Sample records for suspended solids turbidity

  1. Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments (United States)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.


    Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

  2. Comparison of Suspended Solids and Turbidity Estimates from MODIS and MERIS Images in the Three Gorges Dam Area (United States)

    Di Trapani, Antonio; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco


    The aim of this work is to evaluate turbidity and total suspended matter (TSM) along the Yangtze river and the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, applying different retrieval algorithms to satellite imagery (MOD09GQ and MERIS FRS L2). Turbidity and TSM are then correlated to ground daily discharges, showing good correlations. Daily estimates of TSM are then obtained even for the days for which satellite scenes are not available, applying the obtained relations between ground discharge and satellite estimates of TSM. Daily satellite TSM are compared with literature values of solid discharge measurements.

  3. A Comparison of Suspended Solids Sediment and Turbidity from MODIS and MERIS Imagery in the Three Gorges Dam Area, China (United States)

    Di Trapani, Antonio; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco


    The aim of this work is to evaluate turbidity magnitude and total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China, applying different retrieval algorithms to satellite imagery (MOD09GQ and MERIS FRS L2) 250 m: turbidity and TSM values retrieved from the satellite scenes were correlated to discharge values measured daily on the ground, leading to relations between TSM and discharge. Applying the obtained relations to the discharge dataset made possible to have daily estimations of TSM values even for the days for which satellite scenes were lacking. The estimations from the various retrieval algorithms and sediment discharge values were compared with literature values of solid discharge measured on the ground.

  4. Suspended-sediment concentrations, yields, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011 (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.


    Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, as well as transporting harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples were collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011. Analyses of these data indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. The single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River during the 2011 spring runoff. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been known to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. For this study, comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong

  5. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011 (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.


    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines

  6. Monitoring suspended sediments and turbidity in Sahelian basins (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Nogmana, Soumaguel


    Suspended matter can carry viruses and bacteria that are pathogenic to humans and can foster their development. Therefore, turbidity can be considered a vector of microbiological contaminants, which cause diarrheal diseases, and it can be used as a proxy for fecal bacteria. Few studies have focused on water turbidity in rural Africa, where many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Diarrheal diseases are indeed the second cause of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, in this region, environment survey is minimal or inexistent. Monitoring water turbidity therefore represents a challenge for health improvement. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and it is well suited to monitoring by remote sensing. Because it varies in space and time and because the small water bodies (remote sensing and questions the methods developed for less turbid waters. In addition, high aerosol loadings (mineral dust and biomass burning) may be detrimental to turbidity retrieval in this region because of inaccurate atmospheric corrections. We propose a method to monitor water quality of Sahelian ponds, lakes and rivers using in-situ and remote sensing data, which is tested at different sites for which in-situ water turbidity and suspended sediments concentration (SSSC) measurements are acquired. Water sample are routinely collected at two sites within the AMMA-CATCH observatory part of the Réseau de Bassin Versants (RBV) French network: the Agoufou pond in northern Mali (starting September 2014), and the Niger River at Niamey in Niger (starting June 2015). These data are used to evaluate different indexes to derive water turbidity from the reflectance in the visible and infrared bands of high resolution optical sensors (LANDSAT, SENTINEL2). The temporal evolution of the turbidity of ponds, lakes and rivers is well captured at the seasonal and interannual scales with the

  7. Turbidity and suspended solids in the runoff susceptible of use for the artificial recharge of the deep granular aquifer subjacent to the town of San Luis de Potosi (Mexico); Turbidez y solidos en suspension de las aguas de escorrentia susceptibles de ser utilizadas en la recarga artificial del acuifero granular profundo subyacente a la ciudad de San Luis de Potosi (Mexico)

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    Murillo, J. M.


    This article presents an analysis of the turbidity and solid contents in suspension of the runoff that might be used for artificially recharging a deep granular aquifer located by San Luis de Potosi. The programmed artificial recharge operation corresponds to a type known as Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR). A series of equations to correlate the solids in suspension with turbidity and its validity are put forth. Reference is also made to the maximum content in suspended solids that operations of USR-type recharge can assume. Through this analysis, we were able to corroborate that turbidity varies over time according to an exponential function of the decreasing type, which accounts both for the deposition of particles that sediment exclusively due to the effect of gravity, and the action of certain mechanisms that favour coagulation and the natural flocculation of colloidal particles. Given that the operations of artificial recharge by means of USR require very rigorous conditions, in terms of the maximum contents of solids in suspension, the analysis has also been carried out for surface installations such as infiltration ponds. (Author) 24 refs.

  8. Turbidity and suspended sediment in the upper Esopus Creek watershed, Ulster County, New York (United States)

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason


    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were measured for 2 to 3 years at 14 monitoring sites throughout the upper Esopus Creek watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The upper Esopus Creek watershed is part of the New York City water-supply system that supplies water to more than 9 million people every day. Turbidity, caused primarily by high concentrations of inorganic suspended particles, is a potential water-quality concern because it colors the water and can reduce the effectiveness of drinking-water disinfection. The purposes of this study were to quantify concentrations of suspended sediment and turbidity levels, to estimate suspended-sediment loads within the upper Esopus Creek watershed, and to investigate the relations between SSC and turbidity. Samples were collected at four locations along the main channel of Esopus Creek and at all of the principal tributaries. Samples were collected monthly and during storms and were analyzed for SSC and turbidity in the laboratory. Turbidity was also measured every 15 minutes at six of the sampling stations with in situ turbidity probes.

  9. Mutual relationships of suspended sediment, turbidity and visual clarity in New Zealand rivers

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    D. J. Ballantine


    Full Text Available Many river water quality monitoring programmes do not measure suspended particulate matter (SPM mass concentrations despite significant interest in its multiple effects on aquatic ecosystems. Regular monthly sampling usually intercepts rivers in baseflow when suspended sediment mass concentrations and fluxes are relatively low and not of particular interest. New Zealand’s National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN is probably typical in not measuring SPM mass, although visual clarity and nephelometric turbidity are routinely measured. In order to better characterize SPM in NZ rivers, total suspended sediment (TSS was temporarily added to the NRWQN. Turbidity, visual clarity and TSS are mutually inter-related over all 77 sites, although with considerable data scatter. However, within individual rivers turbidity and visual clarity are typically fairly closely related to TSS and provide fair to excellent surrogates. Therefore, TSS need not be measured routinely because it can be estimated with sufficient precision for many purposes from visibility or turbidity.

  10. Suspended sediment levels and turbidity along the Guadalquivir river related to the hydrological regimes (United States)

    Carpintero García, Miriam; Contreras Arribas, Eva; Jurado Lopez, Alicia; Aguilar Porro, Cristina; José Polo Gómez, María


    In Mediterranean watersheds, soil loss is enhanced by the marked seasonality and torrential character of the rainfall regime, together with the usually predominant agricultural usesd. This fact determines the nature and amount of the discharges to the fluvial network in the Guadalquivir River (Spain), where the dense reservoir network within the contributing areas to the main stream alters the original sediment dynamics, and the transport and deposition patterns along the river, especially in the final stretch. The Guadalquivir River basin is located in southern Spain, with a contributing area of 57500 km2. It is a Mediterranean basin with a mean annual rainfall of 600 mm year-1.The changes of soil uses in the basin are associated with an increase of the irrigated area (in 201290 ha until 2007 upstream) and olive area (in 311115 ha until 2007).The suspended sediment concentration in the river is very high, with extreme values up to 16 g/l in the final stretch, which includes the estuary, associated with persistent turbidity events forced by different combinations of conditions. The solids are very fine- textured due to the great length of the river and, mainly, the extreme trapping efficiency of the dense reservoir network upstream. This work shows the spatial-temporal evolution of the suspended sediment concentration and turbidity regime along the Guadalquivir river and its relation with the different soil uses in the different contribunting areas within the watershed, together with the dependence on the hydrological annual regime. Turbidity trends are estimatedby means of data from Landsat-7 ETM that were validated with the quantified suspended sediment concentration values obtained from both field campaigns and automated monitored control points along the river. The results show a time lag between fluvial contributions and suspended sediment concentration due to the intense regulation in the watershed, that is dependent on the storage capacity upstream, the

  11. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity. (United States)


    ... time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the... suspended particulates persist. The biological and the chemical content of the suspended material may react with the dissolved oxygen in the water, which can result in oxygen depletion. Toxic metals and organics...

  12. Hyperspectral Sensing for Turbid Water Quality Monitoring in Freshwater Rivers: Empirical Relationship between Reflectance and Turbidity and Total Solids

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    Jiunn-Lin Wu


    Full Text Available Total suspended solid (TSS is an important water quality parameter. This study was conducted to test the feasibility of the band combination of hyperspectral sensing for inland turbid water monitoring in Taiwan. The field spectral reflectance in the Wu river basin of Taiwan was measured with a spectroradiometer; the water samples were collected from the different sites of the Wu river basin and some water quality parameters were analyzed on the sites (in situ as well as brought to the laboratory for further analysis. To obtain the data set for this study, 160 in situ sample observations were carried out during campaigns from August to December, 2005. The water quality results were correlated with the reflectivity to determine the spectral characteristics and their relationship with turbidity and TSS. Furthermore, multiple-regression (MR and artificial neural network (ANN were used to model the transformation function between TSS concentration and turbidity levels of stream water, and the radiance measured by the spectroradiometer. The value of the turbidity and TSS correlation coefficient was 0.766, which implies that turbidity is significantly related to TSS in the Wu river basin. The results indicated that TSS and turbidity are positively correlated in a significant way across the entire spectrum, when TSS concentration and turbidity levels were under 800 mg·L−1 and 600 NTU, respectively. Optimal wavelengths for the measurements of TSS and turbidity are found in the 700 and 900 nm range, respectively. Based on the results, better accuracy was obtained only when the ranges of turbidity and TSS concentration were less than 800 mg·L−1 and less than 600 NTU, respectively and used rather than using whole dataset (R2 = 0.93 versus 0.88 for turbidity and R2 = 0.83 versus 0.58 for TSS. On the other hand, the ANN approach can improve the TSS retrieval using MR. The accuracy of TSS estimation applying ANN (R2 = 0.66 was better than with the MR

  13. Effects of suspended sediment concentration and grain size on three optical turbidity sensors (United States)

    Merten, Gustavo Henrique; Capel, Paul D.; Minella, Jean P.G.


    Purpose: Optical turbidity sensors have been successfully used to determine suspended sediment flux in rivers, assuming the relation between the turbidity signal and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) has been appropriately calibrated. Sediment size, shape and colour affect turbidity and are important to incorporate into the calibration process. Materials and methods: This study evaluates the effect of SSC and particle size (i.e. medium sand, fine sand, very fine sand, and fines (silt + clay)) on the sensitivity of the turbidity signal. Three different turbidity sensors were used, with photo detectors positioned at 90 and 180 degrees relative to the axis of incident light. Five different sediment ratios of sand:fines (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0) were also evaluated for a single SSC (1000 mg l-1). Results and discussion: The photo detectors positioned at 90 degrees were more sensitive than sensor positioned at 180 degrees in reading a wide variety of grain size particles. On average for the three turbidity sensors, the sensitivity for fines were 170, 40, and 4 times greater than sensitivities for medium sand, fine sand, and very fine sand, respectively. For an SSC of 1000 mg l-1 with the treatments composed of different proportions of sand and fines, the presence of sand in the mixture linearly reduced the turbidity signal. Conclusions: The results indicate that calibration of the turbidity signal should be carried out in situ and that the attenuation of the turbidity signal due to sand can be corrected, as long as the proportion of sand in the SSC can be estimated.

  14. Automatic real-time control of suspended sediment based upon high frequency in situ measurements of nephelometric turbidity (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand Eads


    Abstract - For estimating suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in rivers, turbidity is potentially a much better predictor than water discharge. Since about 1990, it has been feasible to automatically collect high frequency turbidity data at remote sites using battery-powered turbidity probes that are properly mounted in the river or stream. With sensors calibrated...

  15. The significance of suspended organic sediments to turbidity, sediment flux, and fish-feeding behavior (United States)

    Mary Ann Madej; Margaret Wilzbach; Kenneth Cummins; Colleen Ellis; Samantha Hadden


    For over three decades, geologists, hydrologists and stream ecologists have shown significant interest in suspended load in running waters. Physical scientists have focused on turbidity, the development of sediment-rating curves and estimation of sediment yields, often as an indicator of changing land uses (Beschta 1981). Stream ecologists, on the other hand, have...

  16. Hysteresis in suspended sediment to turbidity relations due to changing particle size distributions (United States)

    Landers, Mark N.; Sturm, Terry W.


    Turbidity (T) is the most ubiquitous of surrogate technologies used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). The effects of sediment size on turbidity are well documented; however, effects from changes in particle size distributions (PSD) are rarely evaluated. Hysteresis in relations of SSC-to-turbidity (SSC~T) for single stormflow events was observed and quantified for a data set of 195 concurrent measurements of SSC, turbidity, discharge, velocity, and volumetric PSD collected during five stormflows in 2009–2010 on Yellow River at Gees Mill Road in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Regressions of SSC-normalized turbidity (T/SSC) on concurrently measured PSD percentiles show an inverse, exponential influence of particle size on turbidity that is not constant across the size range of the PSD. The majority of the influence of PSD on T/SSC is from particles of fine-silt and smaller sizes (finer than 16 microns). This study shows that small changes in the often assumed stability of the PSD are significant to SSC~T relations. Changes of only 5 microns in the fine silt and smaller size fractions of suspended sediment PSD can produce hysteresis in the SSC~T rating that can increase error and produce bias. Observed SSC~T hysteresis may be an indicator of changes in sediment properties during stormflows and of potential changes in sediment sources. Trends in the PSD time series indicate that sediment transport is capacity-limited for sand-sized sediment in the channel and supply-limited for fine silt and smaller sediment from the hillslope.

  17. Comparison of environmental forcings affecting suspended sediments variability in two macrotidal, highly-turbid estuaries (United States)

    Jalón-Rojas, Isabel; Schmidt, Sabine; Sottolichio, Aldo


    The relative contribution of environmental forcing frequencies on turbidity variability is, for the first time, quantified at seasonal and multiannual time scales in tidal estuarine systems. With a decade of high-frequency, multi-site turbidity monitoring, the two nearby, macrotidal and highly-turbid Gironde and Loire estuaries (west France) are excellent natural laboratories for this purpose. Singular Spectrum Analyses, combined with Lomb-Scargle periodograms and Wavelet Transforms, were applied to the continuous multiannual turbidity time series. Frequencies of the main environmental factors affecting turbidity were identified: hydrological regime (high versus low river discharges), river flow variability, tidal range, tidal cycles, and turbulence. Their relative influences show similar patterns in both estuaries and depend on the estuarine region (lower or upper estuary) and the time scale (multiannual or seasonal). On the multiannual time scale, the relative contribution of tidal frequencies (tidal cycles and range) to turbidity variability decreases up-estuary from 68% to 47%, while the influence of river flow frequencies increases from 3% to 42%. On the seasonal time scale, the relative influence of forcings frequencies remains almost constant in the lower estuary, dominated by tidal frequencies (60% and 30% for tidal cycles and tidal range, respectively); in the upper reaches, it is variable depending on hydrological regime, even if tidal frequencies are responsible for up 50% of turbidity variance. These quantifications show the potential of combined spectral analyses to compare the behavior of suspended sediment in tidal estuaries throughout the world and to evaluate long-term changes in environmental forcings, especially in a context of global change. The relevance of this approach to compare nearby and overseas systems and to support management strategies is discussed (e.g., selection of effective operation frequencies/regions, prediction of the most

  18. Suspended sediment concentration and optical property observations of mixed-turbidity, coastal waters through multispectral ocean color inversion (United States)

    Multispectral satellite ocean color data from high-turbidity areas of the coastal ocean contain information about the surface concentrations and optical properties of suspended sediments and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Empirical and semi-analytical inversion algorit...

  19. Computing time-series suspended-sediment concentrations and loads from in-stream turbidity-sensor and streamflow data (United States)

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Doug; Ziegler, Andrew C.


    Over the last decade, use of a method for computing suspended-sediment concentration and loads using turbidity sensors—primarily nephelometry, but also optical backscatter—has proliferated. Because an in- itu turbidity sensor is capa le of measuring turbidity instantaneously, a turbidity time series can be recorded and related directly to time-varying suspended-sediment concentrations. Depending on the suspended-sediment characteristics of the measurement site, this method can be more reliable and, in many cases, a more accurate means for computing suspended-sediment concentrations and loads than traditional U.S. Geological Survey computational methods. Guidelines and procedures for estimating time s ries of suspended-sediment concentration and loading as a function of turbidity and streamflow data have been published in a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report, Book 3, Chapter C4. This paper is a summary of these guidelines and discusses some of the concepts, s atistical procedures, and techniques used to maintain a multiyear suspended sediment time series.

  20. Determination of suspended particulate matter concentration from turbidity measurements: particle size effects and calibration procedures (United States)

    Pfannkuche, J.; Schmidt, A.


    Measurements of suspended particulate matter concentration and turbidity point towards the possibility of a site-specific algorithm (SPM), relating SPM to nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). In this paper regression models are presented that account for changes in the relationship of SPM and NTU as a result of changes in particle properties. The models have been developed by the use of daily measurements of SPM concentration and a continuous record of turbidity for the period from June 1996 to February 2001 in the River Elbe, a major river in the eastern part of Germany.The effect of changes in the particle properties with increasing water discharge was taken into account by varying the slope of a linear regression equation according to a logistic function. Water discharge, Q, was defined to be the only variable of this function - as an adequate substitute of the parameter bottom shear stress, which cannot be measured directly. Measurements of flow velocity in the River Elbe show that bottom shear stress is related almost linearly to water discharge up to bankful discharges.Regression models with slopes varying continuously with hydraulic parameters may account for the effects resulting from changes of particle characteristics and thus may have some advantages compared with models with a constant slope or models calibrated for different seasons.

  1. Turbidity-based methods for continuous estimates of suspended sediment, particulate carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen fluxes (United States)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Alsuliman, Malek; Rode, Michael


    A good evaluation of surface water pollution is mainly limited by the monitoring strategy and sampling frequencies. Carbon and nutrient monitoring at finer time intervals is still very difficult and expensive. Therefore, establishing relationships between grab sampling and continuous commonly available data can be considered as a favorable solution to turn this problem. The aim of this study was to develop a method to continuously estimate instream sediment, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations based on high resolution measurement of turbidity, discharge, electrical conductivity and oxygen concentration. To achieve our gaols, high frequency data (30 min interval) were generated during 3 years at the UFZ- TERENO platform Bode (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories). Samples were analysed for suspended sediment concentration (SSC), particulate organic carbon (POC), total organic carbon (TOC), particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate phosphorus (PP) using simple and multiple linear regression models. For this study, measurements from six sub-catchments with different geographical characteristics were considered. The available data sets were divided into two years (2010-2012) calibration and one year (2012-2013) validation periods. Results revealed that the turbidity was the most predictor variable in all models, particularly for suspended sediment concentrations. For all gauging stations, the SSC could be explained using simple linear regression model by the turbidity with a lowest correlation coefficient of 0.93. The non-uniqueness of the simple linear equation obtained between the stations reflected the sensitivity of the turbidity signal to the differences in land use and agriculture management between the sub-catchments. Best predictions of POC, TOC, PP and PN were achieved when multiple linear regression models were used including discharge, electrical conductivity and oxygen concentrations as predictor variables in addition to turbidity (lowest

  2. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

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    Vikulina Vera


    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  3. Investigating suspended sediment dynamics in contrasting agricultural catchments using ex situ turbidity-based suspended sediment monitoring (United States)

    Sherriff, S. C.; Rowan, J. S.; Melland, A. R.; Jordan, P.; Fenton, O.; hUallachain, D. O.


    Soil erosion and suspended sediment (SS) pose risks to chemical and ecological water quality. Agricultural activities may accelerate erosional fluxes from bare, poached or compacted soils, and enhance connectivity through modified channels and artificial drainage networks. Storm-event fluxes dominate SS transport in agricultural catchments; therefore, high temporal-resolution monitoring approaches are required, but can be expensive and technically challenging. Here, the performance of in situ turbidity sensors, conventionally installed submerged at the river bankside, is compared with installations where river water is delivered to sensors ex situ, i.e. within instrument kiosks on the riverbank, at two experimental catchments (Grassland B and Arable B). The in situ and ex situ installations gave comparable results when calibrated against storm-period, depth-integrated SS data, with total loads at Grassland B estimated at 12 800 and 15 400 t, and 22 600 and 24 900 t at Arable B, respectively. The absence of spurious turbidity readings relating to bankside debris around the in situ sensor and its greater security make the ex situ sensor more robust. The ex situ approach was then used to characterise SS dynamics and fluxes in five intensively managed agricultural catchments in Ireland which feature a range of landscape characteristics and land use pressures. Average annual suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was below the Freshwater Fish Directive (78/659/EEC) guideline of 25 mg L-1, and the continuous hourly record demonstrated that exceedance occurred less than 12 % of the observation year. Soil drainage class and proportion of arable land were key controls determining flux rates, but all catchments reported a high degree of inter-annual variability associated with variable precipitation patterns compared to the long-term average. Poorly drained soils had greater sensitivity to runoff and soil erosion, particularly in catchments with periods of bare soils. Well

  4. Estimation of suspended sediment flux in streams using continuous turbidity and flow data coupled with laboratory concentrations (United States)

    Jack Lewis


    The widening use of sediment surrogate measurements such as turbidity necessitates consideration of new methods for estimating sediment flux. Generally, existing methods can be simply be used in new ways. The effectiveness of a method varies according to the quality of the surrogate data and its relation to suspended sediment concentration (SSC). For this discussion,...

  5. Suspended sediment dynamics in a large-scale turbidity current: Direct measurements from the deep-water Congo Canyon (United States)

    Simmons, S.; Azpiroz, M.; Cartigny, M.; Clare, M. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Sumner, E.; Talling, P. J.


    Turbidity currents that transport sediment to the deep ocean deposit a greater volume of sediment than any other process on Earth. To date, only a handful of studies have directly measured turbidity currents, with flow durations ranging from a few minutes to a few hours. Our understanding of turbidity current dynamics is therefore largely derived from scaled laboratory experiments and numerical modelling. Recent years have seen the first field-scale measurements of depth-resolved velocity profiles, but sediment concentration (a key parameter for turbidity currents) remains elusive. Here, we present high resolution measurements of deep-water turbidity currents from the Congo Canyon; one of the world's largest submarine canyons. Direct measurements using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) show that flows can last for many days, rather than hours as seen elsewhere, and provide the first quantification of concentration and grain size within deep-water turbidity currents.Velocity and backscatter were measured at 5 second intervals by an ADCP suspended 80 m above the canyon floor, at 2000 m water depth. A novel inversion method using multiple ADCP frequencies enabled quantification of sediment concentration and grain size within the flows. We identify high concentrations of coarse sediment within a thin frontal cell, which outruns a thicker, trailing body. Thus, the flows grow in length while propagating down-canyon. This is distinct from classical models and other field-scale measurements of turbidity currents. The slow-moving body is dominated by suspended fine-grained sediment. The body mixes with the surrounding fluid leaving diffuse clouds of sediment that persist for days after initial entrainment. Ambient tidal flow also controls the mixing within the body and the surrounding fluid. Our results provide a new quantification of suspended sediment within flows and the interaction with the surrounding fluid.

  6. Suspended-sediment and turbidity responses to sediment and turbidity reduction projects in the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek, Watersheds, New York, 2010–14 (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael R.; Davis, Wae Danyelle


    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were monitored within the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek tributaries to the upper Esopus Creek in New York, the main source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir, from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2014. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine the effects of suspended-sediment and turbidity reduction projects (STRPs) on SSC and turbidity in two of the three streams; no STRPs were constructed in the Beaver Kill watershed. During the study period, four STRPs were completed in the Stony Clove Creek and Warner Creek watersheds. Daily mean SSCs decreased significantly for a given streamflow after the STRPs were completed. The most substantial decreases in daily mean SSCs were measured at the highest streamflows. Background SSCs, as measured in water samples collected in upstream reference stream reaches, in all three streams in this study were less than 5 milligrams per liter during low and high streamflows. Longitudinal stream sampling identified stream reaches with failing hillslopes in contact with the stream channel as the primary sediment sources in the Beaver Kill and Stony Clove Creek watersheds.

  7. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

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    Fakhri Y. Hmood


    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  8. Extending the turbidity record: making additional use of continuous data from turbidity, acoustic-Doppler, and laser diffraction instruments and suspended-sediment samples in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon (United States)

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.


    Turbidity is a measure of the scattering and absorption of light in water, which in rivers is primarily caused by particles, usually sediment, suspended in the water. Turbidity varies significantly with differences in the design of the instrument measuring turbidity, a point that is illustrated in this study by side-by-side comparisons of two different models of instruments. Turbidity also varies with changes in the physical parameters of the particles in the water, such as concentration, grain size, grain shape, and color. A turbidity instrument that is commonly used for continuous monitoring of rivers has a light source in the near-infrared range (860±30 nanometers) and a detector oriented 90 degrees from the incident light path. This type of optical turbidity instrument has a limited measurement range (depending on pathlength) that is unable to capture the high turbidity levels of rivers that carry high suspended-sediment loads. The Colorado River in Grand Canyon is one such river, in which approximately 60 percent of the range in suspended-sediment concentration during the study period had unmeasurable turbidity using this type of optical instrument. Although some optical turbidimeters using backscatter or other techniques can measure higher concentrations of suspended sediment than the models used in this study, the maximum turbidity measurable using these other turbidimeters may still be exceeded in conditions of especially high concentrations of suspended silt and clay. In Grand Canyon, the existing optical turbidity instruments remain in use in part to provide consistency over time as new techniques are investigated. As a result, during these periods of high suspended-sediment concentration, turbidity values that could not be measured with the optical turbidity instruments were instead estimated from concurrent acoustic attenuation data collected using side-looking acoustic-Doppler profiler (ADP) instruments. Extending the turbidity record to the full

  9. Comparison of turbidity to multi-frequency sideways-looking acoustic-Doppler data and suspended-sediment data in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon (United States)

    Voichick, Nicholas; Topping, David J.


    Water clarity is important to biologists when studying fish and other fluvial fauna and flora. Turbidity is an indicator of the cloudiness of water, or reduced water clarity, and is commonly measured using nephelometric sensors that record the scattering and absorption of light by particles in the water. Unfortunately, nephelometric sensors only operate over a narrow range of the conditions typically encountered in rivers dominated by suspended-sediment transport. For example, sediment inputs into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon caused by tributary floods often result in turbidity levels that exceed the maximum recording level of nephelometric turbidity sensors. The limited range of these sensors is one reason why acoustic Doppler profiler instrument data, not turbidity, has been used as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration and load of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. However, in addition to being an important water-quality parameter to biologists, turbidity of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon has been used to strengthen the suspended-sediment record through the process of turbidity-threshold sampling; high turbidity values trigger a pump sampler to collect samples of the river at critical times for gathering suspended-sediment data. Turbidity depends on several characteristics of suspended sediment including concentration, particle size, particle shape, color, and the refractive index of particles. In this paper, turbidity is compared with other parameters coupled to suspended sediment, namely suspended-silt and clay concentration and multifrequency acoustic attenuation. These data have been collected since 2005 at four stations with different sediment-supply characteristics on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. These comparisons reveal that acoustic attenuation is a particularly useful parameter, because it is strongly related to turbidity and it can be measured by instruments that experience minimal fouling and record over the entire range

  10. Suspended sediment and turbidity after road construction/improvement and forest harvest in streams of the Trask River Watershed Study, Oregon (United States)

    Ivan Arismendi; Jeremiah D. Groom; Maryanne Reiter; Sherri L. Johnson; Liz Dent; Mark Meleason; Alba Argerich; Arne E. Skaugset


    Transport of fine-grained sediment from unpaved forest roads into streams is a concern due to the potential negative effects of additional suspended sediment on aquatic ecosystems. Here we compared turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) dynamics in five nonfish bearing coastal Oregon streams above and below road crossings, during three consecutive time...

  11. Suspended sediment, turbidity, and stream water temperature in the Sauk River Basin, western Washington, water years 2012-16 (United States)

    Jaeger, Kristin L.; Curran, Christopher A.; Anderson, Scott W.; Morris, Scott T.; Moran, Patrick W.; Reams, Katherine A.


    The Sauk River is a federally designated Wild and Scenic River that drains a relatively undisturbed landscape along the western slope of the North Cascade Mountain Range, Washington, which includes the glaciated volcano, Glacier Peak. Naturally high sediment loads characteristic of basins draining volcanoes like Glacier Peak make the Sauk River a dominant contributor of sediment to the downstream main stem river, the Skagit River. Additionally, the Sauk River serves as important spawning and rearing habitat for several salmonid species in the greater Skagit River system. Because of the importance of sediment to morphology, flow-conveyance, and ecosystem condition, there is interest in understanding the magnitude and timing of suspended sediment and turbidity from the Sauk River system and its principal tributaries, the White Chuck and Suiattle Rivers, to the Skagit River.Suspended-sediment measurements, turbidity data, and water temperature data were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey streamgages in the upper and middle reaches of the Sauk River over a 4-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2015, and at a downstream location in the lower river for a 5-year period extending from October 2011 to September 2016. Over the collective 5-year study period, mean annual suspended-sediment loads at the three streamgages on the upper, middle, and lower Sauk River streamgages were 94,200 metric tons (t), 203,000 t, and 940,000 t streamgages, respectively. Fine (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter) total suspended-sediment load averaged 49 percent at the upper Sauk River streamgage, 42 percent at the middle Sauk River streamgage, and 34 percent at the lower Sauk River streamgage.

  12. Natural Ferrihydrite as an Agent for Reducing Turbidity Caused by Suspended Clays (United States)

    The turbidity of water can be reduced by the addition of positively charged compounds which coagulate negatively charged clay particles in suspension causing them to flocculate. This research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the Fe oxide mineral ferrihydrite as a flocculating agent fo...

  13. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am


    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  14. Measurement differences between turbidity instruments, and their implications for suspended sediment concentration and load calculations: A sensor inter-comparison study. (United States)

    Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Turner, J N; Lawler, D M; Conroy, E; Kelly-Quinn, M


    The use of turbidity for indicating environmentally detrimental levels of suspended and colloidal matter in freshwater systems, and for defining acceptable water quality standards in national and European drinking water regulations, is well established. Turbidity is therefore frequently adopted as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), or as a relative and objective measure of water clarity in monitoring programmes. Through systematic, controlled experimentation, we tested the response of 12 commercially available turbidity sensors, of various designs, to gauge their measurement consistency when benchmarked against pre-prepared sediment suspensions of known SSC. Results showed that despite calibration to a Formazin standard, sensor responses to identical SSC solutions (in the range of 20-1000 mg L(-1)) varied considerably. For a given SSC, up to five-fold differences in recorded turbidity were recorded across the tested instruments. Furthermore, inconsistent measurements were identified across instruments, regardless of whether they operated using backscatter or side-scatter optical principles. While the findings may have implications for compliance with turbidity-based water quality standards, they are less likely to be an issue when turbidity is being used as a surrogate for SSC, provided that instrument use remains constant and that instrument drift is not an issue. In this study, a field comparison of a subset of four study sensors showed that despite very different absolute turbidity readings for a given SSC, well correlated and reliable turbidity - SSC ratings were established (as evidenced by r(2) coefficients from 0.92 to 0.98). This led to reasonably consistent suspended sediment load estimates of between 64.7 and 70.8 tonnes for a rainfall event analysed. This study highlights the potential for issues to arise when interpreting water turbidity datasets that are often assumed to be comparable, in that measurement inconsistency of the

  15. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.


    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  16. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen


    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  17. Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Western Cape orchard areas, the last pesticide application of the growing season in summer takes place at the end of February. Pesticides, total phosphates and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured in the Lourens River at the beginning of April 1999 prior to the first rainfall of the rainy season and in the middle of ...

  18. Guidelines and Procedures for Computing Time-Series Suspended-Sediment Concentrations and Loads from In-Stream Turbidity-Sensor and Streamflow Data (United States)

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas; Ziegler, Andrew C.


    In-stream continuous turbidity and streamflow data, calibrated with measured suspended-sediment concentration data, can be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentration and load at a stream site. Development of a simple linear (ordinary least squares) regression model for computing suspended-sediment concentrations from instantaneous turbidity data is the first step in the computation process. If the model standard percentage error (MSPE) of the simple linear regression model meets a minimum criterion, this model should be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentrations. Otherwise, a multiple linear regression model using paired instantaneous turbidity and streamflow data is developed and compared to the simple regression model. If the inclusion of the streamflow variable proves to be statistically significant and the uncertainty associated with the multiple regression model results in an improvement over that for the simple linear model, the turbidity-streamflow multiple linear regression model should be used to compute a suspended-sediment concentration time series. The computed concentration time series is subsequently used with its paired streamflow time series to compute suspended-sediment loads by standard U.S. Geological Survey techniques. Once an acceptable regression model is developed, it can be used to compute suspended-sediment concentration beyond the period of record used in model development with proper ongoing collection and analysis of calibration samples. Regression models to compute suspended-sediment concentrations are generally site specific and should never be considered static, but they represent a set period in a continually dynamic system in which additional data will help verify any change in sediment load, type, and source.

  19. Particulate flux calculation based on metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations relationship: case study of turbid alpine river (Isere, France) (United States)

    Dutordoir, Solene; Nemery, Julien; Guedron, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jérémy; Minaudo, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe; Landas-Maneval, Jacqueline; Rivière, Carlos


    In the context of increasing stress on aquatic environment, the improvement of pollutant flux quantification in large rivers presents a strong stake. Isere at Grenoble city (5570 km2) is an alpine river in the Northern French Alps with high suspended sediment transport reaching 10 to 20 g L-1 during floods. It is known that for elements like P, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb, Fe et Al, most of river transport is done under particulate forms. Isere River is susceptible to transport particulate pollutants such as metals, given mining history and industrial activities at the upstream watershed. Moreover, this river receives Grenoble city's effluents (500 000 inhabitants) and stormwaters during rain events. Three metals (Hg, Ni, Pb) identified as priority substances regarding European Water Framework Directive and As known to be one of the most metal of concern were chosen in this study. High frequency samplings of suspended sediments were realized between 2011 and 2012 in order to evaluate the temporal variation of metals contents and to determine geochemical background during high flow periods. In the same sampling site (situated upstream urban effluents of Grenoble city), discharge and suspended sediment concentration by turbidity were measured at 30 min frequency by a monitoring station. The use of historical and new databases ranging between low and high discharge (10 years return flood) allowed determining relationships between metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations and discharges. Results show a good correlation for the studied metals and permit to defined the geochemical backgrounds for each metals measured above 0.5 g L-1, (Hg = 68 +/- 48 ng g-1, Ni = 30 +/- 10 mg g-1, Pb = 43 +/-13 mg g-1, As = 15 +/- 4 mg g-1). These models were validated on a separated period than the one used for the calibration and applied to calculate particulate metals concentrations and associated incertitude at 30 min frequency using SSC and discharge database. Cumulative 30 minutes

  20. Identifying the controls of soil loss in agricultural catchments using ex situ turbidity-based suspended sediment monitoring (United States)

    Sherriff, S. C.; Rowan, J. S.; Melland, A. R.; Jordan, P.; Fenton, O.; Ó'hUallacháin, D.


    Soil erosion and suspended sediment (SS) pose risks to chemical and ecological water quality. Agricultural activities may accelerate erosional fluxes from bare, poached or compacted soils, and enhance connectivity through modified channels and artificial drainage networks. Storm-event fluxes dominate SS transport in agricultural catchments; therefore, high temporal-resolution monitoring approaches are required but can be expensive and technically challenging. Here, the performance of in situ turbidity-sensors, conventionally installed submerged at the river bankside, is compared with installations where river water is delivered to sensors ex situ, i.e. within instrument kiosks on the riverbank, at two experimental catchments (Grassland B and Arable B). Calibrated against storm-period depth-integrated SS data, both systems gave comparable results; using the ex situ and in situ methods respectively, total load at Grassland B was estimated at 128 ± 28 and 154 ± 35, and 225 ± 54 and 248 ± 52 t at Arable B. The absence of spurious turbidity peaks relating to bankside debris around the in situ sensor and its greater security, make the ex situ sensor more robust. The ex situ approach was then used to characterise SS dynamics and fluxes in five intensively managed agricultural catchments in Ireland which feature a range of landscape characteristics and land use pressures. Average annual suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was below the Freshwater Fish Directive (FFD) guideline of 25 mg L-1, and the continuous hourly record demonstrated that exceedance occurred less than 12% of the observation year. Soil drainage class and proportion of arable land were key controls determining flux rates, but all catchments reported a high degree of inter-annual variability associated with variable precipitation patterns compared to the long-term average. Poorly-drained soils had greater sensitivity to runoff and soil erosion, particularly in catchments with periods of bare soils

  1. The relationship between Suspended Particulate Matter and Turbidity at a mooring station in a coastal environment: consequences for satellite-derived products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madihah Jafar-Sidik


    Full Text Available From a data set of observations of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM concentration, Turbidity in Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU and fluorescence-derived chlorophyll-a at a mooring station in Liverpool Bay, in the Irish Sea, we investigate the seasonal variation of the SPM:Turbidity ratio. This ratio changes from a value of around 1 in winter (minimum in January–February to 2 in summer (maximum in May–June. This seasonal change can be understood in terms of the cycle of turbulence and of the phytoplankton population that affects the nature, shape and size of the particles responsible for the Turbidity. The data suggest a direct effect of phytoplankton on the SPM:Turbidity ratio during the spring bloom occurring in April and May and a delayed effect, likely due to aggregation of particles, in July and August. Based on the hypothesis that only SPM concentration varies, but not the mass-specific backscattering coefficient of particles bbp*, semi-analytical algorithms aiming at retrieving SPM from satellite radiance ignore the seasonal variability of bbp* which is likely to be inversely correlated to the SPM:Turbidity ratio. A simple sinusoidal modulation of the relationship between Turbidity and SPM with time helps to correct this effect at the location of the mooring. Without applying a seasonal modulation to bbp*, there is an underestimation of SPM in summer by the Ifremer semi-analytical algorithm (Gohin et al., 2015 we tested. SPM derived from this algorithm, as expected from any semi-analytical algorithm, appears to be more related to in situ Turbidity than to in situ SPM throughout the year.

  2. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.


    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  3. Correlations of turbidity to suspended-sediment concentration in the Toutle River Basin, near Mount St. Helens, Washington, 2010-11 (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Kolasinac, Jasna; Booth, Pamela L.; Fountain, Robert L.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam R.


    Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey, Cascades Volcano Observatory, investigated alternative methods for the traditional sample-based sediment record procedure in determining suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge. One such sediment-surrogate technique was developed using turbidity and discharge to estimate SSC for two gaging stations in the Toutle River Basin near Mount St. Helens, Washington. To provide context for the study, methods for collecting sediment data and monitoring turbidity are discussed. Statistical methods used include the development of ordinary least squares regression models for each gaging station. Issues of time-related autocorrelation also are evaluated. Addition of lagged explanatory variables was used to account for autocorrelation in the turbidity, discharge, and SSC data. Final regression model equations and plots are presented for the two gaging stations. The regression models support near-real-time estimates of SSC and improved suspended-sediment discharge records by incorporating continuous instream turbidity. Future use of such models may potentially lower the costs of sediment monitoring by reducing time it takes to collect and process samples and to derive a sediment-discharge record.

  4. Evaluating external nutrient and suspended-sediment loads to Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, using surrogate regressions with real-time turbidity and acoustic backscatter data (United States)

    Schenk, Liam N.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Diaz, Paul; Stewart, Marc A.


    Executive SummarySuspended-sediment and total phosphorus loads were computed for two sites in the Upper Klamath Basin on the Wood and Williamson Rivers, the two main tributaries to Upper Klamath Lake. High temporal resolution turbidity and acoustic backscatter data were used to develop surrogate regression models to compute instantaneous concentrations and loads on these rivers. Regression models for the Williamson River site showed strong correlations of turbidity with total phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations (adjusted coefficients of determination [Adj R2]=0.73 and 0.95, respectively). Regression models for the Wood River site had relatively poor, although statistically significant, relations of turbidity with total phosphorus, and turbidity and acoustic backscatter with suspended sediment concentration, with high prediction uncertainty. Total phosphorus loads for the partial 2014 water year (excluding October and November 2013) were 39 and 28 metric tons for the Williamson and Wood Rivers, respectively. These values are within the low range of phosphorus loads computed for these rivers from prior studies using water-quality data collected by the Klamath Tribes. The 2014 partial year total phosphorus loads on the Williamson and Wood Rivers are assumed to be biased low because of the absence of data from the first 2 months of water year 2014, and the drought conditions that were prevalent during that water year. Therefore, total phosphorus and suspended-sediment loads in this report should be considered as representative of a low-water year for the two study sites. Comparing loads from the Williamson and Wood River monitoring sites for November 2013–September 2014 shows that the Williamson and Sprague Rivers combined, as measured at the Williamson River site, contributed substantially more suspended sediment to Upper Klamath Lake than the Wood River, with 4,360 and 1,450 metric tons measured, respectively.Surrogate techniques have proven useful at

  5. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (United States)


    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. High suspended solids as a factor in reproductive failure of a freshwater mussel (United States)

    Andrew M. Gascho-Landis; Wendell R. Haag; James A. Stoeckel


    Elevated suspended solids are a widespread stressor of aquatic ecosystems, but their effects on growth and reproduction in freshwater mussels are largely unknown. We fertilized experimental ponds to create a gradient in total suspended solids (TSS) and examined the effects of TSS on growth, nutritional status, reproduction, and clearance rate in Ligumia subrostrata....

  7. Effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on survival and development rate of larval Arkansas River Shiner (United States)

    Mueller, Julia S.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Worthington, Thomas A.


    Decreases in the abundance and diversity of stream fishes in the North American Great Plains have been attributed to habitat fragmentation, altered hydrological and temperature regimes, and elevated levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids, such as the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi, may be particularly vulnerable to these changing conditions because of their reproductive strategy. Our objectives were to assess the effects of temperature, total dissolved solids, and total suspended solids on the developmental and survival rates of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. Results suggest temperature had the greatest influence on the developmental rate of Arkansas River Shiner larvae. However, embryos exposed to the higher levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids reached developmental stages earlier than counterparts at equivalent temperatures. Although this rapid development may be beneficial in fragmented waters, our data suggest it may be associated with lower survival rates. Furthermore, those embryos incubating at high temperatures, or in high levels of total dissolved solids and total suspended solids resulted in less viable embryos and larvae than those incubating in all other temperature, total dissolved solid, and total suspended solid treatment groups. As the Great Plains ecoregion continues to change, these results may assist in understanding reasons for past extirpations and future extirpation threats as well as predict stream reaches capable of sustaining Arkansas River Shiners and other species with similar early life-history strategies.

  8. Relations between continuous real-time turbidity data and discrete suspended-sediment concentration samples in the Neosho and Cottonwood Rivers, east-central Kansas, 2009-2012 (United States)

    Foster, Guy M.


    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the primary sources of inflow to the John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Sedimentation rate in the John Redmond Reservoir was estimated as 743 acre-feet per year for 1964–2006. This estimated sedimentation rate is more than 80 percent larger than the projected design sedimentation rate of 404 acre-feet per year, and resulted in a loss of 40 percent of the conservation pool since its construction in 1964. To reduce sediment input into the reservoir, the Kansas Water Office implemented stream bank stabilization techniques along an 8.3 mile reach of the Neosho River during 2010 through 2011. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, operated continuous real-time water-quality monitors upstream and downstream from stream bank stabilization efforts before, during, and after construction. Continuously measured water-quality properties include streamflow, specific conductance, water temperature, and turbidity. Discrete sediment samples were collected from June 2009 through September 2012 and analyzed for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), percentage of sediments less than 63 micrometers (sand-fine break), and loss of material on ignition (analogous to amount of organic matter). Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely measured SSC samples, and turbidity or streamflow to estimate continuously SSC. Continuous water-quality monitors represented between 96 and 99 percent of the cross-sectional variability for turbidity, and had slopes between 0.91 and 0.98. Because consistent bias was not observed, values from continuous water-quality monitors were considered representative of stream conditions. On average, turbidity-based SSC models explained 96 percent of the variance in SSC. Streamflow-based regressions explained 53 to 60 percent of the variance. Mean squared

  9. A study of metal ion adsorption at low suspended-solid concentrations (United States)

    Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Davis, J.A.; Kuwabara, J.S.


    A procedure for conducting adsorption studies at low suspended solid concentrations in natural waters (NaCl) concentration (0??1-0??002 m) and particle concentration (2-50 mg l-1). The lack of success of the Davis Leckie site bonding model in describing Zn(II) adsorption emphasizes the need for further studies of adsorption at low suspended-solid concentrations. ?? 1987.

  10. Spatial distribution of suspended particulate matter in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: inferences on the estuarine turbidity maximum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suja, S.; Kessarkar, P.M; Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Fernandes, L.L.

    The present study estimate the suspended particulate matter in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. samples were collected from the Mandovi (M0A–M9) and Zuari (Z0–Z8) estuaries and Cumbarjua canal (C0–C3).The spatial distribution of SPM in the Ma...

  11. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia (United States)

    Fearns, Peter


    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor’s radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit. PMID:28380059

  12. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji

    Full Text Available The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor's radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI, and WorldView-2 (WV2 at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit.

  13. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia. (United States)

    Dorji, Passang; Fearns, Peter


    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor's radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit.

  14. Experimental study of the viscosity of suspensions: effect of solid fraction, particle size and suspending liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijn, B.J.; Sanderink, O.B.J.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.


    The behaviour of nearly neutrally-buoyant suspensions has been studied experimentally, using a concentric-cylinder rheometer. The effect on the suspension viscosity of: (i) solid fraction, (ii) diameter of the solid, spherical particles, (iii) viscosity of the suspending liquid, and (iv) shear rate

  15. Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Novoa


    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal waters is of crucial importance for ecosystem studies, sediment transport monitoring, and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean. Ocean color remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor SPM spatio-temporal variability in coastal waters. However, near-shore satellite images are complex to correct for atmospheric effects due to the proximity of land and to the high level of reflectance caused by high SPM concentrations in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The water reflectance signal (ρw tends to saturate at short visible wavelengths when the SPM concentration increases. Using a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery and in situ SPM and water reflectance data, this study presents (i an assessment of existing atmospheric correction (AC algorithms developed for turbid coastal waters; and (ii a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive SPM vs. ρw relationship, to avoid saturation effects when computing the SPM concentration. The approach is applied to satellite data acquired by three medium-high spatial resolution sensors (Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager, National Polar-Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer to map the SPM concentration in some of the most turbid areas of the European coastal ocean, namely the Gironde and Loire estuaries as well as Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast. For all three sensors, AC methods based on the use of short-wave infrared (SWIR spectral bands were tested, and the consistency of the retrieved water reflectance was examined along transects from low- to high-turbidity waters. For OLI data, we also compared a SWIR-based AC (ACOLITE with a method based on multi-temporal analyses of atmospheric constituents (MACCS. For the selected scenes, the ACOLITE-MACCS difference was

  16. Using VIIRS/NPP and MODIS/Aqua data to provide a continuous record of suspended particulate matter in a highly turbid inland lake (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Duan, Hongtao; Shen, Ming; Ma, Ronghua; Xue, Kun; Liu, Dong; Xiao, Qitao


    Inland lakes are generally an important source of drinking water, and information on their water quality needs to be obtained in real time. To date, Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data have played a critical, effective and long-term role in fulfilling this function. However, the MODIS instruments on board both the Terra and Aqua satellites have operated beyond their designed five-year mission lifespans (Terra was launched in 1999, whereas Aqua was launched in 2002), and these instruments may stop running at any time in the near future. The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP, which was launched in Oct 2011) is expected to provide a consistent, long-term data record and continue the series of observations initiated by MODIS. To date, few evaluations of the consistency between VIIRS and MODIS have been conducted for turbid inland waters. In this study, we first used synchronous MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data (±1 h) collected during 2012-2015 to evaluate the consistency of Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc) observations over Lake Hongze (the fourth-largest freshwater lake in China), since accurate remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) values cannot be acquired over turbid inland waters. Second, we used recently developed algorithms based on Rrc in the red band to estimate the concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data. Finally, we assessed the consistency of the SPM products derived from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP. The results show the following. (1) The differences in Rrc among the green (VIIRS 551 nm and MODIS 555 nm) and red bands (VIIRS 671 nm and MODIS 645 nm) indicate a satisfactory consistency, and the unbiased percentage difference (UPD) is products obtained using MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP have a satisfactory degree of consistency (0-150 mg/L SPM: R2 = 0.81, UPD < 16% and 0-80 mg/L SPM: R2 = 0.85, UPD < 12%, respectively

  17. Evaluating turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration relations from the North Fork Toutle River basin near Mount St. Helens, Washington; annual, seasonal, event, and particle size variations - a preliminary analysis. (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Christianson, Tami


    Regression of in-stream turbidity with concurrent sample-based suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) has become an accepted method for producing unit-value time series of inferred SSC (Rasmussen et al., 2009). Turbidity-SSC regression models are increasingly used to generate suspended-sediment records for Pacific Northwest rivers (e.g., Curran et al., 2014; Schenk and Bragg, 2014; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003). Recent work developing turbidity-SSC models for the North Fork Toutle River in Southwest Washington (Uhrich et al., 2014), as well as other studies (Landers and Sturm, 2013, Merten et al., 2014), suggests that models derived from annual or greater datasets may not adequately reflect shorter term changes in turbidity-SSC relations, warranting closer inspection of such relations. In-stream turbidity measurements and suspended-sediment samples have been collected from the North Fork Toutle River since 2010. The study site, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage 14240525 near Kid Valley, Washington, is 13 river km downstream of the debris avalanche emplaced by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (Lipman and Mullineaux, 1981), and 2 river km downstream of the large sediment retention structure (SRS) built from 1987–1989 to mitigate the associated sediment hazard. The debris avalanche extends roughly 25 km down valley from the edifice of the volcano and is the primary source of suspended sediment moving past the streamgage (NF Toutle-SRS). Other significant sources are debris flow events and sand deposits upstream of the SRS, which are periodically remobilized and transported downstream. Also, finer material often is derived from the clay-rich original debris avalanche deposit, while coarser material can derive from areas such as fluvially reworked terraces.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Dwi Siswanto


    Full Text Available Sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (Total Suspended Solid (TSS dapat dipelajari secara horizontal maupun vertikal. Akumulasi sedimen tersuspensi (TSS secara horizontal sangat dipengaruhi oleh arus permukaan maupun gelombang yang dibangkitkan oleh angin. Keterdapatan TSS ini diduga berpengaruh terhadap sebarannya pada profil vertical. Kedua kondisi sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (TSS berpengaruh terhadap optimalisasi penetrasi cahaya matahari di perairan. Sedimen tersuspensi (TSS menjadi salah satu factor fisika yang penting sebagai indicator kondisi perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sebaran Total Suspended Solid (TSS di perairan Kabupaten Bangkalan. Materi utama yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah contoh air dan data parameter lingkungan (pasang surut dan kecerahan yang diambil pada 7 stasiun pada bulan Agustus-September 2013 di Perairan Selat Madura, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Metode gravimetric (SNI-06-6989.3-2004 digunakan untuk analisa Total Suspended Solid (TSS. Data parameter lingkungan dianalisa secara deskriptif. Analisa TSS menunjukkan nilai yang berbeda pada beberapa stasiun penelitian untuk setiap minggunya. Konsentrasi TSS terendah sebesar 35 mg/L (Stasiun 3, profil permukaan, minggu pertama dan tertinggi sebesar 620 mg/L (Stasiun 4, profil dasar, minggu pertama. Secara umum, konsentrasi TSS secara vertikal (dari permukaan-dasar cenderung semakin besar, diduga dipengaruhi oleh jenis substrat dan parameter arus yang berpeluang untuk menimbulkan pengadukan di profil dasar. Kondisi lingkungan (kecerahan dan arus menunjukkan bahwa daerah dengan konsentrasi TSS yang tinggi cenderung memilki nilai kecerahan yang rendah dengan kecepatan arus yang lebih besar.Kata Kunci: kecerahan, pola arus, Total Suspended Solid (TSS DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS IN THE VERTICAL PROFILE IN THE MADURA STRAIT WATERS BANGKALAN DISTRICTABSTRACTDistribution of suspended sediment (Total Suspended Solid (TSS can be studied through

  19. A Semi-Analytic Model for Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Concentration in Turbid Coastal Waters of Northern Western Australia Using MODIS-Aqua 250 m Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji


    Full Text Available Knowledge of the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS in coastal waters is of significance to marine environmental monitoring agencies to determine the turbidity of water that serve as a proxy to estimate the availability of light at depth for benthic habitats. TSS models applicable to data collected by satellite sensors can be used to determine TSS with reasonable accuracy and of adequate spatial and temporal resolution to be of use for coastal water quality monitoring. Thus, a study is presented here where we develop a semi-analytic sediment model (SASM applicable to any sensor with red and near infrared (NIR bands. The calibration and validation of the SASM using bootstrap and cross-validation methods showed that the SASM applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua band 1 data retrieved TSS with a root mean square error (RMSE and mean averaged relative error (MARE of 5.75 mg/L and 33.33% respectively. The application of the SASM over our study region using MODIS-Aqua band 1 data showed that the SASM can be used to monitor the on-going, post and pre-dredging activities and identify daily TSS anomalies that are caused by natural and anthropogenic processes in coastal waters of northern Western Australia.

  20. Particle size distribution of suspended solids in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and adjacent shelf waters (United States)

    Byrnes, M. R.; Oertel, G. F.


    Characteristics of suspended solids, including total suspended matter, total suspended inorganics, total suspended organics, particle size distribution, and the presence of the ten most prominent particle types were determined. Four research vessels simultaneously collected samples along four transects. Samples were collected within a 2-hour period that coincided with the maximum ebb penetration of Chesapeake Bay outwelling. The distribution of primary and secondary particle size modes indicate the presence of a surface or near-surface plume, possibly associated with three sources: (1) runoff, (2) resuspension of material within the Bay, and/or (3) resuspension of material in the area of shoals at the Bay mouth. Additional supportive evidence for this conclusion is illustrated with ocean color scanner data.

  1. Surface clogging process modeling of suspended solids during urban stormwater aquifer recharge. (United States)

    Wang, Zijia; Du, Xinqiang; Yang, Yuesuo; Ye, Xueyan


    Aquifer recharge, which uses urban stormwater, is an effective technique to control the negative effects of groundwater over-exploitation, while clogging problems in infiltration systems remain the key restricting factor in broadening its practice. Quantitative understanding of the clogging process is still very poor. A laboratory study was conducted to understand surface physical clogging processes, with the primary aim of developing a model for predicting suspended solid clogging processes before aquifer recharge projects start. The experiments investigated the clogging characteristics of different suspended solid sizes in recharge water by using a series of one-dimensional fine quartz sand columns. The results showed that the smaller the suspended particles in recharge water, the farther the distance of movement and the larger the scope of clogging in porous media. Clogging extents in fine sand were 1 cm, for suspended particle size ranging from 0.075 to 0.0385 mm, and 2 cm, for particles less than 0.0385 mm. In addition, clogging development occurred more rapidly for smaller suspended solid particles. It took 48, 42, and 36 hr respectively, for large-, medium-, and small-sized particles to reach pre-determined clogging standards. An empirical formula and iteration model for the surface clogging evolution process were derived. The verification results obtained from stormwater recharge into fine sand demonstrated that the model could reflect the real laws of the surface clogging process.

  2. Annual and seasonal variation of turbidity, total dissolved solids, nitrate and nitrite in the Parsabad water treatment plant, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zare


    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the annual and seasonal variation of turbidity; total dissolved solid (TDS, nitrate and nitrite in Parsabad water treatment plant (WTP, Iran. Materials and Methods: The water samples were obtained from the inlet and outlet of Parsabad WTP from February 2002 to June 2009. The samples′ turbidity, TDS, nitrate, nitrite, pH, and temperature were measured according to standard methods once a month and the average of these parameters were calculated for each season of year. Results: The maximum concentration of inlet turbidity, TDS, nitrate and nitrite were 691, 700.5, 25, and 0.17 mg/l, respectively. These parameters for outlet samples in the study period were 3.0, 696.7, 18, and 0.06 mg/l, respectively. While these concentrations in outlet zone were lower than World Health Organization (WHO or United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA water quality guidelines, WTP could not reduce the TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH value and these parameters were not different in the inlet and outlet samples. However, the WTP reduced the turbidity significantly with an efficiency of up to 85%. Conclusion: This study showed that a common WTP with rapid sand filtration can treat a maximum river turbidity of 700 NTU in several years. As no differences were observed between inlet and outlet TDS, nitrate, nitrite and pH in the studied WTP. It can be concluded that compensatory schemes should be predicted for modification of these parameters when they exceed the standards in the emergency situations.

