WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspended solid overload

  1. Effect of anabolic steroids on overloaded and overloaded suspended skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsika, R. W.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of treatment with an anabolic steroid (nandrolone decanoate) on the muscle mass, the subcellular protein content, and the myosin patterns of normal overloaded and suspended overloaded plantaris muscle in female rat was investigated, dividing rats into six groups: normal control (NC), overload (OV), OV steroid (OV-S), normal suspended (N-sus), OV suspended (OV-sus), and OV suspended steroid (OV-sus-S). Relative to control values, overload produced a sparing effect on the muscle weight of the OV-sus group as well as increases of muscle weight of the OV group; increased protein content; and an increased expression of slow myosin in both OV and OV-sus groups. Steroid treatment of OV animals did not after the response of any parameter analyzed for the OV group, but in the OV-sus group steroid treatment induced increases in muscle weight and in protein content of the OV-sus-S group. The treatment did not alter the pattern of isomyosin expression observed in the OV or the OV-sus groups. These result suggest that the steroid acts synergistically with functional overload only under conditions in which the effect of overload is minimized by suspension.

  2. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  3. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly

  4. (suspended solids and metals) removal efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu,. Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database.

  5. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  6. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  7. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2000-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy

  8. Factors influencing suspended solids concentrations in activated sludge settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y; Pipes, W O

    1999-05-31

    A significant fraction of the total mass of sludge in an activated sludge process may be in the settling tanks if the sludge has a high sludge volume index (SVI) or when a hydraulic overload occurs during a rainstorm. Under those conditions, an accurate estimate of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks is needed in order to calculate the mean cell residence time or to determine the capacity of the settling tanks to store sludge. Determination of the amount of sludge in the settling tanks requires estimation of the average concentration of suspended solids in the layer of sludge (XSB) in the bottom of the settling tanks. A widely used reference recommends averaging the concentrations of suspended solids in the mixed liquor (X) and in the underflow (Xu) from the settling tanks (XSB=0. 5{X+Xu}). This method does not take into consideration other pertinent information available to an operator. This is a report of a field study which had the objective of developing a more accurate method for estimation of the XSB in the bottom of the settling tanks. By correlation analysis, it was found that only 44% of the variation in the measured XSB is related to sum of X and Xu. XSB is also influenced by the SVI, the zone settling velocity at X and the overflow and underflow rates of the settling tanks. The method of averaging X and Xu tends to overestimate the XSB. A new empirical estimation technique for XSB was developed. The estimation technique uses dimensionless ratios; i.e., the ratio of XSB to Xu, the ratio of the overflow rate to the sum of the underflow rate and the initial settling velocity of the mixed liquor and sludge compaction expressed as a ratio (dimensionless SVI). The empirical model is compared with the method of averaging X and Xu for the entire range of sludge depths in the settling tanks and for SVI values between 100 and 300 ml/g. Since the empirical model uses dimensionless ratios, the regression parameters are also dimensionless and the model can be

  9. Improved Methods for Correlating Turbidity and Suspended Solids for Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This technical note describes techniques normally used to measure turbidity and suspended solids in waters, how the two parameters relate to each other and to various environmental impacts, and why...

  10. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  11. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  12. Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Suspended Solids Profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STENKAMP, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the Operational Test Report for the 241-AZ-101 Suspended Solids Profiler. This document presents the results of Operational Testing of the 241-AZ-101 Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP). Testing of the SSP was performed in accordance with OTP-260-005, ''SUSPENDED SOLIDS PROFILER OPERATIONAL TEST PROCEDURE''. The objective of the testing was to verify that all equipment and components functioned as designed, following construction completion and turnover to operations

  13. The Prediction Methods for Potential Suspended Solids Clogging Types during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Du

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation and development of managed aquifer recharge (MAR have been limited by the clogging attributed to physical, chemical, and biological reactions. In application field of MAR, physical clogging is usually the dominant type. Although numerous studies on the physical clogging mechanism during MAR are available, studies on the more detailed suspended clogging types and its prediction methods still remain few. In this study, a series of column experiments were inducted to show the process of suspended solids clogging process. The suspended solids clogging was divided into three types of surface clogging, inner clogging and mixed clogging based on the different clogging characteristics. Surface clogging indicates that the suspended solids are intercepted by the medium surface when suspended solids grain diameter is larger than pore diameter of infiltration medium. Inner clogging indicates that the suspended solids particles could transport through the infiltration medium. Mixed clogging refers to the comprehensive performance of surface clogging and inner clogging. Each suspended solids clogging type has the different clogging position, different changing laws of hydraulic conductivity and different deposition profile of suspended solids. Based on the experiment data, the ratio of effective medium pore diameter (Dp and median grain size of suspended solids (d50 was proposed as the judgment index for suspended solids clogging types. Surface clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was less than 5.5, inner clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was greater than 180, and mixed clogging occurred while Dp/d50 was between 5.5 and 180. In order to improve the judgment accuracy and applicability, Bayesian method, which considered more ratios of medium pore diameter (Dp and different level of grain diameter of suspended solids (di, were developed to predict the potential suspended solids types.

  14. Quantifying suspended solids in small rivers using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Celso M; McIntyre, Neil; Lechner, Alex M; Callow, Ian

    2018-09-01

    The management of suspended solids and associated contaminants in rivers requires knowledge of sediment sources. In-situ sampling can only describe the integrated impact of the upstream sources. Empirical models that use surface reflectance from satellite images to estimate total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations can be used to supplement measurements and provide spatially continuous maps. However, there are few examples, especially in narrow, shallow and hydrologically dynamic rivers found in mountainous areas. A case study of the Didipio catchment in Philippines was used to address these issues. Four 5-m resolution RapidEye images, from between the years 2014 and 2016, and near-simultaneous ground measurements of TSS concentrations were used to develop a power law model that approximates the relationship between TSS and reflectance for each of four spectral bands. A second dataset using two 2-m resolution Pleiades-1A and a third using a 6-m resolution SPOT-6 image along with ground-based measurements, were consistent with the model when using the red band data. Using that model, encompassing data from all three datasets, gave an R 2 value of 65% and a root mean square error of 519mgL -1 . A linear relationship between reflectance and TSS exists from 1mgL -1 to approximately 500mgL -1 . In contrast, for TSS measurements between 500mgL -1 and 3580mgL -1 reflectance increases at a generally lower and more variable rate. The results were not sensitive to changing the pixel location within the vicinity of the ground sampling location. The model was used to generate a continuous map of TSS concentration within the catchment. Further ground-based measurements including TSS concentrations that are higher than 3580mgL -1 would allow the model to be developed and applied more confidently over the full relevant range of TSS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Removal of oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water with ceramic crossflow microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.S.C.; Flynn, J.T.; Cook, R.G.; Casaday, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper results of studies of two onshore and two offshore pilot plants that use ceramic crossflow microfiltration (CCFM) to separate oil, grease, and suspended solids from produced water are discussed. The method is capable of producing permeate quality with < =5 mg/L (detection limit) of dispersed oil and grease and <1 mg/L of suspended solids

  16. Distribution of Total Suspended Solids Concentration in a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanif Asyhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of either industrial or nonindustrial wastewater into a river has a potential to cause riverpollution. Because each load of wastewater discharged into a river contains physical, chemical, and biological parametersthat determine water quality, so that it can affect the dissolved oxygen concentration in a river. Therefore the conductedresearch was aimed to determine the pattern of pollutant dispersion in Surabaya River within the section that is closed tothe Karang Pilang Monitoring Station - Surabaya. Parameter used in this research was Total Suspended Solids (TSS. Themethod used was the finite volume method with Quadratic Upwind Interpolation Convective Kinematics (QUICK schemeby means of developing models of dispersion water pollutants in a river. The governing equation was controlled by the lawsof mass conservation, momentum conservation, and pollution transport equation. Further, these equations were solvedusing numerical calculation and followed by numerical simulation. From the numerical simulation results, it can beconcluded that the magnitude of pollutant dispersion is determined by the initial discharged TSS concentrations into theriver, however the longitudinal direction is more dominantly influenced than in lateral directions.

  17. Analysis of suspended solids transport processes in primary settling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, Miklós; Kiss, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    The paper shows the results of a long-term research comprising FLUENT-based numerical modeling, in situ measurements and laboratory tests to analyze suspended solids (SS) transport processes in primary settling tanks (PSTs). The investigated PST was one of the rectangular horizontal flow PSTs at a large municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of a capacity of 500,000 population equivalent. Many middle-sized and large WWTPs are equipped with such PSTs. The numerical PST model was calibrated and validated based on the results of comprehensive in situ flow and SS concentration measurements from low (5 m/h) up to quite high surface overflow rates of 9.5 and 13.0 m/h and on settling and other laboratory tests. The calibrated and validated PST model was also successfully used for evaluation of some slight modifications of the inlet geometry (removing lamellas, installing a flocculation 'box', shifting the inlet into a 'bottom-near' or into a 'high' position), which largely affect PST behavior and performance. The investigations provided detailed insight into the flow and SS transport processes within the investigated PST, which strongly contributes to hydrodynamically driven design and upgrading of PSTs.

  18. Feasibility of using acoustic velocity meters for estimating highly organic suspended-solids concentrations in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Levee 4 canal site below control structure G-88 in the Everglades agricultural area in northwestern Broward County, Florida, to study the relation of acoustic attenuation to suspended-solids concentrations. Acoustic velocity meter and temperature data were obtained with concurrent water samples analyzed for suspended-solids concentrations. Two separate acoustic velocity meter frequencies were used, 200 and 500 kilohertz, to determine the sensitivity of acoustic attenuation to frequency for the measured suspended-solids concentration range. Suspended-solids concentrations for water samples collected at the Levee 4 canal site from July 1993 to September 1994 ranged from 22 to 1,058 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from about 30 to 93 percent. Regression analyses showed that attenuation data from the acoustic velocity meter (automatic gain control) and temperature data alone do not provide enough information to adequately describe the concentrations of suspended solids. However, if velocity is also included as one of the independent variables in the regression model, a satisfactory correlation can be obtained. Thus, it is feasible to use acoustic velocity meter instrumentation to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in streams, even when suspended solids are primarily composed of organic material. Using the most comprehensive data set available for the study (500 kiloherz data), the best fit regression model produces a standard error of 69.7 milligrams per liter, with actual errors ranging from 2 to 128 milligrams per liter. Both acoustic velocity meter transmission frequencies of 200 and 500 hilohertz produced similar results, suggesting that transducers of either frequency could be used to collect attenuation data at the study site. Results indicate that calibration will be required for each acoustic velocity meter system to the unique suspended-solids regime existing at each site. More robust solutions may

  19. An inexpensive optical sensor system for monitoring total suspended solids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to design and develop an optical transsmissometer sensor for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water samples. The proposed optical sensor has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, and easy to make and operate. An optical algorithm has been developed and used for the measurement of total suspended solids concentrations. The developed optical sensor components include light emitting diodes LEDs that are used for measuring transmitted light. The concentrations of total suspended solids TSS are determined from transmitted light through the water samples. The transmitted light is measured in terms of the output voltage of the photodetector of the sensor system. The readings are measured using a digital multimeter. The results indicate that the level of the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the total suspended solids concentration. The proposed algorithm produces a high correlation coefficient and low root mean square error. (Author)

  20. Turbidity and total suspended solid concentration dynamics in streamflow from California oak woodland watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Kenneth W. Tate; Randy A. Dahlgren; Jacob Newell

    2002-01-01

    Resource agencies, private landowners, and citizen monitoring programs utilize turbidity (water clarity) measurements as a water quality indicator for total suspended solids (TSS – mass of solids per unit volume) and other constituents in streams and rivers. The dynamics and relationships between turbidity and TSS are functions of watershed-specific factors and...

  1. Removal of turbidity and suspended solids backwash water from rapid sand filter by using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Yari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By appropriate method can be recycled more than 95 percent effluent backwashing the filter. This study aimed to examine the efficiency of the electrocoagulation process on turbidity and suspended solids removal from backwash effluent of rapid sand filter of water treatment plants No 1 in Karaj. Methods: This bench-scale experimental study was carried out on the samples of backwash effluent in a batch system. The Plexiglas tank with a volume of 4 liters, containing of 4 plate electrodes made of aluminum and iron was connected to a direct current power supply. Samples every 15 minutes to measure turbidity and suspended solids collected in the middle of the reactor and examined. Effect of several parameters such as current density, reaction time and voltage were studied. The total number of samples tested were 48. Turbidity and total suspended solids was measured by nephlometry and gravimetric method, respectively. Results: The highest removal efficiency of turbidity and suspended solids in reaction time of 60 minutes, current density of 2 mA and a voltage of 45 mV was observed. The highest removal efficiency of turbidity in aluminum and iron electrodes were 96.83 and 83.77 %, respectively. Also The highest removal efficiency of suspended solids were 96.73 and 86.22 %, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that electro- coagulation process can be a good choice to remove turbidity and suspended from backwash of rapid sand filter. Aluminum electrode efficiency in the removal of turbidity and suspended solids was greater than the iron electrode.

  2. Estrogenic and AhR activities in dissolved phase and suspended solids from wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Sonia; Gomez, Elena; Picot, Bernadette; Cavaillès, Vincent; Casellas, Claude; Balaguer, Patrick; Fenet, Hélène

    2010-05-15

    The distribution of estrogen receptor (ERalpha) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) activities between the dissolved phase and suspended solids were investigated during wastewater treatment. Three wastewater treatment plants with different treatment technologies (waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), trickling filters (TFs) and activated sludge supplemented with a biofilter system (ASB)) were sampled. Estrogenic and AhR activities were detected in both phases in influents and effluents. Estrogenic and AhR activities in wastewater influents ranged from 41.8 to 79 ng/L E(2) Eq. and from 37.9 to 115.5 ng/L TCDD Eq. in the dissolved phase and from 5.5 to 88.6 ng/g E(2) Eq. and from 15 to 700 ng/g TCDD Eq. in the suspended solids. For both activities, WSP showed greater or similar removal efficiency than ASB and both were much more efficient than TF which had the lowest removal efficiency. Moreover, our data indicate that the efficiency of removal of ER and AhR activities from the suspended solid phase was mainly due to removal of suspended solids. Indeed, ER and AhR activities were detected in the effluent suspended solid phase indicating that suspended solids, which are usually not considered in these types of studies, contribute to environmental contamination by endocrine disrupting compounds and should therefore be routinely assessed for a better estimation of the ER and AhR activities released in the environment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SEBARAN TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS PADA PROFIL VERTIKAL DI PERAIRAN SELAT MADURA KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Dwi Siswanto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (Total Suspended Solid (TSS dapat dipelajari secara horizontal maupun vertikal. Akumulasi sedimen tersuspensi (TSS secara horizontal sangat dipengaruhi oleh arus permukaan maupun gelombang yang dibangkitkan oleh angin. Keterdapatan TSS ini diduga berpengaruh terhadap sebarannya pada profil vertical. Kedua kondisi sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (TSS berpengaruh terhadap optimalisasi penetrasi cahaya matahari di perairan. Sedimen tersuspensi (TSS menjadi salah satu factor fisika yang penting sebagai indicator kondisi perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sebaran Total Suspended Solid (TSS di perairan Kabupaten Bangkalan. Materi utama yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah contoh air dan data parameter lingkungan (pasang surut dan kecerahan yang diambil pada 7 stasiun pada bulan Agustus-September 2013 di Perairan Selat Madura, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Metode gravimetric (SNI-06-6989.3-2004 digunakan untuk analisa Total Suspended Solid (TSS. Data parameter lingkungan dianalisa secara deskriptif. Analisa TSS menunjukkan nilai yang berbeda pada beberapa stasiun penelitian untuk setiap minggunya. Konsentrasi TSS terendah sebesar 35 mg/L (Stasiun 3, profil permukaan, minggu pertama dan tertinggi sebesar 620 mg/L (Stasiun 4, profil dasar, minggu pertama. Secara umum, konsentrasi TSS secara vertikal (dari permukaan-dasar cenderung semakin besar, diduga dipengaruhi oleh jenis substrat dan parameter arus yang berpeluang untuk menimbulkan pengadukan di profil dasar. Kondisi lingkungan (kecerahan dan arus menunjukkan bahwa daerah dengan konsentrasi TSS yang tinggi cenderung memilki nilai kecerahan yang rendah dengan kecepatan arus yang lebih besar.Kata Kunci: kecerahan, pola arus, Total Suspended Solid (TSS DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS IN THE VERTICAL PROFILE IN THE MADURA STRAIT WATERS BANGKALAN DISTRICTABSTRACTDistribution of suspended sediment (Total Suspended Solid (TSS can be studied through

  4. Development of a field test method for total suspended solids analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Total suspended solids (TSS) are all particles in water that will not pass through a glass fiber filter with a pore size less : than 2 m, including sediments, algae, nutrients, and metals. TSS is an important water quality parameter because of its ...

  5. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water; Caracterizacion y morfologia de solidos suspendidos en agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy.

  6. Infrared Spectroscopy of Noh Suspended in Solid Parahydrogen: Part Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanoff, Morgan E.; Mutunga, Fredrick M.; Anderson, David T.

    2015-06-01

    The only report in the literature on the infrared spectroscopy of the parent oxynitrene NOH was performed using Ar matrix isolation spectroscopy at 10 K. In this previous study, they performed detailed isotopic studies to make definitive vibrational assignments. NOH is predicted by high-level calculations to be in a triplet ground electronic state, but the Ar matrix isolation spectra cannot be used to verify this triplet assignment. In our 2013 preliminary report, we showed that 193 nm in situ photolysis of NO trapped in solid parahydrogen can also be used to prepare the NOH molecule. Over the ensuing two years we have been studying the infrared spectroscopy of this species in more detail. The spectra reveal that NOH can undergo hindered rotation in solid parahydrogen such that we can observe both a-type and b-type rovibrational transitions for the O-H stretch vibrational mode, but only a-type for the mode assigned to the bend. In addition, both observed a-type infrared absorption features (bend and OH stretch) display fine structure; an intense central peak with weaker peaks spaced symmetrically to both lower and higher wavenumbers. The spacing between the peaks is nearly identical for both vibrational modes. We now believe this fine structure is due to spin-rotation interactions and we will present a detailed analysis of this fine structure. Currently, we are performing additional experiments aimed at making 15NOH to test these preliminary assignments. The most recent data and up-to-date analysis will be presented in this talk. G. Maier, H. P. Reisenauer, M. De Marco, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 38, 108-110 (1999). U. Bozkaya, J. M. Turney, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. F. Schaefer III, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 164303 (2012). David T. Anderson and Mahmut Ruzi, 68th Ohio State University International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, talk TE01 (2013).

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy of HNO and Noh Suspended in Solid Parahydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David T.; Ruzi, Mahmut

    2013-06-01

    The only report in the literature on the infrared spectroscopy of the parent oxynitrene NOH was performed using Ar matrix isolation spectroscopy at 10 K. In this previous study, the NOH is synthesized by co-deposition of NO/Ar and a H_2/Ar mixture that is passed through a microwave discharge to create H-atoms. The H-atoms recombine with NO in the Ar matrix to produce mostly HNO, but some NOH is produced as well. In this work we irradiate NO doped parahydrogen solids at 2 K using 193 nm radiation which is known to generate H-atoms as by-products. After the photolysis laser is stopped, we detect growth of HNO and NOH presumably due to reactions of H-atoms with NO analogous to the previous Ar matrix study. The higher energy NOH isomer is predicted by high-level calculations to be in a triplet ground electronic state. Interestingly, the infrared absorptions of NOH for the two observed vibrational modes (bend and OH stretch) display fine structure; an intense central peak with smaller peaks spaced symmetrically to both lower and higher wavenumbers. Further, the spacing between the peaks is the same for both vibrational modes. We believe this fine structure reflects the zero-field splitting of the triplet ground state of NOH (magnetic dipole-dipole interaction) and our most current results and analysis will be presented. G. Maier, H. P. Reisenauer, M. De Marco, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 38, 108-110 (1999). M. Fushitani and T. Momose, Low Temp. Phys. 29, 740-743 (2003). U. Bozkaya, J. M. Turney, Y. Yamaguchi, and H. F. Schaefer III, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 164303 (2012).

  8. Determination of radiocaesium in agriculture-related water samples containing suspended solids using gelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Shin, Moono; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Shinano, Takuro; Kitajima, Shiori; Tsuchiya, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    After the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, the radiocaesium, which flowed into the paddy fields via irrigation water, have been widely investigated. When the concentration of radiocaesium in the water samples containing suspended solids were directly measured using a high purity germanium detector with a 2 L marinelli beaker, the radiocaesium concentration might be overestimated due to the sedimentation of the suspended solids during the measurement time. In fact, the values obtained by the direct method were higher than those obtained by the filtering method and/or the gelling method in most of the agriculture-related water samples. We concluded that the gelling method using sodium polyacrylate can be widely adapted for the analysis of the total radiocaesium in the agriculture-related water samples because of its many advantage such as simple preparation procedure, accurate analysis values, excellent long-term stability of geometry and low operating cost. (author)

  9. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  10. Optoelectronic system to measure the concentration and turbidity of suspended solids in the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The selection of the site where a nuclear power plant is to be built requires intensive study of the environmental conditions. This work presents the results reached on the development of a measurement system of suspended solids based on turbidity characteristics of the water. The system consists of an optical transducer composed of an emitter and a detector of infrared light, both solid state type, whose electrical signal is electronically treated. The equipment was calibrated and certified against turbidity and concentration standards in laboratory use. The obtained results indicate the reliability of the experimental method. The utilization of the equipment at the shore reinforces its flexibility and commodity of use. (author)

  11. Effect of the exposure to suspended solids on the enzymatic activity in the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic animals are susceptible to sudden changes of their living environment but they adopt strategies to cope with adverse environmental challenges. Contamination by suspended solids, often associated with a dramatic change in the concentrations of important water-quality variables is a frequent occurrence in China's coastal waters and estuaries. Here we studied the impact of suspended solids on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, as well as adenosine triphosphates (including Na+ K+-ATPase, Mg+ +-ATPase, Ca+ +-ATPase and H+ K+-ATPase in the gills and visceral mass tissues of the molluscan bivalve Sinonovacula constricta exposed (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 days to various concentrations of suspended solids. Our results showed that the antioxidant enzymes cooperated closely to effectively scavenge superoxide anion free radicals and H2O2 (which can ultimately inhibit gill activity through the modification of SOD and/or CAT enzymatic activities. ATPases activity (considered to be a sensitive indicator of toxicity could play an effective role in the maintenance of functional integrity of the plasma membranes as well as some other intracellular functions. After the exposure, a decrease in the Na+ K+-ATPase, Mg+ +-ATPase, and Ca+ +-ATPase activity of the gills was observed suggesting that they were inhibited by the treatments. These results also indicated that, from day 4 to day 16, exposure to high concentrations of suspended solids had an inhibitory effect on the activity of H+-K+-ATPase in the visceral mass of S. constricta. However, after a period of adaptation the H+-K+-ATPase activity was restored to original levels. Our results suggest that long-term exposure to high levels of suspended solids disturb osmoregulation, gastric acid secretion and digestion, cause oxidative damage, as a consequence of antioxidant enzymes inactivation which eventually damages the gills, affect the food intake

  12. Suspended solids moderate the degradation and sorption of waste water-derived pharmaceuticals in estuarine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminot, Yann; Fuster, Laura; Pardon, Patrick; Le Menach, Karyn; Budzinski, Hélène

    2018-01-15

    This study focuses on the fate of pharmaceuticals discharged into an estuarine environment, particularly into the Turbidity Maximum Zone (TMZ). Batch experiments were set up to investigate the factors regulating the degradation of 53 selected pharmaceuticals. Treated effluents from Bordeaux city (France) were mixed with water from the estuarine Garonne River during 4weeks under 6 characterized conditions in order to assess the influence of suspended particulates, sterilization, untreated wastewater input and dilution on the degradation kinetics. Of the 53 pharmaceuticals monitored, 43 were quantified at the initial time. Only 7 exhibited a persistent behavior (e.g. carbamazepine, meprobamate) while biotic degradation was shown to be the main attenuation process for 38 molecules (e.g. abacavir, ibuprofen highly degradable). Degradation was significantly enhanced by increasing concentrations of suspended solids. A persistence index based on the half-lives of the compounds has been calculated for each of the 43 pharmaceuticals to provide a practical estimate of their relative stability. The stability of pharmaceuticals in estuarine environments is likely to be highly variable and attenuated primarily by changes in suspended solid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bulk metal concentrations versus total suspended solids in rivers: Time-invariant & catchment-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Ruegner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Bennett, Jeremy; Fazel Valipour, Shahin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can act as carriers of potentially bioavailable metal species and are thus an emerging area of interest in river system monitoring. The delineation of bulk metals concentrations in river water into dissolved and particulate components is also important for risk assessment. Linear relationships between bulk metal concentrations in water (CW,tot) and total suspended solids (TSS) in water can be used to easily evaluate dissolved (CW, intercept) and particle-bound metal fluxes (CSUS, slope) in streams (CW,tot = CW + CSUS TSS). In this study, we apply this principle to catchments in Iran (Haraz) and Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, and Steinlach) that show differences in geology, geochemistry, land use and hydrological characteristics. For each catchment, particle-bound and dissolved concentrations for a suite of metals in water were calculated based on linear regressions of total suspended solids and total metal concentrations. Results were replicable across sampling campaigns in different years and seasons (between 2013 and 2016) and could be reproduced in a laboratory sedimentation experiment. CSUS values generally showed little variability in different catchments and agree well with soil background values for some metals (e.g. lead and nickel) while other metals (e.g. copper) indicate anthropogenic influences. CW was elevated in the Haraz (Iran) catchment, indicating higher bioavailability and potential human and ecological health concerns (where higher values of CSUS/CW are considered as a risk indicator).

  14. Chemical composition shape form and size of suspended solids in the atmosphere carried by rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2001-01-01

    The interest of this work is to know about shape form, size and chemical composition of the suspended solids in the atmosphere of Toluca city and which are carried by the rains. The harvest of the samples was carried out during january to november 1999. The separation of the particulate matter from the rain water was realized through centrifugation. The solids were analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy to know the shape form and size and the chemical composition was determined by X-ray dispersive energy in general form and of some particles individually analysed. The p H was measured to the solutions and the quantification of some dissolved ions by the Icp technique was realized. The results of the solids showed C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, P, K, Ca, Ti and Fe. Moreover they present sizes which varying from a ten of nanometers until some tens of microns. (Author)

  15. Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

  16. A passive collection system for whole size fractions in river suspended solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato; Seiya Nagao

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve difficulties in collection of river suspended solids (SS) such as frequent observations during stochastic rainfall events, a simple passive collection system of SS has been developed. It is composed of sequentially connected two large-scale filter vessels. A portion of river water flows down into the filter vessels utilizing a natural drop of streambed. The system enable us to carry out long-term, unmanned SS collection. It is also compatible with dissolved component collection. Its performance was validated in a forested catchment by applying to radiocesium and stable carbon transport. (author)

  17. Temporal and spatial variations in total suspended and dissolved solids in the upper part of Manoa stream, Hawaii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Fares, Ali; Tran, Dai Ngia

    2011-01-01

    Hawaiian watersheds are small, steep, and receive high intensity rainfall events of non-uniform distribution. These geographic and weather patterns result in flashy streams of strongly variable water quality even within various stream segments. Total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids

  18. Solid and suspended/dissolved waste (N, P, O) from rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    differences between the dietary treatment groups in the waste produced. On average, 48% of the ingestedNwas recovered in thewater (TANconstituting 64–79%of this)and7% inthesolids. In comparison, 1% of the ingested P was recovered in the water and 43% in the solids. A breakpoint value of 5.6 g standardized......Quantifying aquaculture waste into different waste fractions will make it possible to design different treatment setups for obtaining specific cleaning objectives. The aim of this study was therefore to measure “all” solid and suspended/dissolved (i.e. unsedimented) waste from juvenile rainbow...... trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) fed three commonly applied commercial diets, “all” waste referring to: total nitrogen (N), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN=NH3-N+NH4-N), total phosphorus (P), and organicmatter characterized by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the biological oxygen demand after 5 days (BOD5...

  19. Characteristics of suspended solids affect bifenthrin toxicity to the calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Emily; Lesmeister, Sarah; Teh, Swee; Young, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid pesticide that is highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates. The dissolved concentration is generally thought to be the best predictor of acute toxicity. However, for the filter-feeding calanoid copepods Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, ingestion of pesticide-bound particles could prove to be another route of exposure. The present study investigated bifenthrin toxicity to E. affinis and P. forbesi in the presence of suspended solids from municipal wastewater effluent and surface water of the San Francisco (CA, USA) Estuary. Suspended solids mitigated the toxicity of total bifenthrin to E. affinis and P. forbesi, but mortality was higher than what would be predicted from dissolved concentrations alone. The results indicate that the toxicity and bioavailability of particle-associated bifenthrin was significantly correlated with counts of 0.5-µm to 2-µm particle sizes. Potential explanations could include direct ingestion of bifenthrin-bound particles, changes in food consumption and feeding behavior, and physical contact with small particles. The complex interactions between pesticides and particles of different types and sizes demonstrate a need for future ecotoxicological studies to investigate the role of particle sizes on aquatic organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. The clam (Chamelea gallina: evaluation of the effects of solids suspended in seawater on bivalve molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatora Angela Angioni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the effects of solids in suspension in seawater on clams (Chamelea gallina. The aim was to investigate the possible correlation between the widespread deaths of clams in the coastal waters of the central and northern Adriatic in the last five years and increased concentrations of solids in suspension. The research involved conducting 96-hour tests on clams farmed in aquariums containing filtered seawater. The tests were preceded by a 7-day adaptation stage to allow the molluscs to acclimatise. During this period, the clams were fed on unicellular seaweed (Dunaliella tertiolecta. The molluscs were exposed to particles of solids in suspension consisting of pools of silica gel (SiO2 granules of various sizes, similar to those constituting silt, whose presence and suspension in the sea considerably increase after heavy rain and heavy seas. The study established that the number of deaths caused by solids suspended in seawater at the concentrations used in the tests was not statistically significant.

  1. Application of Acoustic and Optic Methods for Estimating Suspended-Solids Concentrations in the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Eduardo; Byrne, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic and optic methods were applied to estimate suspended-solids concentrations in the St. Lucie River Estuary, southeastern Florida. Acoustic Doppler velocity meters were installed at the North Fork, Speedy Point, and Steele Point sites within the estuary. These sites provide varying flow, salinity, water-quality, and channel cross-sectional characteristics. The monitoring site at Steele Point was not used in the analyses because repeated instrument relocations (due to bridge construction) prevented a sufficient number of samples from being collected at the various locations. Acoustic and optic instruments were installed to collect water velocity, acoustic backscatter strength (ABS), and turbidity data that were used to assess the feasibility of estimating suspended-solids concentrations in the estuary. Other data collected at the monitoring sites include tidal stage, salinity, temperature, and periodic discharge measurements. Regression analyses were used to determine the relations of suspended-solids concentration to ABS and suspended-solids concentration to turbidity at the North Fork and Speedy Point sites. For samples used in regression analyses, measured suspended-solids concentrations at the North Fork and Speedy Point sites ranged from 3 to 37 milligrams per liter, and organic content ranged from 50 to 83 percent. Corresponding salinity for these samples ranged from 0.12 to 22.7 parts per thousand, and corresponding temperature ranged from 19.4 to 31.8 ?C. Relations determined using this technique are site specific and only describe suspended-solids concentrations at locations where data were collected. The suspended-solids concentration to ABS relation resulted in correlation coefficients of 0.78 and 0.63 at the North Fork and Speedy Point sites, respectively. The suspended-solids concentration to turbidity relation resulted in correlation coefficients of 0.73 and 0.89 at the North Fork and Speedy Point sites, respectively. The adequacy of the

  2. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines

  3. Modeling Trace Element Concentrations in the San Francisco Bay Estuary from Remote Measurement of Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, J.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Suspended and dissolved trace elements are key determinants of water quality in estuarine and coastal waters. High concentrations of trace element pollutants in the San Francisco Bay estuary necessitate consistent and thorough monitoring to mitigate adverse effects on biological systems and the contamination of water and food resources. Although existing monitoring programs collect annual in situ samples from fixed locations, models proposed by Benoit, Kudela, & Flegal (2010) enable calculation of the water column total concentration (WCT) and the water column dissolved concentration (WCD) of 14 trace elements in the San Francisco Bay from a more frequently sampled metric—suspended solids concentration (SSC). This study tests the application of these models with SSC calculated from remote sensing data, with the aim of validating a tool for continuous synoptic monitoring of trace elements in the San Francisco Bay. Using HICO imagery, semi-analytical and empirical SSC algorithms were tested against a USGS dataset. A single-band method with statistically significant linear fit (p Arsenic, Iron, and Lead in the southern region of the Bay were found to exceed EPA water quality criteria for human health and aquatic life. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of monitoring programs using remote observation of trace element concentrations, and provide the foundation for investigation of pollutant sources and pathways over time.

  4. Stochastic modeling of total suspended solids (TSS) in urban areas during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luca; Krejci, Vladimir; Rauch, Wolfgang; Kreikenbaum, Simon; Fankhauser, Rolf; Gujer, Willi

    2005-10-01

    The load of total suspended solids (TSS) is one of the most important parameters for evaluating wet-weather pollution in urban sanitation systems. In fact, pollutants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phosphorous and organic compounds are adsorbed onto these particles so that a high TSS load indicates the potential impact on the receiving waters. In this paper, a stochastic model is proposed to estimate the TSS load and its dynamics during rain events. Information on the various simulated processes was extracted from different studies of TSS in urban areas. The model thus predicts the probability of TSS loads arising from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) in combined sewer systems as well as from stormwater in separate sewer systems in addition to the amount of TSS retained in treatment devices in both sewer systems. The results of this TSS model illustrate the potential of the stochastic modeling approach for assessing environmental problems.

  5. Fate of cocaine drug biomarkers in sewer system: the role of suspended solids in biotransformation and sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    on the fate of illicit drugs in sewer systems. This study aims at assessing the role of suspended solids on the biotransformation and sorption in raw sewage of eight illicit drug biomarkers (cocaine, heroin, methadone, mephedrone, ketamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and THC and their urinary metabolites...

  6. Comparison between thermo balance and classic gravimetric method for determination of suspended solids in sludge from wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper two methods for determination of suspended solids in sludge from wastewater treatment plants (activated, thickened and dry, in a range from 0.1 to 20-25%) are compared. Results are similar from statistic point of view between classic gravimetric method and thermo balance method. However the later seems better for its rapid and easy execution. [it

  7. The Analysis of Septic Tank Performance in Regard to Suspended Solids and Organic Matter Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Kirjanova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 117 The aim of this work was to evaluate the removal of suspended solids (SS and 7-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7 in a three chamber septic tank depending on theoretical wastewater retention time and the degree of septic tank cleanliness. It was found out that the performance of the septic tank depended on the degree of its cleanliness: when the septic tank was clean and retention time was three days, SS and BOS7 removal efficiency was 77±10% and 67±14% respectively, whereas two months later, after septic tank desludging, SS removal efficiency decreased to 53±22% and BOD7 to 32±31%. The performance of the septic tank also depended on theoretical wastewater retention time: when some amount of solids was accumulated at the bottom of the septic tank and wastewater retention time was one day, SS and BOS7 removal efficiency was 45±40% and 33±16% respectively; when retention time was three days, SS removal efficiency increased to 53±22% but BOD7 removal efficiency remained similar to one day retention time, i.e. 32±31%.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Characterization of suspended solids and total phosphorus loadings from small watersheds in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danz, Mari E.; Corsi, Steven R.; Graczyk, David J.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the daily, monthly, and yearly distribution of contaminant loadings and streamflow can be critical for the successful implementation and evaluation of water-quality management practices. Loading data for solids (suspended sediment and total suspended solids) and total phosphorus and streamflow data for 23 watersheds were summarized for four ecoregions of Wisconsin: the Driftless Area Ecoregion, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion, the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregion, and the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains Ecoregion. The Northern Lakes and Forests and the North Central Hardwoods Ecoregions were combined into one region for analysis due to a lack of sufficient data in each region. Urban watersheds, all located in the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains, were analyzed separately from rural watersheds as the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region. Results provide information on the distribution of loadings and streamflow between base flow and stormflow, the timing of loadings and streamflow throughout the year, and information regarding the number of days in which the majority of the annual loading is transported. The average contribution to annual solids loading from stormflow periods for the Driftless Area Ecoregion was 84 percent, the Northern Lakes and Forests/North Central Hardwoods region was 71 percent, the Rural Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 70 percent, and the Urban Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains region was 90 percent. The average contributions to annual total phosphorus loading from stormflow periods were 72, 49, 61, and 76 percent for each of the respective regions. The average contributions to annual streamflow from stormflow periods are 20, 23, 31, and 50 percent for each of the respective regions. In all regions, the most substantial loading contributions for solids were in the late winter (February through March), spring (April through May), and

  9. Application of nuclear techniques to the measurement of rock density and transport of solid particles suspended in rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddiki, A.

    1984-10-01

    In order to better understand hydron phenomens in semi-arid regions characterized by torrential rains, we measured solid particles suspended to dums and in rivers. We also determined the density profile of a drilling and density of saline solutions. We designed an automatic nuclear gauge used for measuring the concentration of particles suspended to rivers. The installation, calibration and operations of a LABEN gauge were done in BENI SLIMANE on the 27th and 28th of February, 1984. The first results we obtained were received on the 24th of April, 1984

  10. Comparing peracetic acid and hypochlorite for disinfection of combined sewer overflows: Effects of suspended-solids and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, M; Loconsole, J; Schockling, A J; Nerenberg, R; Pavissich, J P

    2017-12-01

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is an alternative disinfectant that may be effective for combined sewer overflow (CSO) disinfection, but little is known about the effect of particle size on PAA disinfection efficiency. In this work, PAA and hypochlorite were compared as disinfectants, with a focus on the effect of wastewater particles. Inactivation experiments were conducted on suspended cultures of Escherichia coli and wastewater suspended solids. Tested size fractions included particle diameters disinfection efficiency decreased with increasing solids size. However, solids size had little effect on PAA disinfection. The PAA disinfection efficiency decreased at pH values above 7.5. Live/dead staining revealed that PAA disinfection leaves most cells in a viable but non-culturable condition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses suggests that PAA and hypochlorite may inactivate E. coli bacteria by similar mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of total suspended solid by natural coagulant derived from cassava peel waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Asharuddin, S.; Othman, N.; Mohd-Zin, N. S.; Tajarudin, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the performance of starch derived from cassava peel waste as primary coagulant and coagulant aid. Comparable study was also conducted using commercially used aluminium sulfate (alum) as primary coagulant. A series of Jar tests were performed using raw water from Sembrong Barat water treatment plant. It was observed that coagulation test using cassava peel starch (CPS) alone had unappreciable removing ability. However, it was found that combination of alum-CPS successfully achieve up to 90.48% of total suspended solid (TSS) removal under optimized working conditions (pH 9, 7.5mg/L : 100 mg/L of alum : CPS dosage, rapid mixing of 200 rpm for 1 minute; 100 rpm for 2 minutes, slow mixing of 25 rpm for 30 minutes and 30 minutes settling time). This remarks the reduction in alum dosage up to 50% compared to coagulation test using alum alone. Therefore this finding suggesting that CPS can be considered as potential source of sustainable and effective coagulant aid for water treatment especially in developing countries.

  13. Treatment of suspended solids and heavy metals from urban stormwater runoff by a tree box filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimo, F K F; Maniquiz-Redillas, M C; Tobio, J A S; Kim, L H

    2014-01-01

    Particulates, inorganic and toxic constituents are the most common pollutants associated with urban stormwater runoff. Heavy metals such as chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead are found to be in high concentration on paved roads or parking lots due to vehicle emissions. In order to control the rapid increase of pollutant loads in stormwater runoff, the Korean Ministry of Environment proposed the utilization of low impact developments. One of these was the application of tree box filters that act as a bioretention treatment system which executes filtration and sorption processes. In this study, a tree box filter located adjacent to an impervious parking lot was developed to treat suspended solids and heavy metal concentrations from urban stormwater runoff. In total, 11 storm events were monitored from July 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the tree box filter was highly effective in removing particulates (up to 95%) and heavy metals (at least 70%) from the urban stormwater runoff. Furthermore, the tree box filter was capable of reducing the volume runoff by 40% at a hydraulic loading rate of 1 m/day and below.

  14. Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids on the Lower Cache River Watershed, AR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Berrios, Carlos A; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The Cache River Watershed (CRW) in Arkansas is part of one of the largest remaining bottomland hardwood forests in the US. Although wetlands are known to improve water quality, the Cache River is listed as impaired due to sedimentation and turbidity. This study measured turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS) in seven sites of the lower CRW; six sites were located on the Bayou DeView tributary of the Cache River. Turbidity and TSS levels ranged from 1.21 to 896 NTU, and 0.17 to 386.33 mg/L respectively and had an increasing trend over the 3-year study. However, a decreasing trend from upstream to downstream in the Bayou DeView tributary was noted. Sediment loading calculated from high precipitation events and mean TSS values indicate that contributions from the Cache River main channel was approximately 6.6 times greater than contributions from Bayou DeView. Land use surrounding this river channel affects water quality as wetlands provide a filter for sediments in the Bayou DeView channel.

  15. Loads of nitrate, phosphorus, and total suspended solids from Indiana watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Transport of excess nutrients and total suspended solids (TSS) such as sediment by freshwater systems has led to degradation of aquatic ecosystems around the world. Nutrient and TSS loads from Midwestern states to the Mississippi River are a major contributor to the Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone, an area of very low dissolved oxygen concentration in the Gulf of Mexico. To better understand Indiana’s contribution of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River, annual loads of nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS were calculated for nine selected watersheds in Indiana using the load estimation model, S-LOADEST. Discrete water-quality samples collected monthly by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management’s Fixed Stations Monitoring Program from 2000–2010 and concurrent discharge data from the U. S. Geological Survey streamflow gages were used to create load models. Annual nutrient and TSS loads varied across Indiana by watershed and hydrologic condition. Understanding the loads from large river sites in Indiana is important for assessing contributions of nutrients and TSS to the Mississippi River Basin and in determining the effectiveness of best management practices in the state. Additionally, evaluation of loads from smaller upstream watersheds is important to characterize improvements at the local level and to identify priorities for reduction.

  16. Predicting runoff of suspended solids and particulate phosphorus for selected Louisiana soils using simple soil tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Hailin

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships among total suspended solids (TSS) and particulate phosphorus (PP) in runoff and selected soil properties. Nine Louisiana soils were subjected to simulated rainfall events, and runoff collected and analyzed for various parameters. A highly significant relationship existed between runoff TSS and runoff turbidity. Both runoff TSS and turbidity were also significantly related to runoff PP, which on average accounted for more than 98% of total P (TP) in the runoff. Runoff TSS was closely and positively related to soil clay content in an exponential fashion (y=0.10e0.01x, R2=0.91, Psoil electrical conductivity (EC) (y=0.02 x(-3.95), R2=0.70, Psoil suspension turbidity" (SST) which measures turbidity in a 1:200 soil/water suspension, exhibited highly significant linear relationships with runoff TSS (y=0.06x-4.38, R2=0.82, Psoil clay content and EC in a multiple regression, suggesting that SST was able to account for the integrated effect of clay content and electrolytic background on runoff TSS. The SST test could be used for assessment and management of sediment and particulate nutrient losses in surface runoff.

  17. Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, M; Renman, G

    2006-09-01

    It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants. This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg 1(-1). In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg 1(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed.

  18. Characteristic of total suspended particulate (TSP) containing Pb and Zn at solid waste landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budihardjo, M. A.; Noveandra, K.; Samadikun, B. P.

    2018-05-01

    Activities conducted at municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) potentially cause air pollution. Heavy vehicles in MSWLs release various pollutants that can have negative impacts for humans. One noticeable pollutant at MSWLs is airborne total suspended particulate (TSP) which may contain heavy metals such as Pb and Zn and can cause disease when inhaled by humans. In this study, TSP from a landfill in Semarang, Indonesia was collected and characterized to quantify the concentration of Pb and Zn. Meteorological factors (i.e. temperature, humidity and wind velocity) and landfill activities were considered as factors affecting pollutant concentrations. TSP was sampled using dust samplers while the concentrations of heavy metals in TSP were analyzed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Pb concentration ranged from 0.84 to 1.78 µg/m3 while Zn concentration was from 7.87 to 8.76 µg/m3. The levels of Pb were below the threshold specified by the Indonesian Government. Meanwhile, the threshold for Zn has not yet been determined.

  19. Resuspended contaminated sediments cause sublethal stress to oysters: A biomarker differentiates total suspended solids and contaminant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Katelyn J; Dafforn, Katherine A; Simpson, Stuart L; Ringwood, Amy H; Johnston, Emma L

    2015-06-01

    Resuspended contaminated sediments represent an important route of contaminant exposure for aquatic organisms. During resuspension events, filter-feeding organisms are exposed to contaminants, in both the dissolved form (at the gills) and the particulate form (in the digestive system). In addition, these organisms must manage the physical stress associated with an increase in total suspended solids (TSS). To date, few studies have experimentally compared the contributions to biological stress of contaminated and clean suspended solids. The authors mixed field-collected sediments (cellular biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione) were measured to evaluate sublethal toxicity. Lysosomal membrane stability was the most sensitive biomarker for distinguishing effects from resuspended contaminated sediments, as increasing amounts of contaminated TSS increased lysosomal membrane destabilization. The authors' results illustrate the importance of considering contaminant exposures from resuspended sediments when assessing the toxicity of contaminants to aquatic organisms. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Determination of the concentration of total suspends solids (TSS) and heavy metals in basin rio Morote, Nicoya, Guanacaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Murillo, Ricardo; Leon, Sandra; Saravia, Ana Yuri; Mena Sanchez, Carlos de

    2009-01-01

    The total concentration of suspends solids and heavy metals were determined of the Basin of rio Morote. The study spanned six sampling campaigns between April 2003 and May 2005. Sampling points were selected to correspond to places from the high basin to the mouth of the rio Morote in the Golfo de Nicoya. Suspends total solids concentration (TSS) on average exceeds 200 mg/L during the rainy season at the mouth. Enrichment of metals as: Cu, Ni, Cd and Fe was found in riverbed sediments; but not in Pb. The concentration of Zn has been near the limit value (200 mg/kg) in the dry season, value which has been established for the Environmental Protection Agency of United States (EPA). (author) [es

  1. Assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to suspended solids loads in combined sewer systems during rain events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannouche, A; Chebbo, G; Joannis, C

    2014-04-01

    Within the French observatories network SOERE "URBIS," databases of continuous turbidity measurements accumulating hundreds of events and many dry weather days are available for two sites with different features (Clichy in Paris and Ecully in Lyon). These measurements, converted into total suspended solids (TSS) concentration using TSS-turbidity relationships and combined with a model of runoff event mean concentration, enable the assessment of the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather TSS loads observed at the outlet of the two watersheds. Results show that the contribution of sewer deposits to wet weather suspended solid's discharges is important but variable (between 20 and 80 % of the mass at the outlet depending on the event), including a site allegedly free of (coarse) sewer deposits. The uncertainties associated to these results are assessed too.

  2. Work Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Thomas S.

    1980-01-01

    To investigate managerial use of work (or role) overload to increase productivity, the author studied 77 nonclerical white-collar employees and found that work overload had negative effects on productivity, supervisors' ratings, employee attitudes, job satisfaction, and health. He recommends ways for managers and employees to reduce work overload.…

  3. Genome?resolved metagenomics of a bioremediation system for degradation of thiocyanate in mine water containing suspended solid tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Sumayah F.; Kantor, Rose S.; Huddy, Robert; Thomas, Brian C.; van Zyl, Andries W.; Harrison, Susan T.L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thiocyanate (SCN?) is a toxic compound that forms when cyanide (CN?), used to recover gold, reacts with sulfur species. SCN??degrading microbial communities have been studied, using bioreactors fed synthetic wastewater. The inclusion of suspended solids in the form of mineral tailings, during the development of the acclimatized microbial consortium, led to the selection of an active planktonic microbial community. Preliminary analysis of the community composition revealed reduced mic...

  4. Evaluating the Efficiency of Tragacanth Coagulant Aid in Removing Colloidal Materials and Suspended Solids Creating Turbidity from Karun River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Farhadi; Afshin Takdastan; Roghayeh Baghbany

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Colloidal materials and suspended solids cause turbidity in water. To remove turbidity, clarification method is used that includes processes of coagulation, flocculation, and sedimentation. Due to the long duration of coagulation process, coagulant aids are applied. Despite the favorable efficiency of synthetic polyelectrolytes as a coagulant aid, due to their harmful effects on human health, in this process, natural organic polymers are used instead. Materials and Methods: I...

  5. Resuspension and transport of suspended solids in Eurajoensalmi Bay. Final report of monitoring activities in 2009-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mykkanen, J.; Kiirikki, M.; Lindfors, A.

