Sample records for suspended si3n4 beams

  1. Preparation and characterization of porous Si3 N4 ceramics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microstructure, mechanical properties and gas permeability of porous Si3N4 ceramics were investigated. The mechanical properties and microstructure of porous Si3N4 ceramics prepared by compression molding were better than those which were prepared by slip casting method, whereas slip casting method is suitable ...

  2. Preparation and characterization of porous Si3 N4 ceramics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Porous Si3N4 ceramics; preparation; microstructure; mechanical properties; gas permeability. 1. Introduction. Porous ceramics are used ... separation filters have become important to reduce envi- ronmental pollution in various fields. ... (2008) fabricated Si3N4 ceramics with a porosity of 0–30% by using partial hot-pressing.

  3. Characterization of Si3N4 powders in aqueous dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castanho S. Mello


    Full Text Available alpha- Si3N4 can easily oxidize when exposed in air atmosphere or other oxidizing environment. The chemistry of Si3N4 particle surfaces can change by different synthesis routes and also by subsequent processing steps. To avoid this oxidation is a challenge when Si3N4 powder is shaped by slip casting process from aqueous suspension. This study shows the variations on Si3N4 powder surface after slip casting process using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM on the green compacts. The results show that the dispersant used during the preparation of the slurry can reduce the level of oxidation of the Si3N4 particles when processing in aqueous solutions.

  4. Thermal expansion of spinel-type Si3N4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paszkowics, W.; Minkikayev, R.; Piszora, P.


    The lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) for the spinel-type Si3N4 phase prepared under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions are determined for 14 K......The lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) for the spinel-type Si3N4 phase prepared under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions are determined for 14 K...

  5. The Role of Si3N4 Amorphous Phase in nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 Nanocomposites in Increases the hardness and Thermal Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keba Moto


    Full Text Available The role of Si3N4 amorphous phase in  nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 nanocomposites will be shown and compared with polycrystalline ZrN/Ni which has no such amorphous phase (non-composites. The presence of amorphous phase Si3N4 increases the hardness of film as well as the toughness of the bulk nanocomposites under indentation load. It has been observed that nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 nanocomposites films has higher thermal stability than ZrN/Ni polycrystalline films.

  6. Effect of Si3N4 thickness on the optical characterization of grapheme. (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Wook; Lee, Jung Heon; Yoo, Ji-Beom


    Optical detection of graphene on a specific substrate is important for the analysis of the physical or chemical properties of graphene. Si3N4, an oxygen free substrate with high dielectric constant, is a good candidate to replace SiO2. In this letter, we report the optimization of the Si3N4 thickness for efficient optical characterization by means of the contrast, enhancement factor (F), and the Raman spectra of the graphene obtained on the selected Si3N4/Si substrate. The contrast (visibility) and enhancement factors (F, Raman intensity) of the graphene/Si3N4/Si structure were calculated as a function of the Si3N4 thickness and the wavelength of the excitation source. A suitable Si3N4 thickness generating high visibility and Raman intensities at the wavelength of the excitation source, 633 nm, was obtained.

  7. Fabrication of Si3N4 Nanocrystals and Nanowires Using PECVD

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    Jingwei Song


    Full Text Available Si3N4 nanowires and nanocrystals were prepared on Si substrates with or without Fe catalyst using silane (SiH4 and nitrogen (N2 as reactive gases through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technology. With Fe catalyst, Si3N4 nanowires were developed, indicating that Fe catalyst played a role for Si3N4 molecules directionally depositing into strings. The density of the nanowires is closely related to the density of Fe catalyst. When the density of Fe ions on the substrate was decreased remarkably, a smooth superlong Si3N4 nanowire with 12 μm in length was fabricated. Having analyzed the growth mechanism, a growth model for Si3N4 nanowires was developed. The growth of Si3N4 nanocrystallines was attributed to be a vapor-solid (V-S deposition process.

  8. Process control & monitoring for laser micromaching of Si3N4 ceramics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, L


    Full Text Available Laser machining which is a non-contact process that offers the advantage of machining advanced ceramics. In laser machining Si3N4, surface temperature is increased and controlled to evaporate the YSiAlON glassy phase of the Si3N4. However...

  9. Pulse electrodeposition and corrosion properties of Ni–Si3N4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    ings. The crystallite structure was fcc for electrodeposited nickel and Ni–Si3N4 nanocomposite coatings. It was con- firmed from the nickel ICDD–JCPDS standards (70-. 0989). The preferred growth process of the nickel matrix in crystallographic directions (111), (200) and (220) is strongly influenced by Si3N4 nanoparticles.

  10. Preparation of Si3N4–SiC composites by microwave route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    composited the creep resistance has also been reported to improve (Niihara et al 1990; Hirano et al 1996; Rendtel et al 1998; Yamada and Kamiya 1999). Possibilities of making engine components using Si3N4–SiC composites have been discussed in the literature. Si3N4–SiC compo- sites can be designed and sintered ...

  11. High confinement, high yield Si3N4 waveguides for nonlinear optical application

    CERN Document Server

    Epping, Jörn P; Mateman, Richard; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, René G; van Rees, Albert; van der Slot, Peter J M; Lee, Chris J; Boller, Klaus-J


    In this paper we present a novel fabrication technique for silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides with a thickness of up to 900 nm, which are suitable for nonlinear optical applications. The fabrication method is based on etching trenches in thermally oxidized silicon and filling the trenches with Si3N4. Using this technique no stress-induced cracks in the Si3N4 layer were observed resulting in a high yield of devices on the wafer. The propagation losses of the obtained waveguides were measured to be as low as 0.4 dB/cm at a wavelength of around 1550 nm.

  12. Glass formation and crystallization in high-temperature glass-ceramics and Si3N4 (United States)

    Drummond, Charles H., III


    The softening of glassy grain boundaries in ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 at high temperatures reduces mechanical strength and the upper-use temperature. By crystallizing this glass to a more refractory crystalline phase, a material which performs at higher temperatures may result. Three systems were examined: a cordierite composition with ZrO2 as a nucleating agent; celsian compositions; and yttrium silicate glasses both in bulk and intergranular in Si3N4. For the cordierite compositions, a series of metastable phases was obtained. The crystallization of these compositions was summarized in terms of metastable ternary isothermal sections. Zircon formed at the expense of ZrO2 and spinel. In SiC composites, the transformations were slower. In celsian, two polymorphs were crystallized. One phase, hexacelsian, which always crystallized, even when metastable, had an undesirable volume change. The other phase, celsian, was very difficult to crystallize. In yttrium silicate bulk glasses, similar in composition to the intergranular glass in Si3N4, a number of polymorphs of Y2Si2O7 were crystallized. The conditions under which these polymorphs formed are compared with crystallization in Si3N4.

  13. Pulse electrodeposition and corrosion properties of Ni–Si3N4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The development of modern technology requires metallic materials with better surface properties. In the present investigation; Si3N4-reinforced nickel nanocomposite coatings were deposited on a mild steel substrate using pulse current electrodeposition process employing a nickel acetate bath. Surface morphology ...

  14. Preparation of Si 3 N 4–SiC composites by microwave route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Decrease in relative density has manifested in the reduction of fracture toughness and microhardness values of the composite with increase in SiC content although the good sintering of matrix Si3N4 limits the decrease of fracture toughness. Highest value of fracture toughness of 6.1 MPa m1/2 is observed in 10 vol.

  15. Carbothermal synthesis of Si3N4 powders using a combustion synthesis precursor (United States)

    Chu, Ai-min; Qin, Ming-li; Jia, Bao-rui; Lu, Hui-feng; Qu, Xuan-hui


    Si3N4 powders were synthesized by a carbothermal reduction method using a SiO2 + C combustion synthesis precursor derived from a mixed solution consisting of silicic acid (Si source), polyacrylamide (additive), nitric acid (oxidizer), urea (fuel), and glucose (C source). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the obtained precursor exhibited a uniform mixture of SiO2 + C composed of porous blocky particles up to ˜20 μm. The precursor was subsequently calcined under nitrogen at 1200-1550°C for 2 h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the initial reduction reaction started at about 1300°C, and the complete transition of SiO2 into Si3N4 was found at 1550°C. The Si3N4 powders, synthesized at 1550°C, exhibit a mixture phase of α- and β-Si3N4 and consist of mainly agglomerates of fine particles of 100-300 nm, needle-like crystals and whiskers with a diameter of about 100 nm and a length up to several micrometers, and a minor amount of irregular-shaped growths.

  16. Characterization of rare-earth doped Si 3 N4 /SiC micro/nanocomposites

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    Peter Tatarko


    Full Text Available Influence of various rare-earth oxide additives (La2O3, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Y2O3, Yb2O3 and Lu2O3 on the mechanical properties of hot-pressed silicon nitride and silicon nitride/silicon carbide micro/nano-composites has been investigated. The bimodal character of microstructures was observed in all studied materials where elongated β-Si3N4 grains were embedded in the matrix of much finer Si3N4 grains. The fracture toughness values increased with decreasing ionic radius of rare-earth elements. The fracture toughness of composites was always lower than that of monoliths due to their finer Si3N4/SiC microstructures. Similarly, the hardness and bending strength values increased with decreasing ionic radius of rare-earth elements either in monoliths or composites. On the other hand, the positive influence of finer microstructure of the composites on strength was not observed due to the present defects in the form of SiC clusters and non-reacted carbon zones. Wear resistance at room temperature also increased with decreasing ionic radius of rare-earth element. Significantly improved creep resistance was observed in case either of composite materials or materials with smaller radius of RE3+.

  17. Experimental demonstration of directive Si3N4 optical leaky wave antenna with semiconductor perturbations at near infrared frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qiancheng; Huang, Yuewang; Campione, Salvatore; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal


    Directive optical leaky wave antennas (OLWAs) with tunable radiation pattern are promising integrated optical modulation and scanning devices. OLWAs fabricated using CMOS-compatible semiconductor planar waveguide technology have the potential of providing high directivity with electrical tunability for modulation and switching capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate directive radiation from a silicon nitride ($Si_3N_4$) waveguide-based OLWA. The OLWA design comprises 50 crystalline Si perturbations buried inside the waveguide, with a period of 1 {\\mu}m, each with a length of 260 nm and a height of 150 nm, leading to a directive radiation pattern at telecom wavelengths. The measured far-field radiation pattern at the wavelength of 1540 nm is very directive, with the maximum intensity at the angle of 84.4{\\deg} relative to the waveguide axis and a half-power beam width around 6.2{\\deg}, which is consistent with our theoretical predictions. The use of semiconductor perturbations facilitates electronic radiat...

  18. Effect of nano-Si3N4 surface treatment on the tribological performance of epoxy composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available To overcome the disadvantages generated by the loose nano-partilce agglomerates dispersed in polymer composites, a chemical grafting method was applied to modify nano-Si3N4 by covalently bonding glycidyl methacrylate (GMA onto the particles. The tribological behavior of the epoxy composite filled with nano-Si3N4 or GMA treated Si3N4 (Si3N4-g-PGMA was studied using a ring-on-block wear tester under dry sliding, and the worn surface of the filled epoxy composite and the surface roughness of the composites after the sliding wear test were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy and AFM (atomic force microscopy, respectively. In comparison to the composites filled with untreated nano-Si3N4 particles, the composites with the grafted Sinano-3N4 exhibit improved sliding wear resistance and reduced friction coefficient owing to the chemical bonding at the filler/matrix interface.

  19. Reaction-bonded Si3N4 and SiC matrix composites (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Behrendt, Donald R.


    A development status evaluation is presented for the reaction-bonded SiC- and Si3N4-matrix types of fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite (FRCMC). A variety of reaction-bonding methods are being pursued for FRCMC fabrication: CVI, CVD, directed metal oxidation, and self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Due to their high specific modulus and strength, toughness, and fabricability, reaction-bonded FRCMC are important candidate materials for such heat-engine components as combustor liners, nozzles, and turbine and stator blading. The improvement of long-term oxidative stability in these composites is a major goal of current research.

  20. TM grating coupler on low-loss LPCVD based Si3N4 waveguide platform (United States)

    Dabos, G.; Manolis, A.; Giesecke, A. L.; Porschatis, C.; Chmielak, B.; Wahlbrink, T.; Pleros, N.; Tsiokos, D.


    We demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, a fully etched TM grating coupler for low-loss Low-Pressure-Chemical-Vapor-Deposition (LPCVD) based silicon nitride platform with a coupling loss of 6.5 dB at 1541 nm and a 1 dB bandwidth of 55 nm, addressing applications where TM polarization is a pre-requisite. The proposed GC and the 360 nm × 800 nm strip based Si3N4 waveguides have been fabricated by optical projection lithography using an i-line stepper tool enabling low-cost and mass manufacturing of photonic-integrated-circuits.

  1. Development of Hardness Measurement Procedure for Nanocomposite nc-TiN/a-Si3N4

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    Keba Moto


    Full Text Available Hardness of nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 nanocomposites which was determined by using two methods of measurements i. e. depth sensing method and remaining plastic indentation area that were magnified by using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope lie in the good agreement. The hardness value is not influenced by the biaxial and residual compressive stress. The measurement of the biaxial stress on the substrate shows a very small value of biaxial stress as well as the constant hardness and crystallite size against annealing temperature. Therefore, the reported hardness value here is the intrinsic value that depend on its microstructure properties.

  2. Improvement in Contact Strength of Si3N4/SiC Composite by Crack Healing

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    Koji Takahashi


    Full Text Available Ceramics have been used as bearing and cutting tool components, which are subjected to contact loading during their operation. The presence of surface cracks on these components decreases their contact strength. Thus, the reliability of ceramic components can be increased by improving their contact strength through crack healing. In the present study, the effects of crack healing on the contact strength of a silicon carbide-(SiC- reinforced silicon nitride (Si3N4 composite subjected to various machining processes were investigated. The contact strength of this composite was evaluated using a sphere indentation test in which acoustic emission was used. The results showed that the contact strength of the composite improved when it was subjected to crack healing in combination with rapping; this was true even when the composite had cracks due to a heavy machining process.

  3. Highly selective chemical mechanical polishing of Si3N4 over SiO2 using advanced silica abrasive (United States)

    Bae, KiHo; Baek, Kye Hyun; Kim, JaeSeok; Kim, Hoyoung; Yoon, Bo Un; Kim, Jae Jeong


    Highly selective chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of Si3N4 over SiO2 is achieved by using a modified silica abrasive. Controlling the removal rate of Si3N4/SiO2, chemical reaction is a dominant factor for ceria abrasive, but physical force such as repulsion/attraction is a primary one for silica abrasive. In order to maximize mechanical action in CMP process using silica slurry, we modified the surface charge of silica abrasive into having more negative charge, which resulting in -50 mV of zeta potential in a low pH (< 3.0) slurry. This strong negative zeta potential of the modified silica abrasive enables enhancing attractive forces to Si3N4 and repulsive forces to SiO2 in a low pH environment. In addition, a cocoon shape silica abrasive shows 3 times higher Si3N4 RR than a spherical shape one. Consequently, selectivity of Si3N4 over SiO2 reaches 95.0, which is significantly improved from 0.0167 in the conventional silica abrasive case. When this modified silicon abrasive and the optimum pH condition are applied, in-chip uniformity at various pattern densities of Si3N4 (0, 12, and 32%) turns out to be well controlled under 100 Å. This result is an acceptable level for our semiconductor device integration.

  4. Si3N4 recubierto con diamante CVD mediante filamento caliente y plasma generado por microondas

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    Belmonte, M.


    Full Text Available Silicon nitride substrates have been diamond coated by hot-filament (home made and microwave plasma (commercial CVD reactors. The importance of Si3N4 as substrate relies on its favoured adhesion to the diamond film, as required in wear applications. Diamond coatings have been characterized by μ-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The diamond film/substrate adhesion has been evaluated by performing Brale indentations at different loads. The diamond films grown by hot filament matched those grown by microwave plasma in terms of morphology and diamond quality, only loosing in uniformity. Spherical substrates have also been used to compare the films coated by both techniques.Se han depositado películas de diamante CVD sobre substratos de nitruro de silicio empleando un reactor experimental de filamento caliente y un reactor comercial que utiliza un plasma generado por microondas. La importancia del Si3N4 como substrato reside en que favorece una buena adhesión con el diamante para ser utilizado en aplicaciones de desgaste. Los recubrimientos obtenidos han sido caracterizados mediante espectroscopía μ-Raman, difracción de Rayos-X, microscopía electrónica de barrido y microscopía de fuerza atómica. El grado de adhesión entre la película y el substrato ha sido determinado realizando una serie de indentaciones con una punta Brale a diferentes cargas. Las películas depositadas mediante filamento caliente son similares, en términos de calidad del diamante y morfología, a las conseguidas con plasma inducido por microondas, aunque presentan problemas de uniformidad. Se han utilizado también substratos con geometría esférica para comparar los recubrimientos obtenidos por ambas técnicas.

  5. Concentrated aqueous Si3N4 -Y2O3 -Al2O3 slips stabalized with tetramethylammonium hydroxide

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    Albano M. P.


    Full Text Available In order to obtain well dispersed concentrated aqueous Si3N4 slips for slip casting, the influence of pH and sintering aid powders (Y2O3 and Al2O3 on the viscosity and on the amount of tetramethylammonium ions adsorbed were determined. 35 vol% aqueous Si3N4 and Si3N4-6wt%Y2O3-4wt% Al2O3 slips were prepared in an attrition mill. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide was added to adjust the pH values in a range of 9.7 to 12.3. The viscosity of Si3N4 slips and the amount of [(CH34N]+ ions in solution increased with increasing pH. These counterions contributed mainly to increase the ionic strength of the solution with increasing the slip viscosity. The sintering aid powders had a positive effect on the dispersion of the Si3N4 powder at pH 10.3-12.3 since low viscosity values could be obtained. This was attributed to the lower concentration of counterions in solution.

  6. Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, LC


    Full Text Available & Coatings Technology 289 (2016) 52–60 Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining Lerato Criscelda Tshabalala, Sisa Pityana Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University...

  7. Spark Plasma Sintered Si3N4/TiN Nanocomposites Obtained by a Colloidal Processing Route

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    L. A. Díaz


    Full Text Available Ceramic Si3N4/TiN (22 vol% nanocomposites have been obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. Our colloidal processing route allows obtaining dispersed nanoparticles of TiN smaller than 50 nm avoiding the presence of agglomerates. The nanostructured starting powders were obtained by using a colloidal method where commercial Si3N4 submicrometer particles were coated with anatase TiO2 nanocrystals. A later nitridation process led to the formation of TiN nanoparticles on the surface of Si3N4. A second set of powders was prepared by doping the above defined powders with yttrium and aluminium precursors using also a colloidal method as sources of alumina and yttria. After thermal nitridation and SPS treatment, it has been found that the addition of oxides dopants improves the mechanical performance (KIC, σf but increases the electrical resistivity and significantly reduces the hardness. This is due to the formation of a continuous insulating glassy phase that totally envelops the conductive TiN nanoparticles, avoiding the percolative contact between them. The combination of colloidal processing route and SPS allows the designing of tailor-made free glassy phase Si3N4/TiN nanocomposites with controlled microstructure. The microstructural features and the thermoelectrical and mechanical properties of both kinds of dense SPSed compacts are discussed in this work.

  8. Ultra-broadband Supercontinuum Generation at Telecommunication Wavelengths in Dispersion Engineered Stoichiometric Si3N4 Waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Garcia Porcel, M.A.; Epping, J.P.; Hellwig, T.; Hoekman, M.; Mateman, R.; Leinse, Arne; Heideman, R.G.; van Rees, A.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Lee, Christopher James; Schmidt, R.; Bratschitsch, R.; Boller, Klaus J.; Fallnich, Carsten


    We demonstrate the generation of ultra-broadband supercontinua in Si3N4 waveguides at a pump wavelength of 1560nm. The supercontinuum extends to beyond 2.6µm wavelength in the infrared and has a spectral width of more then 453THz.

  9. Efecto de la microestructura en el comportamiento tribológico de materiales monolíticos de Si3N4 y de compuestos Si3N4–SiC

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    Silva, R. F.


    Full Text Available The tribological behaviour of various Si3N4 based materials, including Si3N4/SiC composites, has been analysed from room temperature up to 700ºC, and for sliding speeds between 0.5 and 2 m/s. Materials have been prepared by hot pressing at 1750ºC in nitrogen atmosphere, varying α-Si3N4 phase content, microstructure coarseness and shape and size of the SiC particles. Wear tests were performed in self-mated pairs using a pin on disc tribometer, without lubrication and at a fixed load of 5 N. Pin and disc worn surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS. Debris generated during tests was analysed by SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Results showed friction, f, and wear coefficients, K, above 0.3 y 10-6 mm3N-1m-1, respectively. Wear mechanism depended on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the materials.Se ha analizado el comportamiento tribológico de materiales de Si3N4 y de compuestos Si3N4/SiC, desde temperatura ambiente hasta 700ºC y en el rango de velocidades 0.5-2 m/s. Los materiales se han preparado mediante prensado en caliente a 1750ºC en atmósfera de nitrógeno, variando el contenido en fase α-Si3N4, el tamaño medio de grano, y la morfología de las partículas de SiC adicionadas. Los ensayos se han realizado en pares homólogos utilizando un tribómetro del tipo punta sobre disco, sin lubricación y a una carga constante de 5 N. Las superficies de desgaste de las puntas y los discos se observaron en un microscopio electrónico de barrido con capacidad analítica (MEB-EDX. Los residuos generados durante los ensayos se analizaron mediante MEB-EDX y difracción de rayos X (DRX. Los resultados obtenidos en los ensayos daban valores de coeficiente de fricción, f, y de desgaste, K, superiores a 0.3 y 10-6 mm3N-1m-1, respectivamente. El mecanismo de desgaste predominante dependía de la microestructura y de las propiedades mecánicas del material ensayado.

  10. Improvement of strength of carbon nanotube-dispersed Si3N4 ceramics by bead milling and adding lower-temperature sintering aids

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    Mitsuaki Matsuoka


    Full Text Available Studies on the dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs in silicon nitride (Si3N4 ceramics to provide the latter with electrical conductivity have been carried out in recent years. The density and the strength of Si3N4 ceramics were degraded, however, because the CNTs prevented Si3N4 from densifying. The CNTs disappeared after firing at high temperatures owing to the reaction between CNTs and Si3N4 or SiO2, or both Si3N4 and SiO2. In order to improve the density and suppress the reaction, sintering aids for lower-temperature densification of Si3N4 are needed. In this study, we added HfO2 as a sintering aid to a Si3N4–Y2O3–Al2O3–AlN–TiO2 system to fabricate CNT-dispersed Si3N4 ceramics at lower temperatures. Furthermore, bead milling was applied to disperse the CNTs homogeneously. Agglomerates of CNTs were pulverized by bead milling without obvious changes in morphology to eliminate larger fracture origins in CNT-dispersed ceramics. As a result of both the addition of HfO2 and bead milling, we successfully fabricated dense CNT-dispersed Si3N4 ceramics with high strength and electrical conductivity.

  11. Infrared measurement of undercooling during silicon solidification on bare and Si3N4 coated quartz substrates (United States)

    Yang, C. F.; Tsoutsouva, M. G.; Hsu, H. P.; Lan, C. W.


    Undercooling is one of the most significant parameters in the solidification of silicon since it controls the grain structure formation, which determines the final performance of solar cell. Here a new and simple experimental facility is proposed to provide reliable undercooling values and visualize the melting-solidification process when silicon solidifies on a bare and a Si3N4 coated quartz (SiO2) substrate. A lamp heating system was used for the melting, the undercooling temperature was measured with the aid of an infrared single-color pyrometer while the morphologies of the growing silicon on the SiO2 and Si3N4-coated SiO2 substrates are also investigated through a digital microscope. The high precision and accuracy of the given undercooling values when using the present setup comes from the principle of minimizing the background radiation that can significantly influence the pyrometer measurements.

  12. Estudo de sinterização do compósito Si3N4/TiC Sintering studies of the Si3N4/TiC composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Coutinho


    Full Text Available A busca por melhores propriedades mecânicas e maior confiabilidade de cerâmicas à base de Si3N4 faz com que seus compósitos sejam desenvolvidos e intensivamente estudados. A maioria das pesquisas realizadas foca as interações e propriedades mecânicas obtidas, mas interações químicas entre as fases foram pouco estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar as interações químicas que ocorrem durante a sinterização do compósito Si3N4-20%vol. TiC. A cinética de sinterização foi estudada por dilatometria, com patamar a 1750 °C/1 h em atmosfera dinâmica de N2. Os resultados de dilatometria indicam alterações na cinética de sinterização, quando comparado ao Si3N4 monolítico. Para avaliar as fases que se formam em temperaturas intermediárias, os compósitos foram tratados termicamente entre 1400 °C e 1850 °C. As amostras foram caracterizadas por difração de raios X. Foi observada a formação da solução sólida TiCN e da fase SiC.During the last years much attention was given towards the better properties and reliability of Si3N4 based composites. Most of the research focus on the improvement of the mechanical properties but not on the chemical interaction between the phases of the composite. The purpose of this work is to study the chemical interactions between Si3N4 and TiC during the sintering process. The kinetics of sintering was studied by means of dilatometry, at 1750 °C/1 h in a dynamic atmosphere of N2. Thermal treatments were carried out in the temperature range 1400 - 1850 °C to analyze the reactions. The phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. Alterations on the sintering kinetics due to the presence of the second phase were observed. These alterations must be related to the formation of the TiCN solid solution and SiC, observed in X-ray diffraction.

  13. In situ synthesis and properties of self-reinforced Si3N4–SiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These composites with different compositions were prepared in a nitrogenatmosphere for comparison of phase transformation and mechanical properties. The results showed that SiO 2 –Al 2 O 3 –Y 2 O 3 (La 2 O 3 ) glass can effectively promote α - to β -Si 3 N 4 phase transformation. The crystallized Y 2 Si 2 O 7 –La 4.67 ...

  14. Adhesion and wear behaviour of NCD coatings on Si3N4 by micro-abrasion tests. (United States)

    Silva, F G; Neto, M A; Fernandes, A J S; Costa, F M; Oliveira, F J; Silva, R F


    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) coatings offer an excellent alternative for tribological applications, preserving most of the intrinsic mechanical properties of polycrystalline CVD diamond and adding to it an extreme surface smoothness. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics are reported to guarantee high adhesion levels to CVD microcrystalline diamond coatings, but the NCD adhesion to Si3N4 is not yet well established. Micro-abrasion tests are appropriate for evaluating the abrasive wear resistance of a given surface, but they also provide information on thin film/substrate interfacial resistance, i.e., film adhesion. In this study, a comparison is made between the behaviour of NCD films deposited by hot-filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) and microwave plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) techniques. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic discs were selected as substrates. The NCD depositions by HFCVD and MPCVD were carried out using H2-CH4 and H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures, respectively. An adequate set of growth parameters was chosen for each CVD technique, resulting in NCD films having a final thickness of 5 microm. A micro-abrasion tribometer was used, with 3 microm diamond grit as the abrasive slurry element. Experiments were carried out at a constant rotational speed (80 r.p.m.) and by varying the applied load in the range of 0.25-0.75 N. The wear rate for MPCVD NCD (3.7 +/- 0.8 x 10(-5) mm3 N(-1) m(-1)) is compatible with those reported for microcrystalline CVD diamond. The HFCVD films displayed poorer adhesion to the Si3N4 ceramic substrates than the MPCVD ones. However, the HFCVD films show better wear resistance as a result of their higher crystallinity according to the UV Raman data, despite evidencing premature adhesion failure.

  15. Nanostructures based in boro nitride thin films deposited by PLD onto Si/Si3N4/DLC substrate (United States)

    Román, W. S.; Riascos, H.; Caicedo, J. C.; Ospina, R.; Tirado-Mejía, L.


    Diamond-like carbon and boron nitride were deposited like nanostructered bilayer on Si/Si3N4 substrate, both with (100) crystallographic orientation, these films were deposited through pulsed laser technique (Nd: YAG: 8 Jcm-2, 9ns). Graphite (99.99%) and boron nitride (99.99%) targets used to growth the films in argon atmosphere. The thicknesses of bilayer were determined with a perfilometer, active vibration modes were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), finding bands associated around 1400 cm-1 for B - N bonding and bands around 1700 cm-1 associated with C=C stretching vibrations of non-conjugated alkenes and azometinic groups, respectively. The crystallites of thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and determinated the h-BN (0002), α-Si3N4 (101) phases. The aim of this study is to relate the dependence on physical and chemical characteristics of the system Si/Si3N4/DLC/BN with gas pressure adjusted at the 1.33, 2.67 and 5.33 Pa values.

  16. Large scale synthesis of α-Si3N4 nanowires through a kinetically favored chemical vapour deposition process (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Min, Xin


    Understanding the kinetic barrier and driving force for crystal nucleation and growth is decisive for the synthesis of nanowires with controllable yield and morphology. In this research, we developed an effective reaction system to synthesize very large scale α-Si3N4 nanowires (hundreds of milligrams) and carried out a comparative study to characterize the kinetic influence of gas precursor supersaturation and liquid metal catalyst. The phase composition, morphology, microstructure and photoluminescence properties of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and room temperature photoluminescence measurement. The yield of the products not only relates to the reaction temperature (thermodynamic condition) but also to the distribution of gas precursors (kinetic condition). As revealed in this research, by controlling the gas diffusion process, the yield of the nanowire products could be greatly improved. The experimental results indicate that the supersaturation is the dominant factor in the as-designed system rather than the catalyst. With excellent non-flammability and high thermal stability, the large scale α-Si3N4 products would have potential applications to the improvement of strength of high temperature ceramic composites. The photoluminescence spectrum of the α-Si3N4 shows a blue shift which could be valued for future applications in blue-green emitting devices. There is no doubt that the large scale products are the base of these applications.

  17. Fabrication of Si3N4-Based Artificial Basilar Membrane with ZnO Nanopillar Using MEMS Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyuk Kwak


    Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication of Si3N4-based artificial basilar membrane (ABM with ZnO nanopillar array. Structure of ABMs is composed of the logarithmically varying membrane fabricated by MEMS process and piezonanopillar array grown on the Si3N4-based membrane by hydrothermal method. We fabricate the bottom substrate containing Si3N4-based membrane for inducing the resonant motions from the sound wave and the top substrates of electrodes for acquiring electric signals. In addition, the bonding process of the top and bottom substrate is performed to build ABM device. Depending on sound wave input of the specific frequency, specific location of the ABM produces a resonant behavior. Then a local deformation of the piezonanopillar array produces an electric signal between top and bottom electrode. As experimental results of the fabricated ABM, the measured resonant frequencies are 2.34 kHz, 3.97 kHz, and 8.80 kHz and the produced electrical voltages on each resonant frequency are 794 nV, 398 nV, and 89 nV. Thus, this fabricated ABM device shows the possibility of being a biomimetic acoustic device.

  18. Robust design of Si/Si3N4 high contrast grating mirror for mid-infrared VCSEL application

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallier, Christyves; Genty, Frédéric; Jacquet, Joel


    A Si/Si3N4 high contrast grating mirror has been designed for a VCSEL integration in mid-infrared ({\\lambda} = 2.65 $\\mu$m). The use of an optimization algorithm which maximizes a VCSEL mirror quality factor allowed the adjustment of the grating parameters while keeping large and shallow grating pattern. The robustness with respect to fabrication error has been enhanced thanks to a precise study of the grating dimension tolerances. The final mirror exhibits large high reflectivity bandwidth with a polarization selectivity and several percent of tolerance on the grating dimensions.

  19. Stress domains in Si(111)/a-Si3N4 nanopixel: ten-million-atom molecular dynamics simulations on parallel computers (United States)

    Omeltchenko; Bachlechner; Nakano; Kalia; Vashishta; Ebbsjo; Madhukar; Messina


    Parallel molecular dynamics simulations are performed to determine atomic-level stresses in Si(111)/Si(3)N4(0001) and Si(111)/a-Si3N4 nanopixels. Compared to the crystalline case, the stresses in amorphous Si3N4 are highly inhomogeneous in the plane of the interface. In silicon below the interface, for a 25 nm square mesa stress domains with triangular symmetry are observed, whereas for a rectangular, 54 nmx33 nm, mesa tensile stress domains ( approximately 300 A) are separated by Y-shaped compressive domain wall. Maximum stresses in the domains and domain walls are -2 GPa and +2 GPa, respectively.

  20. Simulation of 20-channel, 50-GHz, Si3N4-based arrayed waveguide grating applying three different photonics tools (United States)

    Gajdošová, Lenka; Seyringer, Dana


    We present the design and simulation of 20-channel, 50-GHz Si3N4 based AWG using three different commercial photonics tools, namely PHASAR from Optiwave Systems Inc., APSS from Apollo Photonics Inc. and RSoft from Synopsys Inc. For this purpose we created identical waveguide structures and identical AWG layouts in these tools and performed BPM simulations. For the simulations the same calculation conditions were used. These AWGs were designed for TM-polarized light with an AWG central wavelength of 850 nm. The output of all simulations, the transmission characteristics, were used to calculate the transmission parameters defining the optical properties of the simulated AWGs. These parameters were summarized and compared with each other. The results feature very good correlation between the tools and are comparable to the designed parameters in AWG-Parameters tool.

  1. Broadband anti-reflection coating using dielectric Si3N4 nanostructures. Application to amorphous-Si-H solar cells (United States)

    Elshorbagy, M. H.; Abdel-Hady, Kamal; Kamal, Hala; Alda, Javier


    Absorption of amorphous-Si hydrogenated (aSi-H) solar cells can be enhanced by using dielectric nanostructures made of Si3N4 that work like antireflection coatings. The analysis focus on the short-circuit current delivered by the cell under solar irradiance, and it is made taking into account every layer and structure of an aSi-H cell. A customized design of the antireflection coating in the form of nanostructured dielectric layers, produces a short-circuit current enhancement of 15.2% with respect to the reference flat solar cell, and a lower reflectivity of the cell. Three different geometries of linear nanostructures have been analyzed and compared with quite similar results among them. An improvement in performance has been also obtained for realizable geometrical dimensions that could be fabricated while maintaining electric conductivity of the front contact.

  2. Barrier height modification and mechanism of carrier transport in Ni/in situ grown Si3N4/n-GaN Schottky contacts (United States)

    Karpov, S. Y.; Zakheim, D. A.; Lundin, W. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Brunkov, P. N.; Lundina, E. Y.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.


    In situ growth of an ultra-thin (up to 2.5 nm) Si3N4 film on the top of n-GaN is shown to reduce remarkably the height of the barrier formed by deposition of Ni-based Schottky contact. The reduction is interpreted in terms of polarization dipole induced at the Si3N4/n-GaN interface and Fermi level pinning at the Ni/Si3N4 interface. Detailed study of temperature-dependent current-voltage characteristics enables identification of the electron transport mechanism in such Schottky diodes under forward bias: thermal/field electron emission over the barrier formed in n-GaN followed by tunneling through the Si3N4 film. At reverse bias and room temperature, the charge transfer is likely controlled by Poole-Frenkel ionization of deep traps in n-GaN. Tunneling exponents at forward and reverse biases and the height of the Ni/Si3N4 Schottky barrier are evaluated experimentally and compared with theoretical predictions.

  3. Optimization of wear loss in silicon nitride (Si3N4)-hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) composite using DoE-Taguchi method. (United States)

    Ghalme, Sachin; Mankar, Ankush; Bhalerao, Y J


    The contacting surfaces subjected to progressive loss of material known as 'wear,' which is unavoidable between contacting surfaces. Similar kind of phenomenon observed in the human body in various joints where sliding/rolling contact takes place in contacting parts, leading to loss of material. This is a serious issue related to replaced joint or artificial joint. Out of the various material combinations proposed for artificial joint or joint replacement Si3N4 against Al2O3 is one of in ceramic on ceramic category. Minimizing the wear loss of Si3N4 is a prime requirement to avoid aseptic loosening of artificial joint and extending life of joint. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the wear loss behavior of Si3N4-hBN composite and evaluate the effect of hBN addition in Si3N4 to minimize the wear loss. DoE-Taguchi technique is used to plan and analyze experiments. Analysis of experimental results proposes 15 N load and 8 % of hBN addition in Si3N4 is optimum to minimize wear loss against alumina.

  4. Investigation of solar cell performance using multilayer thin film structure (SiO2/Si3N4 and grating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Dubey

    Full Text Available Thin film silicon solar cells are the better choice due to their low cost as compared to the crystalline solar cells. However, thin film silicon solar cells are suffering from a problem of weak absorption of incident light and hence, light trapping mechanism is essential for the harvesting of maximum solar radiation. In this paper, we present the performance of solar cell using an efficient back reflector composed of multilayer thin film (SiO2/Si3N4 and a diffraction grating. The use of a back reflector showed enhanced light absorption due to the folding of unabsorbed light coming to it after crossing the active region in a wide wavelength range. Further, the effect of active layer thickness and grating height were also discussed for the optimal performance of the solar cell. In the case of magnetic transverse mode, a relative enhancement in cell efficiency about 79 and 21% respectively have been observed with respect to a planar and SC4 solar cells. Keywords: Dielectric multilayer film structure, Bragg reflectors, Reflection, Thin film silicon solar cells, Absorption

  5. Total Ionizing Dose Effects of Si Vertical Diffused MOSFET with SiO2 and Si3N4/SiO2 Gate Dielectrics

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    Jiongjiong Mo


    Full Text Available The total ionizing dose irradiation effects are investigated in Si vertical diffused MOSFETs (VDMOSs with different gate dielectrics including single SiO2 layer and double Si3N4/SiO2 layer. Radiation-induced holes trapping is greater for single SiO2 layer than for double Si3N4/SiO2 layer. Dielectric oxidation temperature dependent TID effects are also studied. Holes trapping induced negative threshold voltage shift is smaller for SiO2 at lower oxidation temperature. Gate bias during irradiation leads to different VTH shift for different gate dielectrics. Single SiO2 layer shows the worst negative VTH at VG=0 V, while double Si3N4/SiO2 shows negative VTH shift at VG=-5 V, positive VTH shift at VG=10 V, and negligible VTH shift at VG=0 V.