  3. Delineating Effects of Ionic Strength and Suspended Solids on Ammonia Volatilization from Dairy Manure Slurry (United States)

    Koirala, K.


    Ammonia emission is a major concern due to its adverse effects on animal and human health. Ionic strength and suspended solids play key roles in the ammonia volatilization process. These two parameters, however, are usually lumped together in form of total solids. The objective of this study was to separate the contribution of suspended solids (SS) from that of ionic strength (IS) on ammonia volatilization in liquid dairy manure. A two-way factorial experiment was conducted to simultaneously test the effects of IS and SS on ammonium dissociation: a key element of the ammonia volatilization process. The fraction of ammonia (β) in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was experimentally determined in a convective emission chamber, for each level of SS and IS, at a constant wind speed of 1.5 m s-1, and air and liquid temperature of 25°C. The two way analysis of variance showed a significant effect of SS concentration (p = 0.04) on fraction of ammonia in the liquid dairy manure, while the effect of ionic strength was marginal (p = 0.05). The highest dissociation of ammonium was observed in manure with the lowest SS concentration (0%) and the lowest ionic strength (0.10 mol L-1). Significant increases in suspended solids concentration and ionic strength were necessary to influence the ammonium dissociation in dairy manure. Results revealed that substantially high content of suspended solids (> 3.0%) or relatively high dilution of manure with water (30%) were necessary for these two parameters to play significant roles in the ammonia volatilization mechanism in liquid dairy manure. Results also showed that the β was more sensitive to the changes in suspended solids concentration than in the changes in ionic strength within the ranges of SS and IS examined in this study. Overall, the SS and IS effects on ammonium dissociation (and by extension on ammonia volatilization process) were thus found negligible within the normal ranges of liquid dairy manure characteristics.

  4. Solid and suspended/dissolved waste (N, P, O) from rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg


    Quantifying aquaculture waste into different waste fractions will make it possible to design different treatment setups for obtaining specific cleaning objectives. The aim of this study was therefore to measure “all” solid and suspended/dissolved (i.e. unsedimented) waste from juvenile rainbow...... trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) fed three commonly applied commercial diets, “all” waste referring to: total nitrogen (N), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN=NH3-N+NH4-N), total phosphorus (P), and organicmatter characterized by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the biological oxygen demand after 5 days (BOD5...... (ADCs) were used to calculate the solid amounts of undigested nutrients. These were subsequently used for calculating the solid COD output, verified by direct COD measurements. The output of solid and suspended/dissolved BOD5 and COD was measured in the second experiment. There were just minor...

  5. Impact of suspended solids concentration on sludge filterability in Full-scale membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousada Ferreira, M.D.C.; Van Lier, J.B.; Van der Graaf, J.H.J.M.


    The relation between activated sludge filterability and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is framed in a single hypothesis, explaining results seemingly contradictory. A total of 44 activated sludge samples were collected and analyzed on a variety of

  6. Development of a field test method for total suspended solids analysis. (United States)


    Total suspended solids (TSS) are all particles in water that will not pass through a glass fiber filter with a pore size less : than 2 m, including sediments, algae, nutrients, and metals. TSS is an important water quality parameter because of its ...

  7. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water; Caracterizacion y morfologia de solidos suspendidos en agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy.

  8. Infrared Spectroscopy of Noh Suspended in Solid Parahydrogen: Part Two (United States)

    Balabanoff, Morgan E.; Mutunga, Fredrick M.; Anderson, David T.


    The only report in the literature on the infrared spectroscopy of the parent oxynitrene NOH was performed using Ar matrix isolation spectroscopy at 10 K. In this previous study, they performed detailed isotopic studies to make definitive vibrational assignments. NOH is predicted by high-level calculations to be in a triplet ground electronic state, but the Ar matrix isolation spectra cannot be used to verify this triplet assignment. In our 2013 preliminary report, we showed that 193 nm in situ photolysis of NO trapped in solid parahydrogen can also be used to prepare the NOH molecule. Over the ensuing two years we have been studying the infrared spectroscopy of this species in more detail. The spectra reveal that NOH can undergo hindered rotation in solid parahydrogen such that we can observe both a-type and b-type rovibrational transitions for the O-H stretch vibrational mode, but only a-type for the mode assigned to the bend. In addition, both observed a-type infrared absorption features (bend and OH stretch) display fine structure; an intense central peak with weaker peaks spaced symmetrically to both lower and higher wavenumbers. The spacing between the peaks is nearly identical for both vibrational modes. We now believe this fine structure is due to spin-rotation interactions and we will present a detailed analysis of this fine structure. Currently, we are performing additional experiments aimed at making 15NOH to test these preliminary assignments. The most recent data and up-to-date analysis will be presented in this talk. G. Maier, H. P. Reisenauer, M. De Marco, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 38, 108-110 (1999). U. Bozkaya, J. M. Turney, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. F. Schaefer III, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 164303 (2012). David T. Anderson and Mahmut Ruzi, 68th Ohio State University International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, talk TE01 (2013).

  9. Nutrient and suspended solids removal from petrochemical wastewater via microalgal biofilm cultivation. (United States)

    Hodges, Alan; Fica, Zachary; Wanlass, Jordan; VanDarlin, Jessica; Sims, Ronald


    Wastewater derived from petroleum refining currently accounts for 33.6 million barrels per day globally. Few wastewater treatment strategies exist to produce value-added products from petroleum refining wastewater. In this study, mixed culture microalgal biofilm-based treatment of petroleum refining wastewater using rotating algae biofilm reactors (RABRs) was compared with suspended-growth open pond lagoon reactors for removal of nutrients and suspended solids. Triplicate reactors were operated for 12 weeks and were continuously fed with petroleum refining wastewater. Effluent wastewater was monitored for nitrogen, phosphorus, total suspended solids (TSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). RABR treatment demonstrated a statistically significant increase in removal of nutrients and suspended solids, and increase in biomass productivity, compared to the open pond lagoon treatment. These trends translate to a greater potential for the production of biomass-based fuels, feed, and fertilizer as value-added products. This study is the first demonstration of the cultivation of mixed culture biofilm microalgae on petroleum refining wastewater for the dual purposes of treatment and biomass production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Semi-Analytical Algorithm for the Retrieval of Suspended Particulate Matter from Remote Sensing over Clear to Very Turbid Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Han


    Full Text Available Remote sensing of suspended particulate matter, SPM, from space has long been used to assess its spatio-temporal variability in various coastal areas. The associated algorithms were generally site specific or developed over a relatively narrow range of concentration, which make them inappropriate for global applications (or at least over broad SPM range. In the frame of the GlobCoast project, a large in situ data set of SPM and remote sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ, has been built gathering together measurements from various coastal areas around Europe, French Guiana, North Canada, Vietnam, and China. This data set covers various contrasting coastal environments diversely affected by different biogeochemical and physical processes such as sediment resuspension, phytoplankton bloom events, and rivers discharges (Amazon, Mekong, Yellow river, MacKenzie, etc.. The SPM concentration spans about four orders of magnitude, from 0.15 to 2626 g·m−3. Different empirical and semi-analytical approaches developed to assess SPM from Rrs(λ were tested over this in situ data set. As none of them provides satisfactory results over the whole SPM range, a generic semi-analytical approach has been developed. This algorithm is based on two standard semi-analytical equations calibrated for low-to-medium and highly turbid waters, respectively. A mixing law has also been developed for intermediate environments. Sources of uncertainties in SPM retrieval such as the bio-optical variability, atmospheric correction errors, and spectral bandwidth have been evaluated. The coefficients involved in these different algorithms have been calculated for ocean color (SeaWiFS, MODIS-A/T, MERIS/OLCI, VIIRS and high spatial resolution (LandSat8-OLI, and Sentinel2-MSI sensors. The performance of the proposed algorithm varies only slightly from one sensor to another demonstrating the great potential applicability of the proposed approach over global and contrasting coastal waters.

  11. Dynamic modeling of total suspended solids in the wetland Jaboque, Bogotá (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Eduardo Beltrán-Vargas


    Full Text Available We propose a dynamic simulation model to provide a general explanation for the behavior of total suspended solids in the Jaboque wetland (Bogotá DC. The analyses were performed in three areas with distinct physical and chemical characteristics. The model predicted concentrations of total suspended solids in the months of April, May, June, October and November. Values ranged from 85 mg L-1 and 101 mg L-1 with an average of 65.12 mg L-1 with a hydraulic time retention between eight and nine days per year for the first area, the second area between 57 and 69 with an average of 50 mg L-1 with a hydraulic time between 20 and 23 days per year and in the third area between 56 mg L-1 and 67 mg L-1 with a mean of 48.8 mg L-1 and a hydraulic retention time between 24 and 26 days per year. The months of December, January, February, August and September showed a tendency to have lower values. The estimated values of total suspended solids based on our model had an acceptable correspondence, R2 = 0.95, 0.71, 0.67, with the actual values in all cases. The relative error for each area was 0.10, 0.20 and 0.26, demonstrating that the model does not overestimate the results.

  12. Turbidity as an Indicator of Water Quality in Diverse Watersheds of the Upper Pecos River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Huey


    Full Text Available Microbial concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS and turbidity vary with stream hydrology and land use. Turbidity, TSS, and microbial concentrations, loads and yields from four watersheds were assessed: an unburned montane forest, a catastrophically burned montane forest, urban land use and rangeland prairie. Concentrations and loads for most water quality variables were greatest during storm events. Turbidity was an effective indicator of TSS, E. coli and Enterococci spp. The greatest threat to public health from microbial contamination occurs during storm runoff events. Efforts to manage surface runoff and erosion would likely improve water quality of the upper Pecos River basin in New Mexico, USA.

  13. Evaluation of Water Treatment Plant Performance of Parsabad City in Ardabil Province in Removal of Total Dissolved Solids, Turbidity Phosphate and Calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaei


    Full Text Available Background: The determination of influent and effluent water quality of water treatment plants is important to increase standards of water quality for users. Parsabad city situated in north of Ardabil province and is the biggest city of province Ardabil. So, this study was accomplished due to lack of substantial studies for Parsabad water treatment plant. In the study, some of the important parameters of water was investigated for 7 years and was presented solutions for improvement treatment plant performance. Methods: This study was accomplished since 1384 to 1390 and four parameters total dissolved solids, turbidity, phosphate and calcium with 192 samples (96 samples collected from treatment plant influent and 96 samples collected from effluent were analyzed according to standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Results: Maximum removal performance of turbidity, total dissolved solids, phosphate and calcium were 99.8, 6.1, 92.67 and 28.45 respectively, during 7 years operation of treatment plant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that Parsabad water treatment plant with having a rapid sand filter, enable to remove turbidity up 85% when maximum turbidity at treatment plant influent was 700 NTU. But, significant difference statistically was not observed between influent and effluent samples of total dissolved solids and calcium (Pvalue˃0.05 and removal performance were trivial for total dissolved solids and calcium. Also, this treatment plant has not good performance (mean %38 for phosphate removal.

  14. Temporal and spatial variations in total suspended and dissolved solids in the upper part of Manoa stream, Hawaii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Fares, Ali; Tran, Dai Ngia


    Hawaiian watersheds are small, steep, and receive high intensity rainfall events of non-uniform distribution. These geographic and weather patterns result in flashy streams of strongly variable water quality even within various stream segments. Total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids

  15. Influence of land use on total suspended solid and dissolved ion concentrations: Baton Rouge, Louisiana area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carlson


    Full Text Available Past studies in the Baton Rouge, Louisiana area considered streamwater quality during storm events but ignored water quality during low flow periods. This study includes determination of streamwater quality during low flow time periods for none watersheds in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. These samples were collected during dry-low flow periods as indicated by water levels at USGS stream gauging sites for each stream. Chemical analysis for ions was completed using colorimeters and gravimetric analysis for total dissolved solids (TDS and total suspended solids (TSS. Land use appears to impact concentrations of ions, TDS and TSS in a variety of ways during periods of low flow. The two most rural watersheds, which are mainly underdeveloped, have higher concentrations of Fe and Mn. By contrast the three most urban watersheds, that are mainly commercial, industrial or residential, have higher concentrations of Si, SO4 and TDS.

  16. REE in suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Zuari estuary and adjacent shelf, western India: Influence of mining and estuarine turbidity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Parthiban, G.; Balakrishnan, S.; Narvekar, T.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    Concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn and rare earth elements (REE) were measured in 122 samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and 70 surficial sediments from the Zuari estuary and the adjacent shelf to understand their distribution, provenance...

  17. The clam (Chamelea gallina: evaluation of the effects of solids suspended in seawater on bivalve molluscs

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    Salvatora Angela Angioni


    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the effects of solids in suspension in seawater on clams (Chamelea gallina. The aim was to investigate the possible correlation between the widespread deaths of clams in the coastal waters of the central and northern Adriatic in the last five years and increased concentrations of solids in suspension. The research involved conducting 96-hour tests on clams farmed in aquariums containing filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a 7-day adaptation stage to allow the molluscs to acclimatise. During this period, the clams were fed on unicellular seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta. The molluscs were exposed to particles of solids in suspension consisting of pools of silica gel (SiO2 granules of various sizes, similar to those constituting silt, whose presence and suspension in the sea considerably increase after heavy rain and heavy seas. The study established that the number of deaths caused by solids suspended in seawater at the concentrations used in the tests was not statistically significant.

  18. Pesticide survey in water and suspended solids from the Uruguay River Basin, Argentina. (United States)

    Williman, Celia; Munitz, Martín S; Montti, María I T; Medina, María B; Navarro, Agustín F; Ronco, Alicia E


    The Uruguay River is receptor of pollutants, such as pesticides, from agriculture activities along its course. The present study reports concentration levels of organochlorinate, organophosphorus, and other pesticides in water and suspended solids in nine sampling sites of the Uruguay River. Data analyses included principal component analysis (PCA) to assess differences between sampling sites contamination. Most of the tested pesticides were ubiquitous due to the widely use in the chemical control of pests implemented in the region. Detected concentrations of aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, 4,4'-DDT, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, methyl-parathion, and malathion were found to be over regional and international concentration level guidelines, according to the European Union, the US Environmental Protection Agency, or the Argentinean Secretariat of Environment and Sustainable Development. For this reason, future studies in Uruguay River Basin are needed.

  19. Evaluation the Correlation between Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids with other Chemical Parameters in Yazd Wastewater Treatment Effluent Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikoonahad


    Conclusion: The measured values of BOD5, COD, TKN, TP, NO2-, NH3+, and color in laboratory were very close to those predicted through regression equations. Therefore, regression equations created in this study can be used to calculate expensive parameters.

  20. Study of Suspended Solid in Constructed Wetland Using Rare Earth Elements (United States)

    Xiao, Z. X. Z.


    Constructed wetland (CW) is one of the commonly used technologies in wastewater treatment. By means of the biochemical interactions among water, microscopic organism, aquatic plant and sediments in natural environment CW can remove biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammoniacal nitrogen, suspended solid (SS) and heavy metals. In this study, rare earth elements (REEs) were used as a natural tracer for the study of SS in the CW. The studied CW, Hebao Island free water surface CW, is located in Chiayi County, south Taiwan. The CW is designed for removing SS and BOD due to the pollution from livestock farms in the upstream area. However, the removal of SS was not effective. In some cases, the SS concentration of inflow is even higher than that of outflow. That the sediments on the slope were flushed into the CW was considered as the main problem. After all the refinement, the issue has not improved yet. In the study, the water samples were filtered with 1.0μm filter paper. Then, part of water samples were digested by ultrapure nitric acid to obtain the water representing the total of dissolved and suspended matters. The others were filtered by 0.1μm filter, which represent the matters in dissolved form. REEs and most of metals were subsequently measured with ICP-MS. REEs generally have a unique source and would fractionate in certain regular patterns during biochemical reactions due to lanthanide contraction. They can be an excellent natural tracer in the environmental researches. After normalized by North American Shale Composite, the REEs pattern for the samples with the total of dissolved and suspended matters is characterized by a middle REE (MREE) enrichment and light REE (LREE) depletion. According to the previous theoretical studies, the MREE enrichment could be achieved by a selected adsorption of MREEs by organic matters, which is generally humic substance in natural surface water. It is suggested that the refinement of removal efficiency of SS should focus on

  1. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater. (United States)

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc


    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants.

  2. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production. (United States)

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P


    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Loads of nitrate, phosphorus, and total suspended solids from Indiana watersheds (United States)

    Bunch, Aubrey R.


    Transport of excess nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS) such as sediment by freshwater systems has led to degradation of aquatic ecosystems around the world. Nutrient and TSS loads from Midwestern states to the Mississippi River are a major contributor to the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, an area of very low dissolved oxygen concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. To better understand Indiana’s contribution of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River, annual loads of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS were calculated for nine selected watersheds in Indiana using the load estimation model, S-LOADEST. Discrete water-quality samples collected monthly by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management’s Fixed Stations Monitoring Program from 2000–2010 and concurrent discharge data from the U. S. Geological Survey streamflow gages were used to create load models. Annual nutrient and TSS loads varied across Indiana by watershed and hydrologic condition. Understanding the loads from large river sites in Indiana is important for assessing contributions of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River Basin and in determining the effectiveness of best management practices in the state. Additionally, evaluation of loads from smaller upstream watersheds is important to characterize improvements at the local level and to identify priorities for reduction.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ir kasam


    Full Text Available digunakan sebagai air minum. Adapun parameter yang cukup tinggi pada air permukaan adalah bakteri E. Coli dan Total Suspended Solid (TSS. Salah satu alternative pengolahan untuk parameter bakteri E. Coli dan TSS adalah dengan filtrasi dengan membran filter. Membran keramik adalah salah satu alat yang bisa digunakan sebagai filter pada air permukaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kinerja membran keramik dalam menurunkan E.Coli dan TSS pada air permukan. Metode penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan membran keramik ukuran diameter 10 cm dan tinggi 20 cm yang terbuat dari tanah lempung, pasir kwarsa dan serbuk gergaji dengan komposisi 7,5% (membran 1 dan 10% (membran 2 bertujuan untuk membuat porositas dan pembakaran pada temperatur 900 – 1200 oC. Selanjutnya air permukaan dialirkan pada membran keramik secara kontinyu. Pengujian E.Coli dan TSS dilakukan pada menit ke 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, dan 180 dari waktu pengaliran. Dari hasil pengujian E. Coli dan TSS, diketahui bahwa membran keramik dapat menurunkan parameter E.Coli dan TSS pada air permukaan. E. Coli menurun hingga 98% untuk kedua membran 7,5% dan 10 % serbuk gergaji. Sedangkan TSS menurun hingga 72,55% pada membran keramik 7,5 % dan 65,22% pada membran 10%.

  5. Treatment of wastewater containing a large amount of suspended solids by a novel multi-staged UASB reactor. (United States)

    Uemura, S; Harada, H; Ohashi, A; Torimura, S


    Treatment of artificial wastewater containing a large amount of suspended solids comprised of soybean processing waste and pig fodder was studied using a novel multi-staged upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. The reactor consisted of three compartments, each containing a gas solid separator. The wastewater had chemical oxygen demand of approximately 21600 mg l(-1), suspended solids of 12800 mg l(-1), and an ammonia concentration of 945 mg l(-1). A continuous experiment without effluent circulation showed that the multi-staged reactor was not that effective for the treatment of wastewater containing a large amount of suspended solids. However, operation of the reactor with circulation of effluent enabled the reactor to achieve organic removal of 85% and approximately 70% methane conversion at loading rates of between 4.0 to 5.4 kg-chemical oxygen demand per cubic meter per day, meaning that the reactor was more effective when effluent was circulated. Morphological investigation revealed that the crude fiber in the sludge was partially degraded and that it had many small depressions on its surface. Evolved biogas may have become caught in these depressions of the fibers and caused washout of the sludge.

  6. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn


    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p′-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p′-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases.

  7. Implementation guide for turbidity threshold sampling: principles, procedures, and analysis (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand Eads


    Turbidity Threshold Sampling uses real-time turbidity and river stage information to automatically collect water quality samples for estimating suspended sediment loads. The system uses a programmable data logger in conjunction with a stage measurement device, a turbidity sensor, and a pumping sampler. Specialized software enables the user to control the sampling...

  8. Turbidity affects foraging success of drift-feeding rosyide dace (United States)

    Richard M. Zamor; Gary D. Grossman


    The effects of suspended sediment on nongame fishes are not well understood. We examined the effects of suspended sediment (i.e., turbidity) on reactive distance and prey capture success at springautumn (12°C) and summer (18°C) temperatures for royside dace Clinostomus funduloides in an artificial stream. Experimental turbidities ranged from 0 to 56...

  9. Assessment of conservation easements, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids in West Fork Beaver Creek, Minnesota, 1999-2012 (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Kieta, Kristen A.


    This study examined conservation easements and their effectiveness at reducing phosphorus and solids transport to streams. The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources and worked collaboratively with the Hawk Creek Watershed Project to examine the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin in Renville County, which has the largest number of Reinvest In Minnesota land retirement contracts in the State (as of 2013). Among all conservation easement programs, a total of 24,218 acres of agricultural land were retired throughout Renville County, and 2,718 acres were retired in the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin from 1987 through 2012. Total land retirement increased steadily from 1987 until 2000. In 2000, land retirement increased sharply because of the Minnesota River Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, then leveled off when the program ended in 2002. Streamflow data were collected during 1999 through 2011, and total phosphorus and total suspended solids data were collected during 1999 through 2012. During this period, the highest peak streamflow of 1,320 cubic feet per second was in March 2010. Total phosphorus and total suspended solids are constituents that tend to increase with increases in streamflow. Annual flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.140 to 0.759 milligrams per liter, and annual flow-weighted mean total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 217 milligrams per liter. Annual flow-weighted mean total phosphorus and total suspended solids concentrations decreased steadily during the first 4 years of water-quality sample collection. A downward trend in flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations was significant from 1999 through 2008; however, flow-weighted total-phosphorus concentrations increased substantially in 2009, and the total phosphorus trend was no longer significant. The high annual flow-weighted mean concentrations for total phosphorus and total suspended solids

  10. Palm oil mill effluent and municipal wastewater co-treatment by zeolite augmented sequencing batch reactors: Turbidity removal (United States)

    Farraji, Hossein; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md


    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the largest wastewater in Malaysia. Of the 60 million tons of POME produced annually, 2.4-3 million tons are total solids. Turbidity is caused by suspended solids, and 75% of total suspended solids are organic matter. Coagulation and flocculation are popular treatments for turbidity removal. Traditional commercial treatments do not meet discharge standards. This study evaluated natural zeolite and municipal wastewater (MWW)-augmented sequencing batch reactor as a microbiological digestion method for the decontamination of POME in response surface methodology. Aeration, contact time, and MWW/POME ratio were selected as response factors for turbidity removal. Results indicated that turbidity removal varied from 96.7% (MWW/POME ratio=50 %, aeration flow=0.5 L/min, and contact time=12) to 99.31% (MWW/POME ratio=80%, aeration flow 4L/min, and contact time 12 h). This study is the first to present MWW augmentation as a suitable microorganism supplier for turbidity biodegradation in high-strength agroindustrial wastewater.

  11. Suspended solids and total phosphorus loads and their spatial differences in a lake-rich river basin as determined by automatic monitoring network. (United States)

    Koskiaho, Jari; Tattari, Sirkka; Röman, Elina


    Turbidity datasets recorded by sensors during 2009-2012 were collected in five observation sites in the 2046-km2 Karjaanjoki River Basin in southern Finland. From these and water sample-based data, total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) fluxes were determined. Based on calculations made with combined sensor- and water sample-based dataset, the annual loading from the Karjaanjoki Basin in 2009-2012 varied between 11,300 and 23,900[corrected] kg of TP and 3300-8400 t of TSS. As compared with two other river basins discharging into the Baltic Sea in southern Finland, the TP loading from Karjaanjoki was low because the summed retention in the two major lakes Hiidenvesi and Lohjanjärvi was high: 48 and 49% of the TSS and TP loadings generated in their upstream catchments, respectively. Depending on how water sampling took place in relation to peak flow events, differences of annual fluxes as determined by "water samples only" vs. "sensors and water samples" data varied between -22 and 26 for TP and -31 and 39% for TSS. This study proved automatic monitoring being useful when spatial differences and lake retention of riverine fluxes are explored. Moreover, the loading estimates calculated on the base of well-functioning and well-maintained automatic monitoring system, supported with water sampling during periods when devices were off, are undoubtedly more accurate than those based on manual grab water sampling only. The findings of this study were in line with, and well contribute to, earlier Finnish and international research on automatic water quality monitoring.

  12. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States. (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M


    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Report of meeting on measurement of suspended solids in the Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joziasse, J.; Klaver, G.; Bakker, I.


    On June 19/20, 2007 a visit was paid to a suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampling and monitoring site in the Ourthe river (Liège region), between the confluence with the Vesdre river and the mouth of the Ourthe in the Meuse river. The next day, a workshop was organised in which backgrounds,

  14. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul


    The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...... of the concrete. The Cl content in MSWI fly ash is also too high and will cause corrosion problems in reinforced concrete. The possibility of removing some of the unwanted heavy metals (Cu and Pb) together with Cl from an MSWI fly ash suspended in water using an electrodialytic separation method was investigated...

  15. Suspended solids and nutrient retention in rural constructed wetlands in cold climate (United States)

    Koskiaho, Jari; Siimekselä, Tiina; Puustinen, Markku


    Three constructed wetlands (CWs), two located in southern and one in central Finland, were monitored during 2013-2015. The southern CWs Hovi (0.6 ha wet area) and Rantamo-Seitteli (24 ha wet area) were monitored continuously by s::can nitro::lyser ( sensors. On average 10 pairs (inflow and outflow) of water samples were annually taken in the two southern CWs and 20 pairs in the northernmost Tarvaala CW (wet area 1.4 ha). In Tarvaala, a portable, continuously measuring Micromac 1000 -phosphate analyzer ( was also tested at the CW outlet in 2015. The CWs differed in their size, dimensioning (CW-to-catchment area ratio) and in the characteristics of their upstream catchments. The Hovi CW has 5.0% CW-to-catchment area ratio and 100% agricultural land use in its clayey catchment. The corresponding percentages were for the Rantamo-Seitteli CW (clayey catchment) 1.3% and 42%, and for the Tarvaala CW (coarse soil type in the catchment) 1.0% and 16%. The average annual total suspended solids (TSS) retentions in Hovi, Rantamo-Seitteli and Tarvaala CWs were 79%, 6% and 50%, respectively. The average annual total phosphorus (TP) retentions were 61% at Hovi, 22% at Rantamo-Seitteli and 23% at Tarvaala. The unexpectedly high TSS and TP retentions at Tarvaala were probably due to the coarse soil type with more readily settling particles than in two other CWs. In Hovi and Rantamo-Seitteli CWs also dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) was measured. The DRP retentions (83% at Hovi and 27% at Rantamo-Seitteli) were higher than those of TP, which was probably due to the high contents of P-binding Al- and Fe-oxides in the soil of these two CWs. In the Hovi CW, vivid biological activity (abundant vegetation, algae and microbes) might also have played a role. The average annual total nitrogen (TN) retentions in Hovi and Rantamo-Seitteli CWs were 66% and 14%, respectively. At Tarvaala, TN retention varied annually so that no net retention over the whole period

  16. Riverbank filtration for the treatment of highly turbid Colombian rivers (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; van Halem, Doris; Rietveld, Luuk


    The poor quality of many Colombian surface waters forces us to seek alternative, sustainable treatment solutions with the ability to manage peak pollution events and to guarantee the uninterrupted provision of safe drinking water to the population. This review assesses the potential of using riverbank filtration (RBF) for the highly turbid and contaminated waters in Colombia, emphasizing water quality improvement and the influence of clogging by suspended solids. The suspended sediments may be favorable for the improvement of the water quality, but they may also reduce the production yield capacity. The cake layer must be balanced by scouring in order for an RBF system to be sustainable. The infiltration rate must remain high enough throughout the river-aquifer interface to provide the water quantity needed, and the residence time of the contaminants must be sufficient to ensure adequate water quality. In general, RBF seems to be a technology appropriate for use in highly turbid and contaminated surface rivers in Colombia, where improvements are expected due to the removal of turbidity, pathogens and to a lesser extent inorganics, organic matter and micro-pollutants. RBF has the potential to mitigate shock loads, thus leading to the prevention of shutdowns of surface water treatment plants. In addition, RBF, as an alternative pretreatment step, may provide an important reduction in chemical consumption, considerably simplifying the operation of the existing treatment processes. However, clogging and self-cleansing issues must be studied deeper in the context of these highly turbid waters to evaluate the potential loss of abstraction capacity yield as well as the development of different redox zones for efficient contaminant removal.

  17. Appropriate maximum holding times for analysis of total suspended solids concentration in water samples taken from open-channel waterways. (United States)

    Oudyn, Frederik W; Lyons, David J; Pringle, M J


    Many scientific laboratories follow, as standard practice, a relatively short maximum holding time (within 7 days) for the analysis of total suspended solids (TSS) in environmental water samples. In this study we have subsampled from bulk water samples stored at ∼4 °C in the dark, then analysed for TSS at time intervals up to 105 days after collection. The nonsignificant differences in TSS results observed over time demonstrates that storage at ∼4 °C in the dark is an effective method of preserving samples for TSS analysis, far past the 7-day standard practice. Extending the maximum holding time will ease the pressure on sample collectors and laboratory staff who until now have had to determine TSS within an impractically short period.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Fecal Coliform and Associated with Suspended Solids and Water within Five Northern California Estuaries. (United States)

    Lewis, David J; Atwill, Edward R; Pereira, Maria das Graças C; Bond, Ronald


    Fecal coliform and associated with suspended solids (SS) and water in five northern California estuaries were studied to document process influences and water quality monitoring biases affecting indicator bacteria concentrations. We collected and analyzed 2371 samples during 10 sampling events for the five studied estuaries. Concentrations during wet-season stormflow conditions were greater than during wet-season base flow and dry-season base flow conditions. Results also document concentration gradients across the length of the studied estuaries and with depth of sample collection. Highest concentrations were associated with shallow samples collected furthest inland. Corresponding decreases occurred the deeper and closer to the estuary mouth a sample was collected. Results also identify direct relationships of wind speed and discharge velocity and indirect relationship of tide stage to indicator bacteria concentrations. Bacteria associated with suspended solids (SS), after conversion to the same units of measurement (mass), were three orders of magnitude greater than in the water fraction. However, the mean proportion contributed by SS to composite water sample concentrations was 8% (SE 0.3) for fecal coliform and 7% (SE 0.3) for . Bacteria from the SS proportion is related to seasonality, tide stage, and discharge velocity that are consistent with mechanisms for entrainment, transport of SS, and reduced particle settling. These results are important for both managing and monitoring these systems by improving sample spatial and temporal context and corresponding bacteria concentration values across the freshwater-saltwater interface. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. The Swift Turbidity Marker (United States)

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir


    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  20. Relationship between nutrients and plankton biomass in the turbidity maximum zone of the Pearl River Estuary. (United States)

    Shi, Zhen; Xu, Jie; Huang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xia; Jiang, Zhijian; Ye, Feng; Liang, Ximei


    Nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic carbon and plankton (bacterio-, phyto- and zoo-) were compared in the turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) and adjacent areas (non-TMZ) in the Pearl River estuary. Our results showed that high levels of suspended substances had marked effect on dynamics of nutrients and plankton in the TMZ. Based on the cluster analysis of total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations, all stations were divided into two groups, TMZ with average TSS of 171mg/L and non-TMZ of 45mg/L. Suspended substances adsorbed PO4(3-) and dissolved organic carbon, resulting in higher particulate phosphorus and organic carbon (POC) and lower PO4(3-) and DOC in the TMZ, compared to the non-TMZ. However, suspended substances had limited effect on nitrogenous nutrients. Phytoplankton growth was light-limited due to high concentrations of suspended substances in the TMZ and a peak of phytoplankton abundance appeared in the non-TMZ. In contrast, the highest bacterial abundance occurred in the TMZ, which was likely partly responsible for low DOC levels. Two peaks of zooplankton abundance observed in the TMZ and non-TMZ in the Pearl River estuary were primarily supported by bacteria and phytoplankton, respectively. Our finding implied that high levels of suspended solids in the TMZ affect the trophic balance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. An isolation-enhanced quad-element antenna using suspended solid wires for LTE small-cell base stations (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Sheng; Zhou, Huang-Cheng


    This paper presents a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antenna that has four-unit elements enabled by an isolation technique for long-term evolution (LTE) small-cell base stations. While earlier studies on MIMO base-station antennas cope with either a lower LTE band (698-960 MHz) or an upper LTE band (1710-2690 MHz), the proposed antenna meets the full LTE specification, yet it uses the maximum number of unit elements to increase channel capacity. The antenna configuration is optimized for good impedance matching and high radiation efficiency. In particular, as the spacing between unit elements is so small that severe mutual coupling occurs, we propose a simple structure with extremely low costs to enhance the isolation. By using suspended solid wires interconnecting the position having strong coupled current of two adjacent elements, an isolation enhancement of 37 dB is achieved. Although solid wires inherently aim at direct-current applications, this work successfully employs such a low-cost technique to microwave antenna development. Experimental results have validated the design guidelines and the proposed configuration, showing that antenna performances including impedance matching, isolation, radiation features, signal correlation, and channel capacity gain are highly desired for LTE small-cell base stations.

  2. Coagulation-Sedimentation-Extraction Pretreatment Methods for The Removal of Suspended Solids and Residual Oil From Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Ahmad, Norliza Ibrahim , Suzylawati Ismail and Subhash Bhatia


    Full Text Available Suspended solids and residual oil removal in a liquid are relevant to numerous research areas and industry. The suspended solid cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Large and heavy particles can settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Because of this, it requires efficient physical-chemical pretreatment methods.   Our current research is to study the pretreatment methods in the removal of suspended solids and residual oil content in POME. Preliminary analysis shows that POME contains 40,000 mg/L suspended solid and 4,000 mg/L oil and grease content that relatively very high compared to the maximum allowable limit by the Malaysian Department of Environment which are only 400 mg/L and 50 mg/L respectively. The methods chosen were coagulation-sedimentation method for suspended solids removal and solvent extraction for residual oil removal.  Jar test apparatus was used as the standard procedure for bench-scale testing and alum was used as the coagulant. Parameters studied were alum dosage, mixing time, mixing speed, sedimentation time and pH. For removal of residual oil, six different organic solvents; n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, petroleum ether, pentane and petroleum benzene were used. For every solvent the effect of solvent ratio, mixing time, mixing speed and pH were analyzed. The results show that the optimum conditions in removal of suspended solid from POME were at pH 4.11, sedimentation time of 100 minutes and 150 rpm mixing speed with 1.5 hr mixing time. N-hexane give the best performance in extracting residual oil from POME with solvent to POME ratio of 6:10. It was estimated about 0.54 grams of oil and grease can be extracted with optimum variables at pH 4, mixing speed of 200 rpm, and 20 minutes mixing time.  Key Words: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, suspended solid, residual oil, solvent extraction.

  3. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.


    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  4. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm. (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C


    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  5. Turbidity Measurement Using An Optical Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallehuddin Bin Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Turbidity is used to describe water quality and it can be caused by the presence of suspended particles and organic matter such as algae, clay and silt. The measurement of turbidity level of water is vital to domestic water supplies since it is related to public health and water treatment process. This paper presents an investigation on an optical tomography system to estimate the turbidity level in a sample of water. The optical sensors consist of infrared light-emitting diodes (LED as transmitters and photodiodes as the receivers where the projections of the sensors are designed in fan beam mode. The system was tested using a vertical flow pipe. The Independent Component Analysis (ICA method was used to display the concentration profile. Results obtained proved that the technique can provide the concentration profile representing the turbidity level of water.

  6. Analysing the correlations of long-term seasonal water quality parameters, suspended solids and total dissolved solids in a shallow reservoir with meteorological factors. (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Yixuan; Gao, Xueping


    To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011. The results indicate that the three meteorological factors may have positive effects on SS. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between many water quality parameters and SS or TDS were exhibited seasonally. The correlations between electrical conductivity (EC) and SS were opposite to correlations between EC and TDS. This finding reveals that TDS have a positive impact on EC, while EC negatively affects SS. The results indicated that many parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), were related to SS due to the adsorption of SS. Moreover, both positive and negative correlations between COD and TDS were observed in this freshwater reservoir. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and SS suggested that the change of SS concentration in autumn was caused by the growth of algae. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SS and meteorological factors were also observed, indicating that meteorological factors had effects on SS dynamics. This study provides useful information regarding the correlations among water quality parameters, SS and TDS with meteorological factors in a freshwater reservoir.

  7. Influence of Rainfall Characteristics on Total Suspended Solids in Urban Runoff: A Case Study in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Gong


    Full Text Available An urban rainfall-runoff water quality model was developed to simulate total suspend solids (TSS using the stormwater management model (SWMM for a 3.8 ha university campus in Beijing (approximately 76.5% impervious, and calibrated and validated against data from two observed rainfall events (221.2 and 16.6 mm rainfall. Model performance is satisfactory (Nash–Sutcliffe model efficiency 0.8 and 0.72 for flow and 0.74 and 0.51 for TSS concentration, respectively. A series of sensitivity model runs were conducted using the calibrated SWMM to study the influences of rainfall characteristics (rainfall hyetographs, depths and durations and surface flooding on the TSS concentration in outlet runoff of the catchment. The Pilgrim and Cordery rainfall distribution defines a first-quartile storm (the most severe and results in the highest peak discharge and TSS concentration at the outlet but the lowest outlet TSS load because of the highest TSS flood loss (32.3%. The simulated TSS pollutograph resulting from the Keifer and Chu rainfall distribution (with r = 0.5 is almost identical to that resulting from the alternating block rainfall distribution. Under the same rainfall hyetograph, simulated peak discharge and outlet TSS load are positively correlated (R2 = 0.95 to the rainfall depth as a function of the return period.

  8. Influence of sampling intake position on suspended solid measurements in sewers: two probability/time-series-based approaches. (United States)

    Sandoval, Santiago; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc


    Total suspended solid (TSS) measurements in urban drainage systems are required for several reasons. Aiming to assess uncertainties in the mean TSS concentration due to the influence of sampling intake vertical position and vertical concentration gradients in a sewer pipe, two methods are proposed: a simplified method based on a theoretical vertical concentration profile (SM) and a time series grouping method (TSM). SM is based on flow rate and water depth time series. TSM requires additional TSS time series as input data. All time series are from the Chassieu urban catchment in Lyon, France (time series from 2007 with 2-min time step, 89 rainfall events). The probability of measuring a TSS value lower than the mean TSS along the vertical cross section (TSS underestimation) is about 0.88 with SM and about 0.64 with TSM. TSM shows more realistic TSS underestimation values (about 39 %) than SM (about 269 %). Interquartile ranges (IQR) over the probability values indicate that SM is more uncertain (IQR = 0.08) than TSM (IQR = 0.02). Differences between the two methods are mainly due to simplifications in SM (absence of TSS measurements). SM assumes a significant asymmetry of the TSS concentration profile along the vertical axis in the cross section. This is compatible with the distribution of TSS measurements found in the TSM approach. The methods provide insights towards an indicator of the measurement performance and representativeness for a TSS sampling protocol.

  9. An interlaboratory study as useful tool for proficiency testing of chemical oxygen demand measurements using solid substrates and liquid samples with high suspended solid content. (United States)

    Raposo, F; de la Rubia, M A; Borja, R; Alaiz, M; Beltrán, J; Cavinato, C; Clinckspoor, M; Demirer, G; Diamadopoulos, E; Helmreich, B; Jenicek, P; Martí, N; Méndez, R; Noguerol, J; Pereira, F; Picard, S; Torrijos, M


    In 2008, the first Proficiency Testing Scheme of Chemical Oxygen Demand (1(st)COD-PT(ADG)) was conducted to assess the results obtained for different research groups whose field work is mainly anaerobic digestion. This study was performed using four samples, two solid samples as raw materials and two solid samples to prepare high concentration suspended solid solutions. Invitations were sent to a large number of laboratories, mainly to anaerobic digestion research groups. Finally, thirty labs from sixteen countries agreed to participate, but for different reasons four participants could not send any data. In total, twenty-six results were reported to the COD-PT coordinator. This study showed the importance of continuous participation in proficiency testing (PT) schemes in order to compare the results obtained. Taking into account the lack of a general standard method and high quality certified reference materials (CRMs), the traceability of COD determination is not currently easy to check. In addition, the spread of participants' results obtained was high and pointed to the advisability of using consensus values due to their unreliability. Therefore, the theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD) values were considered as assigned values for all the samples analysed. On the other hand, in this PT the established standard deviation (ESD) has been determined by the Horwitz modified function. Participants of this 1(st)COD-PT(ADG) were asked to give a short report on the analytical method used. Although all the participants used potassium dichromate as their oxidant reagent, their experimental procedures were very different. With the purpose of comparing the results obtained, the different experimental conditions used were classified into five methods, corresponding to two main categories, open and closed reflux. The performance of laboratories was expressed by the z-score, whose value is considered satisfactory when z-score

  10. The use of hand-held 35 mm color infrared imagery for estimates of suspended solids - A progress report. [in water pollution monitoring (United States)

    Miller, W. F.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, H. R.; Finnie, D.; Cannon, T.


    A cost-effective aerial surveillance technique is proposed for detection and identification of suspended solids which would be operational for both governmental monitoring organizations and private individuals operating catfish farms. Sixteen catfish ponds were flown daily for seven days using two hand-held 35 mm cameras with both Kodachrome X and Ektachrome infrared film. Hue, value, and chroma designations were recorded for each pond on each date by three interpreters, and the accepted color was that recorded by at least two of the interpreters, or if there was a three hue range, the median was accepted. Relations between suspended solids and color designations were analyzed graphically, and chroma was discarded due to an apparent lack of correlation. The data obtained were then analyzed by multiple regression. Significant correlations were revealed between hue and value and total and inorganic suspended solids. If perfected, this technique could be developed to sufficent accuracy for large-scale reconnaissance surveys to monitor the quality of rivers and streams.

  11. Resuspension and transport of suspended solids in Eurajoensalmi Bay. Final report of monitoring activities in 2009-2011; Resuspensio ja kiintoaineen kulkeutuminen Eurajoensalmessa. Vesistoemittausten loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkanen, J.; Kiirikki, M.; Lindfors, A. [Luode Consulting Oy, Espoo (Finland)


    The goal of monitoring activities carried out in Eurajoensalmi Bay was to indentify factors affecting dispersal of river waters and suspended solid matter in the estuary area. In addition to suspended solids load and dispersal of river water, also release of sedimented particles from the sea bed in resuspension was studied. River water quality and discharge as well as resuspension in Eurajoensalmi estuary area were monitored with Luode automatic monitoring stations equipped with water quality, water level, wave height and weather sensors. Dynamics of Eurajoensalmi estuary area was studied by installing profiling current meters (ADCP) and water quality sensors to the sea floor at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Spatial variation of surface water quality was monitored with a flow-through method from a moving vessel and manual profiling several times during the monitoring period. Collected data was processed and used in determining suspended solids balance of Eurajoensalmi Bay. The balance was determined by creating a regression model for water exchange and sediment flux over the cross section at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Regression model was created also to determine resuspension in Eurajoensalmi area. Sediment flux and resuspension were modeled using long term wind data from Kylmaepihlaja meteorological station as a variable to determine overall sediment balance of Eurajoensalmi.

  12. suspended solids and metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    33.084722,. −117.300000). Lake Ellyn. Rectangle n/a. Striegl and Cowan. (1987) ..... V pp. /D pp. (12). T o tal. TS. S. No n e. +0.86. D p p. (12). T o tal. Pb Zn. B elow m ed ian. A b o ve m ed ian. −. 0.9. 6. −. 0.82. Pb. B elo w an d ab o ve m ed ian. −.

  13. Coagulation of highly turbid suspensions using magnesium hydroxide: effects of slow mixing conditions. (United States)

    Ayoub, George M; BinAhmed, Sara W; Al-Hindi, Mahmoud; Azizi, Fouad


    Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of slow mixing conditions on magnesium hydroxide floc size and strength and to determine the turbidity and total suspended solid (TSS) removal efficiencies during coagulation of highly turbid suspensions. A highly turbid kaolin clay suspension (1,213 ± 36 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) was alkalized to pH 10.5 using a 5 M NaOH solution; liquid bittern (LB) equivalent to 536 mg/L of Mg(2+) was added as a coagulant, and the suspension was then subjected to previously optimized fast mixing conditions of 100 rpm and 60 s. Slow mixing speed (20, 30, 40, and 50 rpm) and time (10, 20, and 30 min) were then varied, while the temperature was maintained at 20.7 ± 1 °C. The standard practice for coagulation-flocculation jar test ASTM D2035-13 (2013) was followed in all experiments. Relative floc size was monitored using an optical measuring device, photometric dispersion analyzer (PDA 2000). Larger and more shear resistant flocs were obtained at 20 rpm for both 20- and 30-min slow mixing times; however, given the shorter duration for the former, the 20-min slow mixing time was considered to be more energy efficient. For slow mixing camp number (Gt) values in the range of 8,400-90,000, it was found that the mixing speed affected floc size and strength more than the time. Higher-turbidity removal efficiencies were achieved at 20 and 30 rpm, while TSS removal efficiency was higher for the 50-rpm slow mixing speed. Extended slow mixing time of 30 min yielded better turbidity and TSS removal efficiencies at the slower speeds.

  14. Longitudinal trends and discontinuities in nutrients, chlorophyll, and suspended solids in the Upper Mississippi River: Implications for transport, processing, and export by large rivers (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Bierman, D.W.; Burdis, R.M.; Soeken-Gittinger, L. A.


    Across the distances spanned by large rivers, there are important differences in catchment characteristics, tributary inputs, and river morphology that may cause longitudinal changes in nutrient, chlorophyll, and suspended solids concentrations. We investigated longitudinal and seasonal patterns in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) using long-term data (1994-2005) from five study reaches that spanned 1300 km of the UMR. Lake Pepin, a natural lake in the most upstream study reach, had a clear effect on suspended material in the river. Suspended solids and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were substantially lower downstream of the lake and percent organic material (OM%) in suspension was higher. Below L. Pepin, mean total and organic suspended solids (TSS, OSS) and TP increased downriver and exhibited approximately log-linear relationships with catchment area, whereas OM% declined substantially downriver. Despite the downriver increase in TSS and OSS, concentrations similar to those above L. Pepin do not occur until ~370 km downriver indicating the extent of the influence of L. Pepin on the UMR. Chlorophyll concentrations were lower in the most downstream study reach, likely reflecting the shorter residence time and poor light climate, but there was not a consistent longitudinal decline in chlorophyll across the study reaches. Dissolved silica (DSi), DSi:TN, and DSi:TP declined downriver suggesting that DSi uptake and sedimentation by river phytoplankton may be reducing DSi transport in the river, and indicating that the eutrophication of the river may contribute to a reduction of DSi export to the Gulf of Mexico. ?? 2010 US Government: USGS.

  15. Transformation and sorption of illicit drug biomarkers in sewer systems: understanding the role of suspended solids in raw wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio


    substrates (primary metabolic processes) and transformation of illicit drug biomarkers (secondary metabolic processes) by suspended biomass. Sixteen drug biomarkers were targeted, including mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, heroin, codeine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and their major human metabolites. Batch...

  16. Nutrients and Suspended Solids in Surface Waters of the Upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin, 1978-97 (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel J.


    A retrospective analysis of selected data on nutrients and suspended solids in surface waters of the upper Illinois River Basin was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Approximately 91 percent of the upper Illinois River Basin is drained by three principal rivers: the Kankakee (and its major tributary, the Iroquois), the Des Plaines, and the Fox. The data analyzed were collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA), which operates 39 monitoring sites in the study area as part of its Ambient Water-Quality Monitoring Network, and included analyses for total ammonia nitrogen, total nitriteplus- nitrate nitrogen, total ammonia-plus-organic (total Kjeldahl) nitrogen, dissolved and total phosphorus, and total suspended solids and volatile solids. Nutrient and suspended-sediment data collected by the USGS as part of the upper Illinois River Basin NAWQA pilot study from 1987-90 were compared to IEPA data. For the 1978-97 period, in general, nutrient concentrations, with the exception of nitrate, were highest at streams in the urban areas of the Des Plaines River Basin. Streams in the Kankakee and Fox River Basins generally had lower concentrations, although the data indicate that concentrations increased in a downstream direction in these basins. These spatial patterns in nutrient concentrations correspond closely with land use in the respective basins. The elevated concentrations of ammonia and phosphorus in the urbanized Des Plaines River Basin, with respect to other sites in the study area, indicate that municipal- and industrial- waste discharges into streams of the basin increase concentrations of these nutrients in the receiving streams. In contrast, nitrate concentrations were highest in agricultural areas. Relatively large ratios of nitrogen to phosphorus and nitrate to ammonia are characteristic of agricultural drainage. On the other hand, urban tributaries were characterized by

  17. Removal of Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} ions from the mixture of organics and suspended solids aqueous solutions by zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiang Hong; Fang, Fang; Lu, Chun Hai [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Zheng, Lei [Southwest University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education, Mianyang (China)


    Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater.

  18. Removal of Cs+, Sr2+, and Co2+ Ions from the Mixture of Organics and Suspended Solids Aqueous Solutions by Zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Hong Fang


    Full Text Available Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr2+, Cs+, and Co2+ in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr2+, Cs+, and Co2+ with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater.

  19. Turbidity Current Bedforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cartigny, Matthieu|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823716; Postma, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069744599


    Turbidity currents in the submarine seascape are what river flows are in terrestrial landscapes. While rivers transport sediment from the mountains through valleys towards the sea, turbidity currents transport sediment from the shallow marine realms through canyons towards the deeper abyssal plains.

  20. An investigation into the effectiveness of sand media amended with biochar to remove BOD5, suspended solids and coliforms using wetland mesocosms. (United States)

    de Rozari, P; Greenway, M; El Hanandeh, A


    Constructed wetland ecotechnologies (CWEs) are a promising solution to effectively treat domestic wastewater in developing countries at low cost. This paper reports the findings of the effectiveness of sand media amended with woody biochar and two plants species (Melaleuca quinquenervia and Cymbopogon citratus) in removing biological oxygen demand (BOD5), suspended solids and coliforms. The experimental design consisted of 21 vertical flow (VF) mesocosms. There were seven media treatments using sand amended with varying proportions of biochar. During the first 8 months, the mesocosms were loaded with secondary clarified wastewater (SCW) then septage. The influent had a 4-day hydraulic retention time. Samples were monitored for BOD5, total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), total coliforms and faecal coliforms. In the first 8 months, there were no significant performance differences between media treatments in the outflow concentrations of BOD5, TSS and TVS. The significant differences occurred during the last 3 months; using septage with biochar additions performed better than pure sand. For coliforms, the significant differences occurred after 6 months. In conclusion, the addition of biochar was not effective for SCW. The VF mesocosms system proved to be more effective in removing BOD5, TSS, TVS and coliforms when septage was loaded into the media.

  1. Manufacturing temperature and turbidity sensor based on ATMega 8535 microcontroller (United States)

    Nuzula, Nike Ika; Sakinah, Wazirotus; Endarko


    The manufacturing of temperature and turbidity measurement system based on ATMega 8535 microcontroller has been done. To measure temperature, this system uses LM35 and photodiode to measure water turbidity. The principle of LM35 sensor is comparing temperature based on its resistance. Thus temperature that is converted to voltage can be detected. The Turbidity system in this experiment is using Nephelometer method with the light scattered by suspended particles in fluid, with LED and photodiode parallel to each other. This system can measure turbidity in 1 NTU - 200 NTU with a close distance (1 inch) and a maximum relative error of 3.09% for the temperature measurement and also 3,12 % for turbidity measurement.

  2. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aine Marie Gormley-Gallagher

    Full Text Available Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05 for Mn (r2 = 0.0063, Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021, Ni (r2 = 0.0023, Cd (r2 = 0.00001, Co (r2 = 0.096, Hg (r2 = 0.116 or Pb (r2 = 0.164. The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  3. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations. (United States)

    Gormley-Gallagher, Aine Marie; Douglas, Richard William; Rippey, Brian


    Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic) lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05) for Mn (r2 = 0.0063), Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021), Ni (r2 = 0.0023), Cd (r2 = 0.00001), Co (r2 = 0.096), Hg (r2 = 0.116) or Pb (r2 = 0.164). The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing) fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  4. A Landsat-based model for retrieving total suspended solids concentration of estuaries and coasts in China (United States)

    Wang, Chongyang; Chen, Shuisen; Li, Dan; Wang, Danni; Liu, Wei; Yang, Ji


    Retrieving total suspended solids (TSS) concentration accurately is essential for sustainable management of estuaries and coasts, which plays a key role in the interaction between hydrosphere, pedosphere and atmosphere. Although many TSS retrieval models have been published, the general inversion method that is applicable to different field conditions is still under research. In order to obtain a TSS remote sensing model that is suitable for estimating TSS concentrations with wide range in estuaries and coasts by Landsat imagery, after reviewing a number of Landsat-based TSS retrieval models and improving a comparatively better one among them, this study developed a quadratic model using the ratio of logarithmic transformation of red band and near-infrared band and logarithmic transformation of TSS concentration (QRLTSS) based on 119 in situ samples collected in 2006-2013 from five regions of China. It was found that the QRLTSS model works well and shows a satisfactory performance. The QRLTSS model based on Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper), ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) and OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensors explained about 72 % of the TSS concentration variation (TSS: 4.3-577.2 mg L-1, N = 84, P value proposed to solve the two-valued issue of the QRLTSS model and to retrieve TSS concentration from Landsat imagery. After a 6S model-based atmospheric correction of Landsat OLI and ETM+ imagery, the TSS concentrations of three regions (Moyangjiang River estuary, Pearl River estuary and Hanjiang River estuary) in Guangdong Province in China were mapped by the QRLTSS model. The results indicated that TSS concentrations in the three estuaries showed large variation ranging from 0.295 to 370.4 mg L-1. Meanwhile we found that TSS concentrations retrieved from Landsat imagery showed good validation accuracies with the synchronous water samples (TSS: 7-160 mg L-1, RMSE: 11.06 mg L-1, N = 22). The further validation from EO-1 Hyperion imagery also showed good

  5. Geomorphic Characteristics of Lofted Turbidity Current Deposits (United States)

    Steel, E.; Buttles, J. L.; Simms, A.; Mohrig, D. C.


    Hyperpycnal flows are river-derived turbidity currents, which - in the marine realm - commonly contain interstitial fluid that is fresher and therefore less dense than ambient fluid. These flows travel along the seabed surface due to their high suspended sediment concentrations, and their fate depends heavily on the balance between factors that increase bulk flow density, e.g. entrainment of sediment or ambient water, and those that decrease bulk flow density, e.g. deposition of suspended sediment. If suspended sediment is rapidly deposited from the flow, bulk flow density and flow velocity will decrease until it reaches a point of equal density to the ambient fluid through which it is travelling. Once this point is reached, the flow can begin to rise to the water surface or to a depth of neutral buoyancy in a process known as lofting. We ran 21 experimental turbidity currents with varying bulk flow and interstitial fluid densities, across three different basin geometries, in order to characterize the effect on deposit geometry. Our findings show that lofted turbidity currents are width-limited and generate narrower, more elongate deposits than bed-attached flows. We also show that steeper ramp gradients push the lofting point farther out into the basin. We show the effect of variations in bulk flow density, suspended sediment concentration, and fluid density on overall deposit geometry and flow run-out distances. Most importantly, the use of a 3-dimensional experimental tank allows for the first detailed analysis of the lofting process and its effects on length-to-width ratios of turbidite lobes.