    2012-11-01

    The goal of monitoring activities carried out in Eurajoensalmi Bay was to indentify factors affecting dispersal of river waters and suspended solid matter in the estuary area. In addition to suspended solids load and dispersal of river water, also release of sedimented particles from the sea bed in resuspension was studied. River water quality and discharge as well as resuspension in Eurajoensalmi estuary area were monitored with Luode automatic monitoring stations equipped with water quality, water level, wave height and weather sensors. Dynamics of Eurajoensalmi estuary area was studied by installing profiling current meters (ADCP) and water quality sensors to the sea floor at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Spatial variation of surface water quality was monitored with a flow-through method from a moving vessel and manual profiling several times during the monitoring period. Collected data was processed and used in determining suspended solids balance of Eurajoensalmi Bay. The balance was determined by creating a regression model for water exchange and sediment flux over the cross section at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Regression model was created also to determine resuspension in Eurajoensalmi area. Sediment flux and resuspension were modeled using long term wind data from Kylmaepihlaja meteorological station as a variable to determine overall sediment balance of Eurajoensalmi

  6. Assessment of conservation easements, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids in West Fork Beaver Creek, Minnesota, 1999-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Kieta, Kristen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined conservation easements and their effectiveness at reducing phosphorus and solids transport to streams. The U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the Minnesota Board of Water and Soil Resources and worked collaboratively with the Hawk Creek Watershed Project to examine the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin in Renville County, which has the largest number of Reinvest In Minnesota land retirement contracts in the State (as of 2013). Among all conservation easement programs, a total of 24,218 acres of agricultural land were retired throughout Renville County, and 2,718 acres were retired in the West Fork Beaver Creek Basin from 1987 through 2012. Total land retirement increased steadily from 1987 until 2000. In 2000, land retirement increased sharply because of the Minnesota River Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, then leveled off when the program ended in 2002. Streamflow data were collected during 1999 through 2011, and total phosphorus and total suspended solids data were collected during 1999 through 2012. During this period, the highest peak streamflow of 1,320 cubic feet per second was in March 2010. Total phosphorus and total suspended solids are constituents that tend to increase with increases in streamflow. Annual flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.140 to 0.759 milligrams per liter, and annual flow-weighted mean total suspended solids concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 217 milligrams per liter. Annual flow-weighted mean total phosphorus and total suspended solids concentrations decreased steadily during the first 4 years of water-quality sample collection. A downward trend in flow-weighted mean total-phosphorus concentrations was significant from 1999 through 2008; however, flow-weighted total-phosphorus concentrations increased substantially in 2009, and the total phosphorus trend was no longer significant. The high annual flow-weighted mean concentrations for total phosphorus and total suspended solids

  7. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.; Bakker, G. L.; Li, S.; Vreeburg, J. H G; Verberk, J. Q J C; Medema, G. J.; Liu, W. T.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected

  8. Assessing catchment-scale erosion and yields of suspended solids from improved temperate grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotta, G S; Krueger, T; Brazier, R E; Butler, P; Freer, J; Hawkins, J M B; Haygarth, P M; Macleod, C J A; Quinton, J N

    2010-03-01

    This paper quantifies the yields of suspended solids (SS) from a headwater catchment managed as improved temperate grassland, providing the first direct, catchment-scale evidence of the rates of erosion from this land-use in the UK and assessing the threat posed to aquatic ecosystems. High-resolution monitoring of catchment hydrology and the concentrations of SS and volatile organic matter (VOM) were carried out in the first-order channel of the Den Brook headwater catchment in Devon (UK) during the 2006-2007 hydrological season. The widely used 'rating curve' (discharge-concentration) approach was employed to estimate yields of SS, but as demonstrated by previous researchers, this study showed that discharge is a poor predictor of SS concentrations and therefore any yields estimated from this technique are likely to be highly uncertain. Nevertheless, for the purpose of providing estimates of yields that are comparable to previous studies on other land uses/sources, this technique was adopted albeit in an uncertainty-based framework. The findings suggest that contrary to the common perception, grasslands can be erosive landscapes with SS yields from this catchment estimated to be between 0.54 and 1.21 t ha(-1) y(-1). In terms of on-site erosion problems, this rate of erosion does not significantly exceed the commonly used 'tolerable' threshold in the UK ( approximately 1 t ha(-1) y(-1)). In terms of off-site erosion problems, it is argued here that the conventional expression of SS yield as a bulk annual figure has little relevance to the water quality and ecological status of surface waters and therefore an alternative technique (the concentration-frequency curve) is developed within this paper for the specific purpose of assessing the ecological threat posed by the delivery of SS into surface waters. This technique illustrates that concentrations of SS recorded at the catchment outlet frequently exceed the water quality guidelines, such as those of the EU

  9. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    that is least soluble. Hence electrodialytic treatment of the ash suspended in water is not a solution to improve the ash quality in terms of Pb. The water-soluble Cl content per unit weight of the original ash was 12.4%. The removal of water-soluble Cl was efficient and >98% of Cl was removed (calculated......The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...... of the concrete. The Cl content in MSWI fly ash is also too high and will cause corrosion problems in reinforced concrete. The possibility of removing some of the unwanted heavy metals (Cu and Pb) together with Cl from an MSWI fly ash suspended in water using an electrodialytic separation method was investigated...

  10. Differences in fluorescence characteristics and bioavailability of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in sediments and suspended solids in Lihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Shuhang; Jiang, Xia; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Li; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Junyi

    2018-05-01

    The spectral characteristics, spatial distribution, and bioavailability of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in suspended solids and surface sediments of Lihu Lake, China, were investigated through excitation-emission matrix spectra and parallel factor analysis. The average content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the sediments reached 643.28 ± 58.34 mg C/kg and that in suspended solids was 714.87 ± 69.24 mg C/kg. The fluorescence intensity of WSOM totaled 90.87 ± 5.65 and 115.42 ± 8.02 RU/g for the sediments and suspended solids, respectively. The DOC and fluorescence intensity of the WSOM showed an increasing trend moving from the west to the east of the lake. The WSOM in sediments and suspended solids contained two humic-like (C1 and C2) and one tryptophan-like (C3) components. These components had different fluorescent peaks and relative proportions. In the sediments, the relative proportions of C1, C2, and C3 were 33.71% ± 0.71, 26.83% ± 0.68, and 39.50% ± 0.71%, respectively. Meanwhile, C1 (35.77 ± 0.84%), C2 (34.07 ± 0.61%), and C3 (30.16 ± 0.75%) had similar relative percentages in suspended solids. The sediments had a lower humification index (3.02 ± 0.08) than the suspended solids (4.04 ± 0.15). Exchangeable nitrogen for the sediments and suspended solids was dominated by exchangeable ammonium nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen, respectively. WSOM plays an important role in migration and transformation of nitrogen in sediments and suspended solids. The sediment-derived WSOM exhibited higher lability and biological activity than did the suspended solid-derived WSOM. The relative ratio of the intensity of protein-like fluorescent component to that of the humic-like one can be used as a reference index to evaluate the lability and biological activity of WSOM in sediments and suspended solids.

  11. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-03-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Evaluation of stream water quality data generated from MODIS images in modeling total suspended solid emission to a freshwater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayana, Essayas K; Worqlul, Abeyou W; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2015-08-01

    Modeling of suspended sediment emission into freshwater lakes is challenging due to data gaps in developing countries. Existing models simulate sediment concentration at a gauging station upstream and none of these studies had modeled total suspended solids (TSS) emissions by inflowing rivers to freshwater lakes as there are no TSS measurements at the river mouth in the upper Blue Nile basin. In this study a 10year TSS time series data generated from remotely sensed MODIS/Terra images using established empirical relationship is applied to calibrate and validate a hydrology model for Lake Tana in Upper Blue Nile Basin. The result showed that at a monthly time scale TSS at the river mouth can be replicated with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NS) of 0.34 for calibration and 0.21 for validation periods. Percent bias (PBIAS) and ratio of the root-mean-square error to the standard deviation of measured data (RSR) are all within range. Given the inaccessibility and costliness to measure TSS at river mouths to a lake the results found here are considered useful for suspended sediment budget studies in water bodies of the basin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of secondary settling tank performance on suspended solids mass balance in activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patziger, M; Kainz, H; Hunze, M; Józsa, J

    2012-05-01

    Secondary settling is the final step of the activated sludge-based biological waste water treatment. Secondary settling tanks (SSTs) are therefore an essential unit of producing a clear effluent. A further important function of SSTs is the sufficient thickening to achieve highly concentrated return sludge and biomass within the biological reactor. In addition, the storage of activated sludge is also needed in case of peak flow events (Ekama et al., 1997). Due to the importance of a high SST performance the problem has long been investigated (Larsen, 1977; Krebs, 1991; Takács et al., 1991; Ekama et al., 1997; Freimann, 1999; Patziger et al., 2005; Bürger et al., 2011), however, a lot of questions are still to solve regarding e.g. the geometrical features (inflow, outflow) and operations (return sludge control, scraper mechanism, allowable maximum values of surface overflow rates). In our study we focused on SSTs under dynamic load considering both the overall unsteady behaviour and the features around the peaks, investigating the effect of various sludge return strategies as well as the inlet geometry on SST performance. The main research tool was a FLUENT-based novel mass transport model consisting of two modules, a 2D axisymmetric SST model and a mixed reactor model of the biological reactor (BR). The model was calibrated and verified against detailed measurements of flow and concentration patterns, sludge settling, accompanied with continuous on-line measurement of in- and outflow as well as returned flow rates of total suspended solids (TSS) and water. As to the inlet arrangement a reasonable modification of the geometry could result in the suppression of the large scale flow structures of the sludge-water interface thus providing a significant improvement in the SST performance. Furthermore, a critical value of the overflow rate (q(crit)) was found at which a pronounced large scale circulation pattern develops in the vertical plane, the density current in

  14. An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes stored in underground tanks at several of its sites. In order to comply with various regulations and to circumvent potential problems associated with tank integrity, these wastes must be retrieved from the tanks, transferred to treatment facilities (or other storage locations), and processed to stable waste forms. The sludge wastes will typically be mobilized by some mechanical means (e.g., mixer pump, submerged jet) and mixed with the respective supernatants to create slurries that can be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. Depending on the DOE site, these slurries may be transferred up to six miles. Since the wastes are radioactive, it is critically important for the transfers to be made without plugging a pipeline. To reduce such a risk, the relevant properties of the slurry (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, and particle size distribution) should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be continuously monitored and controlled within specified limits while the transfer is in progress. The baseline method for determining the transport properties of slurries involves sampling and analysis; however, this method is time-consuming, and costly, and it does not provide real-time information. In addition, personnel who collect and analyze the samples are exposed to radiation. It is also questionable as to whether a laboratory analyst can obtain representative aliquots from the sample jar for these solid-liquid mixtures. The alternative method for determining the transport properties is in-line analysis. An in-line instrument is one that is connected to the process, analyzes the slurry as it flows through or by the instrument, and provides the results within seconds. This instrument can provide immediate feedback to operators so that, when necessary, the operators can respond

  15. Using total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity as proxies for evaluation of metal transport in river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrabadi, T.; Ruegner, H.; Sirdari, Z.Z.; Schwientek, M.; Grathwohl, P.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out in Haraz basin (Iran) that is located in south of the Caspian Sea. The goal of this study was to establish correlations amongst total suspended solids concentration (TSS) and turbidity with total pollutant concentrations to evaluate the dissolved and particle-bound concentrations of major toxic metals. It also aimed to validate TSS and/or turbidity measurements as proxies to monitor pollutant fluxes. Eight metals, namely nickel, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, cobalt, arsenic and strontium were analyzed for dissolved and total concentrations in water at ten locations within the catchment. TSS and turbidity were also measured. Sampling campaigns were designed to cover both the rainy (December) and the dry (May) season within the basin. The robust relationship between TSS (202–1212 mg/l) and turbidity (63–501 NTUs) in both seasons warranted their interchangeable potential as proxies within the observed ranges. Total element concentrations were plotted in separate attempts versus TSS and turbidity for all locations and both events. Very good linear correlations were attained where the slopes represent the metals concentration on suspended solids and the intercept the dissolved concentration in water. The results achieved by these linear regressions were in very good agreement with independently measured values for dissolved concentration and concentrations on river bed sediments taken at the same locations. This demonstrates that turbidity and/or TSS measurements may be used for monitoring of metal loads if once calibrated against total concentration of metals. The results also revealed that in the lower Haraz catchment metal concentrations on suspended and river bed sediment were homogeneously distributed along the investigated river stretch. This is assumed to be due to intensive gravel and sand mining activities in the upper and middle part of the catchment. - Highlights: • Turbidity is evaluated as a feasible proxy to predict

  16. Removal of Cs+, Sr2+, and Co2+ ions from the mixture of organics and suspended solids aqueous solutions by zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xiang Hong; Fang, Fang; Lu, Chun Hai; Zheng, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr 2+ , Cs + , and Co 2+ in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr 2+ , Cs + , and Co 2+ with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater

  17. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  18. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high suspended solids from a bulk drug industry using fixed film reactor (AFFR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangagni Rao, A; Venkata Naidu, G; Krishna Prasad, K; Chandrasekhar Rao, N; Venkata Mohan, S; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P N

    2005-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry using an anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the wastewater were found to be very high with low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD ratio and high total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Acclimatization of seed consortia and startup of the reactor was carried out by directly using the wastewater, which resulted in reducing the period of startup to 30 days. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLR) and it was found that the optimum OLR was 10 kg COD/m(3)/day. The wastewater under investigation, which had a considerable quantity of SS, was treated anaerobically without any pretreatment. COD and BOD of the reactor outlet wastewater were monitored and at steady state and optimum OLR 60-70% of COD and 80-90% of BOD were removed. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads at two different OLR and the reaction could withstand the shocks and performance could be restored to normalcy at that OLR. The results obtained indicated that AFFR could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry having high COD, TDS and TSS.

  19. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  20. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  1. A data reconnaissance on the effect of suspended-sediment concentrations on dissolved-solids concentrations in rivers and tributaries in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D.; Anning, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado River is one of the most important sources of water in the western United States, supplying water to over 35 million people in the U.S. and 3 million people in Mexico. High dissolved-solids loading to the River and tributaries are derived primarily from geologic material deposited in inland seas in the mid-to-late Cretaceous Period, but this loading may be increased by human activities. High dissolved solids in the River causes substantial damages to users, primarily in reduced agricultural crop yields and corrosion. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was created to manage dissolved-solids loading to the River and has focused primarily on reducing irrigation-related loading from agricultural areas. This work presents a reconnaissance of existing data from sites in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) in order to highlight areas where suspended-sediment control measures may be useful in reducing dissolved-solids concentrations. Multiple linear regression was used on data from 164 sites in the UCRB to develop dissolved-solids models that include combinations of explanatory variables of suspended sediment, flow, and time. Results from the partial t-test, overall likelihood ratio, and partial likelihood ratio on the models were used to group the sites into categories of strong, moderate, weak, and no-evidence of a relation between suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations. Results show 68 sites have strong or moderate evidence of a relation, with drainage areas for many of these sites composed of a large percentage of clastic sedimentary rocks. These results could assist water managers in the region in directing field-scale evaluation of suspended-sediment control measures to reduce UCRB dissolved-solids loading.

  2. Contrasts between channels and backwaters in a large, floodplain river: Testing our understanding of nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, and suspended solids dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Jeff N.

    2016-01-01

    In floodplain rivers, variability in hydraulic connectivity interacts with biogeochemistry to determine the distribution of suspended and dissolved substances. Nutrient, chlorophyll a, and suspended solids data spanning longitudinal (5 study reaches across 1300 river km), lateral (main channel and backwaters), and temporal (1994–2011) gradients in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) were used to examine the extent to which observed differences between the main channel and backwaters were consistent with expectations based on current understanding of biogeochemical processes in large rivers. For N and P, the results largely conformed to expectations. N concentrations were greater in the main channel than in the backwaters in 82 to 96% of the observations across river reaches. Maximum TP concentrations generally occurred in backwaters during summer, when backwater TP often exceeded that of the main channel. Flux of P from sediments may be a substantial source of water-column P in UMR backwaters in summer. The data for suspended solids and chlorophyll a suggest that some refinements are needed of our understanding of ecosystem processes in large rivers. During low-discharge conditions, concentrations of inorganic suspended solids often were greater in backwaters than in the main channel, suggesting the importance of sediment resuspension. Chlorophyll a concentrations were usually greater in backwaters than in the main channel, but exceptions indicate that phytoplankton abundance in the main channel of the UMR can sometimes be greater than is typically expected for large rivers.

  3. Development of equipment for migration control of radioactive cesium absorbed in suspended solid in the river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    To prevent inflow of radiocesium with suspended solids (SS) into farmland and increase in dose rate of the river bank in the midstream and downstream, it is important to reduce SS in the river water; therefore we newly developed the test equipment using non-woven fabrics as a trapping material to capture and reduce the SS in running small river water. Authors installed this equipment into the small river which is located in mountainous area surrounded by forests where radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were deposited. Two turbidity gauges are installed in inflow and outflow point of this equipment and the turbidity has been continuously measured. From the result of a comparison of turbidity between inflow point and outflow point, a turbidity of inflow point is always higher than outflow point during ordinary water-level; this equipment can capture and reduce the SS in the river water. Through the analysis of particle size distribution, identification of minerals and measurement of concentration of radioactive Cs of the captured SS in the non-woven fabric should be carried out, to clarify the effectiveness of this equipment and non-woven fabrics for reducing the radioactive Cs in small rivers in the future. (author)

  4. Karakteristik Total Padatan Tersuspensi (Total Suspended Solid Dan Kekeruhan (Turbidity Secara Vertikal Di Perairan Teluk Benoa, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Hendrawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Benoa bay is one of estuary that located in the Southern part of Bali Island, and as a strategic tourism destination. The increased of the human activity has an important role to give an ecological pressure for the seawater ecosystem in the Benoa bay. Total suspended solid (TSS and turbidity is one of the important indicators that could be determining the quality of the seawater. As the estuary, Benoa bay received fresh water from the river discharge that also potentially carries any material to the bay. In addition, port activity is also has an important role in contributing a various material to the Benoa bay. From this research, we found that the TSS concentration and the turbidity are higher in the surface water and also in the bottom layer. TSS concentration and the turbidity also varied from the bay mouth trough the line of vessel onto the inner of bay. TSS concentration and turbidity in the bay mouth has a smaller concentration rather than in the inner part of bay. TSS concentration and turbidity in the inner of bay could be caused by the port activity. In addition, seawater circulation is also has an importan factor to contributing the TSS concentration and the turbidity. Sea current would be erroted the seabottom and with the different shape of the topography could be increased the TSS and turbidity.

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus associating with different size suspended solids in roof and road runoff in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junliang; Ren, Yufen; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Xiaoke; Chen, Liding; Liu, Gangcai

    2015-10-01

    Roofs and roads, accounting for a large portion of the urban impervious land surface, have contributed significantly to urban nonpoint pollution. In this study, in Beijing, China, roof and road runoff are sampled to measure the suspended solids (SS), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contained in particles with different sizes. The SS content in the road runoff (151.59 mg/L) was sevenfold that in the roof runoff (21.13 mg/L, p runoff than in road runoff. The small particulates in the range of 0.45-50 μm consisted of 59 % SS in the roof runoff and 94 % SS in the road runoff. P was mainly attached to particle sizes of 10-50 μm in the roof (73 %) and road (48 %) runoffs, while N was mainly in a dissolved phase state in both runoffs. So, the different associations of N and P raise a challenge in preventing stormwater pollution in urban environments.

  6. Nickel toxicity to benthic organisms: The role of dissolved organic carbon, suspended solids, and route of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Kevin W; Hammerschmidt, Chad R; Burton, G Allen

    2016-01-01

    Nickel bioavailability is reduced in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), suspended solids (TSS), and other complexing ligands; however, no studies have examined the relative importance of Ni exposure through different compartments (water, sediment, food). Hyalella azteca and Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to Ni-amended water, sediment, and food, either separately or in combination. Both organisms experienced survival and growth effects in several Ni compartment tests. The DOC amendments attenuated L. stagnalis Ni effects (survival, growth, and (62)Ni bioaccumulation), and presence of TSS exposures demonstrated both protective and synergistic effects on H. azteca and L. stagnalis. (62)Ni trophic transfer from food to H. azteca and L. stagnalis was negligible; however, bioaccumulating (62)Ni was attributed to (62)Ni-water ((62)Ni flux from food), (62)Ni-TSS, and (62)Ni-food. Overall, H. azteca and L. stagnalis Ni compartment toxicity increased in the following order: Ni-water > Ni-sediment > Ni-all (water, sediment, food) > Ni-food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coincident patterns of waste water suspended solids reduction, water transparency increase and chlorophyll decline in Narragansett Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkman, David G; Smayda, Theodore J

    2016-06-15

    Dramatic changes occurred in Narragansett Bay during the 1980s: water clarity increased, while phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll concentration decreased. We examine how changes in total suspended solids (TSS) loading from wastewater treatment plants may have influenced this decline in phytoplankton chlorophyll. TSS loading, light and phytoplankton observations were compiled and a light- and temperature-dependent Skeletonema-based phytoplankton growth model was applied to evaluate chlorophyll supported by TSS nitrogen during 1983-1995. TSS loading declined 75% from ~0.60×10(6)kgmonth(-1) to ~0.15×10(6)kgmonth(-1) during 1983-1995. Model results indicate that nitrogen reduction related to TSS reduction was minor and explained a small fraction (~15%) of the long-term chlorophyll decline. The decline in NBay TSS loading appears to have increased water clarity and in situ irradiance and contributed to the long-term chlorophyll decline by inducing a physiological response of a ~20% reduction in chlorophyll per cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of hand-held 35 mm color infrared imagery for estimates of suspended solids - A progress report. [in water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. F.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, H. R.; Finnie, D.; Cannon, T.

    1975-01-01

    A cost-effective aerial surveillance technique is proposed for detection and identification of suspended solids which would be operational for both governmental monitoring organizations and private individuals operating catfish farms. Sixteen catfish ponds were flown daily for seven days using two hand-held 35 mm cameras with both Kodachrome X and Ektachrome infrared film. Hue, value, and chroma designations were recorded for each pond on each date by three interpreters, and the accepted color was that recorded by at least two of the interpreters, or if there was a three hue range, the median was accepted. Relations between suspended solids and color designations were analyzed graphically, and chroma was discarded due to an apparent lack of correlation. The data obtained were then analyzed by multiple regression. Significant correlations were revealed between hue and value and total and inorganic suspended solids. If perfected, this technique could be developed to sufficent accuracy for large-scale reconnaissance surveys to monitor the quality of rivers and streams.

  9. Resuspension and transport of suspended solids in Eurajoensalmi Bay. Final report of monitoring activities in 2009-2011; Resuspensio ja kiintoaineen kulkeutuminen Eurajoensalmessa. Vesistoemittausten loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkanen, J.; Kiirikki, M.; Lindfors, A. [Luode Consulting Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    The goal of monitoring activities carried out in Eurajoensalmi Bay was to indentify factors affecting dispersal of river waters and suspended solid matter in the estuary area. In addition to suspended solids load and dispersal of river water, also release of sedimented particles from the sea bed in resuspension was studied. River water quality and discharge as well as resuspension in Eurajoensalmi estuary area were monitored with Luode automatic monitoring stations equipped with water quality, water level, wave height and weather sensors. Dynamics of Eurajoensalmi estuary area was studied by installing profiling current meters (ADCP) and water quality sensors to the sea floor at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Spatial variation of surface water quality was monitored with a flow-through method from a moving vessel and manual profiling several times during the monitoring period. Collected data was processed and used in determining suspended solids balance of Eurajoensalmi Bay. The balance was determined by creating a regression model for water exchange and sediment flux over the cross section at the mouth of Eurajoensalmi. Regression model was created also to determine resuspension in Eurajoensalmi area. Sediment flux and resuspension were modeled using long term wind data from Kylmaepihlaja meteorological station as a variable to determine overall sediment balance of Eurajoensalmi.

  10. Removal of suspended solids and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation: Comparison of electrode materials and electrode connection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solak, Murat [Duezce University, Kaynasli Vocational School, Environmental Protection and Control Department, 81900 Duezce (Turkey); Kilic, Mehmet, E-mail: kavi@mmf.sdu.edu.tr [Sueleyman Demirel University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Hueseyin, Yazici; Sencan, Aziz [Sueleyman Demirel University, Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    In this study, removal of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation (EC) process were investigated by using aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes which were run in serial and parallel connection systems. To remove these pollutants from the marble processing wastewater, an EC reactor including monopolar electrodes (Al/Fe) in parallel and serial connection system, was utilized. Optimization of differential operation parameters such as pH, current density, and electrolysis time on SS and turbidity removal were determined in this way. EC process with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel and serial connections carried out at the optimum conditions where the pH value was 9, current density was approximately 15 A/m{sup 2}, and electrolysis time was 2 min resulted in 100% SS removal. Removal efficiencies of EC process for SS with monopolar Fe electrodes in parallel and serial connection were found to be 99.86% and 99.94%, respectively. Optimum parameters for monopolar Fe electrodes in both of the connection types were found to be for pH value as 8, for electrolysis time as 2 min. The optimum current density value for Fe electrodes used in serial and parallel connections was also obtained at 10 and 20 A/m{sup 2}, respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that EC process running with each type of the electrodes and the connections was highly effective for the removal of SS and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters, and that operating costs with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel connection were the cheapest than that of the serial connection and all the configurations for Fe electrode.

  11. Removal of suspended solids and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation: Comparison of electrode materials and electrode connection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solak, Murat; Kilic, Mehmet; Hueseyin, Yazici; Sencan, Aziz

    2009-01-01

    In this study, removal of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation (EC) process were investigated by using aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes which were run in serial and parallel connection systems. To remove these pollutants from the marble processing wastewater, an EC reactor including monopolar electrodes (Al/Fe) in parallel and serial connection system, was utilized. Optimization of differential operation parameters such as pH, current density, and electrolysis time on SS and turbidity removal were determined in this way. EC process with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel and serial connections carried out at the optimum conditions where the pH value was 9, current density was approximately 15 A/m 2 , and electrolysis time was 2 min resulted in 100% SS removal. Removal efficiencies of EC process for SS with monopolar Fe electrodes in parallel and serial connection were found to be 99.86% and 99.94%, respectively. Optimum parameters for monopolar Fe electrodes in both of the connection types were found to be for pH value as 8, for electrolysis time as 2 min. The optimum current density value for Fe electrodes used in serial and parallel connections was also obtained at 10 and 20 A/m 2 , respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that EC process running with each type of the electrodes and the connections was highly effective for the removal of SS and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters, and that operating costs with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel connection were the cheapest than that of the serial connection and all the configurations for Fe electrode.

  12. Removal of suspended solids and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation: comparison of electrode materials and electrode connection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Murat; Kiliç, Mehmet; Hüseyin, Yazici; Sencan, Aziz

    2009-12-15

    In this study, removal of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters by electrocoagulation (EC) process were investigated by using aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) electrodes which were run in serial and parallel connection systems. To remove these pollutants from the marble processing wastewater, an EC reactor including monopolar electrodes (Al/Fe) in parallel and serial connection system, was utilized. Optimization of differential operation parameters such as pH, current density, and electrolysis time on SS and turbidity removal were determined in this way. EC process with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel and serial connections carried out at the optimum conditions where the pH value was 9, current density was approximately 15 A/m(2), and electrolysis time was 2 min resulted in 100% SS removal. Removal efficiencies of EC process for SS with monopolar Fe electrodes in parallel and serial connection were found to be 99.86% and 99.94%, respectively. Optimum parameters for monopolar Fe electrodes in both of the connection types were found to be for pH value as 8, for electrolysis time as 2 min. The optimum current density value for Fe electrodes used in serial and parallel connections was also obtained at 10 and 20 A/m(2), respectively. Based on the results obtained, it was found that EC process running with each type of the electrodes and the connections was highly effective for the removal of SS and turbidity from marble processing wastewaters, and that operating costs with monopolar Al electrodes in parallel connection were the cheapest than that of the serial connection and all the configurations for Fe electrode.

  13. Transformation and sorption of illicit drug biomarkers in sewer systems: understanding the role of suspended solids in raw wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Brock, Andreas Libonati; Polesel, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    substrates (primary metabolic processes) and transformation of illicit drug biomarkers (secondary metabolic processes) by suspended biomass. Sixteen drug biomarkers were targeted, including mephedrone, methadone, cocaine, heroin, codeine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and their major human metabolites. Batch...

  14. Information overload and data overload in lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouws, Rufus H.; Tarp, Sven

    2017-01-01

    the often uncritical inclusion of too much data. This paper discusses the general term information overload and its lexicographical counterpart data overload. Different types of data overload are identified and the problems users have when retrieving the necessary information from dictionary articles...

  15. Removal of Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} ions from the mixture of organics and suspended solids aqueous solutions by zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiang Hong; Fang, Fang; Lu, Chun Hai [College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Zheng, Lei [Southwest University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Resource Recycle, Ministry of Education, Mianyang (China)

    2017-04-15

    Serving as an excellent adsorbent and inorganic ion exchanger in the water purification field, zeolite 4A has in this work presented a strong capability for purifying radioactive waste, such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} in water. During the processes of decontamination and decommissioning of suspended solids and organics in low-level radioactive wastewater, the purification performance of zeolite 4A has been studied. Under ambient temperature and neutral condition, zeolite 4A absorbed simulated radionuclides such as Sr{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +}, and Co{sup 2+} with an absorption rate of almost 90%. Additionally, in alkaline condition, the adsorption percentage even approached 98.7%. After conducting research on suspended solids and organics of zeolite 4A for the treatment of radionuclides, it was found that the suspended clay was conducive to absorption, whereas the absorption of organics in solution was determined by the species of radionuclides and organics. Therefore, zeolite 4A has considerable potential in the treatment of radioactive wastewater.

  16. Influence of sampling frequency and load calculation methods on quantification of annual river nutrient and suspended solids loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Ahmed; Singh, Ranvir; Patterson, Maree; Roygard, Jon; Horne, Dave; Clothier, Brent; Jones, Geoffrey

    2018-01-11

    Better management of water quality in streams, rivers and lakes requires precise and accurate estimates of different contaminant loads. We assessed four sampling frequencies (2 days, weekly, fortnightly and monthly) and five load calculation methods (global mean (GM), rating curve (RC), ratio estimator (RE), flow-stratified (FS) and flow-weighted (FW)) to quantify loads of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 - -N), soluble inorganic nitrogen (SIN), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS), in the Manawatu River, New Zealand. The estimated annual river loads were compared to the reference 'true' loads, calculated using daily measurements of flow and water quality from May 2010 to April 2011, to quantify bias (i.e. accuracy) and root mean square error 'RMSE' (i.e. accuracy and precision). The GM method resulted into relatively higher RMSE values and a consistent negative bias (i.e. underestimation) in estimates of annual river loads across all sampling frequencies. The RC method resulted in the lowest RMSE for TN, TP and TSS at monthly sampling frequency. Yet, RC highly overestimated the loads for parameters that showed dilution effect such as NO 3 - -N and SIN. The FW and RE methods gave similar results, and there was no essential improvement in using RE over FW. In general, FW and RE performed better than FS in terms of bias, but FS performed slightly better than FW and RE in terms of RMSE for most of the water quality parameters (DRP, TP, TN and TSS) using a monthly sampling frequency. We found no significant decrease in RMSE values for estimates of NO 3 - N, SIN, TN and DRP loads when the sampling frequency was increased from monthly to fortnightly. The bias and RMSE values in estimates of TP and TSS loads (estimated by FW, RE and FS), however, showed a significant decrease in the case of weekly or 2-day sampling. This suggests potential for a higher sampling frequency during flow peaks for more precise

  17. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aine Marie Gormley-Gallagher

    Full Text Available Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05 for Mn (r2 = 0.0063, Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021, Ni (r2 = 0.0023, Cd (r2 = 0.00001, Co (r2 = 0.096, Hg (r2 = 0.116 or Pb (r2 = 0.164. The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  18. Effectiveness of foam-based and traditional green roofs in reducing nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon and suspended solids in urban installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Mucha, S.; Williamson, G.

    2017-12-01

    While green roofs have well understood benefits for retaining runoff, there is less of a consensus regarding the potential for retaining and absorbing nutrients or suspended solids from roof runoff that would otherwise travel to waterways. Additionally, there are numerous designs, materials and maintenance plans associated with "green" roofs/surfaces that may greatly impact not only their hydrological benefit but also their pollution mitigation potential. Here we examine the NO3, NH4, total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) retention potential from planted and unplanted foam roofs and traditional soil roofs. Direct precipitation, untreated runoff and throughflow from the different roof types were collected for 3 to 11 rain events over a year (depending on roof). Unplanted and traditional roofs reduced TSS by 80% or better relative to runoff. Traditional roofs showed 50% lower TP than runoff or other roof types. TOC was higher than direct precipitation for all treatments, although there were no differences among the treatments themselves. Taken as averages over the 11 events, NO3 and NH4 concentrations were highly variable for runoff and treatments and significant differences were not detected. Preliminary analysis suggests there were no differences between performance of traditional versus foam-based roofs, although a greater sample size is required to be definitive.

  19. Remote sensing and water quality indicators in the Korean West coast: Spatio-temporal structures of MODIS-derived chlorophyll-a and total suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Cheol; Son, Seunghyun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Nam, Jungho; Chang, Won Keun; Lee, Jung-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hee; Ryu, Jongseong

    2017-08-15

    The Yellow Sea is a shallow marginal sea with a large tidal range. In this study, ten areas located along the western coast of the Korean Peninsula are investigated with respect to remotely sensed water quality indicators derived from NASA MODIS aboard of the satellite Aqua. We found that there was a strong seasonal trend with spatial heterogeneity. In specific, a strong six-month phase-lag was found between chlorophyll-a and total suspended solid owing to their inversed seasonality, which could be explained by different dynamics and environmental settings. Chlorophyll-a concentration seemed to be dominantly influenced by temperature, while total suspended solid was largely governed by local tidal forcing and bottom topography. This study demonstrated the potential and applicability of satellite products in coastal management, and highlighted find that remote-sensing would be a promising tool in resolving orthogonality of large spatio-temporal scale variabilities when combining with proper time series analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentration, flux, and trend estimates with uncertainty for nutrients, chloride, and total suspended solids in tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2016-12-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, estimated daily and 9-month concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids from 1990 (or first available date) through 2014 for 18 tributaries of Lake Champlain. Estimates of concentration and flux, provided separately in Medalie (2016), were made by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) regression model and update previously published WRTDS model results with recent data. Assessment of progress towards meeting phosphorus-reduction goals outlined in the Lake Champlain management plan relies on annual estimates of phosphorus flux. The percent change in annual concentration and flux is provided for two time periods. The R package EGRETci was used to estimate the uncertainty of the trend estimate. Differences in model specification and function between this study and previous studies that used WRTDS to estimate concentration and flux using data from Lake Champlain tributaries are described. Winter data were too sparse and nonrepresentative to use for estimates of concentration and flux but were sufficient for estimating the percentage of total annual flux over the period of record. Median winter-to-annual fractions ranged between 21 percent for total suspended solids and 27 percent for dissolved phosphorus. The winter contribution was largest for all constituents from the Mettawee River and smallest from the Ausable River. For the full record (1991 through 2014 for total and dissolved phosphorus and chloride and 1993 through 2014 for nitrogen and total suspended solids), 6 tributaries had decreasing trends in concentrations of total phosphorus, and 12 had increasing trends; concentrations of dissolved phosphorus decreased in 6 and increased in 8 tributaries; fluxes of total phosphorus decreased in 5 and

  1. Remote Sensing and Water Quality Indicators in the West Flood Canal Semarang City: Spatio-temporal Structures of Lansat-8 Derived Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiyanto, Sawitri

    2017-12-01

    One of the waters that has been contaminated by industrial waste and domestic waste is the waters of West Flood Canal in Semarang City which is the estuary of the river system, which passes through the Western City of Semarang which is dense with residential and industrial. So, it is necessary to have information about the assessment of water quality in the estuary of the West Flood Canal. Remote sensing technology can analyze the results of recording the spectral characteristics of water with water quality parameters. One of the parameters for assessing water quality is Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Solid, can be estimated through remote sensing technology using multispectral Lansat-8 Satellite images data from April, June, and August, 2017 and there are three selected algorithms. Based on the results of TSS and Chlorophyll-A processing, the TSS shows values greater than or equal to 100 which can be said that West Flood Canal is damaged (hypertrophic). While the chlorophyll-a shows a value less than 100 indicating Eutrophic status (threatened). This is caused by the number of suspended materials in the water surface and also because of the disturbance of water vegetation in the form of weeds that destroy the function of the actual West Canal Flood.

  2. Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located on the North Fork Ninnescah River in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita and an important recreational resource. Concerns about taste-and-odor occurrences in Cheney Reservoir have drawn attention to potential pollutants, including total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS). July 2009 was the 15th anniversary of the establishment of the Cheney Reservoir Watershed pollution management plan. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Wichita, has collected water-quality data in the basin since 1996, and has monitored water quality continuously on the North Fork Ninnescah River since 1998. This fact sheet describes 12 years (1997-2008) of computed TP and TSS data and compares these data with water-quality goals for the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main tributary to Cheney Reservoir.

  3. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay to characterize water quality in agricultural streams in the Fox/Wolf watershed in northeastern Wisconsin and provide information to assist in the calibration of a watershed model for the area. Streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids data were collected between October 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, in five streams, including Apple Creek, Ashwaubenon Creek, Baird Creek, Duck Creek, and the East River. During this study, total annual precipitation was close to the 30-year normal of 29.12 inches. The 3-year mean streamflow was highest in the East River (113 ft3/s), followed by Duck Creek (58.2 ft3/s), Apple Creek (26.9 ft3/s), Baird Creek (12.8 ft3/s), and Ashwaubenon Creek (9.1 ft3/s). On a yield basis, during these three years, the East River had the highest flow (0.78 ft3/s/mi2), followed by Baird Creek (0.61 ft3/s/mi2), Apple Creek (0.59 ft3/s/mi2), Duck Creek (0.54 ft3/s/mi2), and Ashwaubenon Creek (0.46 ft3/s/mi2). The overall median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was highest in Baird Creek (73.5 mg/L), followed by Apple and Ashwaubenon Creeks (65 mg/L), East River (40 mg/L), and Duck Creek (30 mg/L). The median total phosphorus (TP) concentration was highest in Ashwaubenon Creek (0.60 mg/L), followed by Baird Creek (0.47 mg/L), Apple Creek (0.37 mg/L), East River (0.26 mg/L), and Duck Creek (0.22 mg/L).

  4. Effect of fermentation time of mixture of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS (Total Suspended Solids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Tanata, S.; Rachel, M.; Octiva, C.; Sialagan, N.

    2018-02-01

    The waste from tapioca industry is as an organic waste that contains many important compounds such as carbohydrate, protein, and glucose. This research as aimed to know the effect of fermentation time from solid waste combined with waste-water from the tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS. The study was started by mixing the solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry at a ratio of 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 (w/w) with a starter from solid waste of cattle in a batch anaerobic digester. The percentage reduction of TSS was 72.2289 at a ratio by weight of the composition of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry was 70:30 after 30 days of fermentation time.

  5. Trends in nutrients and suspended solids at the Fall Line of five tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, July 1988 through June 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C.F.; Belval, D.L.; Campbell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected at the Fall Line of five tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia during a 6- to 7-year period. The water-quality data were used to estimate loads of nutrients and suspended solids from these tributaries to the non-tidal part of Chesapeake Bay Basin and to identify trends in water quality. Knowledge of trends in water quality is required to assess the effectiveness of nutrient manage- ment strategies in the five basins. Multivariate log-linear regression and the seasonal Kendall test were used to estimate flow-adjusted trends in constituent concentration and load. Results of multivariate log-linear regression indicated a greater number of statistically significant trends than the seasonal Kendall test; how-ever, when both methods indicated a significant trend, both agreed on the direction of the trend. Interpre- tation of the trend estimates for this report was based on results of the parametric regression method. No significant trends in total nitrogen concentration were detected at the James River monitoring station from July 1988 through June 1995, though total Kjeldahl nitrogen concen- tration decreased slightly in base-flow samples. Total phosphorus concentration decreased about 29 percent at this station during the sampling period. Most of the decrease can be attributed to reductions in point-source phosphorus loads in 1988 and 1989, especially the phosphate detergent ban of 1988. No significant trends in total suspended solids were observed at the James River monitoring station, and no trends in runoff- derived constituents were interpreted for this river. Significant decreases were detected in concentrations of total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved nitrite-plus-nitrate nitrogen, and total suspended solids at the Rappahannock River monitoring station between July 1988 and June 1995. A similar downward trend in total phosphorus concentration was significant at the 90-percent confidence level, but not the

  6. Suspended ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, C.

    1991-05-01

    The retrofitting of existing conventional ceiling systems to suspended ceiling type systems represents an interesting energy savings solution since this method, in addition to providing additional protection against space heat loss and thermal bridges, also creates the possibility of housing, in the void, additional mechanical and electrical lines which may be necessary due to other savings interventions. This paper reviews the various suspended ceiling systems (e.g., those making use of mineral fibre, gypsum panels, wood, vermiculite, etc.) currently marketed in Europe, and reports, for each, some key technical, economic and architectural advantages which include thermal efficiency, noise abatement, as well as, resistance to fire and humidity. Information is also given on the relative installation and maintenance requirements.

  7. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants.

  8. Effects of Humic Acid and Suspended Solids on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water by Adsorption onto Granular Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danious P. Sounthararajah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals constitute some of the most dangerous pollutants of water, as they are toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. These metals are considered to be of major public health concern and, therefore, need to be removed. Adsorption is a common physico-chemical process used to remove heavy metals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC and suspended solids (SS are associated pollutants in water systems that can interact with heavy metals during the treatment process. The interactions of DOC and SS during the removal of heavy metals by granular activated carbon were investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Batch adsorption studies indicated that Langmuir adsorption maxima for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni at pH 6.5 were 11.9, 11.8, 3.3, 2.0, and 1.8 mg/g, respectively. With the addition of humic acid (HA (DOC representative, they were 7.5, 3.7, 3.2, 1.6, and 2.5 mg/g, respectively. In the column experiment, no breakthrough (complete removal was obtained for Pb and Cu, but adding HA provided a breakthrough in removing these metals. For Zn, Cd and Ni, this breakthrough occurred even without HA being added. Adding kaolinite (representative of SS had no effect on Pb and Cu, but it did on the other metals.

  9. Occurrence of tributyltin (TBT)-resistant bacteria is not related to TBT pollution in Mekong River and coastal sediment: with a hypothesis of selective pressure from suspended solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Fujiyo; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Nakamura, Shinji; Iwata, Hisato; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Fujimori, Yoshifumi; Nishimura, Fumitake; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tana, Touch Seang; Suzuki, Satoru

    2007-07-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is organotin compound that is toxic to aquatic life ranging from bacteria to mammals. This study examined the concentration of TBT in sediment from and near the Mekong River and the distribution of TBT-resistant bacteria. TBT concentrations ranged from TBT-resistant bacteria ranged TBT-resistant bacteria ranged from TBT in the sediment and of TBT-resistant bacteria were unrelated, and chemicals other than TBT might induce TBT resistance. TBT-resistant bacteria were more abundant in the dry season than in the rainy season. Differences in the selection process of TBT-resistant bacteria between dry and rainy seasons were examined using an advection-diffusion model of a suspended solid (SS) that conveys chemicals. The estimated dilution-diffusion time over a distance of 120 km downstream from a release site was 20 days during dry season and 5 days during rainy season, suggesting that bacteria at the sediment surface could be exposed to SS for longer periods during dry season.

  10. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (HRT on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP unit under steady state condition, varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS (2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l and hydraulic retention time (HRT (18, 24 and 36 h. The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18 h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46, 54 and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36 h HRT at 2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18 h HRT which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36 h HRT at 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

  11. Single-objective vs. multi-objective autocalibration in modelling total suspended solids and phosphorus in a small agricultural watershed with SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolomanana, Santatriniaina Denise; Lessard, Paul; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    To obtain greater precision in modelling small agricultural watersheds, a shorter simulation time step is beneficial. A daily time step better represents the dynamics of pollutants in the river and provides more realistic simulation results. However, with a daily evaluation performance, good fits are rarely obtained. With the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) method embedded in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), two calibration approaches are available, single-objective or multi-objective optimization. The goal of the present study is to evaluate which approach can improve the daily performance with SWAT, in modelling flow (Q), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP). The influence of weights assigned to the different variables included in the objective function has also been tested. The results showed that: (i) the model performance depends not only on the choice of calibration approach, but essentially on the influential parameters; (ii) the multi-objective calibration estimating at once all parameters related to all measured variables is the best approach to model Q, TSS and TP; (iii) changing weights does not improve model performance; and (iv) with a single-objective optimization, an excellent water quality modelling performance may hide a loss of performance of predicting flows and unbalanced internal model components.

  12. Effects of Humic Acid and Suspended Solids on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water by Adsorption onto Granular Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sounthararajah, Danious P; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2015-08-27

    Heavy metals constitute some of the most dangerous pollutants of water, as they are toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. These metals are considered to be of major public health concern and, therefore, need to be removed. Adsorption is a common physico-chemical process used to remove heavy metals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and suspended solids (SS) are associated pollutants in water systems that can interact with heavy metals during the treatment process. The interactions of DOC and SS during the removal of heavy metals by granular activated carbon were investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Batch adsorption studies indicated that Langmuir adsorption maxima for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni at pH 6.5 were 11.9, 11.8, 3.3, 2.0, and 1.8 mg/g, respectively. With the addition of humic acid (HA) (DOC representative), they were 7.5, 3.7, 3.2, 1.6, and 2.5 mg/g, respectively. In the column experiment, no breakthrough (complete removal) was obtained for Pb and Cu, but adding HA provided a breakthrough in removing these metals. For Zn, Cd and Ni, this breakthrough occurred even without HA being added. Adding kaolinite (representative of SS) had no effect on Pb and Cu, but it did on the other metals.

  13. Impact of catastrophic events on small mountainous rivers: Temporal and spatial variations in suspended- and dissolved-solid fluxes along the Choshui River, central western Taiwan, during typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, J. D.; Lee, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Kao, S. J.

    2017-05-01

    Small mountainous rivers deliver disproportionately large quantities of suspended and dissolved solids to the global ocean, often in response to catastrophic events such as earthquakes or floods. Here we report on the impact of a major flood on the Choshui River, central-western Taiwan, generated by typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004, five years after the nearby Mw 7.6 Chichi earthquake. Water samples taken at 3-h intervals at three stations along main stem, as well as from two downriver tributaries, allow us to delineate the temporal and spatial variability in concentrations and fluxes of suspended and dissolved constituents within the middle and lower portions of the river in response to this flood. High suspended-sediment concentrations, some as high as 200 g/l, reflected the rapid erosion of landslide scars and debris deposits generated by super-typhoon Herb in 1996 and the 1999 Chichi earthquake. Dissolved-solid and suspended-sediment discharges totaled 0.22 and 70 million tons (mt), 50 mt of which were discharged in just two days. Particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge, most of which was pre-modern in age, was 195,000 t. More than half of the discharged water, POC and dissolved solids came from upriver, whereas about 70% of the suspended sediment and 60% of the dissolved nitrate came from two downriver tributaries, the Chenyoulan and Qingshui rivers. Spatial and temporal differences in the character and discharge of suspended and dissolved solids within and between rivers in the Choshui drainage basin reflect different geologies, landslide histories, the effects of human impact, and the abrupt draining of the Tsaoling landslide lake in the Qingshui basin, as well as the possible shifting of importance of groundwater vs. overland flow. Neither wind-blown pollutants nor sea salts appear to have contributed significantly to dissolved solid character or discharge. Sediment contribution from the landslides in the Chenyoulan basin generated by super-typhoon Herb

  14. Effect of the mixed liquor suspended solid on permeate in a membrane bioreactor system applied for the treatment of sewage mixed with wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, José M; Molina-Muñoz, Marisa; Moreno, Begoña; González-López, Jesús; Hontoria, Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    The performance of a bench-scale submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with ultrafiltration membranes (ZENON) was investigated at different mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations (3069, 4314 and 6204 mg/L). The pilot plant was located in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Granada (Puente de los Vados, Granada, Spain), which receives the wastewater of the milk from the dairy industry of Granada. The results showed the capacity of the MBR systems to remove organic material (COD and BOD5), suspended solids, turbidity, color and microbial indicators such as E. coli and coliphages. Therefore, the results suggest that the transmembrane pressure (TMP) was influence by the MLSS concentration assayed. However, an increase in the MLSS concentration increases the nitrification processes and consequently the amount of NO3- in permeate.