  6. Microstructure, mechanical and tribological performance of hybrid A359/(SiC  +  Si3N4) composites for automotive applications (United States)

    Shalaby, Essam A. M.; Churyumov, Alexander Yu


    In this study, microstructure analysis, yield strength at high temperatures and wear rate of hybrid A359/(SiC  +  Si3N4) composites were investigated. Different weight percent of (SiC  +  Si3N4) particles were introduced to synthesis the composites using stir/squeeze process. XRD, SEM, TEM and EDS were utilized to investigate the distribution of particles throughout the matrix, and the interfacial reaction at matrix/particle interface. It confirmed the existence of MgAl2O4 which enhances the wettability between the particles and the matrix, and the absence of particle agglomeration. The (SiC  +  Si3N4) addition not only enhances the hardness measurements but also leads to a reduction in the dendritic arm spacing (DAS). Moreover, it develops the wear performance and the yield strength at high temperatures. The developed composites provide a promising material suitable for automotive industries.

  7. Tribological Properties of Ni3Al Matrix Composite Sliding Against Si3N4, SiC and Al2O3 at Elevated Temperatures (United States)

    Yan, Chengqi; Kang, Yonghai; Kong, Lingqian; Zhu, Shengyu


    The Ni3Al matrix self-lubricating composite was fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The tribological behavior of the composite sliding against commercial Si3N4, SiC and Al2O3 ceramic balls was investigated from 20 to 1000 °C. It was found that the composite demonstrated excellent lubricating properties with different friction pairs at a wide temperature range, which can be attributed to the synergetic effect of Ag, fluorides, and molybdates formed by oxidations. The Ni3Al matrix self-lubricating composite/Si3N4 couple possessed the stable friction coefficient and wear rate.

  8. Performance Analysis of Si3N4 Capping Layer and SOI Technology in Sub 90 nm PMOS Device (United States)

    Rahim, Noor Ashikin Binti Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd. Hanapiah B.; Rusop, Mohamad


    This technical paper investigates the electrical analysis in sub 90 nm of PMOS. The investigation was carried out by using two different methods which is PMOS with strained silicon and Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology. Strained silicon engineering has become a key innovation to enhance device on current. Recently, SOI technology has been widely accepted for use in mainstream high performance logic applications due to some advantageous offered over the bulk silicon. The performance of the devices is analyzed by focusing on the electrical characteristics of Id-Vd and Id-Vg curves for three different structures. Firstly, PMOS with strained silicon of Si3N4 capping layer covering the gate area and secondly the device with and without SOI technology. The fabrication process simulation was simulated by using SILVACO TCAD ATHENA simulator and the electrical characteristic was simulated by SILVACO TCAD ATLAS simulator to obtain Id-Vd and Id-Vg curves. A fruitful and knowledgeable results were reported from this paper, it could be seen that high tensile strain introduced to the device causing the drain current to decreased from Id(bulk) = -400 uA/um of bulk to Id(Strain) = -310 uA/um which is about 25% of decrement. Since the drain current decreased, the carrier mobility and the performance also decreased proportional to drain current. However when SOI technology is applied to the PMOS device, the drain current was increased up to Id(SOI) = -431 uA/um over the bulk, the increment of about 9.25% reported. A higher Id-Vg curve and lower threshold of about pVth(SOI) = -0.2178 V also reported from this paper which tells that the device with SOI technology exhibits low power consumption device and fast switching which in turns contribute to a faster performance.

  9. A directional coupling scheme for efficient coupling between Si3N4 photonic and hybrid slot-based plasmonic waveguides (United States)

    Ketzaki, D.; Dabos, G.; Weeber, J. C.; Dereux, A.; Tsiokos, D.; Pleros, N.


    Slot-based plasmonic waveguides have attracted significant attention owing to their unique ability to confine light within nanometer-scale. In this context, enhanced localized light-matter interaction and control have been exploited to demonstrate novel concepts in data communication and sensing applications revealing the immense potential of plasmonic slot waveguides. However, inherent light absorption in the metallic parts included is such structures hampers the scaling of plasmonic devices and limits their application diversity. A promising solution of such issues is the use of hybrid plasmo-photonic configurations. Hybrid slot waveguides have been introduced as the means to reduce such propagation losses while maintaining their functional advantages. In addition, their co-integration with low-loss photonic waveguides can enable the development of more complex structures with acceptable overall losses. In such scenario, light needs to be efficiently transferred from the photonic to the plasmonic components and/or backwards. Based on this rationale, in this work a hybrid slot-based structure is adopted to achieve highly efficient light transfer between photonic and plasmonic slot waveguides in the near-infrared spectrum region (λ=1550 nm). This transition is realized with the aid of a directional coupling scheme. For this purpose, a Si3N4 bus waveguide (photonic branch) is located below an Aubased metallic slot (plasmonic branch) forming a hybrid waveguide element. The combined configuration, as it is shown with the aid of numerical simulations , is capable of supporting two hybrid guided modes with quasi-even and odd symmetry allowing the development of a power exchange mechanism between the two branches. In this context, a new directional coupling structure has been designed which can achieve power transmission per transition over 68% within a coupling length of the order of just several microns.

  10. Improving the dielectric properties of an electrowetting-on-dielectric microfluidic device with a low-pressure chemical vapor deposited Si3N4 dielectric layer. (United States)

    Shen, Hsien-Hua; Chung, Lung-Yuan; Yao, Da-Jeng


    Dielectric breakdown is a common problem in a digital microfluidic system, which limits its application in chemical or biomedical applications. We propose a new fabrication of an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) device using Si3N4 deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) as a dielectric layer. This material exhibits a greater relative permittivity, purity, uniformity, and biocompatibility than polymeric films. These properties also increase the breakdown voltage of a dielectric layer and increase the stability of an EWOD system when applied in biomedical research. Medium droplets with mouse embryos were manipulated in this manner. The electrical properties of the Si3N4 dielectric layer-breakdown voltage, refractive index, relative permittivity, and variation of contact angle with input voltage-were investigated and compared with a traditional Si3N4 dielectric layer deposited as a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to confirm the potential of LPCVD Si3N4 applied as the dielectric layer of an EWOD digital microfluidic system.

  11. Nonlinear and multilevel resistive switching memory in Ni/Si3N4/Al2O3/TiN structures (United States)

    Kim, Sungjun; Park, Byung-Gook


    In this letter, we extensively investigate the nonlinear resistive switching characteristics of Si3N4-based resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices that contain an Al2O3 tunnel barrier layer to alleviate sneak path currents in the cross-point array structure. When the compliance current (ICC) exceeds 1 mA, the Ni/Si3N4/TiN device shows both unipolar and bipolar switching with Ohmic characteristics in the low resistance state. Nonlinear resistive switching characteristics were observed for this device when ICC was ≤100 μA. We fabricated Si3N4/Al2O3 bilayer devices with different tunnel barrier layer thickness and characterized their nonlinear characteristics and failure resistance during the reset process. Furthermore, we obtained stable multiple resistance levels in the devices by varying ICC and the stop voltage for the set and reset switching, respectively. Our results suggest that an Al2O3 tunnel barrier layer embedded in Si3N4-based RRAM devices offers considerable potential to realize high-density cross-point memory array applications.

  12. Improving the dielectric properties of an electrowetting-on-dielectric microfluidic device with a low-pressure chemical vapor deposited Si3N4 dielectric layer (United States)

    Shen, Hsien-Hua; Chung, Lung-Yuan


    Dielectric breakdown is a common problem in a digital microfluidic system, which limits its application in chemical or biomedical applications. We propose a new fabrication of an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) device using Si3N4 deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) as a dielectric layer. This material exhibits a greater relative permittivity, purity, uniformity, and biocompatibility than polymeric films. These properties also increase the breakdown voltage of a dielectric layer and increase the stability of an EWOD system when applied in biomedical research. Medium droplets with mouse embryos were manipulated in this manner. The electrical properties of the Si3N4 dielectric layer—breakdown voltage, refractive index, relative permittivity, and variation of contact angle with input voltage—were investigated and compared with a traditional Si3N4 dielectric layer deposited as a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to confirm the potential of LPCVD Si3N4 applied as the dielectric layer of an EWOD digital microfluidic system. PMID:25825614

  13. Evaluation of the reliability of Si3N4-Al2O3 -CTR2O3 ceramics through Weibull analysis

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    Santos Claudinei dos


    Full Text Available The objective of this work has been to compare the reliability of two Si3N4 ceramics, with Y2O3/Al2O3 or CTR2O3/Al2O3 mixtures as additives, in regard to their 4-point bending strength and to confirm the potential of the rare earth oxide mixture, CTR2O3, produced at FAENQUIL, as an alternative, low cost sinter additive for pure Y2O3 in the sintering of Si3N4 ceramics. The oxide mixture CTR2O3 is a solid solution formed mainly by Y2O3, Er2O3, Yb2O3 and Dy2O3 with other minor constituents and is obtained at a cost of only 20% of pure Y2O3. Samples were sintered by a gas pressure sintering process at 1900 °C under a nitrogen pressure of 1.5 MPa and an isothermal holding time of 2 h. The obtained materials were characterized by their relative density, phase composition and bending strength. The Weibull analysis was used to describe the reliability of these materials. Both materials produced presented relative densities higher than 99.5%t.d., b-Si3N4 and Y3Al5O12 (YAG as cristalline phases and bending strengths higher than 650 MPa, thus demonstrating similar behaviors regarding their physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. The statistical analysis of their strength also showed similar results for both materials, with Weibull moduli m of about 15 and characteristic stress values s o of about 700 MPa. These results confirmed the possibility of using the rare earth oxide mixture, CTR2O3, as sinter additive for high performance Si3N4 ceramics, without prejudice of the mechanical properties when compared to Si3N4 ceramics sintered with pure Y2O3.

  14. Preparation and properties of β-SiAlON/ZrN nano-composites from ZrO2-coated Si3N4 powder

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    Aljoša Maglica


    Full Text Available In this study we report on the preparation and properties ofβ-SiAlON/ZrN electro-conductive nano-composites from ZrO2-coated Si3N4 powder. The silicon nitride powder was coated with nano-sized zirconia particles by the precipitation of ZrO2 from a zirconium acetate solution using urea as the precipitating agent. For the preparation of sintered β-SiAlON/ZrN composites two different approaches were used. In the first one the ZrO2-coated Si3N4 powder was mixed with the appropriate sintering additives (Al2O3, Y2O3 and AlN and reaction sintered, while in the second approach the coated powder was first calcined at 1600°C to prepare ZrNcoated Si3N4 powder that was subsequently mixed with the sintering additives and sintered. For comparison, composites with the same composition were also prepared by mixing Si3N4 and ZrO2 powders with sintering additives and sintered. During the thermal treatment and/or sintering of the Si3N4/ZrO2/AlN powder mixtures zirconia reacts with silicon nitride and aluminium nitride to form zirconium nitride. However, during sintering the agglomeration and grain growth of small, nanometric ZrN particles occurs. Despite the fact that the samples were sintered at atmospheric pressure they are dense, have relatively good flexural strengths and are electrically conductive.

  15. Formation of Si or Ge nanodots in Si3N4 with in-situ donor modulation doping of adjacent barrier material

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    D. König


    Full Text Available Conventional doping of small nanodots does not provide majority carriers due to self-purification effects and much increased ionisation energies of dopants presenting point defects. Adjacent barrier layers to Si-rich Si3N4 can be doped by excess Si in-situ with the segregation anneal for Si nanodot formation. Donor doping of AlxGa1−xN (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1 with Si is an established process. Material properties and process compatibility of AlxGa1−xN render it suitable as barrier for Si nanodot superlattices. Ab-initio calculations showed that Ge also works as a donor in AlN, extending the material range to Ge and SiGe nanodots in Si3N4.

  16. Investigation on surface morphology model of Si3N4 ceramics for rotary ultrasonic grinding machining based on the neural network (United States)

    Jing, Juntao; Feng, Pingfa; Wei, Shiliang; Zhao, Hong


    Si3N4 ceramics parts surface morphology is related with surface friction and wear properties directly. Poor surface morphology will result in friction coefficient increases, strength decreases, and even lead to component failures. In order to improve Si3N4 surface morphology, it is necessary to investigate on the relationship model between the surface morphology and process parameters. In the paper, rotary ultrasonic grinding machining (RUGM) was taken as object to establish the model based on back propagation (BP) neural network. However, the nonlinear relationship of the model is complex, and the traditional algorithm cannot realize satisfying results. So an improved BP neural network algorithm based on Powell method has been proposed. The paper gives the theory and calculation flow of the algorithm. It is found the algorithm can accelerate the iteration speed and improve iteration accuracy. The investigation results provide the support for surface morphology optimization.

  17. Flexible SiC/Si3N4 Composite Nanofibers with in Situ Embedded Graphite for Highly Efficient Electromagnetic Wave Absorption. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Yani; Zhang, Litong


    SiC/Si3N4 composite nanofibers with in situ embedded graphite, which show highly efficient electromagnetic (EM) wave absorption performance in gigahertz frequency, were prepared by electrospinning with subsequent polymer pyrolysis and annealing. By means of incorporating graphite and Si3N4 into SiC, the EM wave absorption properties of the nanofibers were improved. The relationship among processing, fiber microstructure, and their superior EM wave absorption performance was systematically investigated. The EM wave absorption capability and effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) of nanofibers can be simply controlled by adjusting annealing atmosphere and temperature. The nanofibers after annealing at 1300 °C in Ar present a minimum reflection loss (RL) of -57.8 dB at 14.6 with 5.5 GHz EAB. The nanofibers annealed in N2 at 1300 °C exhibit a minimum RL value of -32.3 dB at a thickness of 2.5 mm, and the EAB reaches 6.4 GHz over the range of 11.3-17.7 GHz. The highly efficient EM wave absorption performance of nanofibers are closely related to dielectric loss, which originated from interfacial polarization and dipole polarization. The excellent absorbing performance together with wider EAB endows the composite nanofibers potential to be used as reinforcements in polymers and ceramics (SiC, Si3N4, SiO2, Al2O3, etc.) to improve their EM wave absorption performance.

  18. Tribological Behavior of Si3N4/Ti3SiC2 Contacts Lubricated by Lithium-Based Ionic Liquids

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    Haizhong Wang


    Full Text Available The tribological performance of Si3N4 ball sliding against Ti3SiC2 disc lubricated by lithium-based ionic liquids (ILs was investigated using an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at room temperature (RT and elevated temperature (100°C. Glycerol and the conventional imidazolium-based IL 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide (L-F106 were used as references under the same experimental conditions. The results show that the lithium-based ILs had higher thermal stabilities than glycerol and lower costs associated with IL preparation than L-F106. The tribotest results show that the lithium-based ILs were effective in reducing the friction and wear of Si3N4/Ti3SiC2 contacts. [Li(urea]TFSI even produced better tribological properties than glycerol and L-F106 both at RT and 100°C. The SEM/EDS and XPS results reveal that the excellent tribological endurance of Si3N4/Ti3SiC2 contacts lubricated by lithium-based ILs was mainly attributed to the formation of surface protective films composed of various tribochemical products.

  19. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers

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    Shichao Liu


    Full Text Available The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2 MPa and −552.1 MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased.

  20. Surface etching, chemical modification and characterization of silicon nitride and silicon oxide—selective functionalization of Si3N4 and SiO2 (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hong; Michalak, David J.; Chopra, Tatiana P.; Pujari, Sidharam P.; Cabrera, Wilfredo; Dick, Don; Veyan, Jean-François; Hourani, Rami; Halls, Mathew D.; Zuilhof, Han; Chabal, Yves J.


    The ability to selectively chemically functionalize silicon nitride (Si3N4) or silicon dioxide (SiO2) surfaces after cleaning would open interesting technological applications. In order to achieve this goal, the chemical composition of surfaces needs to be carefully characterized so that target chemical reactions can proceed on only one surface at a time. While wet-chemically cleaned silicon dioxide surfaces have been shown to be terminated with surficial Si-OH sites, chemical composition of the HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces is more controversial. In this work, we removed the native oxide under various aqueous HF-etching conditions and studied the chemical nature of the resulting Si3N4 surfaces using infrared absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), and contact angle measurements. We find that HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces are terminated by surficial Si-F and Si-OH bonds, with slightly subsurface Si-OH, Si-O-Si, and Si-NH2 groups. The concentration of surficial Si-F sites is not dependent on HF concentration, but the distribution of oxygen and Si-NH2 displays a weak dependence. The Si-OH groups of the etched nitride surface are shown to react in a similar manner to the Si-OH sites on SiO2, and therefore no selectivity was found. Chemical selectivity was, however, demonstrated by first reacting the -NH2 groups on the etched nitride surface with aldehyde molecules, which do not react with the Si-OH sites on a SiO2 surface, and then using trichloro-organosilanes for selective reaction only on the SiO2 surface (no reactivity on the aldehyde-terminated Si3N4 surface).

  1. Surface etching, chemical modification and characterization of silicon nitride and silicon oxide--selective functionalization of Si3N4 and SiO2. (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hong; Michalak, David J; Chopra, Tatiana P; Pujari, Sidharam P; Cabrera, Wilfredo; Dick, Don; Veyan, Jean-François; Hourani, Rami; Halls, Mathew D; Zuilhof, Han; Chabal, Yves J


    The ability to selectively chemically functionalize silicon nitride (Si3N4) or silicon dioxide (SiO2) surfaces after cleaning would open interesting technological applications. In order to achieve this goal, the chemical composition of surfaces needs to be carefully characterized so that target chemical reactions can proceed on only one surface at a time. While wet-chemically cleaned silicon dioxide surfaces have been shown to be terminated with surficial Si-OH sites, chemical composition of the HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces is more controversial. In this work, we removed the native oxide under various aqueous HF-etching conditions and studied the chemical nature of the resulting Si3N4 surfaces using infrared absorption spectroscopy (IRAS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low energy ion scattering (LEIS), and contact angle measurements. We find that HF-etched silicon nitride surfaces are terminated by surficial Si-F and Si-OH bonds, with slightly subsurface Si-OH, Si-O-Si, and Si-NH2 groups. The concentration of surficial Si-F sites is not dependent on HF concentration, but the distribution of oxygen and Si-NH2 displays a weak dependence. The Si-OH groups of the etched nitride surface are shown to react in a similar manner to the Si-OH sites on SiO2, and therefore no selectivity was found. Chemical selectivity was, however, demonstrated by first reacting the -NH2 groups on the etched nitride surface with aldehyde molecules, which do not react with the Si-OH sites on a SiO2 surface, and then using trichloro-organosilanes for selective reaction only on the SiO2 surface (no reactivity on the aldehyde-terminated Si3N4 surface).

  2. Al2O3 Disk Supported Si3N4 Hydrogen Purification Membrane for Low Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoteng Liu


    Full Text Available Reformate gas, a commonly employed fuel for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs, contains carbon monoxide, which poisons Pt-containing anodes in such devices. A novel, low-cost mesoporous Si3N4 selective gas separation material was tested as a hydrogen clean-up membrane to remove CO from simulated feed gas to single-cell PEMFC, employing Nafion as the polymer electrolyte membrane. Polarization and power density measurements and gas chromatography showed a clear effect of separating the CO from the gas mixture; the performance and durability of the fuel cell was thereby significantly improved.

  3. Low-temperature crack-free Si3N4 nonlinear photonic circuits for CMOS-compatible optoelectronic co-integration (United States)

    Casale, Marco; Kerdiles, Sebastien; Brianceau, Pierre; Hugues, Vincent; El Dirani, Houssein; Sciancalepore, Corrado


    In this communication, authors report for the first time on the fabrication and testing of Si3N4 non-linear photonic circuits for CMOS-compatible monolithic co-integration with silicon-based optoelectronics. In particular, a novel process has been developed to fabricate low-loss crack-free Si3N4 750-nm-thick films for Kerr-based nonlinear functions featuring full thermal budget compatibility with existing Silicon photonics and front-end Si optoelectronics. Briefly, differently from previous and state-of-the-art works, our nonlinear nitride-based platform has been realized without resorting to commonly-used high-temperature annealing ( 1200°C) of the film and its silica upper-cladding used to break N-H bonds otherwise causing absorption in the C-band and destroying its nonlinear functionality. Furthermore, no complex and fabrication-intolerant Damascene process - as recently reported earlier this year - aimed at controlling cracks generated in thick tensile-strained Si3N4 films has been used as well. Instead, a tailored Si3N4 multiple-step film deposition in 200-mm LPCVD-based reactor and subsequent low-temperature (400°C) PECVD oxide encapsulation have been used to fabricate the nonlinear micro-resonant circuits aiming at generating optical frequency combs via optical parametric oscillators (OPOs), thus allowing the monolithic co-integration of such nonlinear functions on existing CMOS-compatible optoelectronics, for both active and passive components such as, for instance, silicon modulators and wavelength (de-)multiplexers. Experimental evidence based on wafer-level statistics show nitride-based 112-μm-radius ring resonators using such low-temperature crack-free nitride film exhibiting quality factors exceeding Q >3 x 105, thus paving the way to low-threshold power-efficient Kerr-based comb sources and dissipative temporal solitons in the C-band featuring full thermal processing compatibility with Si photonic integrated circuits (Si-PICs).

  4. Al2O3 Disk Supported Si3N4 Hydrogen Purification Membrane for Low Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoteng; Christensen, Paul A; Kelly, Stephen M; Rocher, Vincent; Scott, Keith


    Reformate gas, a commonly employed fuel for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), contains carbon monoxide, which poisons Pt-containing anodes in such devices. A novel, low-cost mesoporous Si3N4 selective gas separation material was tested as a hydrogen clean-up membrane to remove CO from simulated feed gas to single-cell PEMFC, employing Nafion as the polymer electrolyte membrane. Polarization and power density measurements and gas chromatography showed a clear effect of separating the CO from the gas mixture; the performance and durability of the fuel cell was thereby significantly improved.

  5. Spectral reflectance data of a high temperature stable solar selective coating based on MoSi2–Si3N4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hernández-Pinilla


    Full Text Available Data of optical performance, thermal stability and ageing are given for solar selective coatings (SSC based on a novel MoSi2–Si3N4 absorbing composite. SSC have been prepared as multilayer stacks formed by silver as metallic infrared reflector, a double layer composite and an antireflective layer (doi: 10.1016/j.solmat.2016.04.001 [1]. Spectroscopic reflectance data corresponding to the optical performance of samples after moderate vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 600 °C and after ageing test of more than 200 h with several heating–cooling cycles are shown here.

  6. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers; Las tensiones residuales y las propiedades mecánicas de compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC

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    Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.


    The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [Spanish] Se ha investigado el efecto de las tensiones residuales en la resistencia, dureza y trabajo de fractura de los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC. Puede ser una manera eficaz de diseñar y optimizar las propiedades mecánicas de los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC mediante el control de las propiedades de las capas de SiC. Los compuestos multicapa de Si3N4/SiC con diferentes capas de SiC se fabricaron por medio de colado en cinta en medio acuoso y sinterización sin presión. Las tensiones residuales se calcularon mediante el uso de la simulación ANSYS, los valores máximos de las fuerzas de tracción y compresión fueron 553,2 MPa y −552,1 MPa, respectivamente. Se observó una fractura escalonada a partir de las superficies de fractura. La fracción de capas de deslaminación aumenta con la tensión residual, lo que puede mejorar la fiabilidad de los materiales. La fuerza de tracción residual era beneficiosa para la mejora de la dureza y el trabajo de fractura, pero la resistencia de los compuestos disminuyó.

  7. Determination of the strain distribution for the Si3N4 passivated AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (United States)

    Fu, Chen; Lin, Zhaojun; Liu, Yan; Cui, Peng; Lv, Yuanjie; Zhou, Yang; Dai, Gang; Luan, Chongbiao


    A method to determine the strain distribution of the AlGaN barrier layer after the device fabrication and the passivation process has been presented. By fitting the calculated parasitic source access resistance with the measured ones for the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFETs and using the polarization Coulomb field scattering theory, the strain variation of the AlGaN barrier layer after the passivation process has been quantitatively studied. The results show that the tensile strain in the access regions of the AlGaN barrier layer has been increased by 4.62% for the 250 nm-Si3N4 passivated device, and has been decreased by 2.0% for the 400 nm-Si3N4 passivated device, compared to that of before the passivation, respectively. For the gate region of the two devices, the tensile strain has been decreased by 60.77% and increased by 3.60% after the passivation of different thicknesses, oppositely.

  8. A Thermally Tunable 1 × 4 Channel Wavelength Demultiplexer Designed on a Low-Loss Si3N4 Waveguide Platform

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    Mohammed Shafiqul Hai


    Full Text Available A thermally tunable 1 × 4 channel optical demultiplexer was designed using an ultra low-loss Si3N4 (propagation loss ~3.1 dB/m waveguide. The demultiplexer has three 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI, where each of the MZI contains two 2 × 2 general interference based multimode interference (MMI couplers. The MMI couplers exhibit −3.3 dB to −3.7 dB power division ratios over a 50 nm wavelength range from 1530 nm to 1580 nm. The chrome-based (Cr heaters placed on the delay arms of the MZI filters enable thermal tuning to control the optical phase shift in the MZI delay arms. This facilitates achieving moderately low crosstalk (14.5 dB between the adjacent channels. The optical insertion loss of the demultiplexer per channel is between 1.5 dB to 2.2 dB over the 1550 nm to 1565 nm wavelength range. Error free performance (BER of 10−12 is obtained for all four 40 Gb/s data rate channels. The optical demultiplexer is an important tool towards building photonic integrated circuits with complex optical signal processing functionalities in the low-loss Si3N4 waveguide platform.

  9. Corrosão de cerâmicas à base de Si3N4 em soluções aquosas de HCl 0,1 N

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    Vernilli Júnior F.


    Full Text Available O comportamento à corrosão de cerâmicas à base de Si3N4 contendo misturas de Y2O3/SiO2 e RE2O3/SiO2 como aditivos nas proporções de 14 e 21% em volume ambos na estequiometria dos dissilicatos Y2Si2O7 e RE2Si2O7, respectivamente, foi estudado em soluções aquosas de HCl 0,1N a 100 °C. A resistência à corrosão foi avaliada pela perda de massa das amostras e análise química das soluções após os testes. As análises por microscopia eletrônica das amostras atacadas revelou que basicamemte a fase vítrea intergranular foi dissolvida pela solução ácida, deixando um esqueleto de grãos de b-Si3N4 entrelaçados.

  10. In-situ studies of multicrystalline silicon nucleation and growth on α- and β-Si3N4 coated substrates (United States)

    Undheim, Espen; Maeda, Kensaku; Arnberg, Lars; Holmestad, Randi; Fujiwara, Kozo; Di Sabatino, Marisa


    The growth of silicon on various nitride coated quartz substrates were studied using in-situ observation of the solidification process. Three different coating types were used: One consisting entirely of α-Si3N4 particles, one of only β-Si3N4 particles, and a third of a 50/50 mixture of the above mentioned coating powders. The mean particle size of the α- and β-particles was about 0.3 μm and 5.7 μm, respectively. Three different cooling rates were used for each coating type: 2, 5 and 10 K/min. It was observed that the samples were similar at the lowest cooling rate, but at 5 K/min and higher the samples differed significantly. The biggest difference was seen in the α-particle coating, which showed significant dendritic growth, compared to the more faceted growth observed from the other coatings. All coatings containing the β-particles showed similar growth characteristics. These samples were also analyzed by electron-backscattered diffraction (EBSD) on both the vertical and horizontal planes. No clear trend in preferred crystal orientations was observed; however, it was seen that the density of Σ3 boundaries, especially parallel twins, increased with cooling rate. A gradual increase in the Σ3 grain boundary density was seen for the coatings containing β-Si3N4 particles, while the α-particle coating showed a faster increase. The grain sizes were also analyzed from the horizontal EBSD maps. Again there was a clear difference between the samples containing β-particles and the sample with α-particle coating. The ones containing β-particles showed a decrease in grain size with increasing cooling rate, while the opposite was true for the other α-particle coated samples. This was attributed to the rapid dendritic growth, which caused the grain structure to be dominated by one single grain. The difference in growth for the three coating types was explained using the athermal nucleation theory, which states that there is a correlation between particle sizes

  11. Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool sintered with CeO2 and Al2O3 additives with AlCrN coating

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    José Vitor Candido Souza


    Full Text Available Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si3N4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6.43 MPa.m½ and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed a decrease on workpiece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN.

  12. Tribological properties of SiC-based MCD films synthesized using different carbon sources when sliding against Si3N4 (United States)

    Wang, Xinchang; Shen, Xiaotian; Zhao, Tianqi; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin


    Micro-crystalline diamond (MCD) films are deposited on reactive sintering SiC substrates by the bias enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition (BE-HFCVD) method, respectively using the methane, acetone, methanol and ethanol as the carbon source. Two sets of standard tribotests are conducted, adopting Si3N4 balls as the counterpart balls, respectively with the purpose of clarifying differences among tribological properties of different MCD films, and studying detailed effects of the carbon source C, normal load Fn and sliding velocity v based on orthogonal analyses. It is clarified that the methane-MCD film presents the lowest growth rate, the highest film quality, the highest hardness and the best adhesion, in consequence, it also performs the best tribological properties, including the lowest coefficient of friction (COF) and wear rate Id, while the opposite is the methanol-MCD film. Under a normal load Fn of 7 N and at a sliding velocity v of 0.4183 m/s, for the methane-MCD film, the maximum COF (MCOF) is 0.524, the average COF during the relatively steady-state regime (ACOF) is 0.144, and the Id is about 1.016 × 10-7 mm3/N m; and for the methanol-MCD film, the MCOF is 0.667, the ACOF is 0.151, and the Id is 1.448 × 10-7 mm3/N m. Moreover, the MCOF, ACOF, Id and the wear rate of the Si3N4 ball Ib will all increase with the Fn, while the v only has significant effect on the ACOF, which shows a monotone increasing trend with the v.

  13. Elastic properties of nc-TiN /a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN /a-BN nanocomposite films by surface Brillouin scattering (United States)

    Manghnani, Murli H.; Tkachev, Sergey N.; Zinin, Pavel V.; Glorieoux, Christ; Karvankova, Pavla; Veprek, Stan


    The hardness of nanocomposite (nc) films developed recently appears to reach the hardness of diamond. High hardness is commonly attributed to the granular structure of nanocomposites (Hall-Petch effect) [E. O. Hall, Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. B 64, 747 (1951); N. J. Petch, J. Iron Steel Inst. 174, 25 (1953)]. However, grain size in nanocomposites is generally small (5-15nm) and falls in the region where the Hall-Petch effect does not apply. The objective of the present study is to report the elastic properties of the superhard nanocomposites determined by means of surface Brillouin scattering (SBS), and to compare the results with those obtained by nanoindentation. Two types of nanocomposite films were studied: nc-TiN /a-Si3N4 and nc-TiN /a-BN. The SBS measurements presented yield values of Young's modulus significantly larger than those obtained from the slope of unloading indentation curve. This discrepancy is attributed to the lack of the validity of the assumptions behind the Sneddon's derivation of the formula used for the calculation of the Young's modulus from the indentation data.

  14. Design and Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Behavior Analysis of Au/Si3N4 Bimorph Microcantilevers for Static Mode Sensing (United States)

    Kim, Su-Ho; Banerjee, Debjyoti


    This paper presents a design optimization method based on theoretical analysis and numerical calculations, using a commercial multi-physics solver (e.g., ANSYS and ESI CFD-ACE+), for a 3D continuous model, to analyze the bending characteristics of an electrically heated bimorph microcantilever. The results from the theoretical calculation and numerical analysis are compared with those measured using a CCD camera and magnification lenses for a chip level microcantilever array fabricated in this study. The bimorph microcantilevers are thermally actuated by joule heating generated by a 0.4 μm thin-film Au heater deposited on 0.6 μm Si3N4 microcantilevers. The initial deflections caused by residual stress resulting from the thermal bonding of two metallic layers with different coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) are additionally considered, to find the exact deflected position. The numerically calculated total deflections caused by electrical actuation show differences of 10%, on average, with experimental measurements in the operating current region (i.e., ~25 mA) to prevent deterioration by overheating. Bimorph microcantilevers are promising components for use in various MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) sensing applications, and their deflection characteristics in static mode sensing are essential for detecting changes in thermal stress on the surface of microcantilevers. PMID:29104265

  15. A ROIC for Mn(TPP)Cl-DOP-THF-Polyhema PVC membrane modified n-channel Si3N4 ISFET sensitive to histamine. (United States)

    Samah, N L M A; Lee, Khuan Y; Sulaiman, S A; Jarmin, R


    Intolerance of histamine could lead to scombroid poisoning with fatal consequences. Current detection methods for histamine are wet laboratory techniques which employ expensive equipment that depends on skills of seasoned technicians and produces delayed test analysis result. Previous works from our group has established that ISFETs can be adapted for detecting histamine with the use of a novel membrane. However, work to integrate ISFETs with a readout interfacing circuit (ROIC) circuit to display the histamine concentration has not been reported so far. This paper concerns the development of a ROIC specifically to integrate with a Mn(TPP)Cl-DOP-THF-Polyhema PVC membrane modified n-channel Si3N4 ISFET to display the histamine concentration. It embodies the design of constant voltage constant current (CVCC) circuit, amplification circuit and micro-controller based display circuit. A DC millivolt source is used to substitute the membrane modified ISFET as preliminary work. Input is histamine concentration corresponding to the safety level designated by the Food and Drugs Administration (FDA). Results show the CVCC circuit makes the output follows the input and keeps VDS constant. The amplification circuit amplifies the output from the CVCC circuit to the range 2.406-4.888V to integrate with the microcontroller, which is programmed to classify and display the histamine safety level and its corresponding voltage on a LCD panel. The ROIC could be used to produce direct output voltages corresponding to histamine concentrations, for in-situ applications.

  16. Oxidation effects on the mechanical properties of a SiC-fiber-reinforced reaction-bonded Si3N4 matrix composite (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.


    The room-temperature mechanical properties of SiC fiber reinforced reaction bonded silicon nitride composites were measured after 100 hrs exposure at temperatures to 1400 C in nitrogen and oxygen environments. The composites consisted of approx. 30 vol percent uniaxially aligned 142 micron diameter SiC fibers in a reaction bonded Si3N4 matrix. The results indicate that composites heat treated in a nitrogen environment at temperatures to 1400 C showed deformation and fracture behavior equivalent to that of the as-fabricated composites. Also, the composites heat treated in an oxidizing environment beyond 400 C yielded significantly lower tensile strength values. Specifically in the temperature range from 600 to 1000 C, composites retained approx. 40 percent of their as-fabricated strength, and those heat treated in the temperatures from 1200 to 1400 C retained 70 percent. Nonetheless, for all oxygen heat treatment conditions, composite specimens displayed strain capability beyond the matrix fracture stress; a typical behavior of a tough composite.

  17. Uso da técnica de dilatometria no estudo do efeito de diferentes aditivos na sinterização de Si3N4 Use of dilatometry to study the effect of different additives on the sintering of Si3N4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos vem sendo testados óxidos de terras raras pesadas como aditivos de sinterização, via fase líquida, do nitreto de silício (Si3N4. Este trabalho visou o estudo do comportamento da sinterização do Si3N4 aditivado com um concentrado de óxidos de ítrio e terras raras pesadas e sílica, nas quantidades de 14 e 21%. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os apresentados quando do uso de óxido de ítrio e sílica, amplamente conhecidos como aditivos de sinterização de cerâmicas covalentes. Foi comparada também a influência da forma em que os aditivos foram usados, óxidos e dissilicatos. As experiências foram realizadas num dilatômetro e os resultados da sinterização são dados em termos de retração linear e velocidade de retração. Verificou-se que as amostras com maior quantidade de aditivos apresentaram maiores retrações, bem como velocidades de retração superiores. Para as amostras aditivadas com 14 e 21% de Y2O3/SiO2, os resultados foram de 13,1 e 15,5%, respectivamente, e para as aditivadas com concentrado/SiO2, 13,7 e 15,7%, respectivamente. Além disso, maiores retrações e razão de retração foram observadas para amostras com dissilicatos como aditivos, em comparação às amostras com a correspondente mistura de óxidos. Em todos os casos, as amostras aditivadas com o concentrado/SiO2, apresentaram retrações e velocidades de retração superiores às apresentadas pelas aditivadas com Y2O3/SiO2, mostrando ser mais eficiente como aditivo de sinterização do Si3N4.In recent years heavy rare earth oxides have been investigated as sinter additives in the liquid phase sintering of silicon nitride, Si3N4. This work reports on comparative sintering experiments of Si3N4 with yttria/silica and rare earth oxide concentrate/silica additions. The additive contents used were 14 and 21 vol%. The influence of pure oxide additions was compared to that of pre-reacted disilicates. The experiments were

  18. Thermal Improvement and Stability of Si3N4/GeNx/p- and n-Ge Structures Prepared by Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Plasma Nitridation and Sputtering at Room Temperature (United States)

    Fukuda, Yukio; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Takuro; Izumi, Kohei; Otani, Yohei; Ishizaki, Hiroki; Ono, Toshiro


    This paper reports on the thermal improvement of Si3N4/GeNx/Ge structures. After the Si3N4 (5 nm)/GeNx (2 nm) stacks were prepared on Ge substrates by electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma nitridation and sputtering at room temperature, they were thermally annealed in atmospheric N2 + 10% H2 ambient at temperatures from 400 to 600 °C. It was demonstrated that the electronic properties of the GeNx/Ge interfaces were thermally improved at temperatures of up to 500 °C with a minimum interface trap density (Dit) of ˜1×1011 cm-2 eV-1 near the Ge midgap, whereas the interface properties were slightly degraded after annealing at 600 °C with a minimum Dit value of ˜4×1011 cm-2 eV-1.

