, Sc, U and Th are related to atmospheric pollution derived from the ceramic industry of the Castellon area; (b) As, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sb, Se, Zn are related to traffic and other industrial emission in the Castellon area, and As, Cr, Sb and Zn to power generation emissions in the rural area. (orig.). With 3 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Flexible suspended gate organic thin-film transistors for ultra-sensitive pressure detection (United States)

    Zang, Yaping; Zhang, Fengjiao; Huang, Dazhen; Gao, Xike; di, Chong-An; Zhu, Daoben


    The utilization of organic devices as pressure-sensing elements in artificial intelligence and healthcare applications represents a fascinating opportunity for the next-generation electronic products. To satisfy the critical requirements of these promising applications, the low-cost construction of large-area ultra-sensitive organic pressure devices with outstanding flexibility is highly desired. Here we present flexible suspended gate organic thin-film transistors (SGOTFTs) as a model platform that enables ultra-sensitive pressure detection. More importantly, the unique device geometry of SGOTFTs allows the fine-tuning of their sensitivity by the suspended gate. An unprecedented sensitivity of 192 kPa-1, a low limit-of-detection pressure of <0.5 Pa and a short response time of 10 ms were successfully realized, allowing the real-time detection of acoustic waves. These excellent sensing properties of SGOTFTs, together with their advantages of facile large-area fabrication and versatility in detecting various pressure signals, make SGOTFTs a powerful strategy for spatial pressure mapping in practical applications.

  12. Development of an axial suspended AMB experimental bench for load and disturbance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gouws


    Full Text Available This paper provides the development of an axial suspended active magnetic bearing (AMB experimental bench for load and disturbance tests. This test bench must be capable of levitating a 2 kg steel disc at a stable working distance of 3 mm and a maximum attraction distance of 6 mm. The suspension is accomplished by two electromagnets producing upward and downward attraction forces to support the steel disc. An inductive sensor measures the position of the steel disc and relays this to a PC based controller board (dSPACE® controller. The control system uses this information to regulate the electromagnetic force on the steel disc. The intent is to construct this system using relatively low-cost, low-precision components, and still be able to stably levitate the 2 kg steel disc with high precision. The dSPACE® software (ControlDesk® was used for data acquisition. In this paper, an overview of the system design is presented, followed by the axial AMB model design, inductive sensor design, actuating unit design and controller development and implementation. The paper concludes with results obtained from the dSPACE® controller and evaluation of the axial suspended AMB experimental bench with load and disturbance tests.

  13. Effect of coexisting organic substances on radiation resistance of Bacillus pumilus spores suspended in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kigawa, Akiko; Tateishi, Tsuneo; Iso, Katsuaki; Kimura, Toshio; Mamuro, Tetsuo


    D values of B. pumilus spores suspended in water have been shown to increase in the presence of some coexisting organic substances. For elucidation of a mechanism or mechanisms involved in such a phenomenon, D-values of B.p. spores were examined by suspending them in aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of ethanol, glycerin, inulin and PVA. All these substances showed abrupt changes in D value at a narrow concentration range of 1 - 10 weight ppm. Solutions containing these substances at their lower limit concentrations and upper limit were prepared, sealed in incubator bottles leaving no air layer and irradiated at 0.7 Mrad with γ-rays. Winkler's method was used for the determination of oxygen concentrations in these solutions. The initial concentration of dissolved oxygen was 8.2 ppm. After irradiation, 3 - 5 ppm of oxygen remained in those solutions containing the lower limit (1 ppm), whereas only less than 0.5 ppm in those containing the upper limits, 2.5 ppm of ethanol, 5 ppm of PVA and 10 ppm each of glycerin and inulin. Therefore, the observed effect of coexisting organic substances on radiation resistance of B. pumilus can be explained by the so-called ''oxygen effect''. (author)

  14. Suspending Effect on Low-Frequency Charge Noise in Graphene Quantum Dot (United States)

    Song, Xiang-Xiang; Li, Hai-Ou; You, Jie; Han, Tian-Yi; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping


    Charge noise is critical in the performance of gate-controlled quantum dots (QDs). Such information is not yet available for QDs made out of the new material graphene, where both substrate and edge states are known to have important effects. Here we show the 1/f noise for a microscopic graphene QD is substantially larger than that for a macroscopic graphene field-effect transistor (FET), increasing linearly with temperature. To understand its origin, we suspended the graphene QD above the substrate. In contrast to large area graphene FETs, we find that a suspended graphene QD has an almost-identical noise level as an unsuspended one. Tracking noise levels around the Coulomb blockade peak as a function of gate voltage yields potential fluctuations of order 1 μeV, almost one order larger than in GaAs/GaAlAs QDs. Edge states and surface impurities rather than substrate-induced disorders, appear to dominate the 1/f noise, thus affecting the coherency of graphene nano-devices.