  15. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  16. The spatial and temporal variation of total suspended solid concentration in Pearl River Estuary during 1987-2015 based on remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chongyang; Li, Weijiao; Chen, Shuisen; Li, Dan; Wang, Danni; Liu, Jia

    2018-03-15

    The movement and migration of total suspended solid (TSS) are the essential component of global material cycling and change. Based on the TSS concentrations retrieved from 112 scenes of Landsat remote sensing imageries during 1987-2015, the spatial and temporal variations of TSS concentration in high flow season and low flow seasons of six sub-regions (west shoal, west channel, middle shoal, east channel, east shoal and Pearl River Estuary Chinese White Dolphin National Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters (NNR)) of Pearl River Estuary (PRE) were analyzed and compared by statistical simulation. It was found that TSS concentrations in east and west shoals were about 23mg/L and 64mg/L higher than that of the middle shoal, respectively. There was a significant decreasing trend of TSS concentration from the northwest (223.7mg/L) to southeast (51.4mg/L) of study area, with an average reduction of 5.86mg/Lperkm, which mainly attributes to unique interaction of runoff and tide in PRE. In high flow season, there existed a significant and definite annual cycle period (5-8years) of TSS concentration change primarily responding to the periodic variation of precipitation. There were five full-fledged period changes of TSS detected in west shoal and west channel (the years of changes in 1988, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2010, 2015), while there were the last four cycle periods found in middle shoal, east channel, east shoal and NNR only. TSS concentrations in shoals and channels of PRE showed a significant decreased trend mainly due to the dam construction at the same time, with an average annual TSS concentration decrease of 5.7-10.1mg/L in high flow season from 1988 to 2015. There was no significant change trend of TSS concentration in NNR before 2003, but the TSS concentration decreased significantly after the establishment of the NNR since June 2003, with an average annual decrease of 9.7mg/L from 2004 to 2015. It was deduced that man-made protection measures had a great influence

  17. Impacts of Insufficient Observations on the Monitoring of Short- and Long-Term Suspended Solids Variations in Highly Dynamic Waters, and Implications for an Optimal Observation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal water regions represent some of the most fragile ecosystems, exposed to both climate change and human activities. While remote sensing provides unprecedented amounts of data for water quality monitoring on regional to global scales, the performance of satellite observations is frequently impeded by revisiting intervals and unfavorable conditions, such as cloud coverage and sun glint. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the impacts of varied sampling strategies (time and frequency and insufficient observations on the monitoring of short-term and long-term tendencies of water quality parameters, such as suspended solids (SS, in highly dynamic coastal waters. Taking advantage of the first high-frequency in situ SS dataset (at 30 min sampling intervals from 2007 to 2008, collected in Deep Bay, China, this paper presents a quantitative analysis of the influences of sampling strategies on the monitoring of SS, in terms of sampling frequency and time of day. Dramatic variations of SS were observed, with standard deviation coefficients of 48.9% and 54.1%, at two fixed stations; in addition, significant uncertainties were revealed, with the average absolute percent difference of approximately 13%, related to sampling frequency and time, using nonlinear optimization and random simulation methods. For a sampling frequency of less than two observations per day, the relative error of SS was higher than 50%, and stabilized at approximately 10%, when at least four or five samplings were conducted per day. The optimal recommended sampling times for SS were at around 9:00, 12:00, 14:00, and 16:00 in Deep Bay. The “pseudo” MODIS SS dataset was obtained from high-frequency in situ SS measurements at 10:30 and 14:00, masked by the temporal gap distribution of MODIS coverage to avoid uncertainties propagated from atmospheric correction and SS models. Noteworthy uncertainties of daily observations from the Terra/Aqua MODIS were found, with mean relative

  18. Use of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity to estimate concentration and dynamics of suspended solids in Upper Klamath Lake, south-central Oregon: Implications for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tamara M.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical velocity and acoustic backscatter measurements by acoustic Doppler current profilers were used to determine seasonal, subseasonal (days to weeks), and diel variation in suspended solids in a freshwater lake where massive cyanobacterial blooms occur annually. During the growing season, the suspended material in the lake is dominated by the buoyancy-regulating cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Measured variables (water velocity, relative backscatter [RB], wind speed, and air and water temperatures) were averaged over the deployment season at each sample time of day to determine average diel cycles. Phase shifts between diel cycles in RB and diel cycles in wind speed, vertical water temperature differences (delta T(degree)), and horizontal current speeds were found by determining the lead or lag that maximized the linear correlation between the respective diel cycles. Diel cycles in RB were more in phase with delta T(degree) cycles, and, to a lesser extent, wind cycles, than to water current cycles but were out of phase with the cycle that would be expected if the vertical movement of buoyant cyanobacteria colonies was controlled primarily by light. Clear evidence of a diel cycle in vertical velocity was found only at the two deepest sites in the lake. Cycles of vertical velocity, where present, were out of phase with expected vertical motion of cyanobacterial colonies based on the theoretical cycle for light-driven vertical movement. This suggests that water column stability and turbulence were more important factors in controlling vertical distribution of colonies than light. Variations at subseasonal time scales were determined by filtering data to pass periods between 1.2 and 15 days. At subseasonal time scales, correlations between RB and currents or air temperature were consistent with increased concentration of cyanobacterial colonies near the surface when water column stability increased (higher air temperatures or weaker currents) and

  19. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  20. Effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system applied to grey water treatment. kenkiter dot koki roshoho no shori seino ni oyobosu ryuryo hendo oyobi kendaku busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, T; Sagehashi, M; Otsuka, N; Okada, M; Murakami, A [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-04-10

    In this study, effects of variation of flow and accumulation of suspended solids (SS) on the performance of anaerobic/aerobic biofilm system were investigated through the laboratory test using synthetic wastewater and the field test using grey water. Effects of flow variation scarcely appeared on the time change of effluent quality in both cases where daily average hydraulic retention time (HRT) in anaerobic filter was 20h and that of aerobic filter was 6.7h. In the field test, however, removal rate of organic substances was lower (20-30%) than that of the laboratory test (90%), since SS content in grey water accumulated in the anaerobic filter which led dissolution of organic substances from accumulated SS, blocking, and short-circuit flow. Moreover, it was confirmed by the batch test that constituent of grey water has lower resolution for microorganisms and is more difficult to nitrate than synthetic waste water. 24 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Total Suspended Solid (TSS Distributed by Tidal Currents during Low to High Tide Phase in the Waters of Sayung, Demak: Its Relations to Water Quality Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulung Jantama Wisha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sayung waters is a region highly vulnerable to catastrophic erosion along the coast, which is directly followed by an increase suspended sediments and particles from the bottom of the waters that was stirred by oceanography factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and distribution of the latest TSS condition and its effect on water quality parameters in the waters of Sayung. The sampling method is using purposive sampling, with the stations spread out along the coastal area of Sayung, the main data consist of current, tide, bathymetry, coastline and water quality, and the secondary data consist of RBI map and tide forecasting, those data is analyzed numerically and statistically. TSS value ranged between 23,1-199,6 mg.L-1, the distribution of TSS is simulated in the condition of ebb to tide with current speed ranged between 0-0.41 ms-1, that distribution also influenced by physical water factors such as salinity, temperature, and density and has  impacts to enhancing the turbidity and indirectly decrease the photosynthesis activity and inhibit the oxygen cycle in the Sayung waters.

  2. Review of Oceanographic and Geochemical Data Collected in Massachusetts Bay during a Large Discharge of Total Suspended Solids from Boston's Sewage-Treatment System and Ocean Outfall in August 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Michael H.; Butman, Bradford; Casso, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    During the period August 14-23, 2002, the discharge of total suspended solids (TSS) from the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority sewage-treatment plant ranged from 32 to 132 milligrams per liter, causing the monthly average discharge to exceed the limit specified in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit. Time-series monitoring data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in western Massachusetts Bay were examined to evaluate changes in environmental conditions during and after this exceedance event. The rate of sediment trapping and the concentrations of near-bottom suspended sediment measured near the outfall in western Massachusetts Bay increased during this period. Because similar increases in sediment-trapping rate were observed in the summers of 2003 and 2004, however, the increase in 2002 cannot be definitively attributed to the increased TSS discharge. Concentrations of copper and silver in trapped sediment collected 10 and 20 days following the 2002 TSS event were elevated compared to those in pre-event samples. Maximum concentrations were less than 50 percent of toxicity guidelines. Photographs of surficial bottom sediments obtained before and after the TSS event do not show sediment accumulation on the sea floor. Concentrations of silver, Clostridium perfringens, and clay in surficial bottom sediments sampled 10 weeks after the discharge event at a depositional site 3 kilometers west of the outfall were unchanged from those in samples obtained before the event. Simulation of the TSS event by using a coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment-transport model could enhance understanding of these observations and of the effects of the exceedance on the local marine environment.

  3. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation....

  5. Multi-residue determination of the sorption of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals to wastewater suspended particulate matter using pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-11-04

    Presented is the first comprehensive study of drugs of abuse on suspended particulate matter (SPM) in wastewater. Analysis of SPM is crucial to prevent the under-reporting of the levels of analyte that may be present in wastewater. Analytical methods to date analyse the aqueous part of wastewater samples only, removing SPM through the use of filtration or centrifugation. The development of an analytical method to determine 60 compounds on SPM using a combination of pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (PLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS) is reported. The range of compounds monitored included stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, and their metabolites. The method was successfully validated (parameters studied: linearity and range, recovery, accuracy, reproducibility, repeatability, matrix effects, and limits of detection and quantification). The developed methodology was applied to SPM samples collected at three wastewater treatment plants in the UK. The average proportion of analyte on SPM as opposed to in the aqueous phase was 10% with regard to methadone, EDDP, EMDP, BZP, fentanyl, nortramadol, norpropoxyphene, sildenafil and all antidepressants (dosulepin, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine). Consequently, the lack of SPM analysis in wastewater sampling protocol could lead to the under-reporting of the measured concentration of some compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of splenic iron overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrive, L.; Thurnher, S.; Hricak, H.; Price, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    The value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in assessing iron overload in the spleen was retrospectively investigated in 40 consecutive patients. MR appearance, mesaure of signal intensity and T1-and T2-relaxation times were correlated with the histologically determined level of iron in the spleen in each patient. Histologic examination revealed no iron overload in 19 patients, mild iron overload in seven, moderate iron overload in six, and severe iron overload in eight. All 19 patients with no splenic iron overload and 11 of the other 21 patients with splenic iron overload were correctly identified by MR imaging (sensitivity 52%, specificity 100%, accuracy 75%). Splenic iron overload was diagnosed when a decrease of signal intensity of the spleen compared with those of adipose tissue and renal cortex was demonstrated. MR images demonstrated all eight cases of severe, three of the six cases of moderate, and none of the seven cases of mild iron overload. Only spleens with severe iron overload had a significant mean decrease in signal intensity and T1- and T2-relaxation times. Although specific, MR imaging is poorly sensitive to splenic iron overload. (author). 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Removal of endocrine disruptors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs through wastewater chlorination: the effect of pH, total suspended solids and humic acids and identification of degradation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Koumaki, Elena; Mamais, Daniel; Nika, Maria-Christina; Bletsou, Anna A; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are two groups of emerging pollutants the significance of which rests on their persistent detection in the aquatic environment and their possible adverse effects. Wastewater treatment plants are one of the major ways for transporting such chemicals in the aquatic environment. Chlorination is usually the last stage of treatment before wastewater being disposed to the aquatic environment. This work focuses on the evaluation of the effect of chlorine dose and specific wastewater characteristics (pH, total suspended solids and humic acids) on the removal of target EDCs and NSAIDs through chlorination. Another objective of this study is the identification of chlorination by-products of specific EDCs and NSAIDs and their dependence on contact time. Based on the results it is concluded that the effect of chlorine dose and humic acids concentration on the degradation of target compounds during chlorination is minimal. On the contrary, pH is a critical parameter which highly affects process performance. Moreover, it is concluded that not only the free available chlorine species, but also the properties of EDCs and NSAIDs under different pH conditions can affect chlorination process performance. The effect of TSS on the degradation of the target compounds during chlorination is more profound for chemicals with high Kow values and therefore higher affinity to partition to the particulate phase (i.e. nonylphenols, triclosan). Several degradation by-products were identified through chlorination of nonylphenol, bisphenol A and diclofenac. The dependence of these by-products on chlorination contact time is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treating floodplain lakes of large rivers as study units for variables that vary within lakes; an evaluation using chlorophyll a and inorganic suspended solids data from floodplain lakes of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.R.; Rogala, J.R.; Houser, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    Contiguous floodplain lakes ('lakes') have historically been used as study units for comparative studies of limnological variables that vary within lakes. The hierarchical nature of these studies implies that study variables may be correlated within lakes and that covariate associations may differ not only among lakes but also by spatial scale. We evaluated the utility of treating lakes as study units for limnological variables that vary within lakes based on the criteria of important levels of among-lake variation in study variables and the observation of covariate associations that vary among lakes. These concerns were selected, respectively, to ensure that lake signatures were distinguishable from within-lake variation and that lake-scale effects on covariate associations might provide inferences not available by ignoring those effects. Study data represented chlorophyll a (CHL) and inorganic suspended solids (ISS) data from lakes within three reaches of the Upper Mississippi River. Sampling occurred in summer from 1993 through 2005 (except 2003); numbers of lakes per reach varied from 7 to 19, and median lake area varied from 53 to 101 ha. CHL and ISS levels were modelled linearly, with lake, year and lake x year effects treated as random. For all reaches, the proportions of variation in CHL and ISS attributable to differences among lakes (including lake and lake x year effects) were substantial (range: 18%-73%). Finally, among-lake variation in CHL and ISS was strongly associated with covariates and covariate effects that varied by lakes or lake-years (including with vegetation levels and, for CHL, log(ISS)). These findings demonstrate the utility of treating floodplain lakes as study units for the study of limnological variables and the importance of addressing hierarchy within study designs when making inferences from data collected within floodplain lakes.

  9. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  10. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  11. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge inoculation in a hybrid process scheme concept to assist overloaded conventional activated sludge (CAS) process operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenu, A; Roels, J; Van Damme, S; Wambecq, T; Weemaes, M; Thoeye, C; De Gueldre, G; Van De Steene, B

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of inoculating membrane bioreactor (MBR) sludge in a parallel-operated overloaded conventional activated sludge (CAS) system. Modelling studies that showed the beneficial effect of this inoculation were confirmed though full scale tests. Total nitrogen (TN) removal in the CAS increased and higher nitrate formation rates were achieved. During MBR sludge inoculation, the TN removal in the CAS was proven to be dependent on MBR sludge loading. Special attention was given to the effect of inoculation on sludge quality. The MBR flocs, grown without selection pressure, were clearly distinct from the more compact flocs in the CAS system and also contained more filamentous bacteria. After inoculation the MBR flocs did not evolve into good-settling compact flocs, resulting in a decreasing sludge quality. During high flow conditions the effluent CAS contained more suspended solids. Sludge volume index, however, did not increase. Laboratory tests were held to determine the threshold volume of MBR sludge to be seeded into the CAS reactor. Above 16-30%, supernatant turbidity and scum formation increased markedly.

  12. Intelligent Overload Control for Composite Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenhoff, P.J.; Ostendorf, D.R.; Zivkovic, Miroslav; Meeuwissen, H.B.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze overload control for composite web services in service oriented architectures by an orchestrating broker, and propose two practical access control rules which effectively mitigate the effects of severe overloads at some web services in the composite service. These two rules

  13. Polysynovitis after oligofructose overload in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, A M; Enemark, H L; Andersen, P H; Aalbaek, B; Nielsen, O L

    2010-01-01

    Acute bovine laminitis is a systemic disease with local manifestations primarily affecting the claws. However, distension of the tarsocrural joints has been observed after experimental oligofructose overload in dairy heifers as a part of the complex interpreted as acute, clinical laminitis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to study bovine synovial joints and tendon sheaths after oligofructose overload. Ten dairy heifers received oral oligofructose overload (17 g/kg body weight); four were killed 24h after overload and six after 72 h. Six control heifers received tap water and were killed after 72 or 96 h. Clinical examination included locomotion scoring and palpation of the tarsocrural joints. Ruminal fluid and blood was collected for measurements of pH and hydration status. Total protein concentrations and white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined in synovial fluid collected from tarsocrural joints after death. Synovial joints and tendon sheaths were examined and synovial membranes were studied microscopically. Swabs taken from the synovial cavities were subject to bacteriological culture. Heifers with oligofructose overload developed signs of ruminal and systemic acidosis. Lameness was observed in three of ten heifers 24h after overload and in all remaining heifers after 72 h. Distension of tarsocrural joints was observed from 18 h after overload and peaked at 30 h when all examined joints were moderately or severely distended. The synovial fluid was turbid and protein content and WBC counts were increased at both 24 and 72 h compared with controls. Bacterial culture was negative. Synovial membranes 24 and 72 h after overload had a fibrinous and neutrophil inflammatory reaction that regressed in severity between 24 and 72 h after overload. Heifers subjected to oligofructose overload therefore developed generalized sterile neutrophilic polysynovitis. Focus on this aspect of bovine laminitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of this complex

  14. Magnetically suspended railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C

    1977-07-28

    The invention concerns the emergency support of a magnetically suspended railway. On failure of the magnetic suspension/tracking system, the vehicles touch down on the rail configuration by means of emergency gliding elements like sliding shoes, skids, or the like. In doing this, the touch-down shock of the emergency gliding elements has to be limited to a force maximum as small as possible. According to the invention a spring-attenuator combination is used for this purpose, the spring characteristic being linear while the attenuator has a square-law characteristic for the compressing and a linear characteristic for the yielding motion. The force maximum thus achieved is exactly half the size of the physically smallest possible force maximum for an emergency gliding element springed without damping.

  15. Overload protection system for power inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An overload protection system for a power inverter utilized a first circuit for monitoring current to the load from the power inverter to detect an overload and a control circuit to shut off the power inverter, when an overload condition was detected. At the same time, a monitoring current inverter was turned on to deliver current to the load at a very low power level. A second circuit monitored current to the load, from the monitoring current inverter, to hold the power inverter off through the control circuit, until the overload condition was cleared so that the control circuit may be deactivated in order for the power inverter to be restored after the monitoring current inverter is turned off completely.

  16. Overload Control in a SIP Signaling Network

    OpenAIRE

    Masataka Ohta

    2007-01-01

    The Internet telephony employs a new type of Internet communication on which a mutual communication is realized by establishing sessions. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is used to establish sessions between end-users. For unreliable transmission (UDP), SIP message should be retransmitted when it is lost. The retransmissions increase a load of the SIP signaling network, and sometimes lead to performance degradation when a network is overloaded. The paper proposes an overload control for a S...

  17. Thermal Characterization of the Overload Carbon Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kostić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, the electronic component is not continuously but only intermittently overloaded (e.g., inrush current, short circuit, or discharging interference. With this paper, we provide insight into carbon resistors that have to hold out a rarely occurring transient overload. Using simple electrical circuit, the resistor is overheating with higher current than declared, and dissipation is observed by a thermal camera.

  18. Avaliação da concentração de mercúrio em sedimentos e material particulado no rio Acre, estado do Acre, Brasil Mercury concentration assessment in botton sediments and suspended solids from Acre river, in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Fernando Silva Mascarenhas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação dos teores de mercúrio em sistemas aquáticos sem influência direta de fontes antropogênicas conhecidas não tem sido conduzida com freqüência na região Amazônica. Visando contribuir para esclarecer a ocorrência de valores elevados de Hg em peixes consumidos pela população de Rio Branco - AC, o Instituto Evandro Chagas - IEC, realizou um estudo para quantificar os teores de Hg em sedimentos de fundo e material particulado no rio Acre e alguns afluentes, além da caracterização físico-química das águas entre as cidades de Brasiléia e Assis Brasil. As amostras de sedimentos foram peneiradas na fração Mercury levels assessment in aquatic systems areas without influences of antropogenic sources have not been well studied in the Amazon region. For the identification of the origin of high values of Hg in fish consumed by population of Rio Branco City - AC, the Evandro Chagas Institute - IEC, studied the mercury levels in sediments, suspended solids and studied also the physical-chemical characterization of waters, in the Acre river and also some in afluents, between Brasiléia and Assis Brasil cities. Bottom sediments samples were sieved to <250 mesh fraction after drying. The suspended solid was obtained by precipitation with Al2SO4. About 250 mg of the material was submitted the acid digestion and the determinations of Hg were made by Could Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The physical-chemical parameters pH, electric conductivity, temperature and dissolved total solids, were studied in the field, by potenciometric methods. The Hg levels in bottom sediments range 0,018 and 0,184 mug g-1, mean of 0,054 ± 0,034 mug g-1, while the suspended solids varied between 0,067 and 0,220 mug g-1, average of 0,098 ± 0,037 mug g-1. The waters were slightly acid with pH varying among 5,80 - 6,95 and conductivity electric 151,60 - 1.151,00 muS cm-1. The mercury levels in the analyzed materials was below of standard levels for

  19. Assessments of lake profiling on temperature, Total Suspended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation were performed on temperature, total suspended solid (TSS) and turbidity (TUR) based on in-situ and ex-situ analyses according to the correlation matrix and linear regression at 14 different depths for the Chomor River and Mahadir Island. The result showed outlet significantly decreased over depth caused the ...

  20. Oligofructose overload induces lameness in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, A M; Enemark, J M D; Telezhenko, E; Capion, N; Ekstrøm, C T; Thoefner, M B

    2009-02-01

    The aim was to describe the clinical orthopedic implications of oligofructose overload. A group of 8 nonpregnant dairy heifers were given an oral dose of oligofructose (17 g/kg of body weight). At predefined times during a period spanning 3 d before and 9 d after oligofructose overload, the heifers underwent a clinical examination including locomotion scoring, hoof-testing, and palpation of tarso-crural joints, as well as the collection of blood and ruminal fluid samples. Locomotion sessions were videotaped; subsequently, locomotion was blind-scored. Locomotion scores increased after oligofructose overload and declined toward the end of the study period. The greatest locomotion scores were recorded on d 3 to 5 (60 to 120 h) where 12 of 42 (29%) locomotion scores were 3 and 13 of 42 (32%) were score 2. Positive reactions to hoof-testing were observed from 30 h after oligofructose overload and reached a maximum on d 7 and 9 where 12 of 28 (43%) reactions were marked positive. Distension of the tarso-crural joints was observed from 24 h after oligofructose overload, with maximum distension being observed on d 2, in which 44 of 56 (79%) of observed joints were either moderately or severely distended. The heifers developed classic signs of acute ruminal and systemic acidosis after the oligofructose overload (ruminal pH 4.3 +/- 0.07, standard base excess -10.8 +/- 2.3 at 18 h). With few exceptions, clinical and laboratory variables returned to normal within 9 d of oligofructose overload. But, good body condition and previous feeding with grass apparently predisposed the heifers to more severe systemic affection. Oligofructose overload in dairy heifers induced ruminal and systemic acidosis, diarrhea, dehydration, and, subsequently, lameness, claw pain, and joint effusion, collectively interpreted as signs of acute laminitis. Oligofructose overload at 17 g/kg of body weight represented a relatively mild laminitis model in cattle, as demonstrated by a reasonably quick

  1. Physical activity behavior and role overload in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Butler, Frances R

    2015-01-01

    We examined physical activity stages of change, physical activity behavior, and role overload in different stages of motherhood in a predominantly Australian sample. Neither physical activity behavior, stages of physical activity change, nor role overload significantly differed across motherhood groups. Role overload was significantly higher for mothers in the contemplation, planning, and action stages of physical activity than in the maintenance stage of change. Role overload had a weak, although significant, negative correlation with leisure-time physical activity. We conclude that strategies focused upon reducing role overload or perceived role overload have only limited potential to meaningfully increase leisure-time physical activity in mothers.

  2. Control over Permissible Short Emergency Overloads in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for determination a permissible duration of short intermittent overloads of power transformers that permits to avoid non-permissible over-heating of winding insulation and fully utilize overloading transformer ability.

  3. Flywheel Energy Storage System Suspended by Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Prince; Hu, Yefa; Misbawu, Adam

    This work presents a prototype flywheel energy storage system (FESS) suspended by hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) rotating at a speed of 20000rpm with a maximum storage power capacity of 30W with a maximum tip speed of 300m/s. The design presented is an improvement of most existing FESS, as the design incorporates a unique feature in that the upper and the lower rotor and stator core are tapered which enhances larger thrust and much lower radial force to be exerted on the system. Without any adverse effect being experienced by the model. The work also focuses on the description of developing a prototype FESS suspended by HMB using solid works as a basis of developing in the nearer future a more improved FESS suspended by HMB capable of injecting the ever increasing high energy demand situation in the 21st century and beyond.

  4. Iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Iron overload (IOL) starts to develop in MDS patients before they become transfusion-dependent because ineffective erythropoiesis suppresses hepcidin production in the liver and thus leads to unrestrained intestinal iron uptake. However, the most important cause of iron overload in MDS is chronic transfusion therapy. While transfusion dependency by itself is a negative prognostic factor reflecting poor bone marrow function, the ensuing transfusional iron overload has an additional dose-dependent negative impact on the survival of patients with lower risk MDS. Cardiac dysfunction appears to be important in this context, as a consequence of chronic anemia, age-related cardiac comorbidity, and iron overload. Another potential problem is iron-related endothelial dysfunction. There is some evidence that with increasing age, high circulating iron levels worsen the atherosclerotic phenotype. Transfusional IOL also appears to aggravate bone marrow failure in MDS, through unfavorable effects on mesenchymal stromal cells as well a hematopoietic cells, particularly erythroid precursors. Patient series and clinical trials have shown that the iron chelators deferoxamine and deferasirox can improve hematopoiesis in a minority of transfusion-dependent patients. Analyses of registry data suggest that iron chelation provides a survival benefit for patients with MDS, but data from a prospective randomized clinical trial are still lacking.

  5. A method and algorithm for correlating scattered light and suspended particles in polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    An optical model has been developed for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water. This approach is based on the characteristics of scattered light from the suspended particles in water samples. An optical sensor system (an active spectrometer) has been developed to correlate pollutant (total suspended solids TSS) concentration and the scattered radiation. Scattered light was measured in terms of the output voltage of the phototransistor of the sensor system. The developed algorithm was used to calculate and estimate the concentrations of the polluted water samples. The proposed algorithm was calibrated using the observed readings. The results display a strong correlation between the radiation values and the total suspended solids concentrations. The proposed system yields a high degree of accuracy with the correlation coefficient (R) of 0.99 and the root mean square error (RMS) of 63.57 mg/l. (Author)

  6. Volume overload cleanup: An approach for on-line SPE-GC, GPC-GC, and GPC-SPE-GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkdijk, H.; Mol, H.G.J.; Nagel, B. van der

    2007-01-01

    A new concept for cleanup, based on volume overloading of the cleanup column, has been developed for on-line coupling of gel permeation chromatography (GPC), solid-phase extraction (SPE), or both, to gas chromatography (GC). The principle is outlined and the applicability demonstrated by the

  7. Muscular contribution to low-back loading and stiffness during standard and suspended push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P

    2008-06-01

    Push-up exercises are normally performed to challenge muscles that span upper extremity joints. However, it is also recognized that push-ups provide an effective abdominal muscle challenge, especially when the hands are in contact with a labile support surface. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activation levels and resultant intervertebral joint (IVJ) loading when standard and suspended push-ups were performed, and to quantify and compare the contribution of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness in both exercises. Eleven recreationally trained male volunteers performed sets of standard and suspended push-ups. Upper body kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected and input into a 3D biomechanical model of the lumbar torso to quantify lumbar IVJ loading and the contributions of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness. When performing suspended push-ups, muscles of the abdominal wall and the latissimus dorsi were activated to levels that were significantly greater than those elicited when performing standard push-ups (ppush-ups. Also directly resulting from the increased activation levels of the abdominal muscles and the latissimus dorsi during suspended push-ups was increased muscular contribution to lumbar IVJ rotational stiffness (ppush-ups appear to provide a superior abdominal muscle challenge. However, for individuals unable to tolerate high lumbar IVJ compressive loads, potential benefits gained by incorporating suspended push-ups into their resistance training regimen may be outweighed by the risk of overloading low-back tissues.

  8. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  9. A comparison between ultraviolet disinfection and copper alginate beads within a vortex bioreactor for the deactivation of bacteria in simulated waste streams with high levels of colour, humic acid and suspended solids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Thomas

    Full Text Available We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries.

  10. A comparison between ultraviolet disinfection and copper alginate beads within a vortex bioreactor for the deactivation of bacteria in simulated waste streams with high levels of colour, humic acid and suspended solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simon F; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Allen, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries.

  11. An Improved Overloading Scheme for Downlink CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moeneclaey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An improved overloading scheme is presented for single-user detection in the downlink of multiple-access systems based on OCDMA/OCDMA (O/O. By displacing in time the orthogonal signatures of the two user sets that make up the overloaded system, the cross-correlation between the users of the two sets is reduced. For random O/O with square-root cosine rolloff chip pulses, the multiuser interference can be decreased by up to 50% (depending on the chip pulse bandwidth as compared to quasiorthogonal sequences (QOS that are presently part of the downlink standard of Cdma2000. This reduction of the multiuser interference gives rise to an increase of the achievable signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio for a particular channel load.

  12. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  13. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  14. Hepatic iron overload: Quantitative MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomori, J.M.; Horev, G.; Tamary, H.; Zandback, J.; Kornreich, L.; Zaizov, R.; Freud, E.; Krief, O.; Ben-Meir, J.; Rotem, H.

    1991-01-01

    Iron deposits demonstrate characteristically shortened T2 relaxation times. Several previously published studies reported poor correlation between the in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements made by means of midfield magnetic resonance (MR) units and the hepatic iron content of iron-overloaded patients. In this study, the authors assessed the use of in vivo 1/T2 measurements obtained by means of MR imaging at 0.5 T using short echo times (13.4 and 30 msec) and single-echo-sequences as well as computed tomographic (CT) attenuation as a measure of liver iron concentration in 10 severely iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassemia major. The iron concentrations in surgical wedge biopsy samples of the liver, which varied between 3 and 9 mg/g of wet weight (normal, less than or equal to 0.5 mg/g), correlated well (r = .93, P less than or equal to .0001) with the preoperative in vivo hepatic 1/T2 measurements. The CT attenuation did not correlate with liver iron concentration. Quantitative MR imaging is a readily available noninvasive method for the assessment of hepatic iron concentration in iron-overloaded patients, reducing the need for needle biopsies of the liver

  15. Iron overload impact on P-ATPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Leilismara; Pessoa, Marco Tulio C; Costa, Tamara G F; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto

    2018-03-01

    Iron is a chemical element that is active in the fundamental physiological processes for human life, but its burden can be toxic to the body, mainly because of the stimulation of membrane lipid peroxidation. For this reason, the action of iron on many ATPases has been studied, especially on P-ATPases, such as the Na + ,K + -ATPase and the Ca 2+ -ATPase. On the Fe 2+ -ATPase activity, the free iron acts as an activator, decreasing the intracellular Fe 2+ and playing a protection role for the cell. On the Ca 2+ -ATPase activity, the iron overload decreases the enzyme activity, raising the cytoplasmic Ca 2+ and decreasing the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus Ca 2+ concentrations, which could promote an enzyme oxidation, nitration, and fragmentation. However, the iron overload effect on the Na + ,K + -ATPase may change according to the tissue expressions. On the renal cells, as well as on the brain and the heart, iron promotes an enzyme inactivation, whereas its effect on the erythrocytes seems to be the opposite, directly stimulating the ATPase activity, or stimulating it by signaling pathways involving ROS and PKC. Modulations in the ATPase activity may impair the ionic transportation, which is essential for cell viability maintenance, inducing irreversible damage to the cell homeostasis. Here, we will discuss about the iron overload effect on the P-ATPases, such as the Na + ,K + -ATPase, the Ca 2+ -ATPase, and the Fe 2+ -ATPase.

  16. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  17. Distribution and transportation of suspended sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubel, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A number of studies of the distribution and character of suspended matter in the waters of the Atlantic shelf have documented the variations in the concentration of total suspended matter in both time and space. Very little is known, however, about the ultimate sources of inorganic suspended matter, and even less is known about the routes and rates of suspended sediment transport in shelf waters. Suspended particulate matter constitutes a potential vehicle for the transfer of energy-associated contaminants, radionuclides and oil, back to the coast and therefore to man. The concentrations of total suspended matter in shelf waters are typically so low, however, that the mechanism is ineffective. Studies of suspended particulate matter have a high scientific priority, but in this investigator's opinion the state of knowledge is adequate for preparation of the environmental impact statements that would be required for siting of offshore nuclear power plants and for oil drilling on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

  18. The effect of single overloading on stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Yuzuru; Saito, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    In the normal course of nuclear power plant operation in Japan, proof testing has been performed after periodic plant inspections. In this proof test procedure, the reactor pressure vessel and pipes of the primary coolant loop are subjected to a specified overload with a slightly higher hydraulic pressure than during normal operation. This specified overload is so called a single overload' in material testing. It is well known that the fatigue crack growth rate is decreased after a single overload has been applied to the specimen. However, it is not clear whether the stress corrosion cracking rate is also decreased after a single overload. In this study, the effect of a single overload on the stress corrosion cracking rate under simulated boiling water reactor environment was evaluated by examining a singly overloaded WOL (wedge opening load) specimen. The WOL specimen for the stress corrosion cracking test was machined from sensitized 304 type austenitic stainless steel. Since the crack extension length was 3.2% longer in the case of a more severely overloaded specimen, it was observed than the stress corrosion cracking rate is also decreased after the single overload has been applied to the specimen. (author)

  19. The overloaded right heart and ventricular interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Robert; Badagliacca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The right and the left ventricle are interdependent as both structures are nested within the pericardium, have the septum in common and are encircled with common myocardial fibres. Therefore, right ventricular volume or pressure overloading affects left ventricular function, and this in turn may affect the right ventricle. In normal subjects at rest, right ventricular function has negligible interaction with left ventricular function. However, the right ventricle contributes significantly to the normal cardiac output response to exercise. In patients with right ventricular volume overload without pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular diastolic compliance is decreased and ejection fraction depressed but without intrinsic alteration in contractility. In patients with right ventricular pressure overload, left ventricular compliance is decreased with initial preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, but with eventual left ventricular atrophic remodelling and altered systolic function. Breathing affects ventricular interdependence, in healthy subjects during exercise and in patients with lung diseases and altered respiratory system mechanics. Inspiration increases right ventricular volumes and decreases left ventricular volumes. Expiration decreases both right and left ventricular volumes. The presence of an intact pericardium enhances ventricular diastolic interdependence but has negligible effect on ventricular systolic interdependence. On the other hand, systolic interdependence is enhanced by a stiff right ventricular free wall, and decreased by a stiff septum. Recent imaging studies have shown that both diastolic and systolic ventricular interactions are negatively affected by right ventricular regional inhomogeneity and prolongation of contraction, which occur along with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The clinical relevance of these observations is being explored. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights

  20. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  1. Suspended dust in Norwegian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to calculations, at least 80 000 people in Oslo and 8 000 in Trondheim were annoyed by too much suspended dust in 2000. The dust concentration is greatest in the spring, presumably because dust is swirling up from melting snow and ice on the streets. Car traffic is the main source of the dust, except for some of the most highly exposed regions where wood-firing from old stoves contributes up to 70 percent of the dust. National targets for air quality include suspended dust, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene. Calculations show that nitrogen dioxide emissions exceeding the limit affected 4 000 people in Oslo and 1 000 people in Trondheim. The sulphur dioxide emissions in the major cities did non exceed the national quality limit; they did exceed the limit in some of the smaller industrial centres. In Trondheim, measurements show that the national limit for benzene was exceeded. Most of the emission of nitrogen dioxide comes from the road traffic. Local air pollution at times causes considerable health- and well-being problems in the larger cities and industrial centres, where a great part of the population may be at risk of early death, infection of the respiratory passage, heart- and lung diseases and cancer

  2. Iron overload following bone marrow transplantation in children: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornreich, L.; Horev, G.; Grunebaum, M.; Yaniv, I.; Stein, J.; Zaizov, R.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of post-transfusional iron overload in children after bone marrow transplantation by reviewing their magnetic resonance imaging (MR) findings. Materials and methods. We reviewed the abdominal MR studies of 13 children after autologous bone marrow transplantation. Nine of the children had also undergone MR prior to transplantation. Iron deposition in the liver, spleen and bone marrow was graded semi-quantitatively on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Serum ferritin levels and number of blood units given after bone marrow transplantation were recorded. Results. None of the pre-transplantation MR studies revealed iron overload. After bone marrow transplantation, three children showed normal liver and spleen. Iron overload in the liver was noted in ten patients (77 %), six of whom also showed iron overload in the spleen (46 %) and five in the bone marrow (38.5 %). The degree of hepatic iron overload was correlated significantly and splenic iron overload was correlated weakly with the number of blood transfusions (P 0.01 and P > 0.01, respectively), but neither was correlated with the serum ferritin level. Conclusion. Iron overload commonly accompanies bone marrow transplantation. The observed pattern of iron deposition, in which the spleen was uninvolved in 40 % of patients demonstrating iron overload, is not typical of post-transfusional hemochromatosis. (orig.)

  3. Using Pattern Recognition Techniques for Server Overload Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, C.P.; Cheplygina, V.; Zaidman, A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key factors in customer satisfaction is application performance. To be able to guarantee good performance, it is necessary to take appropriate measures before a server overload occurs. While in small systems it is usually possible to predict server overload using a subjective human

  4. A new approach for primary overloads allowance in ratcheting evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, M.T.; Gatt, J.M.; Lejeail, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Seismic loading must be taken into account in ratchetting design analysis. In LMFBR structures it mainly produces primary overloads, which are characterised by severe magnitudes but a generally low number of occurrences. Other cases of several primary overloads can also observed in pipes during emptying operations for instance. In the RCC-MR design code rule, the maximum primary stress supported by a structure is considered as permanent. No allowance is made for temporary load. Experimental ratchetting tests conducted on different structures with and without overloads clearly point out that temporary overloads lead to less ratchetting effect. A method using the RCC-MR efficiency diagram framework is proposed. A general theoretical approach allows to extend its field of application of various cases of primary loading: constant or null primary loading or overloads. Experimental results are then used to check the validity of this new approach. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Effect of overloads on fatigue crack propagation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogaev, V.P.; Bojtsov, B.V.; Petukhov, Yu.V

    1986-01-01

    An overload coefficient Q, the number of overload cycles Nsub(0), the value of the stress intensity coefficient swing of basic loading conditions ΔK are experimentally studied for their effect on the delay of the fatigue crack propagation Nsub(D) in 30KhGSNA steel. Results of the study are presented. It is shown that as a result of single overloads the value attains 60 - 10 thous. cycles. The delay Nsub(D) grows with the overload coefficient Q=Ksub(max)sup(0)/Ksub(max) and the number of the overload cycles Nsub(0). The regularity indicated is described by the equations valid within the limits of variation in Q and Nsub(0) values studied in the paper

  6. Iron overload and chelation therapy in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Santini, Valeria; Musallam, Khaled; Taher, Ali

    2014-07-01

    Iron overload remains a concern in MDS patients especially those requiring recurrent blood transfusions. The consequence of iron overload may be more relevant in patients with low and intermediate-1 risk MDS who may survive long enough to experience such manifestations. It is a matter of debate whether this overload has time to yield organ damage, but it is quite evident that cellular damage and DNA genotoxic effect are induced. Iron overload may play a critical role in exacerbating pre-existing morbidity or even unmask silent ones. Under these circumstances, iron chelation therapy could play an integral role in the management of these patients. This review entails an in depth analysis of iron overload in MDS patients; its pathophysiology, effect on survival, associated risks and diagnostic options. It also discusses management options in relation to chelation therapy used in MDS patients and the impact it has on survival, hematologic response and organ function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Left ventricular function in right ventricular overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Shiro; Handa, Shunnosuke; Abe, Sumihisa; Onishi, Shohei; Nakamura, Yoshiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study clarified regional and global functions of the distorted left ventricle due to right ventricular overload by gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Cardiac catheterization and RNV were performed in 13 cases of atrial septal defect (ASD), 13 of pure mitral stenosis (MS), 10 of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and 10 of normal subjects (NL). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was 32.9±13.9, 45.0±12.2, 88.3±17.1, and 21.2±4.5 mmHg, respectively. The end-systolic LAO view of the left ventricle was halved into septal and free-wall sides. The end-diastolic halves were determined in the same plane. Ejection fractions of the global left ventricle (LVEF), global right ventricle (RVEF), the septal half of the left ventricle (SEPEF), and the free-wall half of the left ventricle (FWEF) were obtained. LVEF was 56.8±9.8% in NL, 52.8±10.5% in ASD, and 49.5±12.9% in PPH. In MS, LVEF (47.0±13.0%) was smaller than those in the other groups. RVEF was 37.0±5.2% in NL, 43.7±15.5% in ASD, and 32.8±11.5% in MS. In PPH, RVEF (25.0±10.6%) was smaller than those in the other groups. SEPEF was smaller in ASD (42.5±13.2%), MS (40.4±13.1%), PPH (40.5±12.5%) than in NL (53.5±8.5%). Systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was disturbed by right ventricular overload. RVEF (r=-0.35, p<0.05) and SEPEF (r=-0.51, p<0.01) had negative correlations with RVSP. As RVSP rose, systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was more severely disturbed. FWEF was the same among the four groups; NL (57.0±12.6%), ASD (48.6±15.2%), MS (50.5±12.0%), and PPH (51.1±12.3%). There was a good correlation between SEPEF and LVEF in NL (r=0.81), although in PPH this correlation was poor (r=0.64). These data showed that the distorted left ventricular due to right ventricular overload maintains its global function with preserved function of the free-wall side. (J.P.N.)

  8. Viscous bursting of suspended films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrégeas, G.; Martin, P.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    1995-11-01

    Soap films break up by an inertial process. We present here the first observations on freely suspended films of long-chain polymers, where viscous effects are dominant and no surfactant is present. A hole is nucleated at time 0 and grows up to a radius R(t) at time t. A surprising feature is that the liquid from the hole is not collected into a rim (as it is in soap films): The liquid spreads out without any significant change of the film thickness. The radius R(t) grows exponentially with time, R~exp(t/τ) [while in soap films R(t) is linear]. The rise time τ~ηe/2γ where η is viscosity, e is thickness (in the micron range), and γ is surface tension. A simple model is developed to explain this growth law.

  9. Evaluation of thermal overload in boiler operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Camila Soares; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Campos, Julio César Costa; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; de Moraes, Angêlo Casali; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians educational institutions need a large energy demand for the operation of laundries, restaurants and accommodation of students. Much of that energy comes from steam generated in boilers with wood fuel. The laboral activity in boiler may present problems for the operator's health due to exposure to excessive heat, and its operation has a high degree of risk. This paper describes an analysis made the conditions of thermal environment in the operation of a B category boiler, located at a Higher Education Institution, located in the Zona da Mata Mineira The equipments used to collect data were Meter WBGT of the Heat Index; Meter of Wet Bulb Index and Globe Thermometer (WBGT); Politeste Instruments, an anemometer and an Infrared Thermometer. By the application of questionnaires, the second phase consisted of collecting data on environmental factors (temperature natural environment, globe temperature, relative humidity and air velocity). The study concluded that during the period evaluated, the activity had thermal overload.

  10. Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the

  11. Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-01-01

    Jan 1, 2001 ... event, the slope and soil types of the catchment, the pesticide application, and the size .... previously been prepared with 6 ml methanol and then 6 ml water. ..... kills in estuarine areas adjacent to sugar-cane and vegetable crops .... construction on the ecology of a southern Ontario (Canada) stream. Environ ...

  12. The Influence of Suspended Inert Solid Particles on Zinc Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers

    1996-01-01

    The rate of corrosion of electroplated zinc in near-neutral chloride solutions can be lowered by as much as 75% by adding fine, inert particles of substances such as MnO2, Fe3O4, SiC and TiN to the well-stirred solution. Spreading of local areas of etching is also stopped. Copyright (C) 1996...

  13. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  14. A New Measure for Transported Suspended Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-uniform suspended sediment plays an important role in many geographical and biological processes. Despite extensive study, understanding to it seems to stagnate when times to consider non-uniformity and non-equilibrium scenarios comes. Due to unsatisfactory reproducibility, large-scaled flume seems to be incompetent to conduct more fundamental research in this area. To push the realm a step further, experiment to find how suspended sediment exchanges is conducted in a new validated equipment, in which turbulence is motivated by oscillating grids. Analysis shows that 1) suspended sediment exchange is constrained by ωS invariance, 2) ωS of the suspended sediment that certain flow regime could support is unique regardless of the sediment gradation and 3) the more turbulent the flow, the higher ωS of the suspension the flow could achieve. A new measure for suspended sediment ωS, the work required to sustain sediment in suspension transport mode if multiplied by gravitational acceleration, is thus proposed to better describe the dynamics of transported suspended sediment. Except for the further understanding towards suspended sediment transportation mechanics, with this energy measure, a strategy to distribute total transport capacity to different fractions could be derived and rational calculation of non-uniform sediment transport capacity under non-equilibrium conditions be possible.

  15. Dietary iron rural blacks overload In southern African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... suggest that iron overload from any cause may predispose to infection7 and there are .... consumption and acute inflammatory diseases. However, it ..... Addison GM, Beamish MR, Hales C ',Hodgkins M, Jacobs A, Llewellin P.

  16. VOLUME OVERLOAD IS ASSOCIATED WITH MALNUTRITION IN PERITONEAL DIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo Cha

    2012-06-01

    Volume overload is associated with malnutrition and seems to be an independent predictor of mortality in PD population. Further study should evaluate the effects of intervention of volume control in PD patients.

  17. Fatigue crack growth due to overloads in plain concrete using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cation of overload on concrete structures, acceleration in the crack growth process .... study by the same authors, Ray & Chandra Kishen (2010), they have employed the population growth ...... Institute of Technology, University of Trondheim.

  18. Iron overload: what is the role of public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulihan, Mary M; Sayers, Cindy A; Grosse, Scott D; Garrison, Cheryl; Grant, Althea M

    2011-12-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis type 1, also known as hereditary hemochromatosis classical (HHC), is an iron overload disorder associated, in most cases, with mutations of the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene. Although suggested algorithms for diagnosing iron overload are available, there are still questions about options for genetic and biochemical screening for hemochromatosis and duration of treatment. This article provides a summary of an expert workgroup meeting convened on September 24-25, 2009, entitled "Iron Overload: What is the Role of Public Health?" The purpose of the meeting was to enable subject matter experts to share their most recent clinical and scientific iron overload information and to facilitate the discussion of future endeavors, with special emphasis on the role of public health in this field. The two main topics were the research priorities of the field, including clinical, genetic, and public health issues, and the concerns about the validity of current screening recommendations for the condition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. [Role of melatonin in calcium overload-induced heart injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingheng; Wei, Ming; Sun, Na; Zhu, Juanxia; Su, Xingli

    2017-06-28

    To investigate the role of melatonin in calcium overload-induced heart injury.
 Methods: Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 groups: a control group (Control), a melatonin control group (Mel), a calcium overload group (CaP), and a calcium overload plus melatonin group (Mel+CaP). Isolated Sprague Dawley male rat hearts underwent Langendorff perfusion. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) was calculated to evaluate the myocardial performance. Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining was used to measure the infarct size of myocardium. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the coronary flow was determined. The expressions of caspase-3 and cytochrome c were determined by Western blot. The pathological morphological changes in myocardial fiber were analyzed by HE staining.
 Results: Compared with the control group, calcium overload significantly induced an enlarged infarct size (Poverload-induced heart injury.

  20. Fluid overload in the ICU: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claure-Del Granado, Rolando; Mehta, Ravindra L

    2016-08-02

    Fluid overload is frequently found in acute kidney injury patients in critical care units. Recent studies have shown the relationship of fluid overload with adverse outcomes; hence, manage and optimization of fluid balance becomes a central component of the management of critically ill patients. In critically ill patients, in order to restore cardiac output, systemic blood pressure and renal perfusion an adequate fluid resuscitation is essential. Achieving an appropriate level of volume management requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology, evaluation of volume status, and selection of appropriate solution for volume repletion, and maintenance and modulation of the tissue perfusion. Numerous recent studies have established a correlation between fluid overload and mortality in critically ill patients. Fluid overload recognition and assessment requires an accurate documentation of intakes and outputs; yet, there is a wide difference in how it is evaluated, reviewed and utilized. Accurate volume status evaluation is essential for appropriate therapy since errors of volume evaluation can result in either in lack of essential treatment or unnecessary fluid administration, and both scenarios are associated with increased mortality. There are several methods to evaluate fluid status; however, most of the tests currently used are fairly inaccurate. Diuretics, especially loop diuretics, remain a valid therapeutic alternative. Fluid overload refractory to medical therapy requires the application of extracorporeal therapies. In critically ill patients, fluid overload is related to increased mortality and also lead to several complications like pulmonary edema, cardiac failure, delayed wound healing, tissue breakdown, and impaired bowel function. Therefore, the evaluation of volume status is crucial in the early management of critically ill patients. Diuretics are frequently used as an initial therapy; however, due to their limited effectiveness the use of continuous

  1. Network overload due to massive attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Barach, Gilad; Tuchman, Yaakov; Kadish, Benjamin; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    We study the cascading failure of networks due to overload, using the betweenness centrality of a node as the measure of its load following the Motter and Lai model. We study the fraction of survived nodes at the end of the cascade pf as a function of the strength of the initial attack, measured by the fraction of nodes p that survive the initial attack for different values of tolerance α in random regular and Erdös-Renyi graphs. We find the existence of a first-order phase-transition line pt(α ) on a p -α plane, such that if p pt , pf is large and the giant component of the network is still present. Exactly at pt, the function pf(p ) undergoes a first-order discontinuity. We find that the line pt(α ) ends at a critical point (pc,αc) , in which the cascading failures are replaced by a second-order percolation transition. We find analytically the average betweenness of nodes with different degrees before and after the initial attack, we investigate their roles in the cascading failures, and we find a lower bound for pt(α ) . We also study the difference between localized and random attacks.

  2. Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaverbeke Frederik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

  3. Myelodysplastic syndromes and the role of iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R Donald

    2010-04-01

    The epidemiology of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and iron overload, recent clinical findings that highlight the importance of actively managing iron overload, and recommendations for initiating and maintaining iron chelation therapy (ICT) are summarized. MDS are a variety of hematological disorders with differing time courses. Disease morbidities are primarily due to cytopenias and evolution to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload is a serious complication in patients with MDS due to the long-term use of red blood cell transfusions in patients with symptomatic anemia. Clinical consequences of iron overload include end-organ damage and dysfunction, an increased frequency of transplant-related complications, and reduced survival rates. To prevent these complications, recommendations for initiating and maintaining ICT should be followed by clinicians caring for patients with MDS and iron overload. As current therapeutic options for patients with MDS do not always reduce the transfusion burden, many patients will still need long-term transfusion therapy. Strategies for the management of iron overload in MDS should be considered early in the disease course and in appropriate patients in order to prevent negative clinical outcomes associated with excessive iron accumulation.