  19. O-vacancies in (i) nano-crystalline HfO2 and (i) non-crystalline SiO2 and Si3N4 studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Lucovsky, Gerald; Miotti, Leonardo; Bastos, Karen Paz


    Performance and reliability in semiconductor devices are limited by electronically active defects, primarily O-atom and N-atom vacancies. Synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy results, interpreted in the context of two-electron multiplet theories, have been used to analyze conduction band edge, and O-vacancy defect states in nano-crystalline transition metal oxides, e.g., HfO2, and the noncrystalline dielectrics, SiO2, Si3N4 and Si-oxynitride alloys. Two-electron multiplet theory been used to develop a high-spin state equivalent d2 model for O-vacancy allowed transitions and negative ion states as detected by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the O K pre-edge regime. Comparisons between theory and experiment have used Tanabe-Sugano energy level diagrams for determining the symmetries and relative energies of intra-d-state transitions for an equivalent d2 ground state occupancy. Trap-assisted-tunneling, Poole-Frenkel hopping transport, and the negative bias temperature instability have been explained in terms of injection and/or trapping into O-atom and N-atom vacancy sites, and applied to gate dielectric, and metal-insulator-metal structures.

  20. Interaction response of maglev masses moving on a suspended beam shaken by horizontal ground motion (United States)

    Yau, J. D.


    As a maglev transport route has to cross a region with occasional earthquakes, the train/guideway interaction is an issue of great concern in dominating safety of the maglev system. This paper intends to present a computational framework of interaction analysis for a maglev train traveling over a suspension bridge shaken by horizontal earthquakes. The suspended guideway girder is modeled as a single-span suspended beam and the maglev train traveling over it as a series of maglev masses. Due to motion- dependent nature of magnetic forces in a maglev suspension system, appropriate adjustments of the magnetic forces between magnets and guide-rail require the air gaps be continuously monitored. Thus an on-board hybrid LQR+PID controller with constraint rule base is designed to control the dynamic response of a running maglev mass. Then the governing equations of motion for the suspended beam associated with all the controlled maglev masses are transformed into a set of generalized equations by Galerkin's method, and solved using an incremental-iterative procedure. Numerical investigations demonstrate that when a controlled maglev train travels over a suspended guideway shaken by horizontal earthquakes, the proposed hybrid controller has the ability to adjust the levitation gaps in a prescribed stable region for safety reasons and to reduce the vehicle's acceleration response for ride quality.

  1. MEMS fabrication and frequency sweep for suspending beam and plate electrode in electrostatic capacitor (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiong; Song, Weixing


    We report a MEMS fabrication and frequency sweep for a high-order mode suspending beam and plate layer in electrostatic micro-gap semiconductor capacitor. This suspended beam and plate was designed with silicon oxide (SiO2) film which was fabricated using bulk silicon micromachining technology on both side of a silicon substrate. The designed semiconductor capacitors were driven by a bias direct current (DC) and a sweep frequency alternative current (AC) in a room temperature for an electrical response test. Finite element calculating software was used to evaluate the deformation mode around its high-order response frequency. Compared a single capacitor with a high-order response frequency (0.42 MHz) and a 1 × 2 array parallel capacitor, we found that the 1 × 2 array parallel capacitor had a broader high-order response range. And it concluded that a DC bias voltage can be used to modulate a high-order response frequency for both a single and 1 × 2 array parallel capacitors.

  2. Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments (United States)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.


    Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

  3. Development of High Performance Sintered Si3N4 (United States)


    times up to 160 h. A thin oxide scale of alpha cristobalite was coherently-bonded to the GPS Si^NL material in all cases. There was no...polished and caustic-etched microstructure of GPS Si.,lSL showing the beta SioNL grains. SEM photomicrograph at a mag. = 3,500X ^2 17. Grain...that is crystalline about 92% is alpha and 8% is beta SiJ^. A trace of free Si can be detected in both the Sylvania and Starck SioNL powders by X-ray

  4. Joining SI3N4 for Advanced Turbomachinery Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The main objective of this project was to develop reliable, low-cost techniques for joining silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) to itself and to metals. For Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} to be widely used in advanced turbomachinery applications, joining techniques must be developed that are reliable, cost-effective, and manufacturable. This project addressed those needs by developing and testing two Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} joining systems; oxynitride glass joining materials and high temperature braze alloys. Extensive measurements were also made of the mechanical properties and oxidation resistance of the braze materials. Finite element models were used to predict the magnitudes and positions of the stresses in the ceramic regions of ceramic-to-metal joints sleeve and butt joints, similar to the geometries used for stator assemblies.

  5. Sintering of Si3N4 under Nitrogen Pressure. (United States)


    13. G. E. Gazza, H. Knoch and G. 0. Quinn: Am. Cer. Soc. Bull., 57, 1059, 1978. 40 DISTRIBUTION LIST No. of No. of Copies To Copies To Office of the...47201 1 ATTN: Prof. R. E. Tressler I ATTN: Mr. R. Kamo 1 Prof. R. Bradt 1 Prof. V. S. Stubican Deposits and Composites, Inc., 1821 Michael Faraday

  6. Slip casting parameters for commercial Si3N4 powders


    Hartmann, WJAM; Dijen, van, FK Frans; Metselaar, R Ruud; Siskens, CAM Carol


    Properties of aqueous slips of silicon nitride were studied on two types of commercially available powders. Results are given of measurements of ζ-potential, critical coagulation coefficient and viscosity as a function of pH, concentration of deflocculant and solid-liquid ratio. Optimized slip casting conditions are given.

  7. Whispering Gallery Mode Resonances from Ge Micro-Disks on Suspended Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Zaher Al-Attili


    Full Text Available Ge is considered to be one of the most promising materials for realizing full monolithic integration of a light source on a silicon (Si photonic chip. Tensile-strain is required to convert Ge into an optical gain material and to reduce the pumping required for population inversion. Several methods of strain application to Ge are proposed in literature, of which the use of free-standing beams fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS processes are capable of delivering very high strain values. However, it is challenging to make an optical cavity within free-standing Ge beams, and here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a simple cavity while imposing tensile strain by suspension using Ge-On-Insulator (GOI wafers. Ge micro-disks are made on top of suspended SiO$_{2}$ beams by partially removing the supporting Si substrate. According to Raman spectroscopy, a slight tensile strain was applied to the Ge disks through the bending of the SiO2 beams. Whispering-Gallery-Mode (WGM resonances were observed from a disk with a diameter of 3um, consistent with the finite-domain time-difference simulations. The quality (Q factor was 192, and upon increasing the pumping power, the Q-factor was degraded due to the red-shift of Ge direct-gap absorption edge caused by heating.

  8. Suspended tungsten-based nanowires with enhanced mechanical properties grown by focused ion beam induced deposition (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Lorenzoni, Matteo; Pablo-Navarro, Javier; Magén, César; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; María De Teresa, José


    The implementation of three-dimensional (3D) nano-objects as building blocks for the next generation of electro-mechanical, memory and sensing nano-devices is at the forefront of technology. The direct writing of functional 3D nanostructures is made feasible by using a method based on focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). We use this technique to grow horizontally suspended tungsten nanowires and then study their nano-mechanical properties by three-point bending method with atomic force microscopy. These measurements reveal that these nanowires exhibit a yield strength up to 12 times higher than that of the bulk tungsten, and near the theoretical value of 0.1 times the Young’s modulus (E). We find a size dependence of E that is adequately described by a core-shell model, which has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and compositional analysis at the nanoscale. Additionally, we show that experimental resonance frequencies of suspended nanowires (in the MHz range) are in good agreement with theoretical values. These extraordinary mechanical properties are key to designing electro-mechanically robust nanodevices based on FIBID tungsten nanowires.

  9. Suspended tungsten-based nanowires with enhanced mechanical properties grown by focused ion beam induced deposition. (United States)

    Córdoba, Rosa; Lorenzoni, Matteo; Pablo-Navarro, Javier; Magén, César; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; De Teresa, José María


    The implementation of three-dimensional (3D) nano-objects as building blocks for the next generation of electro-mechanical, memory and sensing nano-devices is at the forefront of technology. The direct writing of functional 3D nanostructures is made feasible by using a method based on focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). We use this technique to grow horizontally suspended tungsten nanowires and then study their nano-mechanical properties by three-point bending method with atomic force microscopy. These measurements reveal that these nanowires exhibit a yield strength up to 12 times higher than that of the bulk tungsten, and near the theoretical value of 0.1 times the Young's modulus (E). We find a size dependence of E that is adequately described by a core-shell model, which has been confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and compositional analysis at the nanoscale. Additionally, we show that experimental resonance frequencies of suspended nanowires (in the MHz range) are in good agreement with theoretical values. These extraordinary mechanical properties are key to designing electro-mechanically robust nanodevices based on FIBID tungsten nanowires.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of suspended beam structures for SiO2 photonic MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, T.J.; Tichem, M.


    This paper proposes a microfabrication process for the reliable release of SiO2 beam structures. These structures are intended to be utilized in SiO2 photonic MEMS. A major fabrication challenge is the release of thick (>10 ?m) SiO2 structures with high yield. A single mask process is developed

  11. Circular motion of particles suspended in a Gaussian beam with circular polarization validates the spin part of the internal energy flow. (United States)

    Angelsky, O V; Bekshaev, A Ya; Maksimyak, P P; Maksimyak, A P; Mokhun, I I; Hanson, S G; Zenkova, C Yu; Tyurin, A V


    Non-spherical dielectric microparticles were suspended in a water-filled cell and exposed to a coherent Gaussian light beam with controlled state of polarization. When the beam polarization is linear, the particles were trapped at certain off-axial position within the beam cross section. After switching to the right (left) circular polarization, the particles performed spinning motion in agreement with the angular momentum imparted by the field, but they were involved in an orbital rotation around the beam axis as well, which in previous works [Y. Zhao et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073901 (2007)] was treated as evidence for the spin-to orbital angular momentum conversion. Since in our realization the moderate focusing of the beam excluded the possibility for such a conversion, we consider the observed particle behavior as a demonstration of the macroscopic "spin energy flow" predicted by the theory of inhomogeneously polarized paraxial beams [A. Bekshaev et al, J. Opt. 13, 053001 (2011)].

  12. Development of Sintered Si3N4 for High Performance Thermomechanical Applications. (United States)


    oxidized surface revealed the presence of Y2 Si2O7 and Y2 0Si18 N40 1 2 in addition to 8- Si 3N and a very large a- cristobalite peak. XAFS revealed that...of YF 3 lowered the temperature at which conversion from alpha to beta was complete at less than 1800 0 C. It appears that the LiAI,0 8 tends to...stabilize the alpha phase whereas the presence of YF 3 tends to enhance the conversion to beta . B. Properties A test bar (0.8 x 0.8 x 5.8 cm before firing

  13. pH controlled dispersion and slip casting of Si3N4 in aqueous media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    silanol (Si–OH) and basic silazane (Si2–NH) and silylamine. (Si–NH2) on its surface. In aqueous solution, the silanol and amine groups undergo acid/base reactions depending on the pH of the medium and develop positive or negative surface charges depending upon the adsorption of either of the potential determining ...

  14. pH controlled dispersion and slip casting of Si 3 N 4 in aqueous media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deionized water) was studied as a function of pH in the range 2–11. The slip was characterized for its dispersion quality by various experimental techniques like particle size analysis, sedimentation phenomena, viscosity and flow behaviour and ...

  15. Application of Silicon Nitride (Si3N4 Ceramics in Ball Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto


    operation up to 1000°C, greater thermal shock resistance, lower density and low thermal expansion. This properties gives some benefit for ball bearing material such as higher running speed, reduce vibration of the shaft, will improve the life time and maintenance cost, lower heat generated, less energy consumption, lower wear rate, reducing noise level and reduce of using lubricant. The sintering methods are used to produce ball bearing from silicon nitride. Some techniques can be applied to increase ceramics strength which are reduce porosity, reduce grain size, reduce surface flaw and proof stressing. The surface finishing of the ceramic bearing is very important because silicon nitride as a brittle material, its strength is limited to the flaw sizes especially the flaw at the surface.

  16. Ge nanocrystals embedded in ultrathin Si3N4 multilayers with SiO2 barriers (United States)

    Bahariqushchi, R.; Gundogdu, Sinan; Aydinli, A.


    Multilayers of germanium nanocrystals (NCs) embedded in thin films of silicon nitride matrix separated with SiO2 barriers have been fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). SiGeN/SiO2 alternating bilayers have been grown on quartz and Si substrates followed by post annealing in Ar ambient from 600 to 900 °C. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) as well as Raman spectroscopy show good crystallinity of Ge confined to SiGeN layers in samples annealed at 900 °C. Strong compressive stress for SiGeN/SiO2 structures were observed through Raman spectroscopy. Size, as well as NC-NC distance were controlled along the growth direction for multilayer samples by varying the thickness of bilayers. Visible photoluminescence (PL) at 2.3 and 3.1 eV with NC size dependent intensity is observed and possible origin of PL is discussed.

  17. Cavitación durante la fluencia de policristales de Si3N4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez-Rodríguez, A.


    Full Text Available This work is oriented to put forth the stress and temperature conditions for the nucleation and coalescence of cavities in two gas pressure-sintered silicon nitride-based ceramic materials. Particularly, it is indicated that, even though both materials show significant steady-state strain levels at stresses lower than 90 MPa, cavities nucleate and coalesce at higher stresses, thus giving rise to tertiary creep. The microstructural observations by SEM suggest that cavitation is associated to the viscous movement of the secondary phase.Este trabajo está orientado a determinar las condiciones de tensión y temperatura para las cuales ocurre la nucleación y coalescencia de cavidades en dos materiales cerámicos a base de nitruro de silicio sinterizados bajo presión de gas. En particular, se indica que, aunque ambos materiales muestran significativos niveles de deformación estacionaria a tensiones menores que 90 MPa, a tensiones mayores las cavidades nuclean y coalescen, dando lugar a fluencia terciaria. Las observaciones microestructurales por microscopía electrónica de barrido sugieren que la cavitación está asociada al movimiento viscoso de la fase secundaria.

  18. Mechanical behavior of polycrystalline ceramics: Brittle fracture of SiC-Si3N4 materials (United States)

    Leipold, M. H.; Kapadia, C. M.; Kelkar, A. H.


    The first study area involved magnesium oxide and the role of anion impurities, while the second area was directed toward slow crack growth in silicon nitride-silicon carbide ceramics. The oxide program involved development of fabrication techniques for anion doped materials and evaluation of the role of these anions in the hot pressing response, grain boundary diffusion of nickel doped material, grain boundary microhardness, and grain growth.

  19. Obtención de Si3N4 mediante SHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, M. A.


    Full Text Available In the present paper results obtained during synthesis of Silicon Nitride by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS are shown. Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis is based on the high enthalpy of certain reactions able to be self-sustained. One of the most important advantages of the method is its very low energy consumption. The synthesis is carried out with a mixture of silicon powder with some additions of diluents and other synthesis aids (ammonium salts. The influence of the mixture composition on reaction parameters and characteristics of the obtained products has been studied. The use of new synthesis aids has been also studied in order to decrease the environmental impact of the process. Microstructural study, XRD and reaction parameters are shown. Finally a mechanism of Silicon Nitride synthesis is proposed.En el presente trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de las reacciones de Síntesis Autopropagada a Alta Temperatura (Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis, SHS de Nitruro de Silicio. La síntesis autopropagada a alta temperatura consiste básicamente en la generación de reacciones altamente exotérmicas capaces de automantenerse. Se puede considerar como principal ventaja del método el ahorro energético que supone. La síntesis se realiza sobre una mezcla inicial de silicio metálico sobre la cual se realizan adiciones de diluyente y otros aditivos (sales amónicas que afectan al desarrollo de la reacción. Se ha estudiado la influencia que en este sistema pueden tener las proporciones de las distintas incorporaciones en la mezcla, tanto en el material resultante como en las condiciones de reacción. Igualmente se ha estudiado la posibilidad de utilización de nuevos aditivos que puedan minimizar el impacto medio ambiental. Se presentan los estudios microestructurales del material obtenido, la identificación cristalográfica de las fases presentes así como los comportamientos de los parámetros que definen la propia reacción. Con la información obtenida se propone el mecanismo predominante de la síntesis del Nitruro de Silicio mediante SHS.

  20. Suspended microfluidics


    Casavant, Benjamin P.; Berthier, Erwin; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jean BERTHIER; Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Bischel, Lauren L.; Brakke, Kenneth; Hedman, Curtis J.; Bushman, Wade; Keller, Nancy P.; Beebe, David J.


    Although the field of microfluidics has made significant progress in bringing new tools to address biological questions, the accessibility and adoption of microfluidics within the life sciences are still limited. Open microfluidic systems have the potential to lower the barriers to adoption, but the absence of robust design rules has hindered their use. Here, we present an open microfluidic platform, suspended microfluidics, that uses surface tension to fill and maintain a fluid in microscale...

  1. Mechanical Properties of SiC Fiber-Reinforced Reaction-Bonded Si3N4 Composites. (United States)


    in this study were obtained from AVCO Specialty Mate- rials Division . These fibers were produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from methyl...SILICON PODER r1ATE RIAt CA 0 ’E . AR O. ITNLRO’C-, IRO, SURFACE T AVERAGE .’ ,t" ;VA AREA. PARTICLE -. " I.2 : SIlt. ’u AS-RELEIVEn F1 43 1 .(125 0. fO

  2. Single Si3N4 micro ring resonator as integrated wavelength meter with long-term reproducibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taballione, Caterina; Agbana, T.; Vdovine, G.; Hoekman, M.; Wevers, L.; Kalkman, Jeroen; Verhagen, M.; van der Slot, P.J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.


    Wavelength meters are central for many applications such as in telecommunication systems or laser monitoring. The primary function of a wavelength meter is to provide an output signal that changes sensitively with the wavelength of the input light. Of central importance is the reproducibility of the

  3. Surface texturing of Si3N4–SiC ceramic tool components by pulsed laser machining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tshabalala, LC


    Full Text Available Traditional abrasive techniques such as grinding and lapping have long been used in the surface conditioning of engineering materials. However, in the processing of hard and brittle materials like silicon nitride (Si(sub3)N(sub4)), machining...

  4. Ferromagnetism in wide band gap materials: Mn-ZnO and Mn-Si3N4 thin films.


    Céspedes, Eva


    Tesis Doctoral elaborada en el Departamento de Materiales para las Tecnologías de la Información del Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC) y presentada en el Departamento de Física de Materiales de la Facultad de Ciencias Físicas de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid el 30 de octubre de 2009.

  5. The behavior of SiC and Si3N4 ceramics in mixed oxidation/chlorination environments (United States)

    Marra, John E.; Kreidler, Eric R.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fox, Dennis S.


    The behavior of silicon-based ceramics in mixed oxidation/chlorination environments was studied. High pressure mass spectrometry was used to quantitatively identify the reaction products. The quantitative identification of the corrosion products was coupled with thermogravimetric analysis and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations run under similar conditions in order to deduce the mechanism of corrosion. Variations in the behavior of the different silicon-based materials are discussed. Direct evidence of the existence of silicon oxychloride compounds is presented.

  6. Circular motion of particles suspended in a Gaussian beam with circular polarization validates the spin part of the internal energy flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelsky, O V; Bekshaev, A Ya; Maksimyak, P P; Maksimyak, A P; Mokhun, I I; Hanson, S G; Zenkova, C Yu; Tyurin, A V


    .... After switching to the right (left) circular polarization, the particles performed spinning motion in agreement with the angular momentum imparted by the field, but they were involved in an orbital rotation around the beam axis as well...

  7. Circular motion of particles suspended in a Gaussian beam with circular polarization validates the spin part of the internal energy flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.


    )] was treated as evidence for the spin-to orbital angular momentum conversion. Since in our realization the moderate focusing of the beam excluded the possibility for such a conversion, we consider the observed particle behavior as a demonstration of the macroscopic “spin energy flow” predicted by the theory...

  8. System using a megawatt class millimeter wave source and a high-power rectenna to beam power to a suspended platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, Malcolm; Friedman, Herbert W.


    A system for beaming power to a high altitude platform is based upon a high power millimeter gyrotron source, optical transmission components, and a high-power receiving antenna (i.e., a rectenna) capable of rectifying received millimeter energy and converting such energy into useable electrical power.

  9. Focused Ion Beam Nanopatterning for Carbon Nanotube Ropes Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Focused Ion Beam (FIB technology has been used to realize electrode patterns for contacting Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs ropes for chemical gas sensor applications. Two types of transducers, based on a single rope and on bundles, have been realized starting from silicon/Si3N4 substrate. Electrical behaviour, at room temperature, in toxic gas environments, has been investigated and compared to evaluate contribution of a single rope based sensor respect to bundles one. For all the devices, upon exposure to NO2 and NH3, the conductance has been found to increase or decrease respectively. Conductance signal is stronger for sensor based on bundles, but it also evident that response time in NO2 is faster for device based on a single rope. FIB technology offers, then, the possibility to contact easily a single sensitive nanowire, as carbon nanotube rope.

  10. Suspended sediment profiles derived from spectral attenuation coefficients measurements using neural network method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, G.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.; Kamath, S.S.

    total suspended matter values from water samples obtained at discrete depths at the same location. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been used to derive suspended matter from the spectral values of beam attenuation coefficients measured using...

  11. Microhardness, Friction and Wear of SiC and Si3N4 Materials as a Function of Load, Temperature and Environment. (United States)


    are possible by mixing the starting powder with a polymeric binder and shaping by conventional plastic forming methods, finally burning out the binder...Zeiss -. Epignost II microscope fitted with a Leitz long working distance objective lens and a screw micrometer measuring- eyepiece . For heating, the

  12. Computer Aided Multi-scale Design of SiC-Si3N4 Nanoceramic Composites for High-Temperature Structural Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikas Tomer; John Renaud


    It is estimated that by using better and improved high temperature structural materials, the power generation efficiency of the power plants can be increased by 15% resulting in significant cost savings. One such promising material system for future high-temperature structural applications in power plants is Silicon Carbide-Silicon Nitride (SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) nanoceramic matrix composites. The described research work focuses on multiscale simulation-based design of these SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanoceramic matrix composites. There were two primary objectives of the research: (1) Development of a multiscale simulation tool and corresponding multiscale analyses of the high-temperature creep and fracture resistance properties of the SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites at nano-, meso- and continuum length- and timescales; and (2) Development of a simulation-based robust design optimization methodology for application to the multiscale simulations to predict the range of the most suitable phase morphologies for the desired high-temperature properties of the SiC-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposites. The multiscale simulation tool is based on a combination of molecular dynamics (MD), cohesive finite element method (CFEM), and continuum level modeling for characterizing time-dependent material deformation behavior. The material simulation tool is incorporated in a variable fidelity model management based design optimization framework. Material modeling includes development of an experimental verification framework. Using material models based on multiscaling, it was found using molecular simulations that clustering of the SiC particles near Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grain boundaries leads to significant nanocomposite strengthening and significant rise in fracture resistance. It was found that a control of grain boundary thicknesses by dispersing non-stoichiometric carbide or nitride phases can lead to reduction in strength however significant rise in fracture strength. The temperature dependent strength and microstructural stability was also significantly depended upon the dispersion of new phases at grain boundaries. The material design framework incorporates high temperature creep and mechanical strength data in order to develop a collaborative multiscale framework of morphology optimization. The work also incorporates a computer aided material design dataset development procedure where a systematic dataset on material properties and morphology correlation could be obtained depending upon a material processing scientist's requirements. Two different aspects covered under this requirement are: (1) performing morphology related analyses at the nanoscale and at the microscale to develop a multiscale material design and analyses capability; (2) linking material behavior analyses with the developed design tool to form a set of material design problems that illustrate the range of material design dataset development that could be performed. Overall, a software based methodology to design microstructure of particle based ceramic nanocomposites has been developed. This methodology has been shown to predict changes in phase morphologies required for achieving optimal balance of conflicting properties such as minimal creep strain rate and high fracture strength at high temperatures. The methodology incorporates complex material models including atomistic approaches. The methodology will be useful to design materials for high temperature applications including those of interest to DoE while significantly reducing cost of expensive experiments.

  13. Si3N4 grated waveguide optical cavity based sensors for bulk-index concentration, label-free protein, and mechano-optical gas sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Hollink, Anton; de Ridder, R.M.; Pollnau, Markus; Hoekstra, Hugo

    A grated waveguide (GWG), which is a waveguide with a finite-length grated section, acts as an optical resonator, showing sharp fringes in the transmission spectrum near the stop-band edges of the grating. These oscillations are due to Fabry-Perot resonances of Bloch modes propagating in the cavity

  14. Gibbs free energy of reactions involving SiC, Si3N4, H2, and H2O as a function of temperature and pressure (United States)

    Isham, M. A.


    Silicon carbide and silicon nitride are considered for application as structural materials and coating in advanced propulsion systems including nuclear thermal. Three-dimensional Gibbs free energy were constructed for reactions involving these materials in H2 and H2/H2O. Free energy plots are functions of temperature and pressure. Calculations used the definition of Gibbs free energy where the spontaneity of reactions is calculated as a function of temperature and pressure. Silicon carbide decomposes to Si and CH4 in pure H2 and forms a SiO2 scale in a wet atmosphere. Silicon nitride remains stable under all conditions. There was no apparent difference in reaction thermodynamics between ideal and Van der Waals treatment of gaseous species.

  15. Cable suspended windmill (United States)

    Farmer, Moses G. (Inventor)


    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  16. Dispersive suspended microextraction. (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Yu; Lu, Yue-Le; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui


    A novel sample pre-treatment technique termed dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) has been developed for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, malathion, chlorpyrifos, isocarbophos, methidathion, fenamiphos, profenofos, triazophos) in aqueous samples. In this method, both extraction and two phases' separation process were performed by the assistance of magnetic stirring. After separating the two phases, 1 μL of the suspended phase was injected into GC for further instrument analysis. Varieties of experiment factors which could affect the experiment results were optimized and the following were selected: 12.0 μL p-xylene was selected as extraction solvent, extraction speed was 1200 rpm, extraction time was 30 s, the restoration speed was 800 rpm, the restoration time was 8 min, and no salt was added. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detections (LODs) varied between 0.01 and 0.05 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSDs, n=6) ranged from 4.6% to 12.1%. The linearity was obtained by five points in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0 μg L(-1). Correlation coefficients (r) varied from 0.9964 to 0.9995. The enrichment factors (EFs) were between 206 and 243. In the final experiment, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wine and tap water samples and the obtained recoveries were between 83.8% and 101.3%. Compared with other pre-treatment methods, DSME has its own features and could achieve satisfied results for the analysis of trace components in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase Relations and Stability Studies in the Si3N4-SiO2-Y2O3 Pseudo- Ternary System. (6) Development of Microstructure, Strength and Fracture Toughness of Hot-Pressed Si3N4. (7) Sintering of SiC with Boron Compounds. (8). (United States)


    8217repressed discs of the ccriposite powders were hot-pressed in a 5 cm I.D. graphite dic-susceptor lined with grafoi1 at a pressure of 28 MN /nr...repeated fabrication of this composition results in two phases,* viz., H-phase and *llamon et al. , Cll) who have synthesized many apatite -like...0.001 ɘ.001 -- B ɘ.01 < 0.003 -- Ca 0.011 ɘ.005 < 0.005 Co 0.002 < 0.003 -- Cr 0.02 ɘ.003 -- Fe >0.10 0.012 ɘ.001 Mg 0.003 0.001 < 0.005 Mn

  18. Challenges of nanostructure-integration in Fabry-Pérot interferometers as alternative to Bragg reflectors: an example for Match 1:1-, eBeam-, and nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Helke, Christian; Hiller, Karla; Erben, Jens W.; Reuter, Danny; Meinig, Marco; Kurth, Steffen; Nowak, Christoph; Kleinjans, Herberth; Otto, Thomas


    We present nanostructured reflectors as alternative for well-known alternating layer stack reflectors for Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPI) for the use in miniaturized spectrometry systems. The addressed FPI is part of an online monitoring system for specific molecules by Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS). Key part is the tunable FPI with nanostructured reflectors, which is fabricated with MEMS and NEMS technologies. Nanostructured Photonic Crystal (PhC) and Sub-Wavelength Grating (SWG) reflectors are developed. The PhC reflectors consisting of 400 nm thin moveable LP-CVD Si3N4 membranes with nanostructured holes realize an aperture of 1 mm with high reflectivity in the VIS range. The SWG reflectors are realized as nanostructured aluminum polygons on 150 nm thin LP-CVD Si3N4 membranes. The challenge in manufacturing of the PhC and SWG structures on 50 μm thin predefined silicon membrane areas is the thin wafer handling, because they are very fragile and tend to warp under their own weight. Further challenges such as delamination of the NIL-stamp from the wafer and eBeam resist homogeneity on the deflected thin silicon membranes for nanostructure replication as well as residual free resist layers for the followed RIE process and the match of the used Nanoimprint, 1:1 and eBeam lithography processes for the different layers have to be considered. The manufacturing and characterization of both alternative reflectors for prospective integration in VIS-FPIs on 6" wafers is described.

  19. A Simple Method for Forming Hybrid Core-Shell Nanoparticles Suspended in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle


    addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization as dispersant. Then, the resulting dispersion is engaged in a radical emulsion polymerization process whereby a hydrophobic organic monomer (styrene and butyl acrylate is polymerized to form the shell of the hybrid nanoparticle. This method is extremely versatile, allowing the preparation of a variety of nanocomposites with metal oxides (alumina, rutile, anatase, barium titanate, zirconia, copper oxide, metals (Mo, Zn, and even inorganic nitrides (Si3N4.

  20. Laser beam deflection control: A concept (United States)

    Garvie, C. L.


    Improved control of laser beam deflection angles may result from new conceptual device. Reflectively coated magnetized particles are suspended in liquid-filled cell surrounded by two pairs of crossed electromagnetic coils and are selectively aligned by controlling magnetic fields. Ultrasonic energy source keeps particles suspended.

  1. Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation. (United States)

    Safar, Peter J; Tisherman, Samuel A


    'Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation' is a new concept for attempting resuscitation from cardiac arrest of patients who currently (totally or temporarily) cannot be resuscitated, such as traumatic exsanguination cardiac arrest. Suspended animation means preservation of the viability of brain and organism during cardiac arrest, until restoration of stable spontaneous circulation or prolonged artificial circulation is possible. Suspended animation for exsanguination cardiac arrest of trauma victims would have to be induced within the critical first 5 min after the start of cardiac arrest no-flow, to buy time for transport and resuscitative surgery (hemostasis) performed during no-flow. Cardiac arrest is then reversed with all-out resuscitation, usually requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Suspended animation has been explored and documented as effective in dogs in terms of long-term survival without brain damage after very prolonged cardiac arrest. In the 1990s, the Pittsburgh group achieved survival without brain damage in dogs after cardiac arrest of up to 90 min no-flow at brain (tympanic) temperature of 10 degrees C, with functionally and histologically normal brains. These studies used emergency cardiopulmonary bypass with heat exchanger or a single hypothermic saline flush into the aorta, which proved superior to pharmacologic strategies. For the large number of normovolemic sudden cardiac death victims, which currently cannot be resuscitated, more research in large animals is needed.

  2. Beam-beam instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.


    The subject of beam-beam instability has been studied since the invention of the colliding beam storage rings. Today, with several colliding beam storage rings in operation, it is not yet fully understood and remains an outstanding problem for the storage ring designers. No doubt that good progress has been made over the years, but what we have at present is still rather primitive. It is perhaps possible to divide the beam-beam subject into two areas: one on luminosity optimization and another on the dynamics of the beam-beam interaction. The former area concerns mostly the design and operational features of a colliding beam storage ring, while the later concentrates on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction. Although both areas are of interest, our emphasis is on the second area only. In particular, we are most interested in the various possible mechanisms that cause the beam-beam instability.

  3. beam-beam interaction

    CERN Multimedia


    The Beam 1 (represented in blue) and the Beam 2 (represented in red) are colliding with an angle at the Interaction Point (IP). The angle is needed to avoid unwanted multiple collisions along the interaction region. Despite of the separation introduced by the angle, the two beams interact via their electromagnetic field, the so called "beam-beam" interaction.

  4. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend. (United States)


    ... part thereof during a particular period of time specified in the rule. ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means to...

  5. Rippling instabilities in suspended nanoribbons (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Upmanyu, Moneesh


    Morphology mediates the interplay between the structure and electronic transport in atomically thin nanoribbons such as graphene as the relaxation of edge stresses occurs preferentially via out-of-plane deflections. In the case of end-supported suspended nanoribbons that we study here, past experiments and computations have identified a range of equilibrium morphologies, in particular, for graphene flakes, yet a unified understanding of their relative stability remains elusive. Here, we employ atomic-scale simulations and a composite framework based on isotropic elastic plate theory to chart out the morphological stability space of suspended nanoribbons with respect to intrinsic (ribbon elasticity) and engineered (ribbon geometry) parameters, and the combination of edge and body actuation. The computations highlight a rich morphological shape space that can be naturally classified into two competing shapes, bendinglike and twistlike, depending on the distribution of ripples across the interacting edges. The linearized elastic framework yields exact solutions for these rippled shapes. For compressive edge stresses, the body strain emerges as a key variable that controls their relative stability and in extreme cases stabilizes coexisting transverse ripples. Tensile edge stresses lead to dimples within the ribbon core that decay into the edges, a feature of obvious significance for stretchable nanoelectronics. The interplay between geometry and mechanics that we report should serve as a key input for quantifying the transport along these ribbons.

  6. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected at Two Different. Heights above the Ground in A Sub-Urban Site in Kenya. Gitari W. M1, Kinyua A. M. 2, Kamau G. N3 and C. K. Gatebe C. K4. Abstract. Suspended particulate matter samples were collected in a sub-urban area in Nairobi over a 12 month ...

  7. Co-integrating plasmonics with Si3N4 photonics towards a generic CMOS compatible PIC platform for high-sensitivity multi-channel biosensors: the H2020 PlasmoFab approach (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Tsiokos, Dimitris M.; Dabos, George; Ketzaki, Dimitra; Weeber, Jean-Claude; Markey, Laurent; Dereux, Alain; Giesecke, Anna Lena; Porschatis, Caroline; Chmielak, Bartos; Wahlbrink, Thorsten; Rochracher, Karl; Pleros, Nikos


    Silicon photonics meet most fabrication requirements of standard CMOS process lines encompassing the photonics-electronics consolidation vision. Despite this remarkable progress, further miniaturization of PICs for common integration with electronics and for increasing PIC functional density is bounded by the inherent diffraction limit of light imposed by optical waveguides. Instead, Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) waveguides can guide light at sub-wavelength scales at the metal surface providing unique light-matter interaction properties, exploiting at the same time their metallic nature to naturally integrate with electronics in high-performance ASPICs. In this article, we demonstrate the main goals of the recently introduced H2020 project PlasmoFab towards addressing the ever increasing needs for low energy, small size and high performance mass manufactured PICs by developing a revolutionary yet CMOS-compatible fabrication platform for seamless co-integration of plasmonics with photonic and supporting electronic. We demonstrate recent advances on the hosting SiN photonic hosting platform reporting on low-loss passive SiN waveguide and Grating Coupler circuits for both the TM and TE polarization states. We also present experimental results of plasmonic gold thin-film and hybrid slot waveguide configurations that can allow for high-sensitivity sensing, providing also the ongoing activities towards replacing gold with Cu, Al or TiN metal in order to yield the same functionality over a CMOS metallic structure. Finally, the first experimental results on the co-integrated SiN+plasmonic platform are demonstrated, concluding to an initial theoretical performance analysis of the CMOS plasmo-photonic biosensor that has the potential to allow for sensitivities beyond 150000nm/RIU.

  8. Improving suspended sediment measurements by automatic samplers. (United States)

    Gettel, Melissa; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud; DeGroot, Gregory; Brand, Joshua; Mohseni, Omid; Erickson, Andrew J


    Suspended solids either as total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is an integral particulate water quality parameter that is important in assessing particle-bound contaminants. At present, nearly all stormwater runoff quality monitoring is performed with automatic samplers in which the sampling intake is typically installed at the bottom of a storm sewer or channel. This method of sampling often results in a less accurate measurement of suspended sediment and associated pollutants due to the vertical variation in particle concentration caused by particle settling. In this study, the inaccuracies associated with sampling by conventional intakes for automatic samplers have been verified by testing with known suspended sediment concentrations and known particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 μm to 355 μm under various flow rates. Experimental results show that, for samples collected at a typical automatic sampler intake position, the ratio of sampled to feed suspended sediment concentration is up to 6600% without an intake strainer and up to 300% with a strainer. When the sampling intake is modified with multiple sampling tubes and fitted with a wing to provide lift (winged arm sampler intake), the accuracy of sampling improves substantially. With this modification, the differences between sampled and feed suspended sediment concentration were more consistent and the sampled to feed concentration ratio was accurate to within 10% for particle sizes up to 250 μm.

  9. Field calibration of optical sensors for measuring suspended sediment concentration in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guillén


    Full Text Available The water turbidity measured with optical methods (transmittance and backscattering is usually expressed as beam attenuation coefficient (BAC or formazin turbidity units (FTU. The transformation of these units to volumetric suspended sediment concentration (SSC units is not straightforward, and accurate calibrations are required in order to obtain valuable information on suspended sediment distributions and fluxes. In this paper, data from field calibrations between BAC, FTU and SSC are presented and best-fit calibration curves are shown. These calibrations represent an average from different marine environments of the western Mediterranean (from estuary to continental slope. However, the general curves can only be applied for descriptive or semi-quantitative purposes. Comparison of turbidity measurements using the same sensor with different calibration ranges shows the advantage of simultaneously combining two instruments calibrated in different ranges when significant changes in suspended sediment concentrations are expected.

  10. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institut de Microelectrònica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Arbiol, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia (ICN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); CELLS-ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility, 08290 Cerdanyola, Catalonia (Spain)


    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.

  11. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian


    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  12. A Simple Transmission Electron Microscopy Method for Fast Thickness Characterization of Suspended Graphene and Graphite Flakes. (United States)

    Rubino, Stefano; Akhtar, Sultan; Leifer, Klaus


    We present a simple, fast method for thickness characterization of suspended graphene/graphite flakes that is based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We derive an analytical expression for the intensity of the transmitted electron beam I 0(t), as a function of the specimen thickness t (tgraphene/graphite, the method we propose has the advantage of being simple and fast, requiring only the acquisition of bright-field images.

  13. 9 CFR 201.81 - Suspended registrants. (United States)


    ... 201.81 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.81 Suspended registrants. No stockyard owner, packer, market agency, or dealer shall employ...