  15. Interaction between stocking density and settlement on population dynamics in suspended mussel culture (United States)

    Cubillo, Alhambra M.; Fuentes-Santos, Isabel; Labarta, Uxío


    Population dynamics on mussels growing on suspended culture depend mainly on the balance of several processes: mortality and/or dislodgements from the ropes, recruitment and growth. The negative effect of overcrowding on mussel growth and survival has been widely studied. Other works have addressed the effect of population size on recruitment on bottom beds. This study aims to provide insight into the processes underlying population dynamics. To this purpose, we analyzed the effect of stocking density on mussel growth, survival and seed settlement, and the post-settlement interaction between adults and recruits in suspended culture. The temporal pattern of the variables involved in population dynamics was fitted by GAM models, which in contrast with parametric models does not assume any prior relationships between variables. Our results show that mussel growth and survival depend on a trade-off between competition for resources at high densities and the risk of great settlements in less crowded adult mussel populations. Intracohort competition increased with stocking density, while seed settlement, which increases the risk of mussel dislodgements and leads to intercohort competition, was higher at moderate stocking densities. Post-settlement competitive pressures were driven by total population density and size composition. Both intracohort competition in adults and asymmetric competition between adults and recruits increase with higher adult-recruit ratios. All these density-dependent processes should be considered in future management strategies and research experimental designs.

  16. Biogas production from organic wastes in suspended cell cultures and in biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenonov, I.; Chorukova, E.; Mamatarkova, V.; Nikolov, L.


    The results of a comparative study of two biogas production bioprocess systems are presented. The systems submitted to comparison are based on the suspended cells cultures and the biofilm formed on solid inert support. A comprehensive research concept is formulated and discussed. It includes the main considerations regarding the choice of substrate, bioagent as mixed microbial society, type of bioreactors, regimes of functioning, analytical determinations and method of comparison. The main requirements for efficient experimental activity in comparative investigations are formulated. Their satisfaction can grant correctness of the experimental design and data acquisition. On this basis the key parameter of comparison of the two systems is defined as the specific productivity of the bioprocess systems. Under these conditions series of preliminary experiments are carried out for testing the readiness of experimental set ups for long time stable functioning and monitoring devices capabilities to maintain the bioprocess parameters at the determined intervals. These tests grant continuous incessant experimentation with the investigated bioprocess systems. The results obtained show that biofilm bioprocess systems possess up to two and half time higher specific productivity in comparison with the bioprocess systems with the suspended cells. Some visions about the future developments of comparative research on the influence of additional parameters like the mixer rotation steed, organic loads, and higher values of dilution rates are outlined.

  17. Shoulder muscle activation during stable and suspended push-ups at different heights in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan C; Tella, Victor; Moya-Nájera, Diego; Martin, Fernando; Rogers, Michael E


    To analyze shoulder muscle activation when performing push-ups under different stability conditions and heights. Comparative study by repeated measures. Valencia University laboratory. 29 healthy males participated. Subjects performed 3 push-ups each with their hands at 2 different heights (10 vs. 65 cm) under stable conditions and using a suspension device. Push-up speed was controlled and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic root mean square of the long head of the triceps brachii (TRICEP), upper trapezius (TRAPS), anterior deltoid (DELT) and clavicular pectoralis (PEC) were recorded. The electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Suspended push-ups at 10 cm resulted in greater activation in the TRICEP (17.14 ± 1.31 %MVIC vs. 37.03 ± 1.80 %MVIC) and TRAPS (5.83 ± 0.58 %MVIC vs. 14.69 ± 1.91 %MVIC) than those performed on the floor. For DELT and PEC similar or higher activation was found performing the push-ups on the floor, respectively. Height determines different muscle activation patterns. Stable push-ups elicit similar PEC and higher DELT muscle activation, being greater at 10 cm; whereas suspended push-ups elicit greater TRAPS and TRICEP muscle activation, being greater at 65 cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MEMS fabrication and frequency sweep for suspending beam and plate electrode in electrostatic capacitor (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiong; Song, Weixing


    We report a MEMS fabrication and frequency sweep for a high-order mode suspending beam and plate layer in electrostatic micro-gap semiconductor capacitor. This suspended beam and plate was designed with silicon oxide (SiO2) film which was fabricated using bulk silicon micromachining technology on both side of a silicon substrate. The designed semiconductor capacitors were driven by a bias direct current (DC) and a sweep frequency alternative current (AC) in a room temperature for an electrical response test. Finite element calculating software was used to evaluate the deformation mode around its high-order response frequency. Compared a single capacitor with a high-order response frequency (0.42 MHz) and a 1 × 2 array parallel capacitor, we found that the 1 × 2 array parallel capacitor had a broader high-order response range. And it concluded that a DC bias voltage can be used to modulate a high-order response frequency for both a single and 1 × 2 array parallel capacitors.

  19. [Changes of dentin, dental pulp and periodontium tissue in tail-suspended rats]. (United States)

    Yuan, Lin-tian; Wen, Ling-ying; Luo, Ya-ning; Hu, Pei-zhen; Jiang, Wei-zhong; Wu, Xing-yu


    To investigate the metabolic changes of calcium and phosphorus in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium in tail-suspended rats, and the functions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen IV in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium. Relative percentage contents of Ca, P in dentin, dental pulp and periodontium were measured with scanning electron microscope and energy spectrum analytical system in 3 groups of rats. The expression of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen IV were also observed. In the suspension group, the relative percentage content of Ca declined significantly, while P increased slightly. There were no significant differences of Ca, P in alveolar bone. The expressions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos and collagen-I declined, but the expression of collagen-IV in pulp vessel increased. There were no significant changes of expressions of TGF-beta 1, c-fos, collagen-I and collagen-IV in the vicinity of PDL. After adopting artificial countermeasures, the above expressions restored partly. Weightlessness might cause abnormal mineralization in dentin, and 1.5 G artificial countermeasures could eliminate the above changes of mineral metabolism. The poor mineralization of dentin might be associated with the reduced secretion of TGF-beta 1, c-fos and collagen-I in tail-suspended rats.

  20. Metallic Conductive Nanowires Elaborated by PVD Metal Deposition on Suspended DNA Bundles. (United States)

    Brun, Christophe; Elchinger, Pierre-Henri; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Tidiane-Diagne, Cheikh; Tiron, Raluca; Thuaire, Aurélie; Gasparutto, Didier; Baillin, Xavier


    Metallic conductive nanowires (NWs) with DNA bundle core are achieved, thanks to an original process relying on double-stranded DNA alignment and physical vapor deposition (PVD) metallization steps involving a silicon substrate. First, bundles of DNA are suspended with a repeatable process between 2 µm high parallel electrodes with separating gaps ranging from 800 nm to 2 µm. The process consists in the drop deposition of a DNA lambda-phage solution on the electrodes followed by a naturally evaporation step. The deposition process is controlled by the DNA concentration within the buffer solution, the drop volume, and the electrode hydrophobicity. The suspended bundles are finally metallized with various thicknesses of titanium and gold by a PVD e-beam evaporation process. The achieved NWs have a width ranging from a few nanometers up to 100 nm. The electrical behavior of the achieved 60 and 80 nm width metallic NWs is shown to be Ohmic and their intrinsic resistance is estimated according to different geometrical models of the NW section area. For the 80 nm width NWs, a resistance of about few ohms is established, opening exploration fields for applications in microelectronics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Quantification and Analysis of Suspended Sediments Concentration Using Mobile and Static Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Dwinovantyo


    Full Text Available The application of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP can be used not only for measuring ocean currents, but also for quantifying suspended sediment concentrations (SSC from acoustic backscatter strength based on sonar principle. Suspended sediment has long been recognized as the largest sources of sea contaminant and must be considered as one of the important parameters in water quality of seawater. This research was to determine SSC from measured acoustic backscattered intensity of static and mobile ADCP. In this study, vertically mounted 400 kHz and 750 kHz static ADCP were deployed in Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi. A mobile ADCP 307.2 kHz was also mounted on the boat and moved to the predefined cross-section, accordingly. The linear regression analysis of echo intensity measured by ADCP and by direct measurement methods showed that ADCP is a reliable method to measure SSC with correlation coefficient (r 0.92. Higher SSC was observed in low water compared to that in high water and near port area compared to those in observed areas. All of this analysis showed that the combination of static and mobile ADCP methods produces reasonably good spatial and temporal data of SSC.

  2. Characterisation of the suspended particulate matter in a stratified estuarine environment employing complementary techniques (United States)

    Thomas, Luis P.; Marino, Beatriz M.; Szupiany, Ricardo N.; Gallo, Marcos N.


    The ability to predict the sediment and nutrient circulation within estuarine waters is of significant economic and ecological importance. In these complex systems, flocculation is a dynamically active process that is directly affected by the prevalent environmental conditions. Consequently, the floc properties continuously change, which greatly complicates the characterisation of the suspended particle matter (SPM). In the present study, three different techniques are combined in a stratified estuary under quiet weather conditions and with a low river discharge to search for a solution to this problem. The challenge is to obtain the concentration, size and flux of suspended elements through selected cross-sections using the method based on the simultaneous backscatter records of 1200 and 600 kHz ADCPs, isokinetic sampling data and LISST-25X measurements. The two-ADCP method is highly effective for determining the SPM size distributions in a non-intrusive way. The isokinetic sampling and the LISST-25X diffractometer offer point measurements at specific depths, which are especially useful for calibrating the ADCP backscatter intensity as a function of the SPM concentration and size, and providing complementary information on the sites where acoustic records are not available. Limitations and potentials of the techniques applied are discussed.