  6. Remote sensing and water quality indicators in the Korean West coast: Spatio-temporal structures of MODIS-derived chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids. (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Cheol; Son, Seunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Nam, Jungho; Chang, Won Keun; Lee, Jung-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, Jongseong


    The Yellow Sea is a shallow marginal sea with a large tidal range. In this study, ten areas located along the western coast of the Korean Peninsula are investigated with respect to remotely sensed water quality indicators derived from NASA MODIS aboard of the satellite Aqua. We found that there was a strong seasonal trend with spatial heterogeneity. In specific, a strong six-month phase-lag was found between chlorophyll-a and total suspended solid owing to their inversed seasonality, which could be explained by different dynamics and environmental settings. Chlorophyll-a concentration seemed to be dominantly influenced by temperature, while total suspended solid was largely governed by local tidal forcing and bottom topography. This study demonstrated the potential and applicability of satellite products in coastal management, and highlighted find that remote-sensing would be a promising tool in resolving orthogonality of large spatio-temporal scale variabilities when combining with proper time series analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentration, flux, and trend estimates with uncertainty for nutrients, chloride, and total suspended solids in tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990–2014 (United States)

    Medalie, Laura


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, estimated daily and 9-month concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids from 1990 (or first available date) through 2014 for 18 tributaries of Lake Champlain. Estimates of concentration and flux, provided separately in Medalie (2016), were made by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) regression model and update previously published WRTDS model results with recent data. Assessment of progress towards meeting phosphorus-reduction goals outlined in the Lake Champlain management plan relies on annual estimates of phosphorus flux. The percent change in annual concentration and flux is provided for two time periods. The R package EGRETci was used to estimate the uncertainty of the trend estimate. Differences in model specification and function between this study and previous studies that used WRTDS to estimate concentration and flux using data from Lake Champlain tributaries are described. Winter data were too sparse and nonrepresentative to use for estimates of concentration and flux but were sufficient for estimating the percentage of total annual flux over the period of record. Median winter-to-annual fractions ranged between 21 percent for total suspended solids and 27 percent for dissolved phosphorus. The winter contribution was largest for all constituents from the Mettawee River and smallest from the Ausable River. For the full record (1991 through 2014 for total and dissolved phosphorus and chloride and 1993 through 2014 for nitrogen and total suspended solids), 6 tributaries had decreasing trends in concentrations of total phosphorus, and 12 had increasing trends; concentrations of dissolved phosphorus decreased in 6 and increased in 8 tributaries; fluxes of total phosphorus decreased in 5 and

  8. Lake topography and wind waves determining seasonal-spatial dynamics of total suspended matter in turbid Lake Taihu, China: assessment using long-term high-resolution MERIS data. (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhou, Yongqiang; Qin, Boqiang


    Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM) in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r(2) = 0.720, pTSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake topography, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r(2)= 0.685, pTSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV). Therefore, TSM dynamics were controlled by the lake topography, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution.

  9. Seasonal variability of optical properties in a highly turbid lake (Laguna Chascomús, Argentina). (United States)

    Pérez, Gonzalo Luis; Llames, María Eugenia; Lagomarsino, Leonardo; Zagarese, Horacio


    We study the underwater light field seasonality in a turbid lake, Laguna Chascomús (Buenos Aires, Argentina). We report (1) relationships between optical properties (OPs) and optically active substances (OASs); (2) relationships between inherent (IOPs) and apparent (AOPs) optical properties; and (3) the seasonal variability in OASs and OPs. Light absorption was dominated by the particulate fraction. The contributions of phytoplankton pigments and unpigmented components were similar. The best predictors of total particulate absorption, unpigmented particulate absorption, turbidity and vertical attenuation coefficient were total suspended solids or their ash content. Many OASs and OPs varied seasonally. The concentrations of OASs were higher during spring and summer, resulting in lower transparency and higher turbidity. However, mass-specific absorption coefficients displayed lower values during spring and summer. Thus, the higher light attenuation observed during spring and summer resulted from higher concentrations of relatively less absorptive OASs. Collectively, these results suggest that: (1) light extinction is enhanced during spring and summer; (2) the enhanced light extinction is due to changes in the particulate fraction; (3) the enhanced light extinction is mostly due to an increase in the amount of particulate material; and (4) the increase of particulate matter also enhanced light extinction through increased scattering. © 2011 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. Lake topography and wind waves determining seasonal-spatial dynamics of total suspended matter in turbid Lake Taihu, China: assessment using long-term high-resolution MERIS data.

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    Yunlin Zhang

    Full Text Available Multiple comprehensive in situ bio-optical investigations were conducted from 2005 to 2010 and covered a large variability of total suspended matter (TSM in Lake Taihu to calibrate and validate a TSM concentration estimation model based on Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS data. The estimation model of the TSM concentration in Lake Taihu was developed using top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiance of MERIS image data at band 9 in combination with a regional empirical atmospheric correction model, which was strongly correlated with the in situ TSM concentration (r(2 = 0.720, p<0.001, and n = 73. The relative root mean square error (RRMSE and mean relative error (MRE were 36.9% and 31.6%, respectively, based on an independent validation dataset that produced reliable estimations of the TSM concentration. The developed algorithm was applied to 50 MERIS images from 2003 to 2011 to obtain a high spatial and temporal heterogeneity of TSM concentrations in Lake Taihu. Seasonally, the highest and lowest TSM concentrations were found in spring and autumn, respectively. Spatially, TSM concentrations were high in the southern part and center of the lake and low in Xukou Bay, East Lake Taihu. The lake topography, including the water depth and distance from the shore, had a significant effect on the TSM spatial distribution. A significant correlation was found between the daily average wind speed and TSM concentration (r(2= 0.685, p<0.001, and n = 50, suggesting a critical role of wind speed in the TSM variations in Lake Taihu. In addition, a low TSM concentration was linked to the appearance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV. Therefore, TSM dynamics were controlled by the lake topography, wind-driven sediment resuspension and SAV distribution.

  11. Estimating and Predicting Metal Concentration Using Online Turbidity Values and Water Quality Models in Two Rivers of the Taihu Basin, Eastern China.

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    Hong Yao

    Full Text Available Turbidity (T has been widely used to detect the occurrence of pollutants in surface water. Using data collected from January 2013 to June 2014 at eleven sites along two rivers feeding the Taihu Basin, China, the relationship between the concentration of five metals (aluminum (Al, titanium (Ti, nickel (Ni, vanadium (V, lead (Pb and turbidity was investigated. Metal concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The linear regression of metal concentration and turbidity provided a good fit, with R(2 = 0.86-0.93 for 72 data sets collected in the industrial river and R(2 = 0.60-0.85 for 60 data sets collected in the cleaner river. All the regression presented good linear relationship, leading to the conclusion that the occurrence of the five metals are directly related to suspended solids, and these metal concentration could be approximated using these regression equations. Thus, the linear regression equations were applied to estimate the metal concentration using online turbidity data from January 1 to June 30 in 2014. In the prediction, the WASP 7.5.2 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program model was introduced to interpret the transport and fates of total suspended solids; in addition, metal concentration downstream of the two rivers was predicted. All the relative errors between the estimated and measured metal concentration were within 30%, and those between the predicted and measured values were within 40%. The estimation and prediction process of metals' concentration indicated that exploring the relationship between metals and turbidity values might be one effective technique for efficient estimation and prediction of metal concentration to facilitate better long-term monitoring with high temporal and spatial density.

  12. Remote Sensing and Water Quality Indicators in the West Flood Canal Semarang City: Spatio-temporal Structures of Lansat-8 Derived Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solids (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri


    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters of West Flood Canal in Semarang City which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the Western City of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So, it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in the estuary of the West Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Lansat-8 Satellite images data from April, June, and August, 2017 and there are three selected algorithms. Based on the results of TSS and Chlorophyll-A processing, the TSS shows values greater than or equal to 100 which can be said that West Flood Canal is damaged (hypertrophic). While the chlorophyll-a shows a value less than 100 indicating Eutrophic status (threatened). This is caused by the number of suspended materials in the water surface and also because of the disturbance of water vegetation in the form of weeds that destroy the function of the actual West Canal Flood.

  13. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008 (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.


    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  14. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06 (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.


    A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay to characterize water quality in agricultural streams in the Fox/Wolf watershed in northeastern Wisconsin and provide information to assist in the calibration of a watershed model for the area. Streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids data were collected between October 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, in five streams, including Apple Creek, Ashwaubenon Creek, Baird Creek, Duck Creek, and the East River. During this study, total annual precipitation was close to the 30-year normal of 29.12 inches. The 3-year mean streamflow was highest in the East River (113 ft3/s), followed by Duck Creek (58.2 ft3/s), Apple Creek (26.9 ft3/s), Baird Creek (12.8 ft3/s), and Ashwaubenon Creek (9.1 ft3/s). On a yield basis, during these three years, the East River had the highest flow (0.78 ft3/s/mi2), followed by Baird Creek (0.61 ft3/s/mi2), Apple Creek (0.59 ft3/s/mi2), Duck Creek (0.54 ft3/s/mi2), and Ashwaubenon Creek (0.46 ft3/s/mi2). The overall median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was highest in Baird Creek (73.5 mg/L), followed by Apple and Ashwaubenon Creeks (65 mg/L), East River (40 mg/L), and Duck Creek (30 mg/L). The median total phosphorus (TP) concentration was highest in Ashwaubenon Creek (0.60 mg/L), followed by Baird Creek (0.47 mg/L), Apple Creek (0.37 mg/L), East River (0.26 mg/L), and Duck Creek (0.22 mg/L).

  15. Application of chitosan as flocculant for coprecipitation of Mn(II) and suspended solids from dual-alkali FGD regenerating process. (United States)

    Wu, Zhong-Biao; Ni, Wei-Min; Guan, Bao-Hong


    Heavy metals and suspended solid (SS) needed to be removed from the recirculation of dual-alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The feasibility of coprecipitation of heavy metal and SS by water-soluble chitosan was studied in a lab scale experiment. The association between chitosan and metal ions was verified through DSC and FT-IR. The pH investigation revealed that at the pH ranged from 5 to 9, there were three stages for different actions: adsorption of chitosan for Mn(II), precipitation of manganese hydroxide and coprecipitation of manganese hydroxide and chitosan-Mn(II) complex. The ion selectivity experiments showed that the occurrence of Ca(II) in the solution had little influence on the adsorption of chitosan for Mn(II). The decrease rate of adsorption capacity was about 0.0023 mmol g(-1) per 1 mg L(-1) Ca(II). When adsorption and flocculation of chitosan occurred at the same time and at the sufficient addition of chitosan, chitosan not only made solids flocculate but also enhanced sorption capacity of chitosan. Application of chitosan for coprecipitation of Mn(II) and SS could remove Mn(II) efficiently and improve the settling characteristics of SS from dual-alkali FGD regenerating process.

  16. Study of Hydrophilic Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Filtration of Micro and Nanosize Suspended Particles

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    Nurxat Nuraje


    Full Text Available Polymeric nanofiber membranes of polyvinyl chloride (PVC blended with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP were fabricated using an electrospinning process at different conditions and used for the filtration of three different liquid suspensions to determine the efficiency of the filter membranes. The three liquid suspensions included lake water, abrasive particles from a water jet cutter, and suspended magnetite nanoparticles. The major goal of this research work was to create highly hydrophilic nanofiber membranes and utilize them to filter the suspended liquids at an optimal level of purification (i.e., drinkable level. In order to overcome the fouling/biofouling/blocking problems of the membrane, a coagulation process, which enhances the membrane’s efficiency for removing colloidal particles, was used as a pre-treatment process. Two chemical agents, Tanfloc (organic and Alum (inorganic, were chosen for the flocculation/coagulation process. The removal efficiency of the suspended particles in the liquids was measured in terms of turbidity, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS. It was observed that the coagulation/filtration experiments were more efficient at removing turbidity, compared to the direct filtration process performed without any coagulation and filter media.

  17. Confirmatory sediment analyses and solid and suspended particulate phase bioassays on sediment from Oakland Inner Harbor, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Apts, C.W.; Woodruff, D.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Cullinan, V.I.; Hyland, J.L.; Campbell, J.F.


    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the US Congress to deepen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California. During review of the environmental impact statement required for this dredging and disposal project, a panel of national experts approved the open-water disposal of dredged sediment from selected areas within the Inner Harbor, subject to results of confirmatory solid phase bioassays. The San Francisco District of the Corps requested the Battle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct these confirmatory studies. The studies provided technical data for an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of this project. Within extremely narrow time constraints, these studies provided chemical and biological information required by ocean dumping regulations to determine suitability of the Oakland Inner Harbor and turning basin sediment for ocean disposal. 23 refs., 18 figs., 45 tabs.

  18. Effects of Humic Acid and Suspended Solids on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water by Adsorption onto Granular Activated Carbon

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    Danious P. Sounthararajah


    Full Text Available Heavy metals constitute some of the most dangerous pollutants of water, as they are toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. These metals are considered to be of major public health concern and, therefore, need to be removed. Adsorption is a common physico-chemical process used to remove heavy metals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC and suspended solids (SS are associated pollutants in water systems that can interact with heavy metals during the treatment process. The interactions of DOC and SS during the removal of heavy metals by granular activated carbon were investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Batch adsorption studies indicated that Langmuir adsorption maxima for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni at pH 6.5 were 11.9, 11.8, 3.3, 2.0, and 1.8 mg/g, respectively. With the addition of humic acid (HA (DOC representative, they were 7.5, 3.7, 3.2, 1.6, and 2.5 mg/g, respectively. In the column experiment, no breakthrough (complete removal was obtained for Pb and Cu, but adding HA provided a breakthrough in removing these metals. For Zn, Cd and Ni, this breakthrough occurred even without HA being added. Adding kaolinite (representative of SS had no effect on Pb and Cu, but it did on the other metals.

  19. Removal of Suspended Solids in Anaerobically Digested Slurries of Livestock and Poultry Manure by Coagulation Using Different Dosages of Polyaluminum Chloride (United States)

    Li, P.; Zhang, C. J.; Zhao, T. K.; Zhong, H.


    In this study, anaerobically digested slurries of livestock and poultry manure were pretreated by coagulation-sedimentation using an inorganic polymer coagulant, polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different PAC dosages on suspended solids (SS) removal and pH in the biogas slurries was assessed to provide reference values for reducing the organic load of biogas slurry in the coagulation-sedimentation process and explore the feasibility of reducing the difficulty in subsequent utilization or processing of biogas slurry. The results showed that for the pig slurry containing approximately 5000 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS reached up to 81.6% with the coagulant dosage of 0.28 g/L PAC. For the chicken slurry containing approximately 2600 mg/L SS, the removal rate of SS was 30.2% with the coagulant dosage of 0.33 g/L PAC. The removal rate of SS in both slurries of livestock and poultry manure exhibited a downward trend with high PAC dosage. Therefore, there is a need to control the PAC dosage in practical use. The pH changed little in the two types of biogas slurries after treatment with different PAC dosages and both were in line with the standard values specified in the “Standards for Irrigation Water Quality”.

  20. Efficient performance and the microbial community changes of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor in treatment of sewage containing cellulose suspended solid at 25°C. (United States)

    Watanabe, Ryoya; Nie, Yulun; Takahashi, Shintaro; Wakahara, Shinichiro; Li, Yu-You


    Influence of cellulose as suspended solid (SS) on the performance of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) was evaluated at 25°C using two types of synthetic sewage (SS contained or not). During the 110days operation, COD and BOD removal, CH4 gas recovery and cellulose accumulation were investigated in detail. The influence of cellulose as SS in sewage on the SAnMBR performance was not significant at HRT longer than12h and 65-72% of the influent COD was recovered as methane gas at HRT of 12h. At HRT of 6h, the quality of effluent got worse and the accumulation of cellulose was found in reactor. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that the microbial diversity distribution including Archaea and Bacteria changed due to the addition of SS in sewage and specific microbe for cellulose degradation such as Proteobacteria was detected. Sludge in SAnMBR could acclimate to characteristics of sewage by self-adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (HRT on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

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    Kapil Kumar


    Full Text Available Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP unit under steady state condition, varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS (2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l and hydraulic retention time (HRT (18, 24 and 36 h. The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18 h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46, 54 and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36 h HRT at 2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18 h HRT which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36 h HRT at 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

  2. Towards environmental management of water turbidity within open coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef. (United States)

    Macdonald, Rachael K; Ridd, Peter V; Whinney, James C; Larcombe, Piers; Neil, David T


    Water turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are commonly used as part of marine monitoring and water quality plans. Current management plans utilise threshold SSC values derived from mean-annual turbidity concentrations. Little published work documents typical ranges of turbidity for reefs within open coastal waters. Here, time-series turbidity measurements from 61 sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Moreton Bay, Australia, are presented as turbidity exceedance curves and derivatives. This contributes to the understanding of turbidity and SSC in the context of environmental management in open-coastal reef environments. Exceedance results indicate strong spatial and temporal variability in water turbidity across inter/intraregional scales. The highest turbidity across 61 sites, at 50% exceedance (T50) is 15.3 NTU and at 90% exceedance (T90) 4.1 NTU. Mean/median turbidity comparisons show strong differences between the two, consistent with a strongly skewed turbidity regime. Results may contribute towards promoting refinement of water quality management protocols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Turbid releases from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, following rainfall-runoff events of September 2013 (United States)

    Wildman, Richard A.; Vernieu, William


    Glen Canyon Dam is a large dam on the Colorado River in Arizona. In September 2013, it released turbid water following intense thunderstorms in the surrounding area. Turbidity was >15 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for multiple days and >30 NTU at its peak. These unprecedented turbid releases impaired downstream fishing activity and motivated a rapid-response field excursion. At 5 locations upstream from the dam, temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, and turbidity were measured in vertical profiles. Local streamflow and rainfall records were retrieved, and turbidity and specific conductance data in dam releases were evaluated. Profiling was conducted to determine possible sources of turbidity from 3 tributaries nearest the dam, Navajo, Antelope, and Wahweap creeks, which entered Lake Powell as interflows during this study. We discuss 4 key conditions that must have been met for tributaries to influence turbidity of dam releases: tributary flows must have reached the dam, tributary flows must have been laden with sediment, inflow currents must have been near the depth of dam withdrawals, and the settling velocity of particles must have been slow. We isolate 2 key uncertainties that reservoir managers should resolve in future similar studies: the reach of tributary water into the reservoir thalweg and the distribution of particle size of suspended sediment. These uncertainties leave the source of the turbidity ambiguous, although an important role for Wahweap Creek is possible. The unique combination of limnological factors we describe implies that turbid releases at Glen Canyon Dam will continue to be rare.

  4. Suspended microfluidics


    Casavant, Benjamin P.; Berthier, Erwin; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jean BERTHIER; Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Bischel, Lauren L.; Brakke, Kenneth; Hedman, Curtis J.; Bushman, Wade; Keller, Nancy P.; Beebe, David J.


    Although the field of microfluidics has made significant progress in bringing new tools to address biological questions, the accessibility and adoption of microfluidics within the life sciences are still limited. Open microfluidic systems have the potential to lower the barriers to adoption, but the absence of robust design rules has hindered their use. Here, we present an open microfluidic platform, suspended microfluidics, that uses surface tension to fill and maintain a fluid in microscale...

  5. Marshes and turbid waters (United States)

    Verger, F. (Principal Investigator)


    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The study of the alluvial zones of the French Atlantic littoral at a taxonomic scale which can bring out the general nature of the sediments and their geomorphic forms is being achieved with the aid of ERTS-1 imagery. It will be necessary to run as many lines as possible to study both the alluvial plains, indicating the seasonal phases of the lowest and highest humidity, as well as the turbidity of littoral waters which change in relation to the tides. A better understanding of these alluvial zones and the origin of the sedimentary forms will not be limited to theoretical interest alone, but will have practical application in numerous fields such as agriculture, shell fishing, and land reclamation.

  6. A drifter for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans. (United States)

    Marchant, Ross; Reading, Dean; Ridd, James; Campbell, Sean; Ridd, Peter


    A disposable instrument for measuring water turbidity in rivers and coastal oceans is described. It transmits turbidity measurements and position data via a satellite uplink to a processing server. The primary purpose of the instrument is to help document changes in sediment runoff from river catchments in North Queensland, Australia. The 'river drifter' is released into a flooded river and drifts downstream to the ocean, measuring turbidity at regular intervals. Deployment in the Herbert River showed a downstream increase in turbidity, and thus suspended sediment concentration, while for the Johnstone River there was a rapid reduction in turbidity where the river entered the sea. Potential stranding along river banks is a limitation of the instrument. However, it has proved possible for drifters to routinely collect data along 80 km of the Herbert River. One drifter deployed in the Fly River, Papua New Guinea, travelled almost 200 km before stranding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. On a shallow water model for the simulation of turbidity currents


    Morales de Luna, Tomás; Castro-Díaz, M.J.; Parés Madroñal, C.; Fernández-Nieto, Enrique D.


    We present a model for hyperpycnal plumes or turbidity currents that takes into account the interaction between the turbidity current and the bottom, considering deposition and erosion effects as well as solid transport of particles at the bed load due to the current. Water entrainment from the ambient water in which the turbidity current plunges is also considered. Motion of ambient water is neglected and the rigid lid assumption is considered. The model is obtained as a depth-average system...

  8. Continuous Turbidity Monitoring in the Indian Creek Watershed, Tazewell County, Virginia, 2006-08 (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth


    Thousands of miles of natural gas pipelines are installed annually in the United States. These pipelines commonly cross streams, rivers, and other water bodies during pipeline construction. A major concern associated with pipelines crossing water bodies is increased sediment loading and the subsequent impact to the ecology of the aquatic system. Several studies have investigated the techniques used to install pipelines across surface-water bodies and their effect on downstream suspended-sediment concentrations. These studies frequently employ the evaluation of suspended-sediment or turbidity data that were collected using discrete sample-collection methods. No studies, however, have evaluated the utility of continuous turbidity monitoring for identifying real-time sediment input and providing a robust dataset for the evaluation of long-term changes in suspended-sediment concentration as it relates to a pipeline crossing. In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with East Tennessee Natural Gas and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, began a study to monitor the effects of construction of the Jewell Ridge Lateral natural gas pipeline on turbidity conditions below pipeline crossings of Indian Creek and an unnamed tributary to Indian Creek, in Tazewell County, Virginia. The potential for increased sediment loading to Indian Creek is of major concern for watershed managers because Indian Creek is listed as one of Virginia's Threatened and Endangered Species Waters and contains critical habitat for two freshwater mussel species, purple bean (Villosa perpurpurea) and rough rabbitsfoot (Quadrula cylindrical strigillata). Additionally, Indian Creek contains the last known reproducing population of the tan riffleshell (Epioblasma florentina walkeri). Therefore, the objectives of the U.S. Geological Survey monitoring effort were to (1) develop a continuous turbidity monitoring network that attempted to measure real-time changes in suspended sediment (using

  9. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.


    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  10. Sediment Transport by Turbidity Currents


    Winslow, Kyle T.


    Complete field equations have been established for turbidity current flow. A Modified Three Equation Model has been developed to predict the fate of turbidity currents. Particular attention has focused on the impacts of increased sediment concentration on the field equations and the numerical predictions. Functional relationships for closure hypotheses have been chosen after careful review. Previous investigations have invoked the dilute suspension approximation for sediment concent...

  11. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water; Composicion quimica, forma y tamano de solidos suspendidos en la atmosfera acarreados por el agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  12. Estimation of turbidity along the Guadalquivir estuary using Landsat TM and ETM+ images (United States)

    Carpintero, M.; Contreras, E.; Millares, A.; Polo, M. J.


    Estuarine water in Mediterranean basins has high concentrations of suspended sediment. In order to study the temporal and spatial distribution of turbidity, a monitoring network with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is needed to monitor water quality, and this is not always available. Thus, over the last few years, satellite images have been used as an alternative way to estimate water quality parameters, such as turbidity. The Guadalquivir River estuary in south-west Spain extends for 105 km and is one of the world's most turbid estuaries. The sediments present are of a very fine texture due to the great length of the river but, mainly, to the extreme trapping efficiency of the dense reservoir system upstream. This work shows the relationship between turbidity patterns along the Guadalquivir river estuary and the data from Landsat ETM+ images from August 2008 to 2010, and the suitability of the algorithms previously used in this estuary environment, with the ultimate goal of obtaining turbidity maps. The results of this study show that the use of previously developed algorithms underestimate turbidity values measured by the monitoring network used, which proves that one single algorithm for the entire period of study does not provide a reliable reproduction of the real situation. The wide variability in turbidity data along the estuary has enabled us to develop specific expressions for each day, which allow us to obtain turbidity maps.

  13. Response of reef corals on a fringing reef flat to elevated suspended-sediment concentrations: Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Field, Michael E.; Lager, Claire V.; Lager, Dan


    A long-term (10 month exposure) experiment on effects of suspended sediment on the mortality, growth, and recruitment of the reef corals Montipora capitata and Porites compressa was conducted on the shallow reef flat off south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi. Corals were grown on wire platforms with attached coral recruitment tiles along a suspended solid concentration (SSC) gradient that ranged from 37 mg l−1 (inshore) to 3 mg l−1(offshore). Natural coral reef development on the reef flat is limited to areas with SSCs less than 10 mg l−1 as previously suggested in the scientific literature. However, the experimental corals held at much higher levels of turbidity showed surprisingly good survivorship and growth. High SSCs encountered on the reef flat reduced coral recruitment by one to three orders of magnitude compared to other sites throughout Hawaiʻi. There was a significant correlation between the biomass of macroalgae attached to the wire growth platforms at the end of the experiment and percentage of the corals showing mortality. We conclude that lack of suitable hard substrate, macroalgal competition, and blockage of recruitment on available substratum are major factors accounting for the low natural coral coverage in areas of high turbidity. The direct impact of high turbidity on growth and mortality is of lesser importance.

  14. Use of Moringa oleifera seeds for the removal of turbidity of water supply

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    Gustavo Lopes Muniz


    Full Text Available Water used for human consumption may contain various impurities and solid particles in suspension that increase its turbidity level. Moringa oleifera Lam is a plant that has the potential to be used as coagulating agent in removing turbidity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Moringa oleifera seeds used in shells and without shells in the removal of turbidity from waters with different degrees of turbidity. Waters were used with 70, 250 and 400 initial NTU obtained synthetically. The extract of moringa seeds was prepared using unshelled and shelled seeds, seeking a simplified procedure and practice. The sedimentation times and dose of coagulant solution used were based on existing recommendations in the literature. All treatments were performed with three replicates and the averages depicted in graphs. The results showed that the use of extract of moringa seeds in shells was more efficient than with unshelled seeds in the removal of turbidity of all treatments and that the shelled seeds removed more than 99% of the initial turbidity of the water samples. Furthermore, there was a direct relationship between turbidity removal efficiency and the level of initial turbidity of the samples. The seeds were more efficient in removing turbidity of the water with a higher level of initial turbidity.

  15. The role of wind in generating turbidity maxima in the Tay Estuary (United States)

    Weir, D. J.; McManus, J.


    Variations of wind direction and strength in the Tay Estuary control wave generation and the resultant patterns of suspended sediment concentration in the waters over the extensive tidal flats. Bodies of water with high water concentration peaks advect to occupy sites at which turbidity maxima are normally present at low water. Other low water peaks are generated by ebb tidal current resuspension.

  16. SPM response to tide and river flow in the hyper-turbid Ems River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterwerp, J.C.; Vroom, J; Wang, Zhengbing; Krebs, Martin; Hendriks, H.C.M.; van Maren, D.S.; Schrottke, Kerstin; Borgsmüller, Christine; Schöl, Andreas

    In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of fine sediments in the hyper-turbid Lower Ems River, with focus on the river’s upper reaches, a stretch of about 25 km up-estuary of Terborg. Our analysis is based on long records of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from optical backscatter (OBS)

  17. Long-term effects of clear-cutting and site preparation on carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and suspended solids export to boreal first order streams (United States)

    Palviainen, Marjo; Finér, Leena; Laurén, Ari; Launiainen, Samuli; Piirainen, Sirpa; Mattsson, Tuija; Starr, Mike


    Clear-cutting has been observed to generally increase leaching and element exports to adjacent watercourses. Most studies on the effects of clear-cutting on nutrient export in north European boreal forests have been short-term and were carried out in the 1970s and 1980s when forestry practices were different from those of today. Nowadays clear-cut areas are smaller, soil preparation methods are lighter (less soil disturbance), and buffer zones are left along watercourses. Several hundred thousand hectares of forests are clear-cut and soils are scarified before regeneration operations in Fennoscandia, but little is known of the long-term impacts of the current methods on the surface water quality. We studied the long-term (14 years) effects of clear-cutting and site preparation on runoff (mm) and the export of total nitrogen (total N), total organic nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH4-N), nitrate (NO3-N), total phosphorus (total P), phosphate (PO4-P), total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended solids (SS) in two paired-catchments in Eastern Finland. In accordance with current forest management guidelines, clear cutting (stem-only removal) were carried out on 34% (C34) and 12% (C12) of the area of the treated catchments, scarification carried out after 2 years and planting with Scots pine seedlings after 3 years. Buffer zones were left between the clear-cut areas and the catchment outlet stream. In the case of the C34 catchment, clear-cutting increased annual runoff and exports of total N, TON, NO3-N, PO4-P and SS. Annual runoff increased by 4 - 102 mm (1-30%). The annual exports of total N, TON, NO3-N, PO4-P and SS increased by at most 0.36 (72%), 0.35 (76%), 0.15 (1056%), 0.002 (35%) and 2.0 (715%) kg/ha, respectively. For the C12 catchment, annual runoff did not change and only exports of PO4-P and SS increased. Annual export of PO4-P increased by at maximum 0.007 kg/ha (69%) and that of SS by at maximum 0.55 kg/ha (271%). Clear-cutting induced increases in runoff and

  18. The spatial and temporal variation of total suspended solid concentration in Pearl River Estuary during 1987-2015 based on remote sensing. (United States)

    Wang, Chongyang; Li, Weijiao; Chen, Shuisen; Li, Dan; Wang, Danni; Liu, Jia


    The movement and migration of total suspended solid (TSS) are the essential component of global material cycling and change. Based on the TSS concentrations retrieved from 112 scenes of Landsat remote sensing imageries during 1987-2015, the spatial and temporal variations of TSS concentration in high flow season and low flow seasons of six sub-regions (west shoal, west channel, middle shoal, east channel, east shoal and Pearl River Estuary Chinese White Dolphin National Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters (NNR)) of Pearl River Estuary (PRE) were analyzed and compared by statistical simulation. It was found that TSS concentrations in east and west shoals were about 23mg/L and 64mg/L higher than that of the middle shoal, respectively. There was a significant decreasing trend of TSS concentration from the northwest (223.7mg/L) to southeast (51.4mg/L) of study area, with an average reduction of 5.86mg/Lperkm, which mainly attributes to unique interaction of runoff and tide in PRE. In high flow season, there existed a significant and definite annual cycle period (5-8years) of TSS concentration change primarily responding to the periodic variation of precipitation. There were five full-fledged period changes of TSS detected in west shoal and west channel (the years of changes in 1988, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2010, 2015), while there were the last four cycle periods found in middle shoal, east channel, east shoal and NNR only. TSS concentrations in shoals and channels of PRE showed a significant decreased trend mainly due to the dam construction at the same time, with an average annual TSS concentration decrease of 5.7-10.1mg/L in high flow season from 1988 to 2015. There was no significant change trend of TSS concentration in NNR before 2003, but the TSS concentration decreased significantly after the establishment of the NNR since June 2003, with an average annual decrease of 9.7mg/L from 2004 to 2015. It was deduced that man-made protection measures had a great influence

  19. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.


    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  20. Quantification of Surface Suspended Sediments along a River Dominated Coast with NOAA AVHRR and SeaWiFS Measurements: Louisiana, USA (United States)

    Myint, S. W.; Walker, N. D.


    The ability to quantify suspended sediment concentrations accurately over both time and space using satellite data has been a goal of many environmental researchers over the past few decades This study utilizes data acquired by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Orbview-2 Sea-viewing wide field-of-view (SeaWiFS) ocean colour sensor, coupled with field measurements to develop statistical models for the estimation of near-surface suspended sediment and suspended solids "Ground truth" water samples were obtained via helicopter, small boat and automatic water sampler within a few hours of satellite overpasses The NOAA AVHRR atmospheric correction was modified for the high levels of turbidity along the Louisiana coast. Models were developed based on the field measurements and reflectance/radiance measurements in the visible and near infrared Channels of NOAA-14 and Orbview-2 SeaWiFS. The best models for predicting surface suspended sediment concentrations were obtained with a NOAA AVHRR Channel 1 (580-680nm) cubic model, Channel 2 (725-1100 nm) linear mod$ and SeaWiFs Channel 6 (660-68Onm) power modeL The suspended sediment models developed using SeaWiFS Channel 5 (545-565 nm) were inferior, a result that we attribute mainly to the atmospheric correction technique, the shallow depth of the water samples and absorption effects from non-sediment water constituents.

  1. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.


    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  2. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies (United States)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie


    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River

  3. Turbidity removal by centrifugal microfiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim C. Keener


    Full Text Available Water turbidity is an important characteristic of surface waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents as well as a key indicator of water quality. Turbidity is the lack of clarity of water caused by microalgae and other particles that attenuates light. The cost of clarifying water can be high. This is primarily due to the physical and chemical steps that must be taken to remove the extremely small entrained particles and colloidal substances that cause high turbidity, and the large amounts of water that generally must be process for such small masses of entrained materials. This paper discusses the results of a series of experiments of a potentially new method of clarifying water by incorporating microfiltration through a high throughput filter operating under a centrifugal force. The results have shown that significant reductions in turbidity can be achieved at relatively high water flux values through a commercially available filter. This indicates the potential of the technology as a water clarifying method by means of this low energy separation device.

  4. Suspended Sediment and Phosphorus Removal in a Woodchip Filter System Treating Agricultural Wash Water. (United States)

    Choudhury, Tahina; Robertson, Will Dean; Finnigan, Darryl S


    Woodchip filters have received attention in recent years for their ability to sustain denitrification activity across multiyear time frames. However, in some freshwater aquatic ecosystems, P rather than N is the nutrient considered most responsible for eutrophication. Previous studies have indicated that woodchip filters have limited ability to remove dissolved P, but in agricultural terrain, P export in watercourses is often dominated by particulate P (PP). Woodchip media, because of their high porosity and permeability and the surface roughness of the particles, could be effective for PP removal. In this study, we tested a woodchip filter for its ability to remove suspended sediment and associated PP at a farm in southern Ontario, Canada, where vegetable wash water with extremely high total suspended solids (TSS) was generated. The treatment system consisted of a 12.3-m concrete sedimentation tank and a slightly larger woodchip filter (16.1 m) installed in a subsurface trench. During 7 mo of full-scale operation, treating 10.8 m d, the filter system removed 71% of influent total P (TP) averaging 8.8 mg L and 99% of TSS averaging 5800 mg L, with most of the removal occurring in the tank and a lesser amount (6-16%) occurring in the woodchip filter. Almost all of the TP removal was associated with PP (91% removal) because dissolved P, averaging 1.5 mg L in the wash water, was little changed. Woodchip filters, when coupled with a solids settling tank, have the potential to provide high-capacity, low-maintenance treatment of suspended solids and associated particulate P in turbid waters. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Improving suspended sediment measurements by automatic samplers. (United States)

    Gettel, Melissa; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud; DeGroot, Gregory; Brand, Joshua; Mohseni, Omid; Erickson, Andrew J


    Suspended solids either as total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is an integral particulate water quality parameter that is important in assessing particle-bound contaminants. At present, nearly all stormwater runoff quality monitoring is performed with automatic samplers in which the sampling intake is typically installed at the bottom of a storm sewer or channel. This method of sampling often results in a less accurate measurement of suspended sediment and associated pollutants due to the vertical variation in particle concentration caused by particle settling. In this study, the inaccuracies associated with sampling by conventional intakes for automatic samplers have been verified by testing with known suspended sediment concentrations and known particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 μm to 355 μm under various flow rates. Experimental results show that, for samples collected at a typical automatic sampler intake position, the ratio of sampled to feed suspended sediment concentration is up to 6600% without an intake strainer and up to 300% with a strainer. When the sampling intake is modified with multiple sampling tubes and fitted with a wing to provide lift (winged arm sampler intake), the accuracy of sampling improves substantially. With this modification, the differences between sampled and feed suspended sediment concentration were more consistent and the sampled to feed concentration ratio was accurate to within 10% for particle sizes up to 250 μm.

  6. Multi-sensor analysis to study turbidity patterns in the Guadalquivir estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Caballero


    Full Text Available A detailed study of the mechanisms generated through the turbidity plume and its variability at the Guadalquivir estuary has been carried out with remote sensing and in situ data. Several sensors with different characteristics have been required (spatial, temporal and spectral resolution, thereby providing information for a multi-sensor analysis. The main objective was to determine the water quality parameters (suspended solids and chlorophyll and implement the methodology to define the empirical and semi-analytical algorithms from satellite data (MODIS, METIS, Deimos-1. The processes occurred in the estuary and adjacent region have been examined identifying those involved in the different variability scales. The forcings associated with rainfall and discharge from Alcalá del Río dam in addition to the climatic NAO index control seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations, while tide effects (semi-daily and fortnightly cycles modulate the plume at the mouth throughout the year with significant variability. Special emphasis is focused on diagnosing the role of these mechanisms on the continental shelf ecosystems, constituting a powerful tool for the water quality management and coastal resources.

  7. A comparison of selection at list time and time-stratified sampling for estimating suspended sediment loads (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas; Jack Lewis


    Time-stratified sampling of sediment for estimating suspended load is introduced and compared to selection at list time (SALT) sampling. Both methods provide unbiased estimates of load and variance. The magnitude of the variance of the two methods is compared using five storm populations of suspended sediment flux derived from turbidity data. Under like conditions,...

  8. Field calibration of optical sensors for measuring suspended sediment concentration in the western Mediterranean

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    J. Guillén


    Full Text Available The water turbidity measured with optical methods (transmittance and backscattering is usually expressed as beam attenuation coefficient (BAC or formazin turbidity units (FTU. The transformation of these units to volumetric suspended sediment concentration (SSC units is not straightforward, and accurate calibrations are required in order to obtain valuable information on suspended sediment distributions and fluxes. In this paper, data from field calibrations between BAC, FTU and SSC are presented and best-fit calibration curves are shown. These calibrations represent an average from different marine environments of the western Mediterranean (from estuary to continental slope. However, the general curves can only be applied for descriptive or semi-quantitative purposes. Comparison of turbidity measurements using the same sensor with different calibration ranges shows the advantage of simultaneously combining two instruments calibrated in different ranges when significant changes in suspended sediment concentrations are expected.

  9. A satellite view of riverine turbidity plumes on the NE-E Brazilian coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Negri de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Turbidity plumes of São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, and Paraiba do Sul river systems, located along the NE/E Brazilian coast, are analyzed for their dispersal patterns of Total Suspended Solids (TSS concentration using Landsat images and a logarithmic algorithm proposed by Tassan (1987 to convert satellite reflectance values to TSS. The TSS results obtained were compared to in situ collected TSS data. The analysis of the satellite image data set revealed that each river system exhibits a distinct turbidity plume dispersal pattern. The behavior, dimension and degree of turbidity of the São Francisco River plume have been greatly altered by the construction of a cascade of hydroelectric dam reservoirs in its hydrological basin. The plume has lost its typical unimodal seasonal pattern of material dispersion and its turbidity has decreased due to the regulation of river flow by the dams and TSS retainance by the reservoirs. In contrast, the Doce and Paraíba do Sul river plumes are still subject to seasonal pulsations and show more turbid conditions than the SF plume, as dams are less numerous, set in the middle river sections and the natural river flow has been maintained. The Caravelas Coastal System river plume is restricted to near shore shallow waters dominated by resuspension processes. During austral spring and summer when NE-E winds prevail, all plumes generally disperse southward. Short-term northward reversals may occur in winter with the passage of atmospheric cold fronts. The São Francisco and Doce river plumes tend to disperse obliquely to the coast and transport materials further offshore, while the Caravelas and Paraíba do Sul plumes tend to disperse mainly parallel to the coast, enhancing TSS retention nearshore.O presente estudo analisa as plumas de turbidez dos sistemas dos rios São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, e Paraiba do Sul localizados na costa NE/E do Brasil utilizando imagens Landsat e o algoritmo logarítmico para Total

  10. Suspended-sediment loads in the lower Stillaguamish River, Snohomish County, Washington, 2014–15 (United States)

    Anderson, Scott A.; Curran, Christopher A.; Grossman, Eric E.


    Continuous records of discharge and turbidity at a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage in the lower Stillaguamish River were paired with discrete measurements of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) in order to estimate suspended-sediment loads over the water years 2014 and 2015. First, relations between turbidity and SSC were developed and used to translate the continuous turbidity record into a continuous estimate of SSC. Those concentrations were then used to predict suspended-sediment loads based on the current discharge record, reported at daily intervals. Alternative methods were used to in-fill a small number of days with either missing periods of turbidity or discharge records. Uncertainties in our predictions at daily and annual time scales were estimated based on the parameter uncertainties in our turbidity-SSC regressions. Daily loads ranged from as high as 121,000 tons during a large autumn storm to as low as –56 tons, when tidal return flow moved more sediment upstream than river discharge did downstream. Annual suspended-sediment loads for both water years were close to 1.4 ± 0.2 million tons.

  11. Influência de diferentes teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados Influence of different contents of insoluble suspended solidS on rheological characteristics of natural and despectinized pineapple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José de Melo Queiroz


    Full Text Available Estudou-se, neste trabalho, a influência dos sólidos insolúveis suspensos nas características reológicas de sucos de abacaxi in natura e sucos tratados com enzima pectinolítica. Cada um dos dois tipos de suco foi estudado através de seis frações, divididas em quatro peneiradas, uma centrifugada e uma integral, representando seis teores de sólidos insolúveis suspensos. Os dados reométricos foram coletados através de um reômetro Haake rotovisco e os dados experimentais ajustados pelo modelo de Mizrahi-Berk. Das seis frações in natura, quatro apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico, uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana e outra como dilatante enquanto das seis frações tratadas enzimaticamente cinco apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e uma caracterizou-se como newtoniana. O teor de sólidos insolúveis suspensos mostrou-se o principal fator responsável pelo comportamento reológico dos sucos de abacaxi naturais e despectinizados.The influence of insoluble suspended solid contents in rheological characteristics of pineapple juice, both natural and treated with pectinolytic enzymes, was studied. Each type of juice was examined by six fractions, divided into four sievings, one centrifuged and the others whole, representing six contents of insoluble suspended solids. The rheometric data were collected by means of Haake rotovisco rheometer and the experimental data were adjusted by the Mizrahi-Berk model. In the natural material four fractions showed pseudoplastic behaviour, one characterized as newtonian and the others as dilatant, whereas in the enzyme treated material, five fractions presented pseudoplastic behaviour and one was characterized as newtonian. The insoluble suspended solid content was found to be the principal factor responsible for this rheological behaviour of natural and despectinized pineapple juices.

  12. Multi-faceted monitoring of estuarine turbidity and particulate matter provenance: Case study from Salem Harbor, USA. (United States)

    Hubeny, J Bradford; Kenney, Melanie; Warren, Barbara; Louisos, Jeremy


    Turbidity is a water quality parameter that is known to adversely affect aquatic systems, however the causes of turbid water are often elusive. We present results of a study designed to constrain the source of particulate matter in a coastal embayment that has suffered from increased turbidity over past decades. Our approach utilized monitoring buoys to quantify turbidity at high temporal resolution complemented by geochemical isotope analysis of suspended sediment samples and meteorological data. Results reveal a complex system in which multiple sources are associated with particulate matter. Weight of evidence demonstrates that phytoplankton productivity in the water column, however, is the dominant source of particulate matter associated with elevated turbidity in Salem Harbor, Massachusetts. Allochthonous matter from the watershed was observed to mix into the pool of suspended particulate matter near river mouths, especially in spring and summer. Resuspension of harbor surface sediments likely provides additional particulates in the regions of boat moorings, especially during summer when recreational boats are attached to moorings. Our approach allows us to constrain the causes of turbidity events in this embayment, is helping with conservation efforts of environmental quality in the region, and can be used as a template for other locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of channel deepening on estuarine turbidity levels and dynamics, as exemplified by the Ems estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, V.N.; Schuttelaars, H.M.; van Beusekom, J.E.E.; Talke, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823554; de Swart, H.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073449725


    Active deepening of tidal channels usually results in the alteration of the vertical and the horizontal tide. This may lead to concurrent significant increases in mean suspended matter concentrations (SPM) in coastal plain estuaries, the turbidity maximum (ETM) included. This is exemplified by an

  14. Method for analysis of psychopharmaceuticals in real industrial wastewater and groundwater with suspended organic particulate matter using solid phase extraction disks extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Křesinová, Zdena; Linhartová, Lucie; Petrů, Klára; Krejčová, Lucie; Šrédlová, Kamila; Lhotský, Ondřej; Kameník, Zdeněk; Cajthaml, Tomáš


    A rapid and reliable analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of psychopharmaceuticals, their precursors and by-products in real contaminated samples from a pharmaceutical company in Olomouc (Czech Republic), based on SPE disk extraction and detection by ultra performance liquid chromatography, combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The target compounds were quantified in the real whole-water samples (water including suspended particles), both in the presence of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and high concentrations of other organic pollutants. A total of nine compounds were analyzed which consisted of three commonly used antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotics), one antitussive agent and five by-products or precursors. At first, the SPE disk method was developed for the extraction of water samples (dissolved analytes, recovery 84-104%) and pressurised liquid extraction technique was verified for solid matrices (sludge samples, recovery 81-95%). In order to evaluate the SPE disk technique for whole water samples containing SPM, non contaminated groundwater samples were also loaded with different amounts (100 and 300mgL(-1)) of real contaminated sludge originating from the same locality. The recoveries from the whole-water samples obtained by SPE disk method ranged between 67 and 119% after the addition of the most contaminated sludge. The final method was applied to several real groundwater (whole-water) samples from the industrial area and high concentrations (up to 10(3)μgL(-1)) of the target compounds were detected. The results of this study document and indicate the feasibility of the SPE disk method for analysis of groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of PAC and flocculants for improving settling of solid particles in oilfield wastewater with high salinity and Ca2. (United States)

    Liu, Guoliang; Zhang, Fusheng; Qu, Yuanzhi; Liu, He; Zhao, Lun; Cui, Mingyue; Ou, Yangjian; Geng, Dongshi


    The suspended solids in wastewater from Rekabak oilfield, Kazakhstan, were characterized and treated with flocculants to enhance settling. The wastewater contained a high concentration of total dissolved solids and calcium ion. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses showed that suspended solids were mainly composed of corrosion products (iron oxides) and silicon dioxide particles. Also, much salt deposition from wastewater caused a large increase in the suspended solids value. The settling of solid particles in wastewater was investigated by turbidity decrease within 60 min. The particle settling was enhanced by adding polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as coagulant and hydrolyzed polyacryamide (HPAM) or cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) as flocculant. At optimal dose, the particle settling ability with PAC and CPAM was better than that with PAC and HPAM. Particle size analysis showed that HPAM or CPAM with high molecular weight played an important role for enlarging the particle size. The experiments with simulated wastewater showed that particle settling by using HPAM deteriorated significantly compared to that by CPAM at high calcium ion. This study provides further understanding about the effect of high salinity and Ca2+ on solids formation, flocculant performance and particle settling. Meanwhile, the results are also helpful to develop novel flocculants used for high salinity wastewater.

  16. A simulation-optimization approach to retrieve reservoir releasing strategies under the trade-off objectives considering flooding, sedimentation, turbidity and water supply during typhoons (United States)

    Huang, C. L.; Hsu, N. S.; Yeh, W. W. G.; You, G. J. Y.


    This study develops a simulation-optimization approach for retrieving optimal multi-layer reservoir conjunctive release strategies considering the natural hazards of sedimentation, turbidity and flooding during typhoon invasion. The purposes of the developed approach are: (1) to apply WASP-based fluid dynamic sediment concentration simulation model and the developed extracting method of ideal releasing practice to search the optimal initial solution for optimization; and (2) to construct the replacing sediment concentration simulation model which embedded in the optimization model. In this study, the optimization model is solved by tabu search, and the optimized releasing hydrograph is then used for construction of the decision model. This study applies Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Real-time Recurrent Learning Neural Network (RTRLNN) as construction tool of the concentration simulation model for total suspended solids. This developed approach is applied to the Shihmen Reservoir basin, Taiwan. The assessment index of operational outcome of multi-purpose multi-layer conjunctive releasing are maximum sediment concentration at Yuan-Shan weir, sediment removed ratio, highest water level at Shan-Yin Bridge, and final water level in Shihmen reservoir. The analyzed and optimizing results shows the following: (1) The multi-layer releasing during the stages before flood coming and before peak flow possess high potential for flood detention and sedimentation control; and during the stages after peak flow, for turbidity control and storage; (2) The ability of error toleration and adaption of ANFIS is superior, so ANFIS-based sediment concentration simulation model surpass RTRLNN-based model on simulating the mechanism and characteristics of sediment transport; and (3) The developed approach can effectively and automatically retrieve the optimal multi-layer releasing strategies under the trade-off control between flooding, sedimentation, turbidity

  17. Diurnal Variability of Turbidity Fronts Observed by Geostationary Satellite Ocean Color Remote Sensing

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    Zifeng Hu


    Full Text Available Monitoring front dynamics is essential for studying the ocean’s physical and biogeochemical processes. However, the diurnal displacement of fronts remains unclear because of limited in situ observations. Using the hourly satellite imageries from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI with a spatial resolution of 500 m, we investigated the diurnal displacement of turbidity fronts in both the northern Jiangsu shoal water (NJSW and the southwestern Korean coastal water (SKCW in the Yellow Sea (YS. The hourly turbidity fronts were retrieved from the GOCI-derived total suspended matter using the entropy-based algorithm. The results showed that the entropy-based algorithm could provide fine structure and clearly temporal evolution of turbidity fronts. Moreover, the diurnal displacement of turbidity fronts in NJSW can be up to 10.3 km in response to the onshore-offshore movements of tidal currents, much larger than it is in SKCW (around 4.7 km. The discrepancy between NJSW and SKCW are mainly caused by tidal current direction relative to the coastlines. Our results revealed the significant diurnal displacement of turbidity fronts, and highlighted the feasibility of using geostationary ocean color remote sensing technique to monitor the short-term frontal variability, which may contribute to understanding of the sediment dynamics and the coupling physical-biogeochemical processes.

  18. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.


    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  19. Measurement of light attenuation extends the application of suspended sediment monitoring in rivers

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    A. O. Hughes


    Full Text Available Turbidity is often monitored continuously as a proxy for suspended sediment in catchment sediment load studies, but is less often applied to measuring optical ‘loads’ as they affect water quality in downstream waters. We added measurements of visual clarity, from which light (beam attenuation can be estimated, to auto-sampler monitoring over storm events in tributary rivers of the Kaipara Harbour, a large barrier enclosed estuary complex in northern New Zealand. This paper presents, for the first time, evidence of the mutual relationships between turbidity, total suspended sediment (TSS, and visual clarity, from water samples collected under event flow conditions. The mutual relationships between turbidity, TSS and visual clarity for our monitoring sites were fairly close over about three orders of magnitude (TSS ranging from about 1–1000 mg L−1. Our results show that visual clarity (and hence light attenuation can be predicted from turbidity, at least as precisely as more traditional predictions of TSS from turbidity. The estimation of light attenuation and corresponding load estimates from visual clarity measurements, for relatively little marginal extra effort, extends the environmental relevance and application of suspended sediment monitoring.

  20. Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study (United States)

    cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh


    Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and

  1. Retrieval of Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solids Using Iterative Stepwise Elimination Partial Least Squares (ISE-PLS Regression Based on Field Hyperspectral Measurements in Irrigation Ponds in Higashihiroshima, Japan

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    Zuomin Wang


    Full Text Available Concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and total suspended solids (TSS are significant parameters used to assess water quality. The objective of this study is to establish a quantitative model for estimating the Chl-a and the TSS concentrations in irrigation ponds in Higashihiroshima, Japan, using field hyperspectral measurements and statistical analysis. Field experiments were conducted in six ponds and spectral readings for Chl-a and TSS were obtained from six field observations in 2014. For statistical approaches, we used two spectral indices, the ratio spectral index (RSI and the normalized difference spectral index (NDSI, and a partial least squares (PLS regression. The predictive abilities were compared using the coefficient of determination (R2, the root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV and the residual predictive deviation (RPD. Overall, iterative stepwise elimination based on PLS (ISE–PLS, using the first derivative reflectance (FDR, showed the best predictive accuracy, for both Chl-a (R2 = 0.98, RMSECV = 6.15, RPD = 7.44 and TSS (R2 = 0.97, RMSECV = 1.91, RPD = 6.64. The important wavebands for estimating Chl-a (16.97% of all wavebands and TSS (8.38% of all wavebands were selected by ISE–PLS from all 501 wavebands over the 400–900 nm range. These findings suggest that ISE–PLS based on field hyperspectral measurements can be used to estimate water Chl-a and TSS concentrations in irrigation ponds.

  2. A turbidity current model for real world applications (United States)

    Macías, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; Morales, Tomás


    Traditional turbidity current models suffer from several drawbacks. Among them not preserving freshwater mass, a missing pressure term, or not including terms related to deposition, erosion and entrainment in the momentum equation. In Morales et al.(2009) a new turbidity current model was proposed trying to overcome all these drawbacks. This model takes into account the interaction between the turbidity current and the bottom, considering deposition and erosion effects as well as solid bedload transport of particles at the bed due to the current. Moreover, this model includes the effects of the deposition, erosion and water entrainment into the momentum equation,commonly neglected in this type of models and, finally, in the absence of water entrainment, freshwater mass in the turbidity current is preserved. Despite these improvements, the numerical results obtained by this model when applied to real river systems were not satisfactory due to the simple form of the friction term that was considered. In the present work we propose a different parameterization of this term, where bottom and interface fluid frictions are separately parameterized with more complex expressions. Moreover, the discretization of the deposition/erosion terms is now performed semi-implicitly which guarantees the positivity of the volumetric concentration of sediments in suspension and in the erodible sediment layer at the bed. The numerical simulations obtained with this new turbidity current model (component of HySEA numerical computing platform) greatly improve previous numerical results for simplified geometries as well as for real river systems. Acknowledgements: This research has been partially supported by the Junta de Andalucía research project TESELA (P11-RNM7069) and the Spanish Government Research project DAIFLUID (MTM2012-38383-C02-01) and Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Excelencia Andalucía TECH. References: T. Morales, M. Castro, C. Parés, and E. Fernández-Nieto (2009). On

  3. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

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    Josiah A. Adeyemo


    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  4. Comparison of the efficiencies of attached- versus suspended-growth SBR systems in the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater. (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Abu Hasan, Hassimi; Abd Rahim, Reehan Adnee


    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. GMDH algorithms applied to turbidity forecasting (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Min; Yen, Pei-Hwa


    By applying the group method of data handling algorithm to self-organization networks, we design a turbidity prediction model based on simple input/output observations of daily hydrological data (rainfall, discharge, and turbidity). The data are from a field test site at the Chiahsien Weir and its upper stream in Taiwan, and were recorded from May 2000 to December 2008. The model has a regressive mode that can assess the estimated error, i.e., whether a threshold has been exceeded, and can be adjusted by updating the field input data. Consequently, the model can achieve accurate estimations over long-term periods. Test results demonstrate that the 2006 turbidity prediction model was selected as the best predictive model (RMSE = 5.787 and CC = 0.975) because of its ability to predict turbidity within the acceptable error range and 90 % required confidence interval (50NTU). 70(3,1,1) is the optimum modeling data length and variable combinations.