  14. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse


    experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  15. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system. KEY WORDS: Environmental toxicology, Suspended particulate matter, Dust analysis, Hematological indices, Wister albino rats. Bull.

  16. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    face area, shape, minerals and source) and conse- quent interaction with heavy metal concentrations. (HMCs). Recent studies have shown a growing awareness of the wider environmental significance of the suspended sediment loads transported by rivers and streams. This includes the importance of fine grain sediment in ...

  17. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust) samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological ...

  18. A depth integrated model for suspended transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galappatti, R.


    A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and

  19. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.


    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  20. Flow Laminarization and Acceleration by Suspended Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, M.; Hulshof, J.; Prostokishin, V.M.


    In [Comm. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., 4(2009), pp. 153-175], Barenblatt presents a model for partial laminarization and acceleration of shear flows by the presence of suspended particles of different sizes, and provides a formal asymptotic analysis of the resulting velocity equation. In the present

  1. Emulsifying and Suspending Properties of Enterolobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The thermodynamic instability of emulsions and suspensions necessitate the incorporation of emulsifiers and suspending agents respectively, in order to stabilize the formulations and ensure administration of accurate doses. Objective:Enterolobium cyclocarpum gum was characterized and evaluated for its ...

  2. Development of online automatic detector of hydrocarbons and suspended organic matter by simultaneously acquisition of fluorescence and scattering (United States)

    Mbaye, Moussa; Diaw, Pape Abdoulaye; Gaye-Saye, Diabou; Le Jeune, Bernard; Cavalin, Goulven; Denis, Lydie; Aaron, Jean-Jacques; Delmas, Roger; Giamarchi, Philippe


    Permanent online monitoring of water supply pollution by hydrocarbons is needed for various industrial plants, to serve as an alert when thresholds are exceeded. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a suitable technique for this purpose due to its sensitivity and moderate cost. However, fluorescence measurements can be disturbed by the presence of suspended organic matter, which induces beam scattering and absorption, leading to an underestimation of hydrocarbon content. To overcome this problem, we propose an original technique of fluorescence spectra correction, based on a measure of the excitation beam scattering caused by suspended organic matter on the left side of the Rayleigh scattering spectral line. This correction allowed us to obtain a statistically validated estimate of the naphthalene content (used as representative of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon contamination), regardless of the amount of suspended organic matter in the sample. Moreover, it thus becomes possible, based on this correction, to estimate the amount of suspended organic matter. By this approach, the online warning system remains operational even when suspended organic matter is present in the water supply.

  3. A superhydrophobic chip based on SU-8 photoresist pillars suspended on a silicon nitride membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Marinaro, Giovanni


    We developed a new generation of superhydrophobic chips optimized for probing ultrasmall sample quantities by X-ray scattering and fluorescence techniques. The chips are based on thin Si3N4 membranes with a tailored pattern of SU-8 photoresist pillars. Indeed, aqueous solution droplets can be evaporated and concentrated at predefined positions using a non-periodic pillar pattern. We demonstrated quantitatively the deposition and aggregation of gold glyconanoparticles from the evaporation of a nanomolar droplet in a small spot by raster X-ray nanofluorescence. Further, raster nanocrystallography of biological objects such as rod-like tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles reveals crystalline macro-domain formation composed of highly oriented nanorods. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  4. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.

    Energy components of suspended matter included phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus inclusive of microorganisms adsorbed to detritus. Of these, detritus contributed most of the energy (98%). The average caloric content of suspended detritus...

  5. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  6. Estimating total suspended sediment yield with probability sampling (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas


    The ""Selection At List Time"" (SALT) scheme controls sampling of concentration for estimating total suspended sediment yield. The probability of taking a sample is proportional to its estimated contribution to total suspended sediment discharge. This procedure gives unbiased estimates of total suspended sediment yield and the variance of the...

  7. Optomechanics for thermal characterization of suspended graphene (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J.; Houri, Samer; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J.; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steeneken, Peter G.


    The thermal response of graphene is expected to be extremely fast due to its low heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal response of suspended single-layer graphene membranes is investigated by characterization of their mechanical motion in response to a high-frequency modulated laser. A characteristic delay time τ between the optical intensity and mechanical motion is observed, which is attributed to the time required to raise the temperature of the membrane. We find, however, that the measured time constants are significantly larger than the predicted ones based on values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity. In order to explain the discrepancy between measured and modeled τ , a model is proposed that takes a thermal boundary resistance at the edge of the graphene drum into account. The measurements provide a noninvasive way to characterize thermal properties of suspended atomically thin membranes, providing information that can be hard to obtain by other means.

  8. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera


    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  9. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.


    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  10. Beam Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U


    As soon as the first particles emerge from an ion source, the source characteristics need to be determined. The total beam intensity, the transverse particle distributions, the beam divergence and emittance as well as the longitudinal parameters of the beam must be measured. This chapter provides an overview of typical measurement methods and the instruments used, and shows the results obtained.

  11. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Liquid Density in Air Using Suspended Microcapillary Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Malvar


    Full Text Available We report the use of commercially available glass microcapillaries as micromechanical resonators for real-time monitoring of the mass density of a liquid that flows through the capillary. The vibration of a suspended region of the microcapillary is optically detected by measuring the forward scattering of a laser beam. The resonance frequency of the liquid filled microcapillary is measured for liquid binary mixtures of ethanol in water, glycerol in water and Triton in ethanol. The method achieves a detection limit in an air environment of 50 µg/mL that is only five times higher than that obtained with state-of-the-art suspended microchannel resonators encapsulated in vacuum. The method opens the door to novel advances for miniaturized total analysis systems based on microcapillaries with the add-on of mechanical transduction for sensing the rheological properties of the analyzed fluids without the need for vacuum encapsulation of the resonators.

  12. Low-energy electron point projection microscopy/diffraction study of suspended graphene (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hao; Chang, Wei-Tse; Lin, Chun-Yueh; Chang, Mu-Tung; Hsieh, Chia-Tso; Wang, Chang-Ran; Lee, Wei-Li; Hwang, Ing-Shouh


    In this work, we present our study of suspended graphene with low-energy electrons based on a point projection microscopic/diffractive imaging technique. Both exfoliated and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene samples were studied in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. This method allows imaging of individual adsorbates at the nanometer scale and characterizing graphene layers, graphene lattice orientations, ripples on graphene membranes, etc. We found that long-duration exposure to low-energy electron beams induced aggregation of adsorbates on graphene when the electron dose rate was above a certain level. We also discuss the potential of this technique to conduct coherent diffractive imaging for determining the atomic structures of biological molecules adsorbed on suspended graphene.

  13. Monitoring of suspended sediment in South Tyrol (United States)

    Nadalet, Rudi; Dinale, Roberto; Pernter, Martin; Maraldo, Luca; Peterlin, Dieter; Richter, Arnold; Comiti, Francesco


    In the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good status of European water bodies, the Hydrographic Office of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Italy) extended in 2014 its institutional activities including the monitoring of suspended sediment in the river channel network. Currently, the only active monitoring station is on the Adige River at the gauging station of Ponte Adige near Bolzano (drainage area 2705 km2). The applied monitoring strategy and the data analysis concept are both based on the guidelines issued by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). The results indicates that the temporal variability strongly differs during the investigated period (2014-2015). In addition to the analysis of precipitation and water discharge, temperature and lightning activity were also included to better understand the sediment transport dynamics observed at the station. In summer 2015, the combination of constantly high daily temperature throughout the Adige basin (which drove intense glacier melting in the headwaters) with a high frequency of convective rainfall events (90% more than in 2014, obtained through lightning detection), led to an annual mass of transported suspended sediment of 260000 t. Interestingly, this value is similar to the one estimated for 2014 (300000 t), which was characterized by very different meteorological conditions (colder and wetter summer), but with the occurrence of an important flood in August, which transported half of the annual amount. Finally, we can conclude that the adopted monitoring strategy is applicable for institutional aims in terms of costs as well as in terms of time effort. During the next years, other stations for suspended sediment monitoring are planned to be installed in the Province to cover the most important river segments.

  14. Active noise cancellation in a suspended interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Driggers, Jennifer C; Pepper, Keenan; Adhikari, Rana


    We demonstrate feed-forward vibration isolation on a suspended Fabry-Perot interferometer using Wiener filtering and a variant of the common Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive filter algorithm. We compare the experimental results with theoretical estimates of the cancellation efficiency. Using data from the recent LIGO Science Run, we also estimate the impact of this technique on full scale gravitational wave interferometers. In the future, we expect to use this technique to also remove acoustic, magnetic, and gravitational noise perturbations from the LIGO interferometers. This noise cancellation technique is simple enough to implement in standard laboratory environments and can be used to improve SNR for a variety of high precision experiments.

  15. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan


    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  16. Safety Harness For Work Under Suspended Load (United States)

    Sunoo, Su Young


    Safety device protects worker under suspended engine or other heavy load. Mechanically linked with load so if load should fall, worker yanked safely away. Worker wears chest-plate vest with straps crossing eye on back. Lower safety cable connected to eye extends horizontally away from worker to nearby wall, wrapped on pulley and extends upward to motion amplifier or reducer. Safety cables transform any sudden downward motion of overhanging load into rapid sideways motion of worker. Net catches worker, preventing worker from bumping against wall.

  17. Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, E


    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '2 Beam Dynamics' with the content: 2 Beam Dynamics 2.1 Linear Transverse Beam Dynamics 2.2 Coupling 2.3 Liouville's Theorem 2.4 Momentum Dependent Transverse Motion 2.5 Longitudinal Motion

  18. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2 (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca


    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  19. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures (United States)

    Fleming, James G.


    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  20. Environmentally-suspended sediment production of the Nasia River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the level of suspended sediment produced in the Nasia River Basin. Hydrological and meteorological data and water samples were used for the study. Average suspended sediment yield (33 years) in the basin was 19.90 t/km2/yr. With mean annual runoff of 439.13m3/s, 322.43 t/yr suspended sediment ...

  1. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U


    The instrumentation measuring beam parameters constitutes an important part of any particle accelerator. These lectures aim at giving an overview of detection and measurement techniques without going too much into details of implementation. Instruments for linear accelerators, transfer lines, and small synchrotrons are described with an emphasis on opportunities and problems specific to low-energy particle beams.

  2. Measurement of light attenuation extends the application of suspended sediment monitoring in rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Hughes


    Full Text Available Turbidity is often monitored continuously as a proxy for suspended sediment in catchment sediment load studies, but is less often applied to measuring optical ‘loads’ as they affect water quality in downstream waters. We added measurements of visual clarity, from which light (beam attenuation can be estimated, to auto-sampler monitoring over storm events in tributary rivers of the Kaipara Harbour, a large barrier enclosed estuary complex in northern New Zealand. This paper presents, for the first time, evidence of the mutual relationships between turbidity, total suspended sediment (TSS, and visual clarity, from water samples collected under event flow conditions. The mutual relationships between turbidity, TSS and visual clarity for our monitoring sites were fairly close over about three orders of magnitude (TSS ranging from about 1–1000 mg L−1. Our results show that visual clarity (and hence light attenuation can be predicted from turbidity, at least as precisely as more traditional predictions of TSS from turbidity. The estimation of light attenuation and corresponding load estimates from visual clarity measurements, for relatively little marginal extra effort, extends the environmental relevance and application of suspended sediment monitoring.

  3. Beam diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Raich, U


    Most beam measurements are based on the electro-magnetic interaction of fields induced by the beam with their environment. Beam current transformers as well as beam position monitors are based on this principle. The signals induced in the sensors must be amplified and shaped before they are converted into numerical values. These values are further treated numerically in order to extract meaningful machine parameter measurements. The lecture introduces the architecture of an instrument and shows where in the treatment chain digital signal analysis can be introduced. Then the use of digital signal processing is presented using tune measurements, orbit and trajectory measurements as well as beam loss detection and longitudinal phase space tomography as examples. The hardware as well as the treatment algorithms and their implementation on Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) or in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are presented.

  4. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  5. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems (United States)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.


    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  6. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood


    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  7. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.


    We report a fabrication method, which uses standard UV-lithography to pattern the catalyst for the chemical vapour deposition(CVD) of suspended double clamped single walled carbon nanotubes. By using an aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 the patterning of the catalyst material onto microelectrodes can...... be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...

  8. Simulation and fabrication of a mechano-optical sensor for nano-displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Kauppinen, L.J.; Dijkstra, Mindert; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; de Ridder, R.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    We present the simulation and fabrication of a novel and highly sensitive mechano-optical sensor for nano-displacements, based on microcantilevers suspended above a Si3N4 grated waveguide (GWG). The presence of a dielectric object, in this case a suspended cantilever, in the evanescent field region

  9. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite derived suspended sediment concentrations (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Ratheesh; Rajawat, A. S.


    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are realized with respect to the sediment size distribution and the bottom bed materials observed in the Gulf. Simulated SSCs are compared with alternate OCM derived SSC. The results are observed to be impetus where the model is able to generate the spatial dynamics of the sediment concentrations. Sediment dynamics like deposition, erosion and dispersion are explained with the simulated tidal currents and OCM derived sediment concentrations. Tidal range is observed as the important physical factor controlling the deposition and resuspension of sediments within the Gulf. From the simulation studies; maximum residual current velocities, tidal fronts and high turbulent zones are found to characterise the islands and shoals within the Gulf, which results in high sediment concentrations in those regions. Remarkable variability in the bathymetry of the Gulf, different bed materials and varying tidal conditions induces several circulation patterns and turbulence creating the unique suspended sediment concentration pattern in the Gulf.

  10. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical equation that can be used for estimating the suspended sediment yields of river drainage basins without sediment data has been established for basins in the sub-tropical forest Southwestern river basin system of Ghana. The power law equation relates mean annual specific suspended sediment yield (t km-2 ...

  11. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud. Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  12. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  13. A wave-resolving model for nearshore suspended sediment transport (United States)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Shi, Fengyan


    This paper presents a wave-resolving sediment transport model, which is capable of simulating sediment suspension in the field-scale surf zone. The surf zone hydrodynamics is modeled by the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012). The turbulent flow and suspended sediment are simulated in a coupled manner. Three effects of suspended sediment on turbulent flow field are considered: (1) baroclinic forcing effect; (2) turbulence damping effect and (3) bottom boundary layer effect. Through the validation with the laboratory measurements of suspended sediment under nonbreaking skewed waves and surfzone breaking waves, we demonstrate that the model can reasonably predict wave-averaged sediment profiles. The model is then utilized to simulate a rip current field experiment (RCEX) and nearshore suspended sediment transport. The offshore sediment transport by rip currents is captured by the model. The effects of suspended sediment on self-suspension are also investigated. The turbulence damping and bottom boundary layer effects are significant on sediment suspension. The suspended sediment creates a stably stratified water column, damping fluid turbulence and reducing turbulent diffusivity. The suspension of sediment also produces a stably stratified bottom boundary layer. Thus, the drag coefficient and bottom shear stress are reduced, causing less sediment pickup from the bottom. The cross-shore suspended sediment flux is analyzed as well. The mean Eulerian suspended sediment flux is shoreward outside the surf zone, while it is seaward in the surf zone.

  14. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many natural gums are employed as suspending agents in the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The search to develop locally available natural gum from apparently a waste product as an alternative suspending agent stimulated the interest in this present study. Cola acuminata gum (CAG) extracted from Cola ...

  15. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity. (United States)


    ... time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the... suspended particulates persist. The biological and the chemical content of the suspended material may react with the dissolved oxygen in the water, which can result in oxygen depletion. Toxic metals and organics...

  16. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  17. Evaluation of the suspending property of grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in sulphadimidine suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for sulphadimidine. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  18. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  19. Evaluation of the Suspending Property of Grewia Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in metronidazole suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for metronidazole. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  20. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia


    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  1. Diffusion processes in freely suspended smectic films (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Zakharov, A. V.


    A molecular model describing translational diffusion in freely suspended smectic films (FSSFs) in air is proposed. This model is based on the random walk theory and allows calculation of the translational diffusion coefficient (TDC) across smectic layers (along the director). All values necessary for calculating the TDC are obtained within the generalized mean-field model considering not only anisotropic interactions between nearest neighbors of molecules forming FSSFs, but also the stabilizing effect of the smectic/air interface. The spatial inhomogeneity of order parameters over the FSSF section, arising in this case, results in the fact that the surface tension at the smectic/air interface not only suppresses thermal fluctuations in surface layers, but also completely suppresses translational diffusion of molecules from the FSSF to air. The results of calculations of dimensional translational diffusion in the bulk of the FSSF formed by 5- n-alkyl-2-(4- n-(perfluoroalkyl-metyleneoxy))pentyl molecules during its thinning show that the TDC monotonically increases as the smectic film is thinned.

  2. Influence of charge carriers on corrugation of suspended graphene (United States)

    Kirilenko, Demid A.; Gorodetsky, Andrei; Baidakova, Marina V.


    Electronic degrees of freedom are predicted to play a significant role in mechanics of two-dimensional crystalline membranes. Here we show that appearance of charge carriers may cause a considerable impact on suspended graphene corrugation, thus leading to additional mechanism resulting in charge carriers mobility variation with their density. This finding may account for some details of suspended graphene conductivity dependence on its doping level and suggests that proper modeling of suspended graphene-based device properties must include the influence of charge carriers on its surface corrugation.

  3. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3697 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo2_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa Slide 2 ? CSIR 2011 Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator...

  4. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4467 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Ngcobo3_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SUPERRESOLUTION BEAMS S... 2011 Outline ? Introduction ? Concept of superresolution beams ? Transformation of TEM00 to TEM10 ? Resonator design and experimental setup ? Results ? Conclusions ? Future work Slide 3 ? CSIR 2011...

  5. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas


    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  6. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.


    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  7. Suspended sediment concentration profiles from synoptic satellite observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Rajawat, A; Chauhan, O.S.

    A method is developed to estimate vertical suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles in Gulf of Kachchh, from the sediment concentration values derived from synoptic observations of Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM). Under the influence of currents...

  8. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  9. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.


    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  10. Suspended-sediment and suspended-sand concentrations and loads for selected streams in the Mississippi River Basin, 1940-2009 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Cline, Teri L.; Glaspie, Lori M.


    This report presents suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow data, describes load-estimation techniques used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment loads, and presents annual suspended-sediment loads for 48 streamgaging stations within the Mississippi River Basin. Available published, unpublished, and computed annual total suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads are presented for water years 1940 through 2009. When previously published annual loads were not available, total suspended-sediment and sand loads were computed using available data for water years 1949 through 2009. A table of suspended-sediment concentration and daily mean streamflow data used in the computation of annual loads is presented along with a table of compiled and computed annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads, annual streamflows, and flow-weighted concentrations for the 48 stations.

  11. Superconductive silicon nanowires using gallium beam lithography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Michael David; Jarecki, Robert Leo,


    This work was an early career LDRD investigating the idea of using a focused ion beam (FIB) to implant Ga into silicon to create embedded nanowires and/or fully suspended nanowires. The embedded Ga nanowires demonstrated electrical resistivity of 5 m-cm, conductivity down to 4 K, and acts as an Ohmic silicon contact. The suspended nanowires achieved dimensions down to 20 nm x 30 nm x 10 m with large sensitivity to pressure. These structures then performed well as Pirani gauges. Sputtered niobium was also developed in this research for use as a superconductive coating on the nanowire. Oxidation characteristics of Nb were detailed and a technique to place the Nb under tensile stress resulted in the Nb resisting bulk atmospheric oxidation for up to years.

  12. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine


    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  13. Turbulence control of suspended matter aggregate size (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.; Rippeth, T. P.; Simpson, J. H.


    The size and properties of the aggregates which comprise suspended particulate matter (SPM) change on short time and length scales in shelf seas. There is experimental and theoretical evidence to suggest that turbulence plays a key role in aggregation but there is contradictory evidence with respect to disaggregation: it has been proposed that sinking stresses, rather than turbulent stresses, are the dominant control of disaggregation. But there is little observational evidence for turbulence control of particle properties. New observations are presented which provide compelling evidence for turbulence control of both aggregation and disaggregation. TKE dissipation and particle size were measured in situ at stratified sites in the northern North Sea in 110 m water depth during the period of weakening of the seasonal thermocline (in October/November) and in the Clyde Sea in 55 m water depth (April). There were similar vertical distributions of TKE dissipation E, SPM concentration C, and particle size D at both sites. At the base of the thermocline, there were minima in E and C, but a maximum in D, indicating that enhanced aggregation was occurring in this region of low turbulent stress. In the bottom mixed layer, E and C increased, while D decreased due to disaggregation in this region of increasing turbulent stress towards the seabed. Particles settling out of the low stress region at the base of the thermocline began to disaggregate when E increased to 3.2x10-6 watts m-2. D did not correlate directly with E because aggregation is a function of collision frequency (and hence of both C and E): this can be accounted for using a simplified theoretical aggregation model which treats flocs as self-similar fractal entities and allows simultaneous floc formation and break up, specified as functions of C and E. It was found that in the northern North Sea the measured D represents an equilibrium size predicted by the model, while in the Clyde Sea tidal variation in both C

  14. Zenith Movie showing Phoenix's Lidar Beam (Animation) (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation A laser beam from the Canadian-built lidar instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander can be seen in this contrast-enhanced sequence of 10 images taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager on July 26, 2008, during early Martian morning hours of the mission's 61st Martian day after landing. The view is almost straight up and includes about 1.5 kilometer (about 1 mile) of the length of the beam. The camera, from its position close to the lidar on the lander deck, took the images through a green filter centered on light with wavelength 532 nanometers, the same wavelength of the laser beam. The movie has been artificially colored to to approximately match the color that would be seen looking through this filter on Mars. Contrast is enhanced to make the beam more visible. The lidar beam can be seen extending from the lower right to the upper right, near the zenith, as it reflects off particles suspended in the atmosphere. Particles that scatter the beam directly into the camera can be seen to produce brief sparkles of light. In the background, dust can be seen drifting across the sky pushed by winds aloft. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie


    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  16. Hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport controls on river mouth morphology (United States)

    Falcini, F.; Piliouras, A.; Garra, R.; Guerin, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Rowland, J.; Paola, C.


    mouths building into standing bodies of water have strikingly varied growth habits. This presents a compelling pattern formation problem that is also of great practical relevance for subsurface prediction and managing coastal wetlands. Here we present a generalized 2.5-dimensional potential vorticity (PV) theory that explains sedimentation patterns of a sediment-laden stationary jet by coupling an understanding of vorticity with suspended sediment concentration fields. We explore the physical meaning of this new sediment-PV definition, and its impact on outflow depositional patterns, by analyzing data from a shallow wall-bounded plane jet experiment and by discussing new theoretical insights. A key result is that lateral advection and diffusion of suspended sediment are directly proportional to jet vorticity, a feature that reveals the mechanistic process that forms elongated channels by focused levee deposition. The new PV theory constitutes a more generalized mathematical framework that expands the Rouse theory for the equilibrium of suspended sediment.

  17. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia


    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  18. Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study (United States)

    cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh


    Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and

  19. Design of a LC-tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope (United States)

    Jin, Lichuan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong


    A inductor-capacitor (LC) tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope prototype is designed and analyzed. High permeability ferrite cores are used for providing suspension force, and the rotation system is designed using the switched reluctance motor (SRM) principle. According to the LC-tuned principle, magnetic suspension force expression has been derived. The electromagnetic properties of the gyroscope are simulated by the Ansoft Maxwell software. And our result is expected to be able to serve as a prototype of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope in future practical applications.

  20. Quantum Hall effect in multi-terminal suspended graphene devices (United States)

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Zhao, Yue; Bolotin, Kirill; Kim, Philip


    The integer and fractional quantum hall effects have been already observed in two terminal suspended graphene devices. However in this two probe device geometry, mixing between magnetoresistance ρxx and Hall resistance ρxy for incompletely developed quantum Hall states leads to substantial deviation of conductance plateaus values. In this talk, we present the experimental results from four terminal suspended graphene devices. The quality of quantum Hall effect will be discussed in muti-terminal device geometry in conjunction with the current-induced annealing process to improve the quality of graphene samples.

  1. Colorimetry Technique for Scalable Characterization of Suspended Graphene. (United States)

    Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; Steeneken, Peter G; Centeno, Alba; Zurutuza, Amaia; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houri, Samer


    Previous statistical studies on the mechanical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) suspended graphene membranes have been performed by means of measuring individual devices or with techniques that affect the material. Here, we present a colorimetry technique as a parallel, noninvasive, and affordable way of characterizing suspended graphene devices. We exploit Newton's rings interference patterns to study the deformation of a double-layer graphene drum 13.2 μm in diameter when a pressure step is applied. By studying the time evolution of the deformation, we find that filling the drum cavity with air is 2-5 times slower than when it is purged.

  2. Fabrication of mechano-optical sensors for hydrogen gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Kauppinen, L.J.; Dijkstra, Mindert; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; de Ridder, R.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo


    We present results related to the fabrication of a novel and highly sensitive mechano-optical sensor for hydrogen gas, based on microcantilevers, supplied with a selective gas absorbing layer (Pd), suspended above a Si3N4 grated waveguide (GWG). Integrated microcantilever-GWG devices have been

  3. Ion beam profiling from the interaction with a freestanding 2D layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Shorubalko


    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a great potential of the focused ion beam (FIB technology for the nanometer-scale patterning of a freestanding two-dimensional (2D layer. Experimentally determined sputtering yields of the perforation process can be quantitatively explained using the binary collision theory. The main peculiarity of the interaction between the ion beams and the suspended 2D material lies in the absence of collision cascades, featured by no interaction volume. Thus, the patterning resolution is directly set by the beam diameters. Here, we demonstrate pattern resolution beyond the beam size and precise profiling of the focused ion beams. We find out that FIB exposure time of individual pixels can influence the resultant pore diameter. In return, the pore dimension as a function of the exposure dose brings out the ion beam profiles. Using this method of determining an ion-beam point spread function, we verify a Gaussian profile of focused gallium ion beams. Graphene sputtering yield is extracted from the normalization of the measured Gaussian profiles, given a total beam current. Interestingly, profiling of unbeknown helium ion beams in this way results in asymmetry of the profile. Even triangular beam shapes are observed at certain helium FIB conditions, possibly attributable to the trimer nature of the beam source. Our method of profiling ion beams with 2D-layer perforation provides more information on ion beam profiles than the conventional sharp-edge scan method does.

  4. Spatial distribution of soil erosion and suspended sediment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sediment transport rate for Chou-Shui river basin ... 5, Anzhong Road,. Tainan 70970, Taiwan. 4. Department of Hydraulics and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1,. University Road, Tainan ... surface runoff discharge, suspended sediment transport rate, quantity of soil erosion, and spatial distribu-.

  5. Calamine lotion: experimenting with a new suspending agent. (United States)

    Al-Achi, A; Greenwood, R; Akin-Isijola, A; Bullard, J


    The use of a new suspending agent is investigated. Calamine lotion, USP contains bentonite magma as a suspending agent. In this study, bentonite magma was partially or completely replaced with a new suspending agent called tahini. Tahini is sesame paste composed of crushed sesame seeds in sesame oil. It is frequently used in middle eastern food as a thickening and suspending agent. Calamine lotion was prepared, generally, according to the USP method. The formula contained 40% v/v magma. Tahini was added instead of bentonite magma by replacing 100%, 99%, 90%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the magma. The sedimentation volume and the degree of flocculation were calculated for the resulting preparations. Rheological characteristics of bentonite- and tahini-containing lotions were also determined. Sedimentation volume showed 0.723 and 0.851 (p=0.05) for the lotions containing 100% bentonite and 100% tahini, respectively. The degree of flocculation was 2.00 and 2.35 (p=0.05) for the 100% bentonite and 100% tahini lotions, respectively. The rheograms of all the suspensions showed pseudoplastic flow. Overall, the use of tahini in calamine lotion has improved the physical stability of the formula.

  6. Turbulence Flow Characteristics of Suspended Sediments and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are inturn integrated to give the hydraulic resistance law for sediment laden flow. The law of velocity distribution in open channel flow with suspended sediments was derived introducing Monin-Obukhov Length L . The distribution equation agrees well with the observation of velocity profile in the experiments.

  7. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.


    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  8. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.


    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  9. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen


    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  10. Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Western Cape orchard areas, the last pesticide application of the growing season in summer takes place at the end of February. Pesticides, total phosphates and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured in the Lourens River at the beginning of April 1999 prior to the first rainfall of the rainy season and in the middle of ...

  11. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  12. Transport of suspended particles in turbulent open channel flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugem, W.A.


    Two experiments are performed in order to investigate suspended sediment transport in a turbulent open channel flow. The first experiment used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure the fluid velocity with a high spatial resolution, while particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was used to measure

  13. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface water concentrations of inorganic nutrients and suspended particulate matter (SPM) components from Mtwapa and Shirazi creeks in Kenya were measured and compared. This was aimed at assessing the contribution of phytoplankton carbon, particulate organic carbon (POC) and detritus on the total SPM pool, and ...

  14. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  15. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS)are important constituents of organic matter.However,very little is known about their cycling in marine waters.In this research,we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal.For this purpose,samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM)were collected from 8 ...

  16. Stabilised suspending efficiency of Laponite XLG and sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charged drugs like Sulphamerazine may make pseudoplastic/plastic materials become Newtonian and loose their suspending power. In this study ... For this purpose, the rheograms of the systems were obtained by the use of a Haake rotoviscometer RV 12 utilizing a cup and rotor sensor system MV 1. In the absence of ...

  17. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  18. Spin Transport in High-Quality Suspended Graphene Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimaraes, Marcos H. D.; Veligura, A.; Zomer, P. J.; Maassen, T.; Vera-Marun, I. J.; Tombros, N.; van Arees, B. J.; Wees, B.J. van

    We measure spin transport in high mobility suspended graphene (mu approximate to 10(5)cm(2)/(V s)), obtaining a (spin) diffusion coefficient of 0.1 m(2)/s and giving a lower bound on the spin relaxation time (tau(s) approximate to 150 ps) and spin relaxation length (lambda(s) = 4.7 mu m) for

  19. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy..., the State must repromulgate Regulation No. 1 to satisfy reasonably available control technology...

  20. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family Mimosoideae) were evaluated comparatively with those of Compound Tragacanth, Acacia and Gelatin at concentration range of 0.5 – 4.0%w/v in Sulphadimidine suspension. Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum. Sedimentation ...

  1. Discrete Dynamics of Nanoparticle Channelling in Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Andersen, Henrik


    We have observed a previously undescribed stepwise oxidation of mono- and few layer suspended graphene by silver nanoparticles in situ at subnanometer scale in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Over the range of 600–850 K, we observe crystallographically oriented channelling...

  2. Method for separating biological cells. [suspended in aqueous polymer systems (United States)

    Brooks, D. E. (Inventor)


    A method for separating biological cells by suspending a mixed cell population in a two-phase polymer system is described. The polymer system consists of droplet phases with different surface potentials for which the cell populations exhibit different affinities. The system is subjected to an electrostatic field of sufficient intensity to cause migration of the droplets with an attendant separation of cells.

  3. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan


    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  4. Investigation of suspended sediment transport using ultrasonic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø


    The results of the initial experimental studies involving the scattering of ultrasonic signals from canonical and non-canonical shaped suspended particles with known elastical qualities are reported. These results have formed the basis for the development of a numerical model for ultrasound...

  5. Microwave-induced nonequilibrium temperature in a suspended carbon nanotube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, H.L.; Öztürk, A.; Zeng, P.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Klapwijk, T.M.


    Antenna-coupled suspended single carbon nanotubes exposed to 108?GHz microwave radiation are shown to be selectively heated with respect to their metal contacts. This leads to an increase in the conductance as well as to the development of a power-dependent DC voltage. The increased conductance

  6. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of suspended single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeRoy, B.J.; Lemay, S.G.; Kong, J.; Dekker, C.


    We have performed low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy measurements on single-wall carbon nanotubes that are freely suspended over a trench. The nanotubes were grown by chemical vapor deposition on a Pt substrate with predefined trenches etched into it. Atomic resolution was obtained on the

  7. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending ability of the different ratios was evaluated in magnesium trisilicate suspension, and compared with a suspension prepared with Compound Tragacanth Powder BP (CTP) as well as a commercially available magnesium trisilicate suspension (MTS). The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, ...

  8. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia


    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths...

  9. An analysis of bedload and suspended load interactions (United States)

    Recking, alain; Navratil, Oldrich


    Several approaches were used to develop suspension equations. It includes semi-theoretical equations based on the convection diffusion equation (Einstein 1950; Van Rijn 1984; Camenen and Larson 2008; Julien 2010), semi-empirical tools based on energy concept (Velikanov 1954; Bagnold 1966), empirical adjustments (Prosser and Rusttomji 2000). One essential characteristic of all these equations is that most of them were developed by considering continuity between bedload and suspended load, and that the partitioning between these two modes of transport evolves progressively with increasing shear stress, which is the case for fine bed materials. The use of these equations is thus likely to be welcome in estuaries or lowland sandy rivers, but may be questionable in gravel-bed rivers and headwater streams where the bed is usually structured vertically and fine sediments potentially contributing to suspension are stored under a poorly mobile surface armour comprising coarse sediments. Thus one question this work aimed to answer is does the presence of an armour at the bed surface influence suspended load? This was investigated through a large field data set comprising instantaneous measurements of both bedload and suspension. We also considered the river characteristics, distinguishing between lowland rivers, gravel bed rivers and headwater streams. The results showed that a correlation exist between bedload and suspension for lowland and gravel bed rivers. This suggests that in gravel bed rivers a large part of the suspended load is fed by subsurface material, and depends on the remobilization of the surface material. No correlation was observed for head water streams where the sediment production is more likely related to hillslope processes. These results were used with a bedload transport equation for proposing a method for suspended load estimate. The method is rough, but especially for gravel bed rivers, it predicts suspended load reasonably well when compared to

  10. Propagation-invariant beams with quantum pendulum spectra: from Bessel beams to Gaussian beam-beams. (United States)

    Dennis, Mark R; Ring, James D


    We describe a new class of propagation-invariant light beams with Fourier transform given by an eigenfunction of the quantum mechanical pendulum. These beams, whose spectra (restricted to a circle) are doubly periodic Mathieu functions in azimuth, depend on a field strength parameter. When the parameter is zero, pendulum beams are Bessel beams, and as the parameter approaches infinity, they resemble transversely propagating one-dimensional Gaussian wave packets (Gaussian beam-beams). Pendulum beams are the eigenfunctions of an operator that interpolates between the squared angular momentum operator and the linear momentum operator. The analysis reveals connections with Mathieu beams, and insight into the paraxial approximation.

  11. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  12. Rapidly changing distribution of velocity and suspended materials under the drifting Arctic sea ice (United States)

    Ha, Ho Kyung; Im, Jungho; Kim, Yong Hoon; Yae Son, Eun; Lee, Sanggyun


    In two summer seasons of 2011 and 2014, the short-term (1-4 days) ice-camp study has been conducted on the drifting Arctic sea ice. In particular, in 2014, the international collaboration with the Marginal Ice Zone program (sponsored by Office of Naval Research) has been integrated. The mooring package comprises the acoustic Doppler velocity profiler, holographic imaging camera, and conductivity-temperature-depth profiler, which are used to understand the dynamic behavior of sea ice and spatial-temporal variation of mixing layer (ML) and suspended particulate matters under the sea ice. Mooring data clearly shows the mixing and entrainment pattern in the upper ML in the marginal ice zone. When ice floes drift toward the pack ice, the upward entrainment from the seasonal pycnocline to sea ice-water boundary was induced by shear across ML and seasonal pycnocline. The entrainment speed was in the range of 0.25-2 m/hr, which matches well with thickening and thinning rate of ML during the near-inertial period (~12 hr). When ice floes drift toward the open ocean, the turbulent wakes at the advancing edge of ice were combined with the entrainment caused by near-inertial motion, which results in a complex mixing pattern of both upward and downward fluxes in the ML. Also, the acoustic backscatter observed by the acoustic Doppler current profiler and beam attenuation from transmissometer revealed the increased concentration of suspended particulate materials in the ML, which can be direct evidence visualizing the mixing pattern. Results suggest that the mixing and entrainment found in our study sustain particulate matters in suspension within the upper ML for a few months.

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Microelectromechanical Microshutters (United States)

    Burns, Devin Edward; Jones, Justin Scott; Li, Mary J.


    A custom micro-mechanical test system was constructed using off-the-shelf components to characterize the mechanical properties of microshutters. Microshutters are rectangular microelectromechanical apertures which open and close about a narrow torsion bar hinge. Displacement measurements were verified using both capacitive and digital image correlation techniques. Repeatable experiments on Si3N4 cantilever beams verified that the test system operates consistently. Using beam theory, the modulus of elasticity of the low stress Si3N4 was approximately 150 GPa, though significant uncertainty exists for this measurement due primarily to imprecise knowledge of the cantilever thickness. Tests conducted on microshutter arrays concluded that reducing the Si3N4 thickness from 250 nm to 500 nm reduces the torsional stiffness by a factor of approximately four. This is in good agreement with analytical and finite element models of the microshutters.

  14. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.


    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  15. Effect of Martian Suspended Dust on Albedo Measurements from the MGS-TES Data


    A. Zinzi; Palomba, E.; Rinaldi, G.; d'Amore, M.


    Suspended dust on Mars influences albedo measurements by orbiting instruments, but not necessary the real surface albedo. The aim of this study is to characterize the role of suspended aerosols on albedo measurement by remote sensing instruments.

  16. Design, analysis and control of cable-suspended parallel robots and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zi, Bin


    This book provides an essential overview of the authors’ work in the field of cable-suspended parallel robots, focusing on innovative design, mechanics, control, development and applications. It presents and analyzes several typical mechanical architectures of cable-suspended parallel robots in practical applications, including the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae, hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robots, and cooperative cable parallel manipulators for multiple mobile cranes. It also addresses the fundamental mechanics of cable-suspended parallel robots on the basis of their typical applications, including the kinematics, dynamics and trajectory tracking control of the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae. In addition it proposes a novel hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robot that uses integrated mechanism design methods to improve the performance of traditional cable-suspended parallel robots. A comparative study on error and performance indices of hybr...