  4. Application of Chaos Theory in Trucks' Overloading Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trucks' overloading is considered as one of the most substantial concerns in road transport due to a possible road surface damage, as well as, are less reliable performance of trucks' braking system. Sufficient human resource and adequate time scheduling are to be planned for surveying trucks' overloading; hence, it seems required to prepare an all-around model to be able to predict the number of overloaded vehicles. In the present research work, the concept of chaos theory has been utilized to predict the ratio of trucks which might be guessed overloaded. The largest Lyapunov exponent is utilized to determine the presence of chaos using experimental data and concluded that the ratio of overloaded trucks reflects chaotic behavior. The prediction based on chaos theory is compared with the results of simple smoothing and moving average methods according to the well-known criterion of mean square errors. The results have also revealed that the chaotic prediction model would act more capably comparing the analogous methods including simple smoothing and moving average to predict the ratio of passing trucks to be possibly overloaded.

  5. Research progress in role of iron overload in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    LI Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Iron overload is an important research focus in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The relationship between iron overload and NAFLD is summarized from the assessment method for iron overload, relationship between iron load and hemochromatosis gene mutations, incidence of iron load in NAFLD, and relationship between iron load and progression of NAFLD; the action mechanism of iron overload in the progression of NAFLD is reviewed from the causes of iron overload, relationship between iro...

  6. Aldosterone and mortality in hemodialysis patients: role of volume overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Huang, Hsin-Lei; Pu, Hsiao-Fung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2013-01-01

    Elevated aldosterone is associated with increased mortality in the general population. In patients on dialysis, however, the association is reversed. This paradox may be explained by volume overload, which is associated with lower aldosterone and higher mortality. We evaluated the relationship between aldosterone and outcomes in a prospective cohort of 328 hemodialysis patients stratified by the presence or absence of volume overload (defined as extracellular water/total body water >48%, as measured with bioimpedance). Baseline plasma aldosterone was measured before dialysis and categorized as low (280 pg/mL). Overall, 36% (n = 119) of the hemodialysis patients had evidence of volume overload. Baseline aldosterone was significantly lower in the presence of volume overload than in its absence. During a median follow-up of 54 months, 83 deaths and 70 cardiovascular events occurred. Cox multivariate analysis showed that by using the low aldosterone as the reference, high aldosterone was inversely associated with decreased hazard ratios for mortality (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.76) and first cardiovascular event (0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.78) in the presence of volume overload. In contrast, high aldosterone was associated with an increased risk for mortality (1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.75) and first cardiovascular event (2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.15) in the absence of volume overload. The inverse association of aldosterone with adverse outcomes in hemodialysis patients is due to the confounding effect of volume overload. These findings support treatment of hyperaldosteronemia in hemodialysis patients who have achieved strict volume control.

  7. The role of fluid overload in the prediction of outcome in acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selewski, David T; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of the epidemiology and the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluid overload on outcomes has improved significantly over the past several decades. Fluid overload occurs commonly in critically ill children with and without associated AKI. Researchers in pediatric AKI have been at the forefront of describing the impact of fluid overload on outcomes in a variety of populations. A full understanding of this topic is important as fluid overload represents a potentially modifiable risk factor and a target for intervention. In this state-of-the-art review, we comprehensively describe the definition of fluid overload, the impact of fluid overload on kidney function, the impact of fluid overload on the diagnosis of AKI, the association of fluid overload with outcomes, the targeted therapy of fluid overload, and the impact of the timing of renal replacement therapy on outcomes.

  8. Mechanism Research of Arch Dam Abutment Forces during Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research on the abutment forces of a double-curvature arch dam during overload based on numerical calculation results obtained through finite element method by Ansys. Results show that, with an increase in elevation, the abutment forces and bending moment of the arch dam increase first and then decrease from the bottom to the top of the dam. Abutment forces and bending moment reach their maximum at the middle or middle-down portion of the dam. The distributions of abutment forces and moment do not change during overload. The magnitude of each arch layer’s forces and moment increases linearly during overload. This result indicates that each arch layer transmits bearing loads to the rocks of the left and right banks steadily. This research explains the operating mechanism of an arch dam under normal and overload conditions. It provides a simple method to calculate the distribution of forces Fx and Fy and a new method to calculate the overload factor of an arch dam through the estimation of arch layers based on the redistribution characteristic of arch abutment forces.

  9. Transport of suspended matter through rock formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlig, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    It may be hypothesized that significant quantities of some waste nuclides could be adsorbed on the surfaces of particles suspended in the flowing groundwater and thereby migrate farther or faster than they would in dissolved form. This thesis deals with one aspect of this proposed migration mechanism, the transport of suspended matter through rock formations. A theoretical examination of the forces effecting suspended particles in flowing groundwater indicates that only two interaction energies are likely to be significant compared to the particles' thermal energies. The responsible interactions are van der Waals attraction between the particles and the rock, and electrolytic double-layer repulsion between the atmospheres of ions near the surfaces of the particles and the rock. This theoretical understanding was tested in column flow adsorption experiments using fine kaolin particles as the suspended matter and crushed basalt as the rock medium. The effects of several parameters on kaolin mobility were explored, including the influences of the following: solution ion concentration, solution cation valence, degree of solution oxygen saturation, solution flow velocity, and degree of rock surface ageing. The experimental results indicate that the migration of suspended matter over kilometer distances in the lithosphere is very unlikely unless the average pore size of the conducting mediumis fairly large (> 1mm), or the flow occurs in large fractures

  10. Symmetrical and overloaded effect of diffusion in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Chen, Guilin; Cai, Shimin

    2017-10-01

    In physical dynamics, mass diffusion theory has been applied to design effective information filtering models on bipartite network. In previous works, researchers unilaterally believe objects' similarities are determined by single directional mass diffusion from the collected object to the uncollected, meanwhile, inadvertently ignore adverse influence of diffusion overload. It in some extent veils the essence of diffusion in physical dynamics and hurts the recommendation accuracy and diversity. After delicate investigation, we argue that symmetrical diffusion effectively discloses essence of mass diffusion, and high diffusion overload should be published. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose an symmetrical and overload penalized diffusion based model (SOPD), which shows excellent performances in extensive experiments on benchmark datasets Movielens and Netflix.

  11. Testing of camera performance standards at steady and local overloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keszthelyine Landori, S.; Adorjanne Farkas, M.; Csirik, J.

    1983-01-01

    Camera performance standards are usually given for low count rates and uniform irradiation. A conventional analog gamma camera system (Gamma MB 9100 manufactured under the know-how of Picker DC 4/12 in Hungary) was studied on the basis of the Picker test procedure and the NEMA standard system. Uniformity, linearity, spatial and energy resolution were measured at high count rates and uniform irradiation (steady overloading). Linearity was studied at local overloading. Linearity, spatial and energy resolution were measured by a 1024-channel analyzer-computer system of KFKI, Hungary. The data were evaluated on the basis of NEMA standards, while uniformity was measured by the Gamma data processing system and evaluated by special SEGAMS programs. Performance variations were studied between 7500 cps and 75.000 cps pulse rates. Spatial and energy resolution were influenced strongly, uniformity slightly by pulse rates, while linearity did not change at all. Linearity was not influenced even by local overloading. (author)

  12. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis

    2013-10-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70. wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8. emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12. wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2. emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  13. Estuarine Suspended Sediment Dynamics: Observations Derived from over a Decade of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reisinger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment dynamics of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, a shallow-water wind-driven estuary, were investigated by combining field and satellite measurements of total suspended solids (TSS. An algorithm was developed to transform 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua satellite reflectance data into estimated TSS values. The algorithm was developed using a reflectance ratio regression of MODIS Band 1 (red and Band 3 (green with TSS measurements (n = 54 collected by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for Corpus Christi Bay and other Texas estuaries. The algorithm was validated by independently collected TSS measurements during the period of 2011–2014 with an uncertainty estimate of 13%. The algorithm was applied to the period of 2002–2014 to create a synoptic time series of TSS for Corpus Christi Bay. Potential drivers of long-term variability in suspended sediment were investigated. Median and IQR composites of suspended sediments were generated for seasonal wind regimes. From this analysis it was determined that long-term, spatial patterns of suspended sediment in the estuary are related to wind-wave resuspension during the predominant northerly and prevalent southeasterly seasonal wind regimes. The impact of dredging is also apparent in long-term patterns of Corpus Christi Bay as concentrations of suspended sediments over dredge spoil disposal sites are higher and more variable than surrounding areas, which is most likely due to their less consolidated sediments and shallower depths requiring less wave energy for sediment resuspension. This study highlights the advantage of how long-synoptic time series of TSS can be used to elucidate the major drivers of suspended sediments in estuaries.

  14. Overloaded and stressed: A case study of women working in the health care sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Maggie; Duxbury, Linda

    2018-04-23

    Although role overload has been shown to be prevalent and consequential, there has been little attempt to develop the associated theory. The fact that the consequences of role overload can be positive or negative implies that the relationship between role overload and perceived stress depends partly on the environment within which role overload is experienced (i.e., the perceived situation) and how the situation is evaluated (i.e., appraised). Guided by cognitive appraisal theory, this study applies qualitative methodology to identify the situation properties that contribute to variable stress reactions to role overload. In this in-depth examination, overloaded female hospital workers were asked to describe what makes role overload situations potentially stressful, to gain an insight into how role overload is appraised. A taxonomy listing 12 role overload situation properties was developed from the findings, providing the first known classification of the situation properties of role overload that can create the potential for stress. The results also reveal clues as to why some people suffer more stress during role overload than others, increase our understanding of the relationship between role overload and perceived stress, and provide a useful tool for examining the environment of role overload. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Overload Control in Smart Transformer-Fed Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Carne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources and new loads—such as electric vehicles—challenge grid management. Among several scenarios, the smart transformer represents a solution for simultaneously managing low- and medium-voltage grids, providing ancillary services to the distribution grid. However, unlike conventional transformers, the smart transformer has a very limited overload capability, because the junction temperature—which must always be below its maximum limit—is characterized by a short time constant. In this work, an overload control for smart transformer by means of voltage and frequency variations has been proposed and verified by means of simulations and experiments.

  16. Intermittent cardiac overload results in adaptive hypertrophy and provides protection against left ventricular acute pressure overload insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Fonseca, Hélder; Ferreira, Rita; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Santa, Cátia; Vieira, Sara; Silva, Ana Filipa; Amado, Francisco; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Duarte, José Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether a chronic intermittent workload could induce an adaptive cardiac phenotype Chronic intermittent workload induced features of adaptive hypertrophy This was paralleled by protection against acute pressure overload insult The heart may adapt favourably to balanced demands, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. The present study aimed to test whether submitting the healthy heart to intermittent and tolerable amounts of workload, independently of its nature, could result in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Male Wistar rats were subjected to treadmill running (Ex) (n = 20), intermittent cardiac overload with dobutamine (ITO) (2 mg kg(-1) , s.c.; n = 20) or placebo administration (Cont) (n = 20) for 5 days week(-1) for 8 weeks. Animals were then killed for histological and biochemical analysis or subjected to left ventricular haemodynamic evaluation under baseline conditions, in response to isovolumetric contractions and to sustained LV acute pressure overload (35% increase in peak systolic pressure maintained for 2 h). Baseline cardiac function was enhanced only in Ex, whereas the response to isovolumetric heartbeats was improved in both ITO and Ex. By contrast to the Cont group, in which rats developed diastolic dysfunction with sustained acute pressure overload, ITO and Ex showed increased tolerance to this stress test. Both ITO and Ex developed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without fibrosis, no overexpression of osteopontin-1 or β-myosin heavy chain, and increased expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) protein. Regarding hypertrophic pathways, ITO and Ex showed activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway but not calcineurin. Mitochondrial complex IV and V activities were also increased in ITO and Ex. Chronic submission to controlled intermittent cardiac overload, independently of its nature, results in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Features of the cardiac overload, such as the duration and

  17. Can We Ever Escape from Data Overload? A Cognitive Systems Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, David

    1998-01-01

    Data overload is a generic and tremendously difficult problem. In this report, we diagnose why this is the case and how intelligence analysis presents a particularly difficult version of data overload...

  18. Magnetic and quadrupolar studies of the iron storage overload in livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimbert, J.N.; Dumas, F.; Richardot, G.; Kellershohn, C.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra, performed directly on tissues of liver with iron overload due to an excessive intestinal iron absorption or induced by hypertransfusional therapeutics, have pointed out a new high spin ferric storage iron besides the ferritin and hemosiderin. Moessbauer studies, carried out on ferritin and hemosiderin fractions isolated from normal and overloaded livers, show that this compound, only present in the secondary iron overload (transfusional pathway), seems characteristic of the physiological process which induces the iron overload. (Auth.)

  19. Iron overload of organism and current options of chelation treatment in onco haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guman, T.; Rothova, E.; Kafkova, A.; Fricova, M.; Dulova, I.; Stecova, N.; Hlebaskova, M.; Surova, M.; Takac, V.

    2011-01-01

    The article summarizes the biological importance of iron in the organism, primary and secondary causes of iron overload, complications in function of liver, heart and endocrine organs due to overload of iron, the pathophysiology of iron overload, transfusion risks associated with the iron overload, assessment of risk groups of patients suitable for chelation treatment fulfilling the indication criteria, treatment modalities of chelation therapy and its significance regarding the prevention and treatment effectiveness. (author)

  20. Determination of Permissible Short-Time Emergency Overloading of Turbo-Generators and Synchronous Compensators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that failure to take into account variable ratio of short-time emergency overloading of turbo-generators (synchronous compensators that can lead to underestimation of overloading capacity or impermissible insulation over-heating.A method has been developed for determination of permissible duration of short-time emergency over-loading that takes into account changes of over-loading ratio in case of a failure.

  1. Foaming in manure based digesters: Effect of overloading and foam suppression using antifoam agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically created either in the main biogas reactor or/and in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam cause...... severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs. Moreover....... A continuous stirred tank reactor, operating under thermophilic conditions (55 oC) was fed with cattle manure. In order to investigate the effect of organic overloading on foam formation, a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate was performed by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. Biogas...

  2. Nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel and applies in particular when this is a fast reactor, the core or active part of the reactor being inside the vessel and immersed under a suitable volume of flowing liquid metal to cool it by extracting the calories released by the nuclear fission in the fuel assemblies forming this core [fr

  3. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  4. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Motion of Charged Suspended Particle in Multi-Phase Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Khalek, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for computing Numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow between two-long parallel plates is described in detail. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations provide velocity distributions for both fluid and solid phases and density distributions for the solid. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically

  6. Numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Elkhalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    A method for computing numerical simulation of the motion of charged suspended particle in multi-phase flow between two-long parallel plates is described in detail. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. Numerical solutions of the resulting ordinary differential equations provide velocity distributions for both fluid and solid phases and density distributions for the solid. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically. 4 figs.

  7. Information Overload and Viral Marketing: Countermeasures and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiesi; Sun, Aaron; Zeng, Daniel

    Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications. One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization (IM) problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message. In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness. Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness, but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.

  8. Iron deficiency and overload in relation to nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjersberg MQI; Jansen EHJM; LEO

    2000-01-01

    Nutritional iron intake in the Netherlands has been reviewed with respect to both iron deficiency and iron overload. In general, iron intake and iron status in the Netherlands are adequate and therefore no change in nutrition policy is required. The following aspects and developments, however, need

  9. The association between role overload and women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Keva; Maclean, Heather; Forte, Tonia; Cohen, Marsha

    2009-02-01

    To determine the importance of role overload (the extent to which a person feels overwhelmed by her total responsibilities) relative to other known social determinants of women's mental health. A Canadian national, random sample, cross-sectional telephone survey in 2003 assessed the association among role overload, types and quality of roles (parent, employee, spouse), sociodemographics, and mental health (using the SF-12) using linear regression. Analysis included 716 women aged 25-54 who indicated that their youngest child living in the household was aged < or =17 years. Perceptions of greater role overload were associated with poorer mental health (p < 0.0001). Women working <35 hours per week (p = 0.04) or 35-40 hours per week (p 5 0.002) reported better mental health than nonemployed women, as did women with the highest annual household income ($70,000+)(p = 0.001). Also associated with better mental health were higher marital status quality scores for both married and single women (p < 0.001), higher job quality scores among employed women (p = 0.02), greater homemaking quality scores among unemployed women (p = 0.03), and women reporting high parental quality (p = 0.04) Role overload showed a stronger relationship to mental health than other sociodemographic variables, including income. Our findings indicate the importance of measuring women's experience of their multiple roles rather than focusing on single roles. More research is warranted on the totality of women's experiences of their many social role obligations.

  10. Glycolytic overload and the genesis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, J R

    1984-03-01

    It is suggested that the development of breast cancer is due to overloading of the glycolytic pathways. An excess of substrates or an excessive delivery rate of substrates to the Krebs Cycle is believed to result in the formation of acetyl CoA. Feedback mechanisms controlling the conversion of acetyl CoA to cholesterol may be overcome; the resulting high concentration of cholesterol induces the formation of pregnenolone which may then be converted into androgens, estrogens and progesterone. These steroids are in addition to those produced by gonads and adrenal glands. Glycolytic overload is also associated with an increase in fat stores which have been shown to be the site of interconversion of sex hormones. Excess sex hormones or abnormal sex hormones are believed to be the cause of breast cancer. The hypothesis presented links glycolytic overload with clinical biochemical phenomena and explains some of the anomalies observed in breast cancer experience in different ethnic groups. Changes in dietary habits during the history of man resulting in " gorging " and the consumption of highly refined sugars are possible causes of glycolytic overload. So, also, is impaired thermogenesis due to Brown Fat deficits in certain ethnic groups.

  11. Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches

  12. Random fluid limit of an overloaded polling model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Frolkova (Masha); S.G. Foss (Sergey); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the present paper, we study the evolution of an~overloaded cyclic polling model that starts empty. Exploiting a~connection with multitype branching processes, we derive fluid asymptotics for the joint queue length process. Under passage to the fluid dynamics, the server switches

  13. Information Overload in Multi-Stage Selection Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Ficco (Stefano); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper studies information processing imperfections in a fully rational decision-making network. It is shown that imperfect information transmission and imperfect information acquisition in a multi-stage selection game yield information overload. The paper analyses the mechanisms

  14. Modeling of Unidirectional-Overloaded Transition in Catalytic Tubular Microjets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klingner, Anke; Khalil, Islam S. M.; Magdanz, Veronika; Fomin, Vladimir M.; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Misra, Sarthak

    2017-01-01

    A numerical time-resolved model is presented for predicting the transition between unidirectional and overloaded motion of catalytic tubular microjets (Ti/Fe/Pt rolled-up microtubes) in an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. Unidirectional movement is achieved by periodic ejection of gas bubbles

  15. Fetal liver iron overload: the role of MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassart, Marie; Avni, Freddy Efraim; Guibaud, Laurent; Molho, Marc; D'Haene, Nicky; Paupe, Alain

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of fetal liver iron overload. We reviewed seven cases of abnormal liver signal in fetuses referred to MR imaging in a context of suspected congenital infection (n = 2), digestive tract anomalies (n = 3) and hydrops fetalis (n = 2). The average GA of the fetuses was 31 weeks. The antenatal diagnoses were compared with histological data (n = 6) and postnatal work-up (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated unexpected abnormal fetal liver signal suggestive of iron overload in all cases. The iron overload was confirmed on postnatal biopsy (n = 2) and fetopathology (n = 4). The final diagnosis was hepatic hemosiderosis (haemolytic anaemia (n = 2) and syndromal anomalies (n = 2)) and congenital haemochromatosis (n = 3). In all cases, the liver appeared normal on US. Magnetic resonance is the only imaging technique able to demonstrate liver iron overload in utero. Yet, the study outlines the fundamental role of MR imaging in cases of congenital haemochromatosis. The antenatal diagnosis of such a condition may prompt ante - (in the case of recurrence) or neonatal treatment, which might improve the prognosis. (orig.)

  16. Tools to Reduce Overload in the School Social Worker Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyba, Erin Gleason

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses how school social workers can decrease overload in their roles. A two-step process of envisioning an ideal role is outlined: (1) indentifying priorities and activities that are effective or in need of expansion and (2) weeding out activities that could be done differently or no longer serve their purpose. The author…

  17. Fetal liver iron overload: the role of MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassart, Marie; Avni, Freddy Efraim [Erasme Hospital, Medical imaging, Brussels, Brabant (Belgium); Guibaud, Laurent [Hopital femme mere enfant, Imagerie Pediatrique et Foetale, Lyon-Bron (France); Molho, Marc [C.H.I Poissy/St Germain-en-Laye, Imagerie Medicale, Poissy (France); D' Haene, Nicky [Erasme Hospital, Anatomopathology Department, Brussels (Belgium); Paupe, Alain [C.H.I Poissy/St Germain-en-Laye, Pediatrie, Poissy (France)

    2011-02-15

    To assess the potential role of MR imaging in the diagnosis of fetal liver iron overload. We reviewed seven cases of abnormal liver signal in fetuses referred to MR imaging in a context of suspected congenital infection (n = 2), digestive tract anomalies (n = 3) and hydrops fetalis (n = 2). The average GA of the fetuses was 31 weeks. The antenatal diagnoses were compared with histological data (n = 6) and postnatal work-up (n = 1). Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated unexpected abnormal fetal liver signal suggestive of iron overload in all cases. The iron overload was confirmed on postnatal biopsy (n = 2) and fetopathology (n = 4). The final diagnosis was hepatic hemosiderosis (haemolytic anaemia (n = 2) and syndromal anomalies (n = 2)) and congenital haemochromatosis (n = 3). In all cases, the liver appeared normal on US. Magnetic resonance is the only imaging technique able to demonstrate liver iron overload in utero. Yet, the study outlines the fundamental role of MR imaging in cases of congenital haemochromatosis. The antenatal diagnosis of such a condition may prompt ante - (in the case of recurrence) or neonatal treatment, which might improve the prognosis. (orig.)

  18. Shift Work, Role Overload, and the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry-Jenkins, Maureen; Goldberg, Abbie E.; Pierce, Courtney P.; Sayer, Aline G.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how the work hours, work schedules, and role overload of working-class couples are related to depressive symptoms and relationship conflict across the transition to parenthood. Data are from 132 dual-earner couples interviewed 5 times across the transition. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that working evening or night…

  19. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Reilly's Role Overload Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajan, Palaniappan; Chakrabarty, Subhra; Taylor, Ronald D.

    2006-01-01

    In 1982, Reilly developed a 13-item scale to measure role overload. This scale has been widely used, but most studies did not assess the unidimensionality of the scale. Given the significance of unidimensionality in scale development, the current study reports a confirmatory factor analysis of the 13-item scale in two samples. Based on the…

  20. Sport coaching officials and their stressors: Work overload, role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport officials' concerns over job stressors have become common due to the adverse effect on health. The study sought to examine the associations of work overload, role ambiguity and role conflict, as well as their predictive influence on job satisfaction of sport coaches in Gauteng, South Africa. Data were collected from a ...

  1. Overload prevention in model supports for wind tunnel model testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton IVANOVICI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Preventing overloads in wind tunnel model supports is crucial to the integrity of the tested system. Results can only be interpreted as valid if the model support, conventionally called a sting remains sufficiently rigid during testing. Modeling and preliminary calculation can only give an estimate of the sting’s behavior under known forces and moments but sometimes unpredictable, aerodynamically caused model behavior can cause large transient overloads that cannot be taken into account at the sting design phase. To ensure model integrity and data validity an analog fast protection circuit was designed and tested. A post-factum analysis was carried out to optimize the overload detection and a short discussion on aeroelastic phenomena is included to show why such a detector has to be very fast. The last refinement of the concept consists in a fast detector coupled with a slightly slower one to differentiate between transient overloads that decay in time and those that are the result of aeroelastic unwanted phenomena. The decision to stop or continue the test is therefore conservatively taken preserving data and model integrity while allowing normal startup loads and transients to manifest.

  2. Iron overload induces hypogonadism in male mice via extrahypothalamic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Chiara; Steffani, Liliana; Oleari, Roberto; Lettieri, Antonella; Valenti, Luca; Dongiovanni, Paola; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Cariboni, Anna; Magni, Paolo; Ruscica, Massimiliano

    2017-10-15

    Iron overload leads to multiple organ damage including endocrine organ dysfunctions. Hypogonadism is the most common non-diabetic endocrinopathy in primary and secondary iron overload syndromes. To explore the molecular determinants of iron overload-induced hypogonadism with specific focus on hypothalamic derangements. A dysmetabolic male murine model fed iron-enriched diet (IED) and cell-based models of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons were used. Mice fed IED showed severe hypogonadism with a significant reduction of serum levels of testosterone (-83%) and of luteinizing hormone (-86%), as well as reduced body weight gain, body fat and plasma leptin. IED mice had a significant increment in iron concentration in testes and in the pituitary. Even if iron challenge of in vitro neuronal models (GN-11 and GT1-7 GnRH cells) resulted in 10- and 5-fold iron content increments, respectively, no iron content changes were found in vivo in hypothalamus of IED mice. Conversely, mice placed on IED showed a significant increment in hypothalamic GnRH gene expression (+34%) and in the intensity of GnRH-neuron innervation of the median eminence (+1.5-fold); similar changes were found in the murine model HFE -/- , resembling human hemochromatosis. IED-fed adult male mice show severe impairment of hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis without a relevant contribution of the hypothalamic compartment, which thus appears sufficiently protected from systemic iron overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stress 2.0: Social Media Overload among Swiss Teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Christoph; Ranzini, Giulia; Meckel, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Technostress and information overload are serious challenges of the information age. An alarming number of people exhibit dangerously intensive media consumption, while Internet and mobile phone addictions are a widespread phenomenon. At the same time, new media overexposure among young people is

  4. 30 CFR 75.518-2 - Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit...-General § 75.518-2 Incandescent lamps, overload and short circuit protection. Incandescent lamps installed... or direct current feeder circuits, need not be provided with separate short circuit or overload...

  5. Transplantation in patients with iron overload: is there a place for magnetic resonance imaging? : Transplantation in iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Kolovou, Genovefa; Bigalke, Boris; Rigopoulos, Angelos; Noutsias, Michel; Adamopoulos, Stamatis

    2018-03-01

    In iron overload diseases (thalassemia, sickle cell, and myelodysplastic syndrome), iron is deposited in all internal organs, leading to functional abnormalities. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment offering a potential cure in these diseases. Our aim was to describe the experience in the field and the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of iron overload before and after HSCT. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using T2*, is the most commonly used tool to diagnose myocardial-liver iron overload and guide tailored treatment. Currently, HSCT offers complete cure in thalassemia major, after overcoming the immunologic barrier, and should be considered for all patients who have a suitable donor. The overall thalassemia-free survival of low-risk, HLA-matched sibling stem cell transplantation patients is 85-90%, with a 95% overall survival. The problems of rejection and engraftment are improving with the use of adequate immunosuppression. However, a detailed iron assessment of both heart and liver is necessary for pre- and post-transplant evaluation. In iron overload diseases, heart and liver iron evaluation is indispensable not only for the patients' survival, but also for evaluation before and after HSCT.

  6. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  7. Effect of overload on the fatigue crack propagation in metastable beta Ti-V alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabortty, S.B.; Starke, E.A. Jr.; Lee, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of overload on the fatigue crack propagation behavior of two Ti-V alloys having different deformation mechanisms were studied. The results are explained in terms of residual stress effects associated with the overload and the removal of these stresses during post-overload cycling. An additional effect occurs during multiple cycle overload when the deformation structure representative of the strain amplitude is believed to form in the overload reverse plastic zone. This structure must be rearranged during cycling at Delta Kb before the baseline FCGR is reached and the process is responsible for part of the delay period. 46 references

  8. Effects of overload on the threshold stress intensity factor for SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji; Ando, Kotoji; Miyazaki, Yuji; Hashikura, Yasuaki

    2009-01-01

    The effects of overload on the threshold stress intensity factor for stress corrosion crack (K ISCC ) of stainless steel were studied. Tensile overload was applied to a wedge opening loaded (WOL) specimen of SUS316. Then, SCC tests were carried out to determine the resultant K ISCC . As a result, the apparent value of K ISCC increases as increasing a stress intensity factor by tensile overload (K OV ). The effects of tensile overload on K ISCC and the threshold stress intensity factor range for fatigue (ΔK th ) were compared. It was found that the effects of tensile overload on K ISCC were larger than that on ΔK th . (author)

  9. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral particles..., and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain suspended in the water...

  10. Swing damped movement of suspended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transportation of large objects such as nuclear waste shipping casks using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object. Residual oscillation from transportation typically must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. By properly programming the acceleration of the transporting device (e.g., crane) an oscillation damped transport and swing free stop are obtainable. This report reviews the theory associated with formulating such oscillation damped trajectories for a simply suspended object (e.g., simple pendulum). In addition, the use of force servo damping to eliminate initial oscillation of simply suspended objects is discussed. This is often needed to provide a well defined initial state for the system prior to executing an oscillation damped move. Also included are descriptions of experiments using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot and results from these experiments. Finally, sources of error resulting in small residual oscillations are identified and possible solutions presented

  11. Molybdenum-rhenium superconducting suspended nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Mohsin; Christopher Hudson, David; Russo, Saverio [Centre for Graphene Science, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09

    Suspended superconducting nanostructures of MoRe 50%/50% by weight are fabricated employing commonly used fabrication steps in micro- and nano-meter scale devices followed by wet-etching with Hydro-fluoric acid of a SiO{sub 2} sacrificial layer. Suspended superconducting channels as narrow as 50 nm and length 3 μm have a critical temperature of ≈6.5 K, which can increase by 0.5 K upon annealing at 400 °C. A detailed study of the dependence of the superconducting critical current and critical temperature upon annealing and in devices with different channel widths reveals that desorption of contaminants is responsible for the improved superconducting properties. These findings pave the way for the development of superconducting electromechanical devices using standard fabrication techniques.

  12. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  13. Performance analysis of SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfield, David R.; Millsteed, Gregory K.; Zukerman, Moshe

    1994-04-01

    Congestion controls are a key factor in achieving the robust performance required of common channel signaling (CCS) networks in the face of partial network failures and extreme traffic loads, especially as networks become large and carry high traffic volume. The CCITT recommendations define a number of types of congestion control, and the parameters of the controls must be well set in order to ensure their efficacy under transient and sustained signalling network overload. The objective of this paper is to present a modeling approach to the determination of the network parameters that govern the performance of the SS7 congestion controls under sustained overload. Results of the investigation by simulation are presented and discussed.

  14. Culinary plants and their potential impact on metabolic overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Kwon, Oran

    2011-07-01

    Contemporary human behavior has led a large proportion of the population to metabolic overload and obesity. Postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia evoke redox imbalance in the short term and lead to complex chronic disease in the long term with repeated occurrence. Complex diseases are best prevented with complex components of plants; thus, current nutrition research has begun to focus on the development of plant-based functional foods and dietary supplements for health and well-being. Furthermore, given the wide range of species, parts, and secondary metabolites, culinary plants can contribute significant variety and complexity to the human diet. Although understanding the health benefits of culinary plants has been one of the great challenges in nutritional science due to their inherent complexity, it is an advantageous pursuit. This review will address the challenges and opportunities relating to studies of the health benefits of culinary plants, with an emphasis on obesity attributed to metabolic overload. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Desorption of radioactive cesium by seawater from the suspended particles in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Masaki; Kirishima, Akira; Nagao, Seiya; Takamiya, Kouichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Daisuke; Sato, Nobuaki

    2017-10-01

    In 2011, the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant dispersed radioactive cesium throughout the environment, contaminating the land, rivers, and sea. Suspended particles containing clay minerals are the transportation medium for radioactive cesium from rivers to the ocean because cesium is strongly adsorbed between the layers of clay minerals, forming inner sphere complexes. In this study, the adsorption and desorption behaviors of radioactive cesium from suspended clay particles in river water have been investigated. The radioactive cesium adsorption and desorption experiments were performed with two kinds of suspended particulate using a batch method with 137 Cs tracers. In the cesium adsorption treatment performed before the desorption experiments, simulated river water having a total cesium concentration ([ 133+137 Cs + ] total ) of 1.3 nM (10 -9  mol/L) was used. The desorption experiments were mainly conducted at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 0.17 g/L. The desorption agents were natural seawater collected at 10 km north of the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant, artificial seawater, solutions of NaCl, KCl, NH 4 Cl, and 133 CsCl, and ultrapure water. The desorption behavior, which depends on the preloaded cesium concentration in the suspended particles, was also investigated. Based on the cesium desorption experiments using suspended particles, which contained about 1000 ng/g loaded cesium, the order of cesium desorption ratios for each desorption agent was determined as 1 M NaCl (80%) > 470 mM NaCl (65%) > 1 M KCl (30%) ≈ seawater (natural seawater and Daigo artificial seawater) > 1 M NH 4 Cl (20%) > 1 M 133 CsCl (15%) ≫ ultrapure water (2%). Moreover, an interesting result was obtained: The desorption ratio in the 470 mM NaCl solution was much higher than that in seawater, even though the Na + concentrations were identical. These results indicate that the cesium desorption mechanism is not a simple ion exchange reaction

  16. Remoção de sólidos em suspensão na água residuária da despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro em filtros constituídos por pergaminho de grãos de café submetido a compressões Removal of suspended solids in the wastewater of the coffee shrub cherry pulping by filters constituted by parchment of the coffee beans subjected to compressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A remoção de sólidos em suspensão é fundamental para que se possa aplicar a água residuária gerada na despolpa de frutos do cafeeiro (ARC na fertirrigação de culturas agrícolas. Dentre as opções disponíveis para efetuar a remoção de SS da ARC, está o uso de filtros orgânicos. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do grau de compressão na redução do volume e na eficiência do pergaminho, utilizado como material filtrante, na remoção de sólidos em suspensão (SS na ARC. Numa primeira etapa, foram realizados ensaios nos quais corpos-de-prova de pergaminho triturado (retido entre as peneiras de 2,5 e 3 mm e não-triturado (na condição em que é produzido foram submetidos a diferentes compressões para a redução do volume das colunas filtrantes em 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 e 28%. Numa segunda etapa, os corpos-de-prova foram utilizados como material filtrante da ARC para a avaliação da sua capacidade de remoção de SS presentes nessa água residuária. O pergaminho triturado ofereceu maior resistência à compressão e proporcionou, para as mesmas reduções volumétricas no material filtrante, maior eficiência na remoção de SS da ARC do que o pergaminho não-triturado. Reduções na faixa de 10% a 15% no volume do filtro constituído por pergaminho triturado foram suficientes para obter satisfatórias eficiências na remoção de SS da ARC, enquanto, para filtros constituídos de pergaminho não-triturado, as reduções de volume devem ser superiores a 25%.The removal of suspended solids (SS is fundamental to apply the wastewater from the coffee shrub cherry pulping (ARC on agricultural crops fertigation. Among the available options for the removal of SS from ARC is the use of organic filters. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the compression degree on either volume reduction or parchment efficiency, when used as medium filter for the removal of suspended solids (SS in

  17. Formal Constraints on Memory Management for Composite Overloaded Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian W.I. Rouson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The memory management rules for abstract data type calculus presented by Rouson, Morris & Xu [15] are recast as formal statements in the Object Constraint Language (OCL and applied to the design of a thermal energy equation solver. One set of constraints eliminates memory leaks observed in composite overloaded expressions with three current Fortran 95/2003 compilers. A second set of constraints ensures economical memory recycling. The constraints are preconditions, postconditions and invariants on overloaded operators and the objects they receive and return. It is demonstrated that systematic run-time assertion checking inspired by the formal constraints facilitated the pinpointing of an exceptionally hard-to-reproduce compiler bug. It is further demonstrated that the interplay between OCL's modeling capabilities and Fortran's programming capabilities led to a conceptual breakthrough that greatly improved the readability of our code by facilitating operator overloading. The advantages and disadvantages of our memory management rules are discussed in light of other published solutions [11,19]. Finally, it is demonstrated that the run-time assertion checking has a negligible impact on performance.

  18. Iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: An updated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukalled, Nour M; El Rassi, Fuad A; Temraz, Sally N; Taher, Ali T

    2018-06-15

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) encompass a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by a broad clinical spectrum related to ineffective hematopoiesis leading to unilineage or multilineage cytopenias, with a high propensity for transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. Iron overload has been recently identified as one of the important conditions complicating the management of these diverse disorders. The accumulation of iron is mainly related to chronic transfusions; however, evidence suggests a possible role for ineffective erythropoiesis and increased intestinal absorption of iron, related to altered hepcidin and growth differentiation factor-15 levels in the development of hemosiderosis in patients with MDS. In addition to its suggested role in the exacerbation of ineffective erythropoiesis, multiple reports have identified a prognostic implication for the development of iron overload in patients with MDS, with an improvement in overall survival after the initiation of iron chelation therapy. This review includes a detailed discussion of iron overload in patients with MDS whether they are undergoing supportive therapy or curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, with a focus on the mechanism, diagnosis, and effect on survival as well as the optimal management of this highly variable complication. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  19. Mild iron overload in patients carrying the HFE S65C gene mutation: a retrospective study in patients with suspected iron overload and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, P; Marmur, J; Eggertsen, G; Gåfvels, M; Stål, P

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: The role of the HFE S65C mutation in the development of hepatic iron overload is unknown. The aim of the present study was: (A) to determine the HFE S65C frequency in a Northern European population; and (B) to evaluate whether the presence of the HFE S65C mutation would result in a significant hepatic iron overload.

  20. Iron overload patients with unknown etiology from national survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuta, Katsuya; Hatayama, Mayumi; Addo, Lynda; Toki, Yasumichi; Sasaki, Katsunori; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Hattori, Ai; Kato, Ayako; Kato, Koichi; Hayashi, Hisao; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kobune, Masayoshi; Tsutsui, Miyuki; Gotoh, Akihiko; Aota, Yasuo; Matsuura, Motoo; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tokuda, Takahiro; Komatsu, Norio; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2017-03-01

    Transfusion is believed to be the main cause of iron overload in Japan. A nationwide survey on post-transfusional iron overload subsequently led to the establishment of guidelines for iron chelation therapy in this country. To date, however, detailed clinical information on the entire iron overload population in Japan has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we obtained and studied detailed clinical information on the iron overload patient population in Japan. Of 1109 iron overload cases, 93.1% were considered to have occurred post-transfusion. There were, however, 76 cases of iron overload of unknown origin, which suggest that many clinicians in Japan may encounter some difficulty in correctly diagnosing and treating iron overload. Further clinical data were obtained for 32 cases of iron overload of unknown origin; median of serum ferritin was 1860.5 ng/mL. As occurs in post-transfusional iron overload, liver dysfunction was found to be as high as 95.7% when serum ferritin levels exceeded 1000 ng/mL in these patients. Gene mutation analysis of the iron metabolism-related genes in 27 cases of iron overload with unknown etiology revealed mutations in the gene coding hemojuvelin, transferrin receptor 2, and ferroportin; this indicates that although rare, hereditary hemochromatosis does occur in Japan.

  1. Ischemic preconditioning improves mitochondrial tolerance to experimental calcium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestanello, Juan A; Doliba, Nicolai M; Babsky, Andriy M; Doliba, Natalia M; Niibori, Koki; Whitman, Glenn J R; Osbakken, Mary D

    2002-04-01

    Ca(2+) overload leads to mitochondrial uncoupling, decreased ATP synthesis, and myocardial dysfunction. Pharmacologically opening of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels decreases mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, improving mitochondrial function during Ca(2+) overload. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), by activating mitochondrial K(ATP) channels, may attenuate mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and improve mitochondrial function during reperfusion. The purpose of these experiments was to study the effect of IPC (1) on mitochondrial function and (2) on mitochondrial tolerance to experimental Ca(2+) overload. Rat hearts (n = 6/group) were subjected to (a) 30 min of equilibration, 25 min of ischemia, and 30 min of reperfusion (Control) or (b) two 5-min episodes of ischemic preconditioning, 25 min of ischemia, and 30 min of reperfusion (IPC). Developed pressure (DP) was measured. Heart mitochondria were isolated at end-Equilibration (end-EQ) and at end-Reperfusion (end-RP). Mitochondrial respiratory function (state 2, oxygen consumption with substrate only; state 3, oxygen consumption stimulated by ADP; state 4, oxygen consumption after cessation of ADP phosphorylation; respiratory control index (RCI, state 3/state 4); rate of oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/Deltat), and ADP:O ratio) was measured with polarography using alpha-ketoglutarate as a substrate in the presence of different Ca(2+) concentrations (0 to 5 x 10(-7) M) to simulate Ca(2+) overload. IPC improved DP at end-RP. IPC did not improve preischemic mitochondrial respiratory function or preischemic mitochondrial response to Ca(2+) loading. IPC improved state 3, ADP/Deltat, and RCI during RP. Low Ca(2+) levels (0.5 and 1 x 10(-7) M) stimulated mitochondrial function in both groups predominantly in IPC. The Control group showed evidence of mitochondrial uncoupling at lower Ca(2+) concentrations (1 x 10(-7) M). IPC preserved state 3 at high Ca(2+) concentrations. The cardioprotective effect of IPC results, in part, from

  2. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piloni, Natacha E.; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A.; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-01-01

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6 h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A·)/ascorbate (AH − ) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A·/AH − ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR·) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8 h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21 h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6 h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8 h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR· generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR· generation rate after 6

  3. DYNAMIC SUFFICIENCY OF THE MAGNETICALLY SUSPENDED TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Polyakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The basic criterion of the magnetically suspended train's consumer estimation is a quality of its mechanical motion. This motion is realized in unpredictable conditions and, for purposefulness preservation, should adapt to them. Such adaptation is possible only within the limits of system’s dynamic sufficiency. Sufficiency is understood as presence at system of resources, which allow one to realize its demanded motions without violating actual restrictions. Therefore presence of such resources is a necessary condition of preservation of required purposefulness of train's dynamics, and verification of the mentioned sufficiency is the major component of this dynamic research. Methodology. Methods of the set theory are used in work. Desirable and actual approachability spaces of the train are found. The train is considered dynamically sufficient in zones of the specified spaces overlapping. Findings. Within the limits of the accepted treatment of train's dynamic sufficiency, verification of its presence, as well as a stock (or deficiency of preservations can be executed by the search and the subsequent estimation of such overlapping zones. Operatively (directly during motion it can be realized on the train's ODC with use, for example, of computer mathematics system Mathematica. It possesses extensive opportunities of highly efficient and, at the same time, demanding an expense concerning small resources information manipulation. The efficiency of using of created technique is illustrated on an example of vehicle's acceleration research. Calculation is executed with use of the constructed computer model of interaction of an independent traction electromagnetic subsystem of an artifact with its mechanical subsystem. Originality. The technique of verification of the high-speed magnetically suspended train's dynamic sufficiency is developed. The technique is highly efficient, it provides sufficient presentation and demands an expense of the

  4. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  5. Motion of Charged Suspended Particle in a Non-Newtonian Fluid between Two Long Parallel Plated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd-El Khalek, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effects of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically

  6. Motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Elkhalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effect of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically. 4 figs.

  7. Comparability of river suspended-sediment sampling and laboratory analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2018-03-06

    Accurate measurements of suspended sediment, a leading water-quality impairment in many Minnesota rivers, are important for managing and protecting water resources; however, water-quality standards for suspended sediment in Minnesota are based on grab field sampling and total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis methods that have underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment in rivers compared to U.S. Geological Survey equal-width-increment or equal-discharge-increment (EWDI) field sampling and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) laboratory analysis methods. Because of this underrepresentation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, collected concurrent grab and EWDI samples at eight sites to compare results obtained using different combinations of field sampling and laboratory analysis methods.Study results determined that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis results were biased substantially low compared to EWDI sampling and SSC laboratory analysis results, respectively. Differences in both field sampling and laboratory analysis methods caused grab and TSS methods to be biased substantially low. The difference in laboratory analysis methods was slightly greater than field sampling methods.Sand-sized particles had a strong effect on the comparability of the field sampling and laboratory analysis methods. These results indicated that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods fail to capture most of the sand being transported by the stream. The results indicate there is less of a difference among samples collected with grab field sampling and analyzed for TSS and concentration of fines in SSC. Even though differences are present, the presence of strong correlations between SSC and TSS concentrations provides the opportunity to develop site specific relations to address transport processes not captured by grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods.

  8. Working memory overload: fronto-limbic interactions and effects on subsequent working memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Richard J; Krystal, John H; Mathalon, Daniel H

    2010-03-01

    The human working memory system provides an experimentally useful model for examination of neural overload effects on subsequent functioning of the overloaded system. This study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with a parametric working memory task to characterize the behavioral and neural effects of cognitive overload on subsequent cognitive performance, with particular attention to cognitive-limbic interactions. Overloading the working memory system was associated with varying degrees of subsequent decline in performance accuracy and reduced activation of brain regions central to both task performance and suppression of negative affect. The degree of performance decline was independently predicted by three separate factors operating during the overload condition: the degree of task failure, the degree of amygdala activation, and the degree of inverse coupling between the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that vulnerability to overload effects in cognitive functioning may be mediated by reduced amygdala suppression and subsequent amygdala-prefrontal interaction.

  9. Acoustic measuring techniques for suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, P.; Felix, D.; Storti, G.; Lattuada, M.; Fleckenstein, P.; Deschwanden, F.

    2016-11-01

    Acoustic signals can be used in various ways for suspended sediment monitoring. One possibility which lends itself particularly well in the context of hydropower plants (HPPs), is to use installations for acoustic discharge measurement (ADM). Such installations already exist at waterways of many HPPs. Similar to certain turbidimeters, the attenuation of the forward scattered signal travelling through the water-sediment mixture is correlated with suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This correlation can be based on reference SSCs, e.g. from gravimetric analyses of bottle samples. Without the need of additional sensors and practically maintenance-free, this method is used successfully in the HPP Fieschertal to warn the HPP operator of high SSC to prevent excessive turbine abrasion. Acoustic methods and systems that allow for estimating both SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) are under development. The simultaneous determination of SSC and PSD is not possible using a single frequency. Therefore, multi-frequency approaches are investigated for generally scattered signals. When backscattered signals are used, a stronger frequency dependency can be exploited. However, the reliable simultaneous determination of particle size (and distribution) and concentration is still a major challenge due to a low signal-to-noise ratio and an ill- posed problem of estimating concentration and size from recorded signals. The optimal setup configuration (angles, frequencies) for such a system is not unique and further investigations are recommended.

  10. On TCP-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Server Overload Control

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Charles; Schulzrinne, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server overload management has attracted interest since SIP is being widely deployed in the Next Generation Networks (NGN) as a core signaling protocol. Yet all existing SIP overload control work is focused on SIP-over-UDP, despite the fact that TCP is increasingly seen as the more viable choice of SIP transport. This paper answers the following questions: is the existing TCP flow control capable of handling the SIP overload problem? If not, why and how c...

  11. Role of work overload toward turnover intention among newly hired public accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Pradana, Andika; Salehudin, Imam

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired public accountants. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variable between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. Six proposed hypotheses was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results showed that work overload has significant effect in increa...

  12. TIMP3 deficiency exacerbates iron overload-mediated cardiomyopathy and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabyeyev, Pavel; Das, Subhash K; Basu, Ratnadeep; Shen, Mengcheng; Patel, Vaibhav B; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2018-05-01

    Chronic iron overload results in heart and liver diseases and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with genetic hemochromatosis and secondary iron overload. We investigated the role of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) in iron overload-mediated tissue injury by subjecting male mice lacking Timp3 ( Timp3 -/- ) and wild-type (WT) mice to 12 wk of chronic iron overload. Whereas WT mice with iron overload developed diastolic dysfunction, iron-overloaded Timp3 -/- mice showed worsened cardiac dysfunction coupled with systolic dysfunction. In the heart, loss of Timp3 was associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, greater Timp1, matrix metalloproteinase ( Mmp) 2, and Mmp9 expression, increased active MMP-2 levels, and gelatinase activity. Iron overload in Timp3 -/- mice showed twofold higher iron accumulation in the liver compared with WT mice because of constituently lower levels of ferroportin. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the hepatic inflammatory response to iron overload, leading to greater neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and increased hepatic fibrosis. Expression of inflammation-related MMPs (MMP-12 and MMP-13) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was elevated to a greater extent in iron-overloaded Timp3 -/- livers. Gelatin zymography demonstrated equivalent increases in MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels in WT and Timp3 -/- iron-overloaded livers. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the susceptibility to iron overload-mediated heart and liver injury, suggesting that Timp3 is a key protective molecule against iron-mediated pathology. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In mice, loss of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 ( Timp3) was associated with systolic and diastolic dysfunctions, twofold higher hepatic iron accumulation (attributable to constituently lower levels of ferroportin), and increased hepatic inflammation. Loss of Timp3 enhanced the susceptibility to iron overload-mediated injury, suggesting that Timp3 plays a key

  13. Research progress in role of iron overload in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Guangming

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron overload is an important research focus in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The relationship between iron overload and NAFLD is summarized from the assessment method for iron overload, relationship between iron load and hemochromatosis gene mutations, incidence of iron load in NAFLD, and relationship between iron load and progression of NAFLD; the action mechanism of iron overload in the progression of NAFLD is reviewed from the causes of iron overload, relationship between iron overload and lipid metabolism, and relationship between type of iron deposition and liver damage; the significance of iron overload in the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD is discussed from iron overload as a new marker of risk stratification and potential therapeutic target in NAFLD. It is currently considered that iron overload, whether the cause or result of NAFLD progression, will promote the progression of NAFLD once it occurs; as a new marker of risk stratification and potential therapeutic target in NAFLD, iron load is worthy of further study.

  14. Lactate dehydrogenase regulation in aged skeletal muscle: Regulation by anabolic steroids and functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyrone A; Healey, Julie M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; Carson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Aging alters the skeletal muscle response to overload-induced growth. The onset of functional overload is characterized by increased myoblast proliferation and an altered muscle metabolic profile. The onset of functional overload is associated with increased energy demands that are met through the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate via the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Testosterone targets many of the processes activated at the onset of functional overload. However, the effect of aging on this metabolic plasticity at the onset of functional overload and how anabolic steroid administration modulates this response is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging would alter overload-induced LDH activity and expression at the onset of functional overload and whether anabolic steroid administration would modulate this response. Five-month and 25-month male Fischer 344xF1 BRN were given nandrolone decanoate (ND) or sham injections for 14days and then the plantaris was functionally overloaded (OV) for 3days by synergist ablation. Aging reduced muscle LDH-A & LDH-B activity 70% (pyoung muscle. Our study provides evidence that aging alters aspects of skeletal muscle metabolic plasticity normally induced by overload and anabolic steroid administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The body of women and the overload of sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Cobo Bedia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is approaching to a historically recent social phenomenon: the hipersexualization of women. It looks into its origins and finds that the idea of the sexual freedom that is developed in the 60s, on one side, and the exaltation of the free market, which was developed from the 80s, on the other, come together in the goal of overloading women sexuality. The context in which this process takes place is a free and unlimited market which has understood that women`s bodies are a commodity from which are extracted necessaries appreciations for the social reproduction of contemporary patriarchy and neoliberal capitalism.

  16. Effects of Exogenous Antioxidants on Dietary Iron Overload

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, George A.; Kew, Michael C.; Mossanda, Kensese S.; Paterson, Alan C.; Siziba, Kwanele; Kahler-Venter, Christiana P.

    2008-01-01

    In dietary iron overload, excess hepatic iron promotes liver damage. The aim was to attenuate free radical-induced liver damage using vitamins. Four groups of 60 Wistar rats were studied: group 1 (control) was fed normal diet, group 2 (Fe) 2.5% pentacarbonyl iron (CI) followed by 0.5% Ferrocene, group 3 (Fe + V gp) CI, Ferrocene, plus vitamins A and E (42× and 10× RDA, respectively), group 4 (Fe – V gp) CI, Ferrocene diet, minus vitamins A and E. At 20 months, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), su...

  17. Protection of insulated cables and lines in case of overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goltz, M

    1983-01-01

    After DIN 57100 Part 430/VDE 0100 part 430 for the protection of lines and cables was published in June 1981, the discussion flared up again whether this DIN/VDE-regulation is sufficient. Some papers have already been published on the right selection and arrangement of overload protection under normal operational conditions. The aim of this contribution is to explain abnormal operational conditions which are dealt with in DIN 57100 part 430/VDE 0100 part 430 in comments and the annex, and to supply some help for planning and projecting.

  18. Quantification of liver fat in the presence of iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Debra E; Hernando, Diego; Reeder, Scott B

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of R2* models (1/T 2 * = R2*) for chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI)-based proton density fat-fraction (PDFF) quantification in patients with fatty liver and iron overload, using MR spectroscopy (MRS) as the reference standard. Two Monte Carlo simulations were implemented to compare the root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) performance of single-R2* and dual-R2* correction in a theoretical liver environment with high iron. Fatty liver was defined as hepatic PDFF >5.6% based on MRS; only subjects with fatty liver were considered for analyses involving fat. From a group of 40 patients with known/suspected iron overload, nine patients were identified at 1.5T, and 13 at 3.0T with fatty liver. MRS linewidth measurements were used to estimate R2* values for water and fat peaks. PDFF was measured from CSE-MRI data using single-R2* and dual-R2* correction with magnitude and complex fitting. Spectroscopy-based R2* analysis demonstrated that the R2* of water and fat remain close in value, both increasing as iron overload increases: linear regression between R2* W and R2* F resulted in slope = 0.95 [0.79-1.12] (95% limits of agreement) at 1.5T and slope = 0.76 [0.49-1.03] at 3.0T. MRI-PDFF using dual-R2* correction had severe artifacts. MRI-PDFF using single-R2* correction had good agreement with MRS-PDFF: Bland-Altman analysis resulted in -0.7% (bias) ± 2.9% (95% limits of agreement) for magnitude-fit and -1.3% ± 4.3% for complex-fit at 1.5T, and -1.5% ± 8.4% for magnitude-fit and -2.2% ± 9.6% for complex-fit at 3.0T. Single-R2* modeling enables accurate PDFF quantification, even in patients with iron overload. 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:428-439. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Inherent overload protection for the series resonant converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. J.; Stuart, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The overload characteristics of the full bridge series resonant power converter are considered. This includes analyses of the two most common control methods presently in use. The first of these uses a current zero crossing detector to synchronize the control signals and is referred to as the alpha controller. The second is driven by a voltage controlled oscillator and is referred to as the gamma controller. It is shown that the gamma controller has certain reliability advantages in that it can be designed with inherent short circuit protection. Experimental results are included for an 86 kHz converter using power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs).

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in suspended sediment, organic matter, and turbidity in a Minnesota prairie river: implications for TMDLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Christian F; Brooks, Kenneth N; Heneley, Daniel; Magner, Joseph A

    2010-06-01

    The Minnesota River Basin (MRB), situated in the prairie pothole region of the Upper Midwest, contributes excessive sediment and nutrient loads to the Upper Mississippi River. Over 330 stream channels in the MRB are listed as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, with turbidity levels exceeding water quality standards in much of the basin. Addressing turbidity impairment requires an understanding of pollutant sources that drive turbidity, which was the focus of this study. Suspended volatile solids (SVS), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity were measured over two sampling seasons at ten monitoring stations in Elm Creek, a turbidity impaired tributary in the MRB. Turbidity levels exceeded the Minnesota standard of 25 nephelometric units in 73% of Elm Creek samples. Turbidity and TSS were correlated (r (2) = 0.76), yet they varied with discharge and season. High levels of turbidity occurred during periods of high stream flow (May-June) because of excessive suspended inorganic sediment from watershed runoff, stream bank, and channel contributions. Both turbidity and TSS increased exponentially downstream with increasing stream power, bank height, and bluff erosion. However, organic matter discharged from wetlands and eutrophic lakes elevated SVS levels and stream turbidity in late summer when flows were low. SVS concentrations reached maxima at lake outlets (50 mg/l) in August. Relying on turbidity measurements alone fails to identify the cause of water quality impairment whether from suspended inorganic sediment or organic matter. Therefore, developing mitigation measures requires monitoring of both TSS and SVS from upstream to downstream reaches.

  1. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...... is not only mechanically stable but also electrical conducting. This method could be used to fabricate nanoelectromechanical systems based on suspended double clamped CNTs depending only on photolithography and standard Cleanroom processes....

  2. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have establishe...

  3. Competing for Attention in Social Media under Information Overload Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ling; Hu, Yanqing; Li, Baowen; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo; Braunstein, Lidia A

    2015-01-01

    Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR) model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.

  4. Competing for Attention in Social Media under Information Overload Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Feng

    Full Text Available Modern social media are becoming overloaded with information because of the rapidly-expanding number of information feeds. We analyze the user-generated content in Sina Weibo, and find evidence that the spread of popular messages often follow a mechanism that differs from the spread of disease, in contrast to common belief. In this mechanism, an individual with more friends needs more repeated exposures to spread further the information. Moreover, our data suggest that for certain messages the chance of an individual to share the message is proportional to the fraction of its neighbours who shared it with him/her, which is a result of competition for attention. We model this process using a fractional susceptible infected recovered (FSIR model, where the infection probability of a node is proportional to its fraction of infected neighbors. Our findings have dramatic implications for information contagion. For example, using the FSIR model we find that real-world social networks have a finite epidemic threshold in contrast to the zero threshold in disease epidemic models. This means that when individuals are overloaded with excess information feeds, the information either reaches out the population if it is above the critical epidemic threshold, or it would never be well received.

  5. Electrochemical sensor for predicting transformer overload by phenol measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosworth, Timothy; Setford, Steven; Saini, Selwayan [Cranfield Centre for Analytical Science, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Beds MK45 4DT (United Kingdom); Heywood, Richard [National Grid Company Plc, Kelvin Avenue, Leatherhead, Surrey KT22 7ST (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-10

    Transformer overload is a significant problem to the power transmission industry, with severe safety and cost implications. Overload may be predicted by measuring phenol levels in the transformer-insulating oil, arising from the thermolytic degradation of phenol-formaldehyde resins. The development of two polyphenol oxidase (PPO) sensors, based on monitoring the enzymatic consumption of oxygen using an oxygen electrode, or reduction of enzymatically generated o-quinone at a screen-printed electrode (SPE), for the measurement of phenol in transformer oil is reported. Ex-service oils were prepared either by extraction into aqueous electrolyte-buffer, or by direct dilution in propan-2-ol, the latter method being more amenable to simple at-line operation. The oxygen electrode, with a sensitivity of 2.87 nA {mu}g{sup -1} ml{sup -1}, RSD of 7.0-19.9% and accuracy of {+-}8.3% versus the industry standard International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) method, proved superior to the SPE (sensitivity: 3.02 nA {mu}g{sup -1} ml{sup -1}; RSD: 8.9-18.3%; accuracy: {+-}7.9%) and was considerably more accurate at low phenol concentrations. However, the SPE approach is more amenable to field-based usage for reasons of device simplicity. The method has potential as a rapid and simple screening tool for the at-site monitoring of phenol in transformer oils, thereby reducing incidences of transformer failure.

  6. Chronic Kidney Disease, Fluid Overload and Diuretics: A Complicated Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yusra Habib; Sarriff, Azmi; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Khan, Amer Hayat; Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Despite promising role of diuretics to manage fluid overload among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, their use is associated with adverse renal outcomes. Current study aimed to determine the extent of renal deterioration with diuretic therapy. A total 312 non-dialysis dependent CKD (NDD-CKD) patients were prospectively followed-up for one year. Fluid overload was assessed via bioimpedance spectroscopy. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated from serum creatinine values by using Chronic Kidney Disease- Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Out of 312 patients, 64 (20.5%) were hypovolemic while euvolemia and hypervolemia were observed in 113 (36.1%) and 135 (43.4%) patients. Overall 144 patients were using diuretics among which 98 (72.6%) were hypervolemic, 35 (30.9%) euvolemic and 11 (17.2%) were hypovolemic. The mean decline in estimated GFR of entire cohort was -2.5 ± 1.4 ml/min/1.73m2 at the end of follow up. The use of diuretics was significantly associated with decline in eGFR. A total of 36 (11.5%) patients initiated renal replacement therapy (RRT) and need of RRT was more profound among diuretic users. The use of diuretics was associated with adverse renal outcomes indicated by decline in eGFR and increasing risk of RRT initiation in our cohort of NDD-CKD patients. Therefore, it is cautiously suggested to carefully prescribe diuretics by keeping in view benefit versus harm for each patient.

  7. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  8. Dynamic model of movement of mine suspended monorail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have developed the dynamic model of interaction of rolling stock during the movement, on the suspended monorail, taking into account the side-sway. We have received the motion equations, carried out their analysis and determined the own oscillation frequencies of rolling stock of suspended monorail.

  9. Designing immersive surgical training against information technology-related overload in the operating room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluyter, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    On a theoretical level, this dissertation demonstrates that the “classical” conceptualization of overload in the field of Information Systems being an excessive amount of information is too simplistic. Based on the Emotional-Cognitive Overload Model by Rutkowski and Saunders (2011) this dissertation

  10. Learners' Perceived Information Overload in Online Learning via Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Pedersen, Susan; Murphy, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students…

  11. Managing Information Overload for Senior Leaders in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    Information overload is a state where information input exceeds processing capability by an individual, and adverse effects of information overload, such as becoming less productive, making bad decisions, and becoming highly selective, are growing. Guided by Glaser and Strauss' work on grounded theory, this study examined adverse impact of…

  12. Development of an overload control strategy for the Republic of Senegal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available , particularly because there are currently no weighbridges in the country being used for overload control law enforcement. Recognising the need for an effective overload strategy for Senegal, the Ministry of Public Works and Transport decided to initiate a study...

  13. Data Overload Impact on Project Management: How Knowledge Management Systems Can Improve Federal Agencies Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jacinto

    2013-01-01

    This mixed method exploratory case study was used to explore the effect data overload has on project management, how data overload affects project management effectiveness, how prepared program office staff is to manage multiple projects effectively, and how the program office's organizational structure and data management systems affect project…

  14. Designing a Personalized Guide Recommendation System to Mitigate Information Overload in Museum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Liu, Chien-Hung; Lee, Chun-Yi; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2012-01-01

    Museum learning has received a lot of attention in recent years. Museum learning refers to people's use of museums to acquire knowledge. However, a problem with information overload has caused in engaging in such learning. Information overload signifies that users encounter a mass of information and need to determine whether certain information…

  15. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection... installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short circuit and overloads. Three...

  16. Predicting Role Conflict, Overload and Contagion in Adult Women University Students with Families and Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home, Alice M.

    1998-01-01

    Data from 443 women combining work, family, and schooling showed that lower income increased their vulnerability to role conflict. Perceived intensity of student demands was the strongest predictor of role conflict, overload, and contagion (preoccupation with one role while performing another). Conflict and overload were eased somewhat by distance…

  17. Clinical consequences of iron overload in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: the case for iron chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammo, Jamile M; Komrokji, Rami S

    2018-06-14

    Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are at increased risk of iron overload due to ineffective erythropoiesis and chronic transfusion therapy. The clinical consequences of iron overload include cardiac and/or hepatic failure, endocrinopathies, and infection risk. Areas covered: Iron chelation therapy (ICT) can help remove excess iron and ultimately reduce the clinical consequences of iron overload. The authors reviewed recent (last five years) English-language articles from PubMed on the topic of iron overload-related complications and the use of ICT (primarily deferasirox) to improve outcomes in patients with MDS. Expert Commentary: While a benefit of ICT has been more firmly established in other transfusion-dependent conditions such as thalassemia, its role in reducing iron overload in MDS remains controversial due to the lack of prospective controlled data demonstrating a survival benefit. Orally administered chelation agents (e.g., deferasirox), are now available, and observational and/or retrospective data support a survival benefit of using ICT in MDS. The placebo-controlled TELESTO trial (NCT00940602) is currently examining the use of deferasirox in MDS patients with iron overload, and is evaluating specifically whether use of ICT to alleviate iron overload can also reduce iron overload-related complications in MDS and improve survival.

  18. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sally Sabry; Looper, Karl Julian; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-05-03

    Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Participants' mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA.

  19. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  20. The evolution of crack-tip stresses during a fatigue overload event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steuwer, A.; Rahman, M.; Shterenlikht, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Withers, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the transient retardation or acceleration of fatigue crack growth subsequent to overloading are a matter of intense debate. Plasticity-induced closure and residual stresses have often been invoked to explain these phenomena, but closure mechanisms are disputed, especially under conditions approximating to generalised plane strain. In this paper we exploit synchrotron radiation to report very high spatial resolution two-dimensional elastic strain and stress maps at maximum and minimum loading measured under plane strain during a normal fatigue cycle, as well as during and after a 100% overload event, in ultra-fine grained AA5091 aluminium alloy. These observations provide direct evidence of the material stress state in the vicinity of the crack-tip in thick samples. Significant compressive residual stresses were found both in front of and behind the crack-tip immediately following the overload event. The effective stress intensity at the crack-tip was determined directly from the local stress field measured deep within the bulk (plane strain) by comparison with linear elastic fracture mechanical theory. This agrees well with that nominally applied at maximum load and 100% overload. After overload, however, the stress fields were not well described by classical K fields due to closure-related residual stresses. Little evidence of overload closure was observed sometime after the overload event, in our case possibly because the overload plastic zone was very small.

  1. Melatonin protects bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells against iron overload-induced aberrant differentiation and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Lei; Li, Yuan; Yan, Gege; Feng, Chao; Liu, Tianyi; Gong, Rui; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Ning; Idiiatullina, Elina; Bikkuzin, Timur; Pavlov, Valentin; Li, Yang; Dong, Chaorun; Wang, Dawei; Cao, Yang; Han, Zhenbo; Zhang, Lai; Huang, Qi; Ding, Fengzhi; Bi, Zhengang; Cai, Benzhi

    2017-10-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are an expandable population of stem cells which can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Dysfunction of BMSCs in response to pathological stimuli contributes to bone diseases. Melatonin, a hormone secreted from pineal gland, has been proved to be an important mediator in bone formation and mineralization. The aim of this study was to investigate whether melatonin protected against iron overload-induced dysfunction of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms. Here, we found that iron overload induced by ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) caused irregularly morphological changes and markedly reduced the viability in BMSCs. Consistently, osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs was significantly inhibited by iron overload, but melatonin treatment rescued osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Furthermore, exposure to FAC led to the senescence in BMSCs, which was attenuated by melatonin as well. Meanwhile, melatonin was able to counter the reduction in cell proliferation by iron overload in BMSCs. In addition, protective effects of melatonin on iron overload-induced dysfunction of BMSCs were abolished by its inhibitor luzindole. Also, melatonin protected BMSCs against iron overload-induced ROS accumulation and membrane potential depolarization. Further study uncovered that melatonin inhibited the upregulation of p53, ERK and p38 protein expressions in BMSCs with iron overload. Collectively, melatonin plays a protective role in iron overload-induced osteogenic differentiation dysfunction and senescence through blocking ROS accumulation and p53/ERK/p38 activation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Why cross-national differences in role overload? Don't overlook ambient temperature!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E.; Van Yperen, N.W.

    The finding that, across nations, power distance (expected and accepted unequal interpersonal influence) Is positively related to role overload (Peterson et al., 1995) might he an artifact of the relation between role overload and ambient temperature or other third factors. We related data on power

  3. Role Overload, Job Satisfaction, Leisure Satisfaction, and Psychological Health among Employed Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Quinn M.

    2008-01-01

    Role overload, job satisfaction, leisure satisfaction, and psychological health were measured for 155 women who were employed full time. Role overload was negatively correlated with psychological health, job satisfaction, and leisure satisfaction. Job satisfaction and leisure satisfaction were positively correlated with psychological health.…

  4. Overload training inhibits phagocytosis and ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages: role of IGF-1 and MGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Ru; Dong, Jingmei

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation of peritoneal macrophages (Mϕs), and that insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) and mechano-growth factor (MGF) produced by macrophages may contribute to this process. Rats were randomized to two groups, sedentary control group (n = 10) and overload training group (n = 10). The rats of overload training group were subjected to 11 weeks of experimental training protocol. Blood sample was used to determine the content of hemoglobin, testosterone, and corticosterone. The phagocytosis and the ROS generation of Mϕs were measured by the uptake of neutral red and the flow cytometry, respectively. IGF-1 and MGF mRNA levels in Mϕs were determined by real-time PCR. In addition, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1 and MGF peptide on phagocytosis and ROS generation of Mϕs in vitro. The data showed that overload training significantly decreased the body weight (19.3 %, P overload training significantly decreased the phagocytosis (27 %, P overload training group increased significantly compared with the control group (21-fold and 92-fold, respectively; P overload training inhibits the phagocytosis and the ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages, and that MGF produced by macrophages may play a key role in this process. This may represent a novel mechanism of immune suppression induced by overload training.

  5. Information Overload in the New World of Work: Qualitative Study into the Reasons and Countermeasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Jeroen; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the authors present a revision of the information overload concept elaborated by Eppler and Mengis (2004). The main elements of our approach are literature synopsis and analysis, qualitative semi-structured interviews, and discussion. Their review of the information overload concept

  6. Coping with Overload and Stress: Men and Women in Dual-Earner Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…

  7. Reliability Analysis and Overload Capability Assessment of Oil-Immersed Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart grids have been constructed so as to guarantee the security and stability of the power grid in recent years. Power transformers are a most vital component in the complicated smart grid network. Any transformer failure can cause damage of the whole power system, within which the failures caused by overloading cannot be ignored. This research gives a new insight into overload capability assessment of transformers. The hot-spot temperature of the winding is the most critical factor in measuring the overload capacity of power transformers. Thus, the hot-spot temperature is calculated to obtain the duration running time of the power transformers under overloading conditions. Then the overloading probability is fitted with the mature and widely accepted Weibull probability density function. To guarantee the accuracy of this fitting, a new objective function is proposed to obtain the desired parameters in the Weibull distributions. In addition, ten different mutation scenarios are adopted in the differential evolutionary algorithm to optimize the parameter in the Weibull distribution. The final comprehensive overload capability of the power transformer is assessed by the duration running time as well as the overloading probability. Compared with the previous studies that take no account of the overloading probability, the assessment results obtained in this research are much more reliable.

  8. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of carbon steel piping material subjected to single overload/under-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Punit; Tripathi, R.; Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, V.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR) behaviour after single over-load/ under-load event on carbon steel piping material. The tests have been carried out on standard Compact Tension (CT) specimens. The effect of different crack length to width ratio (a/W) of specimen and overload/under-load ratios on FCGR have been studied. The studies have shown significant reduction in FCG rate after overload event. The strain field has been measured using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique ahead of the crack tip to quantify the plastic zone size due to overload and constant amplitude load. In addition, plastic zone calculations have also been carried out using 3D finite element analyses for the prediction of post overload FCGR/ life. The predicted FCGR are in agreement with experimentally determined FCGR. (author)

  9. Influence of different propellant systems on ablation of EPDM insulators in overload state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yiwen; Li, Jiang; Liu, Yang; Xu, Tuanwei

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the propellants used in full-scale solid rocket motors (SRM) and investigates how insulator ablation is affected by two propellant formulations (A and B) during flight overload conditions. An experimental study, theoretical analysis, and numerical simulations were performed to discover the intrinsic causes of insulator ablation rates from the perspective of lab-scaled ground-firing tests, the decoupling of thermochemical ablation, and particle erosion. In addition, the difference in propellant composition, and the insulator charring layer microstructure were analyzed. Results reveal that the degree of insulator ablation is positively correlated with the propellant burn rate, particle velocity, and aggregate concentrations during the condensed phase. A lower ratio of energetic additive material in the AP oxidizer of the propellant is promising for the reduction in particle size and increase in the burn rate and pressure index. However, the overall higher velocity of a two-phase flow causes severe erosion of the insulation material. While the higher ratio of energetic additive to the AP oxidizer imparts a smaller ablation rate to the insulator (under lab-scale test conditions), the slag deposition problem in the combustion chamber may cause catastrophic consequences for future large full-scale SRM flight experiments.

  10. Changes in bacteria composition and efficiency of constructed wetlands under sustained overloads: A modeling experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boano, F; Rizzo, A; Samsó, R; García, J; Revelli, R; Ridolfi, L

    2018-01-15

    The average organic and hydraulic loads that Constructed Wetlands (CWs) receive are key parameters for their adequate long-term functioning. However, over their lifespan they will inevitably be subject to either episodic or sustained overloadings. Despite that the consequences of sustained overloading are well known (e.g., clogging), the threshold of overloads that these systems can tolerate is difficult to determine. Moreover, the mechanisms that might sustain the buffering capacity (i.e., the reduction of peaks in nutrient load) during overloads are not well understood. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of sudden but sustained organic and hydraulic overloads on the general functioning of CWs. To that end, the mathematical model BIO_PORE was used to simulate five different scenarios, based on the features and operation conditions of a pilot CW system: a control simulation representing the average loads; 2 simulations representing +10% and +30% sustained organic overloads; one simulation representing a sustained +30% hydraulic overload; and one simulation with sustained organic and hydraulic overloads of +15% each. Different model outputs (e.g., total bacterial biomass and its spatial distribution, effluent concentrations) were compared among different simulations to evaluate the effects of such operation changes. Results reveal that overloads determine a temporary decrease in removal efficiency before microbial biomass adapts to the new conditions and COD removal efficiency is recovered. Increasing organic overloads cause stronger temporary decreases in COD removal efficiency compared to increasing hydraulic loads. The pace at which clogging develops increases by 10% for each 10% increase on the organic load. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin supplementation intensifies plantaris muscle fiber hypertrophy in functionally overloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Akiko; Machida, Masanao; Setoguchi, Yuko; Ito, Ryouichi; Sugitani, Masanori; Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Inagaki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Omi, Naomi; Takemasa, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ) is produced from rutin using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by treatment with glycosyltransferase in the presence of dextrin to add glucose residues. EMIQ is absorbed in the same way as quercetin, a powerful antioxidant reported to prevent disused muscle atrophy by targeting mitochondria and to have ergogenic effects. The present study investigated the effect of EMIQ on skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload. In Study 1, 6-week-old ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated control, sham-operated EMIQ, overload-operated control, and overload-operated EMIQ groups. In Study 2, mice were divided into 3 groups: overload-operated whey control, overload-operated whey/EMIQ (low dose), and overload-operated whey/EMIQ (high dose) groups. The functional overload of the plantaris muscle was induced by ablation of the synergist (gastrocnemius and soleus) muscles. EMIQ and whey protein were administered with food. Three weeks after the operation, the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle fibers were measured. In Study 1, functional overload increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ supplementation significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle in both the sham-operated and overload-operated groups. In Study 2, EMIQ supplementation combined with whey protein administration significantly increased the cross-sectional area and minimal fiber diameter of the plantaris muscle. EMIQ, even when administered as an addition to whey protein supplementation, significantly intensified the fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle in functionally overloaded mice. EMIQ supplementation also induced fiber hypertrophy of the plantaris in sham-operated mice.

  12. Functional overload attenuates plantaris atrophy in tumor-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otis, Jeffrey S; Lees, Simon J; Williams, Jay H

    2007-01-01

    Late stage cancer malignancies may result in severe skeletal muscle wasting, fatigue and reduced quality of life. Resistance training may attenuate these derangements in cancer patients, but how this hypertrophic response relates to normal muscle adaptations in healthy subjects is unknown. Here, we determined the effect of resistance training on muscle mass and myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition in plantaris muscles from tumor-bearing (TB) rats. Age- and gender-matched Buffalo rats were used for all studies (n = 6/group). Suspensions of Morris Hepatoma MH7777 cells or normal saline were injected subcutaneously into the dorsum. Six weeks after cell implantation, muscles from TB rats were harvested, weighed and processed for ATP-independent proteasome activity assays. Once tumor-induced atrophy had been established, subgroups of TB rats underwent unilateral, functional overload (FO). Healthy, sham-operated rats served as controls. After six weeks, the extent of plantaris hypertrophy was calculated and MHC isoform compositions were determined by gel electrophoresis. Six weeks of tumor growth reduced body mass and the relative masses of gastrocnemius, plantaris, tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, and diaphragm muscles (p ≤ 0.05). Percent reductions in body mass had a strong, negative correlation to final tumor size (r = -0.78). ATP-independent proteasome activity was increased in plantaris muscles from TB rats (p ≤ 0.05). In healthy rats, functional overload (FO) increased plantaris mass ~44% compared to the contralateral control muscle, and increased the relative percentage of MHC type I and decreased the relative percentage of MHC type IIb compared to the sham-operated controls (p ≤ 0.05). Importantly, plantaris mass was increased ~24% in TB-FO rats and adaptations to MHC isoform composition were consistent with normal, resistance-trained muscles. Despite significant skeletal muscle derangements due to cancer, muscle retains the capacity to

  13. Exploration of overloaded cation exchange chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui F; McCooey, Beth; Duarte, Tiago; Myers, Deanna E; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf; van Reis, Robert; Kelley, Brian D

    2011-09-28

    Cation exchange chromatography using conventional resins, having either diffusive or perfusive flow paths, operated in bind-elute mode has been commonly employed in monoclonal antibody (MAb) purification processes. In this study, the performance of diffusive and perfusive cation exchange resins (SP-Sepharose FF (SPSFF) and Poros 50HS) and a convective cation exchange membrane (Mustang S) and monolith (SO(3) Monolith) were compared. All matrices were utilized in an isocratic state under typical binding conditions with an antibody load of up to 1000 g/L of chromatographic matrix. The dynamic binding capacity of the cation exchange resins is typically below 100 g/L resin, so they were loaded beyond the point of anticipated MAb break through. All of the matrices performed similarly in that they effectively retained host cell protein and DNA during the loading and wash steps, while antibody flowed through each matrix after its dynamic binding capacity was reached. The matrices differed, though, in that conventional diffusive and perfusive chromatographic resins (SPSFF and Poros 50HS) demonstrated a higher binding capacity for high molecular weight species (HMW) than convective flow matrices (membrane and monolith); Poros 50HS displayed the highest HMW binding capacity. Further exploration of the conventional chromatographic resins in an isocratic overloaded mode demonstrated that the impurity binding capacity was well maintained on Poros 50HS, but not on SPSFF, when the operating flow rate was as high as 36 column volumes per hour. Host cell protein and HMW removal by Poros 50HS was affected by altering the loading conductivity. A higher percentage of host cell protein removal was achieved at a low conductivity of 3 mS/cm. HMW binding capacity was optimized at 5 mS/cm. Our data from runs on Poros 50HS resin also showed that leached protein A and cell culture additive such as gentamicin were able to be removed under the isocratic overloaded condition. Lastly, a MAb

  14. RECENT DYNAMICS (1975 - 2012 OF COŞUŞTEA RIVER'S SUSPENDED SEDIMENT LOAD AT CORCOVA HYDROMETRIC STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Adina MOROȘANU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess, from a statistical standpoint, the solid discharge at Corcova hydrometric station for the recent period between 1975 and 2012. The Corcova hydrometric station is located in the lowermost sector of the Coşuştea River Basin, at a distance of 2 km north-west from its confluence with Motru River. The usefulness of this study results from the endeavor to determine the years and months when the river presents an accumulation potential due to a higher transmission rate of the suspended sediment load. The statistical techniques applied in this study made use of the monthly, as well as the annual averages, minimum and maximum values of suspended sediment loads, in order to obtain the multiannual trends, seasonal and monthly differences. Thus, by using the Mann-Kendall test, the statistical distributions and frequency analysis, we could notice that the average solid discharge decreased in the last decades during the winter period, while between April and November, average solid discharge rose slightly, with a greater significance in May. Conversely, minimum solid discharge values were likely to indicate the years and months when the river’s solid intake was low, with the potential for bank erosion. The minimum values of suspended sediment loads showed little variation from year to year in all months, except for May and June, based on the influence of the peak liquid discharge on the potential erosion and sediment transport of Cosustea river. As a general conclusion, the most important aspects turned out to be the variations in April - June period, an interval well known for flash floods and high waters records, as well as for rapid changes in average, minimum and maximum solid flows.

  15. Impact of surface and residual stresses and electro-/magnetostatic axial loading on the suspended nanomechanical based mass sensors: A theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stachiv, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 21 (2014), "214310-1"-"214310-7" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/0800 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : suspended nanomechanical resonators * mass sensors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  16. Liver iron overloading in captive muriquis (Brachyteles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie V; Strefezzi, Ricardo De F; Pissinatti, Alcides; Catão-Dias, José L

    2011-04-01

    Iron accumulation was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively in the liver of 15 captive Brachyteles spp. Hepatic hemosiderosis index (HHI) was determined as the area percentage of the liver parenchyma occupied by hemosiderin and ferritin deposits, through computerized histomorphometric analysis of Prussian blue-stained histologic sections. All studied animals presented liver hemosiderosis, and HHI ranged from 0.2% to 41.7%. There were no significant differences in HHI between muriqui species or genders, and no correlations were detected among HHI and age, time in captivity or body mass. Iron deposits were accompanied by other hepatic disorders. This is the first study addressing the occurrence and consequences of iron overloading in the liver of muriquis. We propose that hemosiderosis may act as a contribute factor for the development of hepatic injuries. Further studies are advised to clarify the role of diet in the pathogenesis of hemosiderosis in these atelids. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Iron overload in the liver diagnostic and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alustiza, Jose M.; Castiella, Agustin; Juan, Maria D. de; Emparanza, Jose I.; Artetxe, Jose; Uranga, Maite

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis is the most frequent modality of iron overload. Since 1996 genetic tests have facilitated significantly the non-invasive diagnosis of the disease. There are however many cases of negative genetic tests that require confirmation by hepatic iron quantification which is traditionally performed by hepatic biopsy. There are many studies that have demonstrated the possibility of performing hepatic iron quantification with Magnetic Resonance. However, a consensus has not been reached yet regarding the technique or the possibility to reproduce the same method of calculus in different machines. This article reviews the state of the art of the question and delineates possible future lines to standardise this non-invasive method of hepatic iron quantification

  18. Iron overload in the liver diagnostic and quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alustiza, Jose M. [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain)]. E-mail: jmalustiza@osatek.es; Castiella, Agustin [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Juan, Maria D. de [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Emparanza, Jose I. [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Artetxe, Jose [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain); Uranga, Maite [Osatek SA, P Dr. Beguiristain 109, 20014, San Sebastian, Guipuzcoa (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    Hereditary Hemochromatosis is the most frequent modality of iron overload. Since 1996 genetic tests have facilitated significantly the non-invasive diagnosis of the disease. There are however many cases of negative genetic tests that require confirmation by hepatic iron quantification which is traditionally performed by hepatic biopsy. There are many studies that have demonstrated the possibility of performing hepatic iron quantification with Magnetic Resonance. However, a consensus has not been reached yet regarding the technique or the possibility to reproduce the same method of calculus in different machines. This article reviews the state of the art of the question and delineates possible future lines to standardise this non-invasive method of hepatic iron quantification.

  19. Operator overloading as an enabling technology for automatic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corliss, G.F.; Griewank, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present an example of the science that is enabled by object-oriented programming techniques. Scientific computation often needs derivatives for solving nonlinear systems such as those arising in many PDE algorithms, optimization, parameter identification, stiff ordinary differential equations, or sensitivity analysis. Automatic differentiation computes derivatives accurately and efficiently by applying the chain rule to each arithmetic operation or elementary function. Operator overloading enables the techniques of either the forward or the reverse mode of automatic differentiation to be applied to real-world scientific problems. We illustrate automatic differentiation with an example drawn from a model of unsaturated flow in a porous medium. The problem arises from planning for the long-term storage of radioactive waste

  20. Methods of and system for swing damping movement of suspended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-03-05

    A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass. 13 figures.

  1. Characterization and radionuclides sorption of suspended particulate matters in freshwater according to their settling kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brach-Papa, C.; Boyer, P.; Amielh, M.; Anselmet, F.

    2004-01-01

    In freshwater, the transfers of radionuclides depend both on exchanges between liquid and solid phases and on mass transfers between suspended matter and bottom sediment. Whereas the former ones depend on chemical processes (such as sorption/desorption, complexation, the latter ones are regulated by hydrological and sedimentary considerations (dispersion, erosion, deposit closely related to the interactions between flow, suspended matter and bed sediment. Some of our previous studies highlight the need to consider the matter heterogeneity and its specific sediment dynamics to correctly report the inhomogeneity of fluxes in time and in space. These considerations lead us to develop experimental methods to distinguish the different matter classes, present in natural water, mainly according to their erosion threshold and settling kinetics. In this context, this paper presents the experimental protocol TALISMEN to characterize a natural bulk suspension according the identification of its main settling kinetics groups. In a first step, this identification is achieved by the use of a settling tank, that allows the monitoring of the suspended solid concentration at various depths, combined to a vertical mono-dimensional settling model applying a multi-class approach. In a second step, the particle groups are isolated and their physico-chemical properties are determined ( i.e mineral composition, specific surface area, particulate organic carbon, in order to fully characterized them. In a last one, the sorption property of each group toward radionuclides is determined by the measurements of its distribution coefficients (Kd). The results confirm the interest to consider these heterogeneities for the modelling of the radionuclides transfer in freshwater. From one group to other, these heterogeneities appear at two levels: 1) their sediment dynamics and 2) their radionuclides sorption properties. These conclusions can be equally applying to others xenobiotics as heavy metals

  2. Study of overload effects in bainitic steel by synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lopez-Crespo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an in-situ characterisation of crack-tip strain fields following an overload by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The study is made on very fine grained bainitic steel, thus allowing a very high resolution so that small changes occurring around the crack-tip were captured along the crack plane at the mid-thickness of the specimen. We have followed the crack as it grew through the overload location. Once the crack-tip has progressed past the overload event there is strong evidence that the crack faces contact in the region of the overload event (though not in the immediate vicinity of the current locations of the crack tip at Kmin even when the crack has travelled 1mm beyond the overload location. It was also found that at Kmax the peak tensile strain ahead of the crack-tip decreases soon after the overload is applied and then gradually recovers as the crack grows past the compressive region created by the overload.

  3. The role of adenosine in preconditioning by brief pressure overload in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Hsiung; Tsai, Shen-Kou; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Lai, Chang-Chi; Weng, Zen-Chung

    2015-08-01

    Brief pressure overload of the left ventricle reduced myocardial infarct (MI) size in rabbits has been previously reported. Its effects in other species are not known. This study investigates effects of pressure overload and the role of adenosine in rats in this study. MI was induced by 40-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 3-hour reperfusion. MI size was determined by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Brief pressure overload was induced by two 10-minute episodes of partial snaring of the ascending aorta. Systolic left ventricular pressure was raised 50% above the baseline value. Ischemic preconditioning was elicited by two 10-minute coronary artery occlusions. The MI size (mean ± standard deviation), expressed as percentage of area at risk, was significantly reduced in the pressure overload group as well as in the ischemic preconditioning group (17.4 ± 3.0% and 18.2 ± 1.5% vs. 26.6 ± 2.4% in the control group, p overload and ischemic preconditioning (18.3 ± 1.5% and 18.2 ± 2.0%, respectively, p overload of the left ventricle preconditioned rat myocardium against infarction. Because SPT did not significantly alter MI size reduction, our results did not support a role of adenosine in preconditioning by pressure overload in rats. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Changes in cardiac output and incidence of volume overload in cirrhotics receiving 20% albumin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasthry, Saggere M; Kumar, Manoj; Khumuckham, Jelen S; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Patients with cirrhosis are prone to develop volume over load, have increased capillary permeability and latent or overt cardiomyopathy. Whether albumin infusion causes volume overload in cirrhotics has not been adequately studied. Ninety nine consecutive cirrhotic patients receiving 1gm per kg albumin infusion were evaluated for development of volume overload. Clinical, echocardiographic and haemodynamic changes were closely monitored during and after albumin infusion. Thirty (30.30%) patients developed volume overload. Patients with higher BMI (P=.003), lower CTP (P=.01) and MELD (P=.034) were more often associated with the development of volume overload. Though baseline diastolic dysfunction was present in 82.8% of the patients, it did not influence the development of volume overload or changes in the cardiac output. The cardiac output increased significantly after albumin infusion (4.9±1.554 L/min to 5.86±1.85 L/min, Palbumin infusion develop volume overload, specially, those with higher BMI and lower severity of liver disease. Cardiac output increases after albumin infusion, and, baseline diastolic dysfunction has little effect on the development of volume overload or changes in cardiac output. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  6. Suspended sediment drift and dispersion at Hibernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedford, T.; Drozdowski, A.; Hannah, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water waves and near-bottom currents around the Hibernia oil production platform on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland were examined to determine how the different seasons affect changes in wave magnitude and directions of water currents. Wave observations revealed a strong correlation with seasons, with the larger waves occurring in fall and early winter. There was no obvious seasonality in the size or direction of currents. The benthic boundary layer transport (BBLT) model was used to predict the drift and dispersion pathways of suspended drilling muds discharged from the Hibernia platform. The 2-year study from March 1998 to May 2000 involved 5-day BBLT model simulations covering the complete period of current meter deployment. The study focused on the sensitivity of the drift and dispersion to variability in the physical environment and uncertainty in the bottom stress calculation and particle settling velocity. The BBLT model incorporates a stress dependent particle settling velocity that includes the main features of the flocculations of drill mud fines under marine conditions. The study provides a better understanding of how drill mud concentration levels can change with variations in waves, currents, and bottom stress. It was determined that drift is generally oriented along the northwest/southeast axis, with a typical magnitude of 0.8 cm/sec for the fast settling velocity and 3.1 cm/sec for the slow settling velocity. It was concluded that near-surface or mid-depth discharges of drilling mud in the summer may not reach the sea floor. 17 refs., 13 tabs., 36 figs

  7. PENGARUH WORK OVERLOAD DAN WORK FAMILY CONFLICT TERHADAP TURNOVER INTENTION YANG DIMEDIASI OLEH WORK EXHAUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayatin Nisa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine factors that determine turnover intention in medical representative at PT. APL. To be known before that medical representatives have high percentage in turnover. The research using work exhaustion as mediation to determine the relationship between works overload and work family conflict of turnover intention. Research method is quantitative approach in causal research. The analysis tools are AMOS and T-Sobel. Findings of this research are both work overload and work family conflict berpengaruh with work exhaustion and turnover intention, work exhaustion mediated work overload and work family conflict over turnover intention.

  8. Information overload an international challenge to professional engineers and technical communicators

    CERN Document Server

    Ulijn, J M; Fazal, Zohra

    2012-01-01

    "This book covers the ever-increasing problem of information overload from both the professional and academic perspectives. Focusing on the needs of practicing engineers and professional communicators, it addresses the causes and costs of information overload, along with strategies and techniques for reducing and minimizing its negative effects. The theoretical framework of information overload and ideas for future research are also presented. The book brings together an international group of authors, providing a truly global point of view on this important, rarely covered topic"--

  9. Trust in management as a buffer of the relationships between overload and strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Kelloway, E Kevin; Duncan-Leiper, Leslie

    2003-10-01

    This study examined the role of trust in management as a moderating factor in work overload's impact on personal strain (i.e., burnout, psychological strain, and work's interference with family). Participants were 94 employees of an accounting firm responding to a survey. The results were supportive of all study propositions. Both work overload and trust in management had the expected negative and positive main effects on the outcomes variables, respectively. The impact of work overload on the outcome variables was moderated by employees' trust in management. The significance of these results and areas of future research are discussed. 2003 APA

  10. Effect of overload on SCC growth in stainless steels in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, He; Peng, Qunjia; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    By incorporating the film slip-dissolution/oxidation model and the elastic-plastic finite element method (EPFEM), the effect of the overload on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) growth rate of stainless steel in high temperature water is discussed in this paper. Results show that SCC growth rate of a 20% cold worked 316L stainless steel in high temperature water decrease in the overload affected zone ahead of the growing crack tip. Therefore, a reasonable overload could availably reduce the SCC growth rate during a certain in-service period. (author)

  11. Remoção de matéria orgânica e sólidos suspensos por nova configuração de biofiltro aeróbio submerso no pós-tratamento de efluente de reator UASB Removal of organic matter and suspended solids by a new configuration of biological aerated filter in the post-treatment of UASB reactor effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Varela Della Giustina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores anaeróbios é um processo necessário para o atendimento dos padrões de emissão. Os resultados aqui apresentados mostram a viabilidade de uso de uma nova configuração de biofiltro aeróbio submerso (BAS no pós-tratamento desses efluentes. Os BAS multiestágio apresentam uma câmara anaeróbia (V=12,6L, seguido de uma câmara aeróbia (V=30L e uma câmara anóxica (V=26,4L, todas em série (V total=70L. Neste estudo, foi analisada a remoção de sólidos suspensos (SS, DQO e DBO5. Foram utilizados três BAS multi-estágio preenchidos com três diferentes materiais-suporte: tampas e gargalos PET (165m²/m³, pedra britada n. 4 (50m²/m³ e anéis Pall 1,5'' (135m²/m³. Os reatores foram operados com valores de tempos de detenção hidráulicas (TDH de 4,1, 8,2 e 12,3 horas, e três taxas de aplicação superficial (TAS (21, 12 e 8m³/m².d. A associação dos reatores UASB+BAS possibilitou remoções de DQO total superiores a 90% para os BAS 1 e 3, e 85% para o BAS 2, sendo independente do TDH aplicado. A remoção de SS foi maior no BAS contendo anéis Pall, provavelmente devido ao maior índice de vazios desse material.The post-treatment of effluents from anaerobic reactors is normally a mandatory step to meet the emission standards. The results presented here show the feasibility of using a new configuration of biological aerated filter (BAF in the post-treatment of UASB reactors. The multi-stage BAF presents an anaerobic chamber (V=12.6L, followed by an aerobic chamber (V=30L and an anoxic chamber (V=26.4L, all in series (total V=70L. This study examined the removal of suspended solids (SS, COD and BOD5. Three multi-stage BAF filled with three different packing materials were used: lids and bottlenecks of PET bottles (165m²/m³, gravel n. 4 (50m²/m³ and Pall rings 1.5'' (135m²/m³. The reactors were operated with the values of hydraulic detention time (HDT of 4.1, 8.2 and 12.3 hours, and

  12. Air pollution in Aleppo city, gases,suspended particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Sabra, Sh.; Al-Kharfan, K.

    1994-06-01

    Total suspended particulates measured by using High Volume Air Sampler. The Co and O 3 were measured during weekday and weekend. The concentration of all pollutants at city center are higher than other measured areas. (author). 10 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  14. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen; Qi, Haibo; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors

  15. Elemental compositions of suspended particles released in glass manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuro, T; Mizohata, A; Kubota, T [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1980-03-01

    Suspended particles released in glass manufacture were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Suspended particles emitted from glass manufacture generally consist of both particles emitted from glass fusion and those produced through fuel combustion (mainly oil combustion). Elemental compositions of suspended particles emitted from glass fusion were found to be strongly dependent on the kind and recipe of raw materials and additives. Of the various metallic elements involved in suspended particles emitted from glass fusion, the elements, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Pb and so on are regarded to produce the most serious air pollution. The amount of emission of these elements to the environment is, howerer, quite varied from manufacturer to manufacturer. The replacement of electric furnace by oil combustion in opal glass manufacture remarkably reduced the emission of metallic elements to the environment.

  16. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Sahore, Ritu; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Livi, Sebastien; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic

  17. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage - Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... We have conceived and documented "suspended animation for delayed resuscitation" with the use of hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 minute of no blood flow, using novel...

  18. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. ... Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family ... Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum.

  19. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  20. Solid-state vs water-perfused catheters to measure colonic high-amplitude propagating contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, O.; Burgers, R. E.; Connor, F. L.; Benninga, M. A.; Reddy, S. N.; Mousa, H. M.; Di Lorenzo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Solid-state (SS) manometry catheters with portable data loggers offer many potential advantages over traditional water-perfused (WP) systems, such as prolonged recordings in a more physiologic ambulatory setting and the lack of risk for water overload. The use of SS catheters has not been

  1. Influences of overload on low cycle fatigue behaviors of elbow pipe with local wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kyohei; Ogino, Kanako; Takahashi, Koji; Ando, Kotoji; Urabe, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted using 100A elbow pipe specimens with or without local wall thinning. Local wall thinning was machined on the inside of the extrados of test elbows to simulate metal loss due to flow-accelerated corrosion or liquid droplet impingement erosion. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out under displacement control with an inner pressure of 9 MPa. To simulate seismic events, low cycle fatigue tests were carried out on elbow pipe subjected to cyclic overloads. Regardless of local wall thinning, fatigue life of overload pipe was not so different from that of the non-overload pipe in appearance. Miner's rule can be applied to evaluate fatigue life of the elbow pipes with and without wall thinning, even if overload is applied. (author)

  2. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Wood, John; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions

  3. Crack growth retardation due to micro-roughness: a mechanism for overload effects in fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, S.

    1982-01-01

    A new mechanism for fatigue crack growth retardation following an overload is presented in this paper, based on a micro-roughness model. It is reasoned, with the aid of extensive experimental evidence available in the literature, that retardation following an overload is governed by the micromechanisms of near-threshold crack growth. This model is found to rationalize a number of hitherto unexplained experimental observations. Moreover, the present arguments, which suggest that plasticity-induced crack closure is not likely to be the primary mechanism for retardation following single overloads, do not exclude the role of residual stresses or blunting, but provide further mechanistic basis to account for the inconsistencies in the previous models. Additional sources of prolonged retardation, in terms of crack closure due to corrosion debris formed in moist environments, are suggested. It is pointed out that such environmental effects could play an important role in post-overload crack growth in certain alloy systems

  4. Work Overload and Turnover Intention of Junior Auditors in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increasing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  5. WORK OVERLOAD AND TURNOVER INTENTION OF JUNIOR AUDITORS IN GREATER JAKARTA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Pradana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The results show that work overload has a significant effect on increas- ing turnover intention through both job satisfaction and work related stress. In comparison, work overload does not influence turnover intention through work life balance. This may be due to the nature of the respondents, in which a majority of the newly hired accountants employed in this study are unmarried.

  6. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Costa, Fernando Ferreira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wood, John [University of Southern California, California (United States); Hamerschlak, Nelson [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions.

  7. Iron overload in a teenager with xerocytosis: the importance of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Reijâne Alves de; Kassab, Carolina; Seguro, Fernanda Salles; Costa, Fernando Ferreira; Silveira, Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Wood, John; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2013-12-01

    To report a case of iron overload secondary to xerocytosis, a rare disease in a teenager, diagnosed, by T2* magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a symptomatic patient with xerocytosis, a ferritin level of 350ng/mL and a significant cardiac iron overload. She was diagnosed by T2* magnetic resonance imaging and received chelation therapy Ektacytometric analysis confirmed the diagnosis of hereditary xerocytosis. Subsequent T2* magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete resolution of the iron overload in various organs, as a new echocardiography revealed a complete resolution of previous cardiac alterations. The patient remains in chelation therapy. Xerocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by dehydrated stomatocytosis. The patient may present with intense fatigue and iron overload. We suggest the regular use of T2* magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis and control of the response to iron chelation in xerocytosis, and we believe it can be used also in other hemolytic anemia requiring transfusions.

  8. I just want to be left alone: Daily overload and marital behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Meredith S; Repetti, Rena L; Robles, Theodore F; Reynolds, Bridget M

    2016-08-01

    Stressful, busy days have been linked with increases in angry and withdrawn marital behavior. The process by which stressors in 1 domain, such as work, affect an individual’s behavior in another domain, such as the marital relationship, is known as spillover . Using 56 days of daily diary reports in a diverse sample of 47 wives and 39 husbands, this study examined associations between daily experiences of overload and 3 marital behaviors: overt expressions of anger, disregard of the spouse’s needs (“disregard”), and reductions in affection and disclosure (“distancing”). Two potential mechanisms by which daily overload spills over into marital behavior were examined: negative mood and the desire to avoid social interaction. Among husbands, negative mood mediated the association between overload and angry behavior. Associations between overload and wives’ angry behavior, as well as overload and husbands’ and wives’ disregard of their partners’ needs, were mediated by both negative mood and the desire to withdraw socially. Desire to withdraw, but not negative mood, mediated the association between overload and distancing behavior among husbands and wives. In addition, associations between marital satisfaction and spouses’ typical marital behavior, as well as behavioral responses to overload, were examined. Husbands’ and wives’ average levels of expressed anger and disregard, and husbands’ distancing, were associated with lower marital satisfaction in 1 or both partners. Both spouses reported lower marital satisfaction if husbands tended to express marital anger, disregard, or distancing on busy, overloaded days. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Designing immersive surgical training against information technology-related overload in the operating room

    OpenAIRE

    Pluyter, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    On a theoretical level, this dissertation demonstrates that the “classical” conceptualization of overload in the field of Information Systems being an excessive amount of information is too simplistic. Based on the Emotional-Cognitive Overload Model by Rutkowski and Saunders (2011) this dissertation outlines the importance of the personal mental organization of Long-Term Memory (LTM) and the congruence of the information stimulus with cognitive schemata encoded in LTM.

  10. Over-exposed portraits : Technology overload and the identities of the young

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Christoph; Ranzini, Giulia; Meckel, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Technostress and information overload represent serious challenges of the Information Age. An alarming number of people exhibit dangerously intensive media consumption, while Internet and mobile phone addictions are a widespread phenomenon, especially among teens. Despite increasing evidence for technostress and information overload within the literature, the consequences of new media overexposure on young individuals are so far understudied. When it comes to Social Network Sites (SNS), in pa...

  11. Work Overload and Turnover Intention of Junior Auditors in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Andika Pradana; Imam Salehudin

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze how work overload influences turnover intentions of newly hired junior auditors in public accounting offices. Job satisfaction, work related stress and work life conflicts are used as mediating variables between work overload and turnover intention. This study employed 141 auditors from several accounting firms operating in the Greater Jakarta region. The sample was selected using purposive sampling. Three mediation hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation M...

  12. Influence of subject choice, work overload and work stress on expatriate higher education teachers.

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2013-01-01

    Subject choice, work overload and work stress influence personal and professional lives of higher education teachers. Though the majority of higher education teachers in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are expatriates, yet research on expatriate higher education teachers working in the GCC countries is limited. This paper presents one part of the work life balance survey and focuses on the influence of subject choice, work overload and work stress on higher education teachers in ...

  13. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Sally; Looper Karl; Zelkowitz Phyllis; Purden Margaret; Baron Murray

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Methods Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease character...

  14. Dangers of bypassing thermal overload relays in nuclear power plant motor operated valve circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, F.D.

    1980-01-01

    Operation of motor operated valves is analyzed under various abnormal conditions such as frozen bearing, tight packing, mid-travel obstruction, torque switch failure, limit switch failure, and post-accident operation. Each condition has been reviewed to show that an adverse situation results if the thermal overload relays in the circuit are bypassed. In conclusion, there appears to be no technical basis for bypassing or oversizing the thermal overload relay provided it is selected correctly

  15. Cognitive overload and communication in two healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicourel, Aaron V

    2004-01-01

    The confluence of organizational social interaction and cognitive information processing constraints create 'noisy' conditions in institutionalized settings. Attentional and memory limitations always influence the ability of participants to comprehend each other's communication. Two organizational settings (a medical specialty clinic and periodontal office) will be used to explore a few features of healthcare delivery that are often ignored in studies of such systems. Scheduling appointments, for example, creates stress for both patients and healthcare personnel but is often an unexamined aspect of healthcare delivery that has become both challenging and often irritating for all concerned. For example, when patients call, someone at a general scheduling center or the particular clinic or office of an individual physician or dentist or a group practice will answer the call with a menu of options, or the caller may be asked to leave message. When a patient leaves a clinic or surgery office after a visit, they may be allowed to make a new appointment. The term 'cognitive overload' is a ubiquitous element of all healthcare systems and refers to organizationally induced and constrained limited capacity processing inherent in the way improvised discourse practices, and annotative devices or artifacts (such as written notes or some related strategy) become an integral part of everyday healthcare delivery.

  16. Overload and neovascularization of shoulder tendons in volleyball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In overhead sports like volleyball, the onset of a rotator cuff tendinopathy due to functional overload is a common observation. An angiofibroblastic etiopathogenesis has been hypothesized, whereby a greater anaerobic metabolism occurs in critical zones of the tendon with a lower degree of vascularization; this would induce collagen and extracellular matrix degradation, that could then trigger a compensatory neovascularization response. We performed a clinical observational study of 80 elite volleyball players, monitoring the perfusion values of the supraspinatus tendons by oximetry. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the oximetry data and age, sex or years of sports activity, nor when comparing the right and left arm or the dominant and non-dominant arm. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominant arm values in relation to the competitive role, higher values being obtained in outside hitters (62.7%) than middle hitters (53.7%) (p = 0.01), opposite hitters (55.5%) (p = 0.02) and libero players (54.4%) (p = 0.008), whereas there were no differences in setters (56.2%) (p > 0.05). Conclusions The different tendon vascularization values found in players with different roles in the team may be attributed to a response to the specific biomechanical demands posed by the different overhead throwing roles. PMID:22853746

  17. Overload cascading failure on complex networks with heterogeneous load redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yueyi; Xing, Xiaoyun; Li, Menghui; Zeng, An; Wang, Yougui

    2017-09-01

    Many real systems including the Internet, power-grid and financial networks experience rare but large overload cascading failures triggered by small initial shocks. Many models on complex networks have been developed to investigate this phenomenon. Most of these models are based on the load redistribution process and assume that the load on a failed node shifts to nearby nodes in the networks either evenly or according to the load distribution rule before the cascade. Inspired by the fact that real power-grid tends to place the excess load on the nodes with high remaining capacities, we study a heterogeneous load redistribution mechanism in a simplified sandpile model in this paper. We find that weak heterogeneity in load redistribution can effectively mitigate the cascade while strong heterogeneity in load redistribution may even enlarge the size of the final failure. With a parameter θ to control the degree of the redistribution heterogeneity, we identify a rather robust optimal θ∗ = 1. Finally, we find that θ∗ tends to shift to a larger value if the initial sand distribution is homogeneous.

  18. Overload protection: avoidance response to heavy plantar surface loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, S E; Hanna, A M; Gouw, G J

    1988-02-01

    Current footwear which are designed for use in running are examples of intentional biomechanical model integration into device design. The inadequacy of this footwear in protecting against injury is postulated to be due to fixation on inadequate models of locomotory biomechanics that do not provide for feedback control; in particular, an hypothesized plantar surface sensory-mediated feedback control system, which imparts overload protection during locomotion. A heuristic approach was used to identify the hypothesized system. A random series of loads (0 to 164 kg) was applied to the knee flexed at 90 degrees. In this testing system, plantar surface avoidance behavior was the difference between the sum of the leg weight and the load applied to the knee, and the load measured at the plantar surface; this was produced by activation of hip flexors. Significant avoidance behavior was found in all of the subjects (P less than 0.001). On all surfaces tested, including modern athletic footwear (P less than 0.001), its magnitude increased directly in relation to the load applied to the knee (P less than 0.001). There were significant differences in avoidance behavior in relation to the weight-bearing surfaces tested (P less than 0.05). With the identification of a feedback control system which would serve to moderate loading during locomotion, an explanation is provided as to why current athletic footwear do not protect and may be injurious; thus allowing the design of footwear which may be truly protective.

  19. Performance Analysis of Novel Overload Control with Threshold Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo Il Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel overload control method with hysteresis property; that is, we analyze the M/G/1/K queueing system where the service and arrival rates are varied depending on the queue-length. We use two threshold values: L1(≤L2 and L2(≤K. When the queue-length increases by an amount between L1 and L2, we apply one of the following two strategies to reduce the queue-length, either we decrease the mean service time or we decrease the arrival rate. If the queue-length exceeds L2 with one strategy, we apply the other; thus, there are two models that depend on the method that was applied first. We derive the queue-length distribution at departure and at arbitrary epochs using the embedded Markov chain method and the supplementary variable method. We investigate performance measures including the loss probability and mean waiting time using various numerical examples.

  20. In vivo cardiac role of migfilin during experimental pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubner, Bernhard Johannes; Moik, Daniel; Schuetz, Thomas; Reiner, Martin F; Voelkl, Jakob G; Streil, Katrin; Bader, Kerstin; Zhao, Lei; Scheu, Claudia; Mair, Johannes; Pachinger, Otmar; Metzler, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    Increased myocardial wall strain triggers the cardiac hypertrophic response by increasing cardiomyocyte size, reprogramming gene expression, and enhancing contractile protein synthesis. The LIM protein, migfilin, is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that was found to translocate in vitro into the nucleus in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, where it co-activates the pivotal cardiac transcription factor Csx/Nkx2.5. However, the in vivo role of migfilin in cardiac function and stress response is unclear. To define the role of migfilin in cardiac hypertrophy, we induced hypertension by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and compared cardiac morphology and function of migfilin knockout (KO) with wild-type (WT) hearts. Heart size and myocardial contractility were comparable in untreated migfilin KO and WT hearts, but migfilin-null hearts presented a reduced extent of hypertrophic remodelling in response to chronic hypertensile stress. Migfilin KO mice maintained their cardiac function for a longer time period compared with WT mice, which presented extensive fibrosis and death due to heart failure. Migfilin translocated into the nucleus of TAC-treated cardiomyocytes, and migfilin KO hearts showed reduced Akt activation during the early response to pressure overload. Our findings indicate an important role of migfilin in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy upon experimental TAC. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Altered carnitine transport in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.; Reibel, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously observed reduced carnitine levels in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for reduced myocardial carnitine content, carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats 3 weeks following surgery and perfused at 60 mm Hg aortic pressure with buffer containing various concentrations of L- 14 C-carnitine. Carnitine uptake by control and hypertrophied hearts was linear throughout 30 minutes of perfusion with 40 μM carnitine. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by 25% in hypertrophied hearts at each time point examined. The reduction in uptake by hypertrophied hearts was also evident when hearts were perfused with 100 or 200 μM carnitine. When 0.05 mM mersalyl acid was included in the buffer to inhibit the carrier-mediated component of transport, no difference in carnitine uptake was observed indicating that the transport of carnitine by diffusion was unaltered in the hypertrophied myocardium. Carrier-mediated carnitine uptake (total uptake - uptake by diffusion) was significantly reduced by approximately 40% in hypertrophied hearts at all concentrations examined. Thus, the reduction in carnitine content in the pressure-overload hypertrophied rat heart appears to be due to a reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake by the heart

  2. Fetal development and renal function in adult rats prenatally subjected to sodium overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Henriqueta D; Cabral, Edjair V; Vieira-Filho, Leucio D; Vieyra, Adalberto; Paixão, Ana D O

    2009-10-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate two factors that affect fetal development--placental oxidative stress (Ox) and plasma volume (PV)--in dams with sodium overload and (2) to correlate possible alterations in these factors with subsequent modifications in the renal function of adult offspring. Wistar dams were maintained on 0.17 M NaCl instead of water from 20 days before mating until either the twentieth pregnancy day/parturition or weaning. Colorimetric methods were used to measure Ox in maternal and offspring tissues, PV, 24-h urinary protein (U(Prot24 h)) and serum triacylglycerols (TG) and cholesterol (Chol). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated in the offspring at 90 days of age using a blood pressure transducer, a flow probe and inulin clearance to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP), renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), respectively. The number of nephrons (NN) was counted in kidney suspensions. Dams showed unchanged PV, placental Ox and fetal weight but increased U(Prot24 h) (150%, P sodium-overloaded pups showed increased U(Prot24 h) (45%, P sodium-overloaded rats showed increased U(Prot24 h) (27%, P sodium-overloaded group. We conclude that salt overload from the prenatal stage until weaning leads to alterations in lipid metabolism and in the renal function of the pups, which are additional to those alterations seen in rats only overloaded prenatally.

  3. Interactions of Aging, Overload, and Creatine Supplementation in Rat Plantaris Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Schuenke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of age-related sarcopenia by creatine supplementation has been equivocal. In this study, plantaris muscles of young (Y; 5m and aging (A; 24m Fisher 344 rats underwent four weeks of either control (C, creatine supplementation (Cr, surgical overload (O, or overload plus creatine (OCr. Creatine alone had no effect on muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA or heat shock protein (HSP70 and increased myonuclear domain (MND only in young rats. Overload increased CSA and HSP70 content in I and IIA fibers, regardless of age, and MND in IIA fibers of YO rats. CSA and MND increased in all fast fibers of YOCr, and CSA increased in I and IIA fibers of AOCr. OCR did not alter HSP70, regardless of age. MND did not change in aging rats, regardless of treatment. These data indicate creatine alone had no significant effect. Creatine with overload produced no additional hypertrophy relative to overload alone and attenuated overload-induced HSP70 expression.

  4. When more is less: An examination of the relationship between hours in telework and role overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Linda; Halinski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of telework arrangements assert that those who telework have more control over their work and family domains than their counterparts who are not permitted to work from home. Using Karasek's theory we hypothesized that the relationship between demands (hours in work per week; hours in childcare per week) and strain (work role overload; family role overload) would be moderated by the number of hours the employee spent per week teleworking (control). To determine how the number of telework hours relates to work role overload and family role overload, we follow the test for moderation and mediation using hierarchical multiple regression analysis as outlined by Frazier et al. [50] We used survey data collected from 1,806 male and female professional employees who spent at least one hour per week working from home during regular hours (i.e. teleworking). As hypothesized, the number of hours in telework per week negatively moderated the relation between work demands (total hours in paid employment per week) and work strain (work role overload). Contrary to our hypothesis, the number of hours in telework per week only partially mediated the relation between family demands (hours a week in childcare) and family role overload (strain). The findings from this study support the idea that the control offered by telework is domain specific (helps employees meet demands at work but not at home).

  5. Influence of overloads on dwell time fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarimäki, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.saarimaki@liu.se [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Moverare, Johan [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Materials Technology, SE-61283 Finspång (Sweden); Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten [Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-26

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ∼700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate.

  6. Influence of overloads on dwell time fatigue crack growth in Inconel 718

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarimäki, Jonas; Moverare, Johan; Eriksson, Robert; Johansson, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Inconel 718 is one of the most commonly used superalloys for high temperature applications in gasturbines and aeroengines and is for example used for components such as turbine discs. Turbine discs can be subjected to temperatures up to ∼700 °C towards the outer radius of the disc. During service, the discs might start to develop cracks due to fatigue and long dwell times. Additionally, temperature variations during use can lead to large thermal transients during start-up and shutdown which can lead to overload peaks in the normal dwell time cycle. In this study, tests at 550 °C with an overload prior to the start of each dwell time, have been performed. The aim of the investigation was to get a better understanding of the effects of overloads on the microstructure and crack mechanisms. The microstructure was studied using electron channelling contrast imaging (ECCI). The image analysis toolbox in Matlab was used on cross sections of the cracks to quantify: crack length, branch length, and the number of branches in each crack. It was found that the amount of crack branching increases with an increasing overload and that the branch length decreases with an increasing overload. When the higher overloads were applied, the dwell time effect was almost cancelled out. There is a strong tendency for an increased roughness of the crack path with an increasing crack growth rate

  7. Effects of intracellular iron overload on cell death and identification of potent cell death inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shenglin; Yu, Xiaonan; Ding, Haoxuan; Han, Jianan; Feng, Jie

    2018-06-11

    Iron overload causes many diseases, while the underlying etiologies of these diseases are unclear. Cell death processes including apoptosis, necroptosis, cyclophilin D-(CypD)-dependent necrosis and a recently described additional form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis, are dependent on iron or iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether the accumulation of intracellular iron itself induces ferroptosis or other forms of cell death is largely elusive. In present study, we study the role of intracellular iron overload itself-induced cell death mechanisms by using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and a membrane-permeable Ferric 8-hydroxyquinoline complex (Fe-8HQ) respectively. We show that FAC-induced intracellular iron overload causes ferroptosis. We also identify 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) inhibitor GSK2334470 as a potent ferroptosis inhibitor. Whereas, Fe-8HQ-induced intracellular iron overload causes unregulated necrosis, but partially activates PARP-1 dependent parthanatos. Interestingly, we identify many phenolic compounds as potent inhibitors of Fe-8HQ-induced cell death. In conclusion, intracellular iron overload-induced cell death form might be dependent on the intracellular iron accumulation rate, newly identified cell death inhibitors in our study that target ferroptosis and unregulated oxidative cell death represent potential therapeutic strategies against iron overload related diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging for evaluation of right-ventricular overloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, M.; Kubo, A.; Yamazaki, H.; Ohsuzu, F.; Handa, S.; Tsugu, T.; Masaki, H.; Kinoshita, F.; Hashimoto, S.

    1978-01-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of Tl-201 myocardial imaging in the detection of right-ventricular (RV) overloading. Right-ventricular visualization (RVV) after administration of Tl-201 chloride was studied on 99 patients with various heart diseases. Tracer uptake in the free wall of the RV was graded in four degrees. The degree of RVV was compared with the findings of cardiac catheterization. The comparisons indicated that the uptake increased in step with the inreases in RV systolic pressure, RV end-diastolic pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, total pulmonary vascular resistance, and stroke-work index of the right ventricle (P < 0.05--P < 0.001). Of the patients with visible RV, all but three had RV overloading, and all but three of those without RVV had normal RV systolic pressure. Myocardial images also reflect the type of RV overloading. In patients with RV pressure overloading, the septum showed a tendency to appear straight. In patients with atrial septal defect leading to RV volume overloading, the RV cavity was dilated, the LV image small, and the septum convex toward the RV cavity. These results indicate that Tl-201 myocardial imaging is a sensitive and specific method for the study of RV overloading

  9. Effect of overloading types on fatigue crack growth threshold for stainless steel SUS316

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Toshio; Sano, Hayato; Takahashi, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Effect of overloading types on the fatigue crack growth threshold of SUS316 was studied. Three types of overloading: tensile (type I), tensile+compression (type II), and tensile+compression+tensile (type III) were applied to compact tension specimens, then the fatigue tests were carried out to determine the apparent threshold stress intensity factor range Δ N K th . The results showed that the Δ N K th values increased with increasing the single tensile overload stress intensity factor K ov above the K ov > ΔK th . Additional compressive loading (type II) led to decrease in Δ N K th to the ΔK th =6MPa×m 1/2 within the all tested K ov values ranging from -45MPa×m 1/2 ≤K ov 1/2 . This is due to the fact that the compressive residual stress field at crack tip changed to the tensile stress field by the compressive loading. Furthermore, the Δ N K th values increased again by additional tensile overloading (type III) from ΔK th to the almost same Δ N K th values as that by Type I loading. This means that the almost same compressive residual stress field formed by type III overloading as the type I overloading. The experimental Δ N K th increasing behaviors were discussed by Finite Element Method (FEM). (author)

  10. Role of electrocardiographic changes in discriminating acute or chronic right ventricular pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mehmet Mustafa; Özveren, Olcay; Biteker, Murat; Şengül, Cihan; Uz, Ömer; Işılak, Zafer; Kırılmaz, Ata

    2013-06-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) and severe pulmonary stenosis (PS) are two distinct conditions accompanied by increased pressure load of the right ventricle (RV). Despite major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of RV adaptation to the increased pressure, substantial gaps in our knowledge remain unsettled. One of much less known aspect of pressure overload of RV is its impact on electrocardiographic (ECG) changes. In this study, we aimed to study whether acute and chronic RV overload are accompanied by different ECG patterns. Thirty-eight patients with PE underwent ECG monitoring were compared with 20 matched patients with PS in this observational retrospective study. ECG abnormalities suggestive of RV overload were recorded and analyzed in both groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to define the predictors of chronic RV overload. Among the ECG changes studied, premature atrial contraction (OR-12.2, 95% CI, 1.3-107, p=0.008), right axis deviation (OR-20.4, 95% CI 4.2-98, poverload. Our data indicate that the ECG changes that attributed to the acute RV pressure loading states may be more prevalent in chronic RV overload as compared with acute RV overload.

  11. Pharmacokinetics study of Zr-89-labeled melanin nanoparticle in iron-overload mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengjun; Yue, Yuanyuan; Pan, Donghui; Yang, Runlin; Xu, Yuping; Wang, Lizhen; Yan, Junjie; Li, Xiaotian; Yang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Melanin, a natural biological pigment present in many organisms, has been found to exhibit multiple functions. An important property of melanin is its ability to chelate metal ions strongly, which might be developed as an iron chelator for iron overload therapy. Herein, we prepared the ultrasmall water-soluble melanin nanoparticle (MP) and firstly evaluate the pharmacokinetics of MP in iron-overload mice to provide scientific basis for treating iron-overload. To study the circulation time and biodistribution, MP was labeled with 89 Zr, a long half-life (78.4 h) positron-emitting metal which is suited for the labeling of nanoparticles and large bioactive molecule. MP was chelated with 89 Zr directly at pH 5, resulting in non-decay-corrected yield of 89.6% and a radiochemical purity of more than 98%. The specific activity was at least190 MBq/μmol. The 89 Zr-MP was stable in human plasma and PBS for at least 48 h. The half-life of 89 Zr-MP was about 15.70 ± 1.74 h in iron-overload mice. Biodistribution studies and MicroPET imaging showed that 89 Zr-MP mainly accumulated in liver and spleen, which are the target organ of iron-overload. The results indicate that the melanin nanoparticle is promising for further iron overload therapy.

  12. Differential requirement for satellite cells during overload-induced muscle hypertrophy in growing versus mature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; White, Sarah H; Wen, Yuan; Ho, Angel; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2017-07-10

    Pax7+ satellite cells are required for skeletal muscle fiber growth during post-natal development in mice. Satellite cell-mediated myonuclear accretion also appears to persist into early adulthood. Given the important role of satellite cells during muscle development, we hypothesized that the necessity of satellite cells for adaptation to an imposed hypertrophic stimulus depends on maturational age. Pax7 CreER -R26R DTA mice were treated for 5 days with vehicle (satellite cell-replete, SC+) or tamoxifen (satellite cell-depleted, SC-) at 2 months (young) and 4 months (mature) of age. Following a 2-week washout, mice were subjected to sham surgery or 10 day synergist ablation overload of the plantaris (n = 6-9 per group). The surgical approach minimized regeneration, de novo fiber formation, and fiber splitting while promoting muscle fiber growth. Satellite cell density (Pax7+ cells/fiber), embryonic myosin heavy chain expression (eMyHC), and muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) were evaluated via immunohistochemistry. Myonuclei (myonuclei/100 mm) were counted on isolated single muscle fibers. Tamoxifen treatment depleted satellite cells by ≥90% and prevented myonuclear accretion with overload in young and mature mice (p overload. Average muscle fiber CSA increased ~20% in young SC+ (p = 0.07), mature SC+ (p overload (p overload-induced hypertrophy is dependent on maturational age, and global responses to overload differ in young versus mature mice.

  13. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside abrogates oxidative stress-induced damage in cardiac iron overload condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Puukila

    Full Text Available Cardiac iron overload is directly associated with cardiac dysfunction and can ultimately lead to heart failure. This study examined the effect of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, a component of flaxseed, on iron overload induced cardiac damage by evaluating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated with 50 μ5M iron for 24 hours and/or a 24 hour pre-treatment of 500 μ M SDG. Cardiac iron overload resulted in increased oxidative stress and gene expression of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10 and interferon γ, as well as matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9. Increased apoptosis was evident by increased active caspase 3/7 activity and increased protein expression of Forkhead box O3a, caspase 3 and Bax. Cardiac iron overload also resulted in increased protein expression of p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased expression of AMP-activated protein kinase. Pre-treatment with SDG abrogated the iron-induced increases in oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as the increased p70S6 Kinase 1 and decreased AMP-activated protein kinase expression. The decrease in superoxide dismutase activity by iron treatment was prevented by pre-treatment with SDG in the presence of iron. Based on these findings we conclude that SDG was cytoprotective in an in vitro model of iron overload induced redox-inflammatory damage, suggesting a novel potential role for SDG in cardiac iron overload.

  14. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  15. On Suspended matter grain size in Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, Ekaterina; Sivkov, Vadim; Zubarevich, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Suspended matter grain size data were gathered during the 25th research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" cruise (1991, September-October). Initial quantitative data were obtained with a use of the Coulter counter and subsequently modified into volume concentrations (mm3/l) for size intervals. More than 80 samples from 15 stations were analyzed (depth range 0-355 m). The main goal of research was to illustrate the spatial variability of suspended matter concentration and dispersion in Baltic Sea. The mutual feature of suspended matter grain size distribution is the logical rise of particle number along with descending of particle's size. Vertical variability of grain size distribution was defined by Baltic Sea hydrological structure, including upper mixed layer - from the surface to the thermocline - with 35 m thick, cold intermediate layer - from the thermocline to the halocline- and bottom layer, which lied under the halocline. Upper layer showed a rise in total suspended matter concentration (up to 0.6 mm3/l), while cold intermediate level consisted of far more clear water (up to 0.1 mm3/l). Such a difference is caused by the thermocline boarding role. Meanwhile, deep bottom water experienced surges in suspended matter concentration owing to the nepheloid layer presence and "liquid bottom" effect. Coastal waters appeared to have the highest amount of particles (up to 5.0 mm3/l). Suspended matter grain size distribution in the upper mixed layer revealed a peak of concentration at 7 μ, which can be due to autumn plankton bloom. Another feature in suspended matter grain size distribution appeared at the deep layer below halocline, where both O2 and H2S were observed and red/ox barrier is. The simultaneous presence of Fe and Mn (in solutions below red/ox barrier) and O2 leads to precipitation of oxyhydrates Fe and Mn and grain size distribution graph peaking at 4.5 μ.

  16. Females Are Protected From Iron-Overload Cardiomyopathy Independent of Iron Metabolism: Key Role of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhash K; Patel, Vaibhav B; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Wang; DesAulniers, Jessica; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2017-01-23

    Sex-related differences in cardiac function and iron metabolism exist in humans and experimental animals. Male patients and preclinical animal models are more susceptible to cardiomyopathies and heart failure. However, whether similar differences are seen in iron-overload cardiomyopathy is poorly understood. Male and female wild-type and hemojuvelin-null mice were injected and fed with a high-iron diet, respectively, to develop secondary iron overload and genetic hemochromatosis. Female mice were completely protected from iron-overload cardiomyopathy, whereas iron overload resulted in marked diastolic dysfunction in male iron-overloaded mice based on echocardiographic and invasive pressure-volume analyses. Female mice demonstrated a marked suppression of iron-mediated oxidative stress and a lack of myocardial fibrosis despite an equivalent degree of myocardial iron deposition. Ovariectomized female mice with iron overload exhibited essential pathophysiological features of iron-overload cardiomyopathy showing distinct diastolic and systolic dysfunction, severe myocardial fibrosis, increased myocardial oxidative stress, and increased expression of cardiac disease markers. Ovariectomy prevented iron-induced upregulation of ferritin, decreased myocardial SERCA2a levels, and increased NCX1 levels. 17β-Estradiol therapy rescued the iron-overload cardiomyopathy in male wild-type mice. The responses in wild-type and hemojuvelin-null female mice were remarkably similar, highlighting a conserved mechanism of sex-dependent protection from iron-overload-mediated cardiac injury. Male and female mice respond differently to iron-overload-mediated effects on heart structure and function, and females are markedly protected from iron-overload cardiomyopathy. Ovariectomy in female mice exacerbated iron-induced myocardial injury and precipitated severe cardiac dysfunction during iron-overload conditions, whereas 17β-estradiol therapy was protective in male iron-overloaded mice.

  17. Numerical analysis of the motion of a suspended charged particle in multi-phase flow. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-khalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The motion of a suspended charged particle in a two component viscous fluid through two infinite parallel plates was studied. The motion takes place under constant magnetic field normal to the plane of the motion. The effect of some parameters as particle volume, fluid density, viscosity of the fluid, and the magnetic force used on the motion were investigated. The particle is assumed moving initially from the midpoint of the channel with a velocity equal to the velocity of the fluid. The trajectory of solid spherical suspended charged particle is calculated by integrating the equations of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The differential equations of motion were numerically solved by Runge-Kutta method. Some conclusions about the path lines were deduced. 5 figs.

  18. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  19. Magnesium-rich minerals in sediment and suspended particulates of South Florida water bodies: implications for turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, W G; Fisher, M M; Cao, X; Osborne, T; Ellis, L

    2007-01-01

    Fine sediments in shallow water bodies such as Lake Okeechobee are prone to resuspension. Predominantly inorganic "mud" sediment that covers approximately 670 km2 of the lake has been recognized as a persistent source of turbidity. The objective of this study was to determine if mineral components of sediments in Lake Okeechobee and water conveyances of the northern Everglades also occur as suspended sediment and hence constitute a potential abiotic contributor to turbidity. Sediment samples were collected from nine stations within the lake and eight locations north of Water Conservation Area 2A in the Everglades. Water samples were also collected at selected locations. The silt and clay mineralogy of sediment and suspended particles was determined using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray elemental microanalysis, and high-resolution transmission-electron microscopy. Clay fractions of the lake sediment contained the Mg silicate minerals sepiolite and palygorskite, along with smectite, dolomite, calcite, and kaolinite. Sediment silt fractions were dominated by carbonates and/or quartz, with smaller amounts of Ca phosphates and sepiolite. Mineralogy of the mud sediment was similar to that reported for geologic phosphate deposits. This suggests that the mud sediment might have accumulated by stream transport of minerals from these deposits. Suspended solids and mud-sediment mineralogy were similar, except that smectite was more abundant in suspended solids. Everglade samples also contained Mg-rich minerals. The small size, low density, and fibrous or platy nature of the prevalent mud sediment minerals make them an abiotic, hydrodynamically sensitive source of persistent turbidity in a shallow lake. Mitigation efforts focused exclusively on P-induced biogeochemical processes do not address the origin or effects of these minerals. Ecological management issues such as turbidity control, P retention, geologic P input

  20. Does information overload prevent chronic patients from reading self-management educational materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Feng; Kuo, Kuang-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Self-care management is becoming an important part of care for chronic patients. However, various kinds of self-management educational materials which government or healthcare institutions provide for patients may not achieve the expected outcome. One of the critical reasons affecting patients' use intention could be patients' perceived information overload regarding the self-management educational materials. This study proposed an extended model of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which incorporated perceived information overload, to explore if information overload will prevent chronic patients from reading educational materials for self-care management. The independent variables are attitude, subject norm, perceived behavior control and perceived information overload while the dependent variable is behavior intention to use the self-management educational materials. Perceived information overload is also referred to as an antecedent variable which may has impacts on attitude and perceived behavior control. The cross-sectional study interviewed newly diagnosed chronic patients with coronary artery disease, who are the potential users of the self-management educational materials, in a medical center in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the basic information distribution of the respondents, and structural equation modeling to study the reliability and validity for testing hypotheses. A total of 110 respondents were enrolled in this study and successful interview data were collected from 106 respondents. The result indicates that the patients' perceived information overload of self-management educational materials was validated to have impacts on attitude and perceived behavioral control constructs of the TPB as well as contributing a direct impact on patients' intentions to use self-management educational materials. Besides, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control constructs were validated to have significant impacts on

  1. Stress, work overload, burnout, and satisfaction among paramedics in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirel, Nurit; Goldwag, Rachel; Feigenberg, Zvi; Abadi, David; Halpern, Pinchas

    2008-01-01

    The number of paramedics in Israel is increasing. Despite this growth and important role, the emergency medical organizations lack information about the characteristics of their work. The objective of this study was to examine the characteristics of the paramedics' work, the quality of their working lives, the factors that keep them in the profession, or conversely, draw them away from it. Cross-sectional study conducted through telephone interviews of a random sample of 50% of the graduates of paramedic courses in Israel (excluding conscripted soldiers). The factors that attract paramedics to the profession have much to do with the essence of the job-rescuing and saving-and a love of what it involves, as well as interest and variety. Pressures at work result from having to cope with a lack of administrative support, paperwork, long hours, imbalance between work and family life, and salary. They do not come from having to cope with responsibility, the pressure of working under uncertain conditions, and the sudden transition from calm situations to emergencies. Dissatisfaction at work is caused by burnout, work overload, and poor health. Physical and mental health that impedes their ability to work is related to a sense of burnout and the intention to change professions. The findings about the relationships between health, job satisfaction, and burnout, coupled with the fact that within a decade, half of the currently employed paramedics will reach an age at which it is hard for them to perform their job, lead to the conclusion that there is a need to reconsider the optimum length of service in the profession. There also is a need to form organizational arrangements to change the work procedures of aging paramedics.

  2. Electrical short circuit and current overload tests on aircraft wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The findings of electrical short circuit and current overload tests performed on commercial aircraft wiring are presented. A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to evaluate circuit breaker response to overcurrent and to determine if the wire showed any visible signs of thermal degradation due to overcurrent. Three types of wire used in commercial aircraft were evaluated: MIL-W-22759/34 (150 C rated), MIL-W-81381/12 (200 C rated), and BMS 1360 (260 C rated). A second series of tests evaluated circuit breaker response to short circuits and ticking faults. These tests were also meant to determine if the three test wires behaved differently under these conditions and if a short circuit or ticking fault could start a fire. It is concluded that circuit breakers provided reliable overcurrent protection. Circuit breakers may not protect wire from ticking faults but can protect wire from direct shorts. These tests indicated that the appearance of a wire subjected to a current that totally degrades the insulation looks identical to a wire subjected to a fire; however the 'fire exposed' conductor was more brittle than the conductor degraded by overcurrent. Preliminary testing indicates that direct short circuits are not likely to start a fire. Preliminary testing indicated that direct short circuits do not erode insulation and conductor to the extent that ticking faults did. Circuit breakers may not safeguard against the ignition of flammable materials by ticking faults. The flammability of materials near ticking faults is far more important than the rating of the wire insulation material.

  3. The attenuating effect of role overload on relationships linking self-efficacy and goal level to work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven P; Jones, Eli; Leigh, Thomas W

    2005-09-01

    The reported research examines the moderating effects of role overload on the antecedents and consequences of self-efficacy and personal goal level in a longitudinal study conducted in an industrial selling context. The results indicate that role overload moderates the antecedent effect of perceived organizational resources on self-efficacy beliefs. They also show that role overload moderates the direct effects of both self-efficacy and goal level on performance, such that these relationships are positive when role overload is low but not significant when role overload is high. Further, the results reveal a pattern of moderated mediation, in which goal level mediates the indirect effect of self-efficacy on performance when role overload is low but not when it is high. Implications for theory and managerial practice are discussed. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Quantification of Suspended Sediment Load by Double Correlation in the Watershed of Chellif (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchelkia Hamid

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sediment transport in rivers in Algeria is very high. However, it is poorly quantified in some wadis because of the absence and the shortage of data especially the concentration of fine particles and also the unavailability of gauging stations. To fill this gap, a technique for estimating sediment yield, based on data recorded at the gauging station has been developed. The estimation of suspended sediment yield was conducted by a statistical analysis with double correlation on average daily flow and solid concentrations. The results obtained by applying this model to the watershed Chellif are very encouraging because the correlation coefficients of the found models are between 61% and 91% for the first correlation and between 86% and 97% for the second correlation. The estimated quantity of suspended sediment load is between 2.35 and 4.12 million tonnes per year, it appears important; This is due to the vulnerability of the Chellif basin facing erosion, the importance of its area and the importance of fluid flows in wadi Cheliff and its torrential regime. Mention here some of the results and their significance to the study.

  5. Use of biofilters and suspended-growth reactors to treat VOC's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, A.B.; Loehr, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The greater limits placed on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by the Clean Air Act Amendments have stimulated evaluation of various VOC treatment methods. Two applicable gas phase treatment technologies are biofiltration and suspended growth reactors. Biofiltration removes contaminants from gas streams that are passed through a bed of biologically active solids. An aerobic suspended-growth reactor (SGR) removes VOCs by biologically treating contaminated air bubbled through an aqueous suspension of active microorganisms. This research compared the performance of a typical compost biofilter to a SGR for the removal of a common VOC (toluene) from gas streams. The objective was to evaluate the impact of mass loading on process performance. Major performance parameters investigated were (1) mass emitted and elimination capacity, (2) off-gas concentrations exiting each type of reactor for various mass loadings, and (3) removal efficiencies obtained by each type of reactor. The results indicated that SGRs can effectively treat gases containing VOCs. For mass loadings ranging from 5 to 30 mg/l-h, the biofilters and SGRs achieved similar VOC removals, in the range of 96--99.7%. Drying of the biofilter medium occurred a high mass loadings. In the SGRs, at mass loadings greater than 17 mg/l-h, process performance decreased when an unknown colored substance was present.

  6. Biogas production from organic wastes in suspended cell cultures and in biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenonov, I.; Chorukova, E.; Mamatarkova, V.; Nikolov, L.

    2010-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of two biogas production bioprocess systems are presented. The systems submitted to comparison are based on the suspended cells cultures and the biofilm formed on solid inert support. A comprehensive research concept is formulated and discussed. It includes the main considerations regarding the choice of substrate, bioagent as mixed microbial society, type of bioreactors, regimes of functioning, analytical determinations and method of comparison. The main requirements for efficient experimental activity in comparative investigations are formulated. Their satisfaction can grant correctness of the experimental design and data acquisition. On this basis the key parameter of comparison of the two systems is defined as the specific productivity of the bioprocess systems. Under these conditions series of preliminary experiments are carried out for testing the readiness of experimental set ups for long time stable functioning and monitoring devices capabilities to maintain the bioprocess parameters at the determined intervals. These tests grant continuous incessant experimentation with the investigated bioprocess systems. The results obtained show that biofilm bioprocess systems possess up to two and half time higher specific productivity in comparison with the bioprocess systems with the suspended cells. Some visions about the future developments of comparative research on the influence of additional parameters like the mixer rotation steed, organic loads, and higher values of dilution rates are outlined.

  7. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths...... of 313 nm and 405 nm were optimized and compared in terms of structural stability, control of suspended layer thickness and resolution limits. A novel fabrication process combining the two photoresists SU-8 and mr-DWL with two UV exposures at 365 nm and 405 nm respectively provided a wider processing...... window for definition of well-defined suspended microstructures with lateral dimensions down to 5 μmwhen compared to 313 nm or 365 nm UV photolithography processes....

  8. Analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime at the Slovak section of Danube. It is concluded and recommended: Suspended load transport at the Slovak section of Danube decreases in the downstream directions - annual averages: Utilize relation of the Water Research Institute in Medvedov, the relation of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute is probably slightly underestimated; Distribution of suspended load concentration in the cross-section is influenced mainly with local hydraulic and morphological conditions; Measured flow velocity in the range 0.6 - 2.65 m/sec -1 , influenced with water level slope; Silt particles the most numerous, less numerous sandy and clayey particles; Bratislava 3.54 mil. tonnes, Medvedov 2.22 mil. tonnes, and Komarno 1.96 mil. tonnes; Recommendation to measure actual volume of the Cunovo reservoir, in order to validate sediment transport balance; Recommendation to continue in a complex monitoring programme of sediment transport

  9. Clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with refractory chronic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chong Gao, Li Li, Baoan Chen, Huihui Song, Jian Cheng, Xiaoping Zhang, Yunyu SunDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Key Department of Jiangsu Medicine, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of transfusion-associated iron overload in patients with chronic refractory anemia.Methods: Clinical manifestations, main organ function, results of computed tomography (CT, endocrine evaluation, and serum ferritin levels were analyzed retrospectively in 13 patients who were transfusion-dependent for more than 1 year (receiving >50 units of red blood cells to determine the degree of iron overload and efficacy of iron-chelating therapy.Results: Serum ferritin levels increased to 1,830–5,740 ng/mL in all patients. Ten patients had abnormal liver function. The CT Hounsfield units in the liver increased significantly in eleven patients, and were proportional to their serum ferritin levels. Skin pigmentation, liver dysfunction, and endocrine dysfunction were observed in nine patients with serum ferritin >3,500 ng/mL, eight of whom have since died. Interestingly, serum ferritin levels did not decrease significantly in nine transfusion-dependent patients who had received 15–60 days of iron-chelating therapy.Conclusion: Transfusion-dependent patients may progress to secondary iron overload with organ impairment, which may be fatal in those who are heavily iron-overloaded. The CT Hounsfield unit is a sensitive indicator of iron overload in the liver. Iron chelation therapy should be initiated when serum ferritin is >1,000 ng/mL and continued until it is <1,000 ng/mL in transfusional iron-overloaded patients.Keywords: anemia, aplastic, iron overload, myelodysplastic syndromes

  10. The Family in Care for the Elderly: Managing the Overload and Coping with Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisete dos Santos Mendes Mónico

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family is considered the main support of the elderly in a situation of dependency. Caregiving often results in overloading, leading to diverse problems. Aim: To evaluate the self-perception of the family caregiver’s overload and the strategies used to provide informal care to the dependent elderly considering their level of dependence. Method: The sample consisted of 21 children, 16 spouses, and nine other relatives of elderly dependents who responded to the Caregiver’s Overload Scale (Sequeira, 2007, the Portuguese version of Caregivers’ Assessment Management Index (CAMI, Nolan, Keady, & Grant, 1995 and the Barthel Index (Mahoney & Barthel, 1965. Results: The Barthel Index showed 34.8% of the elderly as severely dependent and 37.0% as totally dependent. The care most provided respected to medication, hygiene, food, and monitoring. Above 56.5% of the caregivers had an intense overload, both at the objective (impact of care and interpersonal relationship and subjective (F3-Expectations regarding care and F4-Perceived self-efficacy levels. The main reason for maintaining caregivers was family/personal obligation (95.7%. Caregivers reasonably assessed the effectiveness of their strategies in dealing with their dependent elderly (CAMI; M = 101.0, SD = 15.0. There was a negative relationship between the perception of the caregiver’s overload and the age and health status of the elderly, as well as between the number of strategies used by the caregiver to overcome difficulties and the self-perception of the overload. Conclusion: The multiplicity of daily tasks performed in support of a family member in a situation of severe dependence translates into situations of intense overload, negatively impacting on care, interpersonal relationship, expectations regarding caring, and perception of self-efficacy of care.

  11. Both cardiomyocyte and endothelial cell Nox4 mediate protection against hemodynamic overload-induced remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Mongue-Din, Heloise; Martin, Daniel; Catibog, Norman; Smyrnias, Ioannis; Zhang, Xiaohong; Yu, Bin; Wang, Minshu; Brandes, Ralf P; Schröder, Katrin; Shah, Ajay M

    2018-03-01

    NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) is an important reactive oxygen species (ROS) source that is upregulated in the haemodynamically overloaded heart. Our previous studies using global Nox4 knockout (Nox4KO) mice demonstrated a protective role of Nox4 during chronic abdominal aortic banding, involving a paracrine enhancement of myocardial capillary density. However, other authors who studied cardiac-specific Nox4KO mice reported detrimental effects of Nox4 in response to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). It has been speculated that these divergent results are due to cell-specific actions of Nox4 (i.e. cardiomyocyte Nox4 detrimental but endothelial Nox4 beneficial) and/or differences in the model of pressure overload (i.e. abdominal banding vs. TAC). This study aimed to (i) investigate whether the effects of Nox4 on pressure overload-induced cardiac remodelling vary according to the pressure overload model and (ii) compare the roles of cardiomyocyte vs. endothelial cell Nox4. Global Nox4KO mice subjected to TAC developed worse cardiac remodelling and contractile dysfunction than wild-type littermates, consistent with our previous results with abdominal aortic banding. Next, we generated inducible cardiomyocyte-specific Nox4 KO mice (Cardio-Nox4KO) and endothelial-specific Nox4 KO mice (Endo-Nox4KO) and studied their responses to pressure overload. Both Cardio-Nox4KO and Endo-Nox4KO developed worse pressure overload-induced cardiac remodelling and dysfunction than wild-type littermates, associated with significant decrease in protein levels of HIF1α and VEGF and impairment of myocardial capillarization. Cardiomyocyte as well as endothelial cell Nox4 contributes to protection against chronic hemodynamic overload-induced cardiac remodelling, at least in part through common effects on myocardial capillary density. © The Author 2017 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  12. Nanocrystalline solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleiter, H.

    1991-01-01

    Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)

  13. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  14. Quantification of Surface Suspended Sediments along a River Dominated Coast with NOAA AVHRR and SeaWiFS Measurements: Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S. W.; Walker, N. D.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to quantify suspended sediment concentrations accurately over both time and space using satellite data has been a goal of many environmental researchers over the past few decades This study utilizes data acquired by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Orbview-2 Sea-viewing wide field-of-view (SeaWiFS) ocean colour sensor, coupled with field measurements to develop statistical models for the estimation of near-surface suspended sediment and suspended solids "Ground truth" water samples were obtained via helicopter, small boat and automatic water sampler within a few hours of satellite overpasses The NOAA AVHRR atmospheric correction was modified for the high levels of turbidity along the Louisiana coast. Models were developed based on the field measurements and reflectance/radiance measurements in the visible and near infrared Channels of NOAA-14 and Orbview-2 SeaWiFS. The best models for predicting surface suspended sediment concentrations were obtained with a NOAA AVHRR Channel 1 (580-680nm) cubic model, Channel 2 (725-1100 nm) linear mod$ and SeaWiFs Channel 6 (660-68Onm) power modeL The suspended sediment models developed using SeaWiFS Channel 5 (545-565 nm) were inferior, a result that we attribute mainly to the atmospheric correction technique, the shallow depth of the water samples and absorption effects from non-sediment water constituents.

  15. Evaluating inhibition conditions in high-solids anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Malagutti, Luca; Fragali, Emilio; Ruboni, Gabriella; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    High-solids anaerobic digestion (HSAD) processes, when applied to different types of organic fractions of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), may easily be subjected to inhibition due to organic overloading. In this study, a new approach for predicting these phenomena was proposed based on the estimation of the putrescibility (oxygen consumption in 20 h biodegradation, OD(20)) of the organic mixtures undergoing the HSAD process. Different wastes exhibiting different putrescibility were subjected to lab-scale batch-HSAD. Measuring the organic loading (OL) as volatile solids (VS) was found unsuitable for predicting overload inhibition, because similar VS contents corresponded to both inhibited and successful trials. Instead, the OL calculated as OD(20) was a very good indicator of the inhibiting conditions (inhibition started for OD(20)>17-18 g O(2)kg(-1)). This new method of predicting inhibition in the HSAD process of diverse OFMSW may be useful for developing a correct approach to the technology in very different contexts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Colorimetry Technique for Scalable Characterization of Suspended Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; Steeneken, Peter G; Centeno, Alba; Zurutuza, Amaia; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houri, Samer

    2016-11-09

    Previous statistical studies on the mechanical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) suspended graphene membranes have been performed by means of measuring individual devices or with techniques that affect the material. Here, we present a colorimetry technique as a parallel, noninvasive, and affordable way of characterizing suspended graphene devices. We exploit Newton's rings interference patterns to study the deformation of a double-layer graphene drum 13.2 μm in diameter when a pressure step is applied. By studying the time evolution of the deformation, we find that filling the drum cavity with air is 2-5 times slower than when it is purged.

  17. Optical fiber end-facet polymer suspended-mirror devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A. Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P. K. A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel optical fiber device based on a polymer suspended mirror on the end facet of an optical fiber. With an own-developed optical 3D micro-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-mirror devices (SMDs) were successfully fabricated on the top of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated SU- 8 SMDs were measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The proposed technology paves a way towards 3D microengineering of the small end-facet of optical fibers to develop novel fiber-optic sensors.

  18. Motion of a suspended charged particle in a NON-Newtonian fluid. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The path lines of a solid spherical charged particle suspended in a non-newton electrical conducting viscous fluid through two infinite parallel plates in the presence of a constant magnetic field normal to the plane of particle motion were determined. The effect of some parameters such as particle volume, fluid density, fluid viscosity, and the use magnetic field strength on these path lines were determined. The present solution requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The differential equations of motion were numerically solved by Runge-Kutta method. Some conclusions about width, maximum height and number of collisions with upper and lower plates were deduced. 4 figs.

  19. Influence of near-bottom re-suspended sediment on benthic light availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Troels Møller; Gallegos, Charles L.; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2012-01-01

    Increased light attenuation in the water column is a common consequence of the increased organic loading that accompanies anthropogenic eutrophication in coastal systems. Frequently, the best water quality correlate of the light attenuation coefficient is the total suspended solids, even in systems......-bottomlight attenuation using an array of in situ light sensors with very close spacing near the sediment–water interface and a radiative transfer (RT) modeling with the software “Hydrolight”. We found that the light attenuation coefficient over 4.5 cm just above the bottom exceeded the attenuation found higher...... in the water column by a factor ranging from 1.6 to >30. RT modeling indicated that light received at the bottom could be overestimated by a factor 4 or more by extrapolating measurements not taking the near-bottomlight attenuation into account. The results may help explain the wide range of seagrass light...

  20. Iron overload promotes erythroid apoptosis through regulating HIF-1a/ROS signaling pathway in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing-Qing; Zhao, You-Shan; Guo, Juan; Zhao, Si-da; Song, Lu-Xi; Fei, Cheng-Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Xiao; Chang, Chun-Kang

    2017-07-01

    Erythroid apoptosis increases significantly in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with iron overload, but the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. In this study, we aim to explore the effect of HIF-1a/ROS on erythroid apoptosis in MDS patients with iron overload. We found that iron overload injured cellular functions through up-regulating ROS levels in MDS/AML cells, including inhibited cell viability, increased cell apoptosis and blocked cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Interestingly, overexpression of hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a), which was under-expressed in iron overload models, reduced ROS levels and attenuated cell damage caused by iron overload in MDS/AML cells. And gene knockdown of HIF-1a got the similar results as iron overload in MDS/AML cells. Furthermore, iron overload caused high erythroid apoptosis was closely related with ROS in MDS patients. Importantly, the HIF-1a protein levels of erythrocytes elevated obviously after incubation with desferrioxamine (DFO) from MDS patients with iron overload, accompanied by ROS levels inhibited and erythroid apoptosis reduced. Taken together, our findings determine that the HIF-1a/ROS signaling pathway plays a key role in promoting erythroid apoptosis in MDS patients with iron overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of the origin of suspended matter and sediments in the Elbe estuary using natural tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoer, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The clay mineral composition, the concentrations of carbonates, the proportions of carbon and oxygen isotopes in carbonates and organic matter, as well as the concentrations of different nonanthropogenic metals were used to determine the origin of different grain size fractions of sediments and suspended matter in the Elbe estuary. Analysis of the smectite/kaolinite proportion revealed that solid material · 2 μm from the North Sea is transported up the river, about 40 km beyond the most upstream position of the salt wedge. In the 2-20 μm fraction, the 16 O/ 18 O ratio in carbonates and the kaolinite/chlorite proportion demonstrate a transport of North Sea material between 40 and 20 km upstream of the marine water limit. The transport behavior of the 20-63 μm grain size fraction could be determined by the hafnium concentration, representative for the heavy mineral zircon. In this case, the transport distance beyond the salt wedge was up to 20 km. No information was available on the origin of the fine organic matter, whereas the coarser fractions were derived primarily from debris of salt marsh vegetation. The results demonstrate that in the Elbe estuary mixing between marine and fluvial solid material occurs upstream of the salt wedge and is significantly responsible for the observed decrease in the concentration of various pollutants in sediments and suspended matter along the estuary. The cause of the upstream particle transport is probably a scour lag mechanism based on asymmetries of the flood- and ebb-tide current distribution, especially their differing maximum velocities

  2. Mitochondrial Ca2+ overload underlies Abeta oligomers neurotoxicity providing an unexpected mechanism of neuroprotection by NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Valero, Ruth A; Rodríguez-Crespo, Ignacio; Villalobos, Carlos; Núñez, Lucía

    2008-07-23

    Dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis may underlie amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) toxicity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) but the mechanism is unknown. In search for this mechanism we found that Abeta(1-42) oligomers, the assembly state correlating best with cognitive decline in AD, but not Abeta fibrils, induce a massive entry of Ca(2+) in neurons and promote mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload as shown by bioluminescence imaging of targeted aequorin in individual neurons. Abeta oligomers induce also mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release, apoptosis and cell death. Mitochondrial depolarization prevents mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload, cytochrome c release and cell death. In addition, we found that a series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including salicylate, sulindac sulfide, indomethacin, ibuprofen and R-flurbiprofen depolarize mitochondria and inhibit mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload, cytochrome c release and cell death induced by Abeta oligomers. Our results indicate that i) mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload underlies the neurotoxicity induced by Abeta oligomers and ii) inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload provides a novel mechanism of neuroprotection by NSAIDs against Abeta oligomers and AD.

  3. AMPKγ3 is dispensable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Björnholm, Marie; Egan, Brendan; Nader, Gustavo A; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-03-15

    Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth involve a balance between the activity of serine/threonine protein kinases, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The contribution of different AMPK subunits to the regulation of cell growth size remains inadequately characterized. Using AMPKγ3 mutant-overexpressing transgenic Tg-Prkag3(225Q) and AMPKγ3-knockout (Prkag3(-/-)) mice, we investigated the requirement for the AMPKγ3 isoform in functional overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Although the genetic disruption of the γ3 isoform did not impair muscle growth, control sham-operated AMPKγ3-transgenic mice displayed heavier plantaris muscles in response to overload hypertrophy and underwent smaller mass gain and lower Igf1 expression compared with wild-type littermates. The mTOR signaling pathway was upregulated with functional overload but unchanged between genetically modified animals and wild-type littermates. Differences in AMPK-related signaling pathways between transgenic, knockout, and wild-type mice did not impact muscle hypertrophy. Glycogen content was increased following overload in wild-type mice. In conclusion, our functional, transcriptional, and signaling data provide evidence against the involvement of the AMPKγ3 isoform in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Thus, the AMPKγ3 isoform is dispensable for functional overload-induced muscle growth. Mechanical loading can override signaling pathways that act as negative effectors of mTOR signaling and consequently promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Heat shock transcription factor 1-deficiency attenuates overloading-associated hypertrophy of mouse soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Sono; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Ikuta, Akihiro; Suzuki, Miho; Ohira, Tomotaka; Egawa, Tatsuro; Nakai, Akira; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Beppu, Moroe; Goto, Katsumasa

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli, such as mechanical stress and overloading, induce stress response, which is mediated by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), and up-regulate heat shock proteins (HSPs) in mammalian skeletal muscles. Therefore, HSF1-associated stress response may play a key role in loading-associated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of HSF1-deficiency on skeletal muscle hypertrophy caused by overloading. Functional overloading on the left soleus was performed by cutting the distal tendons of gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles for 4 weeks. The right muscle served as the control. Soleus muscles from both hindlimbs were dissected 2 and 4 weeks after the operation. Hypertrophy of soleus muscle in HSF1-null mice was partially inhibited, compared with that in wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. Absence of HSF1 partially attenuated the increase of muscle wet weight and fiber cross-sectional area of overloaded soleus muscle. Population of Pax7-positive muscle satellite cells in HSF1-null mice was significantly less than that in wild-type mice following 2 weeks of overloading (pmuscle hypertrophy might be attributed to the greater and prolonged enhancement of IL-6 expression. HSF1 and/or HSF1-mediated stress response may, in part, play a key role in loading-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  5. Mitochondrial Ca2+ overload underlies Abeta oligomers neurotoxicity providing an unexpected mechanism of neuroprotection by NSAIDs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sanz-Blasco

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis may underlie amyloid beta peptide (Abeta toxicity in Alzheimer's Disease (AD but the mechanism is unknown. In search for this mechanism we found that Abeta(1-42 oligomers, the assembly state correlating best with cognitive decline in AD, but not Abeta fibrils, induce a massive entry of Ca(2+ in neurons and promote mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload as shown by bioluminescence imaging of targeted aequorin in individual neurons. Abeta oligomers induce also mitochondrial permeability transition, cytochrome c release, apoptosis and cell death. Mitochondrial depolarization prevents mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload, cytochrome c release and cell death. In addition, we found that a series of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs including salicylate, sulindac sulfide, indomethacin, ibuprofen and R-flurbiprofen depolarize mitochondria and inhibit mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload, cytochrome c release and cell death induced by Abeta oligomers. Our results indicate that i mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload underlies the neurotoxicity induced by Abeta oligomers and ii inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+ overload provides a novel mechanism of neuroprotection by NSAIDs against Abeta oligomers and AD.

  6. A study on fatigue crack growth behavior subjected to a single tensile overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Liaw, P.K.; Choo, H.; Rogge, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and electric potential experiments were carried out to investigate the growth behavior of a fatigue crack subjected to a single tensile overload. The specific objectives were to (i) probe the crack tip deformation and fracture behaviors under applied loads; (ii) examine the overload-induced transient crack growth micromechanism; (iii) validate the effective stress intensity factor range based on the crack closure approach as the fatigue crack tip driving force; and (iv) establish a quantitative relationship between the crack tip driving force and crack growth behavior. Immediately after a single tensile overload was introduced and then unloaded, the crack tip became blunt and enlarged compressive residual stresses in both magnitude and zone size were observed around the crack tip. The results show that the combined contributions of the overload-induced enlarged compressive residual stresses and crack tip blunting with secondary cracks are responsible for the observed changes in the crack opening load and the resultant post-overload transient crack growth behavior.

  7. Resilience of electricity grids against transmission line overloads under wind power injection at different nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel, Christoph; Lind, Pedro G; Maass, Philipp

    2017-09-14

    A steadily increasing fraction of renewable energy sources for electricity production requires a better understanding of how stochastic power generation affects the stability of electricity grids. Here, we assess the resilience of an IEEE test grid against single transmission line overloads under wind power injection based on the dc power flow equations and a quasi-static grid response to wind fluctuations. Thereby we focus on the mutual influence of wind power generation at different nodes. We find that overload probabilities vary strongly between different pairs of nodes and become highly affected by spatial correlations of wind fluctuations. An unexpected behaviour is uncovered: for a large number of node pairs, increasing wind power injection at one node can increase the power threshold at the other node with respect to line overloads in the grid. We find that this seemingly paradoxical behaviour is related to the topological distance of the overloaded line from the shortest path connecting the wind nodes. In the considered test grid, it occurs for all node pairs, where the overloaded line belongs to the shortest path.

  8. Reducing unidentified MOV failures: An innovative approach to thermal overload monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.; Watson, M.E.; Ali, H.S.; Schlesinger, R.

    1991-01-01

    Historically the failure of motor-operated valves to actuate on demand has caused plant transients, reduced safety system reliability, and lost plant availability. The typical control and indication circuit design uses thermal overload contacts in the control circuit only. This has been recognized as a significant unidentified valve failure mode that may prevent the valve from performing its safety function when required. Different approaches have been evaluated to alert operations personnel to this thermal overload condition, but no cost-effective solution has provided indication of the thermal overload while maintaining valve position indication. Iowa Electric Light and Power Company's Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC) is utilizing a nuclear-qualified thermal overload monitor in valve control and indication circuits. This innovative approach has proven economical as no new cabling or indicating devices are required. Indication is provided using existing valve position indicating lights. The monitor is engineered to provide indication of a thermal overload trip as well as continuous indication of valve position, consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.97 and guidance provided by Generic Letter 89-10

  9. Update on the use of deferasirox in the management of iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taher

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali Taher,1 Maria Domenica Cappellini21American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Universitá di Milano, Policlinico Foundation IRCCS, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Regular blood transfusions as supportive care for patients with chronic anemia inevitably lead to iron overload as humans cannot actively remove excess iron. The cumulative effects of iron overload cause significant morbidity and mortality if not effectively treated with chelation therapy. Based on a comprehensive clinical development program, the once-daily, oral iron chelator deferasirox (Exjade® is approved for the treatment of transfusional iron overload in adult and pediatric patients with various transfusion-dependent anemias, including β-thalassemia and the myelodysplastic syndromes. Deferasirox dose should be titrated for each individual patient based on transfusional iron intake, current iron burden and whether the goal is to decrease or maintain body iron levels. Doses of >30 mg/kg/day have been shown to be effective with a safety profile consistent with that observed at doses <30 mg/kg/day. Recent data have highlighted the ability of deferasirox to decrease cardiac iron levels and to prevent the accumulation of iron in the heart. The long-term efficacy and safety of deferasirox for up to 5 years of treatment have now been established. The availability of this effective and generally well tolerated oral therapy represents a significant advance in the management of transfusional iron overload. Keywords: deferasirox, Exjade, oral, iron chelation, iron overload, cardiac iron 

  10. Learners' perceived information overload in online learning via computer-mediated communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Murphy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies report information overload as one of the main problems that students encounter in online learning via computer-mediated communication. This study aimed to explore the sources of online students' information overload and offer suggestions for increasing students' cognitive resources for learning. Participants were 12 graduate students from two online courses in the United States. Their learning experiences in both online discussions and on the course website were explored through semi-structured interviews. They also completed a background questionnaire that assessed three constructs that limit learner readiness and are likely to lead to online students' perceived information overload: inadequate prior knowledge, inadequate English proficiency, and lack of technical skills for participating in computer-mediated communications. The findings suggest that varied learner characteristics led some students to be more susceptible than others to information overload. Emerging data-driven risk factors were: lack of efficiency in reading from computer screens, visual and auditory learning preferences, and time constraints. Difficulties associated with students' perceptions of information overload are addressed and implications for course design are offered.

  11. Iron overload detection in rats by means of a susceptometer operating at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, M; Gianesin, B; Avignolo, C; Parodi, S; Minganti, V

    2008-01-01

    Biosusceptometry is a non-invasive procedure for determination of iron overload in a human body; it is essentially an assessment of the diamagnetic (water) and paramagnetic (iron) properties of tissues. We measured in vivo iron overload in the liver region of 12 rats by a room temperature susceptometer. The rats had been injected with sub-toxic doses of iron dextran. A quantitative relationship has been observed between the measurements and the number of treatments. The assessment of iron overload requires evaluating the magnetic signal corresponding to the same rat ideally without the overload. This background value was extrapolated on the basis of the signal measured in control rats versus body weight (R 2 = 0.73). The mean iron overload values for the treated rats, obtained after each iron injection, were significantly different from the means of the corresponding control rats (p 2 = 0.89). The magnetic moment of iron atoms in liver tissues was measured to be 3.6 Bohr magneton. Evaluation of the background signal is the limit to the measure; the error corresponds to about 30 mg (1 SD) of iron while the instrument sensitivity is more than a factor of 10 better.

  12. SIRT1 may play a crucial role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Erika; Bori, Zoltán; Chabert, Clovis; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Naito, Hisashi; Machida, Shuichi; Davies, Kelvin Ja; Murlasits, Zsolt; Fry, Andrew C; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity and content increased significantly in overload-induced hypertrophy. SIRT1-mediated signalling through Akt, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated pathway, regulates anabolic process in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. The regulation of catabolic signalling via forkhead box O 1 and protein ubiquitination is SIRT1 dependent. Overload-induced changes in microRNA levels regulate SIRT1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling. Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) content and activity (P overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings, along with the well-known regulatory roles that SIRT1 plays in modulating both anabolic and catabolic pathways, allow us to propose the hypothesis that SIRT1 may actually play a crucial causal role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. This hypothesis will now require rigorous direct and functional testing. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  13. Radionuclide stroke count ratios for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Born, M.L.; Jones, J.P.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Artman, M.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ratio of left ventricular to right ventricular stroke counts measured by radionuclide angiography has been used in adults to estimate the severity of left-sided valvular regurgitation. The validation of this technique in children for assessment of right and left ventricular volume overload is reported herein. Radionuclide stroke count ratios in 60 children aged 0.5 to 19 years (mean 11) were determined. Based on their diagnoses, the patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) normal--40 patients with no shunts or valvular regurgitation, (2) left ventricular volume overload--13 patients with mitral or aortic regurgitation, or both, and (3) right ventricular volume overload--7 patients, 2 with severe tricuspid regurgitation, 3 with atrial septal defects, and 2 with total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. The radionuclide stroke count ratio clearly differentiated these groups (p less than 0.05): normal patients had a stroke count ratio of 1.04 +/- 0.17 (mean +/- 1 standard deviation), the left ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 2.43 +/- 0.86, and the right ventricular volume overload group had a stroke count ratio of 0.44 +/- 0.17. In 22 of our 60 patients, radionuclide stroke count ratios were compared with cineangiographic stroke volume ratios, resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.88. It is concluded that radionuclide ventriculography is an excellent tool for qualitative and quantitative assessment of valvular regurgitation in children

  14. Impact of iron overload and potential benefit from iron chelation in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Niraj; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Verma, Amit; Ginzburg, Yelena

    2014-08-07

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a group of heterogeneous clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral blood cytopenias, and potential for malignant transformation. Lower/intermediate-risk MDSs are associated with longer survival and high red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements resulting in secondary iron overload. Recent data suggest that markers of iron overload portend a relatively poor prognosis, and retrospective analysis demonstrates that iron chelation therapy is associated with prolonged survival in transfusion-dependent MDS patients. New data provide concrete evidence of iron's adverse effects on erythroid precursors in vitro and in vivo. Renewed interest in the iron field was heralded by the discovery of hepcidin, the main serum peptide hormone negative regulator of body iron. Evidence from β-thalassemia suggests that regulation of hepcidin by erythropoiesis dominates regulation by iron. Because iron overload develops in some MDS patients who do not require RBC transfusions, the suppressive effect of ineffective erythropoiesis on hepcidin may also play a role in iron overload. We anticipate that additional novel tools for measuring iron overload and a molecular-mechanism-driven description of MDS subtypes will provide a deeper understanding of how iron metabolism and erythropoiesis intersect in MDSs and improve clinical management of this patient population. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. A composite mouse model of aplastic anemia complicated with iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dijiong; Wen, Xiaowen; Liu, Wenbin; Xu, Linlong; Ye, Baodong; Zhou, Yuhong

    2018-02-01

    Iron overload is commonly encountered during the course of aplastic anemia (AA), but no composite animal model has been developed yet, which hinders drug research. In the present study, the optimal dosage and duration of intraperitoneal iron dextran injection for the development of an iron overload model in mice were explored. A composite model of AA was successfully established on the principle of immune-mediated bone marrow failure. Liver volume, peripheral hemogram, bone marrow pathology, serum iron, serum ferritin, pathological iron deposition in multiple organs (liver, bone marrow, spleen), liver hepcidin, and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) and transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) mRNA expression levels were compared among the normal control, AA, iron overload and composite model groups to validate the composite model, and explore the pathogenesis and features of iron overload in this model. The results indicated marked increases in iron deposits, with significantly increased liver/body weight ratios as well as serum iron and ferritin in the iron overload and composite model groups as compared with the normal control and AA groups (Poverload and AA was successfully established, and AA was indicated to possibly have a critical role in abnormal iron metabolism, which promoted the development of iron deposits.

  16. Quantitative estimation of the right ventricular overloading by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kenji; Machii, Kazuo; Tsukahara, Yasunori

    1982-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed on 55 patients with various types of right ventricular overloading. The right ventricular (RV) free wall was visualized in 39 out of the 55 patients (71%). The mean values of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and pulmonary artery mean pressure (PAMP) in the visualized cases (uptakers) were 54.6 +- 24.1 and 30.5 +- 15.3 mmHg, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those of the non-visualized cases (non-uptakers). There were 12 RVSP-''normotensive'' uptakers and 15 PAMP-''normotensive'' uptakers. The RV free wall images were classified into three types according to their morphological features. Type I was predominantly seen in cases of RV pressure overloading, type II in RV volume overloading and type III in combined ventricular overloading. RVSP in the type III group was significantly higher than that in other two groups. The radioactivity ratio in RV free wall and interventricular septum (IVS), the RV/IVS uptake ratio was calculated using left anterior oblique (LAO) view images. The RV/IVS uptake ratio closely correlated with RVSP and PAMP (r = 0.88 and 0.82, respectively). In each group of RV free wall image, there were also close correlations between the RV/IVS uptake ratio and both RVSP and PAMP. Our results indicate that the RV/IVS uptake ratio can be used as a parameter for the semi-quantitative estimation of right ventricular overloading. (author)

  17. Peculiarities on voltage - current characteristics of HTS tapes at overloading conditions cooled by liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotsky, V S; Fetisov, S S; Sytnikov, V E

    2008-01-01

    Electro - technical devices are considered as the most prospective use for high temperature superconductors. For such devices the overload currents due to faults in grids are the operational reality. In these cases the fault currents may forcibly go to superconductors being sometimes dozens times more than the critical currents of HTS. Overloads are the working modes for fault current limiters also. To understand the behavior of HTS devices at overloads it is important to study voltage-current characteristics (VCC) of basic HTS tapes in real cooling conditions. The knowledge of VCC permits to model and to simulate properly HTS devices behavior at overloads. We performed the study of VCC of several HTS tapes at currents several times more than their critical ones. Both, 1-G and 2-G tapes were tested. There were found peculiarities or 'spikes' on VCC at rising currents that vanished at decaying currents. It was shown that such peculiarities are determined by the change of cooling conditions from the convective heat exchange to the nucleate boiling. Nucleate boiling activation and development times were determined. Their dependencies on heat release were measured. The data obtained can be used in simulation of heating of real superconducting devices at overload conditions

  18. Nursing management of sensory overload in psychiatry – Theoretical densification and modification of the framework model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Needham, Ian; Behrens, Johann

    2017-01-01

    Background: Within the scope of the research project on the subjects of sensory overload and stimulus regulation, a theoretical framework model of the nursing care of patients with sensory overload in psychiatry was developed. In a second step, this theoretical model should now be theoretically compressed and, if necessary, modified. Aim: Empirical verification as well as modification, enhancement and theoretical densification of the framework model of nursing care of patients with sensory overload in psychiatry. Method: Analysis of 8 expert interviews by summarizing and structuring content analysis methods based on Meuser and Nagel (2009) as well as Mayring (2010). Results: The developed framework model (Scheydt et al., 2016b) could be empirically verified, theoretically densificated and extended by one category (perception modulation). Thus, four categories of nursing care of patients with sensory overload can be described in inpatient psychiatry: removal from stimuli, modulation of environmental factors, perceptual modulation as well as help somebody to help him- or herself / coping support. Conclusions: Based on the methodological approach, a relatively well-saturated, credible conceptualization of a theoretical model for the description of the nursing care of patients with sensory overload in stationary psychiatry could be worked out. In further steps, these measures have to be further developed, implemented and evaluated regarding to their efficacy.

  19. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  20. Spatiotemporal dynamics of suspended sediment within an actively urbanizing peri-urban catchment in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, Carla; Ferreira, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Suspended sediment levels tend to be enhanced in urban catchments, but vary considerably with (amongst many other factors) the degree of active urban development or redevelopment within the catchment and 'urbanization style'. Relatively little, however, is known about the relationship between suspended solids and urbanization style in peri-urban Mediterranean environments. This paper focuses on spatiotemporal suspended sediment dynamics within a typical Portuguese peri-urban catchment, Ribeira dos Covoes, that is undergoing rapid urbanization. The catchment currently has a 40% urban cover, with 17% impervious surfaces, dispersed between woodland (56%) and agricultural areas (4%). The study uses suspended sediment concentration measurements made at the catchment outlet (ESAC) and in three upstream tributaries: (i) Espírito Santo, with a largest urban area (49%); (ii) Porto Bordalo, 39% urbanized; and (iii) Quinta, 22% urbanized, most of which (18%) being an enterprise park under construction. Water sampling was carried out manually during 10 storm hydrographs between October 2011 and March 2013. Suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) were derived by laboratory analysis of the filtered samples using the gravimetric method. In addition total dissolved solids concentrations (TDS) were estimated using conductivity readings. Greatest SSCs were recorded in the Quinta sub-catchment and at the catchment outlet at ESAC (113-4320 mg L-1 and 200-1656 mg L-1, respectively) than in the Espírito Santo and Porto Bordalo sub-catchments (183-852 mg L-1 and 47-598 mg L-1 respectively, despite their greater impervious cover. The greatest SSCs for Quinta result from it containing the construction site, but it showed lower TDS (56-4010 mg L-1), perhaps due to the coarse sandy nature of the construction site. Higher TDS concentrations, however, were displayed in Porto Bordalo (27-5400 mg L-1), possibly due to the loamy soil. Espírito Santo, comprising sandy-loam soils, displayed 27

  1. Ultrasonic device for real-time sewage velocity and suspended particles concentration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abda, F; Azbaid, A; Ensminger, D; Fischer, S; François, P; Schmitt, P; Pallarès, A

    2009-01-01

    In the frame of a technological research and innovation network in water and environment technologies (RITEAU, Réseau de Recherche et d'Innovation Technologique Eau et Environnement), our research group, in collaboration with industrial partners and other research institutions, has been in charge of the development of a suitable flowmeter: an ultrasonic device measuring simultaneously the water flow and the concentration of size classes of suspended particles. Working on the pulsed ultrasound principle, our multi-frequency device (1 to 14 MHz) allows flow velocity and water height measurement and estimation of suspended solids concentration. Velocity measurements rely on the coherent Doppler principle. A self developed frequency estimator, so called Spectral Identification method, was used and compared to the classical Pulse-Pair method. Several measurements campaigns on one wastewater collector of the French city of Strasbourg gave very satisfactory results and showed smaller standard deviation values for the Doppler frequency extracted by the Spectral Identification method. A specific algorithm was also developed for the water height measurements. It relies on the water surface acoustic impedance rupture and its peak localisation and behaviour in the collected backscattering data. This algorithm was positively tested on long time measurements on the same wastewater collector. A large part of the article is devoted to the measurements of the suspended solids concentrations. Our data analysis consists in the adaptation of the well described acoustic behaviour of sand to the behaviour of wastewater particles. Both acoustic attenuation and acoustic backscattering data over multiple frequencies are analyzed for the extrapolation of size classes and respective concentrations. Under dry weather conditions, the massic backscattering coefficient and the overall size distribution showed similar evolution whatever the measurement site was and were suggesting a global

  2. Discrete Dynamics of Nanoparticle Channelling in Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Andersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We have observed a previously undescribed stepwise oxidation of mono- and few layer suspended graphene by silver nanoparticles in situ at subnanometer scale in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Over the range of 600–850 K, we observe crystallographically oriented channelling...

  3. Turbidity-controlled sampling for suspended sediment load estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Automated data collection is essential to effectively measure suspended sediment loads in storm events, particularly in small basins. Continuous turbidity measurements can be used, along with discharge, in an automated system that makes real-time sampling decisions to facilitate sediment load estimation. The Turbidity Threshold Sampling method distributes...

  4. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  5. Investigation of suspended sediment transport using ultrasonic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1994-01-01

    The results of the initial experimental studies involving the scattering of ultrasonic signals from canonical and non-canonical shaped suspended particles with known elastical qualities are reported. These results have formed the basis for the development of a numerical model for ultrasound...... propagation through low-concentration suspensions of sand particles...

  6. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  7. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fit was found to be better than those relating mean annual specific suspended sediment yield to basin area or runoff only. Since many stream gauging stations in the country have no records on fluvial sediment, the empirical equation can be used to obtain preliminary estimates of expected sediment load of streams for ...

  8. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  9. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  10. A direct simulation method for flows with suspended paramagnetic particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, T.G.; Hulsen, M.A.; Toonder, den J.M.J.; Anderson, P.D.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    A direct numerical simulation method based on the Maxwell stress tensor and a fictitious domain method has been developed to solve flows with suspended paramagnetic particles. The numerical scheme enables us to take into account both hydrodynamic and magnetic interactions between particles in a

  11. Suspended Education Department Official Had Approved Waiver for Former Employer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Matteo Fontana, the student-aid official in the U.S. Department of Education who was suspended last month in an ethics case, issued a controversial high-stakes legal ruling in 2004 that benefited his former employer, Sallie Mae, on the day before the nation's top student lender completed its transition from a government-founded lender into a…

  12. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending ability of the different ratios was evaluated in magnesium trisilicate suspension, and compared with a suspension prepared with Compound Tragacanth Powder BP (CTP) as well as a commercially available magnesium trisilicate suspension (MTS). The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, ...

  13. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calamine suspensions were formulated with CAG between the concentration range of 1 – 4 % w/v and compared with suspensions formulated with two standard suspending agents (tragacanth and acacia gums). Sedimentation volume, flow rate, rheology and redispersibility were used as evaluating parameters.

  14. Turbidity threshold sampling for suspended sediment load estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand Eads

    2001-01-01

    Abstract - The paper discusses an automated procedure for measuring turbidity and sampling suspended sediment. The basic equipment consists of a programmable data logger, an in situ turbidimeter, a pumping sampler, and a stage-measuring device. The data logger program employs turbidity to govern sample collection during each transport event. Mounting configurations and...

  15. Temporal and spatial changes of cadmium in the near-bottom suspended matter of the Pomeranian Bay - Arkona Deep system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Staniszewski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high toxicity of cadmium (Cd towards biota and the considerable quantities of this element entering the environment from anthropogenic sources, interest in its biogeochemistry is increasing. This is also true for the marine environment, which serves as a sink for both natural and anthropogenic Cd loads entering the hydrosphere and the atmosphere. The distribution of Cd in the coastal zone of the marine environment is governed primarily by the flux of the so-called fluffy layer suspended matter (FLSM, which spreads across the top of the sea floor as a several-centimetre-thick layer containing highly concentrated suspended matter. Both total contents and solid speciation of Cd was measured in FLSM collected in the Pomeranian Bay - Arkona Deep system (Western Baltic Proper in the course of the three-year-long study. Seasonal changes in the total Cd content (0.5-1.8 µg g–1 dry matter were attributed to the contribution of organic suspensions originating from algal blooms. The decreasing content of Cd in FLSM offshore is due to the input of Cd-rich suspended matter from the River Odra (Oder, and the decreasing organic matter content in FLSM with increasing depth. The contribution of labile fractions (adsorbed and bound to iron III hydroxides was found to be from 50 to 75% of the total content. In view of the substantial mobility and bioavailability of the fractions, this is a highly alarming feature.

  16. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  17. A new approach to quantify the additional effect of primary overloads on ratcheting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeckel, N.; Faure, O.; Sperandio, M.; Cousin, M.; Taleb, L.

    1991-01-01

    Taking into account the temporary nature of overloads reduces the conservatism of the current RCC-MR rules for prevention of ratcheting. An empirical K factor determined by the BITUBE tests carried out at INSA LYON, permits to quantify the influence of short-term mechanical overloads by comparison with the case without overload. The prediction of ratcheting risks by the RCC-MR efficiency diagram using a fictitious increased primary load by a K-factor is more fitted to the design of structures submitted to seisms. From then on, taking advantage of the workability of the experimental device BITUBE a new tests program has begun to confirm the results expressed above. (author)

  18. The impact of faulty response of overload protection systems on the reliability of electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigert, J.; Schnuerer, G.

    1988-01-01

    Protection equipment of the engineered safety system which is to prevent the triggering of actions via signals from the reactor protection system is to be made so reliable that it has no impact on the non-availability of the supplied systems. Design and functional mode of the various overload protection equipment and the relevant switching device and combinations are explained together with the requirements such as choice, design, and adjustment of the protection equipment, followed by a survey of possible causes of faulty response of overload protection device and of the means and measures available for improvement. The now presented version of September 1987 of the 'overload protection report deals basically with all main topics of the Juli 1985 version, but has been updated and extended by material taking into account practice-oriented data on the new developments in convoy power plant design. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Effect of short-term overloads on crack propagation under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushok, V.V.; Sobolev, N.D.; Zolotukhin, S.Yu.

    1986-01-01

    Kinetics of crack propagation after overload has been studied using plane samples of Kh18N10T steel. Tests of samples with a notch have been carried out in the air at 293 K. Observation of the crack growth has been carried out by the microscope and the method of electric potential difference. It is established that during overload besides crack tip blunting, decrease of creep rate of the material stregthened near it, that leads to crack retardation, decrease of plasticity and formation of microcracks in front of the tip of the main-line crack occurs. It is marked that, estimating serviceability of a member, it is necessary to take into account the decrease of crack propagation rate after short term overloads

  20. Analysis of short and long crack behavior and single overload effect by crack opening stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sam Hong; Lee, Kyeong Ro

    1999-01-01

    The study analyzed the behaviors of short and long crack as well as the effect of single tensile overload on the crack behaviors by using fatigue crack opening behavior. Crack opening stress is measured by an elastic compliance method which may precisely and continuously provide many data using strain gages during experiment. The unusual growth behaviors of short crack and crack after the single tensile overload applied, was explained by the variations of crack opening stress. In addition, fatigue crack growth rate was expressed as a linear form for short crack as for long crack by using effective stress intensity factor range as fracture mechanical parameter, which is based on crack closure concept. And investigation is performed with respect to the relation between plastic zone size formed at the crack tip and crack retardation, crack length and the number of cycles promoted or retarded, and the overload effect on the fatigue life

  1. Information overload, choice deferral, and moderating role of need for cognition: Empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Pilli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Choice deferral due to information overload is an undesirable result of competitive environments. The neoclassical maximization models predict that choice avoidance will not increase as more information is offered to consumers. The theories developed in the consumer behavior field predict that some properties of the environment may lead to behavioral effects and an increase in choice avoidance due to information overload. Based on stimuli generated experimentally and tested among 1,000 consumers, this empirical research provides evidence for the presence of behavioral effects due to information overload and reveals the different effects of increasing the number of options or the number of attributes. This study also finds that the need for cognition moderates these behavioral effects, and it proposes psychological processes that may trigger the effects observed.

  2. Information Diffusion in Facebook-Like Social Networks Under Information Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei; Xing, Kai; Wang, Dapeng; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    Research on social networks has received remarkable attention, since many people use social networks to broadcast information and stay connected with their friends. However, due to the information overload in social networks, it becomes increasingly difficult for users to find useful information. This paper takes Facebook-like social networks into account, and models the process of information diffusion under information overload. The term view scope is introduced to model the user information-processing capability under information overload, and the average number of times a message appears in view scopes after it is generated is proposed to characterize the information diffusion efficiency. Through theoretical analysis, we find that factors such as network structure and view scope number have no impact on the information diffusion efficiency, which is a surprising result. To verify the results, we conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly.

  3. Suspended matter and heavy metal content of the Elbe Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollbrecht, K.

    1980-01-01

    (1) In the River Elbe estuary there is a turbidity zone which is closely bound to the region of brackish waters. Its suspended matter content changes strongly with the tidal rhythm. Suspended matter and river bed sediments influence each other by exchanging their particles. Owing to that mechanism, the heavy metal ions bound or taken up by the suspended matter (sorption) enter the sediments. To obtain an estimation of the estuary's ability to cope with ( self purify ) a strong burden of industrial wastes, it is neccessary to take into consideration the absorbing capacity of both the mean suspension load and the sediments. (2) The concentration of nearly all heavy metal ions investigated in the suspension load decreases remarkably at the very beginning of the turbid zone already, in the Hamburg region. It indicates that the binding process are going on very rapidly and that the metal ion absorbing capacity of the Elbe estuary still requires only the first few miles of this self purification system. The results gained indicate that the suspended matter in Hamburg waters could bind or take up more heavy metal ions than are discharged into this area. (3) The concentration of most ions bound to the suspension material correlates very well with the grain size distribution of the (anorganic) particles. The concentration values decrease along the estuary and lead to a continuous transition to the values of the open sea. Cu, Ni and Cd appear to be captured preferably by organic suspended matter. This behaviour, however, is solely restricted to the turbid zone. In the open sea, after oxidation of the binding organic material, Cu and Ni correspond to the anorganic grain size distribution. (orig./HP) [de

  4. An analysis of bedload and suspended load interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recking, alain; Navratil, Oldrich

    2013-04-01

    Several approaches were used to develop suspension equations. It includes semi-theoretical equations based on the convection diffusion equation (Einstein 1950; Van Rijn 1984; Camenen and Larson 2008; Julien 2010), semi-empirical tools based on energy concept (Velikanov 1954; Bagnold 1966), empirical adjustments (Prosser and Rusttomji 2000). One essential characteristic of all these equations is that most of them were developed by considering continuity between bedload and suspended load, and that the partitioning between these two modes of transport evolves progressively with increasing shear stress, which is the case for fine bed materials. The use of these equations is thus likely to be welcome in estuaries or lowland sandy rivers, but may be questionable in gravel-bed rivers and headwater streams where the bed is usually structured vertically and fine sediments potentially contributing to suspension are stored under a poorly mobile surface armour comprising coarse sediments. Thus one question this work aimed to answer is does the presence of an armour at the bed surface influence suspended load? This was investigated through a large field data set comprising instantaneous measurements of both bedload and suspension. We also considered the river characteristics, distinguishing between lowland rivers, gravel bed rivers and headwater streams. The results showed that a correlation exist between bedload and suspension for lowland and gravel bed rivers. This suggests that in gravel bed rivers a large part of the suspended load is fed by subsurface material, and depends on the remobilization of the surface material. No correlation was observed for head water streams where the sediment production is more likely related to hillslope processes. These results were used with a bedload transport equation for proposing a method for suspended load estimate. The method is rough, but especially for gravel bed rivers, it predicts suspended load reasonably well when compared to

  5. Overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy is not impaired in STZ-diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Marco Aurélio S; Pinheiro, Carlos Hermano J; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Vitzel, Kaio F; Vasconcelos, Diogo A A; Curi, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of overload-induced hypertrophy on extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The overload-induced hypertrophy and absolute tetanic and twitch forces increases in EDL and soleus muscles were not different between diabetic and control rats. Phospho-Akt and rpS6 contents were increased in EDL muscle after 7 days of overload and returned to the pre-overload values after 30 days. In the soleus muscle, the contents of total and phospho-Akt and total rpS6 were increased in both groups after 7 days. The contents of total Akt in controls and total rpS6 and phospho-Akt in the diabetic rats remained increased after 30 days. mRNA expression after 7 days of overload in the EDL muscle of control and diabetic animals showed an increase in MGF and follistatin and a decrease in myostatin and Axin2. The expression of FAK was increased and of MuRF-1 and atrogin-1 decreased only in the control group, whereas Ankrd2 expression was enhanced only in diabetic rats. In the soleus muscle caused similar changes in both groups: increase in FAK and MGF and decrease in Wnt7a, MuRF-1, atrogin-1, and myostatin. Differences between groups were observed only in the increased expression of follistatin in diabetic animals and decreased Ankrd2 expression in the control group. So, insulin deficiency does not impair the overload-induced hypertrophic response in soleus and EDL muscles. However, different mechanisms seem to be involved in the comparable hypertrophic responses of skeletal muscle in control and diabetic animals. PMID:26197932

  6. Correlation between Ribosome Biogenesis and the Magnitude of Hypertrophy in Overloaded Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Satoshi; Ogasawara, Riki; Kawada, Shigeo; Maekawa, Takahiro; Ishii, Naokata

    2016-01-01

    External loads applied to skeletal muscle cause increases in the protein translation rate, which leads to muscle hypertrophy. Although some studies have demonstrated that increases in the capacity and efficiency of translation are involved in this process, it remains unclear how these two factors are related to the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy. The present study aimed to clarify the roles played by the capacity and efficiency of translation in muscle hypertrophy. We used an improved synergist ablation in which the magnitude of compensatory hypertrophy could be controlled by partial removal of synergist muscles. Male rats were assigned to four groups in which the plantaris muscle was unilaterally subjected to weak (WK), moderate (MO), middle (MI), and strong (ST) overloading by four types of synergist ablation. Fourteen days after surgery, the weight of the plantaris muscle per body weight increased by 8%, 22%, 32% and 45%, in the WK, MO, MI and ST groups, respectively. Five days after surgery, 18+28S rRNA content (an indicator of translational capacity) increased with increasing overload, with increases of 1.8-fold (MO), 2.2-fold (MI), and 2.5-fold (ST), respectively, relative to non-overloaded muscle (NL) in the WK group. rRNA content showed a strong correlation with relative muscle weight measured 14 days after surgery (r = 0.98). The phosphorylated form of p70S6K (a positive regulator of translational efficiency) showed a marked increase in the MO group, but no further increase was observed with further increase in overload (increases of 22.6-fold (MO), 17.4-fold (MI), and 18.2-fold (ST), respectively, relative to NL in the WK group). These results indicate that increases in ribosome biogenesis at the early phase of overloading are strongly dependent on the amount of overloading, and may play an important role in increasing the translational capacity for further gain of muscular size.

  7. Hepatic iron overload is associated with hepatocyte apoptosis during Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su; Tang, Qiaoran; Chen, Rui; Li, Yihong; Shu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been implicated in many liver diseases; however, whether it is involved in clonorchiasis remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection causes hepatic iron overload, analyze the relationship between the iron overload and associated cell apoptosis, so as to determine the role of excess iron plays in C. sinensis-induced liver injury. The Perls' Prussian staining and atomic absorption spectrometry methods were used to investigate the iron overload in hepatic sections of wistar rats and patients infected with C. sinensis. The hepatic apoptosis was detected by transferase uridyl nick end labeling (TUNEL) methods. Spearman analysis was used for determining the correlation of the histological hepatic iron index and the apoptotic index. Blue iron particles were deposited mainly in the hepatocytes, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells, around the liver portal and central vein area of both patients and rats. The total iron score was found to be higher in the infected groups than the respective control from 8 weeks. The hepatic iron concentration was also significantly higher in treatment groups than in control rats from 8 weeks. The hepatocyte apoptosis was found to be significantly higher in the portal area of the liver tissue and around the central vein. However, spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed that there was a mildly negative correlation between the iron index and hepatocyte apoptosis. This present study confirmed that hepatic iron overload was found during C. sinensis infection. This suggests that iron overload may be associated with hepatocyte apoptosis and involved in liver injury during C. sinensis infection. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanism involved here.

  8. Worse cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, N; Gomes-Ferreira, C; Moura, C; Roncon-Albuquerque, R; Leite-Moreira, A F; Falcão-Pires, I

    2016-08-15

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by cardiac structural and functional abnormalities. Additionally, chronic pressure overload conditions are highly prevalent amongst diabetic population and this association leads to a more severe myocardial impairment. The differences in myocardial pathophysiology between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) still remain to be clarified. Thus, we aimed to investigate biventricular structural and functional changes promoted by the two types of DM and the impact of concomitant chronic pressure overload. Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (Type 1 DM, T1DM) or fed with a hypercaloric diet (Type 2 DM, T2DM). Pressure overload was imposed in DM animals by aortic constriction and after 5weeks of DM the cardiac function and structure were evaluated. Both types of DM promoted hypertrophy, increased fibrosis and advanced glycation end-products deposition, in the two ventricles. Interestingly, the induced myocardial alterations were distinct. While T1DM stimulated a pronounced hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling, T2DM induced functional impairment. The negative impact of the association of DM with aortic constriction was more pronounced in T2DM, promoting impaired function and increased stiffness, particularly in the right ventricle. Our study demonstrated that the two types of diabetes induce distinct cardiac alterations per se or when combined with chronic pressure overload. T1DM promoted a more extensive remodeling in cardiac structure while T2DM significantly impaired ventricular function. The impact of pressure overload was more notorious in T2DM as observed by worse myocardial remodeling, suggesting a higher susceptibility to the deleterious effects of chronic pressure overload, namely hypertension, among this diabetic population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of Iron Overload in Homozygous and Heterozygous Beta Thalassemic Children below 5 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj J. Trivedi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thalassemia is a genetic disease having 3-7% carrier rate in Indians. It is transfusion dependent anemia having high risk of iron overloading. A clinical symptom of iron overload becomes detectable in second decade causing progressive liver, heart and endocrine glands damage. There is a need to assess iron overload in thalassemics below 5 years of age to protect them from complications at later age of life. Aims and objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate serum iron status and evaluate serum transferrin saturation in both homozygous & heterozygous form of thalassemia as an index of iron overload among children of one to five years of age. Materials and Methods: Clinically diagnosed thirty cases of β thalassemia major & thirty cases of β thalassemia minor having severe anemia, hepatospleenomegaly and between 1 year to 5 years of age were included in study group and same age matched healthy controls were included in the study. RBC indices and HbA, HbA2 and HbF were estimated along with serum iron & serum Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC and serum transferrin levels. Results: Significant difference was observed in hemoglobin levels between control and both beta thalassemia groups. Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH values were reduced. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed the elevated levels of HbF and HbA2 in both beta thalassemia groups. Among serum iron parameters, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin saturation were elevated whereas serum transferrin levels were low in thalassemia major in children below 5 years of age. Conclusion: Although clinical symptoms of iron overload have been absent in thalassemic children below five years of age, biochemical iron overloading has started at much lower age which is of great concern.

  10. Volume overload and adverse outcomes in chronic kidney disease: clinical observational and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Lai, Yi-Shin; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2015-05-05

    Volume overload is frequently encountered and is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the relationship between volume overload and adverse outcomes in CKD is not fully understood. A prospective cohort of 338 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD was followed for a median of 2.1 years. The study participants were stratified by the presence or absence of volume overload, defined as an overhydration index assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy exceeding 7%, the 90th percentile for the healthy population. The primary outcome was the composite of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline ≥50% or end-stage renal disease. The secondary outcome included a composite of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. Animal models were used to simulate fluid retention observed in human CKD. We found that patients with volume overload were at a higher risk of the primary and secondary end points in the adjusted Cox models. Furthermore, overhydration appears to be more important than hypertension in predicting an elevated risk. In rats subjected to unilateral nephrectomy and a high-salt diet, the extracellular water significantly increased. This fluid retention was associated with an increase in blood pressure, proteinuria, renal inflammation with macrophage infiltration and tumor necrosis factor-α overexpression, glomerular sclerosis, and cardiac fibrosis. Diuretic treatment with indapamide attenuated these changes, suggesting that fluid retention might play a role in the development of adverse outcomes. Volume overload contributes to CKD progression and cardiovascular diseases. Further research is warranted to clarify whether the correction of volume overload would improve outcomes for CKD patients. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Correlation between Ribosome Biogenesis and the Magnitude of Hypertrophy in Overloaded Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakada

    Full Text Available External loads applied to skeletal muscle cause increases in the protein translation rate, which leads to muscle hypertrophy. Although some studies have demonstrated that increases in the capacity and efficiency of translation are involved in this process, it remains unclear how these two factors are related to the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy. The present study aimed to clarify the roles played by the capacity and efficiency of translation in muscle hypertrophy. We used an improved synergist ablation in which the magnitude of compensatory hypertrophy could be controlled by partial removal of synergist muscles. Male rats were assigned to four groups in which the plantaris muscle was unilaterally subjected to weak (WK, moderate (MO, middle (MI, and strong (ST overloading by four types of synergist ablation. Fourteen days after surgery, the weight of the plantaris muscle per body weight increased by 8%, 22%, 32% and 45%, in the WK, MO, MI and ST groups, respectively. Five days after surgery, 18+28S rRNA content (an indicator of translational capacity increased with increasing overload, with increases of 1.8-fold (MO, 2.2-fold (MI, and 2.5-fold (ST, respectively, relative to non-overloaded muscle (NL in the WK group. rRNA content showed a strong correlation with relative muscle weight measured 14 days after surgery (r = 0.98. The phosphorylated form of p70S6K (a positive regulator of translational efficiency showed a marked increase in the MO group, but no further increase was observed with further increase in overload (increases of 22.6-fold (MO, 17.4-fold (MI, and 18.2-fold (ST, respectively, relative to NL in the WK group. These results indicate that increases in ribosome biogenesis at the early phase of overloading are strongly dependent on the amount of overloading, and may play an important role in increasing the translational capacity for further gain of muscular size.

  12. Evaluation Of The Overload Of Care In Families Of Psychiatric Patients In Psychosocial Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayron Morais Almeida

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of care in family refers to the weight caused by the primary caregiver role to psychiatric patients and the difficulties encountered in performing this function in daily life. Objectives: Assessing the objective and subjective overload of family members who live with the reality of psychiatric disorder in a child day-care psychosocial care center. Methods: Cross-sectional study, descriptive-exploratory, of quantitative approach, with non-probabilistic samples of accidental type with 80 families of psychiatric patients held in a Psychosocial Care Center. For overload evaluation, the subscales "B" and "D" of the Family Overload Rating Scale (FBIS-BR were used. Results: The study was conducted with 80 families of psychiatric patients. The average age of female caregivers was 39,6 years old, and 40,7 years old for male caregivers, with female predominance (87,5% compared to men (12,5%, with low education for both genres. Family caregivers presented high objective burden due to excessive demand attention (p<0,001, heteroaggressiveness (p<0,001 and perplexing behavior of psychiatric patients regarding the supervision of problematic behaviors (p<0,001. The items on the impact on the family's daily routine have not helped to generate objective overload for the family members. On subjective overload, it was clear to observe familiar members with high degree of disturbance in all the dimensions assessed (p < 0,001. Conclusion: The high degree of care overload observed in family members indicates the need to develop contacts with the family of the psychiatric patient to answer questions, offer support and assistance to the family caregiver. Keywords: Caregivers. Patients. Mental Health Services.

  13. PEMANFAATAN ECENG GONDOK (EICHORNIA CRASSIPES SEBAGAI MEDIA BIOREMEDIASI TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izam Nur Hakim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan rata-rata kadar TSS sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan dengan tanaman eceng gondok. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen semu. Obyek dalam penelitian ini adalah limbah cair industri tempe skala rumah tangga dari proses perendaman kedelai selama 24 jam di Kelurahan Pasar Batang, Kecamatan Brebes, Kabupaten Brebes. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan observasi dan tes laboratorium. Data yang didapat dari penelitian ini diolah dengan statistik uji t berpasangan dengan derajat kemaknaan (?=0,05. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui bahwa kadar rata-rata pretest TSS adalah 6043,0 mg/l. Kadar rata-rata TSS kelompok kontrol pada perendaman 2 hari sebesar 4551,42 mg/l (p=0,023, perendaman 4 hari sebesar 4677,17mg/l (p=0,002, dan perendaman 6 hari 4392,33 mg/l (p=0,003. Kadar rata-rata TSS kelompok perlakuan dengan eceng gondok pada perendaman 2 hari sebesar 3776,17 mg/l (p=0,001, perendaman 4 hari sebesar 2356,67 mg/l (p=0,0001, dan perendaman 6 hari sebesar 1265 mg/l (p=0,0001. Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa ada perbedaan rata-rata kadar TSS sebelum dan sesudah penanaman Eceng Gondok pada limbah cair. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in average levels of TSS before and after treatment with water hyacinth plants. This type of research is a quasi-experimental. Objects in this study was wastewater from the household soybean soaking for 24 hours at the Pasar Batang village, Brebes district, Brebes city. Techniques of data collection is done by observation and laboratory tests. Data obtained from this study treated with a paired t test statistic with degrees of significance (? = 0.05. Based on survey results revealed that the average pretest levels of TSS was 6043.0 mg / l. Average levels of TSS in the control group 2 days of immersion of 4551.42 mg / l (p = 0.023, immersion four days of 4677.17 mg / l (p = 0.002, and 6 days of immersion 4392.33 mg / l (p = 0.003. Average levels of TSS group treated with water hyacinth in 2 days of immersion of 3776.17 mg / l (p = 0.001, immersion four days of 2356.67 mg / l (p = 0.0001, and 6 days of immersion 1265 mg / l (p = 0.0001. It can be concluded that there are differences in average levels of TSS before and after the planting of water hyacinth in wastewater.

  14. An urban observatory for quantifying phosphorus and suspended solid loads in combined natural and stormwater conveyances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Anthony A; Horsburgh, Jeffery S

    2017-06-01

    Water quality in urban streams and stormwater systems is highly dynamic, both spatially and temporally, and can change drastically during storm events. Infrequent grab samples commonly collected for estimating pollutant loadings are insufficient to characterize water quality in many urban water systems. In situ water quality measurements are being used as surrogates for continuous pollutant load estimates; however, relatively few studies have tested the validity of surrogate indicators in urban stormwater conveyances. In this paper, we describe an observatory aimed at demonstrating the infrastructure required for surrogate monitoring in urban water systems and for capturing the dynamic behavior of stormwater-driven pollutant loads. We describe the instrumentation of multiple, autonomous water quality and quantity monitoring sites within an urban observatory. We also describe smart and adaptive sampling procedures implemented to improve data collection for developing surrogate relationships and for capturing the temporal and spatial variability of pollutant loading events in urban watersheds. Results show that the observatory is able to capture short-duration storm events within multiple catchments and, through inter-site communication, sampling efforts can be synchronized across multiple monitoring sites.

  15. Conservation principles suspended solids distribution modeling to support ATS introduction on a recirculating WWTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist Victor Bernard; Nielsen, M.K.; Thornberg, D.

    2004-01-01

    distribution in the WWTP as outputs. The calibrated model produces excellent predictions of the SS load to the secondary clarifiers, an essential variable for the operation of the aeration tank settling (ATS) process. A case study illustrated how the calibrated SS distribution model can be used to evaluate...

  16. Controlling Price-Responsive Heat Pumps for Overload Elimination in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csetvei, Zsuzsa; Østergaard, Jacob; Nyeng, Preben

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of applying electric heat pumps with the control-by-price-concept in order to avoid overload in a local distribution system. The proposed control algorithm is based upon a centrally dispatched real-time market price, reflecting the state of a larger power...... system, and is extended with a local price control for overload elimination on the corresponding feeder. The paper presents the mathematical models of a two-node system with price-responsive heat pumps, the chosen methodology of the central price calculation, and the proposed local feedback control...

  17. Geiger-mueller radiation detector with means for detecting and indicating the existence of radiation overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, T.; Mills, A.P.; Pfeiffer, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    When subjected to radiation overload existing geiger-mueller counters may give an erroneously low reading, resulting in possible hazard to personnel. The instant invention discloses simple and inexpensive apparatus to remedy this dangerous shortcoming. Depending on the geometry of the detector tube, two possible failure modes have been identified, and circuitry is disclosed to detect the existence of these respective failure modes. The disclosed apparatus indicates the absence of an overload condition, in addition to signaling, by both visible and audible means, the existence of excessive radiation that might result in erroneously low reading of the geiger-mueller counter

  18. A quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators under input information overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a quantitative approach to modeling the information processing of NPP operators. The aim of this work is to derive the amount of the information processed during a certain control task under input information overload. We primarily develop the information processing model having multiple stages, which contains information flow. Then the uncertainty of the information is quantified using the Conant's model, a kind of information theory. We also investigate the applicability of this approach to quantifying the information reduction of operators under the input information overload

  19. Occlusal overload investigations by noninvasive technology: fluorescence microscopy and en-face optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcauteanu, Corina; Negrutiu, Meda; Sinescu, Cosmin; Demjan, Enikö; Hughes, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Podoleanu, Adrian G.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study is the early detection and monitoring of occlusal overload in bruxing patients. En-Face Optical coherence tomography (eF-OCT) and fluorescence microscopy (FM) were used for the imaging of several anterior teeth extracted from patients with light active bruxism. We found a characteristic pattern of enamel cracks, that reached the tooth surface. We concluded that the combination of the en-Face OCT and FM is a promising non-invasive alternative technique for reliable monitoring of occlusal overload.

  20. 30 CFR 77.506-1 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short circuit protection; minimum requirements. 77.506-1 Section 77.506-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY...-1 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection; minimum requirements. Devices providing either short circuit protection or protection against overload shall conform to the...

  1. Work Processes, Role Conflict, and Role Overload: The Case of Nurses and Engineers in the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study of five sets of work process variables and their relationship to role conflict and overload among public sector nurses and engineers found managerial strategies appropriate for minimizing role conflict not necessarily appropriate for minimizing role overload. Some work process predictors may be similar across professions, and managerial…

  2. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  3. Reducing Information Overload in Large Seismic Data Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAMPTON,JEFFERY W.; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.; MERCHANT,BION J.; CARR,DORTHE B.; AGUILAR-CHANG,JULIO

    2000-08-02

    Event catalogs for seismic data can become very large. Furthermore, as researchers collect multiple catalogs and reconcile them into a single catalog that is stored in a relational database, the reconciled set becomes even larger. The sheer number of these events makes searching for relevant events to compare with events of interest problematic. Information overload in this form can lead to the data sets being under-utilized and/or used incorrectly or inconsistently. Thus, efforts have been initiated to research techniques and strategies for helping researchers to make better use of large data sets. In this paper, the authors present their efforts to do so in two ways: (1) the Event Search Engine, which is a waveform correlation tool and (2) some content analysis tools, which area combination of custom-built and commercial off-the-shelf tools for accessing, managing, and querying seismic data stored in a relational database. The current Event Search Engine is based on a hierarchical clustering tool known as the dendrogram tool, which is written as a MatSeis graphical user interface. The dendrogram tool allows the user to build dendrogram diagrams for a set of waveforms by controlling phase windowing, down-sampling, filtering, enveloping, and the clustering method (e.g. single linkage, complete linkage, flexible method). It also allows the clustering to be based on two or more stations simultaneously, which is important to bridge gaps in the sparsely recorded event sets anticipated in such a large reconciled event set. Current efforts are focusing on tools to help the researcher winnow the clusters defined using the dendrogram tool down to the minimum optimal identification set. This will become critical as the number of reference events in the reconciled event set continually grows. The dendrogram tool is part of the MatSeis analysis package, which is available on the Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program Web Site. As part of the research

  4. USING TURBIDITY DATA TO PREDICT SUSPENDED SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS: POSSIBILITIES, LIMITATIONS, AND PITFALLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This talk will look at the relationships between turbidity and suspended sediment concentrations in a variety of geographic areas, geomorphic river types, and river sizes; and attempt to give guidance on using existing turbidity data to predict suspended sediment concentrations.

  5. Seasonal changes in suspended sediment load in the Gauthami-Godavari Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, K.M.; Rao, V.S.

    Studies carried out on suspended matter characteristics of the the Gautami Godavari Estuary revealed that the concentration of suspended matter (CSM) during southwest monsoon influenced mainly by the increased run off at both Neelarevu and Vrudha...

  6. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  7. Design, analysis and control of cable-suspended parallel robots and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zi, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an essential overview of the authors’ work in the field of cable-suspended parallel robots, focusing on innovative design, mechanics, control, development and applications. It presents and analyzes several typical mechanical architectures of cable-suspended parallel robots in practical applications, including the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae, hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robots, and cooperative cable parallel manipulators for multiple mobile cranes. It also addresses the fundamental mechanics of cable-suspended parallel robots on the basis of their typical applications, including the kinematics, dynamics and trajectory tracking control of the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae. In addition it proposes a novel hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robot that uses integrated mechanism design methods to improve the performance of traditional cable-suspended parallel robots. A comparative study on error and performance indices of hybr...

  8. Diagnosis, management and response criteria of iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): updated recommendations of the Austrian MDS platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Stauder, Reinhard; Theurl, Igor; Geissler, Klaus; Sliwa, Thamer; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Bettelheim, Peter; Sill, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Despite the availability of effective iron chelators, transfusion-related morbidity is still a challenge in chronically transfused patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In these patients, transfusion-induced iron overload may lead to organ dysfunction or even organ failure. In addition, iron overload is associated with reduced overall survival in MDS. Areas covered: During the past 10 years, various guidelines for the management of MDS patients with iron overload have been proposed. In the present article, we provide our updated recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and therapy of iron overload in MDS. In addition, we propose refined treatment response criteria. As in 2006 and 2007, recommendations were discussed and formulated by participants of our Austrian MDS platform in a series of meetings in 2016 and 2017. Expert commentary: Our updated recommendations should support early recognition of iron overload, optimal patient management and the measurement of clinical responses to chelation treatment in daily practice.

  9. The contact heat transfer between the heating plate and granular materials in rotary heat exchanger under overloaded condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanfang Duan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the contact heat transfer between the granular materials and heating plates inside plate rotary heat exchanger (PRHE was investigated. The heat transfer coefficient is dominated by the contact heat transfer coefficient at hot wall surface of the heating plates and the heat penetration inside the solid bed. A plot scale PRHE with a diameter of Do = 273 mm and a length of L = 1000 mm has been established. Quartz sand with dp = 2 mm was employed as the experimental material. The operational parameters were in the range of ω = 1 – 8 rpm, and F = 15, 20, 25, 30%, and the effect of these parameters on the time-average contact heat transfer coefficient was analyzed. The time-average contact heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of rotary speed, but decreases with the increase of the filling degree. The measured data of time-average heat transfer coefficients were compared with theoretical calculations from Schlünder’s model, a good agreement between the measurements and the model could be achieved, especially at a lower rotary speed and filling degree level. The maximum deviation between the calculated data and the experimental data is approximate 10%. Keywords: Rotary heat exchanger, Contact heat transfer, Granular material, Heating plate, Overloaded

  10. Fatigue History and in-situ Loading Studies of the overload Effect Using High Resolution X-ray Strain Profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, M.; Jisrawi, N.; Zhong, Z.; Holtz, R.; Sadananda, K.; Skaritka, J.; Tsakalakos, T.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments are used to perform local crack plane strain profiling of 4140 steel compact tension specimens fatigued at constant amplitude, subjected to a single overload cycle, then fatigued some more at constant amplitude. X-ray strain profiling results on a series of samples employing in-situ load cycling are correlated with the crack growth rate (da/dN) providing insight into the da/dN retardation known as the 'overload effect'. Immediately after the overload, the strain under maximum load is greatly reduced but the range of strain, between zero and maximum load, remains unchanged compared to the pre-overload values. At the point of maximum retardation, it is the strain range that is greatly reduced while the maximum-load strain has begun to recover to the pre-overload value. For a sample that has recovered to approximately half of the original da/dN value following the overload, the strain at maximum load is fully recovered while the strain range, though partially recovered, is still substantially reduced. The dominance of the strain range in the overload effect is clearly indicated. Subject to some assumptions, strong quantitative support for a crack growth rate driving force of the suggested form [(K max ) -p (ΔK) p ] γ is found. A dramatic nonlinear load dependence in the spatial distribution of the strain at maximum retardation is also demonstrated: at low load the response is dominantly at the overload position; whereas at high loads it is dominantly at the crack tip position. This transfer of load response away from the crack tip to the overload position appears fundamental to the overload effect for high R-ratio fatigue as studied here

  11. The rheology of non-suspended sediment transport mediated by a Newtonian fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pähtz, Thomas; Durán, Orencio

    2017-04-01

    Using a coupled DEM/RANS numerical model of non-suspended sediment transport in a Newtonian fluid (Durán et al., POF 103306, 2012), we find that the gas-like part of the granular transport flow can be described by a universal condition that constrains the average geometry of interparticle collisions. We show that this condition corresponds to a constant sliding friction coefficient μ at an appropriately defined bed surface, thus explaining the success of Bagnold's old idea to describe the sediment transport in analogy to sliding friction. We are currently exploring whether this rheology applies to gas-like granular flows in general. We further find a transition of the gas-like flow to either a solid-like flow (solid-to-gas transition), which is typical for aeolian sediment transport ('saltation'), or a liquid-like flow (liquid-to-gas transition), which is typical for subaqueous sediment transport ('bedload'). The transition occurs at about the location of maximal particle collision frequency. If there is a liquid-like flow below the transition, we find that it can be described by a μ(I) rheology, where I is the visco-intertial number, an appropriately defined average of the viscous and intertial number.

  12. Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.

  13. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-01-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm−1K−1(+141 Wm−1K−1/ −24 Wm−1K−1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN. PMID:27142571

  14. Piezoresistance of top-down suspended Si nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koumela, A; Mercier, D; Dupre, C; Jourdan, G; Marcoux, C; Ollier, E; Duraffourg, L; Purcell, S T

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the gauge factor of suspended, top-down silicon nanowires are presented. The nanowires are fabricated with a CMOS compatible process and with doping concentrations ranging from 2 x 10 20 down to 5 x 10 17 cm -3 . The extracted gauge factors are compared with results on identical non-suspended nanowires and with state-of-the-art results. An increase of the gauge factor after suspension is demonstrated. For the low doped nanowires a value of 235 is measured. Particular attention was paid throughout the experiments to distinguishing real resistance change due to strain modulation from resistance fluctuations due to charge trapping. Furthermore, a numerical model correlating surface charge density with the gauge factor is presented. Comparison of the simulations with experimental measurements shows the validity of this approach. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of the piezoresistive effect in Si nanowires.

  15. Relationship between dioxin concentration and particle size for suspended sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K.; Sakurai, T.; Choi, J.W.; Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to find out how the amounts of adsorbed dioxins, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and non-ortho-PCBs, vary with the particle size of suspended sediment. As dioxins are hydrophobic, they tend to adsorb onto particles suspended in water, and the determination of which dioxin congeners readily dissolve in water or adsorb onto particles is central to the characterization of dioxin behavior in water/sediment systems. Presumably suspension of sediments and the size of the particles govern the transfer of dioxins to aquatic organisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the relationship between the amount of dioxins and the particle-size distribution of resuspended, rather than settled, sediment.

  16. The acoustic radiation force on a small thermoviscous or thermoelastic particle suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Jonas; Bruus, Henrik

    2015-11-01

    We present a theoretical analysis (arxiv.org/abs/1507.01043) of the acoustic radiation force on a single small particle, either a thermoviscous fluid droplet or a thermoelastic solid particle, suspended in a viscous and heat-conducting fluid. Our analysis places no restrictions on the viscous and thermal boundary layer thicknesses relative to the particle radius, but it assumes the particle to be small in comparison to the acoustic wavelength. This is the limit relevant to scattering of ultrasound waves from sub-micrometer particles. For particle sizes smaller than the boundary layer widths, our theory leads to profound consequences for the acoustic radiation force. For example, for liquid droplets and solid particles suspended in gasses we predict forces orders of magnitude larger than expected from ideal-fluid theory. Moreover, for certain relevant choices of materials, we find a sign change in the acoustic radiation force on different-sized but otherwise identical particles. These findings lead to the concept of a particle-size-dependent acoustophoretic contrast factor, highly relevant to applications in acoustic levitation or separation of micro-particles in gases, as well as to handling of μm- and nm-sized particles such as bacteria and vira in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  17. When Enough Is Not Enough: Information Overload and Metacognitive Decisions to Stop Studying Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Blake, Adam B.; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to more information than they can actually remember. Despite this frequent form of information overload, little is known about how much information people choose to remember. Using a novel "stop" paradigm, the current research examined whether and how people choose to stop receiving new--possibly…

  18. Association between filial responsibility when caring for parents and the caregivers overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Aires

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the association between filial responsibility and the overload of the children when caring for their older parents. Method: Cross-sectional study with 100 caregiver children of older adults. Filial liability was assessed by the attitudes of the responsible child (scale of expectation and filial duty and by care behaviors (assistance in activities of daily living, emotional and financial support, and keeping company. The overload was assessed by the Caregiver Burden Inventory. To assess the associations, the correlation coefficients of Pearson and Spearman, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Mann-Whitney were employed. Variables that presented p-value<0.20 in the bivariate analysis were inserted in a multivariate linear regression model. Results: The factors associated with overload were: formal employment (p=0.002, feelings regarding family life (p<0.001, financial support (p=0.027, and assistance with Activities of Daily Living (ADLs (p<0.001. Conclusion: Children who were more involved with the ADLs and provided financial support showed higher levels of overload.

  19. 2D mapping of plane stress crack-tip fields following an overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Withers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of crack-tip strain fields in a thin (plane stress compact tension sample following an overload (OL event has been studied using two different experimental techniques. Surface behaviour has been characterised by Digital Image Correlation (DIC, while the bulk behaviour has been characterised by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD. The combination of both surface and bulk information allowed us to visualise the through-thickness evolution of the strain fields before the OL event, during the overload event, just after OL and at various stages after it. Unlike previous work, complete 2D maps of strains around the crack-tip were acquired at 60m spatial resolution by XRD. The DIC shows less crack opening after overload and the XRD a lower crack-tip peak stress after OL until the crack has grown past the compressive crack-tip residual stress introduced by the overload after which the behaviour returned to that for the baseline fatigue response. While the peak crack-tip stress is supressed by the compressive residual stress, the crack-tip stress field changes over each cycle are nevertheless the same for all Kmax cycles except at OL.

  20. An Investigation of Data Overload in Team-Based Distributed Cognition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellar, David Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The modern military command center is a hybrid system of computer automated surveillance and human oriented decision making. In these distributed cognition systems, data overload refers simultaneously to the glut of raw data processed by information technology systems and the dearth of actionable knowledge useful to human decision makers.…

  1. The "Tyranny of Choice": Choice Overload as a Possible Instance of Effort Discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D.; Reed, Florence D. DiGennaro; Chok, James; Brozyna, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    When making a choice, people like to have options, but an emerging literature on "choice overload" suggests that the provision of too many options results in adverse experiences, including a depletion of cognitive resources and postdecision feelings of regret. A strong implication is that individuals should shy away from situations…

  2. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... application of thermal overload protection devices that are integral with the motor starter for electric... Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001, telephone: 301-251-7455; email... Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. [FR Doc. 2012-4552 Filed 2...

  3. An overload behavior detection system for engineering transport vehicles based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libo; Wu, Gang

    2018-04-01

    This paper builds an overloaded truck detect system called ITMD to help traffic department automatically identify the engineering transport vehicles (commonly known as `dirt truck') in CCTV and determine whether the truck is overloaded or not. We build the ITMD system based on the Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) model. By constructing the image dataset of the truck and adjusting hyper-parameters of the original SSD neural network, we successfully trained a basic network model which the ITMD system depends on. The basic ITMD system achieves 83.01% mAP on classifying overload/non-overload truck, which is a not bad result. Still, some shortcomings of basic ITMD system have been targeted to enhance: it is easy for the ITMD system to misclassify other similar vehicle as truck. In response to this problem, we optimized the basic ITMD system, which effectively reduced basic model's false recognition rate. The optimized ITMD system achieved 86.18% mAP on the test set, which is better than the 83.01% mAP of the basic ITMD system.

  4. Fatty emaciation: a case report of suspected fat overload syndrome in oral refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Arielle D; Palazuelos, Daniel; Maviglia, Saverio M

    2012-07-01

    Refeeding syndrome has been observed in patients receiving nutrition after a prolonged period of malnourishment and is characterized by multiple metabolic derangements. Besides hypophosphatemia and hypoglycemia, lipemia has been described in association with parenteral nutrition administration to the malnourished. The authors describe one anorexic patient who developed lipemia during oral refeeding, followed by a precipitous drop in hematocrit suggestive of fat overload syndrome.

  5. Global transcriptional response to Hfe deficiency and dietary iron overload in mouse liver and duodenum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rodriguez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential trace element whose absorption is usually tightly regulated in the duodenum. HFE-related hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is characterized by abnormally low expression of the iron-regulatory hormone, hepcidin, which results in increased iron absorption. The liver is crucial for iron homeostasis as it is the main production site of hepcidin. The aim of this study was to explore and compare the genome-wide transcriptome response to Hfe deficiency and dietary iron overload in murine liver and duodenum. Illumina arrays containing over 47,000 probes were used to study global transcriptional changes. Quantitative RT-PCR (Q-RT-PCR was used to validate the microarray results. In the liver, the expression of 151 genes was altered in Hfe(-/- mice while dietary iron overload changed the expression of 218 genes. There were 173 and 108 differentially expressed genes in the duodenum of Hfe(-/- mice and mice with dietary iron overload, respectively. There was 93.5% concordance between the results obtained by microarray analysis and Q-RT-PCR. Overexpression of genes for acute phase reactants in the liver and a strong induction of digestive enzyme genes in the duodenum were characteristic of the Hfe-deficient genotype. In contrast, dietary iron overload caused a more pronounced change of gene expression responsive to oxidative stress. In conclusion, Hfe deficiency caused a previously unrecognized increase in gene expression of hepatic acute phase proteins and duodenal digestive enzymes.

  6. Iron Overload Leading to Torsades de Pointes in β-Thalassemia and Long QT Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaat, Marwan M; El Hage, Lea; Steffensen, Annette Buur

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a unique case of torsades de pointes in a β-thalassemia patient with early iron overload in the absence of any structural abnormalities as seen in hemochromatosis. Genetic testing showed a novel KCNQ1 gene mutation 1591C>T [Gln531Ter(X)]. Testing of the gene mutation in Xenopus...

  7. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the correct type and capacity shall be installed so as to protect all electric equipment and circuits against short...

  8. Technologies for dealing with information overload : an engineers' point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, T.G.K.; Fletcher, G.H.L.; Kamiran, F.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Strother, J.B.; Ulijn, J.M.; Fazal, Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we provide an overview of the technological side of the information overload problem. We discuss the challenges and opportunities offered by the ever-growing and emerging stream of information from an engineering point of view. More concretely, we survey storage and querying

  9. Competitive On-Line Scheduling for Overloaded Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Real - Time Systems by Gilad Koren a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements...Overloaded Real - Time Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...1.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 1.1.1 Real - Time Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

  10. Iron overload in very low birth weight infants: Serum Ferritin and adverse outcomes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, M

    2011-11-01

    Adequate iron isessential for growth and haematpoiesis. Oral iron supplementation is the standard of care in VLBW infants. Post mortem evidence has confirmed significant iron overload. Excessive free iron has been associated with free radical formation and brain injury in term infants.

  11. Role of metabolic overload and metabolic inflammation in the development of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, W.

    2015-01-01

    Overload of nutrients can lead to diet-induced inflammation, also called metabolic inflammation, which is thought to play an important role in many metabolic diseases, including the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies that range from

  12. Vitamin D attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Yan, Xiao; Zhang, Yun-Long; Bai, Jie; Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Wang, Qing-Shan; Li, Hui-Hua

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin D (VD) and its analogues play critical roles in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that VD exerts a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the beneficial effect of VD on pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling in mice were induced by pressure overload. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography, and myocardial histology was detected by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Cardiomyocyte size was detected by wheat germ agglutinin staining. The protein levels of signaling mediators were examined by western blotting while mRNA expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers was examined by qPCR analysis. Oxidative stress was detected by dihydroethidine staining. Our results showed that administration of VD3 significantly ameliorates pressure overload-induced contractile dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation in mice. In addition, VD3 treatment also markedly inhibited cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis. Moreover, protein levels of calcineurin A, ERK1/2, AKT, TGF-β, GRP78, cATF6, and CHOP were significantly reduced whereas SERCA2 level was upregulated in the VD3-treated hearts compared with control. These results suggest that VD3 attenuates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by pressure overload, and this protective effect is associated with inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fear of Success: A Personality Trait or a Response to Occupational Deviance and Role Overload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Teresa Hargrave; Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1980-01-01

    Clarifies the extent to which an individual's fear of success scores may vary with the presence or absence of occupational deviance and/or role overload in stimulus materials describing situations of female competitive success. Results suggest that fear of success is a misnomer for responses to women's role descriptions. (Author/JLF)

  14. A low noise preamplifier with optoelectronic overload protection for radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sephton, J.P.; Williams, J.M.; Johansson, L.C.; Philips, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Pulses from detectors used for radioactivity measurement can vary in size by several orders of magnitude. Large pulses will lead to saturation at the preamplifier output and extension of the pulse length. As a consequence, the dead time of the system increases and pulses may be lost. Electronic design techniques employed to protect against overloading tend to increase the amplifier noise level. However, an optoelectronic method of overload protection has been devised which has only a negligible effect on noise. An infrared light emitting diode interfaced to the output of the preamplifier is linked by fibre optic cable to an ultra-low leakage photodiode at the input. The conduction of the photodiode increases with the amplitude of the preamplifier output signal. Excess current is thereby prevented from entering the preamplifier and causing saturation. The preamplifier has been tested on 4π beta–gamma and gas counting systems and found to give good protection against overloading. - Highlights: ► A preamplifier for radioactivity measurements has been developed. ► Low noise. ► Current sensitive. ► Optoelectronic overload protection.

  15. The role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of transfusional iron overload in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Emmanouil; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Karali, Vasiliki; Kolovou, Genovefa; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Sfikakis, Petros P; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis

    2015-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes represent a group of heterogeneous hematopoietic neoplasms derived from an abnormal multipotent progenitor cell, characterized by a hyperproliferative bone marrow, dysplasia of the cellular hemopoietic elements and ineffective erythropoiesis. Anemia is a common finding in myelodysplastic syndrome patients, and blood transfusions are the only therapeutic option in approximately 40% of cases. The most serious side effect of regular blood transfusion is iron overload. Currently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance using T2 is routinely used to identify patients with myocardial iron overload and to guide chelation therapy, tailored to prevent iron toxicity in the heart. This is a major validated non-invasive measure of myocardial iron overloading and is superior to surrogates such as serum ferritin, liver iron, ventricular ejection fraction and tissue Doppler parameters. The indication for iron chelation therapy in myelodysplastic syndrome patients is currently controversial. However, cardiovascular magnetic resonance may offer an excellent non-invasive, diagnostic tool for iron overload assessment in myelodysplastic syndromes. Further studies are needed to establish the precise indications of chelation therapy and the clinical implications of this treatment on survival in myelodysplastic syndromes. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of tensile overloads on fatigue crack growth of high strength steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, J.; Reguly, A.; Strohaecker, T.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A proof load process may be an option to increase the fatigue life of flexible pipelines. • There is possibility to produce plastic deformation at crack tip of tensile armor wires. • Controlled overloads provide effective crack growth retardation. • Crack growth retardation is also evident at higher stress ratios. - Abstract: Fatigue of the tensile armor wires is the main failure mode of flexible risers. Techniques to increase the life of these components are required to improve the processes safety on oil exploration. This work evaluates the crack growth retardation of high strength steel wires used in flexible pipelines. Fracture toughness tests were performed to establish the level of stress intensity factor wherein the wires present significant plastic deformation at the crack tip. The effect of tensile overload on fatigue behavior was assessed by fatigue crack growth testing under constant ΔK control and different overload ratios with two different load ratios. The outcomes show that the application of controlled overloads provides crack retardation and increases the fatigue life of the wires more than 31%. This behavior is also evident at stress ratio of 0.5, in spite of the crack closure effect being minimized by increasing the applied mean stress

  17. Diagnosis of hepatic iron overload: a family study illustrating pitfalls in diagnosing hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schranz, Melanie; Talasz, Heribert; Graziadei, Ivo; Winder, Thomas; Sergi, Consolato; Bogner, Klaus; Vogel, Wolfgang; Zoller, Heinz

    2009-03-01

    Recent identification of genetic variants in iron storage disease has changed the classification system and diagnostic algorithms for hemochromatosis. Clinical diagnosis of the disease requires phenotypic evidence of iron overload because the commonly disease-associated HFE genotypes have an incomplete penetrance. Furthermore, approximately 20% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of hemochromatosis have no disease-associated genotype, which underlines the importance of clear phenotypic criteria of hemochromatosis. A diagnosis of hemochromatosis cannot be made even in patients with liver cirrhosis simply on the basis of genetic testing that indicates that iron overload is the cause of the disease and not its consequence. Proper diagnosis requires integration of clinical presentation, family history, and the results of biochemical and histopathologic tests. Here we propose a rational diagnostic algorithm for hepatic iron overload syndromes and illustrate potential pitfalls by presenting a family study in a pedigree with rare HFE variants (H63D and E168Q), in cis on the same chromosome. Although the clinical suspicion of hemochromatosis was confirmed by histology, chemical analysis of liver tissue revealed a normal hepatic iron concentration, which is compatible with the genetic finding of 1 normal and 1 doubly mutated allele. In conclusion, clinical suspicion of hemochromatosis and elevated serum iron parameters should prompt HFE genotyping for C282Y and H63D. Should they be uninformative, further genetic tests should be recommended only if iron overload in liver tissue has been confirmed chemically.

  18. Transient upregulation of protein kinase C in pressure-overloaded neonatal rat myocardium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamplová, B.; Novák, F.; Kolář, František; Nováková, O.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-33 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : protein kinase C * cardiac development * pressure overload Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  19. The spring balance: a simple monitoring system for fluid overload during hysteroscopic surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankum, W. M.; Vonk, J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid overload may arise during hysteroscopic surgery, caused by absorption of fluid used to distend the uterus. Continuous monitoring of the fluid balance is required to prevent this serious complication. Commercial equipment does not serve this purpose adequately. We describe a simple solution. We

  20. Iron overload of human colon adenocarcinoma cells studied by synchrotron-based X-ray techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Meirer, Florian; Polgári, Zsófia; Réti, Andrea; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Ingerle, Dieter; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Streli, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Fast- and slow-proliferating human adenocarcinoma colorectal cells, HT-29 and HCA-7, respectively, overloaded with transferrin (Tf), Fe(III) citrate, Fe(III) chloride and Fe(II) sulfate were studied by synchrotron radiation total-reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF), TXRF-X-ray absorption near edge

  1. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    OpenAIRE

    Kadi, Mohammad W.

    2014-01-01

    Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high lev...

  2. Segment Fixed Priority Scheduling for Self Suspending Real Time Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    a compute- intensive system such as a self - driving car that we have recently developed [28]. Such systems run computation-demanding algorithms...Applications. In RTSS, 2012. [12] J. Kim et al. Parallel Scheduling for Cyber-Physical Systems: Analysis and Case Study on a Self - Driving Car . In ICCPS...leveraging GPU can be modeled using a multi-segment self -suspending real-time task model. For example, a planning algorithm for autonomous driving can

  3. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  4. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  5. Mice lacking liver-specific β-catenin develop steatohepatitis and fibrosis after iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Morgan E; Singh, Sucha; Valore, Erika V; Jung, Grace; Popovic, Branimir; Poddar, Minakshi; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Ganz, Tomas; Monga, Satdarshan P

    2017-08-01

    Iron overload disorders such as hereditary hemochromatosis and iron loading anemias are a common cause of morbidity from liver diseases and increase risk of hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment options for iron-induced damage are limited, partly because there is lack of animal models of human disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of iron overload in liver-specific β-catenin knockout mice (KO), which are susceptible to injury, fibrosis and tumorigenesis following chemical carcinogen exposure. Iron overload diet was administered to KO and littermate control (CON) mice for various times. To ameliorate an oxidant-mediated component of tissue injury, N-Acetyl-L-(+)-cysteine (NAC) was added to drinking water of mice on iron overload diet. KO on iron diet (KO +Fe) exhibited remarkable inflammation, followed by steatosis, oxidative stress, fibrosis, regenerating nodules and occurrence of occasional HCC. Increased injury in KO +Fe was associated with activated protein kinase B (AKT), ERK, and NF-κB, along with reappearance of β-catenin and target gene Cyp2e1, which promoted lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage. Addition of NAC to drinking water protected KO +Fe from hepatic steatosis, injury and fibrosis, and prevented activation of AKT, ERK, NF-κB and reappearance of β-catenin. The absence of hepatic β-catenin predisposes mice to hepatic injury and fibrosis following iron overload, which was reminiscent of hemochromatosis and associated with enhanced steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Disease progression was notably alleviated by antioxidant therapy, which supports its chemopreventive role in the management of chronic iron overload disorders. Lack of animal models for iron overload disorders makes it hard to study the disease process for improving therapies. Feeding high iron diet to mice that lack the β-catenin gene in liver cells led to increased inflammation followed by fat accumulation, cell death and wound healing that mimicked

  6. Fluid Overload and Cumulative Thoracostomy Output Are Associated With Surgical Site Infection After Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochet, Anthony A; Nyhan, Aoibhinn; Spaeder, Michael C; Cartron, Alexander M; Song, Xiaoyan; Klugman, Darren; Brown, Anna T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the impact of cumulative, postoperative thoracostomy output, amount of bolus IV fluids and peak fluid overload on the incidence and odds of developing a deep surgical site infection following pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. A single-center, nested, retrospective, matched case-control study. A 26-bed cardiac ICU in a 303-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital. Cases with deep surgical site infection following cardiothoracic surgery were identified retrospectively from January 2010 through December 2013 and individually matched to controls at a ratio of 1:2 by age, gender, Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery category, primary cardiac diagnosis, and procedure. None. Twelve cases with deep surgical site infection were identified and matched to 24 controls without detectable differences in perioperative clinical characteristics. Deep surgical site infection cases had larger thoracostomy output and bolus IV fluid volumes at 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively compared with controls. For every 1 mL/kg of thoracostomy output, the odds of developing a deep surgical site infection increase by 13%. By receiver operative characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff of 49 mL/kg of thoracostomy output at 48 hours best discriminates the development of deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 83%, specificity 83%). Peak fluid overload was greater in cases than matched controls (12.5% vs 6%; p operative characteristic curve analysis, a threshold value of 10% peak fluid overload was observed to identify deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 67%, specificity 79%). Conditional logistic regression of peak fluid overload greater than 10% on the development of deep surgical site infection yielded an odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI, 2-46.2). Increased postoperative peak fluid overload and cumulative thoracostomy output were associated with deep surgical site infection after pediatric

  7. Al-hijamah and oral honey for treating thalassemia, conditions of iron overload, and hyperferremia: toward improving the therapeutic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Salah Mohamed; Baghdadi, Hussam; Abou-Taleb, Ashraf; Mahmoud, Hany Salah; Maria, Reham A; Ahmed, Nagwa S; Helmy Nabo, Manal Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Iron overload causes iron deposition and accumulation in the liver, heart, skin, and other tissues resulting in serious tissue damages. Significant blood clearance from iron and ferritin using wet cupping therapy (WCT) has been reported. WCT is an excretory form of treatment that needs more research efforts. WCT is an available, safe, simple, economic, and time-saving outpatient modality of treatment that has no serious side effects. There are no serious limitations or precautions to discontinue WCT. Interestingly, WCT has solid scientific and medical bases (Taibah mechanism) that explain its effectiveness in treating many disease conditions differing in etiology and pathogenesis. WCT utilizes an excretory physiological principle (pressure-dependent excretion) that resembles excretion through renal glomerular filtration and abscess evacuation. WCT exhibits a percutaneous excretory function that clears blood (through fenestrated skin capillaries) and interstitial fluids from pathological substances without adding a metabolic or detoxification burden on the liver and the kidneys. Interestingly, WCT was reported to decrease serum ferritin (circulating iron stores) significantly by about 22.25% in healthy subjects (in one session) and to decrease serum iron significantly to the level of causing iron deficiency (in multiple sessions). WCT was reported to clear blood significantly of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol, uric acid, inflammatory mediators, and immunoglobulin antibodies (rheumatoid factor). Moreover, WCT was reported to enhance the natural immunity, potentiate pharmacological treatments, and to treat many different disease conditions. There are two distinct methods of WCT: traditional WCT and Al-hijamah (WCT of prophetic medicine). Both start and end with skin sterilization. In traditional WCT, there are two steps, skin scarification followed by suction using plastic cups (double S technique); Al-hijamah is a three

  8. Suspended sediment in a high-Arctic river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard-Pedersen, Pernille; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    -2012) of daily measurements from the high-Artic Zackenberg River in Northeast Greenland to estimate annual suspended sediment fluxes based on four commonly used methods: M1) is the discharge weighted mean and uses direct measurements, while M2-M4) are one uncorrected and two bias corrected rating curves......-1 and 61,000±16,000ty-1. Extreme events with high discharges had a mean duration of 1day. The average suspended sediment flux during extreme events was 17,000±5000ty-1, which constitutes a year-to-year variation of 20-37% of the total annual flux. The most accurate sampling strategy was bi...... extrapolating a continuous concentration trace from measured values. All methods are tested on complete and reduced datasets. The average annual runoff in the period 2005-2012 was 190±25mio·m3 y-1. The different estimation methods gave a range of average annual suspended sediment fluxes between 43,000±10,000ty...

  9. The Influence of Turbulent Coherent Structure on Suspended Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. H.; Tsai, C.

    2017-12-01

    The anomalous diffusion of turbulent sedimentation has received more and more attention in recent years. With the advent of new instruments and technologies, researchers have found that sediment behavior may deviate from Fickian assumptions when particles are heavier. In particle-laden flow, bursting phenomena affects instantaneous local concentrations, and seems to carry suspended particles for a longer distance. Instead of the pure diffusion process in an analogy to Brownian motion, Levy flight which allows particles to move in response to bursting phenomena is suspected to be more suitable for describing particle movement in turbulence. And the fractional differential equation is a potential candidate to improve the concentration profile. However, stochastic modeling (the Differential Chapmen-Kolmogorov Equation) also provides an alternative mathematical framework to describe system transits between different states through diffusion/the jump processes. Within this framework, the stochastic particle tracking model linked with advection diffusion equation is a powerful tool to simulate particle locations in the flow field. By including the jump process to this model, a more comprehensive description for suspended sediment transport can be provided with a better physical insight. This study also shows the adaptability and expandability of the stochastic particle tracking model for suspended sediment transport modeling.

  10. Simplified Entropic Model for the Evaluation of Suspended Load Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Mirauda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment concentration is a key aspect in the forecasting of river evolution dynamics, as well as in water quality assessment, evaluation of reservoir impacts, and management of water resources. The estimation of suspended load often relies on empirical models, of which efficiency is limited by their analytic structure or by the need for calibration parameters. The present work deals with a simplified fully-analytical formulation of the so-called entropic model in order to reproduce the vertical distribution of sediment concentration. The simplification consists in the leading order expansion of the generalized spatial coordinate of the entropic velocity profile that, strictly speaking, applies to the near-bed region, but that provides acceptable results also near the free surface. The proposed closed-form solution, which highlights the interplay among channel morphology, stream power, secondary flows, and suspended transport features, allows reducing the needed number of field measurements and, therefore, the time of field activities. Its accuracy and robustness were successfully tested based on the comparison with laboratory data reported in literature.

  11. MEMS-Based Fuel Reformer with Suspended Membrane Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Sung; Tanaka, Shuji; Esashi, Masayoshi

    We report a MEMS-based fuel reformer for supplying hydrogen to micro-fuel cells for portable applications. A combustor and a reforming chamber are fabricated at either side of a suspended membrane structure. This design is used to improve the overall thermal efficiency, which is a critical issue to realize a micro-fuel reformer. The suspended membrane structure design provided good thermal isolation. The micro-heaters consumed 0.97W to maintain the reaction zone of the MEMS-based fuel reformer at 200°C, but further power saving is necessary by improving design and fabrication. The conversion rate of methanol to hydrogen was about 19% at 180°C by using evaporated copper as a reforming catalyst. The catalytic combustion of hydrogen started without any assistance of micro-heaters. By feeding the fuel mixture of an equivalence ratio of 0.35, the temperature of the suspended membrane structure was maintained stable at 100°C with a combustion efficiency of 30%. In future works, we will test a micro-fuel reformer by using a micro-combustor to supply heat.

  12. Optimal control of suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratianingsih, R.; Resnawati, Azim, Mardlijah, Widodo, B.

    2017-08-01

    Talaga Lake is one of several lakes in Central Sulawesi that potentially to be managed in multi purposes scheme because of its characteristic. The scheme is addressed not only due to the lake maintenance because of its sediment but also due to the Algae farming for its biodiesel fuel. This paper governs a suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake. The model is derived from the two dimensional hydrodynamic shallow water equations of the mass and momentum conservation law of sediment transport. An order reduction of the model gives six equations of hyperbolic systems of the depth, two dimension directional velocities and sediment concentration while the bed elevation as the second order of turbulent diffusion and dispersion are neglected. The system is discreted and linearized such that could be solved numerically by box-Keller method for some initial and boundary condition. The solutions shows that the downstream velocity is play a role in transversal direction of stream function flow. The downstream accumulated sediment indicate that the suspended sediment and its changing should be controlled by optimizing the downstream velocity and transversal suspended sediment changing due to the ideal algae growth need.

  13. Studying Suspended Sediment Mechanism with Two-Phase PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinpour, H.; Atkinson, J. F.; Bennett, S. J.; Guala, M.

    2017-12-01

    Suspended sediment transport affects soil erosion, agriculture and water resources quality. Turbulent diffusion is the most primary force to maintain sediments in suspension. Although extensive previous literature have been studying the interactions between turbulent motion and suspended sediment, mechanism of sediments in suspension is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate suspension of sediments as two distinct phases: one phase of sediments and another phase of fluid with turbulent motions. We designed and deployed a state-of-the-art two-phase PIV measurement technique to discriminate these two phases and acquire velocities of each phase separately and simultaneously. The technique that we have developed is employing a computer-vision based method, which enables us to discriminate sediment particles from fluid tracer particles based on two thresholds, dissimilar particle sizes and different particle intensities. Results indicate that fluid turbulence decreases in the presence of suspended sediments. Obtaining only sediment phase consecutive images enable us to compute fluctuation sediment concentration. This result enlightens understanding of complex interaction between the fluctuation velocities and the fluctuation of associated mass and compares turbulent viscosity with turbulent eddy diffusivity experimentally.

  14. Iron homeostasis and its disruption in mouse lung in iron deficiency and overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Gisela; D'Anna, María Cecilia; Roque, Marta Elena

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? The aim was to explore the role and hitherto unclear mechanisms of action of iron proteins in protecting the lung against the harmful effects of iron accumulation and the ability of pulmonary cells to mobilize iron in iron deficiency. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that pulmonary hepcidin appears not to modify cellular iron mobilization in the lung. We propose pathways for supplying iron to the lung in iron deficiency and for protecting the lung against iron excess in iron overload, mediated by the co-ordinated action of iron proteins, such as divalent metal transporter 1, ZRT-IRE-like-protein 14, transferrin receptor, ferritin, haemochromatosis-associated protein and ferroportin. Iron dyshomeostasis is associated with several forms of chronic lung disease, but its mechanisms of action remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the lung in whole-animal models with iron deficiency and iron overload, studying the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), ZRT-IRE-like protein 14 (ZIP14), transferrin receptor (TfR), haemochromatosis-associated protein (HFE), hepcidin, ferritin and ferroportin (FPN) expression. In each model, adult CF1 mice were divided into the following groups (six mice per group): (i) iron-overload model, iron saccharate i.p. and control group (iron adequate), 0.9% NaCl i.p.; and (ii) iron-deficiency model, induced by repeated bleeding, and control group (sham operated). Proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. In control mice, DMT1 was localized in the cytoplasm of airway cells, and in iron deficiency and overload it was in the apical membrane. Divalent metal transporter 1 and TfR increased in iron deficiency, without changes in iron overload. ZRT-IRE-like protein 14 decreased in airway cells in iron deficiency and increased in iron overload. In iron deficiency, HFE and FPN were immunolocalized close to the apical membrane

  15. Solid electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  16. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  17. Cardiac iron overload in chronically transfused patients with thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane de Montalembert

    Full Text Available The risk and clinical significance of cardiac iron overload due to chronic transfusion varies with the underlying disease. Cardiac iron overload shortens the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia, whereas its effect is unclear in those with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. In patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, iron does not seem to deposit quickly in the heart. Our primary objective was to assess through a multicentric study the prevalence of cardiac iron overload, defined as a cardiovascular magnetic resonance T2*8 ECs in the past year, and age older than 6 years. We included from 9 centers 20 patients with thalassemia, 41 with SCA, and 25 with MDS in 2012-2014. Erythrocytapharesis did not consistently prevent iron overload in patients with SCA. Cardiac iron overload was found in 3 (15% patients with thalassemia, none with SCA, and 4 (16% with MDS. The liver iron content (LIC ranged from 10.4 to 15.2 mg/g dry weight, with no significant differences across groups (P = 0.29. Abnormal T2* was not significantly associated with any of the measures of transfusion or chelation. Ferritin levels showed a strong association with LIC. Non-transferrin-bound iron was high in the thalassemia and MDS groups but low in the SCA group (P<0.001. Hepcidin was low in thalassemia, normal in SCA, and markedly elevated in MDS (P<0.001. Two mechanisms may explain that iron deposition largely spares the heart in SCA: the high level of erythropoiesis recycles the iron and the chronic inflammation retains iron within the macrophages. Thalassemia, in contrast, is characterized by inefficient erythropoiesis, unable to handle free iron. Iron accumulation varies widely in MDS syndromes due to the competing influences of abnormal erythropoiesis, excess iron supply, and inflammation.

  18. Incidental splenic nodules found on MR imaging done for assessment of iron overload in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyad, Rayan A.; Lam, Christopher Z.; Navarro, Oscar M.; Shearkhani, Omid

    2017-01-01

    MR imaging is used to assess iron overload in patients with hemoglobinopathies and in those who have undergone multiple blood transfusions. Sometimes splenic nodules are found incidentally on these examinations and this may cause diagnostic uncertainty. To determine the prevalence, imaging characteristics and evolution of splenic nodules found on MR imaging for iron overload evaluation. Retrospective review of all MR imaging examinations performed for iron overload assessment from 2005 to 2015 in a tertiary pediatric hospital. The presence of focal splenic nodules including number, size, signal characteristics and changes on follow-up MR imaging were recorded. Relevant patient clinical information including underlying hematological disease was also documented. A total of 318 patients had MR imaging for iron overload assessment. Of these, 25 (8%) had at least one incidental splenic nodule. Sickle cell disease was present in 22 patients (88%) and thalassemia in 3 (12%). On intermediate-weighted spin-echo images, the nodules had high signal intensity compared to the remainder of the spleen in 23 patients (92%) and low signal intensity in the remaining 2 (8%). In all patients (100%) the nodules showed progressive loss of signal intensity with increasing echo time values. Follow-up MR imaging was performed in 20 (80%) patients, which showed an increase in the size of the splenic nodules in 7 patients (35%) stability in 11 (55%) and a decrease in size in 2 (10%). It is not uncommon to find splenic nodules during MR evaluation of iron overload. In patients with sickle cell disease, most of these nodules are thought to represent preserved splenic tissue and appear hyperintense compared to the remainder of the spleen. They frequently remain stable on follow-up imaging, although about a third of them may show growth. Awareness of these nodules is important to avoid concern for potential malignancy and unnecessary investigations. (orig.)

  19. LRRC10 is required to maintain cardiac function in response to pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Matthew J; Feng, Li; Grimes, Adrian C; Hacker, Timothy A; Olson, Timothy M; Kamp, Timothy J; Balijepalli, Ravi C; Lee, Youngsook

    2016-01-15

    We previously reported that the cardiomyocyte-specific leucine-rich repeat containing protein (LRRC)10 has critical functions in the mammalian heart. In the present study, we tested the role of LRRC10 in the response of the heart to biomechanical stress by performing transverse aortic constriction on Lrrc10-null (Lrrc10(-/-)) mice. Mild pressure overload induced severe cardiac dysfunction and ventricular dilation in Lrrc10(-/-) mice compared with control mice. In addition to dilation and cardiomyopathy, Lrrc10(-/-) mice showed a pronounced increase in heart weight with pressure overload stimulation and a more dramatic loss of cardiac ventricular performance, collectively suggesting that the absence of LRRC10 renders the heart more disease prone with greater hypertrophy and structural remodeling, although rates of cardiac fibrosis and myocyte dropout were not different from control mice. Lrrc10(-/-) cardiomyocytes also exhibited reduced contractility in response to β-adrenergic stimulation, consistent with loss of cardiac ventricular performance after pressure overload. We have previously shown that LRRC10 interacts with actin in the heart. Here, we show that His(150) of LRRC10 was required for an interaction with actin, and this interaction was reduced after pressure overload, suggesting an integral role for LRRC10 in the response of the heart to mechanical stress. Importantly, these experiments demonstrated that LRRC10 is required to maintain cardiac performance in response to pressure overload and suggest that dysregulated expression or mutation of LRRC10 may greatly sensitize human patients to more severe cardiac disease in conditions such as chronic hypertension or aortic stenosis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Albumin Overload and PINK1/Parkin Signaling-Related Mitophagy in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jin; Xie, Qi; Song, Shuling; Miao, Yuyang; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    BACKGROUND Albumin, as a major urinary protein component, is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causes of albumin-induced proximal tubule cells injury. Mitophagy is considered as a pivotal protective mechanism for the elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria. The objective of this research was to determine whether albumin overload-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can activate PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs). MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence assay and Western blot assay were used to detect the effects of albumin overload on autophagy marker protein LC3. Transmission electron microscopy and Western blot assay were used to investigate the role of albumin in mitochondrial injury. Western blot assay and co-localization of acidic lysosomes and mitochondria assay were employed to detect the activation of mitophagy induced by albumin. Finally, we explored the role of PINK1/Parkin signaling in albumin-induced mitophagy by inhibiting mitophagy by knockdown of PARK2 (Parkin) level. RESULTS Immunofluorescence and Western blot results showed that the expression level of LC3-II increased, and the maximum increase point was observed after 8 h of albumin treatment. Transmission electron microscopy results demonstrated that albumin overload-induced mitochondrial injury and quantity of autophagosomes increased. Additionally, expression of PINK1 and cytosolic cytochrome C increased and mitochondria cytochrome C decreased in the albumin group. The co-localization of acidic lysosomes and mitochondria demonstrated that the number of albumin overload-induced mitophagy-positive dots increased. The transient transfection of PARK2 siRNA result showed knockdown of the expression level of PARK2 can inhibit mitophagy induced by albumin. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, our study suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction activates the PINK1/Parkin signaling and mitophagy in renal tubular