  6. Phytoplankton bloom dynamics in temperate, turbid, stressed estuaries: a model study (United States)

    de Swart, Huib E.; Liu, Bo; de Jonge, Victor


    To gain insight into mechanisms underlying phytoplankton bloom dynamics in temperature, turbid estuaries, experiments were conducted with an idealised model that couples physical and biological processes. Results show that the model is capable of producing the main features of the observed blooms in the Ems estuary (Northwest Germany), viz. in the lower reach a spring bloom occur, which is followed by a secondary bloom in autumn. The along-estuary distribution of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and the along-estuary distance between the nutrient source and the seaward bound of the turbidity zone control both the along-estuary locations and intensities of the blooms. Results of further sensitivity studies reveal that in a shallow, well-mixed estuary, under temporally-constant suspended sediment conditions, the seasonally-varying water temperature has larger impact on the timing of spring blooms than the seasonally-varying incident light intensity. The occurrence of the secondary bloom is caused by the fact that the growth rate of phytoplankton attains a maximum at an optimum water temperature. Bloom intensities are also modulated by the advective processes related to subtidal current because the latter regulates the seaward transport of nutrient from riverine source. Large-scale deepening of navigation channels leads to later spring blooms due to increased mixing depth. Finally, phytoplankton blooms are unlikely to occur in the upper reach due to the elevated SSC and the landward expansion of turbidity zone related to large-scale deepening.

  7. Assessments at multiple levels of biological organization allow for an integrative determination of physiological tolerances to turbidity in an endangered fish species. (United States)

    Hasenbein, Matthias; Fangue, Nann A; Geist, Juergen; Komoroske, Lisa M; Truong, Jennifer; McPherson, Rina; Connon, Richard E


    Turbidity can influence trophic levels by altering species composition and can potentially affect fish feeding strategies and predator-prey interactions. The estuarine turbidity maximum, described as an area of increased suspended particles, phytoplankton and zooplankton, generally represents a zone with higher turbidity and enhanced food sources important for successful feeding and growth in many fish species. The delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) is an endangered, pelagic fish species endemic to the San Francisco Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, USA, where it is associated with turbid waters. Turbidity is known to play an important role for the completion of the species' life cycle; however, turbidity ranges in the Delta are broad, and specific requirements for this fish species are still unknown. To evaluate turbidity requirements for early life stages, late-larval delta smelt were maintained at environmentally relevant turbidity levels ranging from 5 to 250 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 24 h, after which a combination of physiological endpoints (molecular biomarkers and cortisol), behavioural indices (feeding) and whole-organism measures (survival) were determined. All endpoints delivered consistent results and identified turbidities between 25 and 80 NTU as preferential. Delta smelt survival rates were highest between 12 and 80 NTU and feeding rates were highest between 25 and 80 NTU. Cortisol levels indicated minimal stress between 35 and 80 NTU and were elevated at low turbidities (5, 12 and 25 NTU). Expression of stress-related genes indicated significant responses for gst, hsp70 and glut2 in high turbidities (250 NTU), and principal component analysis on all measured genes revealed a clustering of 25, 35, 50 and 80 NTU separating the medium-turbidity treatments from low- and high-turbidity treatments. Taken together, these data demonstrate that turbidity levels that are either too low or too high affect delta

  8. Hydrodynamics of Lock-exchange Turbidity Currents down a Slope Based on Direct Numerical Simulation

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    Zhao, Liang; Lin, Ying-Tien; Hu, Peng; Liang, Xiaolong; He, Zhiguo


    Turbidity currents play a vital role in various geophysical environments. However, until now, few studies have taken into the effects of both suspended particle and slope on its evolution, which requires a precise information of the spatio-temporal flow field. Hence, this study presents high-resolution and two-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of lock-exchange turbidity currents down a slope. By analyzing front velocity, water entrainment, and energy budget, the factors that affect the driving force, thus the development of the turbidity current, are detailedly investigated. The front velocity history exhibits three distinct stages over time, i.e., a short acceleration stage, a quasi-constant stage, and a deceleration stage. The calculation of the entrainment ratio shows that the mixing due to the collapse of the dense fluid is much stronger than that due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and turbulent billows. For a turbidity current down a slope, the entrainment volume of ambient water decr...

  9. Are viruses important in the plankton of highly turbid glacier-fed lakes? (United States)

    Drewes, Fabian; Peter, Hannes; Sommaruga, Ruben


    Viruses are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems where they significantly contribute to microbial mortality. In glacier-fed turbid lakes, however, viruses not only encounter low host abundances, but also a high number of suspended mineral particles introduced by glacier meltwaters. We hypothesized that these particles potentially lead to unspecific adsorption and removal of free virus from the plankton, and thus significantly reduce their abundance in this type of lake. We followed the distribution of free virus-like particles (VLP) during the ice-free season across a turbidity gradient in four alpine lakes including one adjacent clear system where hydrological connectivity to the receding glacier is already lost. In the glacier-fed turbid lakes, VLP abundance increased with distance to the glacier, but the highest numbers were observed in the clear lake by the end of August, coinciding with the maximum in prokaryotic abundance. Our results suggest that viral loss by attachment to particles is less important than expected. Nevertheless, the relatively lower variability in VLP abundance and the lower virus-to-prokaryote ratio found in the turbid lakes than in the clear one point to a rather low temporal turnover and thus, to a reduced impact on microbial communities. PMID:27094854

  10. Numerical modeling of submarine turbidity currents over erodible beds using unstructured grids (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Infante Sedano, Julio Ángel; Mohammadian, Abdolmajid


    Second-order central-upwind schemes proposed by Bryson et al. (2011) for the Saint-Venant system have two very attractive properties: well-balanced and positivity preserving, which are originally designed for constant fluid density and fixed beds in Bryson et al. (2011). For the turbidity current system with variable density over erodible beds, such desired properties can be obtained by developing a well-balanced and positivity preserving central-upwind scheme following the ideas in Bryson et al. (2011). To this end, in this paper, a coupled numerical model for two-dimensional depth-averaged turbidity current system over erodible beds is developed using finite volume method on triangular grids. The proposed numerical model is second-order accurate in space using piecewise linear reconstruction and third-order accurate in time using a strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta method. Applying the central-upwind method to estimate numerical fluxes through cell interfaces, the model can successfully deal with sharp gradients in turbidity flows. The developed numerical model can preserve the well-balanced property over irregular bottom, guarantee the non-negative turbidity current depth over erodible beds, and preserving the positivity of suspended sediment. These features of the developed numerical model and its robustness and accuracy are demonstrated in several numerical tests.

  11. Turbidimeter Design and Analysis: A Review on Optical Fiber Sensors for the Measurement of Water Turbidity

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    Mohd Zubir Bin MatJafri


    Full Text Available Turbidimeters operate based on the optical phenomena that occur when incident light through water body is scattered by the existence of foreign particles which are suspended within it. This review paper elaborates on the standards and factors that may influence the measurement of turbidity. The discussion also focuses on the optical fiber sensor technologies that have been applied within the lab and field environment and have been implemented in the measurement of water turbidity and concentration of particles. This paper also discusses and compares results from three different turbidimeter designs that use various optical components. Mohd Zubir and Bashah and Daraigan have introduced a design which has simple configurations. Omar and MatJafri, on the other hand, have established a new turbidimeter design that makes use of optical fiber cable as the light transferring medium. The application of fiber optic cable to the turbidimeter will present a flexible measurement technique, allowing measurements to be made online. Scattered light measurement through optical fiber cable requires a highly sensitive detector to interpret the scattered light signal. This has made the optical fiber system have higher sensitivity in measuring turbidity compared to the other two simple turbidimeters presented in this paper. Fiber optic sensors provide the potential for increased sensitivity over large concentration ranges. However, many challenges must be examined to develop sensors that can collect reliable turbidity measurements in situ.

  12. Modelling a turbidity current in Soyang reservoir (Korea) and its control using a selective withdrawal facility. (United States)

    Ryu, I G; Chung, S W; Yoon, S W


    Persistent turbidity in reservoirs and their downstream after flood events is one of most important environmental issues in Korea. Recently, modification of withdrawal facility and installation of a new selective withdrawal structure (SWS) have been implemented for the mitigation of downstream impact and sediment loading into water treatment facilities. This study was to explore the characteristics of flood density flow induced into Soyang Reservoir and the transport processes of suspended sediments (SS) through application of coupled two-dimensional hydrodynamic and particle dynamic models (TM-1, TM-2 and TM-3). The TM-3 including a turbidity attenuation rate as a lumped parameter showed best performance in reproducing the magnitude and distribution of SS in the reservoir. The validated model was applied to evaluate the effectiveness of SWS, which was designed for the reservoir, with 6 different historical flood events. The magnitude of vertical mixing of the turbidity plume and its persistence within the reservoir were closely correlated to the ratio of the volume of turbidity flow to the total reservoir storage (the theta value). The operation of SWS showed a positive effect as long as theta is between 0.3 and 0.6 but negative when theta = 0.83 for the study reservoir, thus it should be optimized based on the theta value for a better management of the reservoir.

  13. Technologies Beyond Turbidity for Sediment Monitoring - Laser diffraction, High Frequency Acoustics and a new Combined acousto-optic method (United States)

    Agrawal, Yogesh C.


    Sediment monitoring was transformed when optical turbidity was first introduced 3 decades ago, creating a capacity to monitor sediments continuously. Despite many papers that have since noted that turbidity measures particle area concentration not volume, turbidity remains widely in use. In fact, the sensitivity to area rather than volume implies a 1/diameter variation with size on concentration measurement (Volts/volume). Consequently, small amounts of fine sediments can dominate larger amounts of sands - a phenomenon that has masked suspended load in many river profiles, as we will show. Laser diffraction, on the other hand, has constant sensitivity to a wide range of grain sizes, e.g. from 2-500 microns, and obtains size distribution at 1 4-phi size intervals, with LISST instruments. However, it is expensive. An 8MHz acoustic system has recently been introduced, LISST-ABS that has advantages of a flatter response to varying grain sizes than turbidity, a higher sensitivity to suspended load than wash load, and a greater tolerance to turbidity. The response (Volts/volume) is still not flat, exhibiting a size-dependence that is inverse of turbidity at small sizes where particles are in Rayleigh regime, i.e. where ka<1 at 8MHz - diameters smaller than 60 microns. This opposing tendency of optics and acoustics lead us to the concept of combining the two methods, and this is a new idea that we call acousto-optics. Over the 1-500 micron size range, instead of 3 orders of magnitude variation in sensitivity for optics, this sensor achieves constancy within a factor of 3 even for narrow size particles, and better for distributions. The acoustic and acousto-optic sensors should significantly enhance measurement quality for sediments. We shall review and present the new concept.

  14. Mine burial in the seabed of high-turbidity area (Belgian coastal zone): findings from a first experiment


    Baeye, M.; Fettweis, M.; Legrand, S.; Dupont, Y.; Van Lancker, V.


    Suspended particulate matter; particle size distribution; statistical handling; coastal turbidity maximum; wind impact; seabed variations The seabed of the North Sea is covered with ammunition dating back from World Wars I and II. With increasing human interference (e.g. fisheries, aggregate extraction, harbour related activities), it forms a threat to the safety at sea. In this study, test mines were deployed on a sandy seabed for three months to investigate mine burial processes as a functi...

  15. Interaction between pulmonary surfactant and vernix: a potential mechanism for induction of amniotic fluid turbidity. (United States)

    Narendran, V; Wickett, R R; Pickens, W L; Hoath, S B


    The development of amniotic fluid turbidity during the third trimester is a known marker of fetal lung maturity. We hypothesized that this turbidity results from detachment of vernix caseosa from the fetal skin secondary to interaction with pulmonary-derived phospholipids in the amniotic fluid. To test this hypothesis, we exposed vernix to bovine-derived pulmonary surfactant over a physiologically relevant concentration range. Ten milligrams of vernix was evenly applied to the interior walls of 1.5-mL polypropylene microfuge tubes. Surfactant phospholipids were added to the tubes followed by slow rotation at 37 degrees C overnight. The liquid was decanted and spectrophotometrically analyzed at 650 nm to detect solution turbidity due to vernix detachment and/or emulsification. Increasing concentrations of surfactant phospholipids produced a dose-dependent increase in solution turbidity. A phospholipid mixture closely approximating natural pulmonary surfactant but devoid of surfactant-associated proteins yielded no increase. In other studies, the flow properties of vernix were studied in a Haake flow rheometer at 23 degrees C and 37 degrees C. There was a marked temperature-dependent effect with lower stress required to elicit flow at 37 degrees C compared with 23 degrees C. This temperature dependence was also demonstrated in the turbidity assay with a 124% increase in turbidity at body temperature compared with room temperature. We conclude that under in vitro conditions, pulmonary surfactant interacts with vernix resulting in detachment from a solid phase support. We speculate that in utero, this phenomenon contributes to the increase in amniotic fluid turbidity that is observed near term.

  16. Suspended sediment load below open-cast mines for ungauged river basin (United States)

    Kuksina, L.


    erosion on the exposed hillsides was estimated taking into account precipitation of various intensity and solid material washout during this period. Effluent from settling ponds was calculated on the basis of minimum anthropogenic turbidity. Its value is difference in background turbidity and minimal turbidity caused by effluent and waste water overflow. Mine waste water inflow was estimated due to actual data on water balance of purification system. Accident mine waste water escape into rivers was estimated by duration and material washout during accidents data measured during observation period. Total suspended sediment yield of rivers draining mine's territory is the sum of its components. Total sediment supply from mining site is 24.7 % from the Vivenka sediment yield. Polluted placer-mined rivers contribute about 35.4 % of the whole sediment yield of the Vivenka river. At the same time the catchment area of these rivers is less than 0.2 % from the whole Vivenka catchment area.

  17. Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography. (United States)

    Paturzo, Melania; Finizio, Andrea; Memmolo, Pasquale; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro


    We show that sharp imaging and quantitative phase-contrast microcopy is possible in microfluidics in flowing turbid media by digital holography. In fact, in flowing liquids with suspended colloidal particles, clear vision is hindered and cannot be recovered by any other microscopic imaging technique. On the contrary, using digital holography, clear imaging is possible thanks to the Doppler frequency shift experienced by the photons scattered by the flowing colloidal particles, which do not contribute to the interference process, i.e. the recorded hologram. The method is illustrated and imaging results are demonstrated for pure phase objects, i.e. biological cells in microfluidic channels.

  18. Modeling chlorophyll-a and turbidity concentrations in river Ganga (India) using Landsat-8 OLI imagery (United States)

    Prasad, Satish; Saluja, Ridhi; Garg, J. K.


    Rivers, one of the most complex ecosystems are highly dynamic and vary spatially as well as temporally. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is considered one of the primary indicators of water quality and a measure of river productivity, while turbidity in rivers is a measure of suspended organic matter. Monitoring of river water quality is quite challenging, demand tremendous efforts and resources. Numerous algorithms have been developed in the recent years for estimating environmental parameters such as chlorophyll-a and turbidity from remote sensing imagery. However, most of these algorithms were focused on the lentic ecosystems. There is a paucity of algorithms for rivers from which water quality variables can be estimated using remotely sensed imagery. The primary objective of our study is to develop algorithms based on Landsat 8 OLI imagery and in-situ observations for estimating of Chl-a and turbidity in the Upper Ganga river, India. Band reflectance images from multispectral Landsat-8 OLI pertaining to May and October 2016, and May 2017 were used for model development and validation along with near synchronous ground truth data. Algorithms based on Band 3 (R2= 0.73) proved to be the best applicable algorithm for estimating chlorophyll-a. The best algorithm for estimating turbidity was found to be log (B4/B5) (R2= 0.69) based on band combinations (individual band reflectance, band ratio, logarithmically transformed band reflectance and ratios) tested. The developed algorithms were used to generate maps showing the spatiotemporal variability of chlorophyll-a and turbidity concentration in the Upper Ganga river (Brijghat to Narora) which is also a Ramsar site.

  19. Cable suspended windmill (United States)

    Farmer, Moses G. (Inventor)


    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  20. Identifying the optimal depth for mussel suspended culture in shallow and turbid environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Grant, Jon; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf


    on farm productivity, farmers must position the cultured biomass at the appropriate depth to benefit from or mitigate the impact of this resuspended material. A combination of field measurements, a 1-D vertical resuspension model and a bioenergetic model for mussels based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB...... particles for cultured bivalves. The effect of resuspended material on bivalve bioenergetics and growth is a function of the quality and concentration of resuspended particles and background diet in the water column. Given the potential for positive or negative impacts on bivalve growth and consequently......) theory has been carried out for a mussel farm in Skive Fjord, a shallow Danish fjord, with the aim of identifying the optimal depth for culture. Observations at the farm location revealed that horizontal advection is more important than vertical resuspension during periods with predominant Eastern winds...

  1. Impact of climate change on persistent turbidity in the water supply system of a Metropolitan Area (United States)

    Chung, S. W.; Park, H. S.; Lim, K. J.; Kang, B.


    Persistent turbidity, a long-term resuspension of fine particles in aquatic system, is one of the major water quality concerns for the sustainable management of water supply systems in metropolitan areas. Turbid water has undesirable aesthetic and recreational appeal and may have harmful effect on ecosystem health, in addition to increasing water treatment costs in drinking water supply systems. These concerns have been more intensified as the strength and frequency of rainfall events increase by climate change in the Asian monsoon climate region, including Korea. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of potential climate change on the persistent turbidity of the Han River systems that supplies drinking water to approximately 25 million consumers dwelling in the Seoul Metropolitan areas. A comprehensive numerical and statistical modeling suit has been developed and applied to the systems for the projection of future climate, responding hydrological and soil erosion processes in the watershed, and sediment transport processes in the rivers and reservoirs systems. The down-scaled 100 years of climatic data from General Circulation Model (HadGEM2-AO) based on the IPCC's greenhouse-gas emissions scenario RCP4.5 were used for the forcing data of the watershed and river-reservoir models. As the results, an extreme flood event that may incur significant persistent turbidity was projected to be occurred five times in the future. The threshold of a flood event that is classified as an extreme event was based on the historical flood event that occurred on July of 2006 when turbid water had persisted within the Soyang Reservoir and discharged to the downstream of the Han River systems over the year until May of the following year. A two-dimensional river and reservoir model simulated the transport and dynamics of suspended sediments in Soyang Reservoir, and routed the discharged turbid water to the downstream of Paldang Reservoir, in which most of the drinking water

  2. Capability of MODIS radiance to analyze Iberian turbid plumes (United States)

    Fernandez-Novoa, Diego; deCastro, Maite; Des, Marisela; Costoya, Xurxo; Mendes, Renato; Gomez-Gesteira, Moncho


    River plumes are formed near river mouths by freshwater and riverine materials. Therefore, the area influenced by freshwater (salinity plume) is usually negatively correlated with the area occupied by suspension and dissolved material (turbid plume). Suspended material results in a strong signal detected by satellite sensors whereas ocean clear waters have negligible contributions. Thus, remote sensing data, such as radiance obtained from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), are a very useful tool to analyze turbid plumes due to the high spatial and time resolution provided. Here, MODIS capability for characterizing similarities and differences among the most important Iberian plumes was assessed under the influence of their main forcing. Daily radiance data from MODIS-Aqua and MODIS-Terra satellite sensors were processed obtaining a resolution of 500 m. Two approaches are usually used for atmospheric correction treatments: Near-Infrared (NIR) bands and a combined algorithm using NIR and Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands. In the particular case of Iberian Peninsula plumes both methods offered similar results, although NIR bands present a lower associated error. MODIS allows working with several bands of normalized water-leaving radiances (nLw). Focusing in the resolution provided, nLw555 and 645 were the most appropriate because both provide the best coverage and correlation with river discharge. The nLw645 band was chosen because has a lower water penetration avoiding overestimations of turbidity caused by shallow seafloor areas and/or upwelling blooms. Daily data from both satellites were merged to enhance the robustness and precision of the study by increasing the number of available pixels. Results indicate that differences between radiance data from both satellites are negligible for Iberian plumes, justifying the merging. By last, each turbid limit, to delimit the respective plume from adjacent seawater, was obtained using two alternative

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of turbidity, sediment concentration and load across nested scales in an urban watershed (United States)

    Kemper, J. T.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.


    In a highly regulated area such as the Chesapeake Bay watershed, suspended sediment is a matter of primary concern. However, there are few continuous sediment-concentration records available to quantify urban sediment loads. Near real-time turbidity and discharge data have been collected continuously for more than three years at six stream gages representing three nested watershed scales (1-2 sq km, 5-6 sq km, 14 sq km) in the highly impervious Dead Run watershed, located in Baltimore County, MD. Suspended sediment point samples have been collected for multiple storm events at five of the six sites, to establish provisional relationships between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations. Using these calculated relationships and USGS discharge data, we can quantify sediment loads at each station. Turbidity-discharge relationships vary both spatially and temporally, highlighting the extreme heterogeneity of an urban watershed. Spatially, relationships change from headwaters to mouth, potentially suggesting a variation in sediment sources. Temporally, relationships change both seasonally and annually. The lowest turbidity values are consistently seen in the fall, while values in winter, spring, and summer display a high inter-annual variability. Sediment loads and yields calculated for four representative storms are compared across nested watershed scales to assess evidence for sources or sinks at different locations within the drainage network. Yields at the mouth of the watershed (DRKR) for large storms were higher than an area-weighted average of the two contributing sites (DR3, DR4), potentially suggesting additional source areas of sediment within the watershed. This highlights the ability of near real-time data to assist in developing more effective approaches in mitigating sediment transport by helping to identifying consistent trends, locations of hot spots, and patterns of sediment arrival.

  4. Bifocal optical coherenc refractometry of turbid media. (United States)

    Alexandrov, Sergey A; Zvyagin, Andrei V; Silva, K K M B Dilusha; Sampson, David D


    We propose and demonstrate a novel technique, which we term bifocal optical coherence refractometry, for the rapid determination of the refractive index of a turbid medium. The technique is based on the simultaneous creation of two closely spaced confocal gates in a sample. The optical path-length difference between the gates is measured by means of low-coherence interferometry and used to determine the refractive index. We present experimental results for the refractive indices of milk solutions and of human skin in vivo. As the axial scan rate determines the acquisition time, which is potentially of the order of tens of milliseconds, the technique has potential for in vivo refractive-index measurements of turbid biological media under dynamic conditions.

  5. Water turbidity optical meter using optical fiber array for topographical distribution analysis (United States)

    Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Yeoh, Stephenie


    This work is presenting an analysis study for using optical fiber array as turbidity meter and topographical distribution. Although many studies have been figure out of utilizing optical fibers as sensors for turbidity measurements, still the topographical map of suspended particles in water as rare as expected among all of works in literatures in this scope. The effect of suspended particles are highly affect the water quality which varies according to the source of these particles. A two dimensional array of optical fibers in a 1 litter rectangular plastic container with 2 cm cladding off sensing portion prepared to point out 632.8 nm laser power at each fiber location at the container center. The overall output map of the optical power were found in an inhomogeneous distribution such that the top to down layers of a present water sample show different magnitudes. Each sample prepared by mixing a distilled water with large grains sand, small grains sand, glucose and salt. All with different amount of concentration which measured by refractometer and turbidity meter. The measurements were done in different times i.e. from 10 min to 60 min. This is to let the heavy particles to move down and accumulate at the bottom of the container. The results were as expected which had a gradually topographical map from low power at top layers into high power at bottom layers. There are many applications can be implemented of this study such as transport vehicles fuel meter, to measure the purity of tanks, and monitoring the fluids quality in pipes.

  6. An investigation of atmospheric turbidity of Thai sky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiwiwatworakul, P.; Chirarattananon, S. [Energy Programme, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani (Thailand)


    An investigation of atmospheric turbidity has been undertaken for tropical Thai sky. Values of turbidity indices, namely, Linke factor (T{sub L}), Angstrom coefficient ({beta}) and illuminance turbidity factor (T{sub il}) are derived directly from measurements taken by pyrheliometer, Volz sun photometer and beam illuminance meter. Monthly mean values and frequency of occurrence of the value of each turbidity index are used to characterize variations of atmospheric turbidity. Simple polynomial equations are developed for computing values of Linke factor and illuminance turbidity factor as functions of solar altitude angle. Using the values of Linke factor and illuminance turbidity factor obtained from the models developed, values of beam normal irradiance and illuminance can be calculated accurately under clear sky conditions. Values of daylight illuminance are useful for daylighting application that contributes to energy conservation for buildings. Knowledge of the size of beam normal irradiance is useful for calculation of cooling load in air-conditioning buildings in tropical climate. (author)

  7. Remoção de sólidos suspensos na água de irrigação utilizando mantas sintéticas não tecidas Removal of suspended solids in irrigation water utilizing non-woven synthetic fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos E. Scatolini


    Full Text Available Com vistas à eficiência de remoção de sólidos em suspensão, quando utilizados em filtros para irrigação localizada, empregaram-se três tipos diferentes de manta sintética não tecida, além de elemento de tela e de disco. Como resultado, as mantas tiveram desempenho superior, ou seja, 27 a 29% de remoção de sólidos em suspensão, enquanto os elementos de tela e disco apresentaram apenas 19 a 20%; contudo, dentre as três mantas avaliadas não foram observadas diferenças significativas, o mesmo ocorrendo entre os elementos de tela e disco.The objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of trickle irrigation filters on the removal of suspended solids using as filter elements three different types of non-woven synthetic fabrics. Also, was conducted an experiment with disk and screen elements in order to compare with the non woven synthetic fabric element. The results have demonstrated that non-woven synthetic fabrics presented better performance, removing 27 to 29% of suspended solids, while screen and disk elements presented 19 to 20% removal. No significant differences were observed among the three fabrics evaluated as well as between the screen and disk elements

  8. Fractal and spinodal-decomposed turbidities of nanoporous glass: fluctuation picture in turbid and transparent Vycor. (United States)

    Ogawa, Shigeo; Nakamura, Jiro


    The light propagation and scattering in monolithic transparent nanoporous materials such as Vycor glasses exhibit two optical turbidities, both of which are slightly deviated from the λ-4 Rayleigh wavelength dependence in the visible region: one is a transient white turbidity τf, characterized by the convex-upward dependence on the inverse fourth power of wavelength, and the other is turbidity τsp inherent to the structural inhomogeneity, characterized by the convex-downward dependence. The former is attributed to a fractal-like percolation network of imbibed or drained pores as a consequence of transient imbibition or drainage of wetting fluid into or from the pore space. The latter is attributed to the structural inhomogeneities inherent to the original dry porous glass, which are produced by spinodal decomposition. In this paper, we develop a general scheme to estimate the transmittance spectra of Vycor through the turbidities τf and τsp in the visible region on the basis of the theory of dielectric constant fluctuations. We show the applicability and its limitation of the turbidity analysis of the photospectroscopically measured data as a method to study the correlation functions that characterize the pore space and the structural features of isotropic transparent nanoporous media, on the presupposition that there exists no light attenuation other than the scattering.

  9. Dispersive suspended microextraction. (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Yu; Lu, Yue-Le; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui


    A novel sample pre-treatment technique termed dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) has been developed for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, malathion, chlorpyrifos, isocarbophos, methidathion, fenamiphos, profenofos, triazophos) in aqueous samples. In this method, both extraction and two phases' separation process were performed by the assistance of magnetic stirring. After separating the two phases, 1 μL of the suspended phase was injected into GC for further instrument analysis. Varieties of experiment factors which could affect the experiment results were optimized and the following were selected: 12.0 μL p-xylene was selected as extraction solvent, extraction speed was 1200 rpm, extraction time was 30 s, the restoration speed was 800 rpm, the restoration time was 8 min, and no salt was added. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detections (LODs) varied between 0.01 and 0.05 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSDs, n=6) ranged from 4.6% to 12.1%. The linearity was obtained by five points in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0 μg L(-1). Correlation coefficients (r) varied from 0.9964 to 0.9995. The enrichment factors (EFs) were between 206 and 243. In the final experiment, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wine and tap water samples and the obtained recoveries were between 83.8% and 101.3%. Compared with other pre-treatment methods, DSME has its own features and could achieve satisfied results for the analysis of trace components in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Remoção de sólidos suspensos e totais em biofiltros operando com esgoto doméstico primário para reuso na agricultura Removal of suspended and total solids in biofilters operating with primary domestic sewage for reuse in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliveira Batista


    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou analisar a remoção de sólidos suspensos e totais em biofiltros, preenchidos com lixo compostado, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e serragem de madeira, submetidos às taxas de aplicação do esgoto doméstico de 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 m³ m-2 d-1, em Viçosa-MG. Para isso, foi montada uma bancada experimental, constituída de 27 biofiltros, em área experimental da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. As concentrações de sólidos suspensos e totais foram determinadas, mensalmente, durante período de 153 dias. O experimento foi montado no esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, tendo, nas parcelas, as taxas de aplicação do esgoto doméstico; nas subparcelas, os tipos de material orgânico e, nas subsubparcelas, os períodos de avaliação, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os resultados indicaram que os biofiltros proporcionaram remoções de sólidos suspensos e totais de até 82 e 46%, no esgoto doméstico, após 153 dias de operação; a serragem de madeira foi o tipo de material orgânico filtrante com melhor desempenho no tratamento de esgoto doméstico; as aplicações de taxas de 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 m³ m-2 d-1 de esgoto não apresentaram diferenças quanto à remoção de sólidos suspensos e totais; e a utilização de biofiltros minimiza a obstrução de emissores causada por sólidos suspensos, quando do aproveitamento agrícola de esgoto doméstico, por via do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento.This study aimed to evaluate the removal of suspended and total solids in biofilters filled with composted waste, sugar cane bagasse and sawdust submitted to the application rates of domestic sewage of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m³ m-2 d-1 in Viçosa-MG. An experimental test unit was set up in experimental area of the Federal University of Viçosa. The concentrations of suspended and total solids were determined monthly during a period of 153 days. The experiment was arranged in a split split plot design, with

  11. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)


    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  12. Suspended-sediment loads and reservoir sediment trap efficiency for Clinton Lake, Kansas, 2010-12 (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2012, at a site upstream and downstream from Clinton Lake, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from the reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is inhibiting the ability of Clinton Lake to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The inflow suspended-sediment load was substantially larger than the outflow load and most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. Respectively, the total 2-year inflow and outflow suspended-sediment loads were computed to be 44.4 and 1.49 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 97 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 60,500 pounds per square mile. Because this study was completed during a drought, the estimated inflow suspended-sediment load and suspended-sediment yield likely are substantially less than what would occur during a period of average or above average precipitation and runoff.

  13. Variation in turbidity with precipitation and flow in a regulated river system – river Göta Älv, SW Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Göransson


    , whereas local surface runoff and tributary discharge induced by rainfall govern the temporal variability in turbidity. Autocorrelation analysis indicates a temporal persistence in turbidity of about 10 days. The results also show that erosion along the main river, from the river bed and banks, is not a dominant contributor to the suspended sediment transport in the river under normal conditions. Further studies on the correlation between turbidity and suspended sediment transport and its relation to erosion processes are suggested.

  14. Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio em sedimentos e material particulado no rio Acre, estado do Acre, Brasil Mercury concentration assessment in botton sediments and suspended solids from Acre river, in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Fernando Silva Mascarenhas


    Full Text Available A avaliação dos teores de mercúrio em sistemas aquáticos sem influência direta de fontes antropogênicas conhecidas não tem sido conduzida com freqüência na região Amazônica. Visando contribuir para esclarecer a ocorrência de valores elevados de Hg em peixes consumidos pela população de Rio Branco - AC, o Instituto Evandro Chagas - IEC, realizou um estudo para quantificar os teores de Hg em sedimentos de fundo e material particulado no rio Acre e alguns afluentes, além da caracterização físico-química das águas entre as cidades de Brasiléia e Assis Brasil. As amostras de sedimentos foram peneiradas na fração Mercury levels assessment in aquatic systems areas without influences of antropogenic sources have not been well studied in the Amazon region. For the identification of the origin of high values of Hg in fish consumed by population of Rio Branco City - AC, the Evandro Chagas Institute - IEC, studied the mercury levels in sediments, suspended solids and studied also the physical-chemical characterization of waters, in the Acre river and also some in afluents, between Brasiléia and Assis Brasil cities. Bottom sediments samples were sieved to <250 mesh fraction after drying. The suspended solid was obtained by precipitation with Al2SO4. About 250 mg of the material was submitted the acid digestion and the determinations of Hg were made by Could Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The physical-chemical parameters pH, electric conductivity, temperature and dissolved total solids, were studied in the field, by potenciometric methods. The Hg levels in bottom sediments range 0,018 and 0,184 mug g-1, mean of 0,054 ± 0,034 mug g-1, while the suspended solids varied between 0,067 and 0,220 mug g-1, average of 0,098 ± 0,037 mug g-1. The waters were slightly acid with pH varying among 5,80 - 6,95 and conductivity electric 151,60 - 1.151,00 muS cm-1. The mercury levels in the analyzed materials was below of standard levels for

  15. Field studies of estuarine turbidity under different freshwater flow conditions, Kaipara River, New Zealand (United States)

    Mitchell, Steven B.; Green, Malcolm O.; MacDonald, Iain T.; Pritchard, Mark


    We present a first interpretation of three days of measurements made in 2013 from the tidal reaches of the Kaipara River (New Zealand) under both low and high freshwater inputs and a neap tidal cycle. During the first day, we occupied two stations that were approximately 6 km apart in a tidal reach that runs for 25 km from the river mouth to the upstream limit of tidal influence. During the second day, longitudinal surveys were conducted over a distance of 6 km centred on the upstream station. The data reveal a turbidity maximum in the form of a high-concentration 'plug' of suspended mud that was advected downstream on the ebbing tide past the upper (HB) measurement station and which exchanged sediment with the seabed by settling at low slack water and by resuspension in the early flooding tide. The data suggest that fine sediment is transported landwards and trapped in the upper part of the tidal reach under these low-flow conditions. On the third day of measurements we repeated the experiments of the first day but later in the year, for a much higher freshwater flow. This interpretation of our data set highlights the potential contribution of a range of processes to the generation of the observed suspended-sediment signals, including resuspension of local bed sediment, advection by the tidal current, settling of suspended sediment over a long timescale compared to the advection timescale, advection of longitudinal gradients in suspended sediment, and suppression of vertical mixing by density stratification of the water column. The level of temporal and spatial detail afforded by these measurements allows a much clearer understanding of the timing and importance of vertical stratification on the transport of suspended particulate matter than is generally possible using fixed-point sensors.

  16. A multilayer approach for turbidity currents (United States)

    Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Castro Díaz, Manuel J.; Morales de Luna, Tomás


    When a river that carries sediment in suspension enters into a lake or the ocean it can form a plume that can be classified as hyperpycnal or hypopycnal. Hypopycnal plumes occurs if the combined density of the sediment and interstitial fluid is lower than that of the ambient. Hyperpycnal plumes are a class of sediment-laden gravity current commonly referred to as turbidity currents [7,9]. Some layer-averaged models have been previously developed (see [3, 4, 8] among others). Although this layer-averaged approach gives a fast and valuable information, it has the disadvantage that the vertical distribution of the sediment in suspension is lost. A recent technique based on a multilayer approach [1, 2, 6] has shown to be specially useful to generalize shallow water type models in order to keep track of the vertical components of the averaged variables in the classical shallow water equations. In [5] multilayer model is obtained using a vertical discontinuous Galerkin approach for which the vertical velocity is supposed to be piecewise linear and the horizontal velocity is supposed to be piecewise constant. In this work the technique introduced in [5] is generalized to derive a model for turbidity currents. This model allows to simulate hyperpycnal as well as hypopycnal plumes. Several numerical tests will be presented. References [1] E. Audusse, M. Bristeau, B. Perthame, and J. Sainte-Marie. A multilayer Saint-Venant system with mass exchanges for shallow water flows. derivation and numerical validation. ESAIM: Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Analysis, 45(1):169-200, (2010). [2] E. Audusse, M.-O. Bristeau, M. Pelanti, and J. Sainte-Marie. Approximation of the hydrostatic Navier–Stokes system for density stratified flows by a multilayer model: Kinetic interpretation and numerical solution. Journal of Computational Physics, 230(9):3453-3478, (2011). [3] S. F. Bradford and N. D. Katopodes. Hydrodynamics of turbid underflows. i: Formulation and numerical



    Ahmed H. Hadi*, Hussein Y. Mahmood


    The turbidity of liquid is very important in high speed camera applications used to record the movement of accelerated solid spherical particles with rotation falling in Newtonian and non – Newtonian liquids. Measurements of turbidity, density, apparent viscosity and fluid rheological properties (flow behavior index n & consistency index K) were taken for different concentrations (0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3 and 0 .4) % w/v of Carboxy methyl Cellulose (CMC), poly – vinyl alcohol (PVA) and CMC – ...

  18. Microscopic imaging through turbid media Monte Carlo modeling and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Min; Deng, Xiaoyuan


    This book provides a systematic introduction to the principles of microscopic imaging through tissue-like turbid media in terms of Monte-Carlo simulation. It describes various gating mechanisms based on the physical differences between the unscattered and scattered photons and method for microscopic image reconstruction, using the concept of the effective point spread function. Imaging an object embedded in a turbid medium is a challenging problem in physics as well as in biophotonics. A turbid medium surrounding an object under inspection causes multiple scattering, which degrades the contrast, resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Biological tissues are typically turbid media. Microscopic imaging through a tissue-like turbid medium can provide higher resolution than transillumination imaging in which no objective is used. This book serves as a valuable reference for engineers and scientists working on microscopy of tissue turbid media.

  19. Quantifying suspended sediment loads delivered to Cheney Reservoir, Kansas: Temporal patterns and management implications (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Juracek, Kyle E.; Graham, Jennifer; Foster, Guy


    Cheney Reservoir, constructed during 1962 to 1965, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita, the largest city in Kansas. Sediment is an important concern for the reservoir as it degrades water quality and progressively decreases water storage capacity. Long-term data collection provided a unique opportunity to estimate the annual suspended sediment loads for the entire history of the reservoir. To quantify and characterize sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, discrete suspended sediment samples and continuously measured streamflow data were collected from the North Fork Ninnescah River, the primary inflow to Cheney Reservoir, over a 48-year period. Continuous turbidity data also were collected over a 15-year period. These data were used together to develop simple linear regression models to compute continuous suspended sediment concentrations and loads from 1966 to 2013. The inclusion of turbidity as an additional explanatory variable with streamflow improved regression model diagnostics and increased the amount of variability in suspended sediment concentration explained by 14%. Using suspended sediment concentration from the streamflow-only model, the average annual suspended sediment load was 102,517 t (113,006 tn) and ranged from 4,826 t (5,320 tn) in 1966 to 967,569 t (1,066,562 tn) in 1979. The sediment load in 1979 accounted for about 20% of the total load over the 48-year history of the reservoir and 92% of the 1979 sediment load occurred in one 24-hour period during a 1% annual exceedance probability flow event (104-year flood). Nearly 60% of the reservoir sediment load during the 48-year study period occurred in 5 years with extreme flow events (9% to 1% annual exceedance probability, or 11- to 104-year flood events). A substantial portion (41%) of sediment was transported to the reservoir during five storm events spanning only eight 24-hour periods during 1966 to 2013. Annual suspended sediment load estimates based on streamflow were, on

  20. Spectral similarity approach for mapping turbidity of an inland waterbody (United States)

    Garg, Vaibhav; Senthil Kumar, A.; Aggarwal, S. P.; Kumar, Vinay; Dhote, Pankaj R.; Thakur, Praveen K.; Nikam, Bhaskar R.; Sambare, Rohit S.; Siddiqui, Asfa; Muduli, Pradipta R.; Rastogi, Gurdeep


    Turbidity is an important quality parameter of water from its optical property point of view. It varies spatio-temporally over large waterbodies and its well distributed measurement on field is tedious and time consuming. Generally, normalized difference turbidity index (NDTI), or band ratio, or regression analysis between turbidity concentration and band reflectance, approaches have been adapted to retrieve turbidity using multispectral remote sensing data. These techniques usually provide qualitative rather than quantitative estimates of turbidity. However, in the present study, spectral similarity analysis, between the spectral characteristics of spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data and spectral library generated on field, was carried out to quantify turbidity in the part of Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. Spatial spectral contextual image analysis, spectral angle mapper (SAM) technique was evaluated for the same. The SAM spectral matching technique has been widely used in geological application (mineral mapping), however, the application of this kind of techniques is limited in water quality studies due to non-availability of reference spectral libraries. A spectral library was generated on field for the different concentrations of turbidity using well calibrated instruments like field spectro-radiometer, turbidity meter and hand held global positioning system. The field spectra were classified into 7 classes of turbidity concentration as 100 NTU for analysis. Analysis reveal that at each location in the lake under consideration, the field spectra matched with the image spectra with SAM score of 0.8 and more. The observed turbidity at each location was also very much falling in the estimated turbidity class range. It was observed that the spectral similarity approach provides more quantitative estimate of turbidity as compared to NDTI.

  1. Reduction of Turbidity of Water Using Locally Available Natural Coagulants (United States)

    Asrafuzzaman, Md.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Hossain, Md. Alamgir


    Turbidity imparts a great problem in water treatment. Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab were used as locally available natural coagulants in this study to reduce turbidity of synthetic water. The tests were carried out, using artificial turbid water with conventional jar test apparatus. Optimum mixing intensity and duration were determined. After dosing water-soluble extracts of Moringa oleifera, Cicer arietinum, and Dolichos lablab reduced turbidity to 5.9, 3.9, and 11.1 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU), respectively, from 100 NTU and 5, 3.3, and 9.5, NTU, respectively, after dosing and filtration. Natural coagulants worked better with high, turbid, water compare to medium, or low, turbid, water. Highest turbidity reduction efficiency (95.89%) was found with Cicer arietinum. About 89 to 96% total coliform reduction were also found with natural coagulant treatment of turbid water. Using locally available natural coagulants, suitable, easier, and environment friendly options for water treatment were observed. PMID:23724307

  2. Flocculation of Turbid Water Using Polyferric-Based Composite Coagulant (United States)

    Tan, K. H.; Lai, S. H.


    The flocculation of turbid water using polyferric chloride-polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PFC-PDMDAAC) has been studied. Effect of preparation parameters basicity ratio (B ratio) of PFC and PDMDAAC/PFC ratio and operating parameters pH and dosage were investigated. PFC-PDMDAAC displayed maximum turbidity removal of 94.8% at 4.0mg/L when B=0.5 and PDMDAAC/PFC ratio = 7%. The best turbidity removal efficiencies by PFC-PDMDAAC were 84.7% at pH 7.5. These results reveal that PFC-PDMDAAC is efficient for flocculation of turbid water.

  3. Effect of algae on flocculation of suspended bed sediments in a large shallow lake. Consequences for ecology and sediment transport processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lucas Pardo, MiguelAngel; Sarpe, Dirk; Winterwerp, JohanChristian


    Lake Markermeer, a large shallow lake in The Netherlands, suffers from turbidity and ecology problems. As part of a study aiming to mitigate these problems, we study flocculation processes in the lake; in particular, the possible mutual flocculation between algae and re-suspended bed sediments. We

  4. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Hawaiian Islands (United States)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 green and red band imagery supplemented by U-2 photographs provides synoptic views of turbid, nearshore, near-surface bodies of water which adds to the body of knowledge about the coastal ocean necessary for a thorough understanding of the dynamic environment. Tubidity and suspended sediment measurements made in the Gulf of the Farallones correlate well with water tonal patterns visible on satellite imagery. Three successively seaward zones of turbid water could be delineated. Secchi disc visibility tests were the most definitive, ranging from or = 2 meters in the main plume, to almost 3 meters in the second zone of turbid water, to 4 meters in the furthest seaward zone of turbid water measured. These variations in water clarity were reinforced by suspended sediment concentrations which ranged from 26-28 mg/1, to 20-24 mg/1, to 11-15 mg/1, respectively, in each of the three masses of water. Transmissiometer readings were basically in agreement with the suspended sediment and Secchi disc values measured. Satellite imagery and U-2 photographs of the California coastal zone taken early in April 1973 show numerous plumes of suspended sediment being deflected southward. This indicates a southward flow of the nearshore, near-surface waters, a reversal from that noted in January 1973.

  5. Formation of Cyclic Steps due to the Surge-type Turbidity Currents in a Flume Experiment (United States)

    Yokokawa, M.


    Supercritical turbidity currents often form crescentic step-like wavy structures, which have been found at the submarine canyons, and deltaic environments. Field observations of turbidity currents and seabed topography on the Squamish delta in British Columbia, Canada revealed that cyclic steps formed by the surge-type turbidity currents (e.g., Hughes Clarke et al., 2012a; 2012b; 2014). The high-density portion of the flow, which affects the sea floor morphology, lasted only 30-60 seconds. The questions arise if we can reconstruct paleo-flow condition from the morphologic features of these steps. We don't know answers right now because there have been no experiments about the formative conditions of cyclic steps due to the "surge-type" turbidity currents. Here we did preliminary experiments on the formation of cyclic steps due to the multiple surge-type density currents, and compare the morphology of the steps with those of Squamish delta. First of all, we measured wave length and wave height of each step from profiles of each channels of Squamish delta from the elevation data and calculated the wave steepness. Wave steepness of active steps ranges about 0.05 to 0.15, which is relatively larger compare with those of other sediment waves. And in general, wave steepness is larger in the proximal region. The experiments had been performed at Osaka Institute of Technology. A flume, which is 7.0 m long, 0.3 m deep and 2 cm wide, was suspended in a larger tank, which is 7.6 m long, 1.2 m deep and 0.3 m wide, filled with water. The inner flume tilted at 7 degrees. Mixture of salt water (1.17 g/cm3) and plastic particles (1.5 g/cm3, 0.1-0.18 mm in diameter), whose weight ratio is 10:1, poured into the upstream end of the inner flume from head tank for 5 seconds. Discharge of the mixture was 240mL/s, thus for 5seconds 1200mL of mixture was released into the inner flume. We made 130 surges. As a result, four steps were formed ultimately, which were moving toward upstream

  6. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.


    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  7. Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.


    Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based on cost, reliability, robustness, accuracy, sample volume, susceptibility to biological fouling, and suitable range of mass concentration and particle size distribution. In situ turbidimeters are widely used. They provide reliable data where the point measurements can be reliably correlated to the river's mean cross section concentration value, effects of biological fouling can be minimized, and concentrations remain below the sensor's upper measurement limit. In situ laser diffraction instruments have similar limitations and can cost 6 times the approximate $5000 purchase price of a turbidimeter. However, laser diffraction instruments provide volumetric-concentration data in 32 size classes. Pressure differential instruments measure mass density in a water column, thus integrating substantially more streamflow than a point measurement. They are designed for monitoring medium-to-large concentrations, are generally unaffected by biological fouling, and cost about the same as a turbidimeter. However, their performance has been marginal in field applications. Acoustic Doppler profilers use acoustic backscatter to measure suspended sediment concentrations in orders of magnitude more streamflow than do instruments that rely on point measurements. The technology is relatively robust and generally immune to effects of biological fouling. Cost of a single-frequency device is about double that of a turbidimeter. Multifrequency arrays also provide the potential to resolve concentrations by clay silt versus sand size fractions. Multifrequency hydroacoustics shows the most promise for revolutionizing collection of continuous

  8. High-resolution simulations of turbidity currents (United States)

    Biegert, Edward; Vowinckel, Bernhard; Ouillon, Raphael; Meiburg, Eckart


    We employ direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, based on a continuum formulation for the sediment concentration, to investigate the physics of turbidity currents in complex situations, such as when they interact with seafloor topography, submarine engineering infrastructure and stratified ambients. In order to obtain a more accurate representation of the dynamics of erosion and resuspension, we have furthermore developed a grain-resolving simulation approach for representing the flow in the high-concentration region near and within the sediment bed. In these simulations, the Navier-Stokes flow around each particle and within the pore spaces of the sediment bed is resolved by means of an immersed boundary method, with the particle-particle interactions being taken into account via a detailed collision model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Optical Algorithms at Satellite Wavelengths for Total Suspended Matter in Tropical Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Muñoz-Caravaca


    Full Text Available Is it possible to derive accurately Total Suspended Matter concentration or its proxy, turbidity, from remote sensing data in tropical coastal lagoon waters? To investigate this question, hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance, turbidity and chlorophyll pigment concentration were measured in three coral reef lagoons. The three sites enabled us to get data over very diverse environments: oligotrophic and sediment-poor waters in the southwest lagoon of New Caledonia, eutrophic waters in the Cienfuegos Bay (Cuba, and sediment-rich waters in the Laucala Bay (Fiji. In this paper, optical algorithms for turbidity are presented per site based on 113 stations in New Caledonia, 24 stations in Cuba and 56 stations in Fiji. Empirical algorithms are tested at satellite wavebands useful to coastal applications. Global algorithms are also derived for the merged data set (193 stations. The performances of global and local regression algorithms are compared. The best one-band algorithms on all the measurements are obtained at 681 nm using either a polynomial or a power model. The best two-band algorithms are obtained with R412/R620, R443/R670 and R510/R681. Two three-band algorithms based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412 and Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs510 also give fair regression statistics. Finally, we propose a global algorithm based on one or three bands: turbidity is first calculated from Rrs681 and then, if < 1 FTU, it is recalculated using an algorithm based on Rrs620.Rrs681/Rrs412. On our data set, this algorithm is suitable for the 0.2-25 FTU turbidity range and for the three sites sampled (mean bias: 3.6 %, rms: 35%, mean quadratic error: 1.4 FTU. This shows that defining global empirical turbidity algorithms in tropical coastal waters is at reach.

  10. Satellite Observation of Changes in Suspended Sediment Induced by a Bay Bridge (United States)

    Cai, Lina; Tang, Danling; Li, Congying


    Nearshore bridges may have impacts on ocean environments. This paper introduced how to investigate suspended sediment changes induced by a bay-bridge using remote sensing method. Hangzhou Bay Bridge (HBB) crossing Hangzhou Bay, in China, was taken as example. The spectral features of water were analyzed, and unsupervised classification of water quality was conducted, suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was inversed from Landsat TM data (30m spatial resolution) using a new established model. Those three aspects together revealed details of SSC changes induced by HBB. When water turbidity was low upstream, SSC increased 3% - 60% (8.4 mg. l-1 -176.29 mg. l-1) downstream. In general, the more turbid the water in upstream, the less SSC increases amplitude downstream. If water turbidity was high (> 350 mg. l-1) upstream, SSC decrease can be observed in the range of 300 meters or further downstream from the bridge. It decreases nearly 2% -17.5% (12.6 mg. l-1-62.98 mg. l-1). This study shows that Landsat TM data and corresponding methods can display the changing patterns of SSC induced by a nearshore bridge in coastal waters.

  11. Source and dispersal of suspended sediment in the macro-tidal Gulf of Kachchh. (United States)

    Ramaswamy, V; Nath, B Nagender; Vethamony, P; Illangovan, D


    The macro-tidal Gulf of Kachchh, covering nearly 7000 km(2), is located about 150 km south of the Indus River mouth. In spite of semi-arid climate and lack of major rivers flowing into it, the Gulf is highly turbid with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) during October-November 2002 ranging between 0.5 and 674 mgl(-1). Highly turbid waters are observed towards the northern portion of the mouth of the Gulf, at the head of the Gulf and adjacent to the numerous shoals present within the Gulf. Perennial high SSC in the Gulf is due to resuspension of sediments by strong tidal currents, shallow bathymetry and presence of fine-grained sediments on the sea floor. Numerical model studies show that there is a dynamic barrier in the central Gulf, which prevents the exchange of water and suspended sediments between the outer and inner Gulf. This dynamic barrier associated with strong east-west tidal currents restricts the turbid waters mainly to the northern Gulf, resulting in relatively clear waters (SSCKachchh is the Indus River. Although the Indus discharge has been severely curtailed in the recent decades due to construction of numerous dams and barrages, the Gulf of Kachchh continues to receive resuspended sediments from the numerous meso and macro-tidal creeks of the Indus delta. The sediments at the head of the Gulf appear to be a mixture of sediments derived from the Indus as well as the numerous seasonal rivers draining the Rann of Kachchh.

  12. Measurements of solids concentration and axial solids velocity in gas-solid two-phase flows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, J.J.; Nieuwland, J.J.; Meijer, R.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria


    Several techniques reported in the literature for measuring solids concentration and solids velocity in (dense) gas-solid two-phase flow have been briefly reviewed. An optical measuring system, based on detection of light reflected by the suspended particles, has been developed to measure local

  13. Performance Evaluation of Five Turbidity Sensors in Three Primary Standards (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.


    Open-File Report 2015-1172 is temporarily unavailable.Five commercially available turbidity sensors were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey, Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for accuracy and precision in three types of turbidity standards; formazin, StablCal, and AMCO Clear (AMCO–AEPA). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognizes all three turbidity standards as primary standards, meaning they are acceptable for reporting purposes. The Forrest Technology Systems (FTS) DTS-12, the Hach SOLITAX sc, the Xylem EXO turbidity sensor, the Yellow Springs Instrument (YSI) 6136 turbidity sensor, and the Hydrolab Series 5 self-cleaning turbidity sensor were evaluated to determine if turbidity measurements in the three primary standards are comparable to each other, and to ascertain if the primary standards are truly interchangeable. A formazin 4000 nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU) stock was purchased and dilutions of 40, 100, 400, 800, and 1000 NTU were made fresh the day of testing. StablCal and AMCO Clear (for Hach 2100N) standards with corresponding concentrations were also purchased for the evaluation. Sensor performance was not evaluated in turbidity levels less than 40 NTU due to the unavailability of polymer-bead turbidity standards rated for general use. The percent error was calculated as the true (not absolute) difference between the measured turbidity and the standard value, divided by the standard value.The sensors that demonstrated the best overall performance in the evaluation were the Hach SOLITAX and the Hydrolab Series 5 turbidity sensor when the operating range (0.001–4000 NTU for the SOLITAX and 0.1–3000 NTU for the Hydrolab) was considered in addition to sensor accuracy and precision. The average percent error in the three standards was 3.80 percent for the SOLITAX and -4.46 percent for the Hydrolab. The DTS-12 also demonstrated good accuracy with an average percent error of 2.02 percent and a maximum relative standard

  14. A model for sediment capacity of turbidity currents considering sediment-fluid interactions with application to longitudinal equilibrium profile of submarine channels (United States)

    Naruse, H.


    Leveed submarine channels are one of the characteristic architectural elements of submarine fans. Comparing to alluvial rivers, leveed submarine channels are stable and thus turbidity currents inside channels can be supposed to flow at quasi-equilibrium condition. Here, this study proposes a model of sediment concentration of turbidity currents in equilibrium condition (i.e. sediment capacity). The model considers turbulence-suppression effect by density stratification of suspended sediments and concentration-related processes such as hindered settling. The model predicts that turbidity currents can have two different values of sediment capacity: high-concentration and low-concentration capacity. High concentration capacity is attained by positive feedback effect of hindered settling, in which settling velocity of sediment decreases as concentration increases. On the other hand, when density stratification effect becomes dominant, turbidity currents have only low-concentration capacity because the effect has negative feedback effect (sediment entrainment decreases as concentration increases). The initial condition of turbidity currents is a critical factor to determine which condition the flows finally reach. We applied our capacity model to predict the equilibrium profile of submarine channels. The equilibrium profile is here defined as profiles where turbidity currents bypass or deposit uniformly. Grain-size distribution is approximated to two size classes: channel-forming sands and levee-forming muddy sediments. The model can predict shape and length of leveed channels in the equilibrium condition. As a result, it was revealed that the profile varies depending on four variables: aggradation rates, sand/mud ratio in suspended load, total sediment discharge and flow discharge. Sand-prone flows produce short and highly inclined channels whereas mud-prone flows produce long and low-inclination channels. Also, the model implies that long-lived channels are difficult

  15. Treatment of Highly Turbid Water by Polyaluminum Ferric Chloride (PAFCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Fazel Mohammadi-Moghaddam


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: In some situation like rainfall seasons raw water become very turbid so it affected the water treatment plant processes and quality of produced water. Treatment of very high turbid water has some concerns like precursors for disinfection by-products and very loading rate of particle on filter's media and consequently increases in water consumption for filter backwash. This paper investigates the performance of a composite inorganic polymer of aluminium and ferric salt, Polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFCl, for the removal of turbidity, color and natural organic matter (NOM from high turbid water. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out by Jar test experiment by synthetic water samples with 250 and 500 NTU turbidity that prepared in laboratory. Results: The results of conventional jar test showed that the optimum pH for coagulation of water sample was 7.5 to 8 and optimum dosage of the coagulant was 10 mg/L. Removal efficiency of turbidity, color and UV adsorbent at 254 nm at optimum dose and pH without filtration was 99.92%, 100% and 80.6% respectively for first sample (250 NTU and 99.95%, 99.49% and 84.77 for second sample (500 NTU respectively. Conclusion: It concluded that polyaluminium ferric chloride has a very good efficiency for the removal of turbidity, color and organic matter in high turbid water. Also it can be select as a coagulant for high turbid water and some waste water from water treatment plant like filter backwash water.