  3. Suspended tungsten-based nanowires with enhanced mechanical properties grown by focused ion beam induced deposition (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Lorenzoni, Matteo; Pablo-Navarro, Javier; Magén, César; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; María De Teresa, José


    The implementation of three-dimensional (3D) nano-objects as building blocks for the next generation of electro-mechanical, memory and sensing nano-devices is at the forefront of technology. The direct writing of functional 3D nanostructures is made feasible by using a method based on focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). We use this technique to grow horizontally suspended tungsten nanowires and then study their nano-mechanical properties by three-point bending method with atomic force microscopy. These measurements reveal that these nanowires exhibit a yield strength up to 12 times higher than that of the bulk tungsten, and near the theoretical value of 0.1 times the Young’s modulus (E). We find a size dependence of E that is adequately described by a core-shell model, which has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and compositional analysis at the nanoscale. Additionally, we show that experimental resonance frequencies of suspended nanowires (in the MHz range) are in good agreement with theoretical values. These extraordinary mechanical properties are key to designing electro-mechanically robust nanodevices based on FIBID tungsten nanowires.

  4. Organic compounds and suspended matter in the White Sea snow-ice cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.


    The pollution of the White Sea snow-ice cover was estimated by examining the distribution of organic compounds, including oil and pyrogenic hydrocarbons. Ice and snow cores were taken from Chupa Bay and the Kandalaksha Gulf in the Cape Kartesh area in the spring of 2004 and from the mouth of the Severnaya Dvina River in the spring of 2005, 2006, and 2007. This paper presented data on the lipid content, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and suspended particulate matter in snow, ice and under-ice water. This paper focused on organic compounds and suspended matter (SM) concentrations in the sea snow-ice cover and described the ice forming conditions and interactions of the substances with ice, snow and sub-ice water. The amount of particulate matter and organic compounds in the snow increased sharply near industrial centres. The concentration of compounds decreased further away from these centres, suggesting that most pollutants are deposited locally. The study revealed that organic compounds concentrate in barrier zones, such as snow-ice and water-ice, depending on the source of pollution. There was no obvious evidence of petrogenic sources of PAHs in particulate matter from the White Sea snow-ice cover. The SM and organic compounds accumulated in layers characterized by local depositional processes. The zones remained biogeochemically active even under low temperature conditions, but the accumulation of both SM and organic compounds was at its highest during the initial stage of ice formation. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Design and Development of an Array of Dielectric Suspended Membranes for Microhotplate Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanth Prasad


    Full Text Available The paper presents the design, fabrication and characterization of an array of suspended dielectric suspended membranes for microhotplate applications. A single cell membrane (100 µm ´ 100 µm made of two different dielectric layers: SiO2 and Si3N4 separately, was designed and simulated using ANSYS 10.0. The simulation of stress generated in different dielectric membranes as a function of temperature is reported. The thickness of both layers was taken as 0.3 µm. The membranes of both SiO2 and Si3N4 dielectrics were fabricated on silicon substrate by bulk micromachining technique using TMAH solution. The buckling of the beam and breakage of membranes made of high-stress Si3N4 film are reported. The simulated results were verified by experiments. The membrane made of SiO2 layer was found to be more suitable in comparison to high-stress Si3N4 layer for microhotplate applications. The present approach provides high yield at low cost for fabrication of microhotplates for gas sensing applications.

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of suspended sediment within an actively urbanizing peri-urban catchment in Portugal (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, Carla; Ferreira, Antonio


    Suspended sediment levels tend to be enhanced in urban catchments, but vary considerably with (amongst many other factors) the degree of active urban development or redevelopment within the catchment and 'urbanization style'. Relatively little, however, is known about the relationship between suspended solids and urbanization style in peri-urban Mediterranean environments. This paper focuses on spatiotemporal suspended sediment dynamics within a typical Portuguese peri-urban catchment, Ribeira dos Covoes, that is undergoing rapid urbanization. The catchment currently has a 40% urban cover, with 17% impervious surfaces, dispersed between woodland (56%) and agricultural areas (4%). The study uses suspended sediment concentration measurements made at the catchment outlet (ESAC) and in three upstream tributaries: (i) Espírito Santo, with a largest urban area (49%); (ii) Porto Bordalo, 39% urbanized; and (iii) Quinta, 22% urbanized, most of which (18%) being an enterprise park under construction. Water sampling was carried out manually during 10 storm hydrographs between October 2011 and March 2013. Suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were derived by laboratory analysis of the filtered samples using the gravimetric method. In addition total dissolved solids concentrations (TDS) were estimated using conductivity readings. Greatest SSCs were recorded in the Quinta sub-catchment and at the catchment outlet at ESAC (113-4320 mg L-1 and 200-1656 mg L-1, respectively) than in the Espírito Santo and Porto Bordalo sub-catchments (183-852 mg L-1 and 47-598 mg L-1 respectively, despite their greater impervious cover. The greatest SSCs for Quinta result from it containing the construction site, but it showed lower TDS (56-4010 mg L-1), perhaps due to the coarse sandy nature of the construction site. Higher TDS concentrations, however, were displayed in Porto Bordalo (27-5400 mg L-1), possibly due to the loamy soil. Espírito Santo, comprising sandy-loam soils, displayed 27

  7. Environmental controls, sediment sources and spatiotemporal variability of suspended sediment yields in partly glacierized catchment systems in western Norway (United States)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Laute, Katja; Storms, Joep E. A.


    This work focuses on environmental controls, sediment sources and the spatiotemporal variability of suspended sediment yields in the neighboring, partly glacierized and steep Erdalen (79.5 km2) and Bødalen (60.1 km2) catchment systems in the fjord landscape of the inner Nordfjord in western Norway. Field work, including extended samplings and measurements, was carried out since 2004 in Erdalen and since 2008 in Bødalen. Fluvial suspended sediment transport in the inner Nordfjord is altogether supply-limited and larger thermally and/or pluvially generated runoff events occurring mostly during the period April-November are needed to mobilize and transport significant amounts of suspended sediments. The distinct intra- and inter-annual temporal variability of suspended sediment transport found is mostly controlled by meteorological events, with most suspended sediment transport occurring during pluvial events in autumn (September-November), followed by mostly thermally determined glacier melt in summer (July-August), and by mostly thermally determined snowmelt in spring (April-June). Extreme rainfall events (>70 mm/d) in autumn can trigger relevant debris-flow activity that can cause significant transfers of suspended sediments from ice-free surface areas with sedimentary covers into main stream channels and is particularly important for fluvial suspended sediment transport. In years with occurring relevant debris-flow activity the total annual drainage-basin wide suspended sediment yields are strongly determined by these single extreme events. The share of glacier coverage, followed by steepness of slopes, and degree of vegetation cover in ice-free surface areas with sedimentary covers are the main controls of the detected spatial variability of suspended sediment yields. The contemporary sediment delivery from glacierized surface areas through different outlet glaciers shows a high spatial variability which is mostly explained by a spatially variable availability

  8. Speciation of Suspended Particles By Individual Particle Analysis In The Japan Sea And The Western Tropical Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Nakaguchi, Y.; Asatani, T.; Fujita, A.; Kabuki, J.; Shitashima, K.


    Trace elements such as Fe, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn and Co are called "gbioactive trace metal"h. Reports have been made on bioactive trace metals distribution in sea water for various ocean: the North Pacific (Bruland, 1980; Boyle et al., 1981; Bruland et al., 1994; Ezoe, 2004;), the North Atlantic (Boyle et al., 1981; Bruland and Franks, 1983) and the South China Sea (Wen et al., 2006). The most of bioactive trace metals are taken up by marine organisms such as phytoplankton and bacteria. Consumption and decomposition of particulate matter sinking from surface waters return the bioactive trace metals to solution. On the other hand, some suspended particulate matters come from terrestrial sources transported to the ocean by rivers and by winds in particulate forms, and by rivers in dissolved forms. The bulk composition of suspended particulate matter in the various oceans is well known, whereas, the speciation of elements in suspended particle still remains poorly known. Individual particulate analysis can provide detailed information about the source, formation, transport and reactions of suspended particulate matter. The purpose of this work (1) the determination of dissolved bioactive trace metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd) in the Japan Sea and the western tropical Pacific Ocean by using the commercial PAPC type chelating resin solid phase extraction with ICP-MS method, (2) investigation for source of bioactive trace metals by the speciation of suspended particles by individual particulate analysis.

  9. Reexamination of basal plane thermal conductivity of suspended graphene samples measured by electro-thermal micro-bridge methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insun Jo


    Full Text Available Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the room-temperature thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD, and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier’s law despite the increase in the reported apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed apparent thermal conductivity of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about 1680 ± 180 W m−1 K−1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the apparent thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about 880 ± 60 and 730 ± 60 Wm−1K−1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.

  10. Development of online automatic detector of hydrocarbons and suspended organic matter by simultaneously acquisition of fluorescence and scattering (United States)

    Mbaye, Moussa; Diaw, Pape Abdoulaye; Gaye-Saye, Diabou; Le Jeune, Bernard; Cavalin, Goulven; Denis, Lydie; Aaron, Jean-Jacques; Delmas, Roger; Giamarchi, Philippe


    Permanent online monitoring of water supply pollution by hydrocarbons is needed for various industrial plants, to serve as an alert when thresholds are exceeded. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a suitable technique for this purpose due to its sensitivity and moderate cost. However, fluorescence measurements can be disturbed by the presence of suspended organic matter, which induces beam scattering and absorption, leading to an underestimation of hydrocarbon content. To overcome this problem, we propose an original technique of fluorescence spectra correction, based on a measure of the excitation beam scattering caused by suspended organic matter on the left side of the Rayleigh scattering spectral line. This correction allowed us to obtain a statistically validated estimate of the naphthalene content (used as representative of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon contamination), regardless of the amount of suspended organic matter in the sample. Moreover, it thus becomes possible, based on this correction, to estimate the amount of suspended organic matter. By this approach, the online warning system remains operational even when suspended organic matter is present in the water supply.