  17. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Multimedia


    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  18. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G


    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  19. Electron beam control for barely separated beams (United States)

    Douglas, David R.; Ament, Lucas J. P.


    A method for achieving independent control of multiple beams in close proximity to one another, such as in a multi-pass accelerator where coaxial beams are at different energies, but moving on a common axis, and need to be split into spatially separated beams for efficient recirculation transport. The method for independent control includes placing a magnet arrangement in the path of the barely separated beams with the magnet arrangement including at least two multipole magnets spaced closely together and having a multipole distribution including at least one odd multipole and one even multipole. The magnetic fields are then tuned to cancel out for a first of the barely separated beams to allow independent control of the second beam with common magnets. The magnetic fields may be tuned to cancel out either the dipole component or tuned to cancel out the quadrupole component in order to independently control the separate beams.

  20. 48 CFR 52.209-6 - Protecting the Government's Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended, or... (United States)


    ...'s Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended, or Proposed for Debarment. 52....209-6 Protecting the Government's Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended... Government's Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended, or Proposed for Debarment...

  1. Telecommunication using muon beams (United States)

    Arnold, Richard C.


    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location.

  2. Nonparaxial abruptly autofocusing beams (United States)

    Penciu, Raluca-Sorina; Makris, Konstantinos G.; Efremidis, Nikolaos K.


    We study nonparaxial autofocusing beams with pre-engineered trajectories. We consider the case of linearly polarized electric optical beams and examine their focusing properties such as contrast, beam width, and numerical aperture. Such beams are associated with larger intensity contrasts, can focus at smaller distances, and have smaller spot sizes as compared to the paraxial regime.

  3. ISR beam scrapers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Beam scrapers seen in the direction of the beam. The two horizontal scraper foils are near the centre of the beam pipe andthe two scrapers for protection of the vacuum chamber are further outside. In the lower part of the beam pipe is the vertical halo scraping blade.

  4. 78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation (United States)


    ... Doc No: 2013-19067] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice... of the suspended investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would likely lead to continuation or... of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina (``suspended...

  5. Suspended 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Keller, Stephan Sylvest


    Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes for electrochem...... resistance as compared to 2D carbon electrodes. The higher sensitivity of 3D carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical sensing was illustrated by dopamine detection.......Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes...... for electrochemical applications. A 3D polymer template in epoxy based photoresist (SU-8) was fabricated with multiple steps of UV photolithography and pyrolysed at 900 °C to obtain 3D carbon microelectrodes. The pyrolytic carbon microstructures were characterized by SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS to determine...

  6. Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobing Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.

  7. BTF measurements with beam-beam interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gorgen, P.; Fischer, W.


    We present considerations about the transverse beam transfer function (BTF) of beams under the influence of two effects: The strong-strong beam-beam effect and the influence of a Gaussian electron lens. The BTF are investigated using two methods: BTF excitation is simulated in a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The BTF model is verified using a known analytic expectation. Analytic expectations for BTF of beams under a stationary electron lens are derived by extending BTF from the formalism of Berg and Ruggiero. Finally we compare the analytic BTF results for a stationary Gaussian lens to both the PIC simulation for split tune conditions and to PIC simulations for a beam influenced by an electron lens. We conclude that the formalism represents the electron lens well and can be applied to a limited extend to the beam-beam effect under split tune conditions. The analytic formalism allows us to recover the strength of an electron lens by means of fitting and can give clues regarding the strength of the beam-beam effe...

  8. [Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin]. (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing


    Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1

  9. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.


    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  10. Development of a microfluidic interface for suspended microchannel resonators


    Maillard, Damien


    Suspended microchannel resonators (SMRs) are devices that detect particles in liquid samples. In comparison with similar resonating devices that must be immersed, SMRs allow the fluids to flow through microfluidic resonators. This principle of operation leads to a great reduction of the required sample and to enhanced quality factors. As such, SMRs show great potential for a variety of sensing applications. This thesis reports on the final steps of the microfabrication of SMRs and on the deve...

  11. On the Design of Suspended Roofs with Paraboloidal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ungureanu


    Full Text Available Some considerations concerning the design of the paraboloidal suspended roofs are made. The main geometric aspects are first time presented. For the roofs we propose, as pattern, the equivalent continuum membranes, and the efforts in the cable are determined by using the membrane efforts and their equations. Two examples are analyzed: elliptic paraboloide and hyperbolic paraboloide, with horizontal projection under the form of an ellipse.

  12. Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.


    Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based on cost, reliability, robustness, accuracy, sample volume, susceptibility to biological fouling, and suitable range of mass concentration and particle size distribution. In situ turbidimeters are widely used. They provide reliable data where the point measurements can be reliably correlated to the river's mean cross section concentration value, effects of biological fouling can be minimized, and concentrations remain below the sensor's upper measurement limit. In situ laser diffraction instruments have similar limitations and can cost 6 times the approximate $5000 purchase price of a turbidimeter. However, laser diffraction instruments provide volumetric-concentration data in 32 size classes. Pressure differential instruments measure mass density in a water column, thus integrating substantially more streamflow than a point measurement. They are designed for monitoring medium-to-large concentrations, are generally unaffected by biological fouling, and cost about the same as a turbidimeter. However, their performance has been marginal in field applications. Acoustic Doppler profilers use acoustic backscatter to measure suspended sediment concentrations in orders of magnitude more streamflow than do instruments that rely on point measurements. The technology is relatively robust and generally immune to effects of biological fouling. Cost of a single-frequency device is about double that of a turbidimeter. Multifrequency arrays also provide the potential to resolve concentrations by clay silt versus sand size fractions. Multifrequency hydroacoustics shows the most promise for revolutionizing collection of continuous

  13. Segment Fixed Priority Scheduling for Self Suspending Real Time Tasks (United States)


    for soft real- time systems [15]. Table 1 shows a brief... for execution are the times when a job of task arrives. For 2 ≤ ≤ , when , finishes its execution, it suspends itself for a time duration that lies...assume , and , can take non-negative values such that , ≤ , and let , = , . For each job, a segment , executes for a time duration that lies in

  14. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus


    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  15. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  16. Strain sensitivity enhancement in suspended core fiber tapers (United States)

    André, Ricardo M.; Silva, Susana O.; Becker, Martin; Schuster, Kay; Rothardt, M.; Bartelt, H.; Marques, Manuel B.; Frazão, Orlando


    Suspended core fiber tapers with different cross sections (with diameters from 70 μm to 120 μm) are produced by filament heating. Before obtaining the taper, the spectral behavior of the suspended core fiber is a multimode interference structure. When the taper is made, an intermodal interference between a few modes is observed. This effect is clearly visible for low taper core dimensions. Since the core and cladding do not collapse, two taper regions exist, one in the core and the other in the cladding. The cladding taper does not affect the light transmission, only the core is reduced to a microtaper. The spectral response of the microtaper based-suspended core fiber is similar to a beat of two interferometers. The strain is applied to the microtaper, and with the reduction in the transverse area, an increase in sensitivity is observed. When the taper is immersed in a liquid with a different index of refraction or subjected to temperature variations, no spectral change occurs.

  17. Optimal control of suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake (United States)

    Ratianingsih, R.; Resnawati, Azim, Mardlijah, Widodo, B.


    Talaga Lake is one of several lakes in Central Sulawesi that potentially to be managed in multi purposes scheme because of its characteristic. The scheme is addressed not only due to the lake maintenance because of its sediment but also due to the Algae farming for its biodiesel fuel. This paper governs a suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake. The model is derived from the two dimensional hydrodynamic shallow water equations of the mass and momentum conservation law of sediment transport. An order reduction of the model gives six equations of hyperbolic systems of the depth, two dimension directional velocities and sediment concentration while the bed elevation as the second order of turbulent diffusion and dispersion are neglected. The system is discreted and linearized such that could be solved numerically by box-Keller method for some initial and boundary condition. The solutions shows that the downstream velocity is play a role in transversal direction of stream function flow. The downstream accumulated sediment indicate that the suspended sediment and its changing should be controlled by optimizing the downstream velocity and transversal suspended sediment changing due to the ideal algae growth need.

  18. Abrasion properties of self-suspended hairy titanium dioxide nanomaterials (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-xia; Liu, Si; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Ya-ming; Li, Shi-yun


    Considering the excellent solubility of pyrrolidone ring organic compounds, the synthesized N-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone chlorides was tethered onto titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to improve dispersion of TiO2, and then polyethylene oxide (PEO) oligomer through ion exchange embraced the tethered TiO2 to obtain a novel self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials without any solvent. A variety of techniques were carried out to illustrate the structure and properties of the self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials. It was found that TiO2 nanoparticles embody monodispersity in the hybrid system though the "false reunion" phenomenon occurring due to nonpermanent weak physical cross-linking. Remarkably, self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials exhibit lower viscosity, facilitating maneuverable and outstanding antifriction and wear resistance properties, due to the synergistic lubricating effect between spontaneously forming lubricating film and nano-lubrication of TiO2 cores, overcoming the deficiency of both solid and liquid lubricants. This make them promising candidates for the micro-electromechanic/nano-electromechanic systems (MEMS/NEMS).

  19. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz


    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  20. Facile electron-beam lithography technique for irregular and fragile substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiyoung; Zhou, Qin; Zettl, Alex, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    A facile technique is presented which enables high-resolution electron beam lithography on irregularly-shaped, non-planar or fragile substrates such as the edges of a silicon chip, thin and narrow suspended beams and bridges, or small cylindrical wires. The method involves a spin-free dry-transfer of pre-formed uniform-thickness polymethyl methacrylate, followed by conventional electron beam writing, metal deposition, and lift-off. High-resolution patterning is demonstrated for challenging target substrates. The technique should find broad application in micro- and nano-technology research arenas.

  1. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).


    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Electron beam welding and beam positioning




    Programs for control of mutual movements of the welded parts and EB gun are written in the unified language ISO-7bit. Beam settings control uses electronic charts or optional languages, sometimes self-designed. Operator coordinates movements and beam settings manually.

  3. T10 Beam Studies & Beam Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Michael Georges; Van Dijk, Maarten; CERN. Geneva. EN Department


    In order to test detector components before their installation in actual experiments, one uses test beams in which one can control particle typ, momentum and size to high degree. For this project the focus of a secondary beam at T10 in the East Area at CERN was analysed using an AZALEA telescope from DESY.

  4. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V


    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  5. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  6. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.


    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of suspended monolayer graphene (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Bing-Jie; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Huang, Chen-Han; Shih, Fu-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hua; Liu, Chih-Yi; Chui, Hsiang-Chen


    The interactions between phonons and electrons induced by the dopants or the substrate of graphene in spectroscopic investigation reveal a rich source of interesting physics. Raman spectra and surface-enhanced Raman spectra of supported and suspended monolayer graphenes were measured and analyzed systemically with different approaches. The weak Raman signals are greatly enhanced by the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy which has attracted considerable interests. The technique is regarded as wonderful and useful tool, but the dopants that are produced by depositing metallic nanoparticles may affect the electron scattering processes of graphene. Therefore, the doping and substrate influences on graphene are also important issues to be investigated. In this work, the peak positions of G peak and 2D peak, the I 2D/ I G ratios, and enhancements of G and 2D bands with suspended and supported graphene flakes were measured and analyzed. The peak shifts of G and 2D bands between the Raman and SERS signals demonstrate the doping effect induced by silver nanoparticles by n-doping. The I 2D/ I G ratio can provide a more sensitive method to carry out the doping effect on the graphene surface than the peak shifts of G and 2D bands. The enhancements of 2D band of suspended and supported graphenes reached 138, and those of G band reached at least 169. Their good enhancements are helpful to measure the optical properties of graphene. The different substrates that covered the graphene surface with doping effect are more sensitive to the enhancements of G band with respect to 2D band. It provides us a new method to distinguish the substrate and doping effect on graphene.

  8. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.


    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  9. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail:; Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail:; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail:


    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence ({mu}-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 {mu}m and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 {mu}m diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  10. Coupling between electronic transport and longitudinal phonons in suspended nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapmaz, S; Jarillo-Herrero, P; Blanter, Ya M; Zant, H S J van der [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)


    Current-voltage characteristics of suspended single-wall carbon nanotube (NT) quantum dots show a series of steps equally spaced in voltage. The energy scale of this harmonic, low-energy excitation spectrum is consistent with that of the longitudinal low-k phonon mode in the NT. Agreement is found with a Franck-Condon-based model in which the phonon-assisted tunnelling process is modelled as a coupling of electronic levels to underdamped quantum harmonic oscillators. Comparison with this model indicates a rather strong electron-phonon coupling factor of order unity. We investigate different electron-phonon coupling mechanisms and give estimates of the coupling factor.

  11. Regional volume changes in canine lungs suspended in air (United States)

    Abbrecht, Peter H.; Kyle, Richard R.; Bryant, Howard J.; Feuerstein, Irwin


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the absence of a pleural pressure gradient (simulating the presumed condition found in microgravity) upon regional expansion of the lung. We attempted to produce a uniform pressure over the surface of the lung by suspending excised lungs in air. Such studies should help determine whether or not the absence of a pleural pressure gradient leads to uniform ventilation. A preparation in which there is no pleural pressure gradient should also be useful in studying non-gravitational effects on ventilation distribution.

  12. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen


    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors observed using experiments performed on time scales of tens of seconds can be projected to obtain maps of their dynamical response on geological time scales. That such extraordinarily slow dynamic processes can be uncovered from real-time measurements by simply stretching a system provides a simple but powerful tool for interrogating extremely slow motions in other jammed physical states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Suspended liminality: Vacillating affects in cyberbullying/research


    Kofoed, J.; Stenner, Paul


    This paper develops a concept of liminal hotspots in the context of i) a secondary analysis of a cyberbullying case involving a group of school children from a Danish school, and ii) an altered auto-ethnography in which the authors ‘entangle’ their own experiences with the case analysis. These two sources are used to build an account of a liminal hotspot conceived as an occasion of troubled and suspended transformative transition in which a liminal phase is extended and remains unresolved. Th...

  14. Oscillation of a diamagnetic liquid bubble suspended by magnetic force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, R. E-mail:; Tomita, S.; Mai, J.; Park, M.K.; Oshima, S


    The levitation of the diamagnetic liquid droplet with the strong magnetic field is experimentally simulated, using the magnetic fluid as the surrounding fluid in place of air or gas, and the water bubble is levitated with the conventional permanent magnet. When the stepwise magnetic field is superposed, the suspended bubble behaves as a typical step response with the overshoot and viscous damping. The effects of the volume of the bubble, the strength of the magnetic field and the concentration of the magnetic fluid are investigated.

  15. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  16. Remote Sensing Studies of Suspended Sediment Concentration Variation in Barito Delta (United States)

    Arisanty, Deasy; Nur Saputra, Aswin


    The dynamic of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta depend on the process in upstream. Agriculture, mining, and illegal logging in Barito River upstream has an effect for suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta. The objective of research is to estimate the variation of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta. The data of research consist of Landsat 7 in year 2011 and measurement result data of suspended sediment concentration both in wet season and dry season in year 2011. Data analysis is regression analysis to estimates the variation of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta. The method of research compares three types of spectral transformation for suspended sediment that is Normalized Suspended Material Index (NSMI), Normalized Differences Suspended Sediment Index (NDSSI), and band ratio (green/blue). The result of the transformation is compared with the value of the field measurement. Based on the result of the comparison can be known the suitable type of transformation for the suspended sediment estimation in Barito Delta. The result of research explains that NSMI has the highest value to estimate the variation of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta.

  17. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  18. Suspended Matter, Chl-a, CDOM, Grain Sizes, and Optical Properties in the Arctic Fjord-Type Estuary, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland During Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L. C.; Andersen, T. J.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard


    Optical constituents as suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll (Chl-a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and grain sizes were obtained on a transect in the arctic fjord-type estuary Kangerlussuaq (66A degrees) in August 2007 along with optical properties. These comprised diffuse...... attenuation coefficient of downwelling PAR (K (d)(PAR)), upwelling PAR (K (u)(PAR)), particle beam attenuation coefficient (c (p)), and irradiance reflectance R(-0, PAR). PAR is white light between 400 and 700 nm. The estuary receives melt water from the Greenland Inland Ice and stations covered a transect...

  19. Halo formation from mismatched beam-beam interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji


    In this paper, we report on the halo formation and emittance growth driven by a parametric resonance during mismatched beam-beam collisions. In the regime of the weak-strong beam-beam interaction, if two beams have the same machine tunes, on-axis head-on collisions between a mismatched strong beam and a weak beam will not cause the formation of halo. However, if the two beams collide with an initial offset, the beam-beam force from the mismatched strong beam can cause halo formation and emittance growth in the weak beam. Meanwhile, if two beams have different machine tunes, for opposite charged colliding beams, when the machine tune of the weak beam is smaller than that of strong beam, there is emittance growth in the weak beam. When the machine tune of the weak beam is larger than that of the strong beam, there is little emittance growth. In the regime of strong-strong beam-beam interaction, halo is formed in both beams even when the two beams collide head-on on the axis with equal machine tunes. This puts a strong requirement for a good beam match during the injection to colliders in order to avoid the emittance growth.

  20. Thermoelectric unipolar spin battery in a suspended carbon nanotube (United States)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; He, Wan-Xiu; Luo, Hong-Gang


    A quantum dot formed in a suspended carbon nanotube exposed to an external magnetic field is predicted to act as a thermoelectric unipolar spin battery which generates pure spin current. The built-in spin flip mechanism is a consequence of the spin-vibration interaction resulting from the interplay between the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the vibrational modes of the suspended carbon nanotube. On the other hand, utilizing thermoelectric effect, the temperature difference between the electron and the thermal bath to which the vibrational modes are coupled provides the driving force. We find that both magnitude and direction of the generated pure spin current are dependent on the strength of spin-vibration interaction, the sublevel configuration in dot, the temperatures of electron and thermal bath, and the tunneling rate between the dot and the pole. Moreover, in the linear response regime, the kinetic coefficient is non-monotonic in the temperature T and it reaches its maximum when {{k}\\text{B}}T is about one phonon energy. The existence of a strong intradot Coulomb interaction is irrelevant for our spin battery, provided that high-order cotunneling processes are suppressed.

  1. Thermoelectric unipolar spin battery in a suspended carbon nanotube. (United States)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; He, Wan-Xiu; Luo, Hong-Gang


    A quantum dot formed in a suspended carbon nanotube exposed to an external magnetic field is predicted to act as a thermoelectric unipolar spin battery which generates pure spin current. The built-in spin flip mechanism is a consequence of the spin-vibration interaction resulting from the interplay between the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the vibrational modes of the suspended carbon nanotube. On the other hand, utilizing thermoelectric effect, the temperature difference between the electron and the thermal bath to which the vibrational modes are coupled provides the driving force. We find that both magnitude and direction of the generated pure spin current are dependent on the strength of spin-vibration interaction, the sublevel configuration in dot, the temperatures of electron and thermal bath, and the tunneling rate between the dot and the pole. Moreover, in the linear response regime, the kinetic coefficient is non-monotonic in the temperature T and it reaches its maximum when [Formula: see text] is about one phonon energy. The existence of a strong intradot Coulomb interaction is irrelevant for our spin battery, provided that high-order cotunneling processes are suppressed.

  2. IUTAM symposium on hydrodynamic diffusion of suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.H. [ed.


    Hydrodynamic diffusion refers to the fluctuating motion of nonBrownian particles (or droplets or bubbles) which occurs in a dispersion due to multiparticle interactions. For example, in a concentrated sheared suspension, particles do not move along streamlines but instead exhibit fluctuating motions as they tumble around each other. This leads to a net migration of particles down gradients in particle concentration and in shear rate, due to the higher frequency of encounters of a test particle with other particles on the side of the test particle which has higher concentration or shear rate. As another example, suspended particles subject to sedimentation, centrifugation, or fluidization, do not generally move relative to the fluid with a constant velocity, but instead experience diffusion-like fluctuations in velocity due to interactions with neighboring particles and the resulting variation in the microstructure or configuration of the suspended particles. In flowing granular materials, the particles interact through direct collisions or contacts (rather than through the surrounding fluid); these collisions also cause the particles to undergo fluctuating motions characteristic of diffusion processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia. (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B


    Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia.

  4. Skin permeation of lidocaine from crystal suspended oily formulations. (United States)

    Matsui, Rakan; Hasegawa, Masaaki; Ishida, Masami; Ebata, Toshiya; Namiki, Noriyuki; Sugibayashi, Kenji


    In vitro permeation of lidocaine (lidocaine base, LID) through excised rat skin was investigated using several LID-suspended oily formulations. The first skin permeation of LID from an LID-suspended oily solution such as liquid paraffin (LP), isopropyl myristate (IPM), polyoxyethylene (2) oleylether (BO-2), and diethyl sebacate (DES) was evaluated and compared with that from polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) solution, a hydrophilic base. The obtained permeation rate of LID, Japp, from PEG400, LP, IPM, BO-2, and DES was in the order of DES>BO-2=IPM>LP>PEG400, and increased with LID solubility in the oily solvents, although LID crystals were dispersed in all solvents. Subsequently, oily formulations that consisted of different ratios of the first oily solvent (IPM, BO-2, or DES) (each 0-20%), the second oily solvent (LP) and an oily mixture of microcrystalline wax/white petrolatum/paraffin (1/5/4) were evaluated. BO-2 groups at a concentration of 5% and 10% had the highest Japp among the oily formulations, although a higher BO-2 resulted in lower skin permeation. In addition, pretreatment with BO-2 increased the skin permeation of LID. These results suggest that the penetration enhancing effect by the system may be related to the skin penetration of BO-2 itself. Finally, mathematical analysis was done to evaluate the effect of BO-2, and it was shown that BO-2 improved the LID solubility in stratum corneum lipids to efficiently enhance the LID permeation through skin.

  5. A Passively-Suspended Tesla Pump Left Ventricular Assist Device (United States)

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J.; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K.; Paterson, Eric G.; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B.; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E.; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson


    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type LAVD blood pump are described. CFD analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 liters/min at a 70 mmHg head rise at 8000 RPM. The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below .02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned as well as endurance testing of the device. PMID:19770799

  6. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis


    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70. wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8. emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12. wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2. emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Assessment of CO, CO2 and Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Isah ABDULKARIM


    Full Text Available The concentrations of carbon oxides (CO and CO2 and suspended particulate matter at Benue Cement Company (BCC and Tse-Kucha community was investigated. Results obtained, shows that concentrations of carbon dioxide of 34.40ppm, 39.50 ppm, 48.50 ppm, 78.55 ppm, 65.25 ppm, 26.80 ppm and 29.5 ppm for quarry, raw mill, cement mill, Kiln, packing house, limestone stockpile and Tse-Kucha community respectively were below the maximum standard natural concentration of CO2 in atmosphere of 600ppm while concentrations of CO (1.25ppm - 4.00ppm measured in all the sample stations were below the Nigerian Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS and WHO max limit of 10 ppm - 20 ppm for an 8-hourly average time. Lastly, the concentrations of suspended particulate matter of 375 μg/m3, 338 μg/m3 and 290 μg/m3 at the cement mill, packing house and raw mill respectively were also above the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s Guidelines and Standards for Ambient Air Quality which stipulates a range of 150 μg/m3 to 230 μg/m3 for a 24- hourly average.

  8. Exponential beams of electromagnetic radiation


    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia


    We show that in addition to well known Bessel, Hermite-Gauss, and Laguerre-Gauss beams of electromagnetic radiation, one may also construct exponential beams. These beams are characterized by a fall-off in the transverse direction described by an exponential function of rho. Exponential beams, like Bessel beams, carry definite angular momentum and are periodic along the direction of propagation, but unlike Bessel beams they have a finite energy per unit beam length. The analysis of these beam...

  9. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.


    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  10. Suspended Integrated Strip-line Transition Design for Highly Integrated Radar Systems (United States)


    Frequency Structural Figure 3. Internal-view of SISL thru structure. Figure 2. Suspended substrate strip- line side -view. Figure 4. Top-view of trace and...response, you can see that the measured response is shifted to Figure 2. Suspended Substrate Strip- line Side -View Figure 5. Fabricated thru line ...Suspended Integrated Strip- line Transition Design for Highly Integrated Radar Systems Jay W. McDaniel, Shahrokh Saeedi, Mark B. Yeary, and

  11. Optimal design of beams (United States)

    Samala, Shivakumar

    Beams are basic structural components that are capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending. Unlike Euler-Bernoulli beams, Timoshenko beams undergo both shear deformation and rotational effects, making it suitable for analyzing the behavior of thick or short beams, composite beams and beams that are subjected to high frequency excitation when their wave length becomes shorter. This thesis work focuses on optimal design of straight and tapered Timoshenko beams under static and dynamic constraints for rectangular and circular cross sections. In this work Timoshenko beam static and dynamic equations were studied. The finite element method was used for static and dynamic analysis of the beam. In finite element method to overcome the numerical problem in shear locking, cubic interpolation of displacement and an interdependent quadratic approximation of rotation has been considered. In order to optimize the weight of the beam with static and dynamic constraints three sets of optimizations were done. The design variables are length, cross sectional width and height, with objective function as mass, static deflection constraints were used. The second optimization set was using dynamic constraints and the last set was using both static and dynamic constraints.

  12. Resistance of steel beams with web openings and castellated beams


    Kovačič, Darko


    In Diploma demonstration of bending and shear resistance of steel beams with openings in web and for castellated beams is being presented. Dimensioning of such beams is performed in compliance with general rules by Eurocode for dimensioning of beams by considering speciality of beams with openings or by non-linear analysis with consideration of imperfections. For delimit of beams with openings from castellated beams, geometric criteria are being used. Further approach to the dimensioning of t...

  13. Beam-Based Alignment in CTF3 Test Beam Line


    Sterbini, G; Dӧbert, S; Marín, E.; Lillestol, RL; Schulte, D.; Adli, E.


    The CLIC linear collider is based on the two beams acceleration scheme. During acceleration of the colliding beams, the drive beam suffers a large build up on its energy spread. In order to efficiently transport such a beam, beam-based alignment techniques together with tight prealignment tolerances are crucial. To evaluate the performance of these steering algorithms, a beam-based steering campaign has been conducted at the Test Beam Line of the CLIC Test Facility. In the following we presen...

  14. Final prototype of magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system (United States)

    Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.; Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Lashley, C.


    A prototype of a 500 Wh magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system was designed, built, and tested. The authors present the work done and include the following: (1) a final design of the magnetic bearing, control system, and motor/generator, (2) construction of a prototype system consisting of the magnetic bearing stack, flywheel, motor, container, and display module, and (3) experimental results for the magnetic bearings, motor, and the entire system. The successful completion of the prototype system has achieved: (1) manufacture of tight tolerance bearings, (2) stability and spin above the first critical frequency, (3) use of inside sensors to eliminate runout problems, and (4) integration of the motor and magnetic bearings.

  15. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Liquids by Using a Suspended Microheater (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Wook


    In this paper, the traditional 3ω method is modified in order to measure the thermal conductivity of a droplet of liquid. The 3ω sensor is microfabricated using bulk silicon etching on a silicon wafer to form a microheater on a suspended bridge structure. The Si substrate of over 400 μ m thickness beneath the microheater is etched away so that the sample liquid can fill the gap created between the heater and the bottom boundary of the sensor. The frequency of the sinusoidal heating pulses that are generated from the heater is controlled such that the thermal penetration depth is much smaller than the thickness of the liquid layer. The temperature oscillation of the sample fluid is measured at the thin-film heater to calculate the thermal conductivity of the surrounding fluid. The thermal conductivity and measured values of the de-ionized water and ethanol show a good agreement with the theoretical values at room temperature.

  16. Suspended sediment in a high-Arctic river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard-Pedersen, Pernille; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Kroon, Aart


    Quantifying fluxes of water, sediment and dissolved compounds through Arctic rivers is important for linking the glacial, terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to quantify the impact of a warming climate. The quantification of fluxes is not trivial. This study uses a 8-years data set (2005......-2012) of daily measurements from the high-Artic Zackenberg River in Northeast Greenland to estimate annual suspended sediment fluxes based on four commonly used methods: M1) is the discharge weighted mean and uses direct measurements, while M2-M4) are one uncorrected and two bias corrected rating curves......-daily sampling together with a sampling frequency of 2h during extreme events. The most consistent estimation method was an uncorrected rating curve of bi-daily measurements (M2), combined with a linear interpolation of extreme event fluxes. Sampling can be reduced to every fourth day, with both method...

  17. Fluorine and sulfur simultaneously co-doped suspended graphene (United States)

    Struzzi, C.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Reckinger, N.; Colomer, J.-F.; Snyders, R.; Bittencourt, C.; Scardamaglia, M.


    Suspended graphene flakes are exposed simultaneously to fluorine and sulfur ions produced by the μ-wave plasma discharge of the SF6 precursor gas. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses, performed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectromicroscopy, show the homogeneity in functionalization yield over the graphene flakes with F and S atoms covalently bonded to the carbon lattice. This promising surface shows potential for several applications ranging from biomolecule immobilization to lithium battery and hydrogen storage devices. The present co-doping process is an optimal strategy to engineer the graphene surface with a concurrent hydrophobic character, thanks to the fluorine atoms, and a high affinity with metal nanoparticles due to the presence of sulfur atoms.

  18. Heat Transfer Correlations for Free Convection from Suspended Microheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GOSSELIN


    Full Text Available Portability and autonomy for biomedical diagnostic devices are two rising requirements. It is recognized that low-energy heating of such portable devices is of utmost importance for molecular recognition. This work focuses on screen-printed microheaters based on on Joule effect, which constitute an interesting solution for low-energy heating. An experimental study of the natural convection phenomena occurring with such microheaters is conducted. When they are suspended in the air, and because of the thinness of the supporting film, it is shown that the contributions of both the upward and downward faces have to be taken into account. A total Nusselt number and a total convective heat transfer coefficient have been used to describe the natural convection around these microheaters. In addition a relation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is derived, leading to an accurate prediction of the heating temperature (MRE< 2 %.

  19. Giant magneto-photoelectric effect in suspended graphene (United States)

    Sonntag, Jens; Kurzmann, Annika; Geller, Martin; Queisser, Friedemann; Lorke, Axel; Schützhold, Ralf


    We study the optical response of a suspended, monolayer graphene field-effect transistor structure in magnetic fields of up to 9 T (quantum Hall regime). With an illumination power of only 3 μW, we measure a photocurrent of up to 400 nA (without an applied bias) corresponding to a photo-responsivity of 0.13 A W-1, which we believe to be one of the highest values ever measured in single-layer graphene. We discuss possible mechanisms for generating this strong photo-response (17 electron-hole pairs per 100 incident photons). Based on our experimental findings, we believe that the most likely scenario is a ballistic two-stage process including carrier multiplication via Auger-type inelastic Coulomb scattering at the graphene edge.

  20. Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian


    The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport

  1. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.


    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  2. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M


    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  3. Laser beam shaping techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Industrial, military, medical, and research and development applications of lasers frequently require a beam with a specified irradiance distribution in some plane. A common requirement is a laser profile that is uniform over some cross-section. Such applications include laser/material processing, laser material interaction studies, fiber injection systems, optical data image processing, lithography, medical applications, and military applications. Laser beam shaping techniques can be divided into three areas: apertured beams, field mappers, and multi-aperture beam integrators. An uncertainty relation exists for laser beam shaping that puts constraints on system design. In this paper the authors review the basics of laser beam shaping and present applications and limitations of various techniques.

  4. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove


    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  5. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar


    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  6. Operator Radiation and the Efficacy of Ceiling-Suspended Lead Screen Shielding during Coronary Angiography: An Anthropomorphic Phantom Study Using Real-Time Dosimeters (United States)

    Jia, Qianjun; Chen, Ziman; Jiang, Xianxian; Zhao, Zhenjun; Huang, Meiping; Li, Jiahua; Zhuang, Jian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Hu, Tianyu; Liang, Wensheng


    Operator radiation and the radiation protection efficacy of a ceiling-suspended lead screen were assessed during coronary angiography (CA) in a catheterization laboratory. An anthropomorphic phantom was placed under the X-ray beam to simulate patient attenuation in eight CA projections. Using real-time dosimeters, radiation dose rates were measured on models mimicking a primary operator (PO) and an assistant. Subsequently, a ceiling-suspended lead screen was placed in three commonly used positions to compare the radiation protection efficacy. The radiation exposure to the PO was 2.3 to 227.9 (mean: 67.2 ± 49.0) μSv/min, with the left anterior oblique (LAO) 45°/cranial 25° and cranial 25° projections causing the highest and the lowest dose rates, respectively. The assistant experienced significantly less radiation overall (mean: 20.1 ± 19.6 μSv/min, P RAO) 30° and cranial 25° projections resulting in the highest and lowest exposure levels, respectively. Combined with table-side shielding, the ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced the radiation to the PO by 76.8%, 81.9% and 93.5% when placed close to the patient phantom, at the left side and close to the PO, respectively, and reduced the radiation to the assistant by 70.3%, 76.7% and 90.0%, respectively. When placed close to the PO, a ceiling-suspended lead screen provides substantial radiation protection during CA.

  7. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas


    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  8. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A


    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  9. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A


    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  10. 76 FR 6462 - Notice of Intent To Suspend Certain Pesticide Registrations (United States)


    ... hearing is made by a person adversely affected by the Notice of Intent to Suspend or the registrant has... this notice (i.e., how to request a hearing or how to comply fully with the requirements that served as... name notice of intent No. to suspend The Fountainhead Group, Inc.... Resmethrin 53853-1 Burgess Insect...

  11. 19 CFR 351.222 - Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations. 351.222 Section 351.222 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... orders; termination of suspended investigations. (a) Introduction. “Revocation” is a term of art that...

  12. Satellite estimates of wide-range suspended sediment concentrations in Changjiang (Yangtze) estuary using MERIS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, F.; Verhoef, W.; Zhou, Y.; Salama, M.S.; Liu, X.


    The Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters are characterized by suspended sediments over a wide range of concentrations from 20 to 2,500 mg l-1. Suspended sediment plays important roles in the estuarine and coastal system and environment. Previous algorithms for satellite estimates of

  13. 75 FR 60720 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance... (United States)


    ... Goldberger, (202) 482-4136. from South Korea (A-580-836) (2rd Review). Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin... South Korea (C-580-837) (2rd Review). Suspended Investigations No Sunset Review of suspended...; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration...

  14. Mechanical properties of freely suspended semiconducting graphene-like layers based on MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Poot, M.; Steele, G.A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Agrait, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G.


    We fabricate freely suspended nanosheets of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) which are characterized by quantitative optical microscopy and high-resolution friction force microscopy. We study the elastic deformation of freely suspended nanosheets of MoS2 using an atomic force microscope. The Young’s

  15. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (United States)


    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  16. Cricket inspired sensory hairs on suspended membranes with capacitive displacement detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.


    This paper presents the fabrication of artificial hairs of siliconnitride and SU-8 on suspended membranes for flow sensing applications. The suspended membranes contain electrodes for capacitive sensing of the rotation of the hairs. For the siliconnitride hairs a silicon wafer is used as mould and

  17. High suspended solids as a factor in reproductive failure of a freshwater mussel (United States)

    Andrew M. Gascho-Landis; Wendell R. Haag; James A. Stoeckel


    Elevated suspended solids are a widespread stressor of aquatic ecosystems, but their effects on growth and reproduction in freshwater mussels are largely unknown. We fertilized experimental ponds to create a gradient in total suspended solids (TSS) and examined the effects of TSS on growth, nutritional status, reproduction, and clearance rate in Ligumia subrostrata....

  18. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports (United States)


    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of suspension of... Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to suspend a currently approved information collection, the Agricultural...

  19. Physical and biological changes of suspended particles in a free surface flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; Claassen, T.H.L.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.


    Suspended particles are considered as contaminants in treated wastewater and can have profound effects on the biological, physical and chemical properties of receiving aquatic ecosystems, depending on the concentration, type and nature of the suspended particles. Constructed wetlands are known to

  20. Design and construction of a prototype of a flat top beam interferometer and initial tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agresti, J [University of Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, Pisa (Italy); D' Ambrosio, E [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); DeSalvo, R [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Forest, D [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, 22 Bd.Niels Bohr, Villeurbane (France); Lagrange, B [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, 22 Bd.Niels Bohr, Villeurbane (France); Mackowski, J M [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, 22 Bd.Niels Bohr, Villeurbane (France); Michel, C [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, 22 Bd.Niels Bohr, Villeurbane (France); Montorio, J L [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, 22 Bd.Niels Bohr, Villeurbane (France); Morgado, N [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, 22 Bd.Niels Bohr, Villeurbane (France); Pinard, L [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, 22 Bd.Niels Bohr, Villeurbane (France); Remillieux, A [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, 22 Bd.Niels Bohr, Villeurbane (France); Simoni, B [University of Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, Pisa (Italy); Tarallo, M [University of Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, Pisa (Italy); Willems, P [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    A non-Gaussian, flat-top laser beam profile, also called Mesa Beam Profile, supported by non spherical mirrors known as Mexican Hat (MH) mirrors, has been proposed as a way to depress the mirror thermal noise and thus improve the sensitivity of future interferometric Gravitational Wave detectors, including Advanced LIGO. Non-Gaussian beam configurations have never been tested before hence the main motivation of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of this new concept. A 7m rigid suspended Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity which can support a scaled version of a Mesa beam applicable to the LIGO interferometers has been developed. The FP cavity prototype is being designed to prove the feasibility of actual MH mirror profiles, determine whether a MH mirror cavity is capable of transforming an incoming Gaussian beam into a flat top beam profile, study the effects of unavoidable mirror imperfections on the resulting beam profile and gauge the difficulties associated with locking and maintaining the alignment of such an optical cavity. We present the design of the experimental apparatus and simulations comparing Gaussian and Mesa beams performed both with ideal and current (measured) mirror profiles. An overview of the technique used to manufacture this kind of mirror and initial results showing Mesa beam properties are presented.

  1. Quantitative suspended sediment mapping using aircraft remotely sensed multispectral data. [in Virginia (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.