  16. An assessment of the suspended sediment rating curve approach for load estimation on the Rivers Bandon and Owenabue, Ireland (United States)

    Harrington, Seán T.; Harrington, Joseph R.


    This paper presents an assessment of the suspended sediment rating curve approach for load estimation on the Rivers Bandon and Owenabue in Ireland. The rivers, located in the South of Ireland, are underlain by sandstone, limestones and mudstones, and the catchments are primarily agricultural. A comprehensive database of suspended sediment data is not available for rivers in Ireland. For such situations, it is common to estimate suspended sediment concentrations from the flow rate using the suspended sediment rating curve approach. These rating curves are most commonly constructed by applying linear regression to the logarithms of flow and suspended sediment concentration or by applying a power curve to normal data. Both methods are assessed in this paper for the Rivers Bandon and Owenabue. Turbidity-based suspended sediment loads are presented for each river based on continuous (15 min) flow data and the use of turbidity as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration is investigated. A database of paired flow rate and suspended sediment concentration values, collected between the years 2004 and 2011, is used to generate rating curves for each river. From these, suspended sediment load estimates using the rating curve approach are estimated and compared to the turbidity based loads for each river. Loads are also estimated using stage and seasonally separated rating curves and daily flow data, for comparison purposes. The most accurate load estimate on the River Bandon is found using a stage separated power curve, while the most accurate load estimate on the River Owenabue is found using a general power curve. Maximum full monthly errors of - 76% to + 63% are found on the River Bandon with errors of - 65% to + 359% found on the River Owenabue. The average monthly error on the River Bandon is - 12% with an average error of + 87% on the River Owenabue. The use of daily flow data in the load estimation process does not result in a significant loss of accuracy on

  17. A comparison between ultraviolet disinfection and copper alginate beads within a vortex bioreactor for the deactivation of bacteria in simulated waste streams with high levels of colour, humic acid and suspended solids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Thomas

    Full Text Available We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries.

  18. Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation. (United States)

    Safar, Peter J; Tisherman, Samuel A


    'Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation' is a new concept for attempting resuscitation from cardiac arrest of patients who currently (totally or temporarily) cannot be resuscitated, such as traumatic exsanguination cardiac arrest. Suspended animation means preservation of the viability of brain and organism during cardiac arrest, until restoration of stable spontaneous circulation or prolonged artificial circulation is possible. Suspended animation for exsanguination cardiac arrest of trauma victims would have to be induced within the critical first 5 min after the start of cardiac arrest no-flow, to buy time for transport and resuscitative surgery (hemostasis) performed during no-flow. Cardiac arrest is then reversed with all-out resuscitation, usually requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Suspended animation has been explored and documented as effective in dogs in terms of long-term survival without brain damage after very prolonged cardiac arrest. In the 1990s, the Pittsburgh group achieved survival without brain damage in dogs after cardiac arrest of up to 90 min no-flow at brain (tympanic) temperature of 10 degrees C, with functionally and histologically normal brains. These studies used emergency cardiopulmonary bypass with heat exchanger or a single hypothermic saline flush into the aorta, which proved superior to pharmacologic strategies. For the large number of normovolemic sudden cardiac death victims, which currently cannot be resuscitated, more research in large animals is needed.

  19. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  20. Performance testing of coagulants to reduce stormwater runoff turbidity. (United States)


    On December 1, 2009, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a rule in the Federal : Register establishing non-numeric and, for the first time, numeric effluent limitation guidelines (ELGs). The : numeric ELGs included a turbidity limi...

  1. Interaction of on-site and near real time measured turbidity and enzyme activity in stream water. (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias


    influence of turbidity on rapid GLUC measurements of stream water. During event run off conditions with high sediment load, accuracy of the GLUC determination was assayed. Various on-site set ups were tested to ascertain the use of sample prefiltration. We would like acknowledge financial support from the Austrian Science Funds (FWF) as part of the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems (DK-plus W1219-N22). References: Cabral, J. P. S. 2010. "Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7 (10): 3657-3703. Biswal , N. , S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and A. Pradhan 2003. "Recovery of turbidity free fluorescence from measured fluorescence: An experimental approach. Optics Express 11, (24): 3320. Molina-Munoz, M., J. M. Poyatos, R. Vilchez, E. Hontoria, B. Rodelas, and J. Gonzalez-Lopez. 2007. "Effect of the Concentration of Suspended Solids on the Enzymatic Activities and Biodiversity of a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor for Aerobic Treatment of Domestic Wastewater." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 73 (6): 1441-1451. Tryland, I., and L. Fiksdal. 1998. "Enzyme Characteristics of β-d-Galactosidase-and β-d-Glucuronidase-Positive Bacteria and Their Interference in Rapid Methods for Detection of Waterborne Coliforms andEscherichia Coli." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64 (3): 1018-1023.

  2. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend. (United States)


    ... part thereof during a particular period of time specified in the rule. ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means to...

  3. Sediment plume model-a comparison between use of measured turbidity data and satellite images for model calibration. (United States)

    Sadeghian, Amir; Hudson, Jeff; Wheater, Howard; Lindenschmidt, Karl-Erich


    In this study, we built a two-dimensional sediment transport model of Lake Diefenbaker, Saskatchewan, Canada. It was calibrated by using measured turbidity data from stations along the reservoir and satellite images based on a flood event in 2013. In June 2013, there was heavy rainfall for two consecutive days on the frozen and snow-covered ground in the higher elevations of western Alberta, Canada. The runoff from the rainfall and the melted snow caused one of the largest recorded inflows to the headwaters of the South Saskatchewan River and Lake Diefenbaker downstream. An estimated discharge peak of over 5200 m3/s arrived at the reservoir inlet with a thick sediment front within a few days. The sediment plume moved quickly through the entire reservoir and remained visible from satellite images for over 2 weeks along most of the reservoir, leading to concerns regarding water quality. The aims of this study are to compare, quantitatively and qualitatively, the efficacy of using turbidity data and satellite images for sediment transport model calibration and to determine how accurately a sediment transport model can simulate sediment transport based on each of them. Both turbidity data and satellite images were very useful for calibrating the sediment transport model quantitatively and qualitatively. Model predictions and turbidity measurements show that the flood water and suspended sediments entered upstream fairly well mixed and moved downstream as overflow with a sharp gradient at the plume front. The model results suggest that the settling and resuspension rates of sediment are directly proportional to flow characteristics and that the use of constant coefficients leads to model underestimation or overestimation unless more data on sediment formation become available. Hence, this study reiterates the significance of the availability of data on sediment distribution and characteristics for building a robust and reliable sediment transport model.

  4. Submicrometer fluid inclusions in turbid-diamond coats (United States)

    Guthrie, George D.; Veblen, David R.; Navon, Oded; Rossman, George R.


    Transmission and analytical electron microscopies were used to characterize the turbid coats on two diamonds from Zaire. The coats contained euhedral cavities (generally ≤ 0.5 μm) that are believed to represent decrepit fluid inclusions. Crystals (generally ≤ 0.2 μm) were sometimes found in the cavities, but they were never observed to fill the cavities entirely. Cavities that appeared to be intact typically contained several solid inclusions and an amorphous material with a low average atomic weight. The crystals in such cavities were able to move under a condensed electron beam, suggesting that the amorphous material was a liquid and not a glass. Using compositional analysis and electron diffraction, five minerals were identified as daughter crystals in the cavities: apatite, high-Ca carbonate, low-Ca carbonate, mica, and quartz. Coesite and olivine were not observed in any of the cavities. Compositional analysis of some crystals indicated that other minerals (e.g., amphibole) were present as daughter crystals; however, electron diffraction data were insufficient to identify them unambiguously. Since these inclusions are believed to have been trapped during the growth of the diamond coats [1], it may be possible to constrain the environment under which the coast grew, assuming that the daughter minerals precipitated from the trapped fluid and that the fluid inclusions have not re-equilibrated. Coexisting magnesite-like and dolomite-like carbonates and silica constrain XCO2 of the fluid to greater than 0.4. The presence of quartz is consistent with the coats developing at lower pressures and temperatures than the cores they surround; alternatively, quartz grew from a glass or high- P, high- T silica polymorph (coesite) when the inclusions re-equilibrated in the quartz stability field.

  5. Long-term analysis of turbidity patterns in Danube Delta coastal area based on MODIS satellite data (United States)

    Constantin, Sorin; Constantinescu, Ștefan; Doxaran, David


    The monitoring of coastal areas is becoming an urgent necessity in the context of increased pressure over these ecosystems due to climate change and human activities. Long term evaluation of specific parameters regarding water quality can now be achieved, thanks to the increased number of archived Earth Observation satellite data, now covering decades. Within this study, 12 years of MODIS information were used to compute surface water turbidity products that were further temporal binned into composite datasets (e.g. monthly, annual). A regional algorithm, based on local in situ measurements, was used in order to inverse remote sensing reflectance values into turbidity units. The interpretation of the final maps revealed important characteristics of the processes that play a major role in the regional turbidity dynamics. Observations were made regarding the relation between surface water turbidity and Danube River's discharge rates, winds, currents and also the bottom sedimentary characteristics of the shelf area. We discuss how different regions are affected by various external factors, depending on their geographical location, and we reinforce the idea that the river solid input is not the only parameter controlling water clarity in the Danube Delta coastal area, resuspension processes playing also an important role.

  6. A Quantitative Comparison of Total Suspended Sediment Algorithms: A Case Study of the Last Decade for MODIS and Landsat-Based Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji


    Full Text Available A quantitative comparative study was performed to assess the relative applicability of Total Suspended Solids (TSS models published in the last decade for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat-based sensors. The quantitative comparison was performed using a suite of statistical tests and HydroLight simulated data for waters ranging from clear open ocean case-1 to turbid coastal case-2 waters. The quantitative comparison shows that there are clearly some high performing TSS models that can potentially be applied in mapping TSS concentration for regions of uncertain water type. The highest performing TSS models tested were robust enough to retrieve TSS from different water types with Mean Absolute Relative Errors (MARE of 69.96%–481.82% for HydroLight simulated data. The models were also compared in regional waters of northern Western Australia where the highest performing TSS models yielded a MARE in the range of 43.11%–102.59%. The range of Smallest Relative Error (SRE and Largest Relative Error (LRE between the highest and the lowest performing TSS models spanned three orders of magnitude, suggesting users must be cautious in selecting appropriate models for unknown water types.

  7. Platform for monitoring water and solid fluxes in mountainous rivers (United States)

    Nord, Guillaume; Esteves, Michel; Aubert, Coralie; Belleudy, Philippe; Coulaud, Catherine; Bois, Jérôme; Geay, Thomas; Gratiot, Nicolas; Legout, Cédric; Mercier, Bernard; Némery, Julien; Michielin, Yoann


    The project aims to develop a platform that electronically integrates a set of existing sensors for the continuous measurement at high temporal frequency of water and solid fluxes (bed load and suspension), characteristics of suspended solids (distribution in particle size, settling velocity of the particles) and other variables on water quality (color, nutrient concentration). The project is preferentially intended for rivers in mountainous catchments draining areas from 10 to 1000 km², with high suspended sediment concentrations (maxima between 10 and 300 g/l) and highly dynamic behavior, water discharge varying of several orders of magnitude in a short period of time (a few hours). The measurement of water and solid fluxes in this type of river remains a challenge and, to date, there is no built-in device on the market to continuously monitor all these variables. The development of this platform is based on a long experience of measurement of sediment fluxes in rivers within the French Critical Zone Observatories (, especially in the Draix-Bléone ( and OHMCV ( observatories. The choice was made to integrate in the platform instruments already available on the market and currently used by the scientific community (water level radar, surface velocity radar, turbidity sensor, automatic water sampler, video camera) and to include also newly developed instruments (System for the Characterization of Aggregates and Flocs - see EGU2016-8542 - and hydrophone) or commercial instruments (spectrophotometer and radiometer) to be tested in surface water with high suspended sediment concentration. Priority is given to non-intrusive instruments due to their robustness in this type of environment with high destructive potential. Development work includes the construction of a platform prototype "smart" and remotely configurable for implantation in an isolated environment (absence of electric

  8. Contrast enhancement for images in turbid water. (United States)

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Lifeng; Serikawa, Seiichi


    Absorption, scattering, and color distortion are three major degradation factors in underwater optical imaging. Light rays are absorbed while passing through water, and absorption rates depend on the wavelength of the light. Scattering is caused by large suspended particles, which are always observed in an underwater environment. Color distortion occurs because the attenuation ratio is inversely proportional to the wavelength of light when light passes through a unit length in water. Consequently, underwater images are dark, low contrast, and dominated by a bluish tone. In this paper, we propose a novel underwater imaging model that compensates for the attenuation discrepancy along the propagation path. In addition, we develop a robust color lines-based ambient light estimator and a locally adaptive filtering algorithm for enhancing underwater images in shallow oceans. Furthermore, we propose a spectral characteristic-based color correction algorithm to recover the distorted color. The enhanced images have a reasonable noise level after the illumination compensation in the dark regions, and demonstrate an improved global contrast by which the finest details and edges are enhanced significantly.

  9. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  10. Salinity and turbidity distributions in the Brisbane River estuary, Australia (United States)

    Yu, Yingying; Zhang, Hong; Lemckert, Charles


    The Brisbane River estuary (BRE) in Australia not only plays a vital role in ecosystem health, but is also of importance for people who live nearby. Comprehensive investigations, both in the short- and long-term, into the salinity and turbidity distributions in the BRE were conducted. Firstly, the analysis of numerical results revealed that the longitudinal salinity varied at approximately 0.45 and 0.61 psu/h during neap and spring tides, respectively. The turbidity stayed at a higher level and was less impacted by tide in the upper estuary, however, the water cleared up while the tide changed from flood to ebb in the mid and lower estuary. The second investigation into the seasonal variations of salinity and turbidity in the BRE was conducted, using ten-year field measurement data. A fourth-order polynomial equation was proposed, describing the longitudinal variation in salinity dilution changes as the upstream distance in the BRE during the wet and dry seasons. From the observation, the mid and upper estuaries were vertically well-mixed during both seasons, but the lower BRE was stratified, particularly during the wet season. The estuary turbidity maximum (ETM) zone was about 10 km longer during the wet season than the dry season. Particular emphasis was given to the third investigation into the use of satellite remote sensing techniques for estimation of the turbidity level in the BRE. A linear relationship between satellite observed water reflectance and surface turbidity level in the BRE was validated with an R2 of 0.75. The application of satellite-observed water reflectance therefore provided a practical solution for estimating surface turbidity levels of estuarine rivers not only under normal weather conditions, but also during flood events. The results acquired from this study are valuable for further hydrological research in the BRE and particularly prominent for immediate assessment of flood impacts.

  11. The influence of a semi-arid sub-catchment on suspended sediments in the Mara River, Kenya. (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher L; Subalusky, Amanda L; Anisfeld, Shimon C; Njoroge, Laban; Rosi, Emma J; Post, David M


    The Mara River Basin in East Africa is a trans-boundary basin of international significance experiencing excessive levels of sediment loads. Sediment levels in this river are extremely high (turbidities as high as 6,000 NTU) and appear to be increasing over time. Large wildlife populations, unregulated livestock grazing, and agricultural land conversion are all potential factors increasing sediment loads in the semi-arid portion of the basin. The basin is well-known for its annual wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) migration of approximately 1.3 million individuals, but it also has a growing population of hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius), which reside within the river and may contribute to the flux of suspended sediments. We used in situ pressure transducers and turbidity sensors to quantify the sediment flux at two sites for the Mara River and investigate the origin of riverine suspended sediment. We found that the combined Middle Mara-Talek catchment, a relatively flat but semi-arid region with large populations of wildlife and domestic cattle, is responsible for 2/3 of the sediment flux. The sediment yield from the combined Middle Mara-Talek catchment is approximately the same as the headwaters, despite receiving less rainfall. There was high monthly variability in suspended sediment fluxes. Although hippopotamus pools are not a major source of suspended sediments under baseflow, they do contribute to short-term variability in suspended sediments. This research identified sources of suspended sediments in the Mara River and important regions of the catchment to target for conservation, and suggests hippopotami may influence riverine sediment dynamics.

  12. Optimization of biological phosphorus and ammonia removal in a combined fixed and suspended growth wastewater treatment system: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This project was conducted to optimize design and operational criteria for enhanced biological phosphorus removal and nitrification of ammonia in the fixed growth reactor-suspended growth reactor (FGR-SGR) process. The research completed the investigation of optimum hydraulic retention times for biological phosphorus removal in both the unaerated and aerated phases of the suspended growth components of the FGR-SGR system, including an assessment of the possibility of reducing suspended growth aeration requirements by using oxidized forms of nitrogen rather than dissolved oxygen for biological phosphorus uptake; investigated the effects on biological phosphorus removal and nitrification of varying the internal recycle flow rates; and investigated the optimum solids retention time, or the optimum operating mixed liquor suspended solids concentration, in the suspended growth component of the system for biological phosphorus removal and nitrification-denitrification.

  13. [Impacts of Sediment Disturbance on the Distribution of Suspended Particle Size and Phosphorus]. (United States)

    Guo, Jun-rui; Li, Da-peng; Liu, Yan-jian


    To clarify the influence of the sediments disturbance on the particle size distribution of suspended solids, and the influence of particle distribution on the forms of dissolved phosphorous in the overlaying water, the sediments and overlying water from Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, were used to conduct the indoor simulation experiments to investigate the particle size of suspended solids according to the Ubbelobde particle size criteria and the distribution of phosphorus compounds in the overlying water under the disturbance circumstances. The results indicated that the average proportions of small (0-10 microm), middle (10-20 microm) and large (> or = 20 microm) diameter particles presented different trends of increasing, decreasing and staying stable, respectively. It indicated the possible transformation of particle size of suspended solids from small-middle diameter to large diameter. In addition, the data of DTP/TP and DIP/TP showed a periodical variation with the corresponding periodical variety of particle diameter in suspended solids, while ns obvious variety of DTP and DIP was observed. It suggested that disturbance enhanced the ability of phosphorus immobilization by suspended solids. On the other band, the percentages of DTP in TP and DIP in TP were 19% and 13% under the disturbance, respectively, and they were obviously lower than those (DTP/TP, 80% and DIP/TP, 69% ) in the control. It indicated that tbs transformation of particle size of suspended solids from small-middle diameter to large diameter due to disturbance was in favor of tbe adsorption and sedimentation of dissolved phosphorus. Accordingly, the formation of particle phosphorus was enhanced. Therefore, it delayed the development of eutrophication in the water body.

  14. Estimation on the concentration of total suspended matter in Lombok Coastal using Landsat 8 OLI, Indonesia (United States)

    Emiyati; Manoppo, Anneke K. S.; Budhiman, Syarif


    Total Suspended Matter (TSM) are fine materials which suspended and floated in water column. Water column could be turbid due to TSM that reduces the depth of light penetration and causes low productivity in coastal waters. The objective of this study was to estimate TSM concentration using Landsat 8 OLI data in Lombok coastal waters Indonesia by using empirical and analytic approach between three visible bands of Landsat 8 OLI subsurface reflectance (OLI 2, OLI 3 and OLI 4) and field data. The accuracy of model was tested using error estimation and statistical analysis. Colour of waters, transparency and reflectance values showed, the clear water has high transparency and low reflectance while the turbid waters have low transparency and high reflectance. The estimation of TSM concentrations in Lombok coastal waters are 0.39 to 20.7 mg/l. TSM concentrations becoming high when it is on coast and low when it is far from the coast. The statistical analysis showed that TSM model from Landsat 8 OLI data could describe TSM from field measurement with correlation 91.8% and RMSE value 0.52. The t-test and f-test showed that the TSM derived from Landsat 8 OLI and TSM measured in field were not significantly different.

  15. Rippling instabilities in suspended nanoribbons (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Upmanyu, Moneesh


    Morphology mediates the interplay between the structure and electronic transport in atomically thin nanoribbons such as graphene as the relaxation of edge stresses occurs preferentially via out-of-plane deflections. In the case of end-supported suspended nanoribbons that we study here, past experiments and computations have identified a range of equilibrium morphologies, in particular, for graphene flakes, yet a unified understanding of their relative stability remains elusive. Here, we employ atomic-scale simulations and a composite framework based on isotropic elastic plate theory to chart out the morphological stability space of suspended nanoribbons with respect to intrinsic (ribbon elasticity) and engineered (ribbon geometry) parameters, and the combination of edge and body actuation. The computations highlight a rich morphological shape space that can be naturally classified into two competing shapes, bendinglike and twistlike, depending on the distribution of ripples across the interacting edges. The linearized elastic framework yields exact solutions for these rippled shapes. For compressive edge stresses, the body strain emerges as a key variable that controls their relative stability and in extreme cases stabilizes coexisting transverse ripples. Tensile edge stresses lead to dimples within the ribbon core that decay into the edges, a feature of obvious significance for stretchable nanoelectronics. The interplay between geometry and mechanics that we report should serve as a key input for quantifying the transport along these ribbons.

  16. Extending the range of turbidity measurement using polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S.


    Turbidity measurements are obtained by directing a polarized optical beam to a scattering sample. Scattered portions of the beam are measured in orthogonal polarization states to determine a scattering minimum and a scattering maximum. These values are used to determine a degree of polarization of the scattered portions of the beam, and concentrations of scattering materials or turbidity can be estimated using the degree of polarization. Typically, linear polarizations are used, and scattering is measured along an axis that orthogonal to the direction of propagation of the polarized optical beam.

  17. Non-invasive three-dimension control of light between turbid layers using a surface quasi-point light source for precorrection. (United States)

    Qiao, Mu; Liu, Honglin; Pang, Guanghui; Han, Shensheng


    Manipulating light non-invasively through inhomogeneous media is an attractive goal in many disciplines. Wavefront shaping and optical phase conjugation can focus light to a point. Transmission matrix method can control light on multiple output modes simultaneously. Here we report a non-invasive approach which enables three-dimension (3D) light control between two turbid layers. A digital optical phase conjugation mirror measured and conjugated the diffused wavefront, which originated from a quasi-point source on the front turbid layer and passed through the back turbid layer. And then, because of memory effect, the phase-conjugated wavefront could be used as a carrier wave to transport a pre-calculated wavefront through the back turbid layer. The pre-calculated wavefront could project a desired 3D light field inside the sample, which, in our experiments, consisted of two 220-grid ground glass plates spaced by a 20 mm distance. The controllable range of light, according to the memory effect, was calculated to be 80 mrad in solid angle and 16 mm on z-axis. Due to the 3D light control ability, our approach may find applications in photodynamic therapy and optogenetics. Besides, our approach can also be combined with ghost imaging or compressed sensing to achieve 3D imaging between turbid layers.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahannah, R.; Edwards, T.


    Savannah River Remediation’s (SRR’s) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a “peanut” vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 weight percent (wt%). A “go/no-go” decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a “go” decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a “no-go” determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. Subsequent to the

  19. Coastal circulation and sediment dynamics along West Maui, Hawaii; PART IV: measurements of waves, currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity in Honolua Bay, Northwest Maui: 2003-2004 (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, M. Kathy


    High-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity were made in Honolua Bay, northwest Maui, Hawaii, during 2003 and 2004 to better understand coastal dynamics in coral reef habitats. Measurements were acquired through two different collection methods. Two hydrographic survey cruises were conducted to acquire spatially-extensive, but temporally-limited, three-dimensional measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity in the winter and summer of 2003. From mid 2003 through early 2004, a bottom-mounted instrument package was deployed in a water depth of 10 m to collect long-term, single-point high-resolution measurements of waves, currents, water levels, temperature, salinity and turbidity. The purpose of these measurements was to collect hydrographic data to learn how waves, currents and water column properties such as water temperature, salinity and turbidity vary spatially and temporally in a near-shore coral reef system adjacent to a major stream drainage. These measurements support the ongoing process studies being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program's Coral Reef Project; the ultimate goal is to better understand the transport mechanisms of sediment, larvae, pollutants and other particles in coral reef settings. This report, the final part in a series, describes data acquisition, processing and analysis. Previous reports provided data and results on: Long-term measurements of currents, temperature, salinity and turbidity off Kahana (PART I), the spatial structure of currents, temperature, salinity and suspended sediment along West Maui (PART II), and flow and coral larvae and sediment dynamics during the 2003 summer spawning season (PART III).

  20. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.


    It is commonly recognized that suspended-sediment concentrations in rivers can change rapidly in time and independently of water discharge during important sediment‑transporting events (for example, during floods); thus, suspended-sediment measurements at closely spaced time intervals are necessary to characterize suspended‑sediment loads. Because the manual collection of sufficient numbers of suspended-sediment samples required to characterize this variability is often time and cost prohibitive, several “surrogate” techniques have been developed for in situ measurements of properties related to suspended-sediment characteristics (for example, turbidity, laser-diffraction, acoustics). Herein, we present a new physically based method for the simultaneous measurement of suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended‑sand median grain size in rivers, using multi‑frequency arrays of single-frequency side‑looking acoustic-Doppler profilers. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the incoherent scattering of sound by random suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of theory that relates acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We develop the theory and methods, and demonstrate the application of the method at six study sites on the Colorado River and Rio Grande, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustic attenuation and backscatter measurements over many years. The method produces acoustical measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration (in units of mg/L), and acoustical measurements of suspended-sand median grain size (in units of mm) that are generally in good to excellent agreement with concurrent physical measurements of these quantities in the river cross sections at

  1. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Over Gulf of Martaban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matamin Abd Rahman


    Full Text Available Gulf of Martaban is located at the north of Andaman, and is one of the world most turbid areas. The presence of suspended sediment concentration (SSC in the water body could reduce the underwater transmittance. This study has been conducted to investigate the variation of SSC over the Gulf of Martaban. Remote sensing reflectance (Rrs of 667 nm is used as a proxy to represent the sediment SSC variation over the study area. The data for the period of July 2002 to March 2014 acquired from MODIS Aqua 4 km resolution are used in this study. As a result, there is no obvious yearly variation in the SSC cover area. The SSC variation over this study area is found to be seasonal. High homogenous SSC covers area observably during the northeast (NE monsoon season that occurs from December to January. The sediment cover area could reach the latitude of 15°N that located at the south of the gulf. During southwest (SW monsoon season that occurs from May to September, low and sparse SSC cover area is observed. As a consequence, the area covered by the SSC is higher during the NE monsoon season as compared to the SW monsoon season. Hence, the SSC cover area during the NE monsoon season is greater than the yearly averaged SSC cover area. Meanwhile the SSC cover area during the rainy SW monsoon season is less than the yearly and NE monsoon season.

  2. Optical teledetection of chlorophyll a in turbid inland waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, H.J.


    Determination of subsurface spectral irradiance reflectance by use of a hand-held spectroradiometer and then estimation of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration facilitate assessment of ecological change in turbid lakes, rivers, and estuaries. The method was applied under widely varying solar

  3. Sediment concentration and turbidity changes during culvert removals (United States)

    Randy B. Foltz; Kristina A. Yanosek; Timothy M. Brown


    The concentrations of sediment and turbidity in stream water were monitored during culvert removals to determine the short term effects of road obliteration. Sediment concentration was measured at 11 stream crossings among two locations in Idaho and one in Washington. Sediment concentration immediately below the culvert outlet exceeded levels above the culvert outlet...

  4. In situ visualization and data analysis for turbidity currents simulation (United States)

    Camata, Jose J.; Silva, Vítor; Valduriez, Patrick; Mattoso, Marta; Coutinho, Alvaro L. G. A.


    Turbidity currents are underflows responsible for sediment deposits that generate geological formations of interest for the oil and gas industry. LibMesh-sedimentation is an application built upon the libMesh library to simulate turbidity currents. In this work, we present the integration of libMesh-sedimentation with in situ visualization and in transit data analysis tools. DfAnalyzer is a solution based on provenance data to extract and relate strategic simulation data in transit from multiple data for online queries. We integrate libMesh-sedimentation and ParaView Catalyst to perform in situ data analysis and visualization. We present a parallel performance analysis for two turbidity currents simulations showing that the overhead for both in situ visualization and in transit data analysis is negligible. We show that our tools enable monitoring the sediments appearance at runtime and steer the simulation based on the solver convergence and visual information on the sediment deposits, thus enhancing the analytical power of turbidity currents simulations.

  5. Time-gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering. Our studies on the contrast of time-gated ... Time-gated imaging; stimulated Raman scattering; image contrast. PACS Nos 42.30.-d; 42.65. ... scattering medium as compared to the ballistic or snake-like components, which essentially travel in the ...

  6. Wind-driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India. Pratima M Kessarkar V Purnachandra Rao R Shynu Ishfaq Mir Ahmad Prakash Mehra G S Michael D Sundar. Volume 118 Issue 4 August 2009 pp 369-377 ...

  7. Time-gated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we report the development of experimental set-up for timegated optical imaging through turbid media using stimulated Raman scattering. Our studies on the contrast of time-gated images show that for a given optical thickness, the image contrast is better for sample with lower scattering coefficient and higher ...

  8. Turbidity removal from surface water using Tamarindus indica crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. This paper examined the turbidity removal efficiency of Tamarindus indica fruit crude pulp extract (CPE) towards evaluating a low-cost option for drinking-water treatment. Laboratory analysis was carried out on high ...

  9. Clearing the waters: Evaluating the need for site-specific field fluorescence corrections based on turbidity measurements (United States)

    Saraceno, John F.; Shanley, James B.; Downing, Bryan D.; Pellerin, Brian A.


    In situ fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) measurements have gained increasing popularity as a proxy for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in streams. One challenge to accurate fDOM measurements in many streams is light attenuation due to suspended particles. Downing et al. (2012) evaluated the need for corrections to compensate for particle interference on fDOM measurements using a single sediment standard in a laboratory study. The application of those results to a large river improved unfiltered field fDOM accuracy. We tested the same correction equation in a headwater tropical stream and found that it overcompensated fDOM when turbidity exceeded ∼300 formazin nephelometric units (FNU). Therefore, we developed a site-specific, field-based fDOM correction equation through paired in situ fDOM measurements of filtered and unfiltered streamwater. The site-specific correction increased fDOM accuracy up to a turbidity as high as 700 FNU, the maximum observed in this study. The difference in performance between the laboratory-based correction equation of Downing et al. (2012) and our site-specific, field-based correction equation likely arises from differences in particle size distribution between the sediment standard used in the lab (silt) and that observed in our study (fine to medium sand), particularly during high flows. Therefore, a particle interference correction equation based on a single sediment type may not be ideal when field sediment size is significantly different. Given that field fDOM corrections for particle interference under turbid conditions are a critical component in generating accurate DOC estimates, we describe a way to develop site-specific corrections.

  10. The Influence of Suspended Inert Solid Particles on Zinc Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers


    The rate of corrosion of electroplated zinc in near-neutral chloride solutions can be lowered by as much as 75% by adding fine, inert particles of substances such as MnO2, Fe3O4, SiC and TiN to the well-stirred solution. Spreading of local areas of etching is also stopped. Copyright (C) 1996...

  11. The HydroColor App: Above Water Measurements of Remote Sensing Reflectance and Turbidity Using a Smartphone Camera. (United States)

    Leeuw, Thomas; Boss, Emmanuel


    HydroColor is a mobile application that utilizes a smartphone's camera and auxiliary sensors to measure the remote sensing reflectance of natural water bodies. HydroColor uses the smartphone's digital camera as a three-band radiometer. Users are directed by the application to collect a series of three images. These images are used to calculate the remote sensing reflectance in the red, green, and blue broad wavelength bands. As with satellite measurements, the reflectance can be inverted to estimate the concentration of absorbing and scattering substances in the water, which are predominately composed of suspended sediment, chlorophyll, and dissolved organic matter. This publication describes the measurement method and investigates the precision of HydroColor's reflectance and turbidity estimates compared to commercial instruments. It is shown that HydroColor can measure the remote sensing reflectance to within 26% of a precision radiometer and turbidity within 24% of a portable turbidimeter. HydroColor distinguishes itself from other water quality camera methods in that its operation is based on radiometric measurements instead of image color. HydroColor is one of the few mobile applications to use a smartphone as a completely objective sensor, as opposed to subjective user observations or color matching using the human eye. This makes HydroColor a powerful tool for crowdsourcing of aquatic optical data.

  12. Abrasion properties of self-suspended hairy titanium dioxide nanomaterials (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-xia; Liu, Si; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Ya-ming; Li, Shi-yun


    Considering the excellent solubility of pyrrolidone ring organic compounds, the synthesized N-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone chlorides was tethered onto titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to improve dispersion of TiO2, and then polyethylene oxide (PEO) oligomer through ion exchange embraced the tethered TiO2 to obtain a novel self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials without any solvent. A variety of techniques were carried out to illustrate the structure and properties of the self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials. It was found that TiO2 nanoparticles embody monodispersity in the hybrid system though the "false reunion" phenomenon occurring due to nonpermanent weak physical cross-linking. Remarkably, self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials exhibit lower viscosity, facilitating maneuverable and outstanding antifriction and wear resistance properties, due to the synergistic lubricating effect between spontaneously forming lubricating film and nano-lubrication of TiO2 cores, overcoming the deficiency of both solid and liquid lubricants. This make them promising candidates for the micro-electromechanic/nano-electromechanic systems (MEMS/NEMS).

  13. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected at Two Different. Heights above the Ground in A Sub-Urban Site in Kenya. Gitari W. M1, Kinyua A. M. 2, Kamau G. N3 and C. K. Gatebe C. K4. Abstract. Suspended particulate matter samples were collected in a sub-urban area in Nairobi over a 12 month ...

  14. Treatment of water turbidity and bacteria by using a coagulant extracted from Plantago ovata


    Bahman Ramavandi


    A biocoagulant was successfully extracted from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl3-induced crude extract (FCE). The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for clarification using the turbid water of a river. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the effects of turbidity concentration, coagulant quantity, water pH, and humic acid concentration on the coagulation of water turbidity by FCE. The maximum turbidity removal was occurred at water pH

  15. Evaluation of flow regime of turbidity currents entering Dez Reservoir using extended shallow water model


    Valery Ivanovich ELFIMOV; Hamid KHAKZAD


    In this study, the performance of the extended shallow water model (ESWM) in evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir was investigated. The continuity equations for fluid and particles and the Navier-Stokes equations govern the entire flow of turbidity currents. The shallow water equations governing the flow of the depositing phase of turbidity currents are derived from these equations. A case study was conducted on the flow regime of turbidity currents e...

  16. Newly recognized turbidity current structure can explain prolonged flushing of submarine canyons


    Azpiroz-Zabala, Maria; Cartigny, Matthieu J.B.; Talling, Peter J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Sumner, Esther J.; Clare, Michael A.; Simmons, Stephen M.; Cooper, Cortis; Pope, Ed L.


    Seabed-hugging flows called turbidity currents are the volumetrically most important process transporting sediment across our planet and form its largest sediment accumulations. We seek to understand the internal structure and behavior of turbidity currents by reanalyzing the most detailed direct measurements yet of velocities and densities within oceanic turbidity currents, obtained from weeklong flows in the Congo Canyon. We provide a new model for turbidity current structure that can expla...

  17. Newly recognized turbidity current structure can explain prolonged flushing of submarine canyons.


    Azpiroz-Zabala, Maria; Cartigny, Matthieu; Talling, Peter; Parsons, Daniel; Sumner, Esther; Clare, Michael; Simmons, Stephen; Cooper, Cortis; Pope, Ed


    Seabed-hugging flows called turbidity currents are the volumetrically most important process transporting sediment across our planet and form its largest sediment accumulations. We seek to understand the internal structure and behavior of turbidity currents by reanalyzing the most detailed direct measurements yet of velocities and densities within oceanic turbidity currents, obtained from weeklong flows in the Congo Canyon. We provide a new model for turbidity current structure that can expla...

  18. Comparison of Water Turbidity Removal Efficiencies of Descurainia Sophia Seed Extract and Ferric chloride


    Mazyar Peyda; Tooran Yarahmadi; Mehran Mohammadian Fazli; Rezan Rezaeian; Negin Soleimani


    Background Turbidity removal using inorganic coagulants such as iron and aluminum salts in water treatment processes causes environmental and human health concern. Historically, the use of natural coagulant to purify turbid water has been practiced for a long time. Recent research indicates that Descurainia Sophia seed can be effectively used as a natural coagulant to remove water turbidity. Method: In this work, turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract was compared...

  19. SPM response to tide and river flow in the hyper-turbid Ems River (United States)

    Winterwerp, Johan C.; Vroom, Julia; Wang, Zheng-B.; Krebs, Martin; Hendriks, Erik C. M.; van Maren, Dirk S.; Schrottke, Kerstin; Borgsmüller, Christine; Schöl, Andreas


    In this paper, we analyse the behaviour of fine sediments in the hyper-turbid Lower Ems River, with focus on the river's upper reaches, a stretch of about 25 km up-estuary of Terborg. Our analysis is based on long records of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from optical backscatter (OBS) measurements close to the bed at seven stations along the river, records of salinity and water level measurements at these stations, acoustic measurements on the vertical mud structure just up-estuary of Terborg and oxygen profiles in the lower 3 m of the water column close to Leerort and Terborg. Further, we use cross-sectionally averaged velocities computed with a calibrated numerical model. Distinction is made between four timescales, i.e. the semi-diurnal tidal timescale, the spring-neap tidal timescale, a timescale around an isolated peak in river flow (i.e. about 3 weeks) and a seasonal timescale. The data suggest that a pool of fluid/soft mud is present in these upper reaches, from up-estuary of Papenburg to a bit down-estuary of Terborg. Between Terborg and Gandersum, SPM values drop rapidly but remain high at a few gram per litre. The pool of fluid/soft mud is entrained/mobilized at the onset of flood, yielding SPM values of many tens gram per litre. This suspension is transported up-estuary with the flood. Around high water slack, part of the suspension settles, being remixed during ebb, while migrating down-estuary, but likely not much further than Terborg. Around low water slack, a large fraction of the sediment settles, reforming the pool of fluid mud. The rapid entrainment from the fluid mud layer after low water slack is only possible when the peak flood velocity exceeds a critical value of around 1 m/s, i.e. when the stratified water column seems to become internally supercritical. If the peak flood velocity does not reach this critical value, f.i. during neap tide, fluid mud is not entrained up to the OBS sensors. Thus, it is not classical tidal asymmetry, but

  20. Modeled summer background concentration nutrients and suspended sediment in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers (United States)

    We used regression models to predict background concentration of four water quality indictors: total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), chloride, and total suspended solids (TSS), in the mid-continent (USA) great rivers, the Upper Mississippi, the Lower Missouri, and the Ohio. F...

  1. Influence of near-bottom re-suspended sediment on benthic light availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Gallegos, Charles L.; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius


    Increased light attenuation in the water column is a common consequence of the increased organic loading that accompanies anthropogenic eutrophication in coastal systems. Frequently, the best water quality correlate of the light attenuation coefficient is the total suspended solids, even in syste...

  2. Species sensitivity distributions for suspended clays, sediment burial and grain size change in the marine environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Holthaus, K.I.E.; Trannum, H.C.; Neff, J.M.; Kjeilen-Eilertsen, G.; Jak, R.G.; Singsaas, I.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Hendriks, A.J.


    Assessment of the environmental risk of discharges, containing both chemicals and suspended solids (e.g., drilling discharges to the marine environment), requires an evaluation of the effects of both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. To date, a structured evaluation scheme that can be used for

  3. Suspended sediment diffusion mechanisms in the Yangtze Estuary influenced by wind fields (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Zhou, Yunxuan; Shen, Fang


    The complexity of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) distribution and diffusion has been widely recognized because it is influenced by sediment supply and various hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. Sediment suspended by waves and transported by currents are the dominant sediment transport mechanisms in estuarine and coastal areas. However, it is unclear to what extent the SSC distribution is impacted by each hydrodynamic factor. Research on the quantitative influence of wind fields on the SSC diffusion range will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of sediment transport change and sedimentary geomorphic evolution. This study determined SSC from three Envisat Medium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer acquisitions, covering the Yangtze Estuary and adjacent water area under the same season and tidal conditions but with varying wind conditions. SSC was examined based on the Semi-Empirical Radiative Transfer model, which has been well validated with the observation data. Integrating the corresponding wind field information from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts further facilitated the discussion of wind fields affecting SSC, and in turn the influence of water and suspended sediment transportation and diffusion in the Yangtze estuarine and coastal area. The results demonstrated that the SSC present much more distinctive fluvial features in the inner estuary and wind fields are one of the major factors controlling the range of turbid water diffusion.

  4. Evaluation Of A Turbidity Meter For Use At The Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahannah, R. N.; Edwards, T. B.


    Savannah River Remediation's (SRR's) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Laboratory currently tests for sludge carry-over into the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) by evaluating the iron concentration in the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) and relating this iron concentration to the amount of sludge solids present. A new method was proposed for detecting the amount of sludge in the SMECT that involves the use of an Optek turbidity sensor. Waste Services Laboratory (WSL) personnel conducted testing on two of these units following a test plan developed by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE). Both Optek units (SN64217 and SN65164) use sensor model AF16-N and signal converter model series C4000. The sensor body of each unit was modified to hold a standard DWPF 12 cc sample vial, also known as a ''peanut'' vial. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the use of this model of turbidity sensor, or meter, to provide a measurement of the sludge solids present in the SMECT based upon samples from that tank. During discussions of the results from this study by WSE, WSL, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel, an upper limit on the acceptable level of solids in SMECT samples was set at 0.14 wt%. A ''go/no-go'' decision criterion was to be developed for the critical turbidity response, which is expressed in concentration units (CUs), for each Optek unit based upon the 0.14 wt% solids value. An acceptable or a ''go'' decision for the SMECT should reflect the situation that there is an identified risk (e.g. 5%) for a CU response from the Optek unit to be less than the critical CU value when the solids content of the SMECT is actually 0.14 wt% or greater, while a ''no-go'' determination (i.e., an Optek CU response above the critical CU value, a conservative decision relative to risk) would lead to additional evaluations of the SMECT to better quantify the possible solids content of the tank. A sludge simulant was used to develop standards

  5. Estimating concentrations of fine-grained and total suspended sediment from close-range remote sensing imagery (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam; Spicer, Kurt R.; Christianson, Tami; Uhrich, Mark A.


    Fluvial sediment, a vital surface water resource, is hazardous in excess. Suspended sediment, the most prevalent source of impairment of river systems, can adversely affect flood control, navigation, fisheries and aquatic ecosystems, recreation, and water supply (e.g., Rasmussen et al., 2009; Qu, 2014). Monitoring programs typically focus on suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) and discharge (SSQ). These time-series data are used to study changes to basin hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology caused by disturbances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has traditionally used physical sediment sample-based methods (Edwards and Glysson, 1999; Nolan et al., 2005; Gray et al., 2008) to compute SSC and SSQ from continuous streamflow data using a sediment transport-curve (e.g., Walling, 1977) or hydrologic interpretation (Porterfield, 1972). Accuracy of these data is typically constrained by the resources required to collect and analyze intermittent physical samples. Quantifying SSC using continuous instream turbidity is rapidly becoming common practice among sediment monitoring programs. Estimations of SSC and SSQ are modeled from linear regression analysis of concurrent turbidity and physical samples. Sediment-surrogate technologies such as turbidity promise near real-time information, increased accuracy, and reduced cost compared to traditional physical sample-based methods (Walling, 1977; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003; Gray and Gartner, 2009; Rasmussen et al., 2009; Landers et al., 2012; Landers and Sturm, 2013; Uhrich et al., 2014). Statistical comparisons among SSQ computation methods show that turbidity-SSC regression models can have much less uncertainty than streamflow-based sediment transport-curves or hydrologic interpretation (Walling, 1977; Lewis, 1996; Glysson et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2008). However, computation of SSC and SSQ records from continuous instream turbidity data is not without challenges; some of these include environmental fouling, calibration, and

  6. Turbidity of a Binary Fluid Mixture: Determining Eta (United States)

    Jacobs, Donald T.


    A ground based (1-g) experiment is in progress that will measure the turbidity of a density-matched, binary fluid mixture extremely close to its liquid-liquid critical point. By covering the range of reduced temperatures t equivalent to (T-T(sub c)) / T(sub c) from 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -2), the turbidity measurements will allow the critical exponent eta to be determined. No experiment has precisely determined a value of the critical exponent eta, yet its value is significant to theorists in critical phenomena. Relatively simple critical phenomena, as in the liquid-liquid system studied here, serve as model systems for more complex systems near a critical point.

  7. Holographic characterization of colloidal particles in turbid media (United States)

    Cheong, Fook Chiong; Kasimbeg, Priya; Ruffner, David B.; Hlaing, Ei Hnin; Blusewicz, Jaroslaw M.; Philips, Laura A.; Grier, David G.


    Holographic particle characterization uses in-line holographic microscopy and the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure the diameter and the refractive index of individual colloidal particles in their native dispersions. This wealth of information has proved invaluable in fields as diverse as soft-matter physics, biopharmaceuticals, wastewater management, and food science but so far has been available only for dispersions in transparent media. Here, we demonstrate that holographic characterization can yield precise and accurate results even when the particles of interest are dispersed in turbid media. By elucidating how multiple light scattering contributes to image formation in holographic microscopy, we establish the range conditions under which holographic characterization can reliably probe turbid samples. We validate the technique with measurements on model colloidal spheres dispersed in commercial nanoparticle slurries.

  8. Mechanisms of Complete Turbulence Suppression in Turbidity Currents Driven by Mono-Disperse and Bi-Disperse Suspensions of Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrugesh S. Shringarpure


    Full Text Available Turbidity currents are submarine flows where the sediment fluid mixture (heavy current drives along the sloping ocean floor displacing the surrounding clear fluid (light ambient. Under the influence of gravity, the suspended sediments drive the current and at the same time settle down on the ocean bed. The interplay of turbulent mixing and settling sediments leads to stable stratification of sediments in the turbidity current. In previous studies (Cantero et al. 2009b; Cantero et al., 2009a; Cantero et al., 2012a; Talling et al., 2007 it was observed that strong settling tendency (large sediment sizes could cause complete turbulence suppression. In this study, we will analyse this process of complete turbulence suppression by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS of turbidity currents. In wall bounded unstratified flows, it has been long established that turbulence is sustained by the process of auto-generation of near-wall hairpin like and quasi-streamwise turbulent vortical structures. It was also identified that auto-generation is possible only when the strength of the turbulent structures is greater than a threshold value (Zhou et. al., 1996. Through quadrant analysis of Reynolds stress events and visualization of turbulent vortical structures, we observe that stratification by sediments lead to damping and spatial re-distribution of turbulent vortical structures in the flow. We propose that complete turbulence suppression is brought about by a total shutdown in the auto-generation process of the existing turbulent structures in the flow. We also identify three parameters – Reynolds number (Reτ, Richardson number (Riτ and sediment settling velocity (V˜z that quantify the process of turbulence suppression. A criterion for complete turbulence suppression is also proposed which can be defined as a critical value for RiτV˜z. This critical value is a function of Ret and based on simulations, experiments and field observations it

  9. Magnetically suspended virtual divergent channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Ryuichiro [Kokushikan University, 4-28-1 Setagaya, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8515 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Oshiama, Shuzo [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Park, Myeong-Kwan [Pusan National University, 30 Changjeon-dong, Kumjeong-ku, Pusan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)


    Two permanent magnets are set face-to-face and inclined with each other to produce the long cuspidal magnetic field. The diamagnetic liquid is levitated and flows through it without contact with the solid walls as if it is in the virtual divergent channel. Analysis is made on the shape of the virtual channel, and the results are compared with the experimental ones. The divergence angle increases with the increase in the inclination of the magnets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Distribusi Musiman Total Suspended Matter (TSM di Laut Surnbawa (117" - us· Edan s· - 9· S telah dilakukan. Data TSM tersebut diperoleh dari 75 stasiun pengukuran pada bulan September 2005 dan 98 stasiun pengukuran pada bulan November 2005 dan April 2006. Besaran sebaran TSM diperoleh dari hasil perhitungan besaran turbidity yang diperoleh dari pengukuran dengan menggunakan alat CTD ( Conductivity, Temperature and Depth Sensors. Besaran TSM yang diperoleh dari besaran turbidity menggunakan rurnus TSM = 0,65 Tur+ 1,17 (r = 0,85 (Hoshika dan Tanimoto, 1997.  Distribusi sebaran TSM pada saat musim hujan menunjukkan bahwa besarnya bervariasi dari L060 sam­pai 2.951 mg/1 dengan rata-rata sebesar 1.152 mg/1 (n=98, di lain pihak pada saat musim kemarau distribusi sebaran TSM menunjukkan bahwa besarnya bervariasi dari 1.060 sampai 2.899 mg/1 dengan rata-rata sebesar 1.111 mg/I (n=75. Distribusi sebaran TSM secara vertical dari permukaan laut sampai dengan kedalaman 20 meter menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan yang signifikan antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Pada saat musim kemarau distribusi sebaran TSM pada permukaan laut sampai dengan kedalaman 20 meter mem­punyai variasi yang kecil (dari 1.079 sampai 1.599 mg/1; Pada saat musim hujan distribusi sebaran TSM pada permukaan laut sampai dengan kedalaman 20 meter mempunyai variasi yang sangat besar (dari 1.079 sampai 2.698 mg/1. Distribusi sebaran TSM dari kedalaman 20 meter sampai dengan 100 meter menunjukkan pola yang sama antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan.  Distribusi sebaran TSM pada permukaan laut (dekat sungai/muara menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan sebaran antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Demikian juga dengan distribusi sebaran TSM yang diper­oleh dari data satelit menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan sebaran antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Perbandingan antara data in situ dengan data satelit menunjukkan bahwa koefisen korelasinya sebesar -0-753 untuk periode penelitian

  11. MODIS Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth over Turbid Coastal Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang


    Full Text Available We present a new approach to retrieve Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS over the turbid coastal water. This approach supplements the operational Dark Target (DT aerosol retrieval algorithm that currently does not conduct AOD retrieval in shallow waters that have visible sediments or sea-floor (i.e., Class 2 waters. Over the global coastal water regions in cloud-free conditions, coastal screening leads to ~20% unavailability of AOD retrievals. Here, we refine the MODIS DT algorithm by considering that water-leaving radiance at 2.1 μm to be negligible regardless of water turbidity, and therefore the 2.1 μm reflectance at the top of the atmosphere is sensitive to both change of fine-mode and coarse-mode AODs. By assuming that the aerosol single scattering properties over coastal turbid water are similar to those over the adjacent open-ocean pixels, the new algorithm can derive AOD over these shallow waters. The test algorithm yields ~18% more MODIS-AERONET collocated pairs for six AERONET stations in the coastal water regions. Furthermore, comparison of the new retrieval with these AERONET observations show that the new AOD retrievals have equivalent or better accuracy than those retrieved by the MODIS operational algorithm’s over coastal land and non-turbid coastal water product. Combining the new retrievals with the existing MODIS operational retrievals yields an overall improvement of AOD over those coastal water regions. Most importantly, this refinement extends the spatial and temporal coverage of MODIS AOD retrievals over the coastal regions where 60% of human population resides. This expanded coverage is crucial for better understanding of impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on coastal air quality and climate.

  12. Evaluating the potential for remote bathymetric mapping of a turbid, sand-bed river: 1. field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modeling (United States)

    Legleiter, Carl J.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Overstreet, Brandon T.


    Remote sensing offers an efficient means of mapping bathymetry in river systems, but this approach has been applied primarily to clear-flowing, gravel bed streams. This study used field spectroscopy and radiative transfer modeling to assess the feasibility of spectrally based depth retrieval in a sand-bed river with a higher suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and greater water turbidity. Attenuation of light within the water column was characterized by measuring the amount of downwelling radiant energy at different depths and calculating a diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd. Attenuation was strongest in blue and near-infrared bands due to scattering by suspended sediment and absorption by water, respectively. Even for red wavelengths with the lowest values of Kd, only a small fraction of the incident light propagated to the bed, restricting the range of depths amenable to remote sensing. Spectra recorded above the water surface were used to establish a strong, linear relationship (R2 = 0.949) between flow depth and a simple band ratio; even under moderately turbid conditions, depth remained the primary control on reflectance. Constraints on depth retrieval were examined via numerical modeling of radiative transfer within the atmosphere and water column. SSC and sensor radiometric resolution limited both the maximum detectable depth and the precision of image-derived depth estimates. Thus, although field spectra indicated that the bathymetry of turbid channels could be remotely mapped, model results implied that depth retrieval in sediment-laden rivers would be limited to shallow depths (on the order of 0.5 m) and subject to a significant degree of uncertainty.

  13. Developing a semi-analytical algorithm to estimate particulate organic carbon (POC) levels in inland eutrophic turbid water based on MERIS images: A case study of Lake Taihu (United States)

    Lyu, Heng; Wang, Yannan; Jin, Qi; Shi, Lei; Li, Yunmei; Wang, Qiao


    Particulate organic carbon (POC) plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water due to its biological pump process. In the open ocean, algorithms can accurately estimate the surface POC concentration. However, no suitable POC-estimation algorithm based on MERIS bands is available for inland turbid eutrophic water. A total of 228 field samples were collected from Lake Taihu in different seasons between 2013 and 2015. At each site, the optical parameters and water quality were analyzed. Using in situ data, it was found that POC-estimation algorithms developed for the open ocean and coastal waters using remote sensing reflectance were not suitable for inland turbid eutrophic water. The organic suspended matter (OSM) concentration was found to be the best indicator of the POC concentration, and POC has an exponential relationship with the OSM concentration. Through an analysis of the POC concentration and optical parameters, it was found that the absorption peak of total suspended matter (TSM) at 665 nm was the optimum parameter to estimate POC. As a result, MERIS band 7, MERIS band 10 and MERIS band 12 were used to derive the absorption coefficient of TSM at 665 nm, and then, a semi-analytical algorithm was used to estimate the POC concentration for inland turbid eutrophic water. An accuracy assessment showed that the developed semi-analytical algorithm could be successfully applied with a MAPE of 31.82% and RMSE of 2.68 mg/L. The developed algorithm was successfully applied to a MERIS image, and two full-resolution MERIS images, acquired on August 13, 2010, and December 7, 2010, were used to map the POC spatial distribution in Lake Taihu in summer and winter.

  14. Turbidity in oil-in-water-emulsions - Key factors and visual perception. (United States)

    Linke, C; Drusch, S


    The aim of the present study is to systematically describe the factors affecting turbidity in beverage emulsions and to get a better understanding of visual perception of turbidity. The sensory evaluation of the human visual perception of turbidity showed that humans are most sensitive to turbidity differences between two samples in the range between 1000 and 1500 NTU (ratio) (nephelometric turbidity units). At very high turbidity values >2000 TU in NTU (ratio) were needed to distinguish between samples that they were perceived significantly different. Particle size was the most important factor affecting turbidity. It was shown that a maximum turbidity occurs at a mean volume - surface diameter of 0.2μm for the oil droplet size. Additional parameters were the refractive index, the composition of the aqueous phase and the presence of excess emulsifier. In a concentration typical for a beverage emulsion a change in the refractive index of the oil phase may allow the alteration of turbidity by up to 30%. With the knowledge on visual perception of turbidity and the determining factors, turbidity can be tailored in product development according to the customer requirements and in quality control to define acceptable variations in optical appearance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Clearing muddied waters: Capture of environmental DNA from turbid waters. (United States)

    Williams, Kelly E; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Piaggio, Antoinette J


    Understanding the differences in efficiencies of various methods to concentrate, extract, and amplify environmental DNA (eDNA) is vital for best performance of eDNA detection. Aquatic systems vary in characteristics such as turbidity, eDNA concentration, and inhibitor load, thus affecting eDNA capture efficiency. Application of eDNA techniques to the detection of terrestrial invasive or endangered species may require sampling at intermittent water sources that are used for drinking and cooling; these water bodies may often be stagnant and turbid. We present our best practices technique for the detection of wild pig eDNA in water samples, a protocol that will have wide applicability to the detection of elusive vertebrate species. We determined the best practice for eDNA capture in a turbid water system was to concentrate DNA from a 15 mL water sample via centrifugation, purify DNA with the DNeasy mericon Food kit, and remove inhibitors with Zymo Inhibitor Removal Technology columns. Further, we compared the sensitivity of conventional PCR to quantitative PCR and found that quantitative PCR was more sensitive in detecting lower concentrations of eDNA. We show significant differences in efficiencies among methods in each step of eDNA capture, emphasizing the importance of optimizing best practices for the system of interest.