  11. Evaluating turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration relations from the North Fork Toutle River basin near Mount St. Helens, Washington; annual, seasonal, event, and particle size variations - a preliminary analysis. (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Christianson, Tami


    Regression of in-stream turbidity with concurrent sample-based suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) has become an accepted method for producing unit-value time series of inferred SSC (Rasmussen et al., 2009). Turbidity-SSC regression models are increasingly used to generate suspended-sediment records for Pacific Northwest rivers (e.g., Curran et al., 2014; Schenk and Bragg, 2014; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003). Recent work developing turbidity-SSC models for the North Fork Toutle River in Southwest Washington (Uhrich et al., 2014), as well as other studies (Landers and Sturm, 2013, Merten et al., 2014), suggests that models derived from annual or greater datasets may not adequately reflect shorter term changes in turbidity-SSC relations, warranting closer inspection of such relations. In-stream turbidity measurements and suspended-sediment samples have been collected from the North Fork Toutle River since 2010. The study site, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage 14240525 near Kid Valley, Washington, is 13 river km downstream of the debris avalanche emplaced by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (Lipman and Mullineaux, 1981), and 2 river km downstream of the large sediment retention structure (SRS) built from 1987–1989 to mitigate the associated sediment hazard. The debris avalanche extends roughly 25 km down valley from the edifice of the volcano and is the primary source of suspended sediment moving past the streamgage (NF Toutle-SRS). Other significant sources are debris flow events and sand deposits upstream of the SRS, which are periodically remobilized and transported downstream. Also, finer material often is derived from the clay-rich original debris avalanche deposit, while coarser material can derive from areas such as fluvially reworked terraces.

  12. Relationship between particle size and radiocesium in fluvial suspended sediment related to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuya Tanaka


    We collected fluvial suspended sediments in Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident and analyzed the 137 Cs concentration in bulk and size-fractioned samples to investigate the particle-size-dependent distribution of radiocesium. The 137 Cs concentration in bulk suspended sediments decreased from August to December 2011, possibly reflecting a decrease of radiocesium concentration in its source materials. Smaller particles had higher radiocesium concentrations, reflecting larger specific surface areas. Silt- and sand-size fractions occupied more than 95 % of the total 137 Cs in the suspended sediments. The contribution of clay-size fractions, which had the highest 137 Cs concentration, was quite small because of their low frequency. A line of the data showed that the particle size distribution of radiocesium was essential to evaluate the migration and distribution of radiocesium in river systems where radiocesium is mainly present as particulate form after the FDNPP accident. (author)

  13. Hydromagnetic thermosolutal instability of compressible walters' (model B' rotating fluid permeated with suspended particles in porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rana


    Full Text Available The thermosolutal instability of compressible Walters' (model B' elastico-viscous rotating fluid permeated with suspended particles (fine dust in the presence of vertical magnetic field in porous medium is considered. By applying normal mode analysis method, the dispersion relation has been derived and solved analytically. It is observed that the rotation, magnetic field, suspended particles and viscoelasticity introduce oscillatory modes. For stationary convection the Walters' (model B' fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid and it is observed that the rotation and stable solute gradient has stabilizing effects and suspended particles are found to have destabilizing effect on the system, whereas the medium permeability has stabilizing or destabilizing effect on the system under certain conditions. The magnetic field has destabilizing effect in the absence of rotation, whereas in the presence of rotation, magnetic field has stabilizing or destabilizing effect under certain conditions.

  14. Metal Ions and Hydroperoxide Content: Main Drivers of Coastal Lipid Autoxidation in Riverine Suspended Particulate Matter and Higher Plant Debris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Aimée Galeron


    Full Text Available Autoxidation is a complex abiotic degradation process, and while it has long been known and well studied in biological compounds, it has been widely overlooked in environmental samples and as a part of environmental processes. With recent observations showing the magnitude of the involvement of autoxidation in coastal environments, it has become critical to better understand how and why this degradative process takes place. At the riverine/marine interface, recent findings evidenced a spike in autoxidation rates upon the arrival of suspended particulate matter in seawater. In this study, we aimed at identifying autoxidation-favoring factors in vitro by analyzing suspended particulate matter incubated under different conditions. If metal ions have long been known to induce autoxidation in biological systems, we show that they indeed induce autoxidation in particulate matter incubated in water, but also that the content in photochemically-produced hydroperoxides in suspended particulate matter is crucial to the induction of its autoxidation in water.

  15. Suspended-sediment transport from the Green-Duwamish River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway, Seattle, Washington, 2013–17 (United States)

    Senter, Craig A.; Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Peterson, Norman; Vanderpool-Kimura, Ann M.; Foreman, James R.


    The Green-Duwamish River transports watershed-derived sediment to the Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund site near Seattle, Washington. Understanding the amount of sediment transported by the river is essential to the bed sediment cleanup process. Turbidity, discharge, suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), and particle-size data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from February 2013 to January 2017 at the Duwamish River, Washington, within the tidal influence at river kilometer 16.7 (USGS streamgage 12113390; Duwamish River at Golf Course at Tukwila, WA). This report quantifies the timing and magnitude of suspended-sediment transported in the Duwamish River. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity and SSC and discharge to estimate 15- minute SSC. Suspended-sediment loads were calculated from the computed SSC and time-series discharge data for every 15-minute interval during the study period. The 2014–16 average annual suspended-sediment load computed was 117,246 tons (106,364 metric tons), of which 73.5 percent or (86,191 tons; 78,191 metric tons) was fine particle (less than 0.0625 millimeter in diameter) suspended sediment. The seasonality of this site is apparent when you divide the year into "wet" (October 16– April 15) and "dry" (April 16–October 15) seasons. Most (97 percent) of the annual suspended sediment was transported during the wet season, when brief periods of intense precipitation from storms, large releases from the Howard Hanson Dam, or a combination of both were much more frequent.

  16. The influence of a semi-arid sub-catchment on suspended sediments in the Mara River, Kenya. (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher L; Subalusky, Amanda L; Anisfeld, Shimon C; Njoroge, Laban; Rosi, Emma J; Post, David M


    The Mara River Basin in East Africa is a trans-boundary basin of international significance experiencing excessive levels of sediment loads. Sediment levels in this river are extremely high (turbidities as high as 6,000 NTU) and appear to be increasing over time. Large wildlife populations, unregulated livestock grazing, and agricultural land conversion are all potential factors increasing sediment loads in the semi-arid portion of the basin. The basin is well-known for its annual wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) migration of approximately 1.3 million individuals, but it also has a growing population of hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius), which reside within the river and may contribute to the flux of suspended sediments. We used in situ pressure transducers and turbidity sensors to quantify the sediment flux at two sites for the Mara River and investigate the origin of riverine suspended sediment. We found that the combined Middle Mara-Talek catchment, a relatively flat but semi-arid region with large populations of wildlife and domestic cattle, is responsible for 2/3 of the sediment flux. The sediment yield from the combined Middle Mara-Talek catchment is approximately the same as the headwaters, despite receiving less rainfall. There was high monthly variability in suspended sediment fluxes. Although hippopotamus pools are not a major source of suspended sediments under baseflow, they do contribute to short-term variability in suspended sediments. This research identified sources of suspended sediments in the Mara River and important regions of the catchment to target for conservation, and suggests hippopotami may influence riverine sediment dynamics.

  17. Suspended sediment transport trough a large fluvial-tidal channel network (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Morgan-King, Tara L.


    The confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers, CA, forms a large network of interconnected channels, referred to as the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta). The Delta comprises the transition zone from the fluvial influences of the upstream rivers and tidal influences of San Francisco Bay downstream. Formerly an extensive tidal marsh, the hydrodynamics and geomorphology of Delta have been substantially modified by humans to support agriculture, navigation, and water supply. These modifications, including construction of new channels, diking and draining of tidal wetlands, dredging of navigation channels, and the operation of large pumping facilities for distribution of freshwater from the Delta to other parts of the state, have had a dramatic impact on the physical and ecological processes within the Delta. To better understand the current physical processes, and their linkages to ecological processes, the USGS maintains an extensive network of flow, sediment, and water quality gages in the Delta. Flow gaging is accomplished through use of the index-velocity method, and sediment monitoring uses turbidity as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration. Herein, we present analyses of the transport and dispersal of suspended sediment through the complex network of channels in the Delta. The primary source of sediment to the Delta is the Sacramento River, which delivers pulses of sediment primarily during winter and spring runoff events. Upon reaching the Delta, the sediment pulses move through the fluvial-tidal transition while also encountering numerous channel junctions as the Sacramento River branches into several distributary channels. The monitoring network allows us to track these pulses through the network and document the dominant transport pathways for suspended sediment. Further, the flow gaging allows for an assessment of the relative effects of advection (the fluvial signal) and dispersion (from the tides) on the sediment pulses as they

  18. Suspended and bedload dynamics in a tidally influenced river: the river Dyfi, Wales, UK. (United States)

    Brewer, P. A.; Vericat, D.; Baas, J. H.; Jago, C. F.; Brasington, J.; Wheaton, J. M.; Causer, F.