    Suspended sediment is an important environmental parameter for monitoring water quality, water movement, and land use. Quantitative suspended sediment determinations were made from analysis of aircraft remotely sensed multispectral digital data. A statistical analysis and derived regression equation were used to determine and plot quantitative suspended sediment concentration contours in the tidal James River, Virginia, on May 28, 1974. From the analysis, a single band, Band 8 (0.70-0.74 microns), was adequate for determining suspended sediment concentrations. A correlation coefficient of 0.89 was obtained with a mean inaccuracy of 23.5 percent for suspended sediment concentrations up to about 50 mg/l. Other water quality parameters - secchi disc depth and chlorophyll - also had high correlations with the remotely sensed data. Particle size distribution had only a fair correlation with the remotely sensed data.

  2. Automated beam model optimization. (United States)

    Létourneau, Daniel; Sharpe, Michael B; Owrangi, Amir; Jaffray, David A


    The beam model in a three dimensional treatment planning system (TPS) defines virtually the mechanical and dosimetric characteristics of a treatment unit. The manual optimization of a beam model during commissioning can be a time consuming task due to its iterative nature. Furthermore, the quality of the beam model commissioning depends on the user's ability to manage multiple parameters and assess their impact on the agreement between measured and calculated dose. The objective of this work is to develop and validate the performance of an automated beam model optimization system (ABMOS) based on intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam measurements to improve beam model accuracy while streamlining the commissioning process. The ABMOS was developed to adjust selected TPS beam model parameters iteratively to maximize the agreement between measured and calculated 2D dose maps obtained for an IMRT beam pattern. A 2D diode array with high spatial resolution detectors was used to sample the entire IMRT beam pattern in a single dose measurement. The use of an IMRT beam pattern with large number of monitor units was selected to highlight the difference between planned and delivered dose and improve the signal to noise ratio in the low dose regions. ABMOS was applied to the optimization of a beam model for an Elekta Synergy S treatment unit. The optimized beam model was validated for two anatomical sites (25 paraspinal and 25 prostate cases) using two independent patient-specific IMRT quality control (QC) methods based on ion chamber and 2D diode array measurements, respectively. The conventional approach of comparing calculated and measured beam profiles and percent-depth dose curves was also used to assess improvement in beam model after ABMOS optimization. Elements of statistical process control were applied to the process of patient-specific QC performed with the ion chamber and the 2D array to complement the model comparison. After beam model optimization with

  3. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using fingerprinting techniques (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Neal, C.; Anders, A. M.


    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook and Wildcat Slough sub-watersheds from six potential sources: row-crop agriculture, forest, floodplains, river banks, pastures, and grasslands. Event-based suspended sediment samples were collected by in situ suspended sediment samplers and ISCO automatic pump samplers from the streams. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an unmixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from six potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from channel banks and forest adjacent to meandering reaches in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland areas adjacent to channelized rivers in the low

  4. Beam Injection into RHIC (United States)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.


    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  5. Durnin-Whitney beams (United States)

    de Jesús Cabrera-Rosas, Omar; Espíndola-Ramos, Ernesto; Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Julián-Macías, Israel; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Rickenstorff-Parrao, Carolina; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Sosa-Sánchez, Citlalli Teresa


    The aim of the present work is to define a Durnin-Whitney beam as a nondiffracting beam such that its associated caustic locally only has singularities of the fold and cusp types. Since the caustic is structurally stable then the intensity pattern of this beam is also stable and this property is what makes its definition and its theoretical and experimental study worthwhile. These properties are important in applications such as uniform optical drilling in waveguides and communications through weak turbulent atmosphere. We find that in accordance with Whitney's theorem on the stability of maps from a two-dimensional manifold to a two-dimensional manifold the phase g({{Φ }}), of the complex function A({{Φ }}) characterizing the beam, locally is given by g({{Φ }})=a{{Φ }} for a fold and g({{Φ }})=b{{{Φ }}}2 for a cusp. This result implies that the Bessel beam of order zero is not stable and that any other Bessel beam is stable because locally it has a caustic of fold type. Finally, we present an example of a Durnin-Whitney beam given by g({{Φ }})=m{{Φ }}+b{{{Φ }}}2, which is a natural generalization of the Bessel beam of order m with a singularity of cusp ridge type.

  6. Beam Diagnostics for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Heribert


    This introductory course aims at a reasonably complete coverage of beam diagnostic devices used in linear and circular accelerators and in primary beam lines. The weight is on the concepts and the indication of variants, while for technical details the reader is referred to the literature. The present updated version replaces those from previous General Accelerator Physics Courses.

  7. Detecting Bessel beams (United States)

    Trichili, Abderrahmen; Mhlanga, Thandeka; Ismail, Yaseera; Roux, Filippus S.; McLaren, Melanie; Zghal, Mourad; Forbes, Andrew


    We propose a 2-dimensional method for Bessel Gaussian beam azimuthal and radial decomposition using digital holograms. We illustrate the reconstruction of a Bessel Gaussian beam after encountering an obstruction. From the measured decomposition we show the reconstruction of the amplitude, phase and azimuthal index of the field with high degree of accuracy.

  8. Laser Beam Scanning Device. (United States)

    metal mirror. Multiple thermocouple wires attached to the rear of the mirror provide temperature (and hence beam power) information at various points...on the mirror. Scanning is achieved by means of a selector switch which sequentially samples the thermocouple outputs. The thermocouple output voltages are measured and recorded as a function of laser beam power.

  9. Sheet electron beam tester (United States)

    Spear, Alexander Grenbeaux

    The DARPA HiFIVE project uses a pulsed electron sheet beam gun to power a traveling wave tube amplifier operating at 220 GHz. Presented is a method for characterizing the high current density 0.1 mm by 1 mm sheet electron beam. A tungsten tipped probe was scanned through the cross section of the sheet electron beam inside of a vacuum vessel. The probe was controlled with sub-micron precision using stepper motors and LabView computer control while boxcar averaging hardware sampled the pulsed beam. Matlab algorithms were used to interpret the data, calculate beam dimensions and current density, and create 2-dimensional cross section images. Full characterization of two separate HiFIVE sheet electron guns was accomplished and is also presented.

  10. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes


    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  11. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.


    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  12. Quantification of suspended sediment transfers in a lowland agricultural catchment (United States)

    Salvador-Blanes, Sebastien; Manière, Louis; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Vandromme, Rosalie


    Lowland agricultural landscapes underwent important changes since the second half of the XXth century such as hedges removal, implementation of drainage systems, stream redesign and land reallocation. It resulted in changes in sediment transfer processes, and in widespread morphological alterations of water bodies. However, little is known about the sediment dynamics in these environments. The Louroux catchment (25 km2) is located in central France. It is a typical intensively cultivated and tile drained lowland catchment. The Xth century pond located at its outlet (52 ha) is undergoing large siltation, with a current sedimentation rate 60 fold higher than the pre-1950 period. Five monitoring stations, measuring water levels and turbidity at high frequency (15 mn and 1 mn respectively), combined with automatic samplers, were implemented in 2013. Three stations are located at the main tributaries outlets of the pond, one in a sub-catchment, and one at a tile drain outlet. 45 floods were observed during the three studied hydrological years. They occurred mostly between December and March (33 floods) and in May-June (8 floods). Specific sediment yields ranged from 0.02 to 0.38 t.ha-1.yr-1 depending on the monitoring site and the considered year. The vast majority of suspended sediment transfers occur during the winter floods. While large water volumes were also measured during spring floods, the sediment yields remained low. Suspended sediment yields present large inter-annual (ratio ranging between 2 and 6 depending on the monitoring station) and spatial variations, due to significant differences in total rainfall amounts during the winter season and variations in land use, respectively. The processes related to sediment transfers are most likely linked to soil saturation during winter despite the presence of a tile drainage network, with transfers occurring both at the soil surface and through the drainage system. While sediment transfer rates can be considered as

  13. Effect of particle size distribution and chlorophyll content on beam attenuation spectra (United States)

    Kitchen, J. C.; Zaneveld, J. R. V.; Pak, H.


    The relationships between beam attenuation spectra, chlorophyll and pheophytin pigment concentrations, and particle size distributions are examined for a coastal region believed to have negligible concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic compounds but large quantities of phytoplankton and resuspended sediments. It was found that the slope of the beam attenuation spectra increases when the hyperbolic slope of the size distribution increases. The magnitude of this increase in slope was consistent with calculations based on a range of particle diameters from 0.5 to 30 microns so that it would be possible to predict the slope of the particle size distribution if the slope of the beam attenuation spectra is known. The ratio of chlorophyll and pheophytin pigments to suspended volume concentrations affected the beam attenuation spectra to a lesser degree and in a more complex manner. Because of the strong effect of slope, it was concluded that the chlorophyll and pheophytin pigment content of suspended particles could not be efficiently predicted by means of beam attenuation measurements.

  14. Beam monitoring at NA2

    CERN Multimedia


    Claus Goessling working on the beam Cerenkov counter of NA2. The muon beam enters from left the hall EHN2 and the last element of the beam transport. On background is the access door on the Jura side.

  15. Tidal influence on suspended sediment distribution and dispersal in the northern Andaman Sea and Gulf of Martaban

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.; Rao, K.H.; Thwin, S.; Rao, N.S.; Raiker, V.

    Surface and water column profiles of suspended matter collected during April-May 2002, and satellite images were used to study factors influencing suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) and dispersal in the northern Andaman Sea and Gulf...

  16. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081126; Klute, Markus; Medlock, Catherine Aiko


    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The x-y correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1%.

  17. Salinity and suspended matter variations in the Tay estuary (United States)

    McManus, John


    The concept of salinity-induced density layering in estuaries was first demonstrated from the upper reaches of the Tay. In this study the nature of the layering and its variation through the tidal cycle is demonstrated from time series of observations taken at many locations within this estuary. Thorough mixing of the waters on the rising tide, as defined by depth profiles of salinity, is commonly replaced by salinity layering during the high water slack period. This condition continues into the falling tide. Frequently the mixed waters are abruptly replaced by stratified waters within the half-hourly sampling interval. This is attributed to the activity of longitudinal fronts, manifest as surficial foam bands, along which water masses shear past each other on both the flood and ebb tides. Offsetting of transverse salinity coutours along the fronts is introduced to explain apparent complexities in surface water salinity distributions measured at high water slack. Suspended particulate matter concentrations increase towards the limit of the saline water intrusion before decreasing headwards into the freshwater zone of the estuary. The suspensions in the water column may also be displaced by the lateral offsetting of the waters along the fronts. The recognition of the presence of fronts, and a knowledge of their impact on the estuarine waters may provide an alternative means of understanding the flow characteristics of these challenging water bodies. The techniques of spatial and temporal averaging normally widely used today may not be the most realistic approach to analysis of the flows.

  18. Surface tension of Nanofluid-type fuels containing suspended nanomaterials. (United States)

    Tanvir, Saad; Qiao, Li


    The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and boron (B) nanoparticles as well as dispersible multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured using the pendant drop method by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, size and the presence of a dispersing agent (surfactant) on surface tension were determined. The results show that surface tension increases both with particle concentration (above a critical concentration) and particle size for all cases. This is because the Van der Waals force between particles at the liquid/gas interface increases surface free energy and thus increases surface tension. At low particle concentrations, however, addition of particles has little influence on surface tension because of the large distance between particles. An exception is when a surfactant was used or when (MWCNTs) was involved. For such cases, the surface tension decreases compared to the pure base fluid. The hypothesis is the polymer groups attached to (MWCNTs) and the surfactant layer between a particle and the surround fluid increases the electrostatic force between particles and thus reduce surface energy and surface tension.

  19. Surface tension of Nanofluid-type fuels containing suspended nanomaterials (United States)


    The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and boron (B) nanoparticles as well as dispersible multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured using the pendant drop method by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, size and the presence of a dispersing agent (surfactant) on surface tension were determined. The results show that surface tension increases both with particle concentration (above a critical concentration) and particle size for all cases. This is because the Van der Waals force between particles at the liquid/gas interface increases surface free energy and thus increases surface tension. At low particle concentrations, however, addition of particles has little influence on surface tension because of the large distance between particles. An exception is when a surfactant was used or when (MWCNTs) was involved. For such cases, the surface tension decreases compared to the pure base fluid. The hypothesis is the polymer groups attached to (MWCNTs) and the surfactant layer between a particle and the surround fluid increases the electrostatic force between particles and thus reduce surface energy and surface tension. PMID:22513039

  20. High-field electrical and thermal transport in suspended graphene. (United States)

    Dorgan, Vincent E; Behnam, Ashkan; Conley, Hiram J; Bolotin, Kirill I; Pop, Eric


    We study the intrinsic transport properties of suspended graphene devices at high fields (≥1 V/μm) and high temperatures (≥1000 K). Across 15 samples, we find peak (average) saturation velocity of 3.6 × 10(7) cm/s (1.7 × 10(7) cm/s) and peak (average) thermal conductivity of 530 W m(-1) K(-1) (310 W m(-1) K(-1)) at 1000 K. The saturation velocity is 2-4 times and the thermal conductivity 10-17 times greater than in silicon at such elevated temperatures. However, the thermal conductivity shows a steeper decrease at high temperature than in graphite, consistent with stronger effects of second-order three-phonon scattering. Our analysis of sample-to-sample variation suggests the behavior of "cleaner" devices most closely approaches the intrinsic high-field properties of graphene. This study reveals key features of charge and heat flow in graphene up to device breakdown at ~2230 K in vacuum, highlighting remaining unknowns under extreme operating conditions.

  1. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi


    Full Text Available Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high levels of all measured elements. Concentrations of most elements at the two sites exhibit strong spatial gradients and concentrations of elements at these sites are higher than other locations. The highest concentrations of elements were observed during June–August because of dust storms, significant increase in energy consumption, and active surface winds. Enrichment factors of elements at the high-level sites have values in the range >10~60 while for Cu and Zn the enrichment factors are much higher (~0–>700 indicating that greater percentage of TSP composition for these three elements in air comes from anthropogenic activities.

  2. Deterministic separation of suspended particles in a reconfigurable obstacle array

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Siqi


    We use a macromodel of a flow-driven deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) microfluidic system to investigate conditions leading to size-separation of suspended particles. This model system can be easily reconfigured to establish an arbitrary orientation between the average flow field and the array of obstacles comprising the stationary phase (forcing angle). We also investigate the effect of obstacle size using two arrays with different obstacles but same surface-to-surface distance between them. In all cases, we observe the presence of a locked mode at small forcing angles, in which particles move along a principal direction in the lattice until a locked-to-zigzag transition takes place when the driving force reaches a critical angle. We show that the transition occurs at increasing angles for larger particles, thus enabling particle separation at specific forcing angles. Moreover, we observe a linear correlation between the critical angle and the size of the particles that could be used in the design of...

  3. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Over Gulf of Martaban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matamin Abd Rahman


    Full Text Available Gulf of Martaban is located at the north of Andaman, and is one of the world most turbid areas. The presence of suspended sediment concentration (SSC in the water body could reduce the underwater transmittance. This study has been conducted to investigate the variation of SSC over the Gulf of Martaban. Remote sensing reflectance (Rrs of 667 nm is used as a proxy to represent the sediment SSC variation over the study area. The data for the period of July 2002 to March 2014 acquired from MODIS Aqua 4 km resolution are used in this study. As a result, there is no obvious yearly variation in the SSC cover area. The SSC variation over this study area is found to be seasonal. High homogenous SSC covers area observably during the northeast (NE monsoon season that occurs from December to January. The sediment cover area could reach the latitude of 15°N that located at the south of the gulf. During southwest (SW monsoon season that occurs from May to September, low and sparse SSC cover area is observed. As a consequence, the area covered by the SSC is higher during the NE monsoon season as compared to the SW monsoon season. Hence, the SSC cover area during the NE monsoon season is greater than the yearly averaged SSC cover area. Meanwhile the SSC cover area during the rainy SW monsoon season is less than the yearly and NE monsoon season.

  4. Ensemble Modeling of Suspended Sediment in Steep Mountain Catchments (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Raseman, W. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Livneh, B.


    Climatic and land cover changes present important uncertainties into the rates of soil erosion and sedimentation in watersheds. Soil erosion adds constituents to streams, altering water chemistry and streambed morphology, which can adversely affect aquatic life and poses a critical challenge for water treatment and reservoir management. The goal of this research is to establish estimates of sediment transport within large-scale mountainous catchments (>1000 km2). As sedimentation rates are impacted by numerous physical processes including soil, land cover, slope and climate; the results from seven models will be presented to quantify uncertainty and improve predictability. A broader inquiry made here is into the efficacy of model structure under different conditions. We present the results from empirical, stochastic, conceptual and physical models. These include empirical models: monovariate rating curve, multivariate regression and the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE), to models with conceptual components: Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to more physically based models: Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Key uncertainties will be characterized resulting from forcing inputs, parameter selection, scale discretization, and model structure. Calibration results from a multi-objective optimization routine will be presented that optimize parameters and identify performance trade-offs that will be used to develop uncertainty estimates in both streamflow and sediment projections. The outcomes of this research will highlight critical issues relevant to large-scale hydrologic and suspended sediment prediction initiatives.

  5. Event-based total suspended sediment particle size distribution model (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer; Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Warner, Richard C.


    One of the most challenging modelling tasks in hydrology is prediction of the total suspended sediment particle size distribution (TSS-PSD) in stormwater runoff generated from exposed soil surfaces at active construction sites and surface mining operations. The main objective of this study is to employ gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to develop a new model with the ability to more accurately predict the TSS-PSD by taking advantage of both event-specific and site-specific factors in the model. To compile the data for this study, laboratory scale experiments using rainfall simulators were conducted on fourteen different soils to obtain TSS-PSD. This data is supplemented with field data from three construction sites in Ontario over a period of two years to capture the effect of transport and deposition within the site. The combined data sets provide a wide range of key overlooked site-specific and storm event-specific factors. Both parent soil and TSS-PSD in runoff are quantified by fitting each to a lognormal distribution. Compared to existing regression models, the developed model more accurately predicted the TSS-PSD using a more comprehensive list of key model input parameters. Employment of the new model will increase the efficiency of deployment of required best management practices, designed based on TSS-PSD, to minimize potential adverse effects of construction site runoff on aquatic life in the receiving watercourses.

  6. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  7. Suspended sediment dynamics in the Amazon River of Peru (United States)

    Armijos, Elisa; Crave, Alain; Vauchel, Philippe; Fraizy, Pascal; Santini, William; Moquet, Jean-Sèbastien; Arevalo, Nore; Carranza, Jorge; Guyot, Jean-Loup


    The erosion and transport of sediments allow us to understand many activities of significance, such as crust evolution, climate change, uplift rates, continental processes, the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants and nutrients. The Amazon basin of Peru has contrasting physiographic and climatic characteristics between the Andean piedmont and the plains and between the north and south of the basin which is why there are 8 gauging stations located along the principal rivers of the Andean piedmont (Marañón, Huallaga, Ucayali) and the plain (Marañón, Tigre, Napo, Ucayali and Amazon rivers). Since 2003, the ORE-Hybam (IRD-SENAMHI-UNALM) observatory has performed out regular measurements at strategic points of the Amazon basin to understand and model the systems, behavior and long-term dynamics. On the Andean piedmont, the suspended yields are governed by a simple model with a relationship between the river discharge and the sediment concentration. In the plain, the dilution effect of the concentrations can create hysteresis in this relationship on a monthly basis. The Amazon basin of Peru has a sediment yield of 541 *106 t year-1, 70% comes from the southern basin.

  8. Freely suspended nanocomposite membranes as highly sensitive sensors. (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoyang; Markutsya, Sergiy; Pikus, Yuri; Tsukruk, Vladimir V


    Highly sensitive sensor arrays are in high demand for prospective applications in remote sensing and imaging. Measuring microscopic deflections of compliant micromembranes and cantilevers is developing into one of the most versatile approaches for thermal, acoustic and chemical sensing. Here, we report on an innovative fabrication of compliant nanocomposite membranes with nanoscale thickness showing extraordinary sensitivity and dynamic range, which makes them candidates for a new generation of membrane-based sensor arrays. These nanomembranes with a thickness of 25-70 nm, which can be freely suspended over large (hundred micrometres) openings are fabricated with molecular precision by time-efficient, spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly. They are designed as multilayered molecular composites made of a combination of polymeric monolayers and a metal nanoparticle intralayer. We demonstrate that these nanocomposite membranes possess unparalleled sensitivity and a unique autorecovering ability. The membrane nanostructure that is responsible for these outstanding properties combines multilayered polymer/nanoparticle organization, high polymer-chain orientation, and a pre-stretched state.

  9. Investigating suspended sediment dynamics in contrasting agricultural catchments using ex situ turbidity-based suspended sediment monitoring (United States)

    Sherriff, S. C.; Rowan, J. S.; Melland, A. R.; Jordan, P.; Fenton, O.; hUallachain, D. O.


    Soil erosion and suspended sediment (SS) pose risks to chemical and ecological water quality. Agricultural activities may accelerate erosional fluxes from bare, poached or compacted soils, and enhance connectivity through modified channels and artificial drainage networks. Storm-event fluxes dominate SS transport in agricultural catchments; therefore, high temporal-resolution monitoring approaches are required, but can be expensive and technically challenging. Here, the performance of in situ turbidity sensors, conventionally installed submerged at the river bankside, is compared with installations where river water is delivered to sensors ex situ, i.e. within instrument kiosks on the riverbank, at two experimental catchments (Grassland B and Arable B). The in situ and ex situ installations gave comparable results when calibrated against storm-period, depth-integrated SS data, with total loads at Grassland B estimated at 12 800 and 15 400 t, and 22 600 and 24 900 t at Arable B, respectively. The absence of spurious turbidity readings relating to bankside debris around the in situ sensor and its greater security make the ex situ sensor more robust. The ex situ approach was then used to characterise SS dynamics and fluxes in five intensively managed agricultural catchments in Ireland which feature a range of landscape characteristics and land use pressures. Average annual suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was below the Freshwater Fish Directive (78/659/EEC) guideline of 25 mg L-1, and the continuous hourly record demonstrated that exceedance occurred less than 12 % of the observation year. Soil drainage class and proportion of arable land were key controls determining flux rates, but all catchments reported a high degree of inter-annual variability associated with variable precipitation patterns compared to the long-term average. Poorly drained soils had greater sensitivity to runoff and soil erosion, particularly in catchments with periods of bare soils. Well

  10. Aerial Photo Utilization in Estimating Suspended Sediment in the Wuryantoro Watershed, Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Budi Santoso


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment load flowing out from a watershed is normally predicated by analysis os suspended sediment of water sample, and the volume of suspended sediment be calculated based on sediment concentration and river discharge. Such field measurements need a lot of field data and they are time consuming. Another method for prediction of suspended sediment by using remote sensing imagery data and recorded rainfall data. The objective of this research is to 1 examine the capability of remote sensing technique to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land in the prediction of suspended sediment; 2 examine the accuracy of the model for prediction suspended sediment. This research is carried out in Wuryantoro watershed, Wonogiri. The main data to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land is infrared aerial photograph on scale 1 : 10.000. the method that used in this research is interpretation of remote sensing imagery data, combined with rainfall data. The result show that the accuracy of landuse is 88.5%, the accuracy of slope is 87.67%. the accuracy of the prediction of suspended sediment by model A3 87.07%, model C1 86.63%, model C2 90.57%, model A8 84.13%, model A9 80.1%, and model C4 78.6%.

  11. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.


    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  12. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)


    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  13. Suspended-sediment loads and reservoir sediment trap efficiency for Clinton Lake, Kansas, 2010-12 (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.


    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2012, at a site upstream and downstream from Clinton Lake, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from the reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is inhibiting the ability of Clinton Lake to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The inflow suspended-sediment load was substantially larger than the outflow load and most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. Respectively, the total 2-year inflow and outflow suspended-sediment loads were computed to be 44.4 and 1.49 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 97 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 60,500 pounds per square mile. Because this study was completed during a drought, the estimated inflow suspended-sediment load and suspended-sediment yield likely are substantially less than what would occur during a period of average or above average precipitation and runoff.

  14. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven


    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  15. Mucous Secretion and Cilia Beating Defend Developing Coral Larvae from Suspended Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard F Ricardo

    Full Text Available Suspended sediments produced from dredging activities, or added to the sediment budget via river runoff, are a concern for marine resource managers. Understanding the impact of suspended sediments on critical life history stages of keystone species like corals is fundamental to effective management of coastlines and reefs. Coral embryos (Acropora tenuis and A. millepora and larvae (A. tenuis, A. millepora and Pocillopora acuta were subjected to a range of suspended sediment concentrations of different sediment types (siliciclastic and carbonate to assess concentration-response relationships on ecologically relevant endpoints, including survivorship and ability to metamorphose. Embryos were subjected to short (12 h suspended sediment exposures from ages of 3-12 hours old or a long (30 h exposure at 6 hours old. Neither the survivorship nor metamorphosis function of embryos were significantly affected by realistic sediment exposures to ~1000 mg L-1. However, some embryos exhibited a previously undescribed response to dynamically suspended sediments, which saw 10% of the embryos form negatively buoyant cocoons at siliciclastic suspended sediment concentrations ≥35 mg L-1. Scanning electron and optical microscopy confirmed the presence of a coating on these embryos, possibly mucus with incorporated sediment particles. Cocoon formation was common in embryos but not in larvae, and occurred more often after exposure to siliciclastic rather than carbonate sediments. Once transferred into sediment-free seawater, functional ~36-h-old embryos began emerging from the cocoons, coinciding with cilia development. Ciliated (> 36-h-old larvae exposed to suspended sediments for 60 h were also observed to secrete mucus and were similarly unaffected by suspended sediment concentrations to ~800 mg L-1. This study provides evidence that mucous secretion and cilia beating effectively protect coral embryos and larvae from suspended sediment and that these mechanisms

  16. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    Electron beam ion sources technology made significant progress since 1968 when this method of producing highly charged ions in a potential trap within electron beam was proposed by E. Donets. Better understanding of physical processes in EBIS, technological advances and better simulation tools determined significant progress in key EBIS parameters: electron beam current and current density, ion trap capacity, attainable charge states. Greatly increased the scope of EBIS and EBIT applications. An attempt is made to compile some of EBIS engineering problems and solutions and to demonstrate a present stage of understanding the processes and approaches to build a better EBIS.

  17. Beam instrumentation performance overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M


    The 2011 run has proven that LHC can operate safely and stably with higher bunch intensity and smaller transverse emittance than foreseen in the Technical Design Report. In this presentation the performance of the Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is discussed. The improvements to the system, those made during the last year and those expected to be done for 2012 run are presented. The status of the three types of devices measuring the transverse beam emittance, wire scanners (BWS), synchrotron radiation monitors (BSRT) and beam gas ionization monitors (BGI), are shown. The control room applications are reviewed and a set of improvements proposed by the operation team is presented.

  18. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.


    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  19. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. (United States)


    ... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of the...

  20. 5 CFR 1620.45 - Suspending TSP loans, restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending TSP loans, restoring post... Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA)-Covered Military Service § 1620.45 Suspending TSP loans, restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions. (a) Suspending TSP loans during...

  1. Saturation of the photoneutralization of a H- beam in continuous operation (United States)

    Bresteau, D.; Blondel, C.; Drag, C.


    An unprecedented, greater than 50%, photodetachment rate is obtained on a H- beam in the continuous regime. The key element of the experimental setup is a medium-finesse optical cavity, suspended around the anion beam, which makes it possible to recycle the photon flux in the interaction region, at the crossing between the anion and laser beams. The cavity is injected by a narrow-linewidth ytterbium-doped fibre laser, at the wavelength 1064 nm. The light power stored in the cavity is about 14 kW for 24 W of input light power. Similar greater-than-50% photo-neutralization efficiencies can be contemplated for beams with kinetic energies much larger than 1.2 keV of the presently used H- beam, given the fact that the stored light power can be increased, for larger beam diameters, by several orders of magnitude. The technique can thus be relied on to design novel D0 injectors, for fusion reactors, with a much better efficiency than the molecular-collision based injectors presently developed for ITER. It can also be applied to the production of neutral beams of any species that can be conveniently prepared in the form of an anion beam, provided that efficient light power storage can be achieved for the corresponding photodetachment wavelength.

  2. Determining annual suspended sediment and sediment-associated trace element and nutrient fluxes (United States)

    Horowitz, A.J.


    Suspended sediment is a major factor in the biological and geochemical cycling of trace elements and nutrients in aquatic systems. The design of effective studies involving the collection, processing, and subsequent chemical analysis of suspended sediment requires a clear understanding of the problems associated with using this sample medium. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge relative to the various issues/problems associated with the collection of representative suspended sediment samples in fluvial systems. It also addresses issues associated with accurately determining the concentrations and fluxes of sediment-associated trace elements and nutrients.

  3. H2S induces a suspended animation-like state in mice. (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Morrison, Mike; Roth, Mark B


    Mammals normally maintain their core body temperature (CBT) despite changes in environmental temperature. Exceptions to this norm include suspended animation-like states such as hibernation, torpor, and estivation. These states are all characterized by marked decreases in metabolic rate, followed by a loss of homeothermic control in which the animal's CBT approaches that of the environment. We report that hydrogen sulfide can induce a suspended animation-like state in a nonhibernating species, the house mouse (Mus musculus). This state is readily reversible and does not appear to harm the animal. This suggests the possibility of inducing suspended animation-like states for medical applications.

  4. Electromechanical coupling in suspended nanomechanical resonators with a two-dimensional electron gas (United States)

    Shevyrin, A. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.


    A physical model describing the piezoelectric-effect-mediated influence of bending of a thin suspended cantilever with a two-dimensional electron gas on the conductivity is proposed. The model shows that the conductivity change is almost entirely caused by the rapid change in mechanical stress near the boundary of suspended and non-suspended areas, rather than by the stress itself. An experiment confirming that the electromechanical coupling is associated with the piezoelectric effect is performed. The experimentally measured conductance sensitivity to the cantilever’s vibrations agree with the developed physical model.

  5. Basic hydraulic experiment on the saturated concentration of suspended load due to tsunamis (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Somekawa, Shiho


    When tsunamis arrive in the shallow sea, a huge amount of suspended load is generated by large velocity and strong turbulence. The suspended load causes the geomorphic processes of erosion and deposition. Because the suspended load cannot be increased endlessly, it should have the saturated concentration. Many numerical models of sediment transport due to tsunamis have assumed a constant value of 1% for the saturated concentration empirically. However, it is supposed as a function of velocity. In this study, a hydraulic experiment was carried out to investigate a relationship between velocity and the saturated concentration of suspended load when tsunamis attack. A water circulation pipe used in the experiment was 10 cm in a diameter, 260 cm in length and 50 cm in width. A velocity of water flow in the pipe had been controlled by two pumps and two valves. It was changed from 0.24 to 1.22 m/s. Various amounts of sand was spread on the bottom of pipe. The amount of sand was changed from 0.1 to 10% as converted in the concentration of suspended load if all sand suspended. A diameter and a density of the sand were 0.267 mm and 2.64 x 103 kg/m^3. A condition of sediment transport in the pipe was recorded by video camera from a transparent window at the side of pipe. The condition was judged as all sand particles were suspended or not. The former condition indicates that the concentration of suspended load is saturated and the latter does it is not saturated. When velocity was smaller than 0.47 m/s, there was no suspended load because of a weak tractive force. When velocity became larger, the suspended load was generated and the concentration also became higher. However, the concentration had the upper limit and surplus sand appeared on the bed of pipe when velocity became much larger. The condition gave the saturated concentration of suspended load. When velocity was 0.665 m/s, the saturated concentration was smaller than 1% which is used in many numerical simulations

  6. Leda Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, D


    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  7. Generalized beam quality factor of aberrated truncated Gaussian laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C


    Full Text Available The authors outline a theory for the calculation of the beam quality factor of an aberrated laser beam. They provide closed form equations that show that the beam quality factor of an aberrated Gaussian beam depends on all primary aberrations except...

  8. Single kick approximations for beam-beam deflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Koyama


    Full Text Available A six-dimensional symplectic beam-beam interaction map using finite discrete slices of a strong beam is extended to infinitesimal slices. The new map is calculated under the assumption of a longitudinal Gaussian distribution with approximations. A round Gaussian beam is simulated to demonstrate accuracies of the approximations.

  9. Monitoring suspended sediments and turbidity in Sahelian basins (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Nogmana, Soumaguel


    Suspended matter can carry viruses and bacteria that are pathogenic to humans and can foster their development. Therefore, turbidity can be considered a vector of microbiological contaminants, which cause diarrheal diseases, and it can be used as a proxy for fecal bacteria. Few studies have focused on water turbidity in rural Africa, where many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Diarrheal diseases are indeed the second cause of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, in this region, environment survey is minimal or inexistent. Monitoring water turbidity therefore represents a challenge for health improvement. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and it is well suited to monitoring by remote sensing. Because it varies in space and time and because the small water bodies (remote sensing and questions the methods developed for less turbid waters. In addition, high aerosol loadings (mineral dust and biomass burning) may be detrimental to turbidity retrieval in this region because of inaccurate atmospheric corrections. We propose a method to monitor water quality of Sahelian ponds, lakes and rivers using in-situ and remote sensing data, which is tested at different sites for which in-situ water turbidity and suspended sediments concentration (SSSC) measurements are acquired. Water sample are routinely collected at two sites within the AMMA-CATCH observatory part of the Réseau de Bassin Versants (RBV) French network: the Agoufou pond in northern Mali (starting September 2014), and the Niger River at Niamey in Niger (starting June 2015). These data are used to evaluate different indexes to derive water turbidity from the reflectance in the visible and infrared bands of high resolution optical sensors (LANDSAT, SENTINEL2). The temporal evolution of the turbidity of ponds, lakes and rivers is well captured at the seasonal and interannual scales with the

  10. Final focus test beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration.

  11. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tecker, F.


    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  12. HIRENASD Beam FEM (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains attempts to create BEAM FEM model. I have started a Blog to discuss this... please put your comments there and I will attempt to keep everything...

  13. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.


    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  14. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail:; Sartori, E. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)


    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  15. Test Beams and Polarized Fixed Target Beams at the NLC


    Keller, Lewis; Pitthan, Rainer; Rokni, Sayed; Thompson, Kathleen; Kolomenski, Yury


    A conceptual program to use NLC beams for test beams and fixed target physics is described. Primary undisrupted polarized beams would be the most simple to use, but for NLC, the disrupted beams are of good enough quality that they could also be used, after collimation of the low energy tails, for test beams and fixed target physics. Pertinent issues are: what is the compelling physics, what are the requirements on beams and running time, and what is the impact on colliding beam physics runni...

  16. Beam-beam diagnostics from closed-orbit distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.; Chin, Y.H.; Eden, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kozanecki, W. [DAPNIA/SPP, CEN Saclay Gif-sur-Yvette, (FR)]|[Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tennyson, J.; Ziemann, V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed.

  17. Storage filters upland suspended sediment signals delivered from watersheds (United States)

    Pizzuto, James E.; Keeler, Jeremy; Skalak, Katherine; Karwan, Diana


    Climate change, tectonics, and humans create long- and short-term temporal variations in the supply of suspended sediment to rivers. These signals, generated in upland erosional areas, are filtered by alluvial storage before reaching the basin outlet. We quantified this filter using a random walk model driven by sediment budget data, a power-law distributed probability density function (PDF) to determine how long sediment remains stored, and a constant downstream drift velocity during transport of 157 km/yr. For 25 km of transport, few particles are stored, and the median travel time is 0.2 yr. For 1000 km of transport, nearly all particles are stored, and the median travel time is 2.5 m.y. Both travel-time distributions are power laws. The 1000 km travel-time distribution was then used to filter sinusoidal input signals with periods of 10 yr and 104 yr. The 10 yr signal is delayed by 12.5 times its input period, damped by a factor of 380, and is output as a power law. The 104 yr signal is delayed by 0.15 times its input period, damped by a factor of 3, and the output signal retains its sinusoidal input form (but with a power-law “tail”). Delivery time scales for these two signals are controlled by storage; in-channel transport time is insignificant, and low-frequency signals are transmitted with greater fidelity than high-frequency signals. These signal modifications are essential to consider when evaluating watershed restoration schemes designed to control sediment loading, and where source-area geomorphic processes are inferred from the geologic record.

  18. Beam-beam effects at the Fermilab Tevatron: Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sen


    Full Text Available The Tevatron in Run II is operating with three trains of 12 bunches each. Long-range beam-beam interactions have been significant sources of beam loss and lifetime limitations of antiprotons. The dynamics due to the long-range beam-beam interactions depends on several beam parameters such as tunes, coupling, chromaticities, beam separations, intensities, and emittances. We have developed analytical tools to calculate, for example, amplitude dependent tune shifts and chromaticities, beam-beam induced coupling, and resonance driving terms. We report on these calculations and estimates of dynamic aperture and diffusion coefficients with long-term tracking. These theoretical results are compared with observations and used to predict performance at design values of beam parameters.

  19. Is LEP beam-beam limited at its highest energy?

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, D; Meddahi, Malika; Verdier, A


    The operation of LEP at 45.6 GeV was limited by beam-beam effects and the vertical beam-beam parameter xy never exceeded 0.045. At the highest energy of 94.5 GeV, the increased damping allows higher beam-beam parameters xy . Values above 0.07 in the vertical plane averaged over four experiments have been obtained frequently with peak values up to 0.075 in a single experiment. Although the maximum intensity in LEP is presently limited by technical considerations, some observations indicate that the beam-beam limit is close and the question of the maximum possible values can be raised. These observations are shown in this paper and possible consequences are presented. The optimum operation of LEP in the neighbourhood of the beam-beam limit is discussed.

  20. Beam Propagation Experimental Study. (United States)


    Kiuttu C. A. Ekdahl N. F. Roderick F49620-81-C-0016 B. A. Sabol L. A. Wright D. J. Sullivan______________ 3 P;ERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS...pulse * transmission through the atmosphere remain unresolved. The complexity of beam propagation physics and air chemistry makes the prediction of beam...higher front velocities than predicted by Eq. (27). Fessenden et al. 1 6 measured vf - 0.77 v in a detailed series of experiments utilizing the FX-25

  1. Electron Beam Materials Processing (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.


    In electron beam processing, a well-defined beam of relatively energetic electrons produced by a high voltage acceleration gap is used to transmit thermal energy into a material in a precise manner. This controlled deposition of heat is employed in a wide variety of industrial applications for precision cutting, drilling, and welding of materials as well as annealing, glazing, and surface hardening. This chapter will describe the equipment used and the most prominent industrial applications for this process.