  16. A Spatially Distributed Conceptual Model for Estimating Suspended Sediment Yield in Alpine catchments (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Anghileri, Daniela


    Suspended sediment is associated with nutrient and contaminant transport in water courses. Estimating suspended sediment load is relevant for water-quality assessment, recreational activities, reservoir sedimentation issues, and ecological habitat assessment. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) along channels is usually reproduced by suspended sediment rating curves, which relate SSC to discharge with a power law equation. Large uncertainty characterizes rating curves based only on discharge, because sediment supply is not explicitly accounted for. The aim of this work is to develop a source-oriented formulation of suspended sediment dynamics and to estimate suspended sediment yield at the outlet of a large Alpine catchment (upper Rhône basin, Switzerland). We propose a novel modelling approach for suspended sediment which accounts for sediment supply by taking into account the variety of sediment sources in an Alpine environment, i.e. the spatial location of sediment sources (e.g. distance from the outlet and lithology) and the different processes of sediment production and transport (e.g. by rainfall, overland flow, snowmelt). Four main sediment sources, typical of Alpine environments, are included in our model: glacial erosion, hillslope erosion, channel erosion and erosion by mass wasting processes. The predictive model is based on gridded datasets of precipitation and air temperature which drive spatially distributed degree-day models to simulate snowmelt and ice-melt, and determine erosive rainfall. A mass balance at the grid scale determines daily runoff. Each cell belongs to a different sediment source (e.g. hillslope, channel, glacier cell). The amount of sediment entrained and transported in suspension is simulated through non-linear functions of runoff, specific for sediment production and transport processes occurring at the grid scale (e.g. rainfall erosion, snowmelt-driven overland flow). Erodibility factors identify different lithological units

  17. Sediment Transport in the Bill Williams River and Turbidity in Lake Havasu During and Following Two High Releases from Alamo Dam, Arizona, in 2005 and 2006 (United States)

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Hart, Robert J.; Darling, Hugh L.; Hautzinger, Andrew B.


    Discharges higher than are typically released from Alamo Dam in west-central Arizona were planned and released in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 to study the effects of these releases on the Bill Williams River and Lake Havasu, into which the river debouches. Sediment concentrations and water discharges were measured in the Bill Williams River, and turbidity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen were measured in Lake Havasu during and after experimental releases in 2005 and 2006 from Alamo Dam. Data from such releases will support ongoing ecological studies, improve environmentally sensitive management of the river corridor, and support the development of a predictive relationship between the operation of Alamo Dam and downstream flows and their impact on Lake Havasu and the Colorado River. Elevated discharges in the Bill Williams River mobilize more sediment than during more typical dam operation and can generate a turbidity plume in Lake Havasu. The intakes for the Central Arizona Project, which transfers Colorado River water to central and southern Arizona, are near the mouth of the Bill Williams River. Measurement of the turbidity and the development of the plume over time consequently were important components of the study. In this report, the measurements of suspended sediment concentration and discharges in the Bill Williams River and of turbidity in Lake Havasu are presented along with calculations of silt and sand loads in the Bill Williams River. Sediment concentrations were varied and likely dependent on a variable supply. Sediment loads were calculated at the mouth of the river and near Planet, about 10 km upstream from the mouth for the 2005 release, and they indicate that a net increase in transport of silt and a net decrease in the transport of sand occurred in the reach between the two sites.

  18. Change of Rainfall-runoff event hysteresis in suspended sediments due to surface decontamination in the area affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident (United States)

    Onda, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; Taniguchi, K.; Kubo, T.; Smith, H.; Brake, W.; Kuramoto, T.; Sato, T.


    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) on March 2011 accident released massive amounts of radiocesium into the terrestrial environment such as Cs-137 and Cs-134. Where deposition density of Cs-137 exceeds loughly 500 kBq/m2, evacuation has been ordered, and the cropland and paddy field have become grassland in the summer of 2011.A large scale government funded research program has been started (Saito and Onda, 2015) to monitor the amount of radiocesium wash off from the catchments started June, 2011 (Yamashiki et al 2013) starting initial 6 sites in the Abukuma river watershed in the nested structure. Two stations were installed on the main river channel (Iwanuma; 5313 km2 and Fushiguro; 3645 km2), and the more highly-contaminated Kuchibuto sub-basin (Mizusakai; 7.5km2, Kuchibuto Upstream; 21.4 km2, Kuchibuto middle stream; 63 km2, Kuchibuto downstream; 135 km2) was selected for detailed monitoring. The sites are increased to 30 sites (Yoshimura et al., 2015) to cover the most of the area within 80 km from the FDNPP in 2013.Continuous measurements of flow and turbidity (for estimating suspended sediment concentration) were made at each monitoring station. Turbidity meters (Analyte turbidity meter, MacVan 3000-NTU) calibrated with bottom sediment of the Horai reservoir upstream the Abukuma river, and water level gauges (RuggedTROLL100) . During our monitoring of topsoil up to 5 cm and replaced with lower part of the soil taken nearby in the two upstream catchments (Kuchibuto upstream, Mizusakai ) mainly in 2014 to 2015.The change of rainfall-runoff event hysteresis in suspended sediments before and after the decontamination was significant. From 2011 to 2013. Most of the response of suspended sediment occurs before the rainfall peak. However, after 2014, the response occurs after the runoff events, and suspended sediment concentration has been increased especially in the stations where decontamination area ratio are high.

  19. Field turbidity method for the determination of lead in acid extracts of dried paint. (United States)

    Studabaker, William B; McCombs, Michelle; Sorrell, Kristen; Salmons, Cynthia; Brown, G Gordon; Binstock, David; Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L


    Lead, which can be found in old paint, soil, and dust, has been clearly shown to have adverse health effects on the neurological systems of both children and adults. As part of an ongoing effort to reduce childhood lead poisoning, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP) rule requiring that paint in target housing built prior to 1978 be tested for lead before any renovation, repair, or painting activities are initiated. This rule has led to a need for a rapid, relatively easy, and an inexpensive method for measuring lead in paint. This paper presents a new method for measuring lead extracted from paint that is based on turbidimetry. This method is applicable to paint that has been collected from a surface and extracted into 25% (v/v) of nitric acid. An aliquot of the filtered extract is mixed with an aliquot of solid potassium molybdate in 1 M ammonium acetate to form a turbid suspension of lead molybdate. The lead concentration is determined using a portable turbidity meter. This turbidimetric method has a response of approximately 0.9 NTU per microg lead per mL extract, with a range of 1-1000 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTUs). Precision at a concentration corresponding to the EPA-mandated decision point of 1 mg of lead per cm(2) is six reference materials with lead concentrations near 1 mg cm(-2) yielded a correlation to inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis of 0.97, with an average bias of 2.8%. Twenty-four sets of either 6 or 10 paint samples each were collected from different locations in old houses, a hospital, tobacco factory, and power station. Half of each set was analyzed using rotor/stator-25% (v/v) nitric acid extraction with measurement using the new turbidimetric method, and the other half was analyzed using microwave extraction and measurement by ICP-AES. The average relative percent difference between the turbidimetric method and the ICP

  20. An inventory of suspended sediment stations and type of data analysis for Pennsylvania streams, 1947-1970 (United States)

    Ott, Arthur N.; Commings, Allen B.


    Data concerning suspended sediment concentrations and loads, frequency of occurrence of suspended sediment concentrations, and long-term trends of annual suspended sediment loads are important tools for today's environmental manager. These data are required background for those concerned with establishing and enforcing erosion and sedimentation control regulations and sediment concentration or turbidity standards for water-quality criteria, or those concerned with designing for adequate long-term water storage in reservoirs (sediment load), for efficient municipal and industrial plant operation (sediment concentration frequency), etc.This is a compilation of the location, period of record, sampling frequency and type of data synthesis for suspended sediment carried by Pennsylvania streams. Figures 1 and 2 show the approximate locations of sediment sampling stations in Pennsylvania. All of the sediment data listed were collected by the U. S. Geological Survey mainly in cooperation with the following Federal, State, and local agencies.Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources     Bureau of Engineering and Construction     Soil and Water Conservation CommissionPennsylvania Department of TransportationCity of PhiladelphiaBrandywine Valley AssociationDelaware Geological SurveyConestoga Valley AssociationLehigh County Soil and Water Conservation DistrictCorps of Engineers, U. S. Army

  1. Simulation of the transport of suspended particulate matter in the Rio de la Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausstein, H.


    Numerical simulations of the transport of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Rio de la Plata estuary were performed with a three dimensional model for coastal waters driven by wave sand currents. Aturbulence based flocculation approach is implemented to the model. The model is for the first time applied under heavy conditions, since the Rio de la Plata has discharges up to 25000 m{sup 3}/s and SPM concentrations up to 300-400 mg/l. Such concentrations are also difficult to compute from satellite measurements. SeaWiFs satellite images served for the validation of the model results. The model is able to reproduce the shape and the position of the front as well as the zone of the turbidity maximum. It also identifies the zones of erosion and deposition which is of significant importance because of the dense ship traffic along the navigational channels towards Buenos Aires and the cities upstream the rivers. (orig.)

  2. Overview of selected surrogate technologies for high-temporal resolution suspended-sediment monitoring (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.


    Traditional methods for characterizing selected properties of suspended sediments in rivers are being augmented and in some cases replaced by cost-effective surrogate instruments and methods that produce a temporally dense time series of quantifiably accurate data for use primarily in sediment-flux computations. Turbidity is the most common such surrogate technology, and the first to be sanctioned by the U.S. Geological Survey for use in producing data used in concert with water-discharge data to compute sediment concentrations and fluxes for storage in the National Water Information System. Other technologies, including laser-diffraction, digital photo-optic, acoustic-attenuation and backscatter, and pressure-difference techniques are being evaluated for producing reliable sediment concentration and, in some cases, particle-size distribution data. Each technology addresses a niche for sediment monitoring. Their performances range from compelling to disappointing. Some of these technologies have the potential to revolutionize fluvial-sediment data collection, analysis, and availability.

  3. Quantification of suspended sediment transfers in a lowland agricultural catchment (United States)

    Salvador-Blanes, Sebastien; Manière, Louis; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Vandromme, Rosalie


    Lowland agricultural landscapes underwent important changes since the second half of the XXth century such as hedges removal, implementation of drainage systems, stream redesign and land reallocation. It resulted in changes in sediment transfer processes, and in widespread morphological alterations of water bodies. However, little is known about the sediment dynamics in these environments. The Louroux catchment (25 km2) is located in central France. It is a typical intensively cultivated and tile drained lowland catchment. The Xth century pond located at its outlet (52 ha) is undergoing large siltation, with a current sedimentation rate 60 fold higher than the pre-1950 period. Five monitoring stations, measuring water levels and turbidity at high frequency (15 mn and 1 mn respectively), combined with automatic samplers, were implemented in 2013. Three stations are located at the main tributaries outlets of the pond, one in a sub-catchment, and one at a tile drain outlet. 45 floods were observed during the three studied hydrological years. They occurred mostly between December and March (33 floods) and in May-June (8 floods). Specific sediment yields ranged from 0.02 to 0.38 t.ha-1.yr-1 depending on the monitoring site and the considered year. The vast majority of suspended sediment transfers occur during the winter floods. While large water volumes were also measured during spring floods, the sediment yields remained low. Suspended sediment yields present large inter-annual (ratio ranging between 2 and 6 depending on the monitoring station) and spatial variations, due to significant differences in total rainfall amounts during the winter season and variations in land use, respectively. The processes related to sediment transfers are most likely linked to soil saturation during winter despite the presence of a tile drainage network, with transfers occurring both at the soil surface and through the drainage system. While sediment transfer rates can be considered as

  4. Tidal straining effect on the suspended sediment transport in the Huanghe (Yellow River) Estuary, China (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Hua; Wang, Houjie


    Tidal straining effect on sediment transport dynamics in the Huanghe (Yellow River) estuary was studied by field observations and numerical simulations. The measurement of salinity, suspended sediment concentration, and current velocity was conducted during a flood season in 1995 at the Huanghe river mouth with six fishing boats moored at six stations for 25-h hourly time series observations. Based on the measurements, the intra-tidal variations of sediment transport in the highly turbid river mouth was observed and the tidal straining effect occurred. Our study showed that tidal straining of longitudinal sediment concentration gradients can contribute to intra-tidal variability in sediment stratification and to asymmetries in sediment distribution within a tidal cycle. In particular, the tidal straining effect in the Huanghe River estuary strengthened the sediment-induced stratification at the flood tide, thus producing a higher bottom sediment concentration than that during the ebb. A sediment transport model that is capable of simulating sediment-induced stratification effect on the hydrodynamics in the bottom boundary layers and associated density currents was applied to an idealized estuary to demonstrate the processes and to discuss the mechanism. The model-predicted sediment processes resembled the observed characteristics in the Huanghe River estuary. We concluded that tidal straining effect is an important but poorly understood mechanism in the transport dynamics of cohesive sediments in turbid estuaries and coastal seas.

  5. Simultaneous atmospheric correction and quantification of suspended particulate matter in the Guadalquivir estuary from Landsat images (United States)

    Carpintero, M.; Polo, M. J.; Suhyp Salama, Mhd.


    Earth observations (EOs) following empirical and/or analytical approaches are a feasible alternative to obtain spatial and temporal distribution of water quality variables. The limitations observed in the use of empirical approaches to estimate high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the estuarine water of Guadalquivir have led the authors to use a semi-analytical model, which relates the water constituents' concentration to the water leaving reflectance. In this work, the atmospheric correction has been carried out simultaneously and the aerosol reflectance and backscattering coefficients of SPM obtained. The results are validated using in situ SPM data series provided by a monitoring network in the study area. The results show that the model allows us to successfully estimate backscattering coefficients of SPM in the estuary, differentiating clear and turbid water and using two ɛ(4,5) .These considerations improve the value of R2 from 0.68 (single ɛ(4,5)) to 0.86 (two ɛ( 4,5)) on 18 May 2009. This method could be used as a preliminary approach to obtain SPM concentration in the Guadalquivir estuary with the limitations that the model shows for turbid waters.

  6. Simultaneous atmospheric correction and quantification of suspended particulate matter in the Guadalquivir estuary from Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carpintero


    Full Text Available Earth observations (EOs following empirical and/or analytical approaches are a feasible alternative to obtain spatial and temporal distribution of water quality variables. The limitations observed in the use of empirical approaches to estimate high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM in the estuarine water of Guadalquivir have led the authors to use a semi-analytical model, which relates the water constituents’ concentration to the water leaving reflectance. In this work, the atmospheric correction has been carried out simultaneously and the aerosol reflectance and backscattering coefficients of SPM obtained. The results are validated using in situ SPM data series provided by a monitoring network in the study area. The results show that the model allows us to successfully estimate backscattering coefficients of SPM in the estuary, differentiating clear and turbid water and using two ε(4,5 .These considerations improve the value of R2 from 0.68 (single ε(4,5 to 0.86 (two ε( 4,5 on 18 May 2009. This method could be used as a preliminary approach to obtain SPM concentration in the Guadalquivir estuary with the limitations that the model shows for turbid waters.

  7. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: a first step towards ecological modeling (United States)

    Achete, F. M.; van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, D.; Jaffe, B.


    In estuaries suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. Sediment dynamics differs depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. A robust sediment transport model is a first step in developing a chain of models enabling simulations of contaminants, phytoplankton and habitat conditions. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry delta of the San Francisco estuary using a process-based approach (Delft3D Flexible Mesh software). Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters and the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year, water year (WY) 2011. Model results show that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models assessing the impact of climate change and management scenarios. Here we present a modeling approach that, with limited data, produces reliable predictions and can be useful for estuaries without a large amount of processes data.

  8. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: A first step towards ecological modeling (United States)

    Achete, F. M.; van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, D.; Jaffe, B.


    In estuaries suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. Sediment dynamics differs depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. A robust sediment transport model is a first step in developing a chain of models enabling simulations of contaminants, phytoplankton and habitat conditions. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry delta of the San Francisco estuary using a process-based approach (Delft3D Flexible Mesh software). Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters and the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year, water year (WY) 2011. Model results show that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models assessing the impact of climate change and management scenarios. Here we present a modeling approach that, with limited data, produces reliable predictions and can be useful for estuaries without a large amount of processes data.

  9. Underwater light field determined by water constituents in highly turbid water: the case of Taihu lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Huang


    Full Text Available The relationships between optical properties and water constituents in highly turbid productivewater were studied on the basis of the multiple bio-optical measurements and samplings of water constituents made during five cruises from 2006 to 2008 in Taihu lake. Taihu lake is a high dynamic ratio [(square root of area/depth] inland shallow lake. The spatial and temporal variation of water constituents and optical properties is significant. The inorganic suspended matter (ISMhas become the primary constituent in Taihu lake: its average percentage can reach 65.21%. The concentration of ISM is highly correlated to the optical properties in Taihu lake due to the sediment resuspension. Consequently, the ISM can be taken into account as an important optically-active constituent in Taihu lake. Resuspended sediments also lead to a poor correlation between scattering optical property and chlorophyll-a concentration (CChl-a. However, empirical relationship between the CChl-a and phytoplankton absorption coefficient at 675 nm is still valid when the package effect is removed. The parameters of linear equation in the present study have slight temporal variation, especially for the relationship between inherent optical properties (IOPs and concentration of total suspended matter (TSM. The relationship between apparent optical property (AOP (diffuse attenuation coefficient of particle, Kdbio and ISM has been examined as well. The Kdbio is strongly affected by ISM, and correlates to it with linear function. Thedifference between specific diffuse attenuation coefficients of organic [K*dOSM(λ] and inorganic [K*dISM(λ] particles is significant. K*dOSM(λ includes the absorption property of chlorophyll-a (chl-a at 675 nm, which is much higher than that of K*dISM(λ. This indicates that the attenuation ability of OSM is stronger than that of ISM although the Kdbio induced by large concentration of ISM is bigger than the Kdbio induced by small concentration of OSM

  10. Concentration Measurements of Suspended Load using ADV with Influence of the Particle Size (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula


    ADV backscatter data can be used under certain conditions to gain information about the concentrations of suspended loads. This was shown in many studies before (Fugate and Friedrichs 2002; Chanson et al 2008; Ha et al. 2009). This paper reports on a pre-study to investigate the influence of particle size on concentration measurements for suspended sediment load with ADV. The study was conducted in a flume in the Oskar-von-Miller-Institute using fresh water from a river including the natural suspended load. The ADV used in the experiments was a Vectrino Profiler (Nortek). In addition water samples were taken for TSS and TOC. For the measurements a surge was generated in the flume to ensure that also particles of larger size will be present in the water phase. The measurements and samples were taken during the whole surge event. Therefore we were able to find a good correlation between the backscatter data of the ADV and the TSS as well as TOC results. For the decreasing part of the flow event the concentration of TOC in the suspended load of the water phase is decreasing much slower than the TSS and results in a damped decrease of the backscatter values. This means that the results for concentration measurements might be slightly influenced by the size of the particles. Further evaluations of measurements conducted with a LISST SL (Sequoia) will be investigated to show the trend of the particle sizes during this process and fortify this result. David C. Fugate, Carl T. Friedrichs, Determining concentration and fall velocity of estuarine particle populations using ADV, OBS and LISST, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 22, Issues 11-13, 2002 H.K. Ha, W.-Y. Hsu, J.P.-Y. Maa, Y.Y. Shao, C.W. Holland, Using ADV backscatter strength for measuring suspended cohesive sediment concentration, Continental Shelf Research, Volume 29, Issue 10, 2009 Hubert Chanson, Maiko Takeuchi, Mark Trevethan, Using turbidity and acoustic backscatter intensity as surrogate measures of

  11. Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis. (United States)

    Pan, Y; Birngruber, R; Rosperich, J; Engelhardt, R


    On the basis of white-light interferometry and statistical optics, a theoretical model for low-coherence optical tomography is presented that establishes the relation of interference modulation with path-length-resolved reflectance and that can provide analytical expressions and numerical solutions by means of a Fourier transform. The Monte Carlo technique is used to simulate the path-length-resolved reflectance from different multilayer tissue phantoms. Theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results suggest that, unlike time-resolved spectroscopy, low-coherence optical tomography detects the local relative variations of path-length-resolved reflectance from the turbid tissues.

  12. Mapping total suspended matter from geostationary satellites: a feasibility study with SEVIRI in the Southern North Sea. (United States)

    Neukermans, Griet; Ruddick, Kevin; Bernard, Emilien; Ramon, Didier; Nechad, Bouchra; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves


    Geostationary ocean colour sensors have not yet been launched into space, but are under consideration by a number of space agencies. This study provides a proof of concept for mapping of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in turbid coastal waters from geostationary platforms with the existing SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) meteorological sensor on the METEOSAT Second Generation platform. Data are available in near real time every 15 minutes. SEVIRI lacks sufficient bands for chlorophyll remote sensing but its spectral resolution is sufficient for quantification of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in turbid waters, using a single broad red band, combined with a suitable near infrared band. A test data set for mapping of TSM in the Southern North Sea was obtained covering 35 consecutive days from June 28 until July 31 2006. Atmospheric correction of SEVIRI images includes corrections for Rayleigh and aerosol scattering, absorption by atmospheric gases and atmospheric transmittances. The aerosol correction uses assumptions on the ratio of marine reflectances and aerosol reflectances in the red and near-infrared bands. A single band TSM retrieval algorithm, calibrated by non-linear regression of seaborne measurements of TSM and marine reflectance was applied. The effect of the above assumptions on the uncertainty of the marine reflectance and TSM products was analysed. Results show that (1) mapping of TSM in the Southern North Sea is feasible with SEVIRI for turbid waters, though with considerable uncertainties in clearer waters, (2) TSM maps are well correlated with TSM maps obtained from MODIS AQUA and (3) during cloud-free days, high frequency dynamics of TSM are detected.

  13. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis


    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70. wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8. emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12. wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2. emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Estuarine Suspended Sediment Dynamics: Observations Derived from over a Decade of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reisinger


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment dynamics of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, a shallow-water wind-driven estuary, were investigated by combining field and satellite measurements of total suspended solids (TSS. An algorithm was developed to transform 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua satellite reflectance data into estimated TSS values. The algorithm was developed using a reflectance ratio regression of MODIS Band 1 (red and Band 3 (green with TSS measurements (n = 54 collected by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for Corpus Christi Bay and other Texas estuaries. The algorithm was validated by independently collected TSS measurements during the period of 2011–2014 with an uncertainty estimate of 13%. The algorithm was applied to the period of 2002–2014 to create a synoptic time series of TSS for Corpus Christi Bay. Potential drivers of long-term variability in suspended sediment were investigated. Median and IQR composites of suspended sediments were generated for seasonal wind regimes. From this analysis it was determined that long-term, spatial patterns of suspended sediment in the estuary are related to wind-wave resuspension during the predominant northerly and prevalent southeasterly seasonal wind regimes. The impact of dredging is also apparent in long-term patterns of Corpus Christi Bay as concentrations of suspended sediments over dredge spoil disposal sites are higher and more variable than surrounding areas, which is most likely due to their less consolidated sediments and shallower depths requiring less wave energy for sediment resuspension. This study highlights the advantage of how long-synoptic time series of TSS can be used to elucidate the major drivers of suspended sediments in estuaries.

  15. Simultaneous Removal of Turbidity and Humic Acid Using Electrocoagulation/Flotation Process in Aqua Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmotaleb Seid-Mohammadi


    Full Text Available In this study, the applicability of the Electrocoagulation/Flotation (ECF process in batch operation was investigated for the simultaneous removal of turbidity and Humic acid (HA using Fe and Al electrodes. The effects of solution pH (3 - 12, electrical potentials (10 - 30 V, initial turbidity concentration (300 - 1200 NTU, and reaction time (10 - 30 minutes with or without HA were investigated in an attempt to achieve higher turbidity removal efficiency. The batch experimental results revealed that with initial turbidity of 300 NTU, at voltage of 30 V, after 30 minutes reaction times, and at pH values of 6 and 8, the ECF process for Fe and Al electrodes removed over 97% and 88% of turbidity, respectively. The percentage of turbidity removal from solution dropped with a decrease in voltages for both electrodes. The results displayed that the Fe-Fe electrode arrangement attained the highest performance for turbidity removal rate. As a result, ECF process was shown to be a very efficient, cost-effective, and promising process for efficient treatment of high turbid water. Regarding HA, the results showed that in ECF process over 67% and 43% of UV254 has been removed for Al and Fe electrodes, respectively at the optimum pH, 30 minutes reaction time and 30 V applied voltage. Thus, it can be considered that Fe and Al are the best electrodes for removing turbidity and HA, respectively.

  16. Comparison of Water Turbidity Removal Efficiencies of Descurainia Sophia Seed Extract and Ferric chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Peyda


    Full Text Available Background Turbidity removal using inorganic coagulants such as iron and aluminum salts in water treatment processes causes environmental and human health concern. Historically, the use of natural coagulant to purify turbid water has been practiced for a long time. Recent research indicates that Descurainia Sophia seed can be effectively used as a natural coagulant to remove water turbidity. Method: In this work, turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract was compared with Ferric chloride. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale. The coagulation experiments were done with kaolin as a model soil to produce turbidity in distilled water. The turbidity removal efficiency of Descurainia Sophia seed extract and Ferric chloride were conducted with jar test apparatus. In all experiments, initial turbidity was kept constant 100(NTU. Optimum combination of independent variables was used to compare two different types of coagulants. Result: The obtained results showed that Ferric chloride could remove 89.75% of the initial turbidity, while in case of Descurainia Sophia this value was 43.13%. The total organic carbon (TOC analysis of the treated water using seed extract showed an increased concentration of TOC equal to 0.99 mg/L. Conclusions: This research has shown that Descurainia Sophia seed extract has an acceptable potential in the coagulation/flocculation process to treat turbid water.

  17. Evaluation of flow regime of turbidity currents entering Dez Reservoir using extended shallow water model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Ivanovich ELFIMOV


    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of the extended shallow water model (ESWM in evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir was investigated. The continuity equations for fluid and particles and the Navier-Stokes equations govern the entire flow of turbidity currents. The shallow water equations governing the flow of the depositing phase of turbidity currents are derived from these equations. A case study was conducted on the flow regime of turbidity currents entering the Dez Reservoir in Iran from January 2002 to July 2003. Facing a serious sedimentation problem, the dead storage of the Dez Reservoir will be full in the coming 10 years, and the inflowing water in the hydropower conduit system is now becoming turbid. Based on the values of the dimensionless friction number ( and dimensionless entrainment number ( of turbidity currents, and the coefficient of determination between the observed and predicted deposit depths (R2 = 0.86 for the flow regime of negligible friction and negligible entrainment (NFNE, the flow regime of turbidity currents coming into the Dez Reservoir is considered to be NFNE. The results suggest that the ESWM is an appropriate approach for evaluation of the flow regime of turbidity currents in dam reservoirs where the characteristics of turbidity currents, such as the deposit depth, must be evaluated.

  18. Developmental plasticity in vision and behavior may help guppies overcome increased turbidity. (United States)

    Ehlman, Sean M; Sandkam, Benjamin A; Breden, Felix; Sih, Andrew


    Increasing turbidity in streams and rivers near human activity is cause for environmental concern, as the ability of aquatic organisms to use visual information declines. To investigate how some organisms might be able to developmentally compensate for increasing turbidity, we reared guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in either clear or turbid water. We assessed the effects of developmental treatments on adult behavior and aspects of the visual system by testing fish from both developmental treatments in turbid and clear water. We found a strong interactive effect of rearing and assay conditions: fish reared in clear water tended to decrease activity in turbid water, whereas fish reared in turbid water tended to increase activity in turbid water. Guppies from all treatments decreased activity when exposed to a predator. To measure plasticity in the visual system, we quantified treatment differences in opsin gene expression of individuals. We detected a shift from mid-wave-sensitive opsins to long wave-sensitive opsins for guppies reared in turbid water. Since long-wavelength sensitivity is important in motion detection, this shift likely allows guppies to salvage motion-detecting abilities when visual information is obscured in turbid water. Our results demonstrate the importance of developmental plasticity in responses of organisms to rapidly changing environments.

  19. Detection limits for nanoparticles in solution with classical turbidity spectra (United States)

    Le Blevennec, G.


    Detection of nanoparticles in solution is required to manage safety and environmental problems. Spectral transmission turbidity method has now been known for a long time. It is derived from the Mie Theory and can be applied to any number of spheres, randomly distributed and separated by large distance compared to wavelength. Here, we describe a method for determination of size, distribution and concentration of nanoparticles in solution using UV-Vis transmission measurements. The method combines Mie and Beer Lambert computation integrated in a best fit approximation. In a first step, a validation of the approach is completed on silver nanoparticles solution. Verification of results is realized with Transmission Electronic Microscopy measurements for size distribution and an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for concentration. In view of the good agreement obtained, a second step of work focuses on how to manage the concentration to be the most accurate on the size distribution. Those efficient conditions are determined by simple computation. As we are dealing with nanoparticles, one of the key points is to know what the size limits reachable are with that kind of approach based on classical electromagnetism. In taking into account the transmission spectrometer accuracy limit we determine for several types of materials, metals, dielectrics, semiconductors the particle size limit detectable by such a turbidity method. These surprising results are situated at the quantum physics frontier.

  20. Effect of algae on flocculation of suspended bed sediments in a large shallow lake. Consequences for ecology and sediment transport processes (United States)

    de Lucas Pardo, Miguel Angel; Sarpe, Dirk; Winterwerp, Johan Christian


    Lake Markermeer, a large shallow lake in The Netherlands, suffers from turbidity and ecology problems. As part of a study aiming to mitigate these problems, we study flocculation processes in the lake; in particular, the possible mutual flocculation between algae and re-suspended bed sediments. We show that sediment re-suspended from the bed of the lake can flocculate, forming flocs for which size is a function of the turbulence level in the water column. Moreover, we also demonstrate that algae and re-suspended bed sediments can mutually flocculate, yielding organic-inorganic aggregates. These aggregates have different features to those of their individual components, some of which have been measured and characterized in this paper. Furthermore, the characteristics of the resulting organic-inorganic flocs are strongly influenced by the type of algae in the aggregate. We found that, in the case of flocs consisting of bed sediments and filamentous algae, flocculation yields smaller flocs than for bed sediments only, resulting in an increased turbidity in the water column. In the case of flocs consisting of bed sediments and colonial algae, flocs grow faster and become larger than bed sediment flocs, which may result in the depletion of most colonies from the water column.

  1. Turbidity interferes with foraging success of visual but not chemosensory predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Lunt


    Full Text Available Predation can significantly affect prey populations and communities, but predator effects can be attenuated when abiotic conditions interfere with foraging activities. In estuarine communities, turbidity can affect species richness and abundance and is changing in many areas because of coastal development. Many fish species are less efficient foragers in turbid waters, and previous research revealed that in elevated turbidity, fish are less abundant whereas crabs and shrimp are more abundant. We hypothesized that turbidity altered predatory interactions in estuaries by interfering with visually-foraging predators and prey but not with organisms relying on chemoreception. We measured the effects of turbidity on the predation rates of two model predators: a visual predator (pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides and a chemosensory predator (blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus in clear and turbid water (0 and ∼100 nephelometric turbidity units. Feeding assays were conducted with two prey items, mud crabs (Panopeus spp. that rely heavily on chemoreception to detect predators, and brown shrimp (Farfantepenaus aztecus that use both chemical and visual cues for predator detection. Because turbidity reduced pinfish foraging on both mud crabs and shrimp, the changes in predation rates are likely driven by turbidity attenuating fish foraging ability and not by affecting prey vulnerability to fish consumers. Blue crab foraging was unaffected by turbidity, and blue crabs were able to successfully consume nearly all mud crab and shrimp prey. Turbidity can influence predator–prey interactions by reducing the feeding efficiency of visual predators, providing a competitive advantage to chemosensory predators, and altering top-down control in food webs.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D A Barros; B M Silva; R A Silva; J A A Pereira; L A C Borges; E L Pereira; G O Nascimento


    ... area of mining projects. For the parameters pH, color, turbidity and settle able solids, no significant difference between the studied periods, by other hand for suspended solids and total solids was significant difference...

  3. 9 CFR 201.81 - Suspended registrants. (United States)


    ... 201.81 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.81 Suspended registrants. No stockyard owner, packer, market agency, or dealer shall employ...

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse


    experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  5. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system. KEY WORDS: Environmental toxicology, Suspended particulate matter, Dust analysis, Hematological indices, Wister albino rats. Bull.

  6. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    face area, shape, minerals and source) and conse- quent interaction with heavy metal concentrations. (HMCs). Recent studies have shown a growing awareness of the wider environmental significance of the suspended sediment loads transported by rivers and streams. This includes the importance of fine grain sediment in ...

  7. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust) samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological ...

  8. A depth integrated model for suspended transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galappatti, R.


    A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and

  9. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.


    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  10. Flow Laminarization and Acceleration by Suspended Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, M.; Hulshof, J.; Prostokishin, V.M.


    In [Comm. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., 4(2009), pp. 153-175], Barenblatt presents a model for partial laminarization and acceleration of shear flows by the presence of suspended particles of different sizes, and provides a formal asymptotic analysis of the resulting velocity equation. In the present

  11. Emulsifying and Suspending Properties of Enterolobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The thermodynamic instability of emulsions and suspensions necessitate the incorporation of emulsifiers and suspending agents respectively, in order to stabilize the formulations and ensure administration of accurate doses. Objective:Enterolobium cyclocarpum gum was characterized and evaluated for its ...

  12. Speckle-Free Coherence Tomography of Turbid Media

    CERN Document Server

    Liba, Orly; SoRelle, Elliott D; Dutta, Rebecca; Sen, Debasish; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Chu, Steven; de la Zerda, Adam


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful biomedical imaging technology that relies on the coherent detection of backscattered light to image tissue morphology in vivo. As a consequence, OCT is susceptible to coherent noise (speckle noise), which imposes significant limitations on its diagnostic capabilities. Here we show a method based purely on light manipulation that is able to entirely remove the speckle noise originating from turbid samples without any compromise in resolution. We refer to this method as Speckle-Free OCT (SFOCT). Using SFOCT, we succeeded in revealing small structures that are otherwise hidden by speckle noise when using conventional OCT, including the inner stromal structure of a live mouse cornea, the fine structures inside the mouse pinna, sweat ducts, and Meissners corpuscle in the human fingertip skin. SFOCT has the potential to markedly increase OCTs diagnostic capabilities of various human diseases by revealing minute features that correlate with early pathology.

  13. Influence of Salinity on the Coastal Turbidity Maximum in the Southern Bight of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D.; Vanlede, J.D.S.M.; de Maerschalck, B


    In the Southern Bight of the North Sea, a Coastal Turbidity Maximum (CTM) can be observed in the Belgian coastal area around the port of Zeebrugge. Understanding the dynamics of this turbidity maximum is of great importance in coastal zone management. Our research studies the CTM with a numerical

  14. Determination of Residual Chlorine and Turbidity in Drinking Water. Student Manual. (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This student's manual covers analytical methods for residual chlorine and turbidity. Topics include sample handling, permissable concentration levels, substitution of residual chlorine for bacteriological work, public notification, and the required analytical techniques to determine residual chlorine and turbidity. The publication is intended for…

  15. Determination of Residual Chlorine and Turbidity in Drinking Water. Instructor's Manual. (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This instructor's guide presents analytical methods for residual chlorine and turbidity. Topics include sample handling, permissable concentration levels, substitution of residual chlorine for bacteriological work, public notification, and the required analytical techniques to determine residual chlorine and turbidity. This publication is intended…

  16. MassFLOW-3D as a simulation tool for turbidity currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basani, Riccardo; Janocko, Michal; Cartigny, Matthieu J.B.; Hansen, Ernst W.M.; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.


    Turbidity currents are the most important mechanism for the dispersal and deposition of sand in the deep-sea setting and thus the main phenomenon leading to the formation of oil and gas reservoirs in deep water deposits. The flow characteristics of turbidity currents are difficult to observe and

  17. Estimation of serum hyaluronidase activity overcoming the turbidity interference. (United States)

    Nagaraju, Shivaiah; Girish, K Subbaiah; Pan, Yi; Easely, Kirk A; Kemparaju, Kempaiah


    The assay of mammalian hyaluronidases (HAases) is important in understanding the role of the hyaluronan-hyaluronidase (HA-HAase) system in various pathophysiological processes. Despite several quantitative assay method options, the Morgan-Elson colorimetric method modified by Reissig et al is considered the best for determining the activity in clinical samples. However, the sensitivity of the method was greatly limited by presence of protein above 400 microg due to turbidity interference that led to chromogen quenching. Therefore, an effort has been made to reinvestigate the Reissig et al method. In the reinvestigated method, a standardized optimal 0.32 M potassium tetraborate (PTB) was used against 0.13 M (native) to overcome the turbidity interference. The estimated mean OD at 585 nm of serum for native method was 0.043 (95% CI: 0.040 to 0.045), while that for the re-investigated method was 0.138 (95% CI: 0.133 to 0.143, p < 0.0001). The mean OD at 585 nm of serum of native method was significantly lower than that of re-investigated method (p < 0.05) at all protein levels. This was also true for estimated mean OD at 585 nm of plasma. The mean intrasample CVs for native and re-investigated methods were 0.9% and 0.5%, respectively, for normal serum. Furthermore, the repeatability coefficient of normal serum for native was 0.003 IU, while re-investigated method experienced that of 0.002 IU.

  18. Environmental conditions and intraspecific interference: unexpected effects of turbidity on pike (Esox lucius) foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P.A.; Jacobsen, Lene; Berg, Søren


    Interference among predators decreases per capita foraging rates and has implications for both community dynamics and top-down trophic processes. Interference originates from behavioural interactions among foragers, and these behaviours could be affected by environmental conditions. In experiment...... on community dynamics and its reduction of predation impact on top-down trophic cascades should consider potential unexpected effects of environmental conditions....... on pike foraging alone or among conspecifics in different levels of water turbidity, we expected high turbidity to decrease the perceived risk of intraspecific interactions among pike, and thereby decrease the strength of interference, as turbidity would decrease the visual contact between individuals......, indicating no effect of interference. As high turbidity enhances prey consumption for pike individuals foraging alone, but does not have this effect for pike in groups, high turbidity induces the relative interference effect. We suggest that future evaluations of the stabilizing effects of interference...

  19. Remote sensing of diffuse attenuation coefficient patterns from Landsat 8 OLI imagery of turbid inland waters: A case study of Dongting Lake. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhubin; Ren, Jingli; Li, Yunmei; Huang, Chuangchun; Liu, Ge; Du, Chenggong; Lyu, Heng


    The diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd(λ), is an important optical property. Environmental change and anthropogenic activities, however, have made it challenging to accurately assess Kd(λ) patterns in the extremely turbid inland waters. We addressed this challenge by using new Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) imagery. For the bio-optical complexity of water, we proposed an empirical band-ratio algorithm for estimating Kd(490) using our in situ measurements. Based on the acceptable performance of an OLI image-based atmospheric correction and Kd(490) validation, the algorithm was then applied to OLI images to estimate Kd(490) patterns from April 2013 to April 2016, leading to several key findings: (1) Spatial-temporal patterns of Kd(490) varied significantly in Dongting Lake. The temporal heterogeneity of Kd(490) could be explained primarily by surface-runoff changes driven by regional precipitation. The spatial heterogeneity was due to sediment resuspension, resulting from sand dredging and shipping activities; (2) Kd(490) values that were inversed at the intersection of Dongting Lake and Yangtze River were observed for the first time near the Chengliji site and resulted from the opposing temporal cycle of Kd(490) variations between Dongting Lake and the Yangtze River; (3) There was a significant positive correlation between Kd(490) and total suspended matter (TSM). This confirms that TSM often plays a principal role in the attenuation of light in extremely turbid water bodies; (4) The empirical band-ratio algorithm worked well, not only for the broader Landsat archives, but also for the narrower Sentinel-2/3 for Kd(490) estimation, which demonstrates that the algorithm could be used to quantitatively monitor multi-decade records of Landsat observations and future applications of inland water quality in turbid inland waters, such as Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Migration of Leachate from Uncollected Solid Waste Dumpsite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TDS, total hardness, conductivity, turbidity, COD and nitrates concentration were found to decrease with an increase in depth while alkalinity, chlorides, pH and DO were found to increase as depth increased. Keywords: Leachate, pollution, solid waste. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol. 5 (1) 2008: pp.

  1. Change in field turbidity and trace element concentrations during well purging (United States)

    Gibs, J.; Szabo, Z.; Ivahnenko, T.; Wilde, F.D.


    Various physical and chemical properties were monitored sequentially in the field during well purging as indicators of stabilization of the composition of the water in the well. Turbidity was monitored on site during purging of oxic water from three wells with screened intervals open to an unconfined aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of southern New Jersey to determine if stabilization of turbidity is a reliable indicator of the optimum purge time required to collect unbiased trace element samples. Concurrent split (one filtered, one unfiltered) samples collected during purging of the wells were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements so that the relationships between trace element concentrations and turbidity could be compared. Turbidity correlated with the whole water recoverable (WWR) concentration of trace element species, such as iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) in the oxic ground water. Turbidity appeared to be independent of other field-measured characteristics of water such as conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The WWR concentrations of lead and copper, considered to be hydrophobic, correlated significantly with the sum of the WWR concentration of Fe, Al, and Mn. High values of field-measured turbidity were a key indicator of an overestimate of ambient hydrophobic trace element WWR concentrations. Stabilization of turbidity was a better indicator of stable, unfiltered trace element concentrations than were the other commonly measured field characteristics. At one well, turbidity was a better indicator of stable, filtered trace element concentrations than the other commonly measured field characteristics. As analytical methods for trace elements improve resulting in smaller MRLs (method reporting levels) and better precision, turbidity of ground water at values of less than 10 NTU (nepheiometric turbidity units) will become important in interpreting the significance of both unfiltered and filtered sample results.

  2. Modeling of Turbidity Variation in Two Reservoirs Connected by a Water Transfer Tunnel in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Chung Park


    Full Text Available The Andong and Imha reservoirs in South Korea are connected by a water transfer tunnel. The turbidity of the Imha reservoir is much higher than that of the Andong reservoir. Thus, it is necessary to examine the movement of turbidity between the two reservoirs via the water transfer tunnel. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the water transfer tunnel on the turbidity behavior of the two connecting reservoirs and to further understand the effect of reservoir turbidity distribution as a function of the selective withdrawal depth. This study applied the CE-QUAL-W2, a water quality and 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model, for simulating the hydrodynamic processes of the two reservoirs. Results indicate that, in the Andong reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was similar to that without the tunnel. However, in the Imha reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was lower than that without the tunnel. This can be attributed to the higher capacity of the Andong reservoir, which has double the storage of the Imha reservoir. Withdrawal turbidity in the Imha reservoir was investigated using the water transfer tunnel. This study applied three withdrawal selections as elevation (EL. 141.0 m, 146.5 m, and 152.0 m. The highest withdrawal turbidity resulted in EL. 141.0 m, which indicates that the high turbidity current is located at a vertical depth of about 20–30 m because of the density difference. These results will be helpful for understanding the release and selective withdrawal turbidity behaviors for a water transfer tunnel between two reservoirs.

  3. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.

    Energy components of suspended matter included phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus inclusive of microorganisms adsorbed to detritus. Of these, detritus contributed most of the energy (98%). The average caloric content of suspended detritus...

  4. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  5. Estimated suspended-sediment loads and yields in the French and Brandywine Creek Basins, Chester County, Pennsylvania, water years 2008-09 (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Olson, Leif E.


    Turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at four stream stations--French Creek near Phoenixville, West Branch Brandywine Creek near Honey Brook, West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, and East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown--in Chester County, Pa. Sedimentation and siltation is the leading cause of stream impairment in Chester County, and these data are critical for quantifying sediment transport. This study was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority and the Chester County Health Department. Data from optical turbidity sensors deployed at the four stations were recorded at 15- or 30-minute intervals by a data logger and uploaded every 1 to 4 hours to the USGS database. Most of the suspended-sediment samples were collected using automated samplers. The use of optical sensors to continuously monitor turbidity provided an accurate estimate of sediment fluctuations without the collection and analysis costs associated with intensive sampling during storms. Turbidity was used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), which is a measure of sedimentation and siltation. Regression models were developed between SSC and turbidity for each of the monitoring stations using SSC data collected from the automated samplers and turbidity data collected at each station. Instantaneous suspended-sediment loads (SSL) were computed from time-series turbidity and discharge data for the 2008 and 2009 water years using the regression equations. The instantaneous computations of SSL were summed to provide daily, storm, and water year annual loads. The annual SSL contributed from each basin was divided by the upstream drainage area to estimate the annual sediment yield. For all four basins, storms provided more than 96 percent of the annual SSL. In each basin, four storms generally provided over half the annual SSL each water year. Stormflows with the

  6. Estimating total suspended sediment yield with probability sampling (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas


    The ""Selection At List Time"" (SALT) scheme controls sampling of concentration for estimating total suspended sediment yield. The probability of taking a sample is proportional to its estimated contribution to total suspended sediment discharge. This procedure gives unbiased estimates of total suspended sediment yield and the variance of the...

  7. An investigation of spatial variation of suspended sediment concentration induced by a bay bridge based on Landsat TM and OLI data (United States)

    Cai, LiNa; Tang, DanLing; Li, CongYing


    This study investigates the spatial variation of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) induced by Hangzhou Bay Bridge (HBB) in the coastal waters of the East China Sea. Based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Operational Land Imager (OLI) data and in-situ measurements, spectral characteristics of waters in Hangzhou Bay and SSC retrieved from near infrared single band have been analyzed. The results revealed significant difference of SSC in the water on two sides of HBB. SSC increases downstream of the bridge under conditions of low turbidity (SSC 400 mg l-1) upstream. This study shows that the interaction of bridge piers and currents has important influences on SSC distribution by inducing hydrodynamic factors and by changing suspended sediment transport. Remotely sensed data with high spatial resolution as TM and OLI can be applied to investigate SSC variations induced by a bridge in the bay area.

  8. 3D CFD simulations of trailing suction hopper dredger plume mixing: a parameter study of near-field conditions influencing the suspended sediment source flux. (United States)

    de Wit, Lynyrd; Talmon, A M; van Rhee, C


    Frequency, duration and intensity of stresses like turbidity and sedimentation caused by dredging must be known to determine the environmental impact of dredging projects. These stresses depend on the amount of sediment spill from a dredger and on how much of this spill still is in suspension near environmentally sensitive areas. Near-field mixing close to a dredger influences the deposition behaviour of the sediment spill. This is investigated systematically with computational fluid dynamics simulations for 136 different conditions of trailing suction hopper dredger overflow sediment plume mixing. Most important influences are found for the ambient depth and the crossflow velocity (vector sum of the dredging speed and the ambient velocity), which can result in a completely different suspended sediment source flux behind the dredger. The simulation results are translated into mathematical relations to predict the suspended sediment source flux without computational effort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optomechanics for thermal characterization of suspended graphene (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J.; Houri, Samer; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J.; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steeneken, Peter G.


    The thermal response of graphene is expected to be extremely fast due to its low heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal response of suspended single-layer graphene membranes is investigated by characterization of their mechanical motion in response to a high-frequency modulated laser. A characteristic delay time τ between the optical intensity and mechanical motion is observed, which is attributed to the time required to raise the temperature of the membrane. We find, however, that the measured time constants are significantly larger than the predicted ones based on values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity. In order to explain the discrepancy between measured and modeled τ , a model is proposed that takes a thermal boundary resistance at the edge of the graphene drum into account. The measurements provide a noninvasive way to characterize thermal properties of suspended atomically thin membranes, providing information that can be hard to obtain by other means.

  10. Spatial and temporal dynamics of suspended particle characteristics and composition in Navigation Pool 19 of the Upper Mississippi River (United States)

    Milde, Amanda S.


    Suspended particles are an essential component of large rivers influencing channel geomorphology, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, and food web resources. The Upper Mississippi River (UMR) is a large floodplain river that exhibits pronounced spatiotemporal variation in environmental conditions and biota, providing an ideal environment for investigating dynamics of suspended particles in large river ecosystems. Here we investigated two questions: (1) How do suspended particle characteristics (e.g., size and morphology) vary temporally and spatially? and (2) What environmental variables have the strongest association with particle characteristics? Water sampling was conducted in June, August, and September of 2013 and 2014 in Navigation Pool 19 of the UMR. A FlowCAM particle imaging system was used to enumerate and measure particles 53–300 µm in diameter for size and shape characteristics (e.g., volume, elongation, and symmetry). Suspended particle characteristics varied considerably over space and time and were strongly associated with discharge and concentrations of nitrate + nitrite (NO3-) and soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP). Particle characteristics in backwaters were distinct from those in other habitats for most of the study period, likely due to reduced hydrologic connectivity and higher biotic production in backwaters. During low discharge, phytoplankton and zooplankton made up relatively greater proportions of the observed particles. Concurrently during low discharge, concentrations of chlorophyll, volatile suspended solids, and total phosphorous were higher. Our results suggest that there are complex interactions among space, time, discharge, and other environmental variables (e.g. water nutrients) which drive suspended particle dynamics in large rivers.

  11. Measurements of near-bottom stress and turbidity in the Gulf of Trieste during the passage of vessels (United States)

    Malacic, Vlado


    The Gulf of Trieste (GT) is a semi-enclosed 20 x 20 km gulf in the northernmost part of the Adriatic Sea with depths that reach 24 m at the most. Sediments in the southern (Slovenian) side of GT inside the shallow Bay of Koper, where measurements of near-bottom stress took place, are composed primarily of clayey silt (2-63 um). The observation of currents and turbidity took place inside the Bay of Koper at a location inside the shipping route, where the bottom depth is around 19 m. The goal of measurements was to study the bottom erosion due to changes to flow fields by ship movements (and due to propeller wakes). High-frequency measurements of currents and turbulence near the sea bottom were conducted with two Vector instruments (Nortek AS) with pressure sensors in the interval 123-31 July 2013, mounted at heights 0.2 m and 1.3 m above the sea bottom. Turbidity was measured with the same frequency with Seapoint IR (880 nm) turbidimeters placed at the same heights. In addition, turbidity was measured also with the 'old' Minitracka II instrument of Chelsea Instruments that functioned at 470 nm. 10 s averages of 1 s measurements were recorded. When the voltage output of this instrument surpassed the chosen threshold value (e.g. 2 V out of 5 V range) the triggering signal was sent to start measurements of the size distribution of suspended sediments and their falling speeds with the laser in-situ scattering and transmissometery (LISST-STX). In the interval 7-19 November 2013 currents over the whole water column with vertical resolution of 0.5 m have been also surveyed with the 1 MHz ADCP instrument (Nortek AS) with a sampling frequency of 1/s, where 10 s averages were recorded. It appears that pure ship's dislocation of a mass of fluid, which may easily surpass 105 tons, is important in the erosion of the bottom. We have confirmed this by velocity and stress peaks near the sea-floor in the Bay of Koper that were frequently accompanied by peaks of turbidity during

  12. Chlorophyll a and turbidity patterns over coral reefs systems of La Parguera Natural Reserve,Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Otero


    Full Text Available Studies of temporal and spatial changes in phytoplankton biomass and turbidity provide essential information on coral reef ecosystem function and health.Fluctuation of phytoplankton biomass responds to several factors including nutrient inputs,both anthropogenic and natural,while turbidity is mostly affected by sediment resuspension or transport from terrestrial systems.These parameters can be used as sentinels of significant environmental factors "modifying "coral reef systems.A chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a and turbidity (Turbin situ logger was installed at 10 stations from June 4 to July 7,2003 in La Parguera Natural Reserve (Southwestern Puerto Ricoto assess short-term temporal and geographic variation in patterns of phytoplankton biomass and turbidity at pre-selected sites as part of an interdisciplinary long-term study.Average station Chl a variation was 0.17-1.12 µg l -1 and 0.2-23.4 NTU for Turb.Results indicate that the western near-coastal stations had higher levels of Turb and Chl a .The easternmost mid shelf station,Romero reef,was similar to coastal stations probably due to nutrient and suspended sediment inputs from a source external to our study area to the east,Guánica Bay.Comparisons between different sampling days indicate significant differences between days for most stations suggesting that one-time discrete sampling may not be representative of average water column conditions and illustrate the dynamic nature of coral reef systems.Further work is warranted to assess seasonal changes that integrate short-term (dailyvariability in both Turb and Chl a .Los estudios sobre cambios temporales y espaciales de biomasa fitoplanctónica y de urbidad, proveen información esencial sobre la función y salud de los sistemas arrecifales.Fluctuaciones de la biomasa de fitoplancton responden a factores como entradas de nutrientes de fuentes antropogénicas y/o naturales,mientras que la turbidez responde mayormente a la resuspensi

  13. Remoção de sólidos em suspensão na água residuária da despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro em filtros constituídos por pergaminho de grãos de café submetido a compressões Removal of suspended solids in the wastewater of the coffee shrub cherry pulping by filters constituted by parchment of the coffee beans subjected to compressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos


    Full Text Available A remoção de sólidos em suspensão é fundamental para que se possa aplicar a água residuária gerada na despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro (ARC na fertirrigação de culturas agrícolas. Dentre as opções disponíveis para efetuar a remoção de SS da ARC, está o uso de filtros orgânicos. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do grau de compressão na redução do volume e na eficiência do pergaminho, utilizado como material filtrante, na remoção de sólidos em suspensão (SS na ARC. Numa primeira etapa, foram realizados ensaios nos quais corpos-de-prova de pergaminho triturado (retido entre as peneiras de 2,5 e 3 mm e não-triturado (na condição em que é produzido foram submetidos a diferentes compressões para a redução do volume das colunas filtrantes em 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 e 28%. Numa segunda etapa, os corpos-de-prova foram utilizados como material filtrante da ARC para a avaliação da sua capacidade de remoção de SS presentes nessa água residuária. O pergaminho triturado ofereceu maior resistência à compressão e proporcionou, para as mesmas reduções volumétricas no material filtrante, maior eficiência na remoção de SS da ARC do que o pergaminho não-triturado. Reduções na faixa de 10% a 15% no volume do filtro constituído por pergaminho triturado foram suficientes para obter satisfatórias eficiências na remoção de SS da ARC, enquanto, para filtros constituídos de pergaminho não-triturado, as reduções de volume devem ser superiores a 25%.The removal of suspended solids (SS is fundamental to apply the wastewater from the coffee shrub cherry pulping (ARC on agricultural crops fertigation. Among the available options for the removal of SS from ARC is the use of organic filters. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the compression degree on either volume reduction or parchment efficiency, when used as medium filter for the removal of suspended solids (SS in

  14. An alternative cost-effective image processing based sensor for continuous turbidity monitoring (United States)

    Chai, Matthew Min Enn; Ng, Sing Muk; Chua, Hong Siang


    Turbidity is the degree to which the optical clarity of water is reduced by impurities in the water. High turbidity values in rivers and lakes promote the growth of pathogen, reduce dissolved oxygen levels and reduce light penetration. The conventional ways of on-site turbidity measurements involve the use of optical sensors similar to those used in commercial turbidimeters. However, these instruments require frequent maintenance due to biological fouling on the sensors. Thus, image processing was proposed as an alternative technique for continuous turbidity measurement to reduce frequency of maintenance. The camera was kept out of water to avoid biofouling while other parts of the system submerged in water can be coated with anti-fouling surface. The setup developed consisting of a webcam, a light source, a microprocessor and a motor used to control the depth of a reference object. The image processing algorithm quantifies the relationship between the number of circles detected on the reference object and the depth of the reference object. By relating the quantified data to turbidity, the setup was able to detect turbidity levels from 20 NTU to 380 NTU with measurement error of 15.7 percent. The repeatability and sensitivity of the turbidity measurement was found to be satisfactory.

  15. Photoacclimation supports environmental tolerance of a sponge to turbid low-light conditions (United States)

    Biggerstaff, A.; Smith, D. J.; Jompa, J.; Bell, J. J.


    Changes to coral reefs are occurring worldwide, often resulting in declining environmental quality which can be in the form of higher sedimentation rates and increased turbidity. While environmental acclimation to turbid and low-light conditions has been extensively studied in corals, far less is known about other phototrophic reef invertebrates. The photosynthetic cyanobacteria containing sponge Lamellodysidea herbacea is one of the most abundant sponges in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP, Indonesia), and its abundance is greatest at highly disturbed, turbid sites. This study investigated photoacclimation of L. herbacea symbionts to turbid reef sites using in situ PAM fluorometry combined with shading and transplant experiments at environmental extremes of light availability for this species. We found in situ photoacclimation of L. herbacea to both shallow, clear, high-light environments and deep, turbid, low-light environments. Shading experiments provide some evidence that L. herbacea are dependent on nutrition from their photosymbionts as significant tissue loss was seen in shaded sponges. Symbionts within surviving shaded tissue showed evidence of photoacclimation. Lamellodysidea herbacea transplanted from high- to low-light conditions appeared to have photoacclimated within 5 d with no significant effect of the lowered light level on survival. This ability of L. herbacea to photoacclimate to rapid and extreme changes in light availability may be one of the factors contributing to their survival on more turbid reef sites in the WMNP. Our study highlights the ability of some sponge species to acclimate to changes in light levels as a result of increased turbidity.

  16. Treatment of water turbidity and bacteria by using a coagulant extracted from Plantago ovata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Ramavandi


    Full Text Available A biocoagulant was successfully extracted from Plantago ovata by using an FeCl3-induced crude extract (FCE. The potential of FCE to act as a natural coagulant was tested for clarification using the turbid water of a river. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the effects of turbidity concentration, coagulant quantity, water pH, and humic acid concentration on the coagulation of water turbidity by FCE. The maximum turbidity removal was occurred at water pH<8. At the optimum dosage of FCE, only 0.8 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon was released to the treated water. An increase in the humic acid led to the promotion of the water turbidity removal. Results demonstrated that the FCE removed more than 95.6% of all initial turbidity concentrations (50–300 NTU. High bacteriological quality was achieved in the treated water. FCE as an eco-friendly biocoagulant was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant for removing turbidity from waters.

  17. Turbidity Currents, Submarine Landslides and the 2006 Pingtung Earthquake off SW Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Hsu


    Full Text Available Submarine landslides or slumps may generate turbidity currents consisting of mixture of sediment and water. Large and fast-moving turbidity currents can incise and erode continental margins and cause damage to artificial structures such as telecommunication cables on the seafloor. In this study, we report that eleven submarine cables across the Kaoping canyon and Manila trench were broken in sequence from 1500 to 4000 m deep, as a consequence of submarine landslides and turbidity currents associated with the 2006 Pingtung earthquakes offshore SW Taiwan. We have established a full-scale scenario and calculation of the turbidity currents along the Kaoping canyon channel from the middle continental slope to the adjacent deep ocean. Our results show that turbidity current velocities vary downstream ranging from 20 to 3.7 and 5.7 m/s, which demonstrates a positive relationship between turbidity current velocity and bathymetric slope. The violent cable failures happened in this case evidenced the destructive power of the turbidity current to seafloor or underwater facilities that should not be underestimated.

  18. Newly recognized turbidity current structure can explain prolonged flushing of submarine canyons. (United States)

    Azpiroz-Zabala, Maria; Cartigny, Matthieu J B; Talling, Peter J; Parsons, Daniel R; Sumner, Esther J; Clare, Michael A; Simmons, Stephen M; Cooper, Cortis; Pope, Ed L


    Seabed-hugging flows called turbidity currents are the volumetrically most important process transporting sediment across our planet and form its largest sediment accumulations. We seek to understand the internal structure and behavior of turbidity currents by reanalyzing the most detailed direct measurements yet of velocities and densities within oceanic turbidity currents, obtained from weeklong flows in the Congo Canyon. We provide a new model for turbidity current structure that can explain why these are far more prolonged than all previously monitored oceanic turbidity currents, which lasted for only hours or minutes at other locations. The observed Congo Canyon flows consist of a short-lived zone of fast and dense fluid at their front, which outruns the slower moving body of the flow. We propose that the sustained duration of these turbidity currents results from flow stretching and that this stretching is characteristic of mud-rich turbidity current systems. The lack of stretching in previously monitored flows is attributed to coarser sediment that settles out from the body more rapidly. These prolonged seafloor flows rival the discharge of the Congo River and carry ~2% of the terrestrial organic carbon buried globally in the oceans each year through a single submarine canyon. Thus, this new structure explains sustained flushing of globally important amounts of sediment, organic carbon, nutrients, and fresh water into the deep ocean.

  19. Point-of-use chlorination of turbid water: results from a field study in Tanzania. (United States)

    Mohamed, Hussein; Brown, Joe; Njee, Robert M; Clasen, Thomas; Malebo, Hamisi M; Mbuligwe, Steven


    Household-based chlorine disinfection is widely effective against waterborne bacteria and viruses, and may be among the most inexpensive and accessible options for household water treatment. The microbiological effectiveness of chlorine is limited, however, by turbidity. In Tanzania, there are no guidelines on water chlorination at household level, and limited data on whether dosing guidelines for higher turbidity waters are sufficient to produce potable water. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of chlorination across a range of turbidities found in rural water sources, following local dosing guidelines that recommend a 'double dose' for water that is visibly turbid. We chlorinated water from 43 sources representing a range of turbidities using two locally available chlorine-based disinfectants: WaterGuard and Aquatabs. We determined free available chlorine at 30 min and 24 h contact time. Our data suggest that water chlorination with WaterGuard or Aquatabs can be effective using both single and double doses up to 20 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), or using a double dose of Aquatabs up to 100 NTU, but neither was effective at turbidities greater than 100 NTU.

  20. Trapping effect of estuarine turbidity maximum on particulate organic carbon and its response to a typhoon event in a macro-tidal estuary (United States)

    Wang, Aijun; Ye, Xiang; Cheng, Peng; Wang, Liang


    Estuaries are key nodes of land-ocean interaction, the associated suspended sediment processes being crucial for global and regional material fluxes and environmental health. Within estuaries, there is commonly a reach where the water turbidity is markedly higher than both landward and seaward. This elevated suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is termed the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM). The ETM has important influences on harbor siltation, ecological conservation, and biogeochemical dynamics. Jiulongjiang estuary is a small macro-tidal estuary in southeast China coastal area, which is a typical example for estuarine ecosystem conservation and its response to catchment management. Observed results show that the tidal current is the main factor which control the variations of SSC in ETM under the normal condition. However, under the influence of typhoon event, the hydrodynamic action was strengthened and the salt water intrusion was also enhanced, and the fresh water and sediment discharged from river system increased, which led to the complicated variations of the ETM. Under the normal conditions, the maximum width of ETM was about 10 km in spring tide. However, before typhoon landed, the maximum width of the ETM was about 14 km; after the typhoon landed, the maximum width of the ETM was more than 20 km, and during the low tide stage, the width of the ETM was still 19 km which was induced by high turbidity water input from river system. The particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration reached 19.26 mg/L within the ETM at the next day after typhoon landed, which was much higher than that under normal weather condition (the maximum value was only 3.15 mg/L). During the low tide level, the POC concentration increased remarkably from upstream to the core of ETM and then decreased toward downstream, while the POC concentration decreased toward downstream during high tide level. Compared with normal weather condition, the POC concentration varied not obviously


    Tinker, Sarah C.; Moe, Christine L.; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W. Dana; Uber, Jim; Amirtharajah, Appiah; Singer, Philip; Tolbert, Paige E.


    Background The extent to which drinking water turbidity measurements indicate the risk of gastrointestinal illness is not well-understood. Despite major advances in drinking water treatment and delivery, infectious disease can still be transmitted through drinking water in the U.S., and it is important to have reliable indicators of microbial water quality to inform public health decisions. The objective of our study was to assess the relationship between gastrointestinal illness, quantified through emergency department visits, and drinking water quality, quantified as raw water and filtered water turbidity measured at the treatment plant. Methods We examined the relationship between turbidity levels of raw and filtered surface water measured at eight major drinking water treatment plants in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia, and over 240 000 emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness during 1993–2004 among the population served by these plants. We fit Poisson time-series statistical regression models that included turbidity in a 21-day distributed lag and that controlled for meteorological factors and long-term time trends. Results For filtered water turbidity, the results were consistent with no association with emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness. We observed a modest association between raw water turbidity and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness. This association was not observed for all treatment plants in plant-specific analyses. Conclusions Our results suggest that source water quality may contribute modestly to endemic gastrointestinal illness in the study area. The association between turbidity and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness was only observed when raw water turbidity was considered; filtered water turbidity may not serve as a reliable indicator of modest pathogen risk at all treatment plants. PMID:18941478

  2. Can turbidity caused by Corophium volutator (Pallas) activity be used to assess sediment toxicity rapidly? (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew D; Greenwood, Naomi; Grant, Alastair


    The standard toxicity test organism, Corophium volutator, exhibits a behavioural response to contaminated sediments that causes increased turbidity of overlying water. We quantify the effects of this response to an estuarine sediment spiked with copper and hydrocarbon contaminated sediments from an oil installation in the North Sea. Turbidity measured 24 h after the start of a toxicity test shows a strong relationship with contaminant concentrations and with mortality after 10 days. Turbidity measurements can therefore give a rapid indication of sediment toxicity, permitting a reduction in storage time of sediments to be used in dilution series and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests, reducing the likelihood of contaminants degrading prior to testing.

  3. Bioremediation of turbid surface water using seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. (drumstick) tree. (United States)

    Lea, Michael


    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for simplified, point-of-use, low-risk water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water.

  4. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree. (United States)

    Lea, Michael


    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Control of energy density inside turbid medium (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Sarma, Raktim; Yamilov, Alexey; Petrenko, Sasha; Bromberg, Yaron; Cao, Hui


    Recent breakthroughs in optical wavefront engineering have opened the possibility of controlling light intensity distribution inside highly scattering medium, but their success is limited by the open geometry of the sample and the difficulty of covering all input modes. Here we demonstrate experimentally an efficient control of energy density distribution inside a strong scattering medium. Instead of the open slab geometry, we fabricate a silicon waveguide that contains scatterers and has reflecting sidewalls. The intensity distribution inside the 2D waveguide is probed from the third dimension. With a careful design of the on-chip coupling waveguide, we can access all the input modes. Such unprecedented control of incident wavefront leads to 10 times enhancement of the total transmission or 50 times suppression. A direct probe of light intensity distribution inside the disordered structure reveals that selective excitation of open channels leads to an energy buildup deep inside the scattering medium, while the excitation of closed channels greatly reduces the penetration depth. Compared to the linear decay for random input fields, the optimized wavefront can produce an intensity profile that is either peaked near the center of the waveguide or decay exponentially with depth. The total energy stored inside the waveguide is increased 3.7 times or decreased 2 times. Since the energy density dictates light-matter interactions inside a scattering system, our results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring optical excitations as well as linear and nonlinear optical processes inside the turbid medium in an on-chip platform.

  6. Beyond Rating Curves: Time Series Models for in-Stream Turbidity Prediction (United States)

    Wang, L.; Mukundan, R.; Zion, M.; Pierson, D. C.


    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) manages New York City's water supply, which is comprised of over 20 reservoirs and supplies over 1 billion gallons of water per day to more than 9 million customers. DEP's "West of Hudson" reservoirs located in the Catskill Mountains are unfiltered per a renewable filtration avoidance determination granted by the EPA. While water quality is usually pristine, high volume storm events occasionally cause the reservoirs to become highly turbid. A logical strategy for turbidity control is to temporarily remove the turbid reservoirs from service. While effective in limiting delivery of turbid water and reducing the need for in-reservoir alum flocculation, this strategy runs the risk of negatively impacting water supply reliability. Thus, it is advantageous for DEP to understand how long a particular turbidity event will affect their system. In order to understand the duration, intensity and total load of a turbidity event, predictions of future in-stream turbidity values are important. Traditionally, turbidity predictions have been carried out by applying streamflow observations/forecasts to a flow-turbidity rating curve. However, predictions from rating curves are often inaccurate due to inter- and intra-event variability in flow-turbidity relationships. Predictions can be improved by applying an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) time series model in combination with a traditional rating curve. Since 2003, DEP and the Upstate Freshwater Institute have compiled a relatively consistent set of 15-minute turbidity observations at various locations on Esopus Creek above Ashokan Reservoir. Using daily averages of this data and streamflow observations at nearby USGS gauges, flow-turbidity rating curves were developed via linear regression. Time series analysis revealed that the linear regression residuals may be represented using an ARMA(1,2) process. Based on this information, flow-turbidity regressions with

  7. Suspended sediment dynamics in Cochin estuary, West coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinita, J.; Revichandran, C.; Manoj, N.T.

    also analyzed using the decomposition method to identify mechanisms of turbidity maintenance at the inlet. The fluxes were dominated by an advective component during both tidal phases of wet season and dry-neap period. In contrast, the tidal pumping...

  8. Characterization of Suspended-Sediment Loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir, East-Central Kansas, 2007-2008 (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.


    Storage capacity in John Redmond Reservoir is being lost to sedimentation more rapidly than in other federal impoundments in Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, initiated a study to characterize suspended-sediment loading to and from John Redmond Reservoir from February 21, 2007, through February 21, 2008. Turbidity sensors were installed at two U.S. Geological Survey stream gages upstream (Neosho River near Americus and the Cottonwood River near Plymouth) and one stream gage downstream (Neosho River at Burlington) from the reservoir to compute continuous, real-time (15-minute) measurements of suspended-sediment concentration and loading. About 1,120,000 tons of suspended-sediment were transported to, and 100,700 tons were transported from John Redmond Reservoir during the study period. Dependent on the bulk density of sediment stored in the reservoir, 5.0 to 1.4 percent of the storage in the John Redmond conservation pool was lost during the study period, with an average deposition of 3.4 to 1.0 inches. Nearly all (98-99 percent) of the incoming sediment load was transported during 9 storms which occurred 25 to 27 percent of the time. The largest storm during the study period (peak-flow recurrence interval of about 4.6-4.9 years) transported about 37 percent of the sediment load to the reservoir. Suspended-sediment yield from the unregulated drainage area upstream from the Neosho River near Americus was 530 tons per square mile, compared to 400 tons per square mile upstream from the Cottonwood River near Plymouth. Comparison of historical (1964-78) to current (2007) sediment loading estimates indicate statistically insignificant (99 percent) decrease in sediment loading at the Neosho River at Burlington. Ninety-percent confidence intervals of streamflow-derived estimates of total sediment load were 7 to 21 times larger than turbidity-derived estimates. Results from this study can be used by natural resource

  9. Monitoring of suspended sediment in South Tyrol (United States)

    Nadalet, Rudi; Dinale, Roberto; Pernter, Martin; Maraldo, Luca; Peterlin, Dieter; Richter, Arnold; Comiti, Francesco


    In the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good status of European water bodies, the Hydrographic Office of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Italy) extended in 2014 its institutional activities including the monitoring of suspended sediment in the river channel network. Currently, the only active monitoring station is on the Adige River at the gauging station of Ponte Adige near Bolzano (drainage area 2705 km2). The applied monitoring strategy and the data analysis concept are both based on the guidelines issued by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). The results indicates that the temporal variability strongly differs during the investigated period (2014-2015). In addition to the analysis of precipitation and water discharge, temperature and lightning activity were also included to better understand the sediment transport dynamics observed at the station. In summer 2015, the combination of constantly high daily temperature throughout the Adige basin (which drove intense glacier melting in the headwaters) with a high frequency of convective rainfall events (90% more than in 2014, obtained through lightning detection), led to an annual mass of transported suspended sediment of 260000 t. Interestingly, this value is similar to the one estimated for 2014 (300000 t), which was characterized by very different meteorological conditions (colder and wetter summer), but with the occurrence of an important flood in August, which transported half of the annual amount. Finally, we can conclude that the adopted monitoring strategy is applicable for institutional aims in terms of costs as well as in terms of time effort. During the next years, other stations for suspended sediment monitoring are planned to be installed in the Province to cover the most important river segments.

  10. Grand Composite Raster Images of Turbidity in the Gulf of Maine for Stellwagen Bank NMS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of turbidity in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are a composite of several years (1997-2005) binned by season...

  11. Long-range sediment transport in the world's oceans by stably stratified turbidity currents (United States)

    Kneller, Benjamin; Nasr-Azadani, Mohamad M.; Radhakrishnan, Senthil; Meiburg, Eckart


    Submarine fans, supplied primarily by turbidity currents, constitute the largest sediment accumulations on Earth. Generally accepted models of turbidity current behavior imply they should dissipate rapidly on the very small gradients of submarine fans, thus their persistence over long distances is enigmatic. We present numerical evidence, constrained by published field data, suggesting that turbidity currents traveling on low slopes and carrying fine particles have a stably stratified shear layer along their upper interface, which dramatically reduces dissipation and entrainment of ambient fluid, allowing the current to propagate over long distances. We propose gradient Richardson number as a useful criterion to discriminate between the different behaviors exhibited by turbidity currents on high and low slopes.

  12. Optimizing the solar water disinfection (SODIS) method by decreasing turbidity with NaCl


    Dawney, Brittney; Pearce, Joshua


    International audience; Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has proven to be effective at reducing diarrheal incidence in epidemiological intervention studies. However, the SODIS method is limited to waters of low turbidity (

  13. Turbidity of the atmospheric and water at the major ports of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Rodrigues, A.; Ramdasan, K.

    The atmospheric and water turbidity observed at nine major ports of India, namely Cochin, Mangalore, Mormugao, Mumbai, Jawaharlal Nehru (JNP), Kandla on the west coast and Tuticorin, Chennai and Visakhapatnam on the east coast, using the parameters...

  14. The Ångström Exponent and Turbidity of Soot Component in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AOD) show a relatively higher value indicating a polluted ... Keywords: Soot, Ångström exponent, Turbidity, Radiative forcing, Aerosols ..... scattering For UV wavelength g typically falls between 0.6 .... total ozone content from the spectral variation.

  15. Monthly Composite Raster Images of Turbidity in the Gulf of Maine for Stellwagen Bank NMS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of turbidity in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are monthly composites, and were calculated as means or as...

  16. Seasonal Composite Raster Images of Turbidity in the Gulf of Maine for Stellwagen Bank NMS (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of turbidity in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are seasonal composites, and were calculated as means or as...

  17. Waveforms for Active Sensing: Optical Waveform Design and Analysis for Ballistic Imaging Through Turbid Media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milanfar, Peyman


    This program was intended to develop theory a broad range of algorithms and proof of concept in detection, estimation, and reconstruction of objects embedded in turbid media, which hamper visibility...

  18. Active noise cancellation in a suspended interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Driggers, Jennifer C; Pepper, Keenan; Adhikari, Rana


    We demonstrate feed-forward vibration isolation on a suspended Fabry-Perot interferometer using Wiener filtering and a variant of the common Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive filter algorithm. We compare the experimental results with theoretical estimates of the cancellation efficiency. Using data from the recent LIGO Science Run, we also estimate the impact of this technique on full scale gravitational wave interferometers. In the future, we expect to use this technique to also remove acoustic, magnetic, and gravitational noise perturbations from the LIGO interferometers. This noise cancellation technique is simple enough to implement in standard laboratory environments and can be used to improve SNR for a variety of high precision experiments.

  19. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan


    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  20. Safety Harness For Work Under Suspended Load (United States)

    Sunoo, Su Young


    Safety device protects worker under suspended engine or other heavy load. Mechanically linked with load so if load should fall, worker yanked safely away. Worker wears chest-plate vest with straps crossing eye on back. Lower safety cable connected to eye extends horizontally away from worker to nearby wall, wrapped on pulley and extends upward to motion amplifier or reducer. Safety cables transform any sudden downward motion of overhanging load into rapid sideways motion of worker. Net catches worker, preventing worker from bumping against wall.

  1. Context-dependent planktivory: interacting effects of turbidity and predation risk on adaptive foraging (United States)

    Pangle, Kevin L.; Malinich, Timothy D.; Bunnell, David B.; DeVries, Dennis R.; Ludsin, Stuart A.


    By shaping species interactions, adaptive phenotypic plasticity can profoundly influence ecosystems. Predicting such outcomes has proven difficult, however, owing in part to the dependence of plasticity on the environmental context. Of particular relevance are environmental factors that affect sensory performance in organisms in ways that alter the tradeoffs associated with adaptive phenotypic responses. We explored the influence of turbidity, which simultaneously and differentially affects the sensory performance of consumers at multiple trophic levels, on the indirect effect of a top predator (piscivorous fish) on a basal prey resource (zooplankton) that is mediated through changes in the plastic foraging behavior of an intermediate consumer (zooplanktivorous fish). We first generated theoretical predictions of the adaptive foraging response of a zooplanktivore across wide gradients of turbidity and predation risk by a piscivore. Our model predicted that predation risk can change the negative relationship between intermediate consumer foraging and turbidity into a humped-shaped (unimodal) one in which foraging is low in both clear and highly turbid conditions due to foraging-related risk and visual constraints, respectively. Consequently, the positive trait-mediated indirect effect (TMIE) of the top predator on the basal resource is predicted to peak at low turbidity and decline thereafter until it reaches an asymptote of zero at intermediate turbidity levels (when foraging equals that which is predicted when the top predator is absent). We used field observations and a laboratory experiment to test our model predictions. In support, we found humped-shaped relationships between planktivory and turbidity for several zooplanktivorous fishes from diverse freshwater ecosystems with predation risk. Further, our experiment demonstrated that predation risk reduced zooplanktivory by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) at a low turbidity, but had no effect on consumption at

  2. Plutonium removal and diurnal variations of suspended sediment concentrations in the Great Miami River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobula, III, C. M.; Kennedy, C. W.; Bartelt, G. E.


    Effluent release experiments previously conducted downstream of the industrial outflal at Mound Laboratory have demonstrated that /sup 238/Pu which enters the aquatic environment as dissolved waste is rapidly adsorbed by suspended solids in the effluent pulse and that the dissolved/particulate distribution of /sup 238/Pu between release events congruent to 5 x 10/sup -2/./sup 3/ Reasonable estimates of the annual transport of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu based upon long-term discharge and sediment loading data have been reported for a large subwatershed in the upper reaches of the Great Miami River Basin. In this report data are given which characterize the short-term variability of suspended particulate transport downriver of a canal system contaminated with /sup 238/Pu.

  3. Removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease for slaughterhouse wastewater using electrocoagulation method (United States)

    Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Azwan, Azlyza Mohd; Zamri, Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul


    In this study electrocoagulation method is used to treat slaughterhouse wastewaters. The aim of this study is to determine the efficiency of electrocoagulation method for the removal of colour, turbidity, oil and grease of slaughterhouse wastewaters. The factors of electrode types, and voltage applied during treatment are the study parameters. The types of electrode used are Aluminium (Al) grade 6082 and Iron (Fe) grade 1050. Meanwhile, the ranges of voltage applied are 2, 4, 6, 8 volts at a time interval of 10, 20 and 30 minutes respectively. The effect of these factors on the removal of fat oil and grease (FOG), colour and turbidity are analyzed. The results show maximum removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are recorded using Fe electrode at 8 V of applied voltage with 30 minutes of treatment time. The increase in treatment time of the cell will also increase the amount of hydrogen bubbles at the cathode which results in a greater upwards flux and a faster removal of FOG,, turbidity and colour. The removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 98%, 92% and 91 % respectively. Meanwhile, by using Al electrodes in the same condition, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are 91%, 85% and 87 % respectively. Whereas by using Fe-Al as electrodes pairs, the removal of FOG, colour and turbidity are found to be at 90%, 87% and 76 % respectively. In this case, the Fe-Fe pair electrodes have been proven to provide better performance for FOG, colour and turbidity removals of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Therefore, it is feasible to be considered as an alternative method for wastewater treatment.

  4. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: Ultrasensitive detection in clear and turbid media (United States)

    Tahari, Abdel Kader

    In this work, I describe the development of a simple, inexpensive, and powerful alternative technique to detect and analyze, without enrichment, extremely low concentrations of cells, bacteria, viruses, and protein aggregates in turbid fluids for clinical and biotechnological applications. The anticipated applications of this technique are many. They range from the determination of the somatic cell count in milk for the dairy industry, to the enumeration and characterization of microorganisms in environmental microbiology and the food industry, and to the fast and ultrasensitive detection of protein aggregates for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases in clinical medicine. A prototype instrument has been built and allowed the detection and quantification of particles down to a few per milliliter in short scanning times. It consists of a small microscope that has a horizontal geometry and a mechanical instrument that holds a cylindrical cuvette (1 cm in diameter) with two motors that provide a rotational and a slower vertical inversion motions. The illumination focus is centered about 200 mum from the wall of the cuvette inside the sample. The total volume that is explored is large (˜1ml/min for bright particles). The data is analyzed with a correlation filter program based on particle passage pattern recognition. I will also describe further work on improving the sensitivity of the technique, expanding it for multiple-species discrimination and enumeration, and testing the prototype device in actual clinical and biotechnological applications. The main clinical application of this project seeks to establish conditions and use this new technique to quantify and size-analyze oligomeric complexes of the Alzheimer's disease beta-peptide in cerebrospinal fluid and other body fluids as a molecular biomarker for persons at risk of Alzheimer's disease dementia. The technology could potentially be extended to the diagnosis and therapeutic

  5. VIIRS Ocean Color Products over Turbid Coastal and Inland Waters (United States)

    Wang, M.; Jiang, L.; Liu, X.; Son, S.; Sun, J.; Shi, W.; Tan, L.; Mikelsons, K.; Wang, X.; Lance, V. P.


    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP), which has 22 spectral bands similar to the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), is a multi-disciplinary sensor providing observations for the Earth's atmosphere, land, and ocean properties. In this presentation, we provide some extensive evaluations and assessments of VIIRS ocean color data products, including normalized water-leaving radiance spectra nLw(l) at VIIRS five spectral bands, chlorophyll-a concentration, and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm Kd(490) (and at the photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), Kd(PAR)), over global open oceans and particularly turbid coastal and inland waters. Specifically, VIIRS ocean color products derived from the NOAA Multi-Sensor Level-1 to Level-2 (MSL12) ocean color data processing system, which is the NOAA official data processing system, are evaluated and compared with those from in situ measurements, as well as ocean color data derived from MODIS-Aqua. Specifically, we show evaluation results using the near-infrared (NIR)-based, shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based, and NIR-SWIR combined ocean color data processing approaches. Furthermore, to meet requirements from broad users (e.g., operational, research, modeling, etc.), we propose to routinely produce two VIIRS ocean color data streams, i.e., the near-real-time and science quality ocean color product data. The implementation details for the two data streams will be discussed. Our results show that VIIRS is capable of providing high-quality global ocean color products in support of the science researches and operational applications. Our efforts on instrument calibration using both solar and lunar calibration approaches for VIIRS Level-1B data, as well as the system vicarious calibration for improving ocean color products will also be discussed.

  6. Diurnal variability in turbidity and coral fluorescence on a fringing reef flat: Southern Molokai, Hawaii (United States)

    Piniak, G.A.; Storlazzi, C.D.


    Terrigenous sediment in the nearshore environment can pose both acute and chronic stresses to coral reefs. The reef flat off southern Molokai, Hawaii, typically experiences daily turbidity events, in which trade winds and tides combine to resuspend terrigenous sediment and transport it alongshore. These chronic turbidity events could play a role in restricting coral distribution on the reef flat by reducing the light available for photosynthesis. This study describes the effects of these turbidity events on the Hawaiian reef coral Montipora capitata using in situ diurnal measurements of turbidity, light levels, and chlorophyll fluorescence yield via pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Average surface irradiance was similar in the morning and the afternoon, while increased afternoon turbidity resulted in lower subsurface irradiance, higher fluorescence yield (??F/Fm???), and lower relative electron transport rates (rETR). Model calculations based on observed light extinction coeffecients suggest that in the absence of turbidity events, afternoon subsurface irradiances would be 1.43 times higher than observed, resulting in rETR for M. capitata that are 1.40 times higher.

  7. [Measuring the turbidity of amniotic fluid, a possibility to assess fetal maturity before birth (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Lamberti, G


    At the end of gestation, depending on maturation of the fetus and especially of its skin, vernix caseosa is detached into amniotic fluid. The changes of amniotic fluid turbidity can be quantitatively verified with a fotometer (filter for 578 nm, 10 mm disposable cuvettes). The turbidity of amniotic fluid was measured in 125 cases. No correlation was found between turbidity and length of gestation from day 261 to day 287 after last menstruation. In contrast, there is strong and significant contingency between turbidity of amniotic fluid and maturity of fetal skin (quantity of vernix caseosa) or clinical maturity assessed according to Farr et al. Finding a turbidity below 0.5 U on extinction scale of the fotometer, the fetus is not fully mature in 50% of these cases; placental dysfunction can be excluded with high probability. In contrast, two thirds of the children with high turbidity of amniotic fluid (more than 1.0 U on extinction scale) had clinical signs of placental dysfunction.

  8. Suspended-sediment loads, reservoir sediment trap efficiency, and upstream and downstream channel stability for Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, 2008-10 (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2010, at streamgage sites upstream and downstream from Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from each reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for each reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is decreasing the ability of the reservoirs to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. River channel stability upstream and downstream from the reservoirs was assessed using historical streamgage information. For Kanopolis Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 600 million pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 31 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 95 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 129,000 pounds per square mile per year. No pronounced changes in channel width were evident at five streamgage sites located upstream from the reservoir. At the Ellsworth streamgage site, located upstream from the reservoir, long-term channel-bed aggradation was followed by a period of stability. Current (2010) conditions at five streamgages located upstream from the reservoir were typified by channel-bed stability. At the Langley streamgage site, located immediately downstream from the reservoir, the channel bed degraded 6.15 feet from 1948 to 2010. For Tuttle Creek Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 13.3 billion pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 327 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 98 percent. The mean

  9. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2 (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca


    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  10. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures (United States)

    Fleming, James G.


    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  11. Classification and Prediction of Event-based Suspended Sediment Dynamics using Artificial Neural Networks (United States)

    Hamshaw, S. D.; Underwood, K.; Wemple, B. C.; Rizzo, D.


    Sediment transport can be an immensely complex process, yet plays a vital role in the transport of substances and nutrients that can impact receiving waters. Advancements in the use of sensors for indirect measurement of suspended sediments have allowed access to high frequency sediment data. This has promoted the use of more advanced computational tools to identify patterns in sediment data to improve our understanding of physical processes occurring in the watershed. In this study, a network of weather stations and in-stream turbidity sensors were deployed to capture more than three years of sediment dynamics and meteorological data in the Mad River watershed in central Vermont. Monitoring sites were located along the main stem of the the Mad River and on five tributaries. Separate storm events were identified from the data at each site to study event sediment dynamics associated with erosion and deposition over space and time. Two types of artificial neural networks (ANNs), a self-organizing map (SOM) and a radial basis function (RBF), were used to cluster the storm event data based on hydrometeorological metrics and were subsequently compared to traditional classes of hysteresis patterns in suspended sediment concentration - discharge (SSC-Q) relationships. Hysteresis patterns were also directly used as inputs to both ANNs to identify distinct patterns and test the applicability of performing pattern recognition on hysteresis patterns. The results of this study will be used to gain insight into the dynamic physical processes (both spatial and temporal) occurring in the watershed based on patterns observed in SSQ-Q data.

  12. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have establishe...

  13. Environmentally-suspended sediment production of the Nasia River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the level of suspended sediment produced in the Nasia River Basin. Hydrological and meteorological data and water samples were used for the study. Average suspended sediment yield (33 years) in the basin was 19.90 t/km2/yr. With mean annual runoff of 439.13m3/s, 322.43 t/yr suspended sediment ...

  14. Turbidity forecasting at a karst spring using combined machine learning and wavelet multiresolution analysis. (United States)

    Savary, M.; Massei, N.; Johannet, A.; Dupont, J. P.; Hauchard, E.


    25% of the world populations drink water extracted from karst aquifer. The comprehension and the protection of these aquifers appear as crucial due to an increase of drinking water needs. In Normandie(North-West of France), the principal exploited aquifer is the chalk aquifer. The chalk aquifer highly karstified is an important water resource, regionally speaking. Connections between surface and underground waters thanks to karstification imply turbidity that decreases water quality. Both numerous parameters and phenomenons, and the non-linearity of the rainfall/turbidity relation influence the turbidity causing difficulties to model and forecast turbidity peaks. In this context, the Yport pumping well provides half of Le Havreconurbation drinking water supply (236 000 inhabitants). The aim of this work is thus to perform prediction of the turbidity peaks in order to help pumping well managers to decrease the impact of turbidity on water treatment. Database consists in hourly rainfalls coming from six rain gauges located on the alimentation basin since 2009 and hourly turbidity since 1993. Because of the lack of accurate physical description of the karst system and its surface basin, the systemic paradigm is chosen and a black box model: a neural network model is chosen. In a first step, correlation analyses are used to design the original model architecture by identifying the relation between output and input. The following optimization phases bring us four different architectures. These models were experimented to forecast 12h ahead turbidity and threshold surpassing. The first model is a simple multilayer perceptron. The second is a two-branches model designed to better represent the fast (rainfall) and low (evapotranspiration) dynamics. Each kind of model is developed using both a recurrent and feed-forward architecture. This work highlights that feed-forward multilayer perceptron is better to predict turbidity peaks when feed-forward two-branches model is

  15. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  16. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng


    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind−1•d−1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (Paquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  17. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater. (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng


    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm) was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1) • d(-1), respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  18. Review of Epidemiological Studies of Drinking-Water Turbidity in Relation to Acute Gastrointestinal Illness. (United States)

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Gurian, Patrick L; Robinson, Lucy F; Rai, Arjita; Zakeri, Issa; Kondo, Michelle C


    Turbidity has been used as an indicator of microbiological contamination of drinking water in time-series studies attempting to discern the presence of waterborne gastrointestinal illness; however, the utility of turbidity as a proxy exposure measure has been questioned. We conducted a review of epidemiological studies of the association between turbidity of drinking-water supplies and incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI), including a synthesis of the overall weight of evidence. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for causal inference from the studies. We identified 14 studies on the topic (distinct by region, time period and/or population). We evaluated each study with regard to modeling approaches, potential biases, and the strength of evidence. We also considered consistencies and differences in the collective results. Positive associations between drinking-water turbidity and AGI incidence were found in different cities and time periods, and with both unfiltered and filtered supplies. There was some evidence for a stronger association at higher turbidity levels. The studies appeared to adequately adjust for confounding. There was fair consistency in the notable lags between turbidity measurement and AGI identification, which fell between 6 and 10 d in many studies. The observed associations suggest a detectable incidence of waterborne AGI from drinking water in the systems and time periods studied. However, some discrepant results indicate that the association may be context specific. Combining turbidity with seasonal and climatic factors, additional water quality measures, and treatment data may enhance predictive modeling in future studies.

  19. Acoustic doppler velocimeter backscatter for quantification of suspended sediment concentration in South San Francisco Bay (United States)

    Ozturk, Mehmet; Work, Paul


    A data set was acquired on a shallow mudflat in south San Francisco Bay that featured simultaneous, co-located optical and acoustic sensors for subsequent estimation of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). The optical turbidity sensor output was converted to SSC via an empirical relation derived at a nearby site using bottle sample estimates of SSC. The acoustic data was obtained using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Backscatter and noise were combined to develop another empirical relation between the optical estimates of SSC and the relative backscatter from the acoustic velocimeter. The optical and acoustic approaches both reproduced similar general trends in the data and have merit. Some seasonal variation in the dataset was evident, with the two methods differing by greater or lesser amounts depending on which portion of the record was examined. It is hypothesized that this is the result of flocculation, affecting the two signals by different degrees, and that the significance or mechanism of the flocculation has some seasonal variability. In the earlier portion of the record (March), there is a clear difference that appears in the acoustic approach between ebb and flood periods, and this is not evident later in the record (May). The acoustic method has promise but it appears that characteristics of flocs that form and break apart may need to be accounted for to improve the power of the method. This may also be true of the optical method: both methods involve assuming that the sediment characteristics (size, size distribution, and shape) are constant

  20. Acoustic Doppler velocimeter backscatter for quantification of suspended sediment concentration in South San Francisco Bay, USA (United States)

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Work, Paul


    A data set was acquired on a shallow mudflat in south San Francisco Bay that featured simultaneous, co-located optical and acoustic sensors for subsequent estimation of suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). The optical turbidity sensor output was converted to SSC via an empirical relation derived at a nearby site using bottle sample estimates of SSC. The acoustic data was obtained using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Backscatter and noise were combined to develop another empirical relation between the optical estimates of SSC and the relative backscatter from the acoustic velocimeter. The optical and acoustic approaches both reproduced similar general trends in the data and have merit. Some seasonal variation in the dataset was evident, with the two methods differing by greater or lesser amounts depending on which portion of the record was examined. It is hypothesized that this is the result of flocculation, affecting the two signals by different degrees, and that the significance or mechanism of the flocculation has some seasonal variability. In the earlier portion of the record (March), there is a clear difference that appears in the acoustic approach between ebb and flood periods, and this is not evident later in the record (May). The acoustic method has promise but it appears that characteristics of flocs that form and break apart may need to be accounted for to improve the power of the method. This may also be true of the optical method: both methods involve assuming that the sediment characteristics (size, size distribution, and shape) are constant.

  1. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems (United States)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.


    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  2. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.


    We report a fabrication method, which uses standard UV-lithography to pattern the catalyst for the chemical vapour deposition(CVD) of suspended double clamped single walled carbon nanotubes. By using an aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 the patterning of the catalyst material onto microelectrodes can...... be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...

  3. Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL as a Measurement Tool for Water Quality Parameters in Turbid Lake Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Balzter


    Full Text Available Despite longstanding contributions to oceanography, similar use of fluorescence light detection and ranging (LiDAR in lake settings is not routine. The potential for ship-mounted, multispectral Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL to provide rapid, high-resolution data in variably turbid and productive lake conditions are investigated here through a series of laboratory tank and field measurements carried out on Lake Balaton, Hungary. UFL data, calibrated empirically to a set of coinciding conventionally-analyzed samples, provide simultaneous estimates of three important parameters-chlorophyll a(chla, total suspended matter (TSM and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM. Successful UFL retrievals from both laboratory and field measurements were achieved for chla (0.01–378 mg∙m−3; R = 0.83–0.92, TSM (0.1–130 g∙m−3; R = 0.90–0.96 and CDOM (0.003–0.125 aCDOM(440; R = 0.80–0.97. Fluorescence emission at 685 nm is shown through tank measurements to display robust but distinct relationships with chla concentration for the two cultured algae species investigated (cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and chlorophyta, Scenedesmus armatus. The ratio between fluorescence emissions measured at 650 nm, related to the phycocyanin fluorescence maximum, to that at 685 nm is demonstrated to effectively distinguish these two species. Validation through both laboratory measurements and field measurements confirmed that site specific calibration is necessary. This study presents the first known assessment and application of ship-mounted fluorescence LiDAR in freshwater lake conditions and demonstrates the use of UFL in measuring important water quality parameters despite the more complicated hydro-optic conditions of inland waters.

  4. Structure of the turbidity field in the Guadalquivir estuary: Analysis of observations and a box model approach (United States)

    Díez-Minguito, M.; Baquerizo, A.; de Swart, H. E.; Losada, M. A.


    A study is presented on the transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Guadalquivir estuary during low river flow conditions. Observations show that tidally induced SPM exceeds that associated with catchment-derived inputs. The main mechanisms that contribute to longitudinal transport are identified and quantified by analyzing the tidally averaged and depth-integrated SPM flux decomposition over time and space. The net transport is generally directed upstream, although differences in the direction between spring and neap tides are identified. The transport is largely controlled by the mean advection, the tidal pumping associated with the covariance between SPM concentration and current, and the tidal Stokes transport. The convergence of the transport associated to these mechanisms alone explains the presence of primary and secondary estuarine turbidity maxima. The tidal reflection at the upstream dam appears to play a significant role in their generation, as evidenced by the convergence zones of the M4 and M2 induced tidal pumping transports. The spatial structure of the transport motivates the development of a box model that describes the concentration of SPM and its exchange between different stretches along the estuary at subtidal time scales. The model is fed by the net SPM transport obtained from observations. Analysis of the morphodynamical state of the estuary using the box model indicates that erosion is dominant in the stretches close to the estuary mouth and that this sediment is transported upstream and deposited in the middle part of the estuary. This process is more influential during spring tides than during neap tides.

  5. The effect of suspended sediment and color on ultraviolet spectrophotometric nitrate sensors (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.


    Four commercially available ultraviolet nitrate spectrophotometric sensors were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) to determine the effects of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on sensor accuracy. The evaluated sensors were: the Hach NITRATAX plus sc (5-millimeters (mm) path length), Hach NITRATAX plus sc (2 mm), S::CAN Spectro::lyser (5 mm), and the Satlantic SUNA V2 (5 mm). A National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable nitrate-free sediment standard was purchased and used to create the turbid environment, and an easily made filtered tea solution was used for the CDOM test. All four sensors performed well in the test that evaluated the effect of suspended sediment on accuracy. The Hach 5 mm, Hach 2 mm, and the SUNA V2 met their respective manufacturer accuracy specifications up to concentrations of 4,500 milligrams per liter (mg/L) SSC. The S::CAN failed to meet its accuracy specifications when the SSC concentrations exceeded 4,000 mg/L. Test results from the effect of CDOM on accuracy indicated a significant skewing of data from all four sensors and showed an artificial elevation of measured nitrate to varying amounts. Of the four sensors tested, the Satlantic SUNA V2’s accuracy was affected the least in the CDOM test. The nitrate concentration measured by the SUNA V2 was approximately 24 percent higher than the actual concentration when estimated total organic carbon values exceeded 44 mg/L. Measured nitrate concentration falsely increased 49 percent when measured by the Hach 5 mm, and 75 percent when measured by the Hach 2 mm. The S::CAN’s reported nitrate concentration increased 96 percent. Path length plays an important role in the sensor’s ability to compensate measurements for matrix interferences, but does not solely determine how well a sensor can handle all interferences. The sensor’s proprietary algorithms also play a key role in matrix

  6. Analyzing turbidity, suspended-sediment concentration, and particle-size distribution resulting from a debris flow on Mount Jefferson, Oregon, November 2006 (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.


    A debris flow and sediment torrent occurred on the flanks of Mt Jefferson in Oregon on November 6, 2006, inundating 150 acres of forest. The massive debris flow was triggered by a rock and snow avalanche from the Milk Creek glaciers and snowfields during the early onset of an intense storm originating near the Hawaiian Islands. The debris flow consisted of a heavy conglomerate of large boulders, cobbles, and coarse-grained sediment that was deposited at depths of up to 15 ft and within 3 mi of the glaciers, and a viscous slurry that deposited finer-grained sediments at depths of 0.5 to 3 ft. The muddy slurry coated standing trees within the lower reaches of Milk Creek as it moved downslope.

  7. Evaluation of light penetration on Navigation Pools 8 and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River (United States)

    Giblin, Shawn; Hoff, Kraig; Fischer, Jim; Dukerschein, Terry


    The availability of light can have a dramatic affect on macrophyte and phytoplankton abundance in virtually all aquatic ecosystems. The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program and other monitoring programs often measure factors that affect light extinction (nonvolatile suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, and chlorophyll) and correlates of light extinction (turbidity and Secchi depth), but rarely do they directly measure light extinction. Data on light extinction, Secchi depth, transparency tube, turbidity, total suspended solids, and volatile suspended solids were collected during summer 2003 on Pools 8 and 13 of the Upper Mississippi River. Regressions were developed to predict light extinction based upon Secchi depth, transparency tube, turbidity, and total suspended solids. Transparency tube, Secchi depth, and turbidity all showed strong relations with light extinction and can effectively predict light extinction. Total suspended solids did not show as strong a relation to light extinction. Volatile suspended solids had a greater affect on light extinction than nonvolatile suspended solids. The data were compared to recommended criteria established for light extinction, Secchi depth, total suspended solids, and turbidity by the Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee to sustain submersed aquatic vegetation in the Upper Mississippi River. During the study period, the average condition in Pool 8 met or exceeded all of the criteria whereas the average condition in Pool 13 failed to meet any of the criteria. This report provides river managers with an effective tool to predict light extinction based upon readily available data.

  8. Assessment of a Continuous Electrocoagulation on Turbidity Removal from Spent Filter Backwash Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Spent filter backwash water (SFBW consists of 1-5% of the total treated water typically and it has a high turbidity. Because of the scarcity of water resources and in order to prevent the environmental contamination, effluent treatment of rapid sand filter backwashing is unavoidable. One of the new technologies for removal of turbidity from the effluent is ElectroCoagulation (EC processes. This study aimed to examine the efficiency of continuous electrocoagulation in turbidity removal from spent filter backwash water. Materials & Methods: This study was non-continuous experiment. A rectangular cube electrocoagulation tank in 24 cm×17 cm×18 cm dimensions from Plexiglas with the volume of 7.35 liter was made. In this tank there were 4 metal plates (electrode (15× 22× 0.1cm; two electrodes as cathode and anode which were made of aluminum and iron, respectively. All of the tests were done in continuous flow. According to the study criteria (Time, Turbidity and pH, 126 sample got with the turbidity 320, 350, 400 NTU from rapid sand filter backwashing water, so they were tested in current density; 1, 1.4, 1.8, 2, 2.4, 2.8 and 3.2 ampere in 3 selected detention times (10, 20 and 30 min. Each experiment was repeated two times. In this research the space of electrode and pH is fixed at 1.5 cm and 8.2. Results: In this case the highest turbidity removal for Al electrode from rapid sand filter backwashing occurred in the current density 3.2 ampere, 30 min detention time and 320 NTU turbidity. The percent of removal for Al was 95.12. The highest removal for Fe electrode from rapid sand filter backwashing occur in the current density 3.2 ampere, 30 min detention time and 320 NTU turbidity. The percent of removal for Fe was 87.40. Conclusion: Regarding to the results of the tests, using electrocoagulation has an appropriate efficiency in turbidity removal.

  9. Using the Surface Reflectance MODIS Terra Product to Estimate Turbidity in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Rickman


    Full Text Available Turbidity is a commonly-used index of the factors that determine light penetration in the water column. Consistent estimation of turbidity is crucial to design environmental and restoration management plans, to predict fate of possible pollutants, and to estimate sedimentary fluxes into the ocean. Traditional methods monitoring fixed geographical locations at fixed intervals may not be representative of the mean water turbidity in estuaries between intervals, and can be expensive and time consuming. Although remote sensing offers a good solution to this limitation, it is still not widely used due in part to required complex processing of imagery. There are satellite-derived products, including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra surface reflectance daily product (MOD09GQ Band 1 (620–670 nm which are now routinely available at 250 m spatial resolution and corrected for atmospheric effect. This study shows this product to be useful to estimate turbidity in Tampa Bay, Florida, after rainfall events (R2 = 0.76, n = 34. Within Tampa Bay, Hillsborough Bay (HB and Old Tampa Bay (OTB presented higher turbidity compared to Middle Tampa Bay (MTB and Lower Tampa Bay (LTB.

  10. On-site treatment of turbid river water using chitosan, a natural organic polymer coagulant. (United States)

    Sekine, M; Takeshita, A; Oda, N; Ukita, M; Imai, T; Higuchi, T


    Chitosan, acetylate of chitin, is a biodegradable cationic polymer. The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of chitosan as an on-site treatment agent of turbid water caused by river construction works and other diffused pollutions. The results of jar-tests indicate that floc of chitosan is much larger than that of aluminium sulfate, and turbidity treated by chitosan under moving water conditions is much lower than that of aluminium sulfate. Chitosan is applied to Imou River in Yamaguchi prefecture, where river construction work is going on. St.1 is located just below the construction work, St.2 is located about 250 m downstream from St.1, and St.3 is located about 350 m downstream from St.2. Initial turbidity of each station is 1,100, 937 and 313 NTU, respectively. By applying chitosan at St.1, turbidity of each station is drastically reduced to 1,100, 12 and 0 NTU. Chitosan could be helpful to reduce problems caused by turbidity in rivers.

  11. The relationship between turbidity of mouth-rinsed water and oral health status. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Ueno, Masayuki; Takehara, Sachiko; Pham, Thuy Anh Vu; Hakuta, Chiyoko; Morishima, Seiji; Shinada, Kayoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between turbidity of mouth rinsed water and oral health status such as dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status, flow rate of saliva and oral bacteria. Subjects were 165 patients who visited the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Oral health status, including dental and periodontal conditions, oral hygiene status and flow rate of saliva, was clinically examined. The turbidity was measured with a turbidimeter. Quantification of Fusobacterium spp, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and total bacteria levels was performed using real-time PCR. The Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used to explore the associations between the turbidity and oral health parameters. The turbidity showed significant correlations with the number of decayed teeth and deep pockets, the plaque index, extent of tongue coating and Fusobacterium spp, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola and total bacteria levels. In a multiple regression model, the turbidity was negatively associated with the flow rate of saliva and positively associated with the total number of bacteria (p oral health condition and the amount of bacteria in the oral cavity. In addition, the turbiditimeter appeared as a simple and objective device for screening abnormality of oral health condition at chair side as well as community-based research.

  12. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries. (United States)

    Preston, Kelsey; Lantagne, Daniele; Kotlarz, Nadine; Jellison, Kristen


    Over 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved drinking water. Diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. The Safe Water System (SWS) is a household water treatment intervention that reduces diarrhoeal disease incidence among users in developing countries. Turbid waters pose a particular challenge to implementation of SWS programmes; although research shows that a 3.75 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite dose effectively treats turbid waters, users sometimes object to the strong chlorine taste and prefer to drink water that is more aesthetically pleasing. This study investigated the efficacy of two locally available chemical water treatments-alum and Moringa oleifera flocculation-to reduce turbidity and chlorine demand at turbidities of 10, 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU. Both treatments effectively reduced turbidity (alum flocculation 23.0-91.4%; moringa flocculation 14.2-96.2%). Alum flocculation effectively reduced chlorine demand compared with controls at 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU (p=0.01-0.06). Moringa flocculation increased chlorine demand to the point where adequate free chlorine residual was not maintained for 24 hours after treatment. Alum pretreatment is recommended in waters>or=30 NTU for optimum water disinfection. Moringa flocculation is not recommended before chlorination.

  13. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water (United States)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.


    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  14. A new approach using coagulation rate constant for evaluation of turbidity removal (United States)

    Al-Sameraiy, Mukheled


    Coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation processes for treating three levels of bentonite synthetic turbid water using date seeds (DS) and alum (A) coagulants were investigated in the previous research work. In the current research, the same experimental results were used to adopt a new approach on a basis of using coagulation rate constant as an investigating parameter to identify optimum doses of these coagulants. Moreover, the performance of these coagulants to meet (WHO) turbidity standard was assessed by introducing a new evaluating criterion in terms of critical coagulation rate constant (kc). Coagulation rate constants (k2) were mathematically calculated in second order form of coagulation process for each coagulant. The maximum (k2) values corresponded to doses, which were obviously to be considered as optimum doses. The proposed criterion to assess the performance of coagulation process of these coagulants was based on the mathematical representation of (WHO) turbidity guidelines in second order form of coagulation process stated that (k2) for each coagulant should be ≥ (kc) for each level of synthetic turbid water. For all tested turbid water, DS coagulant could not satisfy it. While, A coagulant could satisfy it. The results obtained in the present research are exactly in agreement with the previous published results in terms of finding optimum doses for each coagulant and assessing their performances. On the whole, it is recommended considering coagulation rate constant to be a new approach as an indicator for investigating optimum doses and critical coagulation rate constant to be a new evaluating criterion to assess coagulants' performance.

  15. Comparison of two online flocculation monitoring techniques for predicting turbidity removal by granular media filtration. (United States)

    Ball, T; Carrière, A; Barbeau, B


    Particulate matter removal in drinking water treatment via direct granular filtration requires specific flocculation conditions (a process typically termed 'high energy flocculation'). Predicting filtered water turbidity based on flocculated water characteristics remains difficult. This study has sought to establish a relationship between filtered water turbidity and the flocculated water characteristics. Flocculation oflow-turbidity raw water was evaluated online using a Photometric Dispersion Analyser (PDA) and a Dynamic Particle Analyser in a modified jar test followed by a bench-scale anthracite filter. Coagulants used were alum, PASS100 and ferric sulphate, in addition to a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (polyDADMAC) cationic polymer. They were dosed in warm and cold waters, and flocculated with intensities (G) from 0 to 100 s(-1). Of the two instruments selected to analyse flocculation performance, the Dynamic Particle Analyser was shown to be the most sensitive, detecting small changes in floc growth kinetics and even floc growth under low flocculation conditions which remained undetected by the PDA. Floc size was shown to be insufficient in predicting particulate matter removal by direct granular filtration as measured by turbidity, although a threshold d(v) value (50 microm) could be identified for the test conditions evaluated in this project, above which turbidity was systematically lower than 0.2 NTU.

  16. Seasonal trends of benzo(apyrene in suspended particulate matter in urban areas of Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Matić-Besarabić


    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(apyrene (BaP concentration in total suspended particles (TSP in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health Institute of Belgrade and funded by Belgrade’s Municipality. Air samples for analysis of BaP in suspended particleshave been collected (as 24 h sample once per month at selected onitoring sites within the municipal air quality monitoring network. At the beginning, according to National Regulation, all samples were taken as total suspended particles (TSP. Since mid-2008, the procedure of sampling methodology was harmonized with EU requirements and solid fraction PM10 has been collected and analyzed using GC/MS. In this study, we have analyzed results of TSP collected between 2005 and 2008. Looking through the results obtained during the period of a whole year, it can be noticed that concentrations of BaP were much higher during winter season at almost all measuring sites.

  17. Acoustic backscatter by suspended cohesive sediments: Field observations, Seine Estuary, France (United States)

    Sahin, Cihan; Verney, Romaric; Sheremet, Alexandru; Voulgaris, George


    Observations of suspended sediment size and concentration, flow and acoustic backscatter intensity collected on the Seine Estuary (France) are used to study the acoustic response in cohesive-sediment dominated environments. Estimates of suspended sediment concentration based on optical backscatter sensors and water samples are used to calibrate the acoustic backscatter intensity. The vertical structure of suspended sediment concentration is then estimated from acoustic backscatter information. To our knowledge, this is the first field application of the recently proposed model of acoustic scattering by flocculating suspensions based on the variation of particle density (floc-scattering model). The estimates of sediment concentration reproduce well the observations under different tidal (neap/spring) conditions, confirming the applicability of the new model in the field when detailed particle size measurements are available. When particle size measurements are not available, using estimated floc sizes based on the turbulence intensities may provide reasonable SSC profiles. During spring tide events (associated with strong currents, small flocs and large concentrations), the performances of the new floc-scattering model and the previous models given for solid particle-scattering are comparable. The floc-scattering model increases the quality of the SSC estimates especially during low-energy conditions characterized with larger flocs.

  18. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite derived suspended sediment concentrations (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Ratheesh; Rajawat, A. S.


    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are realized with respect to the sediment size distribution and the bottom bed materials observed in the Gulf. Simulated SSCs are compared with alternate OCM derived SSC. The results are observed to be impetus where the model is able to generate the spatial dynamics of the sediment concentrations. Sediment dynamics like deposition, erosion and dispersion are explained with the simulated tidal currents and OCM derived sediment concentrations. Tidal range is observed as the important physical factor controlling the deposition and resuspension of sediments within the Gulf. From the simulation studies; maximum residual current velocities, tidal fronts and high turbulent zones are found to characterise the islands and shoals within the Gulf, which results in high sediment concentrations in those regions. Remarkable variability in the bathymetry of the Gulf, different bed materials and varying tidal conditions induces several circulation patterns and turbulence creating the unique suspended sediment concentration pattern in the Gulf.

  19. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical equation that can be used for estimating the suspended sediment yields of river drainage basins without sediment data has been established for basins in the sub-tropical forest Southwestern river basin system of Ghana. The power law equation relates mean annual specific suspended sediment yield (t km-2 ...

  20. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud. Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  1. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  2. A wave-resolving model for nearshore suspended sediment transport (United States)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Shi, Fengyan


    This paper presents a wave-resolving sediment transport model, which is capable of simulating sediment suspension in the field-scale surf zone. The surf zone hydrodynamics is modeled by the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012). The turbulent flow and suspended sediment are simulated in a coupled manner. Three effects of suspended sediment on turbulent flow field are considered: (1) baroclinic forcing effect; (2) turbulence damping effect and (3) bottom boundary layer effect. Through the validation with the laboratory measurements of suspended sediment under nonbreaking skewed waves and surfzone breaking waves, we demonstrate that the model can reasonably predict wave-averaged sediment profiles. The model is then utilized to simulate a rip current field experiment (RCEX) and nearshore suspended sediment transport. The offshore sediment transport by rip currents is captured by the model. The effects of suspended sediment on self-suspension are also investigated. The turbulence damping and bottom boundary layer effects are significant on sediment suspension. The suspended sediment creates a stably stratified water column, damping fluid turbulence and reducing turbulent diffusivity. The suspension of sediment also produces a stably stratified bottom boundary layer. Thus, the drag coefficient and bottom shear stress are reduced, causing less sediment pickup from the bottom. The cross-shore suspended sediment flux is analyzed as well. The mean Eulerian suspended sediment flux is shoreward outside the surf zone, while it is seaward in the surf zone.

  3. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many natural gums are employed as suspending agents in the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The search to develop locally available natural gum from apparently a waste product as an alternative suspending agent stimulated the interest in this present study. Cola acuminata gum (CAG) extracted from Cola ...

  4. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  5. Evaluation of the suspending property of grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in sulphadimidine suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for sulphadimidine. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  6. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  7. Evaluation of the Suspending Property of Grewia Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in metronidazole suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for metronidazole. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  8. Robust concentration determination of optically active molecules in turbid media with validated three-dimensional polarization sensitive Monte Carlo calculations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Côté; I. Vitkin


    The concentration determination of optically active species in moderately turbid suspensions is studied both experimentally and with a validated three-dimensional polarization-sensitive Monte Carlo model...

  9. Propagation of a turbidity current in confined geometries (United States)

    Silvestre, Nuno; Salgueiro, Dora; Franca, Mário J.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.


    Sedimentation in reservoirs due to turbidity currents originates problems of loss of storage capacity as well as clogging of outlets/intakes. These currents are driven by the difference in specific weight between the current itself and the surrounding fluid, due to the presence of particles in suspension. As a gravity current, the main properties of these phenomena has been investigated by several authors since the 1970´s. Despite driven by a simple mechanism, the propagation of these currents can become more complex owing to the influence of factors such as geometry, bed roughness and other non-uniform elements. However, the majority of conducted studies has been focused in characterising only the influence of density imbalance. The propagation of a density current in confined geometries and the influence of bed roughness is herein investigated, through laboratory experiments carried out at the Laboratory of Hydraulics and Environment of Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon. The density currents were generated with brine to allow for visualization and velocity measurement. The laboratory experiments comprised point and continuous release of a dense NaCl mixture with a tracer (Rhodamine WT), with a density equal to 1028 g/L, into a tank with resting freshwater (1000 g/L). The transport and the mixing processes were recorded with high-speed video. The mass distribution was obtained through a photometric methodology and the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to measure the instantaneous flow velocity fields and the depth of the density current. Both methodologies were used to measure different plan views of the phenomena, including profile and top views, for different regions, near-field and far-field. Different bed roughness were studied, including smooth and rough bed. The facility was designed with the objective to generate a complex 2D flow with an advancing wave front but also shocks reflected from the walls. As the image analysis technique

  10. Response of suspended sediment concentration to tidal dynamics at a site inside the mouth of an inlet: Jiaozhou Bay (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Yang


    Full Text Available Observations of fair weather currents and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC were made using an acoustic Doppler current profiler and two YSI turbidity sensors over a neap to spring time cycle at a site near the inner mouth of a semi-enclosed mesotidal-macrotidal embayment (Jiaozhou Bay to examine the influence of tidal dynamics on concentration and transport of suspended sediment. During the investigation, SSC varied from about 3 to 16 mg L–1 at the surface and about 6 to 40 mg L–1 close to the bed, while the current velocity reached 79 cm s–1 at the surface and 61 cm s–1 near the bed. SSC was tidally cyclic. The near-bed instantaneous SSC was closely related to current velocity with almost no time lag, indicating that the variability of SSC was governed by current-induced settling/resuspension. At the surface, however, instantaneous SSC was poorly related to instantaneous current velocity because the peak SSC tended to occur around ebb slack water. This suggests that the surface SSC was controlled by horizontal advection from landward higher concentration areas. Both at the surface and near the bed, on the other hand, tidally-averaged SSC was well correlated to tidal range and current speed. Current velocity and SSC were flood-dominated for all the tides investigated, which resulted in significant landward residual suspended sediment transport at the study site. The observed flood dominance was mainly attributed to the location of the study site on the landward side of the bay’s inlet where flow separation is favoured during flood tide. It was concluded that tides are the dominant hydrodynamic component controlling the variability of SSC during fair weather at the study area. Keywords: sediment, concentration, suspension, advection, currents, shoalling effect, Jiaozhou Bay, China

  11. Transport and Sources of Suspended Sediment in the Mill Creek Watershed, Johnson County, Northeast Kansas, 2006-07 (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.; Fuller, Christopher C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, evaluated suspended-sediment transport and sources in the urbanizing, 57.4 mi2 Mill Creek watershed from February 2006 through June 2007. Sediment transport and sources were assessed spatially by continuous monitoring of streamflow and turbidity as well as sampling of suspended sediment at nine sites in the watershed. Within Mill Creek subwatersheds (2.8-16.9 mi2), sediment loads at sites downstream from increased construction activity were substantially larger (per unit area) than those at sites downstream from mature urban areas or less-developed watersheds. Sediment transport downstream from construction sites primarily was limited by transport capacity (streamflow), whereas availability of sediment supplies primarily influenced transport downstream from mature urban areas. Downstream sampling sites typically had smaller sediment loads (per unit area) than headwater sites, likely because of sediment deposition in larger, less sloping stream channels. Among similarly sized storms, those with increased precipitation intensity transported more sediment at eight of the nine monitoring sites. Storms following periods of increased sediment loading transported less sediment at two of the nine monitoring sites. In addition to monitoring performed in the Mill Creek watershed, sediment loads were computed for the four other largest watersheds (48.6-65.7 mi2) in Johnson County (Blue River, Cedar, Indian, and Kill Creeks) during the study period. In contrast with results from smaller watersheds in Mill Creek, sediment load (per unit area) from the most urbanized watershed in Johnson County (Indian Creek) was more than double that of other large watersheds. Potential sources of this sediment include legacy sediment from earlier urban construction, accelerated stream-channel erosion, or erosion from specific construction sites, such as stream-channel disturbance during bridge

  12. Depth-integrated suspended sediment and geochemical fluxes in large rivers: the Amazon River system (United States)

    Bouchez, J.; Lupker, M.; Gaillardet, J.; Metivier, F.; France-Lanord, C.; Maurice, L.


    Erosion and weathering produce a wide range of residual solid products, in terms of size, density, mineralogy and chemical composition. These solid products are then transported by rivers from the continents to the oceans as suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bedload. Large rivers account for an important part of this transfer of sediments at the global scale. In those rivers, deep channels allow for vertical differentiation, or sorting, of suspended sediment, following their size and density. This hydrodynamic sorting results in vertically heterogeneous depth-profiles in terms of SPM concentration and size distribution (e.g. Garcia, 2008), which in turn likely result in an heterogeneous chemical composition of SPM throughout channel depth (e.g. Galy, 2007), which has to be evaluated. We sampled river water of the main tributaries of the Amazon River system (in the lowland basin), at two distinct water-stages, at various depths following depth-profiles, using a point depth-sampler. After filtration, and SPM recovery, SPM concentration, grain size distribution and chemical composition were determined. River discharge and water velocity throughout the sampled cross-sections were recorded using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The large increase in SPM concentration with depth observed at most of the sampled depth-profiles is well accounted for by the Rouse model (e.g. Rouse, 1950). This analysis allows us to reliably infer the SPM concentration and grain size distribution throughout the sampled river cross-section, and thus to estimate the spatially-integrated instantaneous SPM flux using ADCP data (Bouchez et al., 2010). The study also emphasizes the potential role of particle aggregation, within the river system, as a complicating factor regarding the prediction of these depth-integrated SPM fluxes from easily measurable hydrodynamic parameters (surface SPM concentration and grain size, and water velocity). Then, using the previous analysis, combined

  13. Predicting fetal lung maturity by visual assessment of amniotic fluid turbidity: comparison with fluorescence polarization assay. (United States)

    Adair, C D; Sanchez-Ramos, L; McDyer, D L; Gaudier, F L; Del Valle, G O; Delke, I


    We prospectively studied 159 patients having clinically indicated amniocentesis. Amniotic fluid (3 to 5 mL) was placed in a nonheparinized glass tube. This sample was then classified as turbid (indicating maturity) or clear (indicating immaturity) on the basis of a single examiner's ability to read newspaper print through the glass tube. These results were then compared with fluorescence polarization values for the same sample. A value of 70 mg/g was considered positive evidence of fetal lung maturity. By study criteria, 62 samples (39%) indicated immaturity and 97 (61%) indicated maturity. Turbidity correctly identified 89 samples that produced fluorescence polarization values of at least 70 mg/g. Turbidity as a predictor of fetal lung maturity when compared with fluorescence polarization assay has a 91% positive and 87% negative predictive value. Visual inspection of amniotic fluid may be of value in areas where sophisticated methods are unavailable.

  14. Use of an oxidative destruction and quadrupole mass spectrometric (QMS) detection for the determination of the organic elemental composition of suspended matter in surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, H.F.R.; Onderdelinden, D.; Visser, M.G.; Griepink, B.


    A study was made of the applicability of a system consisting of a combustion followed by QMS-detection for the determination of the elemental composition of organic matter suspended in surface water. The solid material obtained from several types of water was collected by centrifugation. The results

  15. Species sensitivity distributions for suspended clays, sediment burial, and grain size change in the marine environment. (United States)

    Smit, Mathijs G D; Holthaus, Karlijn I E; Trannum, Hilde C; Neff, Jerry M; Kjeilen-Eilertsen, Grete; Jak, Robbert G; Singsaas, Ivar; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hendriks, A Jan


    Assessment of the environmental risk of discharges, containing both chemicals and suspended solids (e.g., drilling discharges to the marine environment), requires an evaluation of the effects of both toxic and nontoxic pollutants. To date, a structured evaluation scheme that can be used for prognostic risk assessments for nontoxic stress is lacking. In the present study we challenge this lack of information by the development of marine species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for three nontoxic stressors: suspended clays, burial by sediment, and change in sediment grain size. Through a literature study, effect levels were obtained for suspended clays, as well as for burial of biota. Information on the species preference range for median grain size was used to assess the sensitivity of marine species to changes in grain size. The 50% hazardous concentrations (HC50) for suspended barite and bentonite based on 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) were 3,010 and 1,830 mg/L, respectively. For burial the 50% hazardous level (HL50) was 5.4 cm. For change in median grain size, two SSDs were constructed; one for reducing and one for increasing the median grain size. The HL50 for reducing the median grain size was 17.8 mum. For increasing the median grain size this value was 305 mum. The SSDs have been constructed by using information related to offshore oil- and gas-related activities. Nevertheless, the results of the present study may have broader implications. The hypothesis of the present study is that the SSD methodology developed for the evaluation of toxic stress can also be applied to evaluate nontoxic stressors, facilitating the incorporation of nontoxic stressors in prognostic risk assessment tools.

  16. Cyclic steps due to the surge-type turbidity currents in flume experiments: effect of surge duration on the topography of steps (United States)

    Yokokawa, Miwa; Yamano, Junpei; Miyai, Masatomo; Hughes Clarke, John; Izumi, Norihiro


    Field observations of turbidity currents and seabed topography on the Squamish delta in British Columbia, Canada revealed that cyclic steps formed by the surge-type turbidity currents (e.g., Hughes Clarke et al., 2014). The high-density portion of the flow, which affects the sea floor morphology, lasted only 30-60 seconds. We are doing flume experiments aiming to investigate the relationship between the condition of surges and topography of resultant steps. In this presentation, we are going to discuss about the effect of surge duration on the topography of steps. The experiments have been performed at Osaka Institute of Technology. A flume, which is 7.0 m long, 0.3 m deep and 2 cm wide, was suspended in a larger tank, which is 7.6 m long, 1.2 m deep and 0.3 m wide, filled with water. The inner flume tilted at 7 degrees. As a source of turbidity currents, mixture of salt water (1.17 g/cm^3) and plastic particles (1.3 g/cm^3, 0.1-0.18 mm in diameter) was prepared. The concentration of the sediments was 6.1 weight % (5.5 volume %) in the head tank. This mixture of salt water and plastic particles poured into the upstream end of the inner flume from head tank for 3 seconds or 7 seconds. 140 surges were made respectively. Discharge of the currents were fluctuated but range from 306 to 870 mL for 3s-surge, and from 1134 to 2030 mL for 7s-surge. As a result, five or six steps were formed respectively. At the case of 3s-surge, steps located at upstream portion of the flume moved vigorously toward upstream direction, whereas steps at downstream portion of the flume moved toward upstream direction at the case of 7s-surge. The wavelengths and wave heights of the steps by 3s-surge are larger than those of 7s-surge at the upstream portion of the flume, but the size of steps of 3s-surge are smaller than those of 7s-surge at the downstream portion of the flume. In this condition of slope and concentration, the longer surge duration, i.e. larger discharge of the current

  17. Operating Conditions of Coagulation-Flocculation Process for High Turbidity Ceramic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Al-Asheh


    Full Text Available This work attempted to determine the optimum conditions required for the coagulation and flocculation process as an essential stage of the ceramic wastewater treatment. Coagulation and flocculation is a very necessary step in industries as it lessens turbidity, color, and odor of wastewater. The experimental work was performed in several runs. The volume of wastewater used in each run was 200 mL and was kept at this value throughout. In certain runs, the speed of the mixer was varied while keeping the quantity of coagulant and flocculant constant in order to determine the optimum speed that resulted in the least turbidity. A speed of 5% was chosen as the ideal process speed according to the results obtained. Next, experiments were operated at this optimum speed while changing the dosage of coagulant and flocculant in order to decide the optimum dosage. Coagulant and flocculent amounts of 0.4 g (without booster and 0.2 g (with booster selected after the readings were taken. For all the readings, a turbidity meter was used providing results in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU. Lowest turbidity was achieved when using 5% speed with 0.4 grams of coagulant and 0.4 grams of flocculant, or 5% speed with 0.2 grams of coagulant, 0.2 grams of flocculant and 0.25 g/L of booster coagulant. According to factorial design analysis, such as parameters as impeller speed and dosage have an influential impact on the turbidity; while the booster has insignificant influence and other interactions between parameters are important.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bina ، M. H. Mehdinejad ، M. Nikaeen ، H. Movahedian Attar


    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer disease, and more interest has been considered on the development of natural coagulants such as chitosan. Chitosan, a natural linear biopolyaminosaccharide, is obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitosan as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The optimum pH was observed between 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. The optimum doses of alum and chitosan when used in conjunction, were 10mg/L and 1mg/L, 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L, and 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L in low, medium and high turbidities, respectively. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between %74.3 to %98.2 by alum in conjunction with chitosan. Residual Al+3 in treated water was less than 0.2 mg/L, meeting the international guidelines. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 2-4 log units within the first 1 to 2 hr of treatment. Hardness removal efficiency decreased when the total hardness increased from 102 to 476mg/L as CaCO3. At low initial turbidity, chitosan showed marginally better performance on hardness, especially at the ranges of 100 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3. In conclusion, coagulant aid showed a useful method for coagulation process. By using natural coagulants, considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved.

  19. Effects of turbidity on predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub to rainbow and brown trout (United States)

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, Rylan; Vaage, Benjamin M.


    Predation on juvenile native fish by introduced rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and brown trout Salmo trutta is considered a significant threat to the persistence of endangered humpback chub Gila cypha in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Diet studies of rainbow and brown trout in Glen and Grand canyons indicate that these species eat native fish, but impacts are difficult to assess because predation vulnerability is highly variable depending on the physical conditions under which the predation interactions take place. We conducted laboratory experiments to evaluate how short-term predation vulnerability of juvenile humpback chub changes in response to changes in turbidity. In overnight laboratory trials, we exposed hatchery-reared juvenile humpback chub and bonytail Gila elegans (a surrogate for humpback chub) to adult rainbow and brown trout at turbidities ranging from 0 to 1,000 formazin nephlometric units. We found that turbidity as low as 25 formazin nephlometric units significantly reduced predation vulnerability of bonytail to rainbow trout and led to a 36% mean increase in survival (24–60%, 95% CI) compared to trials conducted in clear water. Predation vulnerability of bonytail to brown trout at 25 formazin nephlometric units also decreased with increasing turbidity and resulted in a 25% increase in survival on average (17–32%, 95% CI). Understanding the effects of predation by trout on endangered humpback chub is important when evaluating management options aimed at preservation of native fishes in Grand Canyon National Park. This research suggests that relatively small changes in turbidity may be sufficient to alter predation dynamics of trout on humpback chub in the mainstem Colorado River and that turbidity manipulation may warrant further investigation as a fisheries management tool.

  20. A label-free fiber-optic Turbidity Affinity Sensor (TAS) for continuous glucose monitoring. (United States)

    Dutt-Ballerstadt, Ralph; Evans, Colton; Pillai, Arun P; Gowda, Ashok


    In this paper, we describe the concept of a novel implantable fiber-optic Turbidity Affinity Sensor (TAS) and report on the findings of its in-vitro performance for continuous glucose monitoring. The sensing mechanism of the TAS is based on glucose-specific changes in light scattering (turbidity) of a hydrogel suspension consisting of small particles made of crosslinked dextran (Sephadex G100), and a glucose- and mannose-specific binding protein - Concanavalin A (ConA). The binding of ConA to Sephadex particles results in a significant turbidity increase that is much greater than the turbidity contribution by the individual components. The turbidity of the TAS was measured by determining the intensity of light passing through the suspension enclosed within a small semi-permeable hollow fiber (OD: 220 μm, membrane thickness: 20 μm, molecular weight cut-off: 10 kDa) using fiber optics. The intensity of measured light of the TAS was proportional to the glucose concentration over the concentration range from 50mg/dL to 400mg/dL in PBS and whole blood at 37°C (R>0.96). The response time was approximately 4 min. The stability of the glucose response of the TAS decreased only slightly (by 20%) over an 8-day study period at 37°C. In conclusion, this study demonstrated proof-of-concept of the TAS for interstitial glucose monitoring. Due to the large signal amplitude of the turbidity change, and the lack of need for wavelength-specific emission and excitation filters, a very small, robust and compact TAS device with an extremely short optical pathlength could be feasibly designed and implemented for in-vivo glucose monitoring in people with diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    Full Text Available Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1 • d(-1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P < 0.001. Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P < 0.05. It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  2. Amniotic fluid turbidity: a useful adjunct for assessing fetal pulmonary maturity status. (United States)

    Strong, T H; Hayes, A S; Sawyer, A T; Folkestad, B; Mills, S; Sugden, P


    A rapid, very simple technique for establishing fetal pulmonary maturity status is presented. Among 100 receiving amniocenteses, aspiration of turbid amniotic fluid that would not permit the reading of newsprint through it was associated with a lecithin/sphingomyelin (LS) ratio of greater than or equal to 2.0, or the presence of phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) in 97% (specificity 98%, positive predictive value 97%). The authors conclude that when turbid fluid is aspirated, delay until LS and PG results are known may not be necessary.

  3. Transmission and scattering matrix of polarization imaging for biological turbid medium (United States)

    Firdous, Shamaraz; Ikram, Masroor


    Laser transmittion and scattering technique, including depolarization of wave applied to biological particles provide a sample way for diagnostic and treatment of skin lesion and breast cancer. Laser polarization imaging system is described for non invasive and non radioactive detection. The system described in this paper generates 16 full out put Mueller matrix for characterization of turbid medium. In this work we describe the scattering and depolarization of electromagnetic radiation through biological turbid medium. This research work provides a base work for designing quick model of polarized laser tissues imaging.

  4. Diffusion processes in freely suspended smectic films (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Zakharov, A. V.


    A molecular model describing translational diffusion in freely suspended smectic films (FSSFs) in air is proposed. This model is based on the random walk theory and allows calculation of the translational diffusion coefficient (TDC) across smectic layers (along the director). All values necessary for calculating the TDC are obtained within the generalized mean-field model considering not only anisotropic interactions between nearest neighbors of molecules forming FSSFs, but also the stabilizing effect of the smectic/air interface. The spatial inhomogeneity of order parameters over the FSSF section, arising in this case, results in the fact that the surface tension at the smectic/air interface not only suppresses thermal fluctuations in surface layers, but also completely suppresses translational diffusion of molecules from the FSSF to air. The results of calculations of dimensional translational diffusion in the bulk of the FSSF formed by 5- n-alkyl-2-(4- n-(perfluoroalkyl-metyleneoxy))pentyl molecules during its thinning show that the TDC monotonically increases as the smectic film is thinned.

  5. Influence of charge carriers on corrugation of suspended graphene (United States)

    Kirilenko, Demid A.; Gorodetsky, Andrei; Baidakova, Marina V.


    Electronic degrees of freedom are predicted to play a significant role in mechanics of two-dimensional crystalline membranes. Here we show that appearance of charge carriers may cause a considerable impact on suspended graphene corrugation, thus leading to additional mechanism resulting in charge carriers mobility variation with their density. This finding may account for some details of suspended graphene conductivity dependence on its doping level and suggests that proper modeling of suspended graphene-based device properties must include the influence of charge carriers on its surface corrugation.

  6. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas


    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  7. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  8. The effects of Moringa lieifera seed powder on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium spp. in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H. H.; Wolsey, I.; Dalsgaard, A.


    or water used for postharvest washing of the produce is contaminated. A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the effect of a coagulant from the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in Danish wastewater. To each of five time points, 12 replicates...

  9. Report Task 2.3: Particulate waste and turbidity in (marine) RAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kals, J.; Schram, E.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.; Bakel, van B.


    Particulate waste management and removal is one of the most problematic parts of recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). Particulate waste and thereby turbidity originates from three major sources: fish (faeces), feed and biofilm (heterotrophic bacteria and fungi). Based on size and density there

  10. Assessment of effluent turbidity in mesophilic and thermophilic sludge reactors - origin of effluent colloidal material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, J.C.T.; Lier, van J.B.; Klapwijk, B.; Vries, M.C.; Lettinga, G.


    Two lab-scale plug flow activated sludge reactors were run in parallel for 4 months at 30 and 55°C. Research focussed on: (1) COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, (2) effluent turbidity at both temperatures, (3) the origin of effluent colloidal material and (4) the possible role of protozoa on

  11. The effects of turbidity and an invasive species on foraging success of rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides) (United States)

    Peter D. Hazelton; Gary D. Grossman


    Habitat degradation and biological invasions are important threats to fish diversity worldwide. We experimentally examined the effects of turbidity, velocity and intra- and interspecific competition on prey capture location, reactive distance and prey capture success of native rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides) and invasive yellowfin shiners (Notropis lutipinnis)...

  12. Non-contact spectroscopic determination of large blood volume fractions in turbid media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Bremmer (Rolf); S.C. Kanick (Stephen); N. Laan (Nick); A. Amelink (Arjen); T.G. van Leeuwen (Ton); M.J.A.M. Aalders


    textabstractWe report on a non-contact method to quantitatively determine blood volume fractions in turbid media by reflectance spectroscopy in the VIS/NIR spectral wavelength range. This method will be used for spectral analysis of tissue with large absorption coefficients and assist in age

  13. The role of upstream-migrating knick points in turbidity current channels (United States)

    Cartigny, Matthieu; Hughes Clarke, John; Stacey, Cooper; Hage, Sophie; Parsons, Daniel; Talling, Peter; Azpiroz, Maria; Clare, Michael; Eggenhuisen, Joris; Hizzett, Jamie; Hunt, James; Lintern, Gwyn; Sumner, Esther; Vellinga, Age; Vendettouli, Daniella; Wood, Jon


    High-resolution bathymetric images of turbidity current channels reveal the existence of a wide range of bedforms within these systems. Knick points are the dominant kilometre-scale bedform in most sandy systems. These knick points are thought to initiate and maintain submarine channels, and they would therefore play a key role the transport of sediment and nutrients to the deep sea. In contrast to their important role very little is known about knick points. What drives the formation of a knick point? Are they remnant headwalls of landslide, or are they related to supercritical turbidity currents? Are they a purely erosional feature? Do they have any preservation potential in the rock record? Here we present data collected from knick points in an active turbidity current channel on a fjord floor in British Colombia, Canada. These data show how trains of knick points migrate several hundred metres upstream every year. We use repeat surveys to show how knick points are a combined erosional-depositional feature. Furthermore, we have deployed several instruments over the knick points to study how the knick points interact with the passing turbidity currents. Finally, we use repeat surveys and cores to explore the potential architecture and facies association associated to knick points.

  14. Copepods in turbid shallow soda lakes accumulate unexpected high levels of carotenoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Schneider

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are protective pigments present in many aquatic organisms that reduce the photooxidative stress induced by short-wavelenght solar radiation, yet increase their susceptibility to predators. Arctodiaptomus spinosus, a calanoid copepod typically found in many fishless shallow soda lakes, shows large between-lake differences in pigmentation. Here, we attribute these differences to the environmental state of these ecosystems, namely, 'dark water' lakes with submersed vegetation and turbid 'white' lakes lacking macrophytes. Copepod carotenoid concentration in the turbid 'white' lakes was significantly (about 20-fold higher than in the 'dark water' ones, although the latter systems were characterized by higher transparency. In addition, males had on a dry weight basis around three times higher carotenoid concentrations than females. Mycosporine-like amino acids (direct UV screening substances were found in all cases, but in low concentration. The environmental conditions in these ecosystems were largely shaped by the presence/absence of submersed macrophytes Thus, in the turbid lakes, the strong wind-driven mixis allows for copepods to be brought to the surface and being exposed to solar radiation, whereas in 'dark water' ones, macrophytes reduce water turbulence and additionally provide shelter. Our results explain the counter-intuitive notion of strong red pigmentation in copepods from a turbid ecosystem and suggest that factors other than high UV transparency favor carotenoid accumulation in zooplankton.

  15. Comments on the Origin and Significance of Density Stratification in Turbidity Currents (United States)

    Kneller, B. C.


    In turbidity currents the unidirectional sediment flux towards the bed due to particle settling, which potentially limits run-out distance, is balanced by turbulent diffusion of particles away from the bed due to boundary layer turbulence. This creates a Rouse-like distribution of particles that is dependent on the ratio of shear velocity to particle settling velocities, resulting in a density stratification. Although turbidity currents are often modelled using depth-averaged equations, their stratification, at both top and bottom of the current, generally has a significant effect on their behaviour. In the lower parts of stratified flows, response to topography - which is almost ubiquitous on the sea floor - is determined by an internal Froude number of the form: where is velocity, is a characteristic length scale, and is the buoyancy frequency, given by: where is the vertical density gradient and is the ambient density. This is true , both upstream and downstream of an obstacle. In the upper parts of turbidity currents (and other gravity currents) the entrainment of ambient fluid and the internal fluid friction due to turbulence are also dependent on the density gradient within the upper part of the current via the gradient Richardson number, given as: Where exceeds 0.25, turbulence and mixing at the upper boundary are minimal. Thus most aspects of turbidity current behaviour, at both lower and upper boundaries, are dependent on density stratification.

  16. Precision Cleaning Verification of Nonvolatile Residues by Using Water, Ultrasonics, and Turbidity Analyses (United States)

    Skinner, S. Ballou


    Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) in the atmosphere are believed to present a major environmental problem because they are able to interact with and deplete the ozone layer. NASA has been mandated to replace chlorinated solvents in precision cleaning, cleanliness verification, and degreasing of aerospace fluid systems hardware and ground support equipment. KSC has a CFC phase-out plan which provides for the elimination of over 90 percent of the CFC and halon use by 1995. The Materials Science Laboratory and KSC is evaluating four analytical methods for the determination of nonvolatile residues removal by water: (1) infrared analyses using an attenuated total reflectance; (2) surface tension analyses, (3) total organic content analyses, and (4) turbidity analyses. This research project examined the ultrasonic-turbidity responses for 22 hydrocarbons in an effect to determine: (1) if ultrasonics in heated water (70 C) will clean hydrocarbons (oils, greases, gels, and fluids) from aerospace hardware; (2) if the cleaning process by ultrasonics will simultaneously emulsify the removed hydrocarbons in the water; and (3) if a turbidimeter can be used successfully as an analytical instrument for quantifying the removal of hydrocarbons. Sixteen of the 22 hydrocarbons tested showed that ultrasonics would remove it at least 90 percent of the contaminated hydrocarbon from the hardware in 10 minutes or less giving a good ultrasonic-turbidity response. Six hydrocarbons had a lower percentage removal, a slower removal rate, and a marginal ultrasonic-turbidity response.

  17. Cross shore transport by wind-driven turbidity plumes in western Lake Superior (United States)

    Turbidity plumes frequently occur in the western arm of Lake Superior and may represent a significant cross shelf transport mechanism for sediment, nutrient and organisms. We characterize a plume that formed in late April 2016 using observations from a suite of in situ sensors an...

  18. Turbidity current hydraulics and sediment deposition in erodible sinuous channels: Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janocko, M.; Cartigny, M.J.B.; Nemec, W.; Hansen, E.W.M.


    This study explores the relationship between the hydraulics of turbidity currents in erodible sinuous channels and the resulting intra-channel sediment depocentres (channel bars). Four factors are considered to exert critical control on sedimentation in sinuous submarine channels: (1) the

  19. Turbidity maximum formation in a well-mixed macrotidal estuary : The role of tidal pumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Wang, Y.; Gao, J.; Gao, S.; Flemming, B.


    Traditionally, vertical circulation (induced by gravity circulation and tidal straining), tidal pumping, and resuspension are suggested as the major processes for the formation and maintenance of the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM). Due to strong mixing, tidal pumping is considered as the

  20. Turbidity alters pre-mating social interactions between native and invasive stream fishes (United States)

    Glotzbecker, Gregory J.; Ward, Jessica L.; Walters, David M.; Blum, Michael J.


    Environmental degradation can result in the loss of aquatic biodiversity if impairment promotes hybridisation between non-native and native species. Although aquatic biological invasions involving hybridisation have been attributed to elevated water turbidity, the extent to which impaired clarity influences reproductive isolation among non-native and native species is poorly understood.

  1. Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production




    Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production. From sour varieties of pomegranates may obtain normal natural pomegranate juice by anion-exchange resin. There are determined problems quantity of precipitate and unstable color in the pomegranate juice and concentrate by experimentally.

  2. Processes that initiate turbidity currents and their influence on turbidites: A marine geology perspective (United States)

    Piper, David J.W.; Normark, William R.


    How the processes that initiate turbidity currents influence turbidite deposition is poorly understood, and many discussions in the literature rely on concepts that are overly simplistic. Marine geological studies provide information on the initiation and flow path of turbidity currents, including their response to gradient. In case studies of late Quaternary turbidites on the eastern Canadian and western U.S. margins, initiation processes are inferred either from real-time data for historical flows or indirectly from the age and contemporary paleogeography, erosional features, and depositional record. Three major types of initiation process are recognized: transformation of failed sediment, hyperpycnal flow from rivers or ice margins, and resuspension of sediment near the shelf edge by oceanographic processes. Many high-concentration flows result from hyperpycnal supply of hyperconcentrated bedload, or liquefaction failure of coarse-grained sediment, and most tend to deposit in slope conduits and on gradients transformation of retrogressive failures and from ignitive flows that are triggered by oceanographic processes, tend to cannibalize these more proximal sediments and redeposit them on lower gradients on the basin plain. Such conduit flushing provides most of the sediment in large turbidites. Initiation mechanism exerts a strong control on the duration of turbidity flows. In most basins, there is a complex feedback between different types of turbidity-current initiation, the transformation of the flows, and the associated slope morphology. As a result, there is no simple relationship between initiating process and type of deposit.

  3. Wind-driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Ahmad, I.M.; Mehra, P.; Michael, G.S.; Sundar, D.

    wherein high con- centrations of bacterial populations were reported. Another important aspect of ETM is that it may acts as ‘nursery area’ for some fish eggs and larvae to spend time. Eggs are masked from predators under the cover of high turbidity (North...

  4. Biogeochemistry of the MAximum TURbidity Zone of Estuaries (MATURE): some conclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, P.M.J.; Heip, C.H.R.


    In this paper, we give a short overview of the activities and main results of the MAximum TURbidity Zone of Estuaries (MATURE) project. Three estuaries (Elbe, Schelde and Gironde) have been sampled intensively during a joint 1-week campaign in both 1993 and 1994. We introduce the publicly available

  5. Conversion function between the Linke turbidity and the atmospheric water vapor and aerosol content


    Ineichen, Pierre


    This technical note presents a conversion function between the widely used Linke turbidity coefficient TL, the atmospheric water vapor and urban aerosol content. It takes into account the altitude of the application site. The function is based on radiative transfer calculations and validated with the help of an independent clear sky model. Its precision is around 0.12 units of TL.

  6. Effects of urbanization, construction activity, management practices, and impoundments on suspended-sediment transport in Johnson County, northeast Kansas, February 2006 through November 2008 (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Ziegler, Andrew C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Johnson County, Kansas, Stormwater Management Program, investigated the effects of urbanization, construction activity, management practices, and impoundments on suspended-sediment transport in Johnson County from February 2006 through November 2008. Streamgages and continuous turbidity sensors were operated at 15 sites within the urbanizing 57-square-mile Mill Creek Basin, and 4 sites downstream from the other largest basins (49 to 66 square miles) in Johnson County. The largest sediment yields in Johnson County were observed downstream from basins with increased construction activity. Sediment yields attributed to the largest (68 acre) active construction site in the study area were 9,300 tons per square mile in 2007 and 12,200 tons per square mile in 2008; 5 to 55 times larger than yields observed at other sampling sites. However, given erodible soils and steep slopes at this site, sediment yields were relatively small compared to the range in historic values from construction sites without erosion and sediment controls in the United States (2,300 to 140,000 tons per square mile). Downstream from this construction site, a sediment forebay and wetland were constructed in series upstream from Shawnee Mission Lake, a 120-acre reservoir within Shawnee Mission Park. Although the original intent of the sediment forebay and constructed wetland were unrelated to upstream construction, they were nonetheless evaluated in 2008 to characterize sediment removal before stream entry into the lake. The sediment forebay was estimated to reduce 33 percent of sediment transported to the lake, whereas the wetland did not appear to decrease downstream sediment transport. Comparisons of time-series data and relations between turbidity and sediment concentration indicate that larger silt-sized particles were deposited within the sediment forebay, whereas smaller silt and clay-sized sediments were transported through the wetland and

  7. Why do some turbidity currents create upstream migrating bedforms while others do not? (United States)

    Vellinga, Age; Cartigny, Matthieu; Clare, Michael


    Turbidity currents are the dominant process for transporting sediment from continental shelves to the deep sea via submarine canyons. The small density contrast between turbidity currents and ambient seawater means that many of these currents are in the Froude-supercritical flow regime. Froude-supercritical flows in open channel flows form upstream migrating bedforms such as antidunes and cyclic steps. Turbidity currents have been shown to create similar upstream migrating bedforms in submarine canyons and on steep delta slopes, on a scale of tens of to hundreds metres; but curiously such bedforms are not always observed. Here, using a novel depth-resolved numerical model, we explore the physical controls on upstream migrating bedform development. Why do some turbidity currents create upstream migrating bedforms, and others do not? A series of turbidity currents, with different initial concentrations, flow velocities, and thicknesses are simulated using a computational fluid-dynamics model. The sediment bed, initially with a random rugosity, is free to be reworked by turbidity currents. Contrary to expectations, we found that Froude-supercritical turbidity currents do not necessarily create upstream migrating bedforms. In isolation, the densimetric Froude number is a poor predictor for the formation of upstream migrating bedforms, unlike in open channel flows. Density stratification instead appears to be more important. The mixing intensity of the flow, as characterised by the gradient Richardson number, is used to quantify the degree of stratification and appears to be a primary control on upstream bedform migration. In the model runs, all flows that created upstream migrating bedforms where stratified, whereas none of the well-mixed flows created these bedforms. All flows that created bedforms had a denser basal layer with a densimetric Froude number above unity, and a mean velocity maximum over a threshold values (1.4 m/s in this case). Our results show that

  8. Suspended sediment concentration profiles from synoptic satellite observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Rajawat, A; Chauhan, O.S.

    A method is developed to estimate vertical suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles in Gulf of Kachchh, from the sediment concentration values derived from synoptic observations of Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM). Under the influence of currents...

  9. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  10. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.


    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  11. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.


    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently

  12. Suspended-sediment and suspended-sand concentrations and loads for selected streams in the Mississippi River Basin, 1940-2009 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Cline, Teri L.; Glaspie, Lori M.


    This report presents suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow data, describes load-estimation techniques used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment loads, and presents annual suspended-sediment loads for 48 streamgaging stations within the Mississippi River Basin. Available published, unpublished, and computed annual total suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads are presented for water years 1940 through 2009. When previously published annual loads were not available, total suspended-sediment and sand loads were computed using available data for water years 1949 through 2009. A table of suspended-sediment concentration and daily mean streamflow data used in the computation of annual loads is presented along with a table of compiled and computed annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads, annual streamflows, and flow-weighted concentrations for the 48 stations.

  13. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine


    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  14. Density-salinity-suspended sediment experimental curves for Guadalquivir River estuary conditions (United States)

    Carpintero García, M.; Jurado López, A.; Contreras Arribas, E.; Polo Gómez, M. J.


    Estuarine water in Mediterranean watersheds contains high suspended sediment concentrations due to both the fine textured nature of the materials reaching the final stretch of the fluvial network, and the agricultural predominance of soil uses upstream. Saline conditions induce flocculation processes which alter the original behavior of the soil particles in water. The final high density mixture of water-salts-sediments has physicochemical characteristics very different from the saline water alone. However, this is not often included when modeling the dynamics of estuaries, adopting the density, viscosity, etc., values corresponding to the present level of salinity found at each point. The nature of the local sediments influences the density values finally found. The Guadalquivir River estuary (southwestern Spain) extends along the 105 km between the Alcalá del Río dam, upstream, and its mouth in Sanlúcar de Barrameda. It is an Atlantic mesotidal estuary (Díez-Minguito et al., 2010) with a mainly longitudinal salinity gradient. The sediments in the estuary are very fine-textured due to the great length of the river and, mainly, the extreme trapping efficiency of the dense reservoir network upstream along the 57400 km2 of the contributing area. With an average value of 0.5 - 4.5 g L-1 for the suspended sediment range along the estuary, extreme values up to 160 g L-1 can be found associated with persistent turbidity events forced by different combinations of conditions. This work shows the density variation with changing bivariate conditions of salinity-suspended sediments, following the combined range found along the estuary. Laboratory measurements were made at 19° C for synthetic seawater with 35 g L-1salinity and the decreasing range found upstream by dilution until a final value of 0.2 g L-1, for which an increasing suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was induced by adding sediments locally extracted from the estuary. The final density of these sets of

  15. Evaluating the performance of the OC5 algorithm of IFREMER for the highly turbid waters of Río de la Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Daniela Camiolo


    Full Text Available Abstract Remote sensing provides a global vision of the oceans; validation is, however, an essential previous step. IFREMER developed the empirical algorithm OC5 for highly turbid (or type 2 waters and it performed well for the northwestern European shelf. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of this algorithm for the Río de la Plata estuary, utilizing in situ observations of chlorophyll-a and suspended matter. Our results show a low point-to-point correlation between in situ and remote observations for both variables. In addition, the root mean square log error (RMSE exceeded 35% for both variables, indicating a poor performance of the OC5 algorithm. This might be related to the empirical nature of the algorithm, to the amount and distribution of the data used for the analysis, to the species that compose the phytoplankton of the region, to the presence of other optically active substances in the water, and to errors in the atmospheric corrections and/or to the spatial variability of the analyzed variables. In conclusion, our results confirm the need to develop regional algorithms which take into account the particular physical and biological characteristics of the area under study.

  16. Estuarine Turbidity Maxima and Variations of Aggregate Parameters in the Cam-Nam Trieu Estuary, North Vietnam, in Early Wet Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Duy Vinh


    Full Text Available This study aims at exploring the characteristic parameters of the Estuarine Turbidity Maxima (ETM and at investigating their tidal variations within the Cam-Nam Trieu estuary (North Vietnam during the early wet season. Six longitudinal river transects were performed at spring tide. Two types of ETM were observed: an upper well mixed ETM with high Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM concentrations up to the surface at low salinity (0.11 to <1 psu, and a lower ETM confined in a bottom layer over stratified waters at salinities between ~1 psu and 15 psu. Their length depended on the longitudinal salinity gradient and was highest at low tide than at high tide. D50 of the flocs varied between 35 and 90 μm, their excess of density between 60 and 300 kg m−3 and their settling velocity ranged from 0.07 to 0.55 mm s−1 with values between 0.12 and 0.40 mm s−1 in the core of ETMs. The average fractal dimension of flocs was estimated to vary between 1.93 (at high tide to 2.04 (at low tide.

  17. Effects of wind farm construction on concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon and suspended sediment from peat catchments at Braes of Doune, central Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Grieve


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the impacts of disturbance associated with the construction of a wind farm on fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and suspended sediment from a blanket peat catchment in central Scotland during the period immediately following completion of construction. Six streams draining the site were sampled on six dates from October 2006, when construction was completed, and an additional three control streams to the west of the site were sampled on the same dates. Turbidity and stage were recorded semi-continuously in the two largest streams (one disturbed and one control, which were also sampled during storm events. Absorbance (400 nm and DOC concentrations were determined on all samples, and suspended sediment was determined on the event samples. Absorbance and DOC were closely correlated in both the disturbed and undisturbed streams, with slightly greater absorbance per unit DOC in the disturbed streams. DOC concentrations in disturbed tributaries were always greater than those in undisturbed streams, with mean differences ranging from 2 to around 5 mg L-1. DOC and stage were positively correlated during events with maximum concentrations in excess of 30 mg L 1 at peak flow. Suspended sediment concentrations were markedly elevated in the disturbed stream with maximum concentrations at peak flow some 4–5 times greater than in the control. The colour of the sediment suggested that it was highly organic in nature at peak flow, and suspended particulate organic carbon represented a further loss of C from the site. Using flow-weighted mean DOC concentrations calculated for the storms monitored in autumn 2007, dissolved carbon losses can be estimated for the catchments of the disturbed and control streams. From these data the additional DOC loss related to disturbance associated with the wind farm is estimated at 5 g m-2.

  18. Turbulence control of suspended matter aggregate size (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.; Rippeth, T. P.; Simpson, J. H.


    The size and properties of the aggregates which comprise suspended particulate matter (SPM) change on short time and length scales in shelf seas. There is experimental and theoretical evidence to suggest that turbulence plays a key role in aggregation but there is contradictory evidence with respect to disaggregation: it has been proposed that sinking stresses, rather than turbulent stresses, are the dominant control of disaggregation. But there is little observational evidence for turbulence control of particle properties. New observations are presented which provide compelling evidence for turbulence control of both aggregation and disaggregation. TKE dissipation and particle size were measured in situ at stratified sites in the northern North Sea in 110 m water depth during the period of weakening of the seasonal thermocline (in October/November) and in the Clyde Sea in 55 m water depth (April). There were similar vertical distributions of TKE dissipation E, SPM concentration C, and particle size D at both sites. At the base of the thermocline, there were minima in E and C, but a maximum in D, indicating that enhanced aggregation was occurring in this region of low turbulent stress. In the bottom mixed layer, E and C increased, while D decreased due to disaggregation in this region of increasing turbulent stress towards the seabed. Particles settling out of the low stress region at the base of the thermocline began to disaggregate when E increased to 3.2x10-6 watts m-2. D did not correlate directly with E because aggregation is a function of collision frequency (and hence of both C and E): this can be accounted for using a simplified theoretical aggregation model which treats flocs as self-similar fractal entities and allows simultaneous floc formation and break up, specified as functions of C and E. It was found that in the northern North Sea the measured D represents an equilibrium size predicted by the model, while in the Clyde Sea tidal variation in both C

  19. A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio; Taroni, Paola; Torricelli, Alessandro; Valentini, Gianluca [CEQSE-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    A solid tissue phantom made of agar, Intralipid and black ink is described and characterized. The preparation procedure is fast and easily implemented with standard laboratory equipment. An instrumentation for time-resolved transmittance measurements was used to determine the optical properties of the phantom. The absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients are linear with the ink and Intralipid concentrations, respectively. A systematic decrease of the reduced scattering coefficient dependent on the agar content is observed, but can easily be managed. The phantom is highly homogeneous and shows good repeatability among different preparations. Moreover, agar inclusions can be easily embedded in either solid or liquid matrixes, and no artefacts are caused by the solid - solid or solid - liquid interfaces. This allows one to produce reliable and realistic inhomogeneous phantoms with known optical properties, particularly interesting for studies on optical imaging through turbid media. (author)

  20. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea). (United States)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Francken, Frederic; Lauwaert, Brigitte; Van den Eynde, Dries; Van Lancker, Vera; Martens, Chantal; Michielsen, Tinne


    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub-sampling, was applied to evaluate the effect. The data revealed that the SPM concentration near the bed was on average more than two times higher during the dredging experiment. The disposed material was mainly transported in the benthic layer and resulted in a long-term increase of SPM concentration and formation of fluid mud layers. The study shows that SPM concentration can be used as an indicator of environmental changes if representative time series are available. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Total Suspended Matter (TSM) and Maximum Signal Depth (Z90_max) for Monitoring the Evolution of Sediment Resuspension Process in Shallow Coastal Environments (United States)

    Filipponi, Federico; Zucca, Francesco; Taramelli, Andrea; Valentini, Emiliana


    Monitoring sediment fluxes patterns in coastal area, like dispersion, sedimentation and resuspension processes, is a relevant topic for scientists, decision makers and natural resources management. Time series analysis of Earth Observation (EO) data may contribute to the understanding and the monitoring of processes in sedimentary depositional marine environment, especially for shallow coastal areas. This research study show the ability of optical medium resolution imagery to interpret the evolution of sediment resuspension from seafloor in coastal areas during intense wind forcings. Intense bora wind events in northern Adriatic Sea basin during winter season provoke considerable wave-generated resuspension of sediments, which cause variation in water column turbidity. Total Suspended Matter (TSM) product has been selected as proxy for qualitative and quantitative analysis of resuspended sediments. In addition, maximum signal depth (Z90_max), has been used to evaluate the evolution of sediment concentration in the water column.

  2. Modelling the transport of solid contaminants originated from a point source (United States)

    Salgueiro, Dora V.; Conde, Daniel A. S.; Franca, Mário J.; Schleiss, Anton J.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.


    The solid phases of natural flows can comprise an important repository for contaminants in aquatic ecosystems and can propagate as turbidity currents generating a stratified environment. Contaminants can be desorbed under specific environmental conditions becoming re-suspended, with a potential impact on the aquatic biota. Forecasting the distribution of the contaminated turbidity current is thus crucial for a complete assessment of environmental exposure. In this work we validate the ability of the model STAV-2D, developed at CERIS (IST), to simulate stratified flows such as those resulting from turbidity currents in complex geometrical environments. The validation involves not only flow phenomena inherent to flows generated by density imbalance but also convective effects brought about by the complex geometry of the water basin where the current propagates. This latter aspect is of paramount importance since, in real applications, currents may propagate in semi-confined geometries in plan view, generating important convective accelerations. Velocity fields and mass distributions obtained from experiments carried out at CERIS - (IST) are used as validation data for the model. The experimental set-up comprises a point source in a rectangular basin with a wall placed perpendicularly to the outer walls. Thus generates a complex 2D flow with an advancing wave front and shocks due to the flow reflection from the walls. STAV-2D is based on the depth- and time-averaged mass and momentum equations for mixtures of water and sediment, understood as continua. It is closed in terms of flow resistance and capacity bedload discharge by a set of classic closure models and a specific high concentration formulation. The two-layer model is derived from layer-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, resulting in a system of layer-specific non-linear shallow-water equations, solved through explicit first or second-order schemes. According to the experimental data for mass distribution, the

  3. Discriminating silt-and-clay from suspended-sand in rivers using side-looking acoustic profilers (United States)

    Wright, Scott A.; Topping, David J.; Williams, Cory A.


    The ability to accurately monitor suspended-sediment flux in rivers is needed to support many types of studies, because the sediment that typically travels in suspension affects geomorphology and aquatic habitat in a variety of ways (e.g. bank and floodplain deposition, bar morphology, light penetration and primary productivity, tidal wetland deposition in the context of sea-level rise, sediment-associated contaminants, reservoir sedimentation and potential erosion during dam removal, among others). In addition, human-induced changes to the landscape have resulted in substantially altered suspended-sediment loads (Syvitski et al., 2005). Thus, accurate monitoring of suspended-sediment flux is necessary for informed resource management of rivers. Because of this need, a variety of techniques have been developed and applied for suspendedsediment monitoring. The traditional approach in the United States, which was developed and has been used extensively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), is to collect an isokinetic, velocity-weighted sample from a river cross-section, analyze the sample in the laboratory, and use water-discharge records to compute a record of suspended-sediment flux (Guy, 1969, Guy, 1970, Edwards and Glysson, 1999, Porterfield, 1972). The labor and expense associated with this traditional approach is substantial such that the number of USGS gages reporting daily records of suspended-sediment flux decreased from 364 in 1981 to 120 in 2003 (Osterkamp et al., 2004). Also, the traditional sampling approach is limited with respect to the temporal resolution that can be achieved, thus requiring the use of approximate relations between suspended-sediment concentration and water discharge to fill gaps between samples. To address these limitations, several indirect or "surrogate" measures have been investigated (see e.g. Gray and Gartner, 2009) most notably optical backscatter (i.e. turbidity), laser-diffraction, and acoustic backscatter. These indirect

  4. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A


    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  5. Modelling the risk of mortality of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae exposed to different turbidity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEP. Avelar

    Full Text Available The provision of sediment in rivers, due to erosion processes that occur in the environment, consists of a major source of pollution and alteration of the physicochemical conditions of water resources. In addition, the increase in water turbidity may cause siltation, dramatically impacting aquatic communities. Specifically considering the bivalve Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of exposure to different turbidity conditions of sediments, as a risk factor for the animals. For this purpose, a docking device was designed to ensure water circulation in a closed system and to maintain the desired levels of turbidity. Although C. fluminea can generally tolerate environmental changes in aquatic systems, an intolerance to high turbidity levels was experimentally observed, expressed by the mortality rate of the animals when exposed to conditions above 150 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU. This value was similar to the one recorded at study sites in the rivers Pardo (Serrana-SP-Brazil and Mogi Guaçu (Porto Ferreira-SP-Brazil during the rainy season. Using a logistic regression model, the experimental results were analysed and the observed mortality rates indicate that the exposure of the animals to turbidity levels above 150 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU, for periods longer than 120 hours, may be considered a probable cause of mortality for the species.

  6. Modelling the risk of mortality of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774) (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae) exposed to different turbidity conditions. (United States)

    Avelar, W E P; Neves, F F; Lavrador, M A S


    The provision of sediment in rivers, due to erosion processes that occur in the environment, consists of a major source of pollution and alteration of the physicochemical conditions of water resources. In addition, the increase in water turbidity may cause siltation, dramatically impacting aquatic communities. Specifically considering the bivalve Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774), the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of exposure to different turbidity conditions of sediments, as a risk factor for the animals. For this purpose, a docking device was designed to ensure water circulation in a closed system and to maintain the desired levels of turbidity. Although C. fluminea can generally tolerate environmental changes in aquatic systems, an intolerance to high turbidity levels was experimentally observed, expressed by the mortality rate of the animals when exposed to conditions above 150 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). This value was similar to the one recorded at study sites in the rivers Pardo (Serrana-SP-Brazil) and Mogi Guaçu (Porto Ferreira-SP-Brazil) during the rainy season. Using a logistic regression model, the experimental results were analysed and the observed mortality rates indicate that the exposure of the animals to turbidity levels above 150 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU), for periods longer than 120 hours, may be considered a probable cause of mortality for the species.

  7. Lake eutrophication as indicated by ERTS satellite imagery (United States)

    Scherz, J. P.; Van Domelen, J. F.; Holtje, K.; Johnson, W.


    Light reflectance from water in the laboratory always correlates to the water quality parameter of turbidity. This turbidity is caused by suspended solids in the water and for a particular type of material there is a good correlation between the weight of these suspended solids and turbidity. However, this correlation is different for different types of material. When this suspended material is living green matter as in an eutrophic lake, the changes in reflectance can be detected as changes in brightness on a particular aerial image. Two test sites have shown that there is indeed a good correlation between the brightness on an ERTS image and lake eutrophication.

  8. Comparing temporally-focused GPC and CGH for two-photon excitation and optogenetics in turbid media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas


    Inherent inhomogeneity in turbid media not only hinders imaging but also projection of arbitrary light patterns for excitation or optical manipulation. In this work we compare two of the most popular phase modulation-based techniques in beam shaping. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method uses...... and fabrication because of its high diffraction efficiency and axial confinement. We model the effect of the turbid media as a phase randomization process. We compare the quality and asses the degradation of the projected light pattern for both techniques as it propagates in the turbid media....

  9. Effects of Suspended Sediment on Early Life Stages of Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu). (United States)

    Suedel, Burton C; Wilkens, Justin L; Kennedy, Alan J


    The resuspension of sediments caused by activities, such as dredging operations, is a concern in Great Lakes harbors where multiple fish species spawn. To address such concerns, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were exposed to uncontaminated suspended sediment (nominally 0, 100, 250, and 500 mg/L) continuously for 72 h to determine the effects on egg-hatching success and swim-up fry survival and growth. The test sediments were collected from two harbors: (1) fine-grained sediment in Grand Haven Harbor, Lake Michigan, and (2) coarser-grained sediment in Fairport Harbor, Lake Erie. Eggs exposed to total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations >100 mg/L resulted in decreased survival of post-hatch larval fish. Fry survival was >90 % at the highest exposure concentration (500 mg/L), but growth was decreased when the exposure concentration was >100 mg/L. Growth and survival of swim-up fry held for a 7- and 26-day post-exposure the grow-out period was variable suggesting that the sediment grain size and strain of fish may influence lingering effects after the cessation of exposure. The results suggest that exposed eggs hatched normally; however, newly hatched larvae, which are temporarily immobile, are more vulnerable to the effects of suspended sediment. The swim-up fry were found to be more sensitive to high TSS concentrations in sandy relative to silty sediment. These data represent a conservative exposure scenario that can be extrapolated to high-energy systems in the field to inform management decisions regarding the necessity for dredging windows or need to implement controls to protect M. dolomieu.

  10. Assessment of water quality of Sembilang River receiving effluent from controlled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Selangor (United States)

    Tengku Ibrahim, T. N. B.; Othman, F.; Mahmood, N. Z.


    Most of the landfills in Malaysia are situated near to the main river basin that supplies almost 90% of water requirement. This includes landfills in Selangor where a total of 20 landfill sites are situated in 5 main river basins and the highest number of operating landfills (three) are at the Selangor River Basin (Jeram, Bukit Tagar and Kuang Inert landfills). This situation has caused wide concern over the water safety, even the leachate has been treated. The leachate itself still contains contaminants that are difficult to treat. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect on water quality of Sembilang River that receives effluent from the nearby landfill. In this study, we analyzed samples of water from ten sampling stations starting from the upstream to downstream of Sembilang River. The water quality was evaluated by the Water Quality Index (WQI) depending on in-situ and laboratory analysis. 11 water quality variables are selected for the quality assessment; temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphate and nitrate. The result indicated that, when the effluent mixed with the river water, the water quality decreased gradually and was found to be lower at a few stations. The water quality of Sembilang River falls under Class III of Water Quality Index with ranges between 68.03 to 43.46 mg/L. It is revealed that the present scenario of water quality of Sembilang River is due to the effect of effluent from the landfill.

  11. Use of multispectral satellite remote sensing to assess mixing of suspended sediment downstream of large river confluences (United States)

    Umar, M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.; Greenberg, Jonathan A.


    Although past work has noted that contrasts in turbidity often are detectable on remotely sen