    In fluvial-estuarine systems, three main physical processes zones can be identified: a) river-dominated; b) tide- dominated; and c) wave-dominated. In the river-dominated zone, water and sediment transport is directed seaward, whilst in the marine-forced zones, water and sediment fluxes may be bi-directional. Although the spatiotemporal dynamics of water and sediment fluxes in both river and marine-forced systems have been comprehensively studied, the controls, timing and magnitude of material transport through the tidally-influenced zone is only poorly understood. Here, initial results are presented from a field experiment that aims to elucidate the relative role of river and tidal flows on the net pattern and magnitude of sediment transport through a 10 km tidally influenced reach of the River Dyfi in west Wales, UK, which drains into Cardigan Bay and the Irish Sea. Specifically, we report material fluxes under a set of contrasting marine and fluvial forcing scenarios (spring/neap tides and low/flood river flows). The experimental design incorporated measurement of suspended and bedload material fluxes using a combination of time-integrated and stage-dependent sampling, turbidimetry and coarse particle tracing. These measurements were tied to the hydraulic regime through a network of bi-directional flow measurements in the study reach. Additional analysis of material provenance was established through mineralogical and particle size classification. Results from a 3 month field campaign demonstrated a net seaward sediment transport (suspended and bedload) through the tidally-influenced system. Whilst tidal forcing of suspended transport is evident, these fluxes are an order of magnitude lower than those observed in river flood conditions (concentrations vary between 1-100 mg/l in tidal cycles but exceed 3000 mg/l in river floods). Fine to coarse gravels were entrained and transported 1-10 m during bankfull river floods, however, there was little comparable

  19. Monitoring suspended sediment transport in an ice-affected river using acoustic Doppler current profilers (United States)

    Moore, S. A.; Ghareh Aghaji Zare, S.; Rennie, C. D.; Ahmari, H.; Seidou, O.


    Quantifying sediment budgets and understanding the processes which control fluvial sediment transport is paramount to monitoring river geomorphology and ecological habitat. In regions that are subject to freezing there is the added complexity of ice. River ice processes impact flow distribution, water stage and sediment transport. Ice processes typically have the largest impact on sediment transport and channel morphodynamics when ice jams occur during ice cover formation and breakup. Ice jams may restrict flow and cause local acceleration when released. Additionally, ice can mechanically scour river bed and banks. Under-ice sediment transport measurements are lacking due to obvious safety and logistical reasons, in addition to a lack of adequate measurement techniques. Since some rivers can be covered in ice during six months of the year, the lack of data in winter months leads to large uncertainty in annual sediment load calculations. To address this problem, acoustic profilers are being used to monitor flow velocity, suspended sediment and ice processes in the Lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada. Acoustic profilers are ideal for under-ice sediment flux measurements since they can be operated autonomously and continuously, they do not disturb the flow in the zone of measurement and acoustic backscatter can be related to sediment size and concentration. In March 2012 two upward-facing profilers (1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, 546 KHz acoustic backscatter profiler) were installed through a hole in the ice on the Nelson River, 50 km downstream of the Limestone Generating Station. Data were recorded for four months, including both stable cover and breakup periods. This paper presents suspended sediment fluxes calculated from the acoustic measurements. Velocity data were used to infer the vertical distribution of sediment sizes and concentrations; this information was then used in the interpretation of the backscattered intensity data. It was found that

  20. Ultrasonic device for real-time sewage velocity and suspended particles concentration measurements. (United States)

    Abda, F; Azbaid, A; Ensminger, D; Fischer, S; François, P; Schmitt, P; Pallarès, A


    In the frame of a technological research and innovation network in water and environment technologies (RITEAU, Réseau de Recherche et d'Innovation Technologique Eau et Environnement), our research group, in collaboration with industrial partners and other research institutions, has been in charge of the development of a suitable flowmeter: an ultrasonic device measuring simultaneously the water flow and the concentration of size classes of suspended particles. Working on the pulsed ultrasound principle, our multi-frequency device (1 to 14 MHz) allows flow velocity and water height measurement and estimation of suspended solids concentration. Velocity measurements rely on the coherent Doppler principle. A self developed frequency estimator, so called Spectral Identification method, was used and compared to the classical Pulse-Pair method. Several measurements campaigns on one wastewater collector of the French city of Strasbourg gave very satisfactory results and showed smaller standard deviation values for the Doppler frequency extracted by the Spectral Identification method. A specific algorithm was also developed for the water height measurements. It relies on the water surface acoustic impedance rupture and its peak localisation and behaviour in the collected backscattering data. This algorithm was positively tested on long time measurements on the same wastewater collector. A large part of the article is devoted to the measurements of the suspended solids concentrations. Our data analysis consists in the adaptation of the well described acoustic behaviour of sand to the behaviour of wastewater particles. Both acoustic attenuation and acoustic backscattering data over multiple frequencies are analyzed for the extrapolation of size classes and respective concentrations. Under dry weather conditions, the massic backscattering coefficient and the overall size distribution showed similar evolution whatever the measurement site was and were suggesting a global