  2. LHC First Beam 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Tuura, L


    The CMS Centre played a major part in the LHC First Beam Event on September 10th 2008: it was a central point for CMS, hosting journalists from all over the world and providing live link-ups to collaborating institutes as well as, of course, monitoring events as they happened at Point 5. It was also a venue for celebration as the beam completed circuits of the LHC in both directions, passing successfully through the detector (Courtesy of Lassi Tuura)

  3. The ideal neutrino beams

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Mats


    The advance in neutrino oscillation physics is driven by the availability of well characterized and high flux neutrino beams. The three present options for the next generation neutrino oscillation facility are super beams, neutrino factories and beta-beams. A super-beam is a very high intensity classical neutrino beam generated by protons impinging on a target where the neutrinos are generated by the secondary particles decaying in a tunnel down streams of the target. In a neutrino factory the neutrinos are generated from muons decaying in a storage ring with long straight sections pointing towards the detectors. In a beta-beam the neutrinos are also originating from decay in a storage ring but the decaying particles are radioactive ions rather than muons. I will in this presentation review the three options and discuss the pros and cons of each. The present joint design effort for a future high intensity neutrino oscillation in Europe within a common EU supported design study, EURONU, will also be presented....

  4. Fractional Airy beams. (United States)

    Khonina, S N; Ustinov, A V


    Airy beams possess a number of properties that ensure their multifunction and high relevance in many applications. This fact stimulates scientists to search for new modifications and generalizations of classical Airy beams. Several generalizations of the Airy functions are known, on the basis of both the modification of the differential equation and the variations in the integral representation. In this paper we propose and investigate a new type of Airy beams-fractional Airy beams (FrAiB). They are based on the generalization of the integral representation and are close to the Olver functions, but we are considering a wider range of the power-law dependence of the argument, including non-integer (fractional) values of the power. A theoretical and numerical analysis of the FrAiBs, as well as their symmetrized variants, was performed. The properties of FrAiBs, such as being non-diffracting and autofocusing, were numerically investigated by means of the fractional Fourier transform, describing the beam transformations by paraxial optical systems. We believe that new beams can be useful for laser manipulation techniques and lensless laser patterning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes von Borany


    Full Text Available In the Ion Beam Center (IBC, various set-ups – electrostatic accelerators, ion implanters, plasma-based ion implantation equipment, low-energy ion tools, an ion microscope etc. – are combined into a unique facility for research and applications using ion beams. Almost all ions from stable chemical nuclides are available in the ion energy range from 10 eV to about 60 MeV. In addition to broad beams, also focused (down to 1 nm and highly-charged (charge state up to 45+ ion beams, or ions extracted from a plasma can be provided. In total, the IBC operates more than 30 dedicated tools or beamline end-stations. The specific expertise of IBC is the modification and analysis of solids by energetic ions aimed to develop novel materials for information technology, electronics or energy systems. In addition, ion beam analysis techniques became of increasing importance for interdisciplinary fields like geochemistry, climate or environmental research and resources technology. Special add-on services offered ensure a successful realization of user experiments. Based on a long-term expertise, specific equipment and common commercial procedures, the IBC is strongly active in the use of ion beam techniques for industrial applications aimed to initiate valuable product innovation.

  6. Weld formation control at electron beam welding with beam oscillations


    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Koleva, Elena; Mladenov, Georgy; A. Shcherbakov


    Electron beam welding is used extensively to produce essential machine parts. The control of the basic beam parameters beam power or beam current at constant accelerating voltage, welding speed, current of focusing lens and distance between electron gun and welded sample surface is not enough to obtain at most of the regimes sound welds. Control of the focus position using analysis of the high frequency component of the current, collected by plasma, at periodic interactions on the beam (the o...

  7. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams (United States)

    Aston, G.


    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  8. Particle size distribution of suspended solids in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and adjacent shelf waters (United States)

    Byrnes, M. R.; Oertel, G. F.


    Characteristics of suspended solids, including total suspended matter, total suspended inorganics, total suspended organics, particle size distribution, and the presence of the ten most prominent particle types were determined. Four research vessels simultaneously collected samples along four transects. Samples were collected within a 2-hour period that coincided with the maximum ebb penetration of Chesapeake Bay outwelling. The distribution of primary and secondary particle size modes indicate the presence of a surface or near-surface plume, possibly associated with three sources: (1) runoff, (2) resuspension of material within the Bay, and/or (3) resuspension of material in the area of shoals at the Bay mouth. Additional supportive evidence for this conclusion is illustrated with ocean color scanner data.

  9. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  10. Suspended sediment fluxes in a tropical estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    Annual transport processes of suspended sediments in Beypore estuary - a tropical estuary along the south west coast of India - were investigated based on time series measurements within the system. It's observed that the sediment transport...

  11. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  12. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent. (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan


    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  13. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak


    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  14. 76 FR 80982 - International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities (United States)


    ...-0292] International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities I International Cyclotron, Inc. (International Cyclotron; Licensee) is the holder of Byproduct Materials License... International Cyclotron submitted its NRC license application related to the cyclotron, it requested...

  15. Substantial export of suspended sediment to the global oceans from glacial erosion in Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, I.; Hudson, Brian D; Syvitski, James P. M.; Mikkelsen, Andreas B.; Hasholt, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Noel, B. P. Y.; Morlighem, M.


    Limited measurements along Greenland’s remote coastline hamper quantification of the sediment and associated nutrients draining the Greenland ice sheet, despite the potential influence of river-transported suspended sediment on phytoplankton blooms and carbon sequestration. Here we calibrate

  16. Seasonal variations of total suspended matter (TSM) in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Misra, A.; ManiMurali, R.; Sukumaran, S.; Vethamony, P.

    Total Suspended Matter (TSM)is an important parameter for determining the water quality in coastal regions as it is responsible for the reduction in the light available to the aquatic vegetation which subsequently alters the health and quality...

  17. Natural isotopic composition of nitrogen in suspended particulate matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Bhosle, N.B.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    The first measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition (delta sup(15) N) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the surface Bay of Bengal (BOB) at 24 different locations during pre- (April-May 2003) and post- (September-October 2002) monsoon...

  18. Experimental realization of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, Jefferson; Ugarte, Daniel [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sato, Fernando; Galvao, Douglas Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Coura, Pablo Zimmerman; Dantas, Socrates de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Fisica


    We report high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics results of the first experimental test of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species formed from spontaneous stretching of metallic nanowires. (author)

  19. Beam Trail Tracking at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab; Carmichael, Linden Ralph [Fermilab; Neswold, Richard [Fermilab; Yuan, Zongwei [Fermilab


    We present a system for acquiring and sorting data from select devices depending on the destination of each particular beam pulse in the Fermilab accelerator chain. The 15 Hz beam that begins in the Fermilab ion source can be directed to a variety of additional accelerators, beam lines, beam dumps, and experiments. We have implemented a data acquisition system that senses the destination of each pulse and reads the appropriate beam intensity devices so that profiles of the beam can be stored and analysed for each type of beam trail. We envision utilizing this data long term to identify trends in the performance of the accelerators

  20. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.


    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  1. A study of metal ion adsorption at low suspended-solid concentrations (United States)

    Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Davis, J.A.; Kuwabara, J.S.


    A procedure for conducting adsorption studies at low suspended solid concentrations in natural waters (NaCl) concentration (0??1-0??002 m) and particle concentration (2-50 mg l-1). The lack of success of the Davis Leckie site bonding model in describing Zn(II) adsorption emphasizes the need for further studies of adsorption at low suspended-solid concentrations. ?? 1987.

  2. Wavelength-Tunable IR Detector based on Suspended Bilayer Graphene Micro Ribbons (United States)


    high purity copper foil using a low pressure CVD furnace at 1000 oC in a hydrogen, argon and methane environment. Raman spectrum of the graphene ...characterized in Year One a device with suspended graphene microribbons, and found that fully suspended CVD -grown graphene devices are dominated by the...photoelectric effect, which is promising towards CVD -grown graphene photodetectors approaching THz cut-off frequencies. chemical vapor deposition, strain

  3. Measurement of Suspended Sediment Transport Processes off the Holderness Coast - Southern North Sea, England


    Blewett, Joanna Catherine


    A field campaign was set up as part of the LOIS-RACS coastal program (1994-1996), to identify the near-bed physical processes responsible for suspended sediment movement in shallow water (10-20m depth) off the Holdemess coast, NE England. A new benthic tripod system Boundary Layer Intelligent Sensor System (BLISS) has been developed and deployed along a transect at three sites, normal to the coastline at Tunstall. Measurements of current velocity, suspended sediment concentrati...

  4. Thermal instability of Walters B' viscoelastic fluid permeated with suspended particles in hydromagnetics in porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pardeep


    Full Text Available The effect of suspended particles on the thermal instability of Walters B' viscoelastic fluid in hydromantic in porous medium is considered. For stationary convection, Walters B' viscoelastic fluid behaves like a Newtonian fluid. The medium permeability and suspended particles has ten the onset of convection whereas the magnetic field postpones the onset of convection, for the case of stationary convection. The magnetic field and viscoelasticity intro duce oscillatory modes in the system which was non-existent in their absence.

  5. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying


    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of suspended-sediment concentrations in a shallow estuarine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Ruhl


    Full Text Available Shallow subembayments respond differently than deep channels to physical forces acting in estuaries. The U.S. Geological Survey measured suspended-sediment concentrations at five locations in Honker Bay, a shallow subembayment of San Francisco Bay, and the adjacent channel to investigate the spatial and temporal differences between deep and shallow estuarine environments. During the first freshwater pulse of the wet season, the channel tended to transport suspended sediments through the system, whereas the shallow area acted as off-channel storage where deposition would likely occur. Following the freshwater pulse, suspended-sediment concentrations were greater in Honker Bay than in the adjacent deep channel, due to the larger supply of erodible sediment on the bed. However, the tidal variability of suspended-sediment concentrations in both Honker Bay and in the adjacent channel was greater after the freshwater pulse than before. During wind events, suspended-sediment concentrations in the channel were not affected; however, wind played a crucial role in the resuspension of sediments in the shallows. Despite wind-wave sediment resuspension in Honker Bay, tidally averaged suspended-sediment flux was controlled by the flood-dominated currents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Distribusi Musiman Total Suspended Matter (TSM di Laut Surnbawa (117" - us· Edan s· - 9· S telah dilakukan. Data TSM tersebut diperoleh dari 75 stasiun pengukuran pada bulan September 2005 dan 98 stasiun pengukuran pada bulan November 2005 dan April 2006. Besaran sebaran TSM diperoleh dari hasil perhitungan besaran turbidity yang diperoleh dari pengukuran dengan menggunakan alat CTD ( Conductivity, Temperature and Depth Sensors. Besaran TSM yang diperoleh dari besaran turbidity menggunakan rurnus TSM = 0,65 Tur+ 1,17 (r = 0,85 (Hoshika dan Tanimoto, 1997.  Distribusi sebaran TSM pada saat musim hujan menunjukkan bahwa besarnya bervariasi dari L060 sam­pai 2.951 mg/1 dengan rata-rata sebesar 1.152 mg/1 (n=98, di lain pihak pada saat musim kemarau distribusi sebaran TSM menunjukkan bahwa besarnya bervariasi dari 1.060 sampai 2.899 mg/1 dengan rata-rata sebesar 1.111 mg/I (n=75. Distribusi sebaran TSM secara vertical dari permukaan laut sampai dengan kedalaman 20 meter menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan yang signifikan antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Pada saat musim kemarau distribusi sebaran TSM pada permukaan laut sampai dengan kedalaman 20 meter mem­punyai variasi yang kecil (dari 1.079 sampai 1.599 mg/1; Pada saat musim hujan distribusi sebaran TSM pada permukaan laut sampai dengan kedalaman 20 meter mempunyai variasi yang sangat besar (dari 1.079 sampai 2.698 mg/1. Distribusi sebaran TSM dari kedalaman 20 meter sampai dengan 100 meter menunjukkan pola yang sama antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan.  Distribusi sebaran TSM pada permukaan laut (dekat sungai/muara menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan sebaran antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Demikian juga dengan distribusi sebaran TSM yang diper­oleh dari data satelit menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan sebaran antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Perbandingan antara data in situ dengan data satelit menunjukkan bahwa koefisen korelasinya sebesar -0-753 untuk periode penelitian

  8. Controls on suspended aggregate size in partially mixed estuaries (United States)

    Fugate, David C.; Friedrichs, Carl T.


    Knowledge of aggregate size in estuaries is important to determining the fate and transport of suspended sediment and particle adherent contaminants. We have used a suite of in situ instruments to determine the controls of aggregate size distributions in three muddy, partially mixed estuaries in the mid-Atlantic USA. A novel method is presented to estimate turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and the resulting Kolmogorov microscale ( λK) using a profiling acoustic Doppler velocimeter that has been contaminated by boat motion. The physical processes that control particle size distribution differ in the three estuaries due to the different hydrodynamics and benthic characteristics. Controls within each estuary also vary with different depth regimes. Surface particle size dynamics in all the studied estuaries are affected by irregular advection events. In the hydrodynamically energetic York River, mid-depth regions are controlled tidally by the combined processes of small λK decreasing particle size at high TKE and differential settling increasing particle size during lower TKE, more stratified conditions. Mid-depth regions in the lower energy Elizabeth River are controlled by irregular resuspension and trapping at the pycnocline of large low density particles. Bottom regions in all estuaries are most strongly influenced by resuspension, tidally in the energetic estuaries and irregularly in the low energy estuary. Near-bed particle size distributions are controlled by both λK and the distribution of particles in the bed in the higher energy estuaries. Just above the bed, large porous particles survive resuspension in the lower energy Elizabeth River, particles become smaller with decreased λK in the more energetic York River, and biological aggregation causes large dense particles to resist turbulent breakup in the Chesapeake Bay, which has a more active benthic community. The net result just above the bed is that particle size and settling velocity are

  9. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  10. Lightweight HPC beam OMEGA (United States)

    Sýkora, Michal; Jedlinský, Petr; Komanec, Jan


    In the design and construction of precast bridge structures, a general goal is to achieve the maximum possible span length. Often, the weight of individual beams makes them difficult to handle, which may be a limiting factor in achieving the desired span. The design of the OMEGA beam aims to solve a part of these problems. It is a thin-walled shell made of prestressed high-performance concrete (HPC) in the shape of inverted Ω character. The concrete shell with prestressed strands is fitted with a non-stressed tendon already in the casting yard and is more easily transported and installed on the site. The shells are subsequently completed with mild steel reinforcement and cores are cast in situ together with the deck. The OMEGA beams can also be used as an alternative to steel - concrete composite bridges. Due to the higher production complexity, OMEGA beam can hardly substitute conventional prestressed beams like T or PETRA completely, but it can be a useful alternative for specific construction needs.

  11. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al


    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  12. Paul Collier : Balancing beams

    CERN Document Server


    As former head of AB Operations, Paul Collier and his group were in the ‘cockpit’ for the LHC’s maiden voyage - piloting the first beam around the ring. But now, as Head of the Beams Department, he will need his feet firmly on the ground in order to balance all the beam activities at CERN. "As Department Head, I’ll have less direct contact with the machines," Collier says with a hint of regret. "I’ll still obviously be very involved, but they won’t actually let me loose in front of the keyboard anymore!" As the new Head of the BE Department, Collier will be in charge of nearly 400 people, and will oversee all the beam activities, including the preparations for the longest period of beam operation in the history of CERN. In the new organization, the BE, TE and EN Departments have been grouped together in the Accelerator and Technology Sector. "‘Partnership’ is a key word for the three departments," says Collier. "The n...

  13. Lecture on beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.


    These lectures treat some of the common collective beam instability effects encountered in accelerators. In choosing the material for these lectures, it is attempted to introduce this subject with a more practical approach, instead of a more theoretical approach starting with first principles. After introducing the terminologies, emphasis will be placed on how to apply the lecture material to perform calculations and to make estimates of various instability effects. In the first half of the lectures, after briefly introducing the concepts of impedance and wake field, the authors will discuss a selected list of formulas for the impedances of various accelerator components. Detailed derivations are omitted, allowing time for the students to think through the process of how to apply the knowledge learned. The list of impedances to be covered include: space charge, resistive wall, resonator, wall roughness, and small perturbation on the vacuum chamber wall. Assuming impedances are known, the second half of the lectures addresses the question of how to calculate the power of beam heating, the growth rates, and the thresholds for a list of selected beam instability effects. Again with minimal detailed derivations, the aim is to introduce a collection of formulas, and apply them to linear as well as circular accelerators. The list of beam instability effects to be covered include: loss factor, beam break-up, BNS damping, bunch lengthening, resistive wall instability, head-tail instability, longitudinal head-tail instability, Landau damping, microwave instability, and mode coupling instability.

  14. Beam Time Accounting

    CERN Document Server

    Seitova, Diana


    ISOLDE is one of the leading research facilities in the field of nuclear physics. A proton beam with an energy 1.4 GeV coming from the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) hits one of the targets at ISOLDE and produces Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs). Then, the RIBs of interest is selected and delivered to the different experimental stations. In order to deliver the beam to the certain experimental station, the positions of the devices along the beamline should satisfy certain conditions. The purpose of this project is to define the conditions for the beam to pass through the different beamlines and to store the data about device’s status for later analysis and statistics, so it would be possible to know when the beam was used for different experiments. The data with the settings of the different devices is saved in the Timber database and the first steps for making virtual devices to compile the status of the beamlines were completed.

  15. Bringing up beams

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    Last month, commissioning began on CERN’s newest linear accelerator: Linac4. As the replacement machine for Linac2, Linac4 will take a negative hydrogen ion beam to a staggering 160 MeV. We check in to see how the Linac4 team is preparing its machine for its new role as the first link in the accelerator chain.   The Linac4 3 MeV beam line, with the ion source in the back, the RFQ in the middle and the chopping line in the front. On 14 November, members of the Linac4 collaboration and the CERN Operations Group were brought together for their first “real day” in the Linac4 Control Room. Together, they successfully accelerated their first hydrogen ion beam to 3 MeV. It was an exciting moment for everyone involved and marked the start of one of the most critical commissioning phases for the new accelerator. At the start of the Linac4 beam line sits the CERN-made Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). This vital piece of machinery takes the beam from 45 keV to 3 MeV in ju...

  16. A better beam quality

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Progress has been made on two fronts, providing physics data and preparing for higher intensities. Over the Whitsun weekend of May 22 to 24, 5 fills for physics provided almost 30 hours of stable colliding beams, all with bunch intensities around 2x1010 protons and at a β* of 2m. The first three of these fills were with 6 bunches per beam, giving 3 pairs of collisions in all experiments. For the other two fills, the number of bunches per beam was increased to 13, giving 8 pairs of colliding bunches, and for the first time luminosities were pushed above 1029 cm-2s-1, 2 orders of magnitude higher than first collisions in March. In between and after these physics fills, nominal bunches of 1011 protons were successfully ramped and brought into collision in ATLAS and CMS for the first time (not in stable beam conditions and without squeeze). Event rates seen by the experiments were in the expected range for these conditions. In the middle of this work, a short fill with beams of 7 nominal bunches was ...

  17. Suspended-sediment concentrations, yields, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011 (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.


    Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, as well as transporting harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples were collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011. Analyses of these data indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. The single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River during the 2011 spring runoff. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been known to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. For this study, comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong

  18. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011 (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.


    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines

  19. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Carmelo [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering (ABC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Luzi, Guido [Centre Tecnòlogic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Division of Geomatics, Av. Gauss, 7 E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)


    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  20. Beam-beam studies for FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Furuseth, Sondre Vik


    The Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron (FCC-hh) design study is currently exploring different IR design possibilities including round and flat optics or different crossing schemes. The present study intends to evaluate each scenario from the beam-beam effects point of view. In particular the single particle long term stability to maximize beam lifetimes and luminosity reach is used to quantify the differences. The impact of strong head on interactions on the beam quality and lifetime is addressed by means of GPU accelerated simulations code featuring a weak-strong 6-dimensional beam-beam interaction.

  1. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madder, Ryan D., E-mail:; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David


    Background: Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Results: Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30 weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, p < 0.001; head: 0.5 [1.9] μSv vs 14.9 [51.5] μSv, p < 0.001). Chest-level radiation exposure during robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) or suspended lead (p = 0.046). In robotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) and 80.0% less than manual PCI performed with suspended lead (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Utilization of suspended lead and robotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. - Highlights: • Use of suspended lead during manual PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 97%. • Robotic PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 99%. • Suspended lead and robotics together achieved the lowest levels of radiation exposure.

  2. Beam characteristics of energy-matched flattening filter free beams. (United States)

    Paynter, D; Weston, S J; Cosgrove, V P; Evans, J A; Thwaites, D I


    Flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerators can increase treatment efficiency and plan quality. There are multiple methods of defining a FFF beam. The Elekta control system supports tuning of the delivered FFF beam energy to enable matching of the percentage depth-dose (PDD) of the flattened beam at 10 cm depth. This is compared to FFF beams where the linac control parameters are identical to those for the flattened beam. All beams were delivered on an Elekta Synergy accelerator with an Agility multi-leaf collimator installed and compared to the standard, flattened beam. The aim of this study is to compare "matched" FFF beams to both "unmatched" FFF beams and flattened beams to determine the benefits of matching beams. For the three modes of operation 6 MV flattened, 6 MV matched FFF, 6 MV unmatched FFF, 10 MV flattened, 10 MV matched FFF, and 10 MV unmatched FFF beam profiles were obtained using a plotting tank and were measured in steps of 0.1 mm in the penumbral region. Beam penumbra was defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% of the normalized dose when the inflection points of the unflattened and flattened profiles were normalized with the central axis dose of the flattened field set as 100%. PDD data was obtained at field sizes ranging from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Radiation protection measurements were additionally performed to determine the head leakage and environmental monitoring through the maze and primary barriers. No significant change is made to the beam penumbra for FFF beams with and without PDD matching, the maximum change in penumbra for a 10 cm × 10 cm field was within the experimental error of the study. The changes in the profile shape with increasing field size are most significant for the matched FFF beam, and both FFF beams showed less profile shape variation with increasing depth when compared to flattened beams, due to consistency in beam energy spectra across the radiation field. The PDDs of the FFF beams showed

  3. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.


    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  4. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.


    It is commonly recognized that suspended-sediment concentrations in rivers can change rapidly in time and independently of water discharge during important sediment‑transporting events (for example, during floods); thus, suspended-sediment measurements at closely spaced time intervals are necessary to characterize suspended‑sediment loads. Because the manual collection of sufficient numbers of suspended-sediment samples required to characterize this variability is often time and cost prohibitive, several “surrogate” techniques have been developed for in situ measurements of properties related to suspended-sediment characteristics (for example, turbidity, laser-diffraction, acoustics). Herein, we present a new physically based method for the simultaneous measurement of suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended‑sand median grain size in rivers, using multi‑frequency arrays of single-frequency side‑looking acoustic-Doppler profilers. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the incoherent scattering of sound by random suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of theory that relates acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We develop the theory and methods, and demonstrate the application of the method at six study sites on the Colorado River and Rio Grande, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustic attenuation and backscatter measurements over many years. The method produces acoustical measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration (in units of mg/L), and acoustical measurements of suspended-sand median grain size (in units of mm) that are generally in good to excellent agreement with concurrent physical measurements of these quantities in the river cross sections at

  5. GTK beam test 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Vostinic, Snezana


    The GTK is in operation at NA62 since 2014 and is among the few silicon pixel detectors performing 4D tracking. This summer, a beam test was conducted to study the phenomena determining the detector time resolution. The project described here contributed to the beam test preparation, data taking and data analyses. One of the main goals of the test was to understand the weight field contribution to the detector time resolution. This field is distorting the signal pulse shape at the edge of the pixel. Hence, to study this effect, the position of the hits inside the pixel has to be determined. An external telescope was therefore used for this purpose.

  6. Euroschool on Exotic Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Pfützner, Marek; The Euroschool on Exotic Beams, vol. IV


    This is the forth volume in a series of Lecture Notes based on the highly successful Euro Summer School on Exotic Beams. The aim of these notes is to provide a thorough introduction to radioactive ion-beam physics at the level of graduate students and young postdocs starting out in the field. Each volume covers a range of topics from nuclear theory to experiment and applications. Vol I has been published as LNP 651, Vol II has been published as LNP 700, and Vol. III has been published as LNP 764.

  7. Molecular beam epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pamplin, Brian R


    Molecular Beam Epitaxy introduces the reader to the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the generation of III-V and IV-VI compounds and alloys and describes the semiconductor and integrated optics reasons for using the technique. Topics covered include semiconductor superlattices by MBE; design considerations for MBE systems; periodic doping structure in gallium arsenide (GaAs); nonstoichiometry and carrier concentration control in MBE of compound semiconductors; and MBE techniques for IV-VI optoelectronic devices. The use of MBE to fabricate integrated optical devices and to study semicond

  8. Beam Physics at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lyndon R


    The design of the Large Hadron Collider incorporates the accumulated knowledge obtained from previous generations of hadron colliders. Among the well known effects limiting machine performance are intrabeam scattering, the beam-beam interaction and stability against collective motion. Simulations and recent experiments in the SPS have shown that the electron cloud effect observed in the B-factories will be present both in the LHC and in its injector. All of these phenomena are discussed together with the measure taken in the machine design to overcome them.

  9. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud


    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  10. Recent Trends in Suspended Sediment Load & Water Quality in the Upper Chesapeake Bay (United States)

    Freeman, L. A.; Ackleson, S. G.


    The Chesapeake Bay spans several major cities on the US east coast and drains a large watershed (164,200 km2) to the Atlantic Ocean. Upstream deforestation and agriculture have led to a major decline in water quality (increased sediment and nutrient load) of the Bay over the past century. Sediment flux into the Chesapeake Bay is a natural process, but has become an environmental concern as land use changes have exacerbated natural suspended sediment loads and saturated the capacity of the estuary to filter and remove sediments. In situ measurements of suspended sediments and surface reflectance from the Potomac, Patapsco, and Severn River were used to develop algorithms that convert surface reflectance from Landsat (1-3, 4-5, 7, 8) imagery to suspended sediment concentration for the entire Chesapeake Bay. A unique time series of suspended sediment load in the Chesapeake Bay was compiled from Landsat imagery dating from 1977-2015. Particular focus is given to the upper Chesapeake Bay near Washington, DC and Baltimore, MD to understand urban effects. In particular, the Potomac, Patapsco, and Severn River are examined from both remote sensing and in situ measurements. Landsat imagery combined with in situ monitoring provides environmental scientists and resource managers with detailed trends in sediment distribution and concentration, a key measure of water quality. Trends of suspended sediment load in several rivers and the upper Chesapeake Bay will be presented, along with a discussion of suspended sediment algorithms for Landsat imagery. Advantages of Landsat 8 (improved signal-to-noise performance and more bands) versus previous sensors will be examined for suspended sediment applications.

  11. Suspended and Bedload Sand dynamics in the Mekong River Channel and Export to the Coastal Ocean (United States)

    Stephens, J. D.; Di Leonardo, D. R.; Weathers, H. D., III; Allison, M. A.


    Two field campaigns were conducted in the tidal and estuarine reach of the Song Hau distributary of the Mekong River to examine the dynamics of sand transport and export to the coastal ocean. This study examines variation in suspended sand concentration and net transport with respect to changes in discharge between the October 2014 high discharge and March 2015 low discharge studies, and over semi-diurnal and spring-neap tidal cycles between Can Tho and the Tran De and Dinh An distributary channels in the Mekong Delta. Suspended sand concentrations were measured using a P-61 isokinetic suspended sediment sampler and a Sequoia Scientific LISST-100X used in vertical profiling mode. Stationary ADCP data are used to examine bed stress at cast sites. Bed load transport rates were calculated using a repeat multibeam transect methodology and dune translation rates with flow. Preliminary results indicate that suspended sand concentration increases towards the bed and is positively correlated with increasing shear stress controlled by river discharge and tides. However, sites with non-sandy bottoms, as indicated by multibeam bathymetry, have low suspended sand concentrations, suggesting a close linkage with a bed sand source. Bed load transport rates vary cross-sectionally with shear stress and are linked to dune size. Most bed load transport is taking place in or near the thalweg. The reduction in ebb flows at low discharge and the mantling of sand fields by salinity driven mud deposition, is suspected to control the low suspended sand concentrations observed in March. Results to date suggest that net sand export (suspended plus bed load) to the ocean occurs predominantly during the high discharge monsoon season.

  12. Estuarine Suspended Sediment Dynamics: Observations Derived from over a Decade of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reisinger


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment dynamics of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, a shallow-water wind-driven estuary, were investigated by combining field and satellite measurements of total suspended solids (TSS. An algorithm was developed to transform 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua satellite reflectance data into estimated TSS values. The algorithm was developed using a reflectance ratio regression of MODIS Band 1 (red and Band 3 (green with TSS measurements (n = 54 collected by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for Corpus Christi Bay and other Texas estuaries. The algorithm was validated by independently collected TSS measurements during the period of 2011–2014 with an uncertainty estimate of 13%. The algorithm was applied to the period of 2002–2014 to create a synoptic time series of TSS for Corpus Christi Bay. Potential drivers of long-term variability in suspended sediment were investigated. Median and IQR composites of suspended sediments were generated for seasonal wind regimes. From this analysis it was determined that long-term, spatial patterns of suspended sediment in the estuary are related to wind-wave resuspension during the predominant northerly and prevalent southeasterly seasonal wind regimes. The impact of dredging is also apparent in long-term patterns of Corpus Christi Bay as concentrations of suspended sediments over dredge spoil disposal sites are higher and more variable than surrounding areas, which is most likely due to their less consolidated sediments and shallower depths requiring less wave energy for sediment resuspension. This study highlights the advantage of how long-synoptic time series of TSS can be used to elucidate the major drivers of suspended sediments in estuaries.

  13. Effects of cadmium accumulation from suspended sediments and phytoplankton on the Oyster Saccostrea glomerata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Helena A.; Maher, William A., E-mail:; Taylor, Anne M.; Krikowa, Frank


    Highlights: • Saccostrea glomerata accumulated cadmium from sediments and phytoplankton. • Effects were similar for both pathways. • Antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and lysosomal destabilisation were affected. • Clear exposure–dose–response relationships were demonstrated. - Abstract: Metals are accumulated by filter feeding organisms via water, ingestion of suspended sediments or food. The uptake pathway can affect metal toxicity. Saccostrea glomerata were exposed to cadmium through cadmium-spiked suspended sediments (19 and 93 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.6–3 μg/g dry mass) and cadmium uptake and effects measured. Oysters accumulated appreciable amounts of cadmium from both low and high cadmium spiked suspended sediment treatments (5.9 ± 0.4 μg/g and 23 ± 2 μg/g respectively compared to controls 0.97 ± 0.05 μg/g dry mass). Only a small amount of cadmium was accumulated by ingestion of cadmium-enriched phytoplankton (1.9 ± 0.1 μg/g compared to controls 1.2 ± 0.1 μg/g). In the cadmium spiked suspended sediment experiments, most cadmium was desorbed from sediments and cadmium concentrations in S. glomerata were significantly related to dissolved cadmium concentrations (4–21 μg/L) in the overlying water. In the phytoplankton feeding experiment cadmium concentrations in overlying water were <0.01 μg/L. In both exposure experiments, cadmium-exposed oysters showed a significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and significantly increased lipid peroxidation and percentage of destabilised lysosomes. Destabilised lysosomes in the suspended sediments experiments also resulted from stress of exposure to the suspended sediments. The study demonstrated that exposure to cadmium via suspended sediments and to low concentrations of cadmium through the ingestion of phytoplankton, can cause sublethal stress to S. glomerata.

  14. Observation of Coherent Beam-beam Effects in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, X; Giachino, R; Herr, W; Papotti, G; Pieloni, T; Calaga, R; White, S M


    Early collisions in the LHC with a very limited number of bunches with high intensities indicated the presence of coherent beam-beam driven oscillations. Here we discuss the experimental results and compare with the expectations.

  15. Symmetric form-invariant dual Pearcey beams. (United States)

    Ren, Zhijun; Fan, Changjiang; Shi, Yile; Chen, Bo


    We introduce another type of Pearcey beam, namely, dual Pearcey (DP) beams, based on the Pearcey function of catastrophe theory. DP beams are experimentally generated by applying Fresnel diffraction of bright elliptic rings. Form-invariant Bessel distribution beams can be regarded as a special case of DP beams. Subsequently, the basic propagation characteristics of DP beams are identified. DP beams are the result of the interference of two half DP beams instead of two classical Pearcey beams. Moreover, we also verified that half DP beams (including special-case parabolic-like beams) generated by half elliptical rings (circular rings) are a new member of the family of form-invariant beams.

  16. Noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams. (United States)

    Huang, Chaohong; Zheng, Yishu; Li, Hanqing


    We proposed a new family of noncoaxial Gauss-truncated Bessel beams through multiplying conventional symmetrical Bessel beams by a noncoaxial Gauss function. These beams can also be regarded as the exponential-truncated version of Bessel-Gauss beams since they can be transformed into the product of Bessel-Gauss beams and an exponential window function along a certain Cartesian axis. The closed-form solutions of the angular spectra and paraxial propagation of these beams were derived. These beams have asymmetrical intensity distributions and carry the same orbit angular momentum per photon as the corresponding Bessel-Gauss beams. While propagating along the z axis, the mth (m≠0) noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams rotate their intensity distributions and the mth-order vortex at the beam center has a transverse shift along the direction perpendicular to the offset axis. Depending on the product of the transverse scalar factor of the Bessel beams and the offset between the Gaussian window function and the center of the Bessel beams, the noncoaxial Bessel-Gauss beams can produce unit vortices with opposite signs in pairs during propagation.

  17. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)


    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  18. Convergent beam neutron crystallography (United States)

    Gibson, Walter M.; Schultz, Arthur J.; Richardson, James W.; Carpenter, John M.; Mildner, David F. R.; Chen-Mayer, Heather H.; Miller, M. E.; Maxey, E.; Prask, Henry J.; Gnaeupel-Herold, Thomas H.; Youngman, Russell


    Applications of neutron diffraction for small samples (small fiducial areas are limited by the available neutron flux density. Recent demonstrations of convergent beam electron and x-ray diffraction and focusing of cold (λ>1 Å) neutrons suggest the possibility to use convergent beam neutron diffraction for small sample crystallography. We have carried out a systematic study of diffraction of both monoenergetic and broad bandwidth neutrons at the NIST Research Reactor and at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Combining convergent beams with time-of-flight Laue diffraction is particularly attractive for high efficiency small sample diffraction studies. We have studied single crystal and powder diffraction of neutrons with convergence angles as large as 15° and have observed diffracted peak intensity gains greater than 20. The convergent beam method (CBM) shows promise for crystallography on small samples of small to medium size molecules (potentially even for proteins), ultra-high pressure samples, and for mapping of strain and texture distributions in larger samples.

  19. Vortices in Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS


    Full Text Available distributions at locations on trajectory CSIR National Laser Centre – p.27/30 Morphology evolusion example 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Orientation [pi radians] A n i s o t r o p y [ pi r a d i a n s ] A B' B H C C' D... . Gaussian beams with vortex dipoles CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/30 Gaussian beam notation Gaussian beam in normalised coordinates: g(u, v, t) = exp ( −u 2 + v2 1− it ) u = xω0 v = yω0 t = zρ ρ = piω20 λ ω0 — 1/e2 beam waist radius; ρ— Rayleigh range ω ω...

  20. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.


    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  1. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B


    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  2. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic. Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dis- persion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming ...

  3. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dispersion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming instability.

  4. Beam transport elements

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  5. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  6. Gaussian Beam Intensity Flattener (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon W.


    The goal of this investigation was to use commercial elements and extend the correction to a 1/e(sup 2) diameter of 3 mm over long propagation distances. Shafer discussed the use of spherical elements to generate a uniform beam to the 1/e diameter.

  7. LHC Report: Beam on

    CERN Multimedia

    Rossano Giachino for the LHC Team


    The powering tests described in the last edition of the Bulletin were successfully finished at the end of the first week of March opening the way for 4 TeV operations this year. The beam was back in the machine on Wednesday 14 March. The first collisions at 4 TeV are scheduled for the first week of April.   The first beam of 2012 is dumped after making a few rounds in the LHC. The magnet powering tests were followed by the machine checkout phase. Here the operations team in collaboration with the equipment groups performs a sequence of tests to ensure the readiness of the LHC for beam. The tests include driving all the LHC systems – beam dump, injection, collimation, RF, power converters, magnet circuits, vacuum, interlocks, controls, timing and synchronization – through the operational cycle. The “checkout phase” is really a massive de-bugging exercise, which is performed with the objective of ensuring the proper functioning of the whole machine and t...

  8. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley


    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Dwi Siswanto


    Full Text Available Sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (Total Suspended Solid (TSS dapat dipelajari secara horizontal maupun vertikal. Akumulasi sedimen tersuspensi (TSS secara horizontal sangat dipengaruhi oleh arus permukaan maupun gelombang yang dibangkitkan oleh angin. Keterdapatan TSS ini diduga berpengaruh terhadap sebarannya pada profil vertical. Kedua kondisi sebaran sedimen tersuspensi (TSS berpengaruh terhadap optimalisasi penetrasi cahaya matahari di perairan. Sedimen tersuspensi (TSS menjadi salah satu factor fisika yang penting sebagai indicator kondisi perairan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sebaran Total Suspended Solid (TSS di perairan Kabupaten Bangkalan. Materi utama yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah contoh air dan data parameter lingkungan (pasang surut dan kecerahan yang diambil pada 7 stasiun pada bulan Agustus-September 2013 di Perairan Selat Madura, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Metode gravimetric (SNI-06-6989.3-2004 digunakan untuk analisa Total Suspended Solid (TSS. Data parameter lingkungan dianalisa secara deskriptif. Analisa TSS menunjukkan nilai yang berbeda pada beberapa stasiun penelitian untuk setiap minggunya. Konsentrasi TSS terendah sebesar 35 mg/L (Stasiun 3, profil permukaan, minggu pertama dan tertinggi sebesar 620 mg/L (Stasiun 4, profil dasar, minggu pertama. Secara umum, konsentrasi TSS secara vertikal (dari permukaan-dasar cenderung semakin besar, diduga dipengaruhi oleh jenis substrat dan parameter arus yang berpeluang untuk menimbulkan pengadukan di profil dasar. Kondisi lingkungan (kecerahan dan arus menunjukkan bahwa daerah dengan konsentrasi TSS yang tinggi cenderung memilki nilai kecerahan yang rendah dengan kecepatan arus yang lebih besar.Kata Kunci: kecerahan, pola arus, Total Suspended Solid (TSS DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS IN THE VERTICAL PROFILE IN THE MADURA STRAIT WATERS BANGKALAN DISTRICTABSTRACTDistribution of suspended sediment (Total Suspended Solid (TSS can be studied through

  10. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic (United States)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cristofaro, S.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Serianni, G.; Wünderlich, D.


    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the Hα light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of Hα spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  11. Single Gradientless Light Beam Drags Particles as Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Haifeng


    is the strong nonparaxiality of the light beam, which contributes to the pulling force owing to momentum conservation. The nonparaxiality of the Bessel beam can be manipulated to possess a dragging force along both the radial longitudinal directions, i.e., a "tractor beam" with stable trajectories is achieved...

  12. Design and Fabrication of a Slanted-Beam MEMS Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS accelerometer with slanted supporting beams and all-silicon sandwich structure. Its sensing mechanism is quite similar to an ordinary sandwich-type MEMS accelerometer, except that its proof mass is suspended by a beam parallel to the {111} plane of a (100 silicon wafer. In this way, each sensing element can detect accelerations in two orthogonal directions. Four of these sensing elements could work together and constitute a 3-axis micro-accelerometer by using a simple planar assembly process. This design avoids the traditional 3-axis accelerometer’ disadvantage of possible placement inaccuracy when assembling on three different planes and largely reduces the package volume. The slanted-beam accelerometer’s performance was modeled and analyzed by using both analytical calculations and finite element method (FEM simulations. A prototype of one sensing element was fabricated and tested. Measured results show that this accelerometer has a good bias stability 76.8 ppm (1σ, tested immediately after power on, two directional sensitivities (sensitivity angle α = 45.4° and low nonlinearity (<0.5% over a sensing range up to ±50 g, which demonstrates a great opportunity for future high-precision three-axis inertial measurement.

  13. Tellurite suspended nanowire surrounded with large holes for single-mode SC and THG generations (United States)

    Liao, Meisong; Qin, Guanshi; Yan, Xin; Chaudhari, Chitrarekha; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake


    For a suspended nanowire, the holes surrounding the core are expected to be as large as possible to propagate the light at wavelengths as long as possible. However, the fabrication of nanowire surrounded with large holes is still a challenge so far. In this paper, a method which involves pumping positive pressure of nitrogen gas in both the cane fabrication and fiber-drawing processes, is proposed. A suspended nanowire, with a core diameter of 480 nm and an unprecedented large diameter ratio of holey region to core (DRHC) of at least 62, is fabricated in the length of several hundred meters. Owing to the large holes, the confinement loss of the suspended nanowire is insignificant when the wavelength of light propagated in it is 1700 nm. Additionally, the tube-shaped glass cladding of the suspended nanowire shifts the singlemode cutoff wavelength to 810 nm, which is much shorter than the cutoff wavelength, 1070 nm, of a naked nanowire with the same diameter. A single-mode supercontinuum (SC) generation covering a wavelength range of 900-1600 nm is obtained under 1064 nm pump pulse with the peak power as low as 24 W. A single-mode third harmonic generation (THG) is observed by this nanowire under the pump of a 1557 nm femtosecond fiber laser. This work indicates that the suspended nanowire with large holes can provide high nonlinearity together with single-mode propagation, which leads to interesting applications in compact nonlinear devices.

  14. A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Bao


    Full Text Available A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.

  15. A Case Study of Dynamic Response Analysis and Safety Assessment for a Suspended Monorail System. (United States)

    Bao, Yulong; Li, Yongle; Ding, Jiajie


    A suspended monorail transit system is a category of urban rail transit, which is effective in alleviating traffic pressure and injury prevention. Meanwhile, with the advantages of low cost and short construction time, suspended monorail transit systems show vast potential for future development. However, the suspended monorail has not been systematically studied in China, and there is a lack of relevant knowledge and analytical methods. To ensure the health and reliability of a suspended monorail transit system, the driving safety of vehicles and structure dynamic behaviors when vehicles are running on the bridge should be analyzed and evaluated. Based on the method of vehicle-bridge coupling vibration theory, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS and multi-body dynamics software SIMPACK are adopted respectively to establish the finite element model for bridge and the multi-body vehicle. A co-simulation method is employed to investigate the vehicle-bridge coupling vibration for the transit system. The traffic operation factors, including train formation, track irregularity and tire stiffness, are incorporated into the models separately to analyze the bridge and vehicle responses. The results show that the coupling of dynamic effects of the suspended monorail system between vehicle and bridge are significant in the case studied, and it is strongly suggested to take necessary measures for vibration suppression. The simulation of track irregularity is a critical factor for its vibration safety, and the track irregularity of A-level road roughness negatively influences the system vibration safety.

  16. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention. (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, probotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Muscular contribution to low-back loading and stiffness during standard and suspended push-ups. (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P


    Push-up exercises are normally performed to challenge muscles that span upper extremity joints. However, it is also recognized that push-ups provide an effective abdominal muscle challenge, especially when the hands are in contact with a labile support surface. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activation levels and resultant intervertebral joint (IVJ) loading when standard and suspended push-ups were performed, and to quantify and compare the contribution of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness in both exercises. Eleven recreationally trained male volunteers performed sets of standard and suspended push-ups. Upper body kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected and input into a 3D biomechanical model of the lumbar torso to quantify lumbar IVJ loading and the contributions of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness. When performing suspended push-ups, muscles of the abdominal wall and the latissimus dorsi were activated to levels that were significantly greater than those elicited when performing standard push-ups (pups. Also directly resulting from the increased activation levels of the abdominal muscles and the latissimus dorsi during suspended push-ups was increased muscular contribution to lumbar IVJ rotational stiffness (pups appear to provide a superior abdominal muscle challenge. However, for individuals unable to tolerate high lumbar IVJ compressive loads, potential benefits gained by incorporating suspended push-ups into their resistance training regimen may be outweighed by the risk of overloading low-back tissues.

  18. Recent changes of suspended sediment yields in the Upper Yangtze River and its headwater tributaries (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Tang, Q.; Long, Y.; He, X.; Wen, A.


    Suspended sediment yields in the Upper Yangtze River and its four headwater tributaries (i.e. Jinsha, Min, Jialing and Wu) have declined significantly during recent decades. Compared with 1956-1970, mean annual suspended sediment yield during 2001-2011 was reduced by 84% in the Upper Yangtze River at Yichang, by 34% in the Jinsha at Pingshan, by 84% in the Jialing at Beibei, by 75% in the Wu at Wulong, and by 48% in the Min at Gaochang. Linking these observed decadal changes of runoff discharge and suspended sediment load to dam construction and multiple environmental rehabilitation projects (e.g. soil-water conservation, reforestation) during the past decades, it can be concluded that the construction of large dams on the main stem and major tributaries of the Upper Yangtze River has played a principal role in the reduction of fluvial suspended sediment yields, while the environment rehabilitation projects may make limited contributions to the changes in suspended sediment yields, except for the Jialing River.

  19. Recent changes of suspended sediment yields in the Upper Yangtze River and its headwater tributaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhang


    Full Text Available Suspended sediment yields in the Upper Yangtze River and its four headwater tributaries (i.e. Jinsha, Min, Jialing and Wu have declined significantly during recent decades. Compared with 1956–1970, mean annual suspended sediment yield during 2001–2011 was reduced by 84% in the Upper Yangtze River at Yichang, by 34% in the Jinsha at Pingshan, by 84% in the Jialing at Beibei, by 75% in the Wu at Wulong, and by 48% in the Min at Gaochang. Linking these observed decadal changes of runoff discharge and suspended sediment load to dam construction and multiple environmental rehabilitation projects (e.g. soil-water conservation, reforestation during the past decades, it can be concluded that the construction of large dams on the main stem and major tributaries of the Upper Yangtze River has played a principal role in the reduction of fluvial suspended sediment yields, while the environment rehabilitation projects may make limited contributions to the changes in suspended sediment yields, except for the Jialing River.

  20. Surface clogging process modeling of suspended solids during urban stormwater aquifer recharge. (United States)

    Wang, Zijia; Du, Xinqiang; Yang, Yuesuo; Ye, Xueyan


    Aquifer recharge, which uses urban stormwater, is an effective technique to control the negative effects of groundwater over-exploitation, while clogging problems in infiltration systems remain the key restricting factor in broadening its practice. Quantitative understanding of the clogging process is still very poor. A laboratory study was conducted to understand surface physical clogging processes, with the primary aim of developing a model for predicting suspended solid clogging processes before aquifer recharge projects start. The experiments investigated the clogging characteristics of different suspended solid sizes in recharge water by using a series of one-dimensional fine quartz sand columns. The results showed that the smaller the suspended particles in recharge water, the farther the distance of movement and the larger the scope of clogging in porous media. Clogging extents in fine sand were 1 cm, for suspended particle size ranging from 0.075 to 0.0385 mm, and 2 cm, for particles less than 0.0385 mm. In addition, clogging development occurred more rapidly for smaller suspended solid particles. It took 48, 42, and 36 hr respectively, for large-, medium-, and small-sized particles to reach pre-determined clogging standards. An empirical formula and iteration model for the surface clogging evolution process were derived. The verification results obtained from stormwater recharge into fine sand demonstrated that the model could reflect the real laws of the surface clogging process.

  1. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay (United States)

    Pandey, Palak; Kunte, Pravin D.


    This study presents an easy, modular, user-friendly, and flexible software package for processing of Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS data for estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations in the coastal waters. This package includes 1) algorithm developed using freely downloadable SCILAB package, 2) ERDAS Models for iterative processing of Landsat images and 3) ArcMAP tool for plotting and map making. Utilizing SCILAB package, a module is written for geometric corrections, radiometric corrections and obtaining normalized water-leaving reflectance by incorporating Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. Using ERDAS models, a sequence of modules are developed for iterative processing of Landsat images and estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations. Processed images are used for preparing suspended sediment concentration maps. The applicability of this software package is demonstrated by estimating and plotting seasonal suspended sediment concentration maps off the Bengal delta. The software is flexible enough to accommodate other remotely sensed data like Ocean Color monitor (OCM) data, Indian Remote Sensing data (IRS), MODIS data etc. by replacing a few parameters in the algorithm, for estimating suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters.

  2. Fatigue Performance Assessment of Composite Arch Bridge Suspenders Based on Actual Vehicle Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen


    Full Text Available In the through arch bridges, the suspenders are the key components connecting the arch rib and the bridge deck in the middle, and their safety is an increasing focus in the field of bridge engineering. In this study, various vehicle traffic flow parameters are investigated based on the actual vehicle data acquired from the long-term structural health monitoring system of a composite arch bridge. The representative vehicle types and the probability density functions of several parameters are determined, including the gross vehicle weight, axle weight, time headway, and speed. A finite element model of the bridge structure is constructed to determine the influence line of the cable force for various suspenders. A simulated vehicle flow, generated using the Monte Carlo method, is applied on the influence lines of the target suspender to determine the stress process, and then the stress amplitude spectrum is obtained based on the statistical analysis of the stress process using the rainflow counting method. The fatigue performance levels of various suspenders are analyzed according to the Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory, which helps to manage the safety of the suspenders.

  3. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix


    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  4. Depth-controlled Bessel beams

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Angelina; Wallrabe, Ulrike


    We present a ring aperture with independently switchable segments for the three-dimensional control of quasi propagation invariant beams. We demonstrate that our liquid crystal design concept preserves coherence and generates the Bessel beam structure.

  5. Splash events First Beams 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    Collaboration, CMS


    First beam through the detector: images showing the debris, or "splash", of particles picked up in the detector's calorimeters and muon chambers after the beam was steered into the collimator (tungsten blocks) at Point 5.

  6. [Protective effects of Chinese herb-compound on cellular immunological function (correction of funcion) in tail-suspended rats]. (United States)

    Song, J P; Zhong, P; Wang, T; Wen, X L; Zhang, H; Shen, X Y


    Objective. To observe the protective effects of two kinds of Chinese herb-compounds (Dan-huang-ci compound and Shen-chuan-shu compound) on cellular immunology in tail-suspended rats. Method. The rats were divided into: 1) normal control group; 2) tail-suspended group; 3) tail-suspended + Dan-huang-ci compound; and 4) tail-suspended + Shen-chuan-shu compound. Ability of lymphocyte proliferation and production of IL-2 in rats in the four groups were compared after 21 d. Result. The immunological function of tail-suspended control group decreased significantly as compared with normal control group. Shen-chuan-shu compound could improve immunological function of tail-suspended rats obviously. Conclusion. Shen-chuan-shu compound could enhance cellular immunological function in rats under simulated weightlessness.

  7. Electron beam induced etching of carbon nanotubes enhanced by secondary electrons in oxygen. (United States)

    Yoshida, Hideto; Tomita, Yuto; Soma, Kentaro; Takeda, Seiji


    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are subjected to electron-beam-induced etching (EBIE) in oxygen. The EBIE process is observed in situ by environmental transmission electron microscopy. The partial pressure of oxygen (10 and 100 Pa), energy of the primary electrons (80 and 200 keV), and environment of the CNTs (suspended or supported on a silicon nitride membrane) are investigated as factors affecting the etching rate. The EBIE rate of CNTs was markedly promoted by the effects of secondary electrons that were emitted from a silicon nitride membrane under irradiation by primary electrons. Membrane supported CNTs can be cut by EBIE with a spatial accuracy better than 3 nm, and a nanogap of 2 nm can be successfully achieved between the ends of two suspended CNTs.

  8. Computer simulation of electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabchevski, S.P.; Mladenov, G.M. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Elektronika)


    Self-fields and forces as well as the local degree of space-charge neutralization in overcompensated electron beams are considered. The radial variation of the local degree of space-charge neutralization is analysed. A novel model which describes the equilibrium potential distribution in overcompensated beams is proposed and a method for computer simulation of the beam propagation is described. Results from numerical experiments which illustrate the propagation of finite emittance overneutralized beams are presented. (Author).

  9. Study of beam-beam long range compensation with octupoles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068329; Pieloni, Tatiana; Buffat, Xavier; Tambasco, Claudia


    Long range beam-beam effects are responsible for particle losses and define fundamental operational parameters of colliders (i.e. crossing angles, intensities, emittances, ${\\beta}$${^∗}$). In this study we propose octuple magnets as a possible scheme to efficiently compensate long-range beam-beam interactions with a global correction scheme. The impact and improvements on the dynamic aperture of colliding beams together with estimates of the luminosity potentials are dis- cussed for the HL-LHC upgrade and extrapolations made for the FCC project.

  10. Study of Beam-Beam Effects at PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narsky, I


    Using a self-consistent three-dimensional simulation running on parallel supercomputers, we have modeled the beam-beam interaction at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -}collider. To provide guidance for luminosity improvement, we scanned the tunes and currents in both rings and computed their impact on the luminosity and transverse beam sizes. We also studied the effects of colliding the beams with a small crossing angle. Where possible, the code was benchmarked against experimental measurements of luminosity and beam sizes, yielding an acceptable agreement.

  11. Use of Movable Beam Position Monitors for Beam Size Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, R W; Matheson, J


    The use of beam position monitors (BPMs) as non-intercepting emittance monitors has been proposed in 1983 by Miller et al. The emittance measurement relies on the beam size dependency of the BPM signals. It is shown that the original proposal can be improved by using movable BPMs. Changing the BPM position with a stepping motor allows accurately calibrating the beam size measurement. The absolute scale on the beam size measurement is given by the scale of the stepping motor and can be determined in the laboratory and measured in situ. Uncontrolled changes of the beam position can be monitored through the use of a BPM triplet.

  12. Understanding the ice nucleation characteristics of feldspars suspended in solution (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Marcolli, Claudia; Kaufmann, Lukas; Krieger, Ulrich; Peter, Thomas


    Freezing of liquid droplets and subsequent ice crystal growth affects optical properties of clouds and precipitation. Field measurements show that ice formation in cumulus and stratiform clouds begins at temperatures much warmer than those associated with homogeneous ice nucleation in pure water, which is ascribed to heterogeneous ice nucleation occurring on the foreign surfaces of ice nuclei (IN). Various insoluble particles such as mineral dust, soot, metallic particles, volcanic ash, or primary biological particles have been suggested as IN. Among these the suitability of mineral dusts is best established. The ice nucleation ability of mineral dust particles may be modified when secondary organic or inorganic substances are accumulating on the dust during atmospheric transport. If the coating is completely wetting the mineral dust particles, heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs in immersion mode also below 100 % RH. A previous study by Zobrist et al. (2008) Arizona test dust, silver iodide, nonadecanol and silicon dioxide suspensions in various solutes showed reduced ice nucleation efficiency (in immersion mode) of the particles. Though it is still quite unclear how surface modifications and coatings influence the ice nucleation activity of the components present in natural dust particles at a microphysical scale. To improve our understanding how solute and mineral dust particle surface interaction, we run freezing experiments using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with microcline, sanidine, plagioclase, kaolinite and quartz particles suspended in pure water and solutions containing ammonia, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid. Methodology Suspensions of mineral dust samples (2 - 5 wt%) are prepared in water with varying solute concentrations (0 - 15 wt%). 20 vol% of this suspension plus 80 vol% of a mixture of 95 wt% mineral oil (Aldrich

  13. Characterization of colloid thruster beams (United States)

    Gamero-Castano, M.; Ziemer, J.


    In this article we use retarding potential, time of flight, and a Faraday cup, to measure the energy and specific charge distributions of the electrospray particles as a function of the position within the beam, as well as beam profiles. This information is then used, together with a model of the beam, to calculate its spreading.

  14. A compact molecular beam machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.; Chandler, D.W.; Strecker, K.E.


    We have developed a compact, low cost, modular, crossed molecular beam machine. The new apparatus utilizes several technological advancements in molecular beams valves, ion detection, and vacuum pumping to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a molecular beam apparatus. We apply these

  15. Flat profile laser beam shaper (United States)

    Johnson, Todd R.


    A system for shaping a beam comprises an emitter for emitting coherent electromagnetic radiation. Birefringent displacers are configured between the emitter and a target wherein the at least two birefringent displacers split the coherent electromagnetic radiation into a plurality of coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation thereby producing a shaped wave front of the coherent parallel beams of electromagnetic radiation.

  16. Accelerator-Based Neutrino Beams


    Hübner, K


    The design principles of accelerator-based neutrino beams are outlined and the beams currently in operation or under construction are briefly described. The concepts and basic features of the different types of advanced neutrino beams which are under study are summarized.

  17. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu


    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D be...

  18. Illuminating e-beam processing (United States)

    This month's Processing column will explore electronic beam (e-beam) processing. E-beam processing uses a low energy form of irradiation and has emerged as a highly promising treatment for both food safety and quarantine purposes. It is also used to extend food shelf life. This column will review...

  19. Spatial superpositions of Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl


    Full Text Available . At the plane of the lens we obtain a multi-ringed beam with a central intensity maximum which develops into a multi-ringed beam with a central null at the focal plane of the lens. The interesting feature of this beam is that it possesses two focal spots...

  20. Flow modelling to estimate suspended sediment travel times for two Canadian Deltas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Fassnacht


    Full Text Available The approximate travel times for suspended sediment transport through two multi-channel networks are estimated using flow modelling. The focus is on the movement of high sediment concentrations that travel rapidly downstream. Since suspended sediment transport through river confluences and bifurcation movement is poorly understood, it is assumed that the sediment moves at approximately the average channel velocity during periods of high sediment load movement. Calibration of the flow model is discussed, with an emphasis on the incorporation of cross-section data, that are not referenced to a datum, using a continuous water surface profile. Various flow regimes are examined for the Mackenzie and the Slave River Deltas in the Northwest Territories, Canada, and a significant variation in travel times is illustrated. One set of continuous daily sediment measurements throughout the Mackenzie Delta is used to demonstrate that the travel time estimates are reasonable. Keywords: suspended sediment; multi-channel river systems; flow modelling; sediment transport

  1. A Suspended Stripline Frequency Tripler Using a Left-Handed Nonlinear Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Bok Kim


    Full Text Available A suspended stripline frequency tripler using a left-handed nonlinear transmission line (LH NLTL is presented. The proposed tripler using the LH NLTL is composed of a series of varactor diodes, shunt inductances, and a high-pass filter implemented with suspended stripline (SSL. An ultrawideband microstrip-to-suspended stripline transition is also utilized. The fabricated LH NLTL provides the minimum insertion loss of 1.7 dB and the maximum insertion loss of 4.7 dB for a wide frequency band from 2.6 to 18 GHz. As a tripler, the measured minimum third harmonic conversion loss is 15.3 dB at an input frequency of 2.4 GHz and typically 17 dB from 2 to 3.1 GHz.

  2. Suspended graphene with periodic dimer nanostructure on Si cavities for surface-enhanced Raman scattering applications (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Chia; Nien, Li-Wei; Li, Jia-Han; Hsueh, Chun-Hway


    Periodic gold dimer nanoantennas on a one-atomic-layer graphene sheet elevated above Si cavities were fabricated to systematically study the effects of the cavity depth on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The periodic trend of Raman intensity as a function of the cavity depth resulting from the interference effect between the plasmonic resonance of the gold dimer and the cavity resonance of the underlying Si cavity was observed, and the electric field was greatly enhanced compared with the non-suspended system. The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate the interaction between the electromagnetic wave and the suspended system and to verify the observed SERS response in experiments. Our work has the advantages of combining the superior properties of graphene with suspended metallic nanostructures to result in the enhanced electric field for SERS applications.

  3. Finite Element Modeling of Suspended Particle Migration in Non-Newtonian Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altobelli, S.; Baer, T.; Mondy, L.; Rao, R.; Stephens, T.


    Shear-induced migration of particles is studied during the slow flow of suspensions of spheres (particle volume fraction {phi} = 0.50) in an inelastic but shear-thinning, suspending fluid in flow between counterrotating concentric cylinders, The conditions are such that nonhydrodynamic effects are negligible. The movement of particles away from the high shear rate region is more pronounced than in a Newtonian suspending liquid. We test a continuum constitutive model for the evolution of particle concentration in a flowing suspension proposed by Phillips et al. (1992) by using shear-thinning, suspending fluids. The fluid constitutive equation is Carreau-like in its shear-thinning behavior but also varies with the local particle concentration. The model is compared with the experimental data gathered with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging.

  4. Mutual relationships of suspended sediment, turbidity and visual clarity in New Zealand rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Ballantine


    Full Text Available Many river water quality monitoring programmes do not measure suspended particulate matter (SPM mass concentrations despite significant interest in its multiple effects on aquatic ecosystems. Regular monthly sampling usually intercepts rivers in baseflow when suspended sediment mass concentrations and fluxes are relatively low and not of particular interest. New Zealand’s National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN is probably typical in not measuring SPM mass, although visual clarity and nephelometric turbidity are routinely measured. In order to better characterize SPM in NZ rivers, total suspended sediment (TSS was temporarily added to the NRWQN. Turbidity, visual clarity and TSS are mutually inter-related over all 77 sites, although with considerable data scatter. However, within individual rivers turbidity and visual clarity are typically fairly closely related to TSS and provide fair to excellent surrogates. Therefore, TSS need not be measured routinely because it can be estimated with sufficient precision for many purposes from visibility or turbidity.

  5. Definition of Beam Diameter for Electron Beam Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    It is useful to characterize the dimensions of the electron beam during process development for electron beam welding applications. Analysis of the behavior of electron beam welds is simplest when a single number can be assigned to the beam properties that describes the size of the beam spot; this value we generically call the “beam diameter”. This approach has worked well for most applications and electron beam welding machines with the weld dimensions (width and depth) correlating well with the beam diameter. However, in recent weld development for a refractory alloy, Ta-10W, welded with a low voltage electron beam machine (LVEB), it was found that the weld dimensions (weld penetration and weld width) did not correlate well with the beam diameter and especially with the experimentally determined sharp focus point. These data suggest that the presently used definition of beam diameter may not be optimal for all applications. The possible reasons for this discrepancy and a suggested possible alternative diameter definition is the subject of this paper.

  6. [Modulatory Effect of Mouse Compact Bone-derived Suspending MSC on T Cells and It's Related Mechanisms]. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wu, Wen-Qing; Ding, Li; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Mao, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Heng; Ning, Shou-Bin


    To investigate the modulatory effect of the MSC derived from low attaching culture systems (suspending MSC) on T lymphocytes and the related mechanisms. The suspending MSC were generated from mouse compact bones by using low attaching plates and adherent cell culture flasks, respectively. The morphology of suspending MSC was observed under the inverted microscope and the cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Further, the surface antigen profile of MSC was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, the culture medium (CM) of suspending MSC and adherent MSC was collected and added into the activated T cell cultures before detection of the proliferation by CFSE assay. Moreover, the modulaory effects of the CM on the T cell-derived cytokines were detected by quantitative PCR. Also, the mRNA expression of cytokines of MSC was detected. The suspending MSC grew in floating cell spheres and differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes in the induction medium. Furthermore, the suspending MSC shared the typical immuno-phenotype with their adherent counterparts. In addition, the results of CFSE assay demonstrated that suspending MSC derived CM suppressed ConA induced T cell proliferation. The results of quantitative PCR revealed that suspending MSC expressed transforming factor β1 and interleukin-6 at a higher level and suppressed the T cell expressing interferon γ and interleukine-17A. The suspending MSC exerted an unique modulatoy effect on T cells, which is quite different to adherent MSC.

  7. Experimental Evidence for Beam-Beam Disruption at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, Nan


    A significant enhancement from beam-beam disruption was observed for the first time during the 1997-98 run of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC). Disruption, or pinch effect, is due to the decrease in effective beam size during collisions as each beam is focused by the field of the other beam. With beam intensities of 4.0 10{sup 10} per bunch, bunch lengths of 1.1 mm, and horizontal and vertical beam sizes of {sigma}{sub x} = 1.5 {micro}m and {sigma}{sub y} = 0.65 {micro}m, the luminosity increase from disruption was more than 100%. Measured data rates as recorded by the SLD detector were in agreement with the theoretically calculated disruption enhancement.

  8. Storage and residence time of suspended sediment in gravel bars of Difficult Run, VA (United States)

    George, J.; Benthem, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Skalak, K.


    Reducing the export of suspended sediment is an important consideration for restoring water quality to the Chesapeake Bay, but sediment budgets for in-channel landforms are poorly constrained. We quantified fine (mapped in a 150m headwater reach at Miller Heights (bankfull width 11m; total bar volume 114 m3) and 6 gravel bars were mapped in a 160m reach downstream near Leesburg Pike (bankfull width 19m; total bar volume 210 m3). Grain size analyses of surface and subsurface samples from 2 bars at each reach indicate an average suspended sediment content of 55%, suggesting a total volume of suspended sediment stored in the mapped bars to be 178 m3, or 283000 kg, comprising 5% of the average annual suspended sediment load of the two study reaches. Estimates of the annual bedload flux at Miller Heights based on stream gaging records and the Wilcock-Crowe bedload transport equation imply that the bars are entirely reworked at least annually. Scour chains installed in 2 bars at each site (a total of 50 chains) recorded scour and fill events during the winter and spring of 2016. These data indicate that 38% of the total volume of the bars is exchanged per year, for a residence time of 2.6 ± 1.2 years, a value we interpret as the residence time of suspended sediment stored in the bars. These results are supported by mapping of topographic changes derived from structure-from-motion analyses of digital aerial imagery. Storage in alluvial bars therefore represents a significant component of the suspended sediment budget of mid-Atlantic streams.

  9. [Impacts of Sediment Disturbance on the Distribution of Suspended Particle Size and Phosphorus]. (United States)

    Guo, Jun-rui; Li, Da-peng; Liu, Yan-jian


    To clarify the influence of the sediments disturbance on the particle size distribution of suspended solids, and the influence of particle distribution on the forms of dissolved phosphorous in the overlaying water, the sediments and overlying water from Meiliang Bay, Taihu Lake, were used to conduct the indoor simulation experiments to investigate the particle size of suspended solids according to the Ubbelobde particle size criteria and the distribution of phosphorus compounds in the overlying water under the disturbance circumstances. The results indicated that the average proportions of small (0-10 microm), middle (10-20 microm) and large (> or = 20 microm) diameter particles presented different trends of increasing, decreasing and staying stable, respectively. It indicated the possible transformation of particle size of suspended solids from small-middle diameter to large diameter. In addition, the data of DTP/TP and DIP/TP showed a periodical variation with the corresponding periodical variety of particle diameter in suspended solids, while ns obvious variety of DTP and DIP was observed. It suggested that disturbance enhanced the ability of phosphorus immobilization by suspended solids. On the other band, the percentages of DTP in TP and DIP in TP were 19% and 13% under the disturbance, respectively, and they were obviously lower than those (DTP/TP, 80% and DIP/TP, 69% ) in the control. It indicated that tbs transformation of particle size of suspended solids from small-middle diameter to large diameter due to disturbance was in favor of tbe adsorption and sedimentation of dissolved phosphorus. Accordingly, the formation of particle phosphorus was enhanced. Therefore, it delayed the development of eutrophication in the water body.

  10. Beam distribution reconstruction simulation for electron beam probe (United States)

    Feng, Yong-Chun; Mao, Rui-Shi; Li, Peng; Kang, Xin-Cai; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tong; You, Yao-Yao; Chen, Yu-Cong; Zhao, Tie-Cheng; Xu, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Yan-Yu; Yuan, You-Jin


    An electron beam probe (EBP) is a detector which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While it can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. In this paper, we present the theoretical aspects behind this technique for beam distribution measurement and some simulation results of the detector involved. First, a method to obtain a parallel electron beam is introduced and a simulation code is developed. An EBP as a profile monitor for dense beams is then simulated using the fast scan method for various target beam profiles, including KV distribution, waterbag distribution, parabolic distribution, Gaussian distribution and halo distribution. Profile reconstruction from the deflected electron beam trajectory is implemented and compared with the actual profile, and the expected agreement is achieved. Furthermore, as well as fast scan, a slow scan, i.e. step-by-step scan, is considered, which lowers the requirement for hardware, i.e. Radio Frequency deflector. We calculate the three-dimensional electric field of a Gaussian distribution and simulate the electron motion in this field. In addition, a fast scan along the target beam direction and slow scan across the beam are also presented, and can provide a measurement of longitudinal distribution as well as transverse profile simultaneously. As an example, simulation results for the China Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (CADS) and High Intensity Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) are given. Finally, a potential system design for an EBP is described.

  11. Square shaped flat-top beam in refractive beam shapers (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei


    Lossless transformation of round Gaussian to square shaped flat-top collimated beam is important in building highpower solid state laser systems to improve optical pumping or amplification. There are industrial micromachining applications like scribing, display repair, which performance is improved when a square shaped spot with uniform intensity is created. Proved beam shaping solutions to these techniques are refractive field mapping beam shapers having some important features: flatness of output phase front, small output divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, operation with TEM00 and multimode lasers. Usual approach to design refractive beam shapers implies that input and output beams have round cross-section, therefore the only way to create a square shaped output beam is using a square mask, which leads to essential losses. When an input laser beam is linearly polarized it is suggested to generate square shaped flat-top output by applying beam shaper lenses from birefringent materials or by using additional birefringent components. Due to birefringence there is introduced phase retardation in beam parts and is realized a square shaped interference pattern at the beam shaper output. Realization of this approach requires small phase retardation, therefore weak birefringence effect is enough and birefringent optical components, operating in convergent or divergent beams, can be made from refractive materials, which crystal optical axis is parallel to optical axis of entire beam shaper optical system. There will be considered design features of beam shapers creating square shaped flat-top beams. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  12. High Average Power Mid-infrared Supercontinuum Generation in a Suspended Core Chalcogenide Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Yu, Yi; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg


    Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 2.0 to 6.1 μm is generated in a 9 cm suspended core chalcogenide fiber by pumping close to the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength at 3.5 μm with an OPA system......Mid-infrared supercontinuum spanning from 2.0 to 6.1 μm is generated in a 9 cm suspended core chalcogenide fiber by pumping close to the fiber zero-dispersion wavelength at 3.5 μm with an OPA system...

  13. Fabrication and Measurement of a Suspended Nanochannel Microbridge Resonator Monolithically Integrated with CMOS Readout Circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Vidal-Álvarez


    Full Text Available We present the fabrication and characterization of a suspended microbridge resonator with an embedded nanochannel. The suspended microbridge resonator is electrostatically actuated, capacitively sensed, and monolithically integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS readout circuitry. The device is fabricated using the back end of line (BEOL layers of the AMS 0.35 μm commercial CMOS technology, interconnecting two metal layers with a contact layer. The fabricated device has a 6 fL capacity and has one of the smallest embedded channels so far. It is able to attain a mass sensitivity of 25 ag/Hz using a fully integrable electrical transduction.

  14. The mineralogy and trace element constituents of suspended stream sediments of the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia (United States)

    Nather Khan, I. S. A.

    The mineralogy and trace element concentrations of suspended stream sediments were determined at selected stations in the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia, while conducting an intensive study on water quality and a biological assessment of water pollution in the basin. The minerals that were identified from the X-ray patterns of the suspended stream sediments are kaolinite, mica, feldspar and quartz. Kaolinite was the most abundant mineral, followed by mica. By considering mean concentrations of various trace elements, aluminum and manganese were the most abundant elements. Higher concentrations of copper and zinc at some stations were due to pollutants from the nearby Senawang Industrial Estate.

  15. Static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS maglev system (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Cui, Chenyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiqing; Zhao, Yong


    The static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS-PMG (permanent magnetic guideway) system were studied theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are two types of guidance force that exist in the HTS-PMG system, which are sensitive to the levitation gap and the arrangement of YBCO bulks around the central axis of the PMG. An optimized YBCO array was used to stabilize the system, which enabled a side-suspended HTS-PMG maglev vehicle to run stably at 102 km h-1 on a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter.

  16. Quantifying suspended sediment loads delivered to Cheney Reservoir, Kansas: Temporal patterns and management implications (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Juracek, Kyle E.; Graham, Jennifer; Foster, Guy


    Cheney Reservoir, constructed during 1962 to 1965, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita, the largest city in Kansas. Sediment is an important concern for the reservoir as it degrades water quality and progressively decreases water storage capacity. Long-term data collection provided a unique opportunity to estimate the annual suspended sediment loads for the entire history of the reservoir. To quantify and characterize sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, discrete suspended sediment samples and continuously measured streamflow data were collected from the North Fork Ninnescah River, the primary inflow to Cheney Reservoir, over a 48-year period. Continuous turbidity data also were collected over a 15-year period. These data were used together to develop simple linear regression models to compute continuous suspended sediment concentrations and loads from 1966 to 2013. The inclusion of turbidity as an additional explanatory variable with streamflow improved regression model diagnostics and increased the amount of variability in suspended sediment concentration explained by 14%. Using suspended sediment concentration from the streamflow-only model, the average annual suspended sediment load was 102,517 t (113,006 tn) and ranged from 4,826 t (5,320 tn) in 1966 to 967,569 t (1,066,562 tn) in 1979. The sediment load in 1979 accounted for about 20% of the total load over the 48-year history of the reservoir and 92% of the 1979 sediment load occurred in one 24-hour period during a 1% annual exceedance probability flow event (104-year flood). Nearly 60% of the reservoir sediment load during the 48-year study period occurred in 5 years with extreme flow events (9% to 1% annual exceedance probability, or 11- to 104-year flood events). A substantial portion (41%) of sediment was transported to the reservoir during five storm events spanning only eight 24-hour periods during 1966 to 2013. Annual suspended sediment load estimates based on streamflow were, on

  17. Growth and energetics in Spisula subtruncata (Da Costa) and the effect of suspended bottom material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, F.; Kiørboe, Thomas


    The influence of suspended bottom material (0-25 mg/l) and algal cells (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) (0-500 .mu.g dry org wt[organic weight]/l) on clearance, growth and energetics in S. subtruncata (da Costa) was studied. Clearance and respiration rate were independent of concentrations of algae...... bottom material on growth is due to a higher efficiency of assimilation of the ingested algae and/or the utilization of organic matter in the suspended bottom material. The efficiency of algal assimilation decreased from 76% at a low (150 .mu.g dry org wt/l) to 33% at a high (500 .mu.g) algal...

  18. Serum-Free Cryopreservation of Five Mammalian Cell Lines in Either a Pelleted or Suspended State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corsini Joe


    Full Text Available Herein we have explored two practical aspects of cryopreserving cultured mammalian cells during routine laboratory maintenance. First, we have examined the possibility of using a serum-free, hence more affordable, cryopreservative. Using five mammalian lines (Crandell Feline Kidney, MCF7, A72, WI 38 and NB324K, we found that the serum-free alternative preserves nearly as efficiently as the serum-containing preservatives. Second, we compared cryostorage of those cells in suspended versus a pellet form using both aforementioned cryopreservatives. Under our conditions, cells were in general recovered equally well in a suspended versus a pellet form.

  19. Laser-induced incandescence of suspended particles as a source of excitation of dye luminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Zelensky, S


    The interaction of pulsed YAG-Nd sup 3 sup + laser radiation with submicron light-absorbing particles suspended in an aqueous solution of Rhodamine 6G is investigated experimentally. The experiments demonstrate that the laser-induced incandescence of suspended particles excites the luminescence of the dissolved dye molecules. The mechanism of the luminescence excitation consists in the reabsorption of the thermal radiation within the volume of the sample cell. On the ground of this mechanism of excitation, a method of measurement of the luminescence quantum yield is proposed and realized. The method requires the knowledge of the geometrical parameters of the cell and does not require the use of reference samples.

  20. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter


    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout....