WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspended pipe test

  1. Intermediate Temperature Water Heat Pipe Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Xiong, Da-Xi; Beach, Duane E.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. Water heat pipes are explored in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to above 500 K. The thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties of water are reviewed in this temperature range. Test data are reported for a copper-water heat pipe. The heat pipe was tested under different orientations. Water heat pipes show promise in this temperature range. Fabrication and testing issues are being addressed.

  2. System for Testing Thermal Insulation of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw D.; Nagy, Zoltan F.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method have been developed for measuring the rates of leakage of heat into pipes carrying liquids, the purpose of the measurements being to quantify the thermal performance of the insulation system. The apparatus is designed primarily for testing pipes used to carry cryogenic liquids, but can also be used for measuring the thermal performance of other insulated pipes or piping systems. The basic measurement principle is straightforward: The outer surface of the pipe insulation is maintained at a fixed warmer temperature. The interior of the pipe is maintained in a narrow fixed lower-temperature range by means of a regular liquid (e.g., water) that is pumped through the pipe at a known flow rate or a cryogenic liquid (e.g., nitrogen) that is saturated at atmospheric pressure and replenished until steady-state conditions are achieved. In the case of water or another liquid pumped through, the inlet and outlet temperatures are measured and heat-leak power is calculated as the mass flow rate of the liquid multiplied by the specific heat of the liquid multiplied by the inlet-to-outlet temperature rise of the liquid. In the case of liquid nitrogen or another low-temperature boiling liquid, the heat-leak power is calculated as the rate of boil-off multiplied by the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid. Then the thermal-insulation performance of the pipe system can be calculated as a function of the measured heat-leak power, the inner and outer boundary temperatures, and the dimensions of the pipe. The apparatus can test as many as three pipes simultaneously. The pipes can have inner diameters up to .15 cm and outer diameters up to .20 cm. The lengths of the pipes may vary; typical lengths are of the order of 18 m. Two thermal guard boxes . one for each end of the pipe(s) under test . are used to make the inlet and outlet fluid connections to the pipe(s) (see figure). The connections include bellows that accommodate thermal expansion and contraction

  3. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1980-12-01

    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  4. Performance testing of a hydrogen heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.

    1980-01-01

    Test results are presented for a reentrant groove heat pipe with hydrogen working fluid. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady-state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated the following: (1) maximum heat transport capacity = 5.4 W-m; (2) static wicking height = 1.42 cm; and (3) overall heat pipe conductance = 1.7 W/C. These data agreed remarkably well with extrapolations made from comparable ammonia test results. The maximum heat transport capacity is 9.5% larger than the extrapolated value, but the static wicking height is the same. The overall conductance is 29% of the ammonia value, which is close to the ratio of liquid thermal conductivities (24%). Also, recovery from a completely frozen condition was accomplished within 5 min by simply applying an evaporater heat load of 1.8 W.

  5. Seismic proving test of ultimate piping strength (current status of preliminary tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Namita, Y.; Abe, H.; Ichihashi, I. [Seismic Engineering Center, NUPEC, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Universtity, Hachioji (Japan); Ishiwata, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Fujiwaka, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Yokota, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In 1998 Fiscal Year, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the material tests and the piping component tests is reported. (author)

  6. Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Communities in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution System: An Integral Study of Bulk Water, Suspended Solids, Loose Deposits, and Pipe Wall Biofilm

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, G.

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  7. Pyrosequencing reveals bacterial communities in unchlorinated drinking water distribution system: an integral study of bulk water, suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Bakker, G L; Li, S; Vreeburg, J H G; Verberk, J Q J C; Medema, G J; Liu, W T; Van Dijk, J C

    2014-05-20

    The current understanding of drinking water distribution system (DWDS) microbiology is limited to pipe wall biofilm and bulk water; the contributions of particle-associated bacteria (from suspended solids and loose deposits) have long been neglected. Analyzing the composition and correlation of bacterial communities from different phases helped us to locate where most of the bacteria are and understand the interactions among these phases. In the present study, the bacteria from four critical phases of an unchlorinated DWDS, including bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, suspended solids, and loose deposits, were quantified and identified by adenosine triphosphate analysis and pyrosequencing, respectively. The results showed that the bulk water bacteria (including the contribution of suspended solids) contributed less than 2% of the total bacteria. The bacteria associated with loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm that accumulated in the DWDS accounted for over 98% of the total bacteria, and the contributions of bacteria in loose deposits and pipe wall biofilm were comparable. Depending on the amount of loose deposits, its contribution can be 7-fold higher than the pipe wall biofilm. Pyrosequencing revealed relatively stable bacterial communities in bulk water, pipe wall biofilm, and suspended solids throughout the distribution system; however, the communities present in loose deposits were dependent on the amount of loose deposits locally. Bacteria within the phases of suspended solids, loose deposits, and pipe wall biofilm were similar in phylogenetic composition. The bulk water bacteria (dominated by Polaromonas spp.) were clearly different from the bacteria from the other three phases (dominated by Sphingomonas spp.). This study highlighted that the integral DWDS ecology should include contributions from all of the four phases, especially the bacteria harbored by loose deposits. The accumulation of loose deposits and the aging process create variable microenvironments

  8. Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes Acceptance Tests for Satellites Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Roger R.

    2009-03-01

    The use of heat pipes and loop heat pipes (LHPs) as thermal control devices in satellites and other spacecrafts have increased considerably during the last decades. Due to the need of a crescent demand on heat dissipation, more of these devices have been used in low orbit and geo-stationary satellites to promote the adequate thermal control for the instrumentation and equipments aboard. Even though each design is dedicated to a specific application, heat pipes and LHPs have to go through acceptance tests prior to be integrated in the satellite's honeycomb panels (in case of most heat pipes applications) and instrumentation (in case of LHPs thermal control). In order to give a guideline for the required acceptance tests that heat pipes and LHPs have to be submitted, this paper presents the constraints that need to be considered while performing those tests. In all cases, the acceptance tests for both heat pipes and LHPs are related to the most important conditions to verify their proper operation before integrating them on their designed application in a satellite. Such acceptance tests are important to correctly evaluate these thermal control devices and avoid malfunctions while qualifying the entire satellite.

  9. GPM Avionics Module Heat Pipes Design and Performance Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenstein, Laura; DeChristopher, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an international network of satellites that provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow. The GPM core satellite carries an advanced radar / radiometer system to measure precipitation from space and serve as a reference standard to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational satellites. Through improved measurements of precipitation globally, the GPM mission will help to advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycle, improve forecasting of extreme events that cause natural hazards and disasters, and extend current capabilities in using accurate and timely information of precipitation to directly benefit society. The avionics module on the core satellite contains a number of electronics boxes which are cooled by a network of aluminum/ammonia heat pipes and a honeycomb radiator which contains thirteen embedded aluminum/ammonia heat pipes. All heat pipes were individually tested by the vendor (Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc.) prior to delivery. Following delivery to NASA, the flight avionics radiator and the flight spare transport heat pipes were mounted to flight-like test structure and a system level thermal vacuum test was performed. This test, which used simulators in place of all electronics boxes, was done to verify the operation of the thermal control system as a whole. This presentation will discuss the design of the avionics module heat pipes, and then discuss performance tests results for the individual heat pipes prior to delivery and for the system level thermal vacuum test. All heat pipes met their performance requirements. However, it was found that the power was too low in some instances to start all of the smaller radiator spreader heat pipes when they were tested in a reflux configuration (which is the nominal test configuration). Although this lowered the efficiency of the radiator somewhat, it did not impact the operating

  10. Design of Refractory Metal Life Test Heat Pipe and Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pipe life tests have seldom been conducted on a systematic basis. Typically, one or more heat pipes are built and tested for an extended period at a single temperature with simple condenser loading. Results are often reported describing the wall material, working fluid, test temperature, test duration, and occasionally the nature of any failure. Important information such as design details, processing procedures, material assay, power throughput, and radial power density are usually not mentioned. We propose to develop methods to generate carefully controlled data that conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. The test approach detailed in this Technical Publication will use 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipe units that have an approximate12-in length and 5/8-in diameter. Two specific test series have been identified: (1) Long-term corrosion rates based on ASTM-G-68-80 (G-series) and (2) corrosion trends in a cross-correlation sequence at various temperatures and mass fluences based on a Fisher multifactor design (F-series). Evaluation of the heat pipe hardware will be performed in test chambers purged with an inert purified gas (helium or helium/argon mixture) at low pressure (10-100 torr) to provide thermal coupling between the heat pipe condenser and calorimeter. The final pressure will be selected to minimize the potential for voltage breakdown between the heat pipe and radio frequency (RF) induction coil (RF heating is currently the planned method of powering the heat pipes). The proposed calorimeter is constructed from a copper alloy and relies on a laminar flow water-coolant channel design to absorb and transport energy

  11. Bayesian analysis of heat pipe life test data for reliability demonstration testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, R.J.; Martz, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The demonstration testing duration requirements to establish a quantitative measure of assurance of expected lifetime for heat pipes was determined. The heat pipes are candidate devices for transporting heat generated in a nuclear reactor core to thermoelectric converters for use as a space-based electric power plant. A Bayesian analysis technique is employed, utilizing a limited Delphi survey, and a geometric mean accelerated test criterion involving heat pipe power (P) and temperature (T). Resulting calculations indicate considerable test savings can be achieved by employing the method, but development testing to determine heat pipe failure mechanisms should not be circumvented.

  12. Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Pipes - Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doru, Zdrenghea

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents in the first part a state of the art review of reinforced concrete pipes used in micro tunnelling realised through pipes jacking method and design methods for steel fibres reinforced concrete. In part two experimental tests are presented on inner pipes with diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with metal fibres (35 kg / m3). In part two experimental tests are presented on pipes with inner diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with steel fibres (35 kg / m3). The results obtained are analysed and are calculated residual flexural tensile strengths which characterise the post-cracking behaviour of steel fibres reinforced concrete. In the third part are presented numerical simulations of the tests of pipes and specimens. The model adopted for the pipes test was a three-dimensional model and loads considered were those obtained in experimental tests at reaching breaking forces. Tensile stresses determined were compared with mean flexural tensile strength. To validate tensile parameters of steel fibres reinforced concrete, experimental tests of the specimens were modelled with MIDAS program to reproduce the flexural breaking behaviour. To simulate post - cracking behaviour was used the method σ — ε based on the relationship stress - strain, according to RILEM TC 162-TDF. For the specimens tested were plotted F — δ diagrams, which have been superimposed for comparison with the similar diagrams of experimental tests. The comparison of experimental results with those obtained from numerical simulation leads to the following conclusions: - the maximum forces obtained by numerical calculation have higher values than the experimental values for the same tensile stresses; - forces corresponding of residual strengths have very similar values between the experimental and numerical calculations; - generally the numerical model estimates a breaking force greater

  13. Assessing Equivalent Viscous Damping Using Piping System test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, J.; Morante, R.

    2010-07-18

    The specification of damping for nuclear piping systems subject to seismic-induced motions has been the subject of many studies and much controversy. Damping estimation based on test data can be influenced by numerous factors, consequently leading to considerable scatter in damping estimates in the literature. At present, nuclear industry recommendations and nuclear regulatory guidance are not consistent on the treatment of damping for analysis of nuclear piping systems. Therefore, there is still a need to develop a more complete and consistent technical basis for specification of appropriate damping values for use in design and analysis. This paper summarizes the results of recent damping studies conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  14. Test method for measuring insulation values of cryogenic pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, J.F.M.; Blokland, H.; Klaver, B.W.; Beld, C. van de

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a large-area heat flux and temperature sensor (HFT) is used for the evaluation of the insulation value of cryogenic pipes. The HFT is flexible and clamp-on. The test method is relatively simple and can be used in-situ. The HFT makes it possible to monitor insulation performance over

  15. Test of Seal System for Flexible Pipe End Fitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars; Jensen, Thomas Gregers

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the end fitting seal system is to ensure leak proof termination of flexible pipes. The seal system of an NKT end fitting normally consists of a number of ring joint gaskets mounted in a steel sleeve on the outside of the polymeric inner liner of the pipe. The seal system is activated...... by compression of the gaskets, thus using the geometry to establish a seal towards the inner liner of the pipe and the steel sleeve of the end fitting. This paper describes how the seal system of an end fitting can be tested using an autoclave. By regulating temperature and pressure, the seal system can...... be tested up to 130oC and 51.7 MPa. Pressure, temperature and the mechanical behaviours of the pipe are measured for use in further research. The set-up is used to test the efficiency of the seal system as function of parameters such as cross sectional shapes of the gaskets, tolerances between gaskets...

  16. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  17. Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test - Test Plan and Standard Operating Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Refractory metal heat pipes developed during this project shall be subjected to various operating conditions to evaluate life-limiting corrosion factors. To accomplish this objective, various parameters shall be investigated, including the effect of temperature and mass fluence on long-term corrosion rate. The test series will begin with a performance test of one module to evaluate its performance and to establish the temperature and power settings for the remaining modules. The performance test will be followed by round-the-clock testing of 16 heat pipes. All heat pipes shall be nondestructively inspected at 6-month intervals. At longer intervals, specific modules will be destructively evaluated. Both the nondestructive and destructive evaluations shall be coordinated with Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the processing, setup, and testing of the heat pipes, standard operating procedures shall be developed. Initial procedures are listed here and, as hardware is developed, will be updated, incorporating findings and lessons learned.

  18. Acoustic Guided Wave Testing of Pipes of Small Diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravev, V. V.; Muraveva, O. V.; Strizhak, V. A.; Myshkin, Y. V.

    2017-10-01

    Acoustic path is analyzed and main parameters of guided wave testing are substanti- ated applied to pipes of small diameters. The method is implemented using longitudinal L(0,1) and torsional T(0,1) waves based on electromagnetic-acoustic (EMA) transducers. The method of multiple reflections (MMR) combines echo-through, amplitude-shadow and time-shadow methods. Due to the effect of coherent amplification of echo-pulses from defects the sensitivity to the defects of small sizes at the signal analysis on the far reflections is increased. An oppor- tunity of detection of both local defects (dents, corrosion damages, rolling features, pitting, cracks) and defects extended along the pipe is shown.

  19. Building, Testing, and Post Test Analysis of Durability Heat Pipe Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, T. A.

    2002-03-01

    The Solar Thermal Program at Sandia supports work developing dish/Stirling systems to convert solar energy into electricity. Heat pipe technology is ideal for transferring the energy of concentrated sunlight from the parabolic dish concentrators to the Stirling engine heat tubes. This report covers the building, testing, and post-test analysis of the sixth in a series of bench scale heat pipes. Durability heat pipe no. 6 was built and tested to determine the effects of a high temperature bakeout, 950 C, on wick corrosion during long-term operation. Previous tests showed high levels of corrosion with low temperature bakeouts (650-700 C). Durability heat pipe no. 5 had a high temperature bakeout and reflux cleaning and showed low levels of wick corrosion after long-term operation. After testing durability heat pipe no. 6 for 5,003 hours at an operating temperature of 750 C, it showed low levels of wick corrosion. This test shows a high temperature bakeout alone will significantly reduce wick corrosion without the need for costly and time consuming reflux cleaning.

  20. Pipe Overpack Container Fire Testing: Phase I & II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ammerman, Douglas J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lopez, Carlos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gill, Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Pipe Overpack Container (POC) was developed at Rocky Flats to transport plutonium residues with higher levels of plutonium than standard transuranic (TRU) waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. In 1996 Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a series of tests to determine the degree of protection POCs provided during storage accident events. One of these tests exposed four of the POCs to a 30-minute engulfing pool fire, resulting in one of the 7A drum overpacks generating sufficient internal pressure to pop off its lid and expose the top of the pipe container (PC) to the fire environment. The initial contents of the POCs were inert materials, which would not generate large internal pressure within the PC if heated. However, POCs are now being used to store combustible TRU waste at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. At the request of DOE’s Office of Environmental Management (EM) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), starting in 2015 SNL conducted a new series of fire tests to examine whether PCs with combustibles would reach a temperature that would result in (1) decomposition of inner contents and (2) subsequent generation of sufficient gas to cause the PC to over-pressurize and release its inner content. Tests conducted during 2015 and 2016, and described herein, were done in two phases. The goal of the first phase was to see if the PC would reach high enough temperatures to decompose typical combustible materials inside the PC. The goal of the second test phase was to determine under what heating loads (i.e., incident heat fluxes) the 7A drum lid pops off from the POC drum. This report will describe the various tests conducted in phase I and II, present preliminary results from these tests, and discuss implications for the POCs.

  1. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.

  2. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianbo; Fang, Hui; Li, Long; Wang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoming; Kang, Yihua; Sun, Yanhua; Tang, Chaoqing

    2017-01-21

    To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatability MFL probing system is designed and manufactured, which was embedded with the developed sensors. It can track the swing movement of drill pipes and allow the pipe ends to pass smoothly. Finally, the developed system is employed in a drilling field for drill pipe inspection. Test results show that the proposed method can fulfill the requirements for drill pipe inspection at wellheads, which is of great importance in drill pipe safety.

  3. Preparation and testing of nickel-based superalloy/sodium heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; Han, Haitao; Hu, Longfei; Chen, Siyuan; Yu, Jijun; Ai, Bangcheng

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a kind of uni-piece nickel-based superalloy/sodium heat pipe is proposed. Five models of high temperature heat pipe were prepared using GH3044 and GH4099 nickel-based superalloys. And their startup performance and ablation resistance were investigated by quartz lamp calorifier radiation and wind tunnel tests, respectively. It is found that the amount of charging sodium affects the startup performance of heat pipes apparently. No startup phenomenon was found for insufficient sodium charged model. In contrast, the models charged with sufficient sodium startup successfully, displaying a uniform temperature distribution. During wind tunnel test, the corresponding models experienced a shorter startup time than that during quartz lamp heating. GH4099/sodium heat pipe shows excellent ablation resistance, being better than that of GH3044/sodium heat pipe. Therefore, it is proposed that this kind of heat pipe has a potential application in thermal protection system of hypersonic cruise vehicles.

  4. 77 FR 54557 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...-54558] [FR Doc No: 2012-21740] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the 2012 Census of Agriculture Content Testing AGENCY: National Agricultural..., Associate Administrator. [FR Doc. 2012-21740 Filed 9-4-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-20-P ...

  5. Closeout Report for the Refractory Metal Accelerated Heat Pipe Life Test Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Reid, R.; Stewart, E.; Hickman, R.; Mireles, O.

    2013-01-01

    With the selection of a gas-cooled reactor, this heat pipe accelerated life test activity was closed out and its resources redirected. The scope of this project was to establish the long-term aging effects on Mo-44.5%Re sodium heat pipes when subjected to space reactor temperature and mass fluences. To date, investigators have demonstrated heat pipe life tests of alkali metal systems up to .50,000 hours. Unfortunately, resources have not been available to examine the effect of temperature, mass fluence, or impurity level on corrosion or to conduct post-test forensic examination of heat pipes. The key objective of this effort was to establish a cost/time effective method to systematically test alkali metal heat pipes with both practical and theoretical benefits. During execution of the project, a heat pipe design was established, a majority of the laboratory test equipment systems specified, and operating and test procedures developed. Procurements for the heat pipe units and all major test components were underway at the time the stop work order was issued. An extremely important outcome was the successful fabrication of an annular wick from Mo-5%Re screen (the single, most difficult component to manufacture) using a hot isostatic pressing technique. This Technical Publication (TP) includes specifics regarding the heat pipe calorimeter water-cooling system, vendor design for the radio frequency heating system, possible alternative calorimeter designs, and progress on the vanadium equilibration technique. The methods provided in this TP and preceding project documentation would serve as a good starting point to rapidly implement an accelerated life test. Relevant test data can become available within months, not years, and destructive examination of the first life test heat pipe might begin within 6 months of test initiation. Final conclusions could be drawn in less than a quarter of the mission duration for a long-lived, fission-powered, deep space probe.

  6. Impact responses, compressive and burst tests of glass/epoxy (GRE) composite pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, F. S. B.; Majid, M. S. A.; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Syayuthi, A. R. A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the impact responses, compression and burst tests of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) composites pipes. Impact loadings of three different energy levels (5 J, 7.5 J, and 10 J) were applied, followed by monotonic burst tests. Uniaxial compressive tests were conducted GRE samples using a universal testing machine in accordance with ASTM D695-10. In addition, the tests were also repeated with samples of different winding angles of ±45 ° and ±55 ° and tested at room temperature, and elevated temperatures of 45 °C and 65 °C. The result shows that the higher the impact energy applied to the pipes, the lower the burst strength of the pipes. The maximum burst strength found decreased with an increase in the impact energy level. The results also indicate that the strength of the GRE pipes significantly decreases with increase in temperature though, they are also found to increase as the winding angles decrease.

  7. Failure process investigation of overwrapping composite on the pipe by burst test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Barriere, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, B. S.

    2017-10-01

    Overwrapping structure of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer(GFRP) is widely used for pipeline repair and is also a promising crack arrest method, so it is worthy of further research on its failure process. For investigating failure process, a bare pipe with specially designed defect of axial slot is used for hydrostatic test, burst pressure 25.6MPa is obtained. Then, the same defected pipe wrapped with 5 layers composite is used for hydrostatic test, overwrapping composite and pipe bust simultaneously at pressure 26.2MPa, failure process cannot be observed as sudden failure. Next, the same defected pipe wrapped with 12 layers composite is utilized for hydrostatic test, progressive failure process of overwrapping GFRP structure happens at pressure 28.6MPa, while the defected pipe remains well. After overwrapping composite is wholly broken axially, the damage interface area between composite structure and pipe is distinguished by proposed strain gauge method. Subsequent hydrostatic test shows that the remaining intact interface still has obvious enforcement effect, the burst happens at pressure 30.2MPa. It implies that interface's shear strength between overwrapping composite and pipe is essential to improve ultimate burst pressure.

  8. Field Tests of Plastic Pipe for Airport Drainage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    elements that are continuous along the length of the pipe. The void area between the two shells is filled with a foam-mortar filler . The pipe was purchased...then installed on the CTT -est site. A cruJ hed stone ( limestone ) with the gradation ctxve of Figure 9 was u.sed as I.e base material. Grade stakes...required. Crushed limestone was then spread on the sur-face. The size of the crushed stone of the first layer of’ bituminous treatment was 100 percent

  9. Long time durability tests of fabric inlet stratification pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    and in a space heating tank. Heating/cooling cycles are carried out with different operation conditions including different temperature levels and volume flow rates. The results show that that lime contained in the domestic water is deposited in the fabric pipes in the domestic hot water tank...

  10. Design and test of a self-controlled heat pipe radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdling, B.; Hembach, R.

    1973-01-01

    A 15,000-W spacecraft waste heat rejection system utilizing heat pipe radiator panels has been investigated. Of the several concepts initially identified, a series system was selected for more in-depth analysis. As a demonstration of system feasibility, a nominal 500-W radiator panel has been designed, built, and bench tested. The panel, which is a module of the 15,000-W system, consists of a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) header, and six isothermalizer heat pipes attached to a radiator. The thermal load to the VCHP is supplied by a Freon 21 liquid loop via an integral heat exchanger. This paper describes the results of the system studies and the radiator design. Also presented are test data on the VCHP, heat exchanger and isothermalizer heat pipes.

  11. A Study of Applying Pulsed Remote Field Eddy Current in Ferromagnetic Pipes Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingwang; Shi, Yibing; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yanjun

    2017-05-05

    Pulsed Remote Field Eddy Current Testing (PRFECT) attracts the attention in the testing of ferromagnetic pipes because of its continuous spectrum. This paper simulated the practical PRFECT of pipes by using ANSYS software and employed Least Squares Support Vector Regression (LSSVR) to extract the zero-crossing time to analyze the pipe thickness. As a result, a secondary peak is found in zero-crossing time when transmitter passed by a defect. The secondary peak will lead to wrong quantification and the localization of defects, especially when defects are found only at the transmitter location. Aiming to eliminate the secondary peaks, double sensing coils are set in the transition zone and Wiener deconvolution filter is applied. In the proposed method, position dependent response of the differential signals from the double sensing coils is calibrated by employing zero-mean normalization. The methods proposed in this paper are validated by analyzing the simulation signals and can improve the practicality of PRFECT of ferromagnetic pipes.

  12. Solar heat pipe testing of the Stirling thermal motors 4-120 Stirling engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C.E.; Rawlinson, K.S.; Moss, T.A.; Adkins, D.R.; Moreno, J.B.; Gallup, D.R.; Cordeiro, P.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johansson, S. [Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. A 25kW electric system takes advantage of existing Stirling-cycle engines and existing parabolic concentrator designs. In previous work, the concentrated sunlight impinged directly on the heater head tubes of the Stirling Thermal Motors (STM) 4-120 engine. A Sandia-designed felt-metal-wick heat pipe receiver was fitted to the STM 4-120 engine for on-sun testing on Sandia`s Test Bed Solar Concentrator. The heat pipe uses sodium metal as an intermediate two-phase heat transfer fluid. The receiver replaces the directly-illuminated heater head previously tested. The heat pipe receiver provides heat isothermally to the engine, and the heater head tube length is reduced, both resulting in improved engine performance. The receiver also has less thermal losses than the tube receiver. The heat pipe receiver design is based on Sandia`s second-generation felt-wick heat pipe receiver. This paper presents the interface design, and compares the heat pipe/engine test results to those of the directly-illuminated receiver/engine package.

  13. The features of the guided wave excitation and propagation at testing of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myshkin, Yu V.; Muravieva, O. V.

    2017-08-01

    The generalized integral solutions of the problem connected with excitation and propagation of torsional waves by electromagnetic-acoustic transducers in unloaded pipes and under conditions of loading on contact viscoelastic media, taking into account excitation parameters (frequency and geometry of the transducers), geometry, viscosity and elastic characteristics of pipe material and surrounding media, are presented. The amplitude of angular displacements of the torsional waves in pipes is estimated from the point of choice of frequency band, scanning distance and sensitivity estimation in guided wave testing of the pipes with various types and sizes. The numerical and experimental estimation of influence of the surrounding media viscoelastic characteristics on attenuation of the torsional T(0,1), longitudinal L(0,1) and flexural F(1,1) waves in the pipe is performed. The model of acoustic path of the guided wave technique on multiple reflections for testing the pipes with fixed sizes is presented and the guided wave technique sensitivity to defects depending on quantity of the received reflections, clamping force of the acoustic transducer and unwanted mode amplitude which is restricting the sensitivity to the defects is estimated.

  14. Assessment of grass root effects on soil piping in sandy soils using the pinhole test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatek-Jakiel, Anita; Vannoppen, Wouter; Poesen, Jean

    2017-10-01

    Soil piping is an important land degradation process that occurs in a wide range of environments. Despite an increasing number of studies on this type of subsurface erosion, the impact of vegetation on piping erosion is still unclear. It can be hypothesized that vegetation, and in particular plant roots, may reduce piping susceptibility of soils because roots of vegetation also control concentrated flow erosion rates or shallow mass movements. Therefore, this paper aims to assess the impact of grass roots on piping erosion susceptibility of a sandy soil. The pinhole test was used as it provides quantitative data on pipeflow discharge, sediment concentration and sediment discharge. Tests were conducted at different hydraulic heads (i.e., 50 mm, 180 mm, 380 mm and 1020 mm). Results showed that the hydraulic head was positively correlated with pipeflow discharge, sediment concentration and sediment discharge, while the presence of grass roots (expressed as root density) was negatively correlated with these pipeflow characteristics. Smaller sediment concentrations and sediment discharges were observed in root-permeated samples compared to root-free samples. When root density exceeds 0.5 kg m- 3, piping erosion rates decreased by 50% compared to root-free soil samples. Moreover, if grass roots are present, the positive correlation between hydraulic head and both sediment discharge and sediment concentration is less pronounced, demonstrating that grass roots become more effective in reducing piping erosion rates at larger hydraulic heads. Overall, this study demonstrates that grass roots are quite efficient in reducing piping erosion rates in sandy soils, even at high hydraulic head (> 1 m). As such, grass roots may therefore be used to efficiently control piping erosion rates in topsoils.

  15. Development of an axial suspended AMB experimental bench for load and disturbance tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gouws

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the development of an axial suspended active magnetic bearing (AMB experimental bench for load and disturbance tests. This test bench must be capable of levitating a 2 kg steel disc at a stable working distance of 3 mm and a maximum attraction distance of 6 mm. The suspension is accomplished by two electromagnets producing upward and downward attraction forces to support the steel disc. An inductive sensor measures the position of the steel disc and relays this to a PC based controller board (dSPACE® controller. The control system uses this information to regulate the electromagnetic force on the steel disc. The intent is to construct this system using relatively low-cost, low-precision components, and still be able to stably levitate the 2 kg steel disc with high precision. The dSPACE® software (ControlDesk® was used for data acquisition. In this paper, an overview of the system design is presented, followed by the axial AMB model design, inductive sensor design, actuating unit design and controller development and implementation. The paper concludes with results obtained from the dSPACE® controller and evaluation of the axial suspended AMB experimental bench with load and disturbance tests.

  16. Comparison of analysis and vibration test results for a multiple supported piping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.; Srinivasan, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of a nuclear power plant piping system subjected to high level vibrational excitation is investigated experimentally and analytically. The objective is to evaluate the piping analysis method employed in the SMACS computer code. Experimental data are obtained from the Large Shaker Experiments (SHAG) conducted at the HDR Test Facility in Kahl/Main, FRG, in which the dynamic behavior of an in-plant piping system with various support configurations was investigated. Comparisons of calculational results with measured data indicate that the adequacy of the prediction depends primarily on the modeling of boundary conditions and dynamic supports. Treating the latter as rigid and using building motion as input, in general, results in under prediction of piping response. On the other hand when accelerations on the pipe side of the dynamic support attachment are used as input, piping response is highly overpredicted. Also modeling wall/floor component attachments as fixed usually leads to underprediction of amplitude as well as differences in the frequency content of response. 9 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Construction and testing of ceramic fabric heat pipe with water working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Zenen I.; Webb, Brent J.; Bates, James M.; Cooper, Matthew F.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype ceramic fabric/titanium water heat pipe has been constructed and tested; it transported 25 to 80 W of power at 423 K. Component development and testing is continuing with the aim of providing an improved prototype, with a 38 micron stainless steel liner covered by a biaxially-braided Nextel (trademark) sleeve that is approximately 300 microns thick. This fabric has been tested to 800 K, and its emittance is about 0.5 at that temperature. Advanced versions of the water heat pipe will probably require a coating over the ceramic fabric in order to increase this emittance to the 0.8 to 0.9 range.

  18. LABAN emplacement pipe load-release test and stemming/canister alignment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, D.L.

    1983-12-02

    An Emplacement Pipe Load-Release Test and a study of downhole alignment during stemming were performed on the LABAN event. The purpose of these experiments was to determine canister and line of sight (LOS) distortion induced by downhole stemming and load-release procedures. The load-release test was aborted at approximately 40% completion due to excessive canister distortions. This report summarizes test results in terms of emplacement pipe loads vs vertical canister motions, canister and LOS lateral displacements, and the changes in LOS alignment that resulted from the downhole stemming and load-release processes.

  19. Advanced thermal energy management: A thermal test bed and heat pipe simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, Ronald G.

    1986-01-01

    Work initiated on a common-module thermal test simulation was continued, and a second project on heat pipe simulation was begun. The test bed, constructed from surplus Skylab equipment, was modeled and solved for various thermal load and flow conditions. Low thermal load caused the radiator fluid, Coolanol 25, to thicken due to its temperature avoided by using a regenerator-heat-exchanger. Other possible solutions modeled include a radiator heater and shunting heat from the central thermal bus to the radiator. Also, module air temperature can become excessive with high avionics load. A second preoject concerning advanced heat pipe concepts was initiated. A program was written which calculates fluid physical properties, liquid and vapor pressure in the evaporator and condenser, fluid flow rates, and thermal flux. The program is directed to evaluating newer heat pipe wicks and geometries, especially water in an artery surrounded by six vapor channels. Effects of temperature, groove and slot dimensions, and wick properties are reported.

  20. Test results of a Stirling engine utilizing heat exchanger modules with an integral heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupinski, Robert C.; Tower, Leonard K.; Madi, Frank J.; Brusk, Kevin D.

    1993-01-01

    The Heat Pipe Stirling Engine (HP-1000), a free-piston Stirling engine incorporating three heat exchanger modules, each having a sodium filled heat pipe, has been tested at the NASA-Lewis Research Center as part of the Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The heat exchanger modules were designed to reduce the number of potential flow leak paths in the heat exchanger assembly and incorporate a heat pipe as the link between the heat source and the engine. An existing RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine was modified to operate using the heat exchanger modules. This paper describes heat exchanger module and engine performance during baseline testing. Condenser temperature profiles, brake power, and efficiency are presented and discussed.

  1. Development and test of two flexible cryogenic heat pipes. [for spaceborne instrument cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. P.; Brennan, P. J.; Mccreight, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a comprehensive test program directed toward determining the physical and thermal performance of two flexible cryogenic heat pipes that can provide a highly efficient thermal link between a detector and a space radiator or other cooling system in spacecraft applications. A 100-200 K high-power heat pipe is tested with methane at 100-140 K while a 15-100 K low-temperature pipe is designed for operation with nitrogen and oxygen and is optimized for oxygen in the range 75-90 K. Parametric performance and design tradeoff studies are carried out to determine the optimum geometry and materials for the container and wicking systems. A spiral multiwrap wick in conjunction with braided bellows appears to be a workable solution to the problem of developing highly flexible heat transport devices for cryogenic applications.

  2. Design of a Testing Facility for Investigation of Drill Pipes Fatigue Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Abdo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drillstring and down-hole tool failure usually results from failing to control one or more of the vibration mechanisms. The solution starts with the ability to measure different modes of vibration, hence identifying different vibration mechanisms. Lateral, torsion and axial are vibration modes that take place when drill pipes run into problems downhole. Due to the three modes of vibration mechanisms such as bit bounce, stick-slip, lateral shocks, bit and bottom hole assembly (BHA whirl, parametric and torsional resonance occur. Understanding the causes of the destructive loads is the main step towards developing approaches to prevent or reduce their effects, hence improving drilling performance. Vibration modes and mechanisms lead to failure of the drill pipes, BHA and drill bits. Drill pipes fatigue failure is very common due to capability of producing all vibration modes and mechanisms. Drill pipe and downhole tool assembly failure usually result from failing to have power over one or more of these vibration mechanisms. A novel in house experimental setup has been developed to mimic downhole axial, lateral and torsional vibration modes and mechanisms in drilling operations. In this paper, we focus on the design and construction of the testing facility. A number of tests were conducted to validate the capability and performance of the test setup. Drill pipe fatigue failure due to lateral cyclic stresses induced in the drill pipe has also been investigated and presented in this paper. The results show that operating on a rotation speed higher than 90% of the drillstring critical speed leads to yielding in the drillstring.

  3. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  4. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Costello, J.F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results.

  5. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Costello, J.F. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results.

  6. Users manual on database of the Piping Reliability Proving Tests at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) conducted Piping Reliability Proving Tests from 1975 to 1992 based upon the contracts between JAERI and Science and Technology Agency of Japan under the auspices of the special account law for electric power development promotion. The purposes of those tests are to prove the structural reliability of the primary cooling piping constituting a part of the pressure boundary in the water reactor power plants. The tests with large experimental facilities had ended already in 1990. After that piping reliability analysis by the probabilistic method followed until 1992. This report describes the users manual on databases about the test results using the large experimental facilities. Objectives of the piping reliability proving tests are to prove that the primary piping of the water reactor (1) be reliable throughout the service period, (2) have no possibility of rupture, (3) bring no detrimental influence on the surrounding instrumentations or equipments near the break location. The research activities using large scale piping test facilities are described. The present report does the database about the test results pairing the former report. With these two reports, all the feature of Piping Reliability Proving Tests is made clear. Briefings of the tests are described also written in Japanese or English. (author)

  7. Vibration test on KMRR reactor structure and primary cooling system piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seung Hoh; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jin Hoh; Park, Jin Suk; Ryoo, Jung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-01

    Most equipments, piping systems and reactor structures in nuclear power plants are subjected to flow induced vibration due to high temperature and high pressure coolant flowing inside or outside of the equipments, systems and structures. Because the flow induced vibration sometimes causes significant damage to reactor structures and piping systems, it is important and necessary to evaluate the vibration effect on them and to prove their structural integrity. Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR) being constructed by KAERI is 30 MWt pool type research reactor. Since its main structures and piping systems were designed and manufactured in accordance with the standards and guidelines for commercial nuclear power plant, it was decided to evaluate their vibratory response in accordance with the standards and guidelines for commercial NPP. The objective of this vibration test is the assessment of vibration levels of KMRR reactor structure and primary cooling piping system for their structural integrity under the steady-state or transient operating condition. 38 figs, 14 tabs, 2 refs. (Author).

  8. Experimental Testing and Modeling Analysis of Solute Mixing at Water Distribution Pipe Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow dynamics at a pipe junction controls particle trajectories, solute mixing and concentrations in downstream pipes. Here we have categorized pipe junctions into five hydraulic types, for which flow distribution factors and analytical equations for describing the solute mixing ...

  9. Design, development and test of a capillary pump loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroliczek, E. J.; Ku, J.; Ollendorf, S.

    1984-06-01

    The development of a capillary pump loop (CPL) heat pipe, including computer modeling and breadboard testing, is presented. The computer model is a SINDA-type thermal analyzer, combined with a pressure analyzer, which predicts the transients of the CPL heat pipe during operation. The breadboard is an aluminum/ammonia transport system which contains multiple parallel evaporator and condenser zones within a single loop. Test results have demonstrated the practicality and reliability of such a design, including heat load sharing among evaporators, liquid inventory/temperature control feature, and priming under load. Transport capability for this system is 65 KW-M with individual evaporator pumps managing up to 1.7 KW at a heat flux of 15 W/sq cm. The prediction of the computer model for heat transport capabilities is in good agreement with experimental results.

  10. Review of application code and standards for mechanical and piping design of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the propriety of application code and standards for mechanical and piping of HANARO fuel test loop and to decide the technical specification of FTL systems. (author). 18 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Model of a nuclear thermal test pipe using ATHENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibben, Mark J. [Air Force Inst. of Technology, Wright-Patterson AFB (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion offers significant improvements in rocket engine specific impulse over rockets employing chemical propulsion. The computer code ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) was used in a parametric analysis of a fuelpipe. The fuelpipe is an annular particle bed fuel element of the reactor with radially inward flow of hydrogen through it. The outlet temperature of the hydrogen is parametrically related to key effects, including the effect of reactor power at two different pressure drops, the effect of the power coupling factor of the Annular Core Research Reactor, and the effect of hydrogen flow. Results show that the outlet temperature is linearly related to the reactor power and nonlinearly to the change in pressure drop. The linear relationship at higher temperatures is probably not valid due to dissociation of hydrogen. Once thermal properties of hydrogen become available, the ATHENA model for this study could easily be modified to test this conjecture.

  12. A Lift-Off-Tolerant Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing Method for Drill Pipes at Wellhead

    OpenAIRE

    Jianbo Wu; Hui Fang; Long Li; Jie Wang; Xiaoming Huang; Yihua Kang; Yanhua Sun; Chaoqing Tang

    2017-01-01

    To meet the great needs for MFL (magnetic flux leakage) inspection of drill pipes at wellheads, a lift-off-tolerant MFL testing method is proposed and investigated in this paper. Firstly, a Helmholtz coil magnetization method and the whole MFL testing scheme are proposed. Then, based on the magnetic field focusing effect of ferrite cores, a lift-off-tolerant MFL sensor is developed and tested. It shows high sensitivity at a lift-off distance of 5.0 mm. Further, the follow-up high repeatabilit...

  13. Experimental Tests on the Composite Foam Sandwich Pipes Subjected to Axial Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhao, QiLin; Xu, Kang; Zhang, DongDong

    2015-12-01

    Compared to the composite thin-walled tube, the composite foam sandwich pipe has better local flexural rigidity, which can take full advantage of the high strength of composite materials. In this paper, a series of composite foam sandwich pipes with different parameters were designed and manufactured using the prefabricated polyurethane foam core-skin co-curing molding technique with E-glass fabric prepreg. The corresponding axial-load compressive tests were conducted to investigate the influence factors that experimentally determine the axial compressive performances of the tubes. In the tests, the detailed failure process and the corresponding load-displacement characteristics were obtained; the influence rules of the foam core density, surface layer thickness, fiber ply combination and end restraint on the failure modes and ultimate bearing capacity were studied. Results indicated that: (1) the fiber ply combination, surface layer thickness and end restraint have a great influence on the ultimate load bearing capacity; (2) a reasonable fiber ply combination and reliable interfacial adhesion not only optimize the strength but also transform the failure mode from brittle failure to ductile failure, which is vital to the fully utilization of the composite strength of these composite foam sandwich pipes.

  14. Thermo-Mechanical Test of Seal System in Flexible Pipe End Fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the end fitting seal system is to provide a leak tight termination in a flexible pipe. The seal system in a NKT flexible pipe end fitting consists of a number of ring gaskets mounted on the polymeric internal pressure sheath of the pipe. When the seal is energised the gaskets...... of the seal system geometry and its tolerances necessary to maintain a tight seal. The test is carried out in a purpose built autoclave, in which the seal system can be tested while undergoing variations in pressure and temperature.The paper will present a study on the importance of the geometry of the gasket...... and the inner liner. The inner and outer diameter of the gasket are varied to see the effectiveness of the seal mechanism. The effect of varying the width of the gasket as well as the surface roughness of the components in the seal system is analysed. Finally, it is investigated how the seal system is affected...

  15. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  16. Standard practice for ultrasonic testing of the Weld Zone of welded pipe and tubing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes general ultrasonic testing procedures for the detection of discontinuities in the weld and adjacent heat affected zones of welded pipe and tubing by scanning with relative motion between the search unit and pipe or tube. When contact or unfocused immersion search units are employed, this practice is intended for tubular products having specified outside diameters ≥2 in. (≥50 mm) and specified wall thicknesses of 1/8to 11/16 in. (3 to 27 mm). When properly focused immersion search units are employed, this practice may also be applied to material of smaller diameter and thinner wall. Note 1—When contact or unfocused immersion search units are used, precautions should be exercised when examining pipes or tubes near the lower specified limits. Certain combinations of search unit size, frequency, thin–wall thicknesses, and small diameters could cause generation of unwanted sound waves that may produce erroneous examination results. 1.2 All surfaces of material to be examined in ...

  17. Numerical Ductile Tearing Simulation of Circumferential Cracked Pipe Tests under Dynamic Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Suk Nam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical method to simulate ductile tearing in cracked components under high strain rates using finite element damage analysis. The strain rate dependence on tensile properties and multiaxial fracture strain is characterized by the model developed by Johnson and Cook. The damage model is then defined based on the ductility exhaustion concept using the strain rate dependent multiaxial fracture strain concept. The proposed model is applied to simulate previously published three cracked pipe bending test results under two different test speed conditions. Simulated results show overall good agreement with experimental results.

  18. Numerical ductile tearing simulation of circumferential cracked pipe tests under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ji Soo; Ryu, Ho Wan; Kim, Yun Jae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents a numerical method to simulate ductile tearing in cracked components under high strain rates using finite element damage analysis. The strain rate dependence on tensile properties and multiaxial fracture strain is characterized by the model developed by Johnson and Cook. The damage model is then defined based on the ductility exhaustion concept using the strain rate dependent multiaxial fracture strain concept. The proposed model is applied to simulate previously published three cracked pipe bending test results under two different test speed conditions. Simulated results show overall good agreement with experimental results.

  19. Development of a field test method for total suspended solids analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Total suspended solids (TSS) are all particles in water that will not pass through a glass fiber filter with a pore size less : than 2 m, including sediments, algae, nutrients, and metals. TSS is an important water quality parameter because of its ...

  20. Results of Performance Tests Performed on the John Watts Casing Connection on 7" Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Watts

    1999-08-01

    Stress Engineering Services (SES) was contracted by Mr. John Watts to test his threaded connection developed for oilfield oil and gas service. This particular test required the application of a variety of loads including axial tension and compression, internal pressure (gas), external pressure (water), bending and both low and elevated temperature. These loads were used to determine the sealing and structural limits of the connection. The connection design tested had tapered threads with 10 threads per inch. A square thread form and a round thread form were tested. The square thread form had a 2{sup o} load flank and 15{sup o} stab flank. The round thread had a 0{sup o} load flank and 20{sup o} stab flank. Most of the testing was performed on the round thread form. Both a coupled connection design and an integral connection design were tested. The coupling was a pin by pin (male) thread, with the pipe having a box (female) thread. Both designs have outside and inside diameters that are flush with the pipe body. Both designs also contain a small external shoulder. The test procedure selected for this evaluation was the newly written ISO 13679 procedure for full scale testing of casing and tubing connections. The ISO procedure requires a variety of tests that includes makeup/breakout testing, internal gas sealability/external water sealability testing with axial tension, axial compression, bending, internal gas thermal cycle tests and limit load (failure) tests. This test was performed with four coupled samples and included most of these loads. Two integral samples were also included for limit load testing ISO makeup/breakout tests are divided into three types--initial makeup, IML1, repeated makeup within the same sample, MBL, and repeated makeup using several samples called round robin, RR. IMU and MBL were performed in this project. The ISO sealing and structural procedure is divided into four primary tests and identified as Series A, B, C and Limit Load (failure

  1. Performance Testing of a Magnetically Suspended Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyro Based on the Single Axis Air Bearing Table

    OpenAIRE

    Jiancheng Fang; Ning Yan; Huijuan Zhang; Peiling Cui

    2012-01-01

    Integrating the advantage of magnetic bearings with a double gimble control moment gyroscope (DGCMG), a magnetically suspended DGCMG (MSDGCMG) is an ideal actuator in high-precision, long life, and rapid maneuver attitude control systems. The work presented here mainly focuses on performance testing of a MSDGCMG independently developed by Beihang University, based on the single axis air bearing table. In this paper, taking into sufficient consideration to the moving-gimbal effects and the res...

  2. Thermal Vacuum/Balance Test Results of Swift BAT with Loop Heat Pipe Thermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array is thermally well coupled to eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) embedded in the Detector Array Plate PAP), and two loop heat pipes (LHPs) transport heat from the CCHPs to a radiator. The CCHPs have ammonia as the working fluid and the LHPs have propylene as the working fluid. Precision heater controllers, which have adjustable set points in flight, are used to control the LHP compensation chamber and Detector Array xA1 ASIC temperatures. The radiator has AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint as the thermal coating, and is located on the anti-sun side of the spacecraft. A thermal balance (T/B) test on the BAT was successfully completed. It validated that the thermal design satisfies the temperature requirements of the BAT in the flight thermal environments. Instrument level and observatory level thermal vacuum (TN) cycling tests of the BAT Detector Array by using the LHP thermal system were successfully completed. This paper presents the results of the T/B test and T N cycling tests.

  3. The nature thickness pipe element testing method to validate the application of LBB conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilchenko, G.S.; Artemyev, V.I.; Merinov, G.N. [and others

    1997-04-01

    To validate the application of leak before break analysis to the VVER-1000 reactor, a procedure for testing a large-scale specimen on electrohydraulic machinery was developed. Steel pipe with a circular weld and stainless cladding inside was manufactured and large-scale longitudinal cross-sections were cut. The remaining parts of the weld after cut out were used to determination standard tensile mechanical properties, critical temperature of brittlness and for manufacture of compact specimens. Experimental mechanical properties of the weld are summarized.

  4. Ten Year Operating Test Results and Post-Test Analysis of a 1/10 Segment Stirling Sodium Heat Pipe, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John, H; Minnerly, Kenneth, G; Dyson, Christopher, M.

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 yr) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described.

  5. Thermo-Mechanical Test of Seal System in Flexible Pipe End Fittings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the end fitting seal system is to provide a leak tight termination in a flexible pipe. The seal system in a NKT flexible pipe end fitting consists of a number of ring gaskets mounted on the polymeric internal pressure sheath of the pipe. When the seal is energised the gaskets...

  6. Manufacture and test of prototype water pipe chase barrier in ITER Magnet Feeder system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Kun, E-mail: lukun@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui (China); Wen, Xinjie; Liu, Chen; Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Shushan Hu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui (China); Niu, Erwu [ITER China, 15B Fuxing Road, Beijing 100862 (China); Gung, Chenyu; Su, Man [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon – CS 90046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    The Magnet Feeder system in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) deploys electrical currents and supercritical helium to the superconducting magnets and the magnet diagnostic signals to the operators. In the current design, the feeders located in the upper L3 level of the Tokamak gallery penetrate the Tokamak coolant water system vault, the biological shield and the cryostat. As a secondary confinement to contain the activated coolant water in the vault in the case of water pipe burst accident, a water barrier is welded between the penetration in the water pipe chase outer wall and the mid-plane of the vacuum jacket of the Feeder Coil Terminal Box (CTB). A thin-wall stainless steel diaphragm with an omega shape profile is welded around the CTB as the water barrier to endure 2 bar hydraulic pressure. In addition, the barrier is designed as a flexible compensator to withstand a maximum of 15 mm of axial displacement of the CTB in case of helium leak accident without failure. This paper presents the detail configuration, the manufacturing and assembly processes of the water barrier. Test results of the prototype water barrier under simulated accident conditions are also reported. Successful qualification of the design and manufacturing process of the water barrier lays a good foundation for the series production of this subsystem.

  7. Design of Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test Environment Chamber, Cooling System, and Radio Frequency Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Reid, R. S.; Stewart, E. T.; Davis, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipes will be experimentally tested to examine heat pipe aging. To support this evaluation, an environmental test chamber and a number of auxiliary subsystems are required. These subsystems include radio frequency (RF) power supplies/inductive coils, recirculation water coolant loops, and chamber gas conditioning. The heat pipes will be grouped, based on like power and gas mixture requirements, into three clusters of five units each, configured in a pentagonal arrangement. The highest powered heat pipe will be tested separately. Test chamber atmospheric purity is targeted at <0.3 ppb oxygen at an approximate operating pressure of 76 torr (.1.5 psia), maintained by active purification (oxygen level is comparable to a 10(exp -6) torr environment). Treated water will be used in two independent cooling circuits to remove .85 kW. One circuit will service the RF hardware while the other will maintain the heat pipe calorimetry. Initial procedures for the startup and operation of support systems have been identified. Each of these subsystems is outfitted with a variety of instrumentation, integrated with distributed real-time controllers and computers. A local area network provides communication between all devices. This data and control network continuously monitors the health of the test hardware, providing warning indicators followed by automatic shutdown should potentially damaging conditions develop. During hardware construction, a number of checkout tests.many making use of stainless steel prototype heat pipes that are already fabricated.will be required to verify operation.

  8. Discussions on Laboratory Testing of Backwards Erosion Piping of Soil: An Interview with John H. Schmertmann and Frank C. Townsend

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    and K. R. Reddy. 2007. Critical appraisal of piping phenomena in earth dams. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 66(4):381–402...of a lot of tests. JS: I think we had over 30, maybe 40. FT: We could get tests done and the student could look at the end of the tunnel and know

  9. Verification test results of a cutting technique for the ITER blanket cooling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigematsu, Soichiro, E-mail: shigematsu.soichiro@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Aburadani, Atsushi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Seiji; Nakahira, Masataka; Raffray, Rene; Merola, Mario [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-08-15

    For replacement of the first wall (FW) of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), cutting and welding tools for the cooling pipes must be able to access a pipe from the surface side of the FW and cut/weld the pipe from the inside the cooling pipe (inner diameter: 42.72 mm, thickness: 2.77 mm). The cutting tool for the pipe end is required to cut a flat plate circularly from the surface side of the FW (cutting diameter: approximately 44 mm, plate thickness: 5 mm). To determine the specifications for both the tools and the blanket hydraulic connections, the ITER Organization (IO) and the Japan Domestic Agency (JADA) conducted research and development activities regarding the FW replacement. This paper describes the current status of the development of cutting tools for the cooling pipe connection.

  10. In vivo testing of a magnetically suspended centrifugal pump designed for long-term use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, T; Nishimura, K; Akamatsu, T; Tsukiya, T; Park, C H; Kono, S; Matsuda, K; Ban, T

    1997-10-01

    The life of currently-available centrifugal pumps is limited to no more than three days. As a magnetically suspended centrifugal pump (MSCP) contains no shaft or seal, it could be expected to have a longer life expectancy. The MSCP was evaluated in a chronic animal model using eight adult sheep. Left ventricular assist with the MSCP was instituted between the left atrium and the descending aorta. The flow rates ranged from 2.5 to 6.0 L/min. The duration of the experiments ranged from 14 to 60 days. No mechanical failure occurred. The plasma free hemoglobin levels remained within an acceptable range (3-19 mg/dL). No reduction in the counts of red blood cells or platelets was observed. Thrombus formation within the MSCP was recognized in one pump. The main reason for termination was thromboembolism derived from the circuits. Three types of regulation methods (constant rotational speed, constant motor current, and controlled motor current) were also investigated. Regulation by a constant motor current mode altered the pressure-flow (P-Q) characteristics, and thereby, a steadier pump flow was obtained compared with regulation in the constant rotational speed mode. Moreover, the controlled motor current mode can change the P-Q relationship. These results demonstrate that the MSCP is a promising device for long-term use.

  11. Whistling of pipes with narrow corrugations: scale model tests and consequences for carcass design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Bendiksen, E.; Frimodt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes for gas production and transport with a corrugated inner surface, as used in flexible pipes, can be subject to Flow-Induced Pulsations when the flow velocity is larger than a certain velocity. This onset velocity is dependent on the geometry of the corrugations, the operational conditions and

  12. Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjanovic, Darko [J.J. Strossmayer Univ. of Osijek, Slavonski Brod (Croatia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty; Kozak, Drazan [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. for Mechanical Design; Marsoner, Stefan [Materials Center, Leoben (Austria).; Gubeljak, Nenad [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Chair of Mechanics

    2017-07-01

    Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).

  13. Structural Dynamic Assessment of the GN2 Piping System for NASA's New and Powerful Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Mark E.; Staab, Lucas D.; Akers, James C.; Hughes, WIlliam O.; Chang, Li, C.; Hozman, Aron D.; Henry, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) has led the design and build of the new world-class vibroacoustic test capabilities at the NASA GRC's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, USA from 2007-2011. SAIC-Benham has completed construction of a new reverberant acoustic test facility to support the future testing needs of NASA's space exploration program and commercial customers. The large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) is approximately 101,000 cu ft in volume and was designed to operate at a maximum empty chamber acoustic overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 163 dB. This combination of size and acoustic power is unprecedented amongst the world's known active reverberant acoustic test facilities. Initial checkout acoustic testing was performed on March 2011 by SAIC-Benham at test levels up to 161 dB OASPL. During testing, several branches of the gaseous nitrogen (GN2) piping system, which supply the fluid to the noise generating acoustic modulators, failed at their "t-junctions" connecting the 12 inch supply line to their respective 4 inch branch lines. The problem was initially detected when the oxygen sensors in the horn room indicated a lower than expected oxygen level from which was inferred GN2 leaks in the piping system. In subsequent follow up inspections, cracks were identified in the failed "t-junction" connections through non-destructive evaluation testing . Through structural dynamic modeling of the piping system, the root cause of the "t-junction" connection failures was determined. The structural dynamic assessment identified several possible corrective design improvements to the horn room piping system. The effectiveness of the chosen design repairs were subsequently evaluated in September 2011 during acoustic verification testing to 161 dB OASPL.

  14. Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor with 90% efficiency. Model test approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2015-08-01

    Gas dynamic design of the pipe line compressor 32 MW was made for PAO SMPO (Sumy, Ukraine). The technical specification requires compressor efficiency of 90%. The customer offered favorable scheme - single-stage design with console impeller and axial inlet. The authors used the standard optimization methodology of 2D impellers. The original methodology of internal scroll profiling was used to minimize efficiency losses. Radically improved 5th version of the Universal modeling method computer programs was used for precise calculation of expected performances. The customer fulfilled model tests in a 1:2 scale. Tests confirmed the calculated parameters at the design point (maximum efficiency of 90%) and in the whole range of flow rates. As far as the authors know none of compressors have achieved such efficiency. The principles and methods of gas-dynamic design are presented below. The data of the 32 MW compressor presented by the customer in their report at the 16th International Compressor conference (September 2014, Saint- Petersburg) and later transferred to the authors.

  15. Testing of a Neon Loop Heat Pipe for Large Area Cryocooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Robinson, Franklin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Cryocooling of large areas such as optics, detector arrays, and cryogenic propellant tanks is required for future NASA missions. A cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) can provide a closed-loop cooling system for this purpose and has many advantages over other devices in terms of reduced mass, reduced vibration, high reliability, and long life. A neon CLHP was tested extensively in a thermal vacuum chamber using a cryopump as the heat sink to characterize its transient and steady performance and verify its ability to cool large areas or components. Tests conducted included loop cool-down from the ambient temperature, startup, power cycle, heat removal capability, loop capillary limit and recovery from a dry-out, low power operation, and long duration steady state operation. The neon CLHP demonstrated robust operation. The loop could be cooled from the ambient temperature to subcritical temperatures very effectively, and could start successfully by applying power to both the pump and evaporator without any pre-conditioning. It could adapt to changes in the pump power andor evaporator power, and reach a new steady state very quickly. The evaporator could remove heat loads between 0.25W and 4W. When the pump capillary limit was exceeded, the loop could resume its normal function by reducing the pump power. Steady state operations were demonstrated for up to 6 hours. The ability of the neon loop to cool large areas was therefore successfully verified.

  16. Heat Pipe Reactor Dynamic Response Tests: SAFE-100 Reactor Core Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2005-01-01

    The SAFE-I00a test article at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was used to simulate a variety of potential reactor transients; the SAFEl00a is a resistively heated, stainless-steel heat-pipe (HP)-reactor core segment, coupled to a gas-flow heat exchanger (HX). For these transients the core power was controlled by a point kinetics model with reactivity feedback based on core average temperature; the neutron generation time and the temperature feedback coefficient are provided as model inputs. This type of non-nuclear test is expected to provide reasonable approximation of reactor transient behavior because reactivity feedback is very simple in a compact fast reactor (simple, negative, and relatively monotonic temperature feedback, caused mostly by thermal expansion) and calculations show there are no significant reactivity effects associated with fluid in the HP (the worth of the entire inventory of Na in the core is .concept, it was decided to use a temperature based feedback model (based on several thermocouples placed throughout the core).

  17. Testing of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjective to Variable Accelerations. Part 1; Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Rogers, Paul; Hoff, Craig

    2000-01-01

    The effect of accelerating forces on the performance of loop heat pipes (LHP) is of interest and importance to terrestrial and space applications. They are being considered for cooling of military combat vehicles and for spinning spacecraft. In order to investigate the effect of an accelerating force on LHP operation, a miniature LHP was installed on a spin table. Variable accelerating forces were imposed on the LHP by spinning the table at different angular speeds. Several patterns of accelerating forces were applied, i.e. continuous spin at different speeds and periodic spin at different speeds and frequencies. The resulting accelerations ranged from 1.17 g's to 4.7 g's. This paper presents the first part of the experimental study, i.e. the effects of a centrifugal force on the LHP start-up. Tests were conducted by varying the heat load to the evaporator, sink temperature, magnitude and frequency of centrifugal force, and LHP orientation relative to the direction of the accelerating force. The accelerating force seems to have little effect on the loop start-up in terms of temperature overshoot and superheat at boiling incipience. Changes in these parameters seem to be stochastic with or without centrifugal accelerating forces. The LHP started successfully in all tests.

  18. Wave transmission by suspended pipe breakwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mani, J.S.; Jayakumar, S.

    ratio of 0.46), a 5% reduction in incident-wave height can be achieved. The cost and performance of conventionally adopted pile breakwater (involving a row of closely spaced piles driven on the seabed) were compared with the present system...

  19. Testing of a Methane Cryogenic Heat Pipe with a Liquid Trap Turn-Off Feature for use on Space Interferometer Mission (SIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan; Krylo, Robert; Fisher, Melanie; Bugby, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Camera cooling for SIM presents three thermal control challenges; stable operation at 163K (110 C), decontamination heating to +20 C, and a long span from the cameras to the radiator. A novel cryogenic cooling system based on a methane heat pipe meets these challenges. The SIM thermal team, with the help of heat pipe vendor ATK, designed and tested a complete, low temperature, cooling system. The system accommodates the two SIM cameras with a double-ended conduction bar, a single methane heat pipe, independent turn-off devices, and a flight-like radiator. The turn ]off devices consist of a liquid trap, for removing the methane from the pipe, and an electrical heater to raise the methane temperature above the critical point thus preventing two-phase operation. This is the first time a cryogenic heat pipe has been tested at JPL and is also the first heat pipe to incorporate the turn-off features. Operation at 163K with a methane heat pipe is an important new thermal control capability for the lab. In addition, the two turn-off technologies enhance the "bag of tricks" available to the JPL thermal community. The successful test program brings this heat pipe to a high level of technology readiness.

  20. Suspended microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Casavant, Benjamin P.; Berthier, Erwin; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jean BERTHIER; Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Bischel, Lauren L.; Brakke, Kenneth; Hedman, Curtis J.; Bushman, Wade; Keller, Nancy P.; Beebe, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Although the field of microfluidics has made significant progress in bringing new tools to address biological questions, the accessibility and adoption of microfluidics within the life sciences are still limited. Open microfluidic systems have the potential to lower the barriers to adoption, but the absence of robust design rules has hindered their use. Here, we present an open microfluidic platform, suspended microfluidics, that uses surface tension to fill and maintain a fluid in microscale...

  1. Radar-based dynamic testing of the cable-suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Carmelo [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering (ABC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Luzi, Guido [Centre Tecnòlogic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Division of Geomatics, Av. Gauss, 7 E-08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-05-27

    Microwave remote sensing is the most recent experimental methodology suitable to the non-contact measurement of deflections on large structures, in static or dynamic conditions. After a brief description of the radar measurement system, the paper addresses the application of microwave remote sensing to ambient vibration testing of a cable-suspended bridge. The investigated bridge crosses the Ebro River at Amposta, Spain and consists of two steel stiffening trusses and a series of equally spaced steel floor beams; the main span is supported by inclined stay cables and two series of 8 suspension cables. The dynamic tests were performed in operational conditions, with the sensor being placed in two different positions so that the response of both the steel deck and the arrays of suspension elements was measured. The experimental investigation confirms the simplicity of use of the radar and the accuracy of the results provided by the microwave remote sensing as well as the issues often met in the clear localization of measurement points.

  2. Performance Testing of a Magnetically Suspended Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyro Based on the Single Axis Air Bearing Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrating the advantage of magnetic bearings with a double gimble control moment gyroscope (DGCMG, a magnetically suspended DGCMG (MSDGCMG is an ideal actuator in high-precision, long life, and rapid maneuver attitude control systems. The work presented here mainly focuses on performance testing of a MSDGCMG independently developed by Beihang University, based on the single axis air bearing table. In this paper, taking into sufficient consideration to the moving-gimbal effects and the response bandwidth limit of the gimbal, a special MSDGCMG steering law is proposed subject to the limits of gimbal angle rate and angle acceleration. Finally, multiple experiments are carried out, with different MSDGCMG angular momenta as well as different desired attitude angles. The experimental results indicate that the MSDGCMG has a good gimbal angle rate and output torque tracking capabilities, and that the attitude stability with MSDGCMG as actuator is superior to 10−3°/s. The MSDGCMG performance testing in this paper, carried out under moving-base condition, will offer a technique base for the future research and application of MSDGCMGs.

  3. Design and Testing of Metal and Silicon Heat Spreaders with Embedded Micromachined Heat Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.A.; Robino, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    The authors have developed a new type of heat spreader based on the integration of heat pipes directly within a thin planar structure suitable for use as a heat spreader or as the base layer in a substrate. The process uses micromachining methods to produce micron scale patterns that act as a wick in these small scale heat pipes. By using silicon or a low expansion metal as the wall material of these spreaders, they achieve a good match to the thermal coefficient of expansion of the die. The match allows the use of a thin high performance die attachment even on large size die. The embedded heat pipes result in high effective thermal conductivity for the new spreader technology.

  4. Optimized Heat Pipe Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl L.; Tarau, Calin; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Anderson, William G.; Garner, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor by bypassing the heat during stops. In a previous NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for the Stirling RPS. In 2012, one of these VCHPs was successfully tested at NASA Glenn Research Center with a Stirling convertor as an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) backup cooling system. The prototype; however, was not optimized and did not reflect the final heat rejection path. ACT through further funding has developed a semioptimized prototype with the finalized heat path for testing at Glenn with a Stirling convertor. The semioptimized system features a two-phase radiator and is significantly smaller and lighter than the prior prototype to reflect a higher level of flight readiness. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the GPHS during stoppage with a small temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. This small temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the multilayer insulation (MLI). The VCHP passively allows the Stirling convertor to be turned off multiple times during a mission with potentially unlimited off durations. Having the ability to turn the Stirling off allows for the Stirling to be reset and reduces vibrations on the platform during sensitive measurements or

  5. New J testing method using load-COD curve for circumferential through -wall cracked pipes under bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Nam Su [MPA Stuttgart, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Kim, Yun Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    The present paper provides experimental J estimation equation for the circumferential through-wall cracked pipe under four-point bending, based on the load-Crack Opening Displacement (COD) record. Based on the limit analysis and the kinematically admissible rigid-body rotation field, the plastic {eta}-factor for the load-COD record is derived and is compared with that for the load-load line displacement record. Comparison with the J results from detailed elastic-plastic Finite Element (FE) analysis shows that the proposed method based on the load-COD record provides reliable J estimates even for shallow cracks, whereas the conventional approach based on the load-load line displacement record gives erroneous results for shallow cracks. Thus, the proposed J estimation method could be recommended for testing the circumferential through-wall cracked pipe, particularly with shallow cracks.

  6. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  7. Qualification of new design of flexible pipe against singing: testing at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Lunde, K.; Vijlbrief, O.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible pipes for production of oil and gas typically present a corrugated inner surface. This has been identified as the cause of "singing risers": Flow-Induced Pulsations due to the interaction of sound waves with the shear layers at the small cavities present at each of the multiple

  8. In Situ Test Study on Freezing Scheme of Freeze-Sealing Pipe Roof Applied to the Gongbei Tunnel in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Hu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the water sealing problem of soil between pipes of long distance curved pipe-jacked technology, Freeze-Sealing Pipe Roof (FSPR as an innovative pre-supporting method in tunnel engineering is being applied to the Gongbei Tunnel in the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge. The definition of FSPR is that large diameter steel pipes are laid out in a circle around the cross section of tunnel in advance, then the artificial ground freezing method is adopted to freeze soil between steel pipes to form water-sealing curtain. An effective freeze control system, which contains master freezing tubes, enhancing freezing tubes and limiting freezing tubes, is established for building up the frozen soil curtain, maintaining its stability during excavation and controlling the volume of frozen soil to limit frost heave dynamically. An in-situ test was carried out to explore the optimal freezing scheme and control mode. The results of the test show that the principal freezing scheme of the solid pipe with hollow pipe as a complement is the most optimal scheme in active freezing phase of the real construction. Meanwhile, cold control mode is suggested to control frost heave in maintained freezing phase. The conclusions have important guiding significance for this kind of engineering construction.

  9. Eddy Current Testing with Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Sensors and a Pipe-Encircling Excitation for Evaluation of Corrosion under Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph; Long, Nicholas; Hunze, Arvid

    2017-09-28

    This work investigates an eddy current-based non-destructive testing (NDT) method to characterize corrosion of pipes under thermal insulation, one of the leading failure mechanisms for insulated pipe infrastructure. Artificial defects were machined into the pipe surface to simulate the effect of corrosion wall loss. We show that by using a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor array and a high current (300 A), single sinusoidal low frequency (5-200 Hz) pipe-encircling excitation scheme it is possible to quantify wall loss defects without removing the insulation or weather shield. An analysis of the magnetic field distribution and induced currents was undertaken using the finite element method (FEM) and analytical calculations. Simple algorithms to remove spurious measured field variations not associated with defects were developed and applied. The influence of an aluminium weather shield with discontinuities and dents was ascertained and found to be small for excitation frequency values below 40 Hz. The signal dependence on the defect dimensions was analysed in detail. The excitation frequency at which the maximum field amplitude change occurred increased linearly with the depth of the defect by about 3 Hz/mm defect depth. The change in magnetic field amplitude due to defects for sensors aligned in the azimuthal and radial directions were measured and found to be linearly dependent on the defect volume between 4400-30,800 mm³ with 1.2 × 10-3-1.6 × 10-3 µT/mm³. The results show that our approach is well suited for measuring wall loss defects similar to the defects from corrosion under insulation.

  10. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main boiler...

  11. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping Welds and Thick Section Primary System Cast Piping Welds JCN N6398, Task 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Morra, Marino; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-07-21

    Research is being conducted for the NRC at PNNL to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods for the inspection of LWR components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This interim technical letter report (TLR) provides a synopsis of recent investigations at PNNL aimed at evaluating the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of CASS welds in nuclear reactor piping. A description of progress, recent developments and interim results are provided.

  12. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu

    2014-02-01

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  13. Simulation and analysis on ultrasonic testing for the cement grouting defects of the corrugated pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingbang, Han; Ling, Chen; Changping, Zhu [Changzhou Key Laboratory of Sensor Networks and Environmental Sensing, College of IOT, Hohai University Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213022 (China)

    2014-02-18

    The defects exist in the cement grouting process of prestressed corrugated pipe may directly impair the bridge safety. In this paper, sound fields propagation in concrete structures with corrugated pipes and the influence of various different defects are simulated and analyzed using finite element method. The simulation results demonstrate a much complex propagation characteristic due to multiple reflection, refraction and scattering, where the scattering signals caused by metal are very strong, while the signals scattered by an air bubble are weaker. The influence of defect both in time and frequency domain are found through deconvolution treatment. In the time domain, the deconvolution signals correspond to larger defect display a larger head wave amplitude and shorter arrive time than those of smaller defects; in the frequency domain, larger defect also shows a stronger amplitude, lower center frequency and lower cutoff frequency.

  14. Design, fabrication and test of a hydrogen heat pipe. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario, J.

    1979-02-01

    Re-entrant groove technology was extended to hydrogen heat pipes. Parametric analyses are presented which optimize the theoretical design while considering the limitations of state-of-the-art extrusion technology. The 6063-T6 aluminum extrusion is 14.6 mm OD with a wall thickness of 1.66 mm and contains 20 axial grooves which surround a central 9.3 mm diameter vapor core. Each axial groove is 0.775 mm diameter with a 0.33 mm opening. An excess vapor reservoir is provided at the evaporator to minimize the pressure containment hazard during ambient storage. Modifications to the basic re-entrant groove profile resulted in improved overall performance. While the maximum heat transport capacity decreased slightly to 103 w-m the static wicking height increased markedly to 4.5 cm. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated: (1) maximum heat transport capacity of 5.4 w-m; (2) static wicking height of 1.42 cm; and (3) overall heat pipe conductance of 1.7 watts/deg C.

  15. Design and fabrication of polymer-concrete pipe for testing in geothermal-energy processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.E.

    1981-07-01

    Polymer concrete is a composite material which has strength and durability characteristics greatly superior to those of portland cement concrete and better durability in hot brine than steel. Polymer concrete has been successfully tested in brine, flashing brine, and steam at temperatures up to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). Exposures were as long as 960 days. Glass-filament-wound polymer concrete pipe was developed with excellent strength, low weight, and a cost comparable to or less than Schedule 40 steel. Connections can be made with slip joints for low-pressure applications and flanged joints for high-pressure applications.

  16. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N; Razali, Ramdan; Ali, Kharudin; Faraj, Moneer A

    2017-03-13

    The use of the eddy current technique (ECT) for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT) use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM). The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient.

  17. Mechanized radiation testing of austenitic pipe welds. Testing of media filled pipes and determination of the flaw depth by tomosynthesis; Mechanisierte Durchstrahlungspruefung von Rundschweissnaehten. Pruefung mediengefuellter Rohrleitungen und Tiefenlagenbestimmung durch Tomosynthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewert, U.; Redmer, B. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Mueller, J. [COMPRA GmbH, Frechen (Germany); Trobitz, M. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Gundremmingen (Germany); Baranov, V.A. [Institute for Introscopy, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1999-08-01

    A compact detection system was built for multi-angle inspection of pipes, consisting of a high-sensitivity radiometric line scanner and an ultrasonic manipulator. Improved flaw imaging quality is achieved with this system as compared to film radiography. Measurements have been carried out on site in a nuclear power plant and in a laboratory. Better flaw imaging quality was also achieved in the testing of water-filled pipes. Non-linear tomosynthesis was applied for processing and interpretation of measured data. The system delivers considerably better images of planary materials inhomogeneitites, (such as cracks and lack-of-bond defects). (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Eine hoch empfindliche radiometrische Zeilenkamera wurde mit einem Ultraschall-Manipulator zu einem Gesamtsystem aufgebaut und fuer Mehrwinkel-Inspektionen von Rohrleitungen angewandt. Bei der Inspektion von Rundschweissnaehten an Rohren mit ca. 8... 20 mm Wanddicke wurde eine Verbesserung der Bildqualitaet im Vergleich zur Filmradiographie erreicht. Diese Messungen wurden in einem Kernkraftwerk unter Vor-Ort-Bedingungen sowie im Labor ausgefuehrt. Ein signifikantes Ansteigen der Bildqualitaet wurde auch bei der Pruefung von wassergefuellten Rohren erzielt. Methoden der nicht-linearen Tomosynthese wurden fuer die Verarbeitung und Interpretation der gemessenen Projektionsdaten genutzt. Das entwickelte System gestattet eine erhebliche Verbesserung der Anzeige von planaren Materialinhomogenitaeten (z.B. Risse und Bindefehler). (orig./DGE)

  18. Pump Assisted Heat Pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Yoshiro; OSHIMA, Shigeto

    1987-01-01

    A labortory model of a pump assisted heat pipe has been fablicated and tested. An arterial heat pipe with axial grooves and a gear pump with a magnetic coupling have been developed for the model. The test has been carried out successfully. The reasonable thermal conductance has been obtained so far as the necessary working fluid flow rate is supplied. The necessary flow rate exceeds the theoretical one and the excess flow rate increases as the heat load increases.

  19. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  20. Literature review and experimental investigation of heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, W. O.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Viskanta, R.; Winter, E. R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Tests on heat pipes determine operational limits, external boundary conditions, noncondensable gas effects, startup behavior, and geometric configurations. Experiment consists of design, construction, and testing of an apparatus for measuring wick properties, conventional heat pipes and coplanar heat pipes.

  1. Design, fabrication and test of a hydrogen heat pipe. [extruding and grooving 6063-T6 aluminum tubes for cryogenic heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    Re-entrant groove technology was extended to hydrogen heat pipes. Parametric analyses are presented which optimize the theoretical design while considering the limitations of state-of-the-art extrusion technology. The 6063-T6 aluminum extrusion is 14.6 mm OD with a wall thickness of 1.66 mm and contains 20 axial grooves which surround a central 9.3 mm diameter vapor core. Each axial groove is 0.775 mm diameter with a 0.33 mm opening. An excess vapor reservoir is provided at the evaporator to minimize the pressure containment hazard during ambient storage. Modifications to the basic re-entrant groove profile resulted in improved overall performance. While the maximum heat transport capacity decreased slightly to 103 w-m the static wicking height increased markedly to 4.5 cm. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated: (1) maximum heat transport capacity of 5.4 w-m; (2) static wicking height of 1.42 cm; and (3) overall heat pipe conductance of 1.7 watts/deg C.

  2. Design and fabrication of polymer-concrete-lined pipe for testing in geothermal-energy processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeding, A.O.

    1981-12-01

    A specific polymer-concrete formulation was applied as a steel pipe liner in response to a need for durable, economical materials for use in contact with high temperature geothermal brine. Processes are described for centrifugally applying the liner to straight pipe, for casting the liner in pipe fittings, and for closure of field joints. Physical properties of the liner materials were measured. Compressive strengths of up to 165.8 MPa (24,045 psi) and splitting tensile strengths of 23.5 MPa (3408 psi) were measured at ambient temperature. Compressive strengths of 24 MPa (3490 psi) and splitting tensile strengths of 2.5 MPa (366 psi) were measured at about 150/sup 0/C (302/sup 0/F). A full-scale production plant is described which would be capable of producing about 950 m (3120 ft) of lined 305-mm-diam (12 in.) pipe per day. Capital cost of the plant is estimated to be about $8.6 million with a calculated return on investment of 15.4%. Cost of piping a geothermal plant with PC and PC-lined steel pipe is calculated to be $1.21 million, which compares favorably with a similar plant piped with alloy steel piping at a cost of $1.33 million. Life-cycle cost analysis indicates that the cost of PC-lined steel pipe would be 82% of that of carbon steel pipe over a 20-year plant operating life.

  3. The effect of water aging on Cured-In-Place Pipe (CIPP) samples using non-destructive tests

    OpenAIRE

    Manavipour, Maryam; Kurz, Jochen; Sklarczyk, Christoph; Boller, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Pipe rehabilitation and trenchless pipe replacement technologies have been used more than 40 years. Cured-in placepipe (CIPP) is a trenchless method to repair damaged pipelines by inserting a new liner of polymer inside the existing host pipe. Since these liners are exposed to water after installation, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of water aging on CIPP samples. The water absorption analyses have been performed by immersion of unsaturated polyester composites reinfor...

  4. Influence of stress concentrator shape and testing temperature on impact bending fracture of 17Mn1Si pipe steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Vlasov, I. V.; Maruschak, P. O.; Moiseenko, D. D.; Berto, F.; Vinogradov, A.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of the notch shape on the impact fracture of 17Mn1Si steel is investigated at different temperatures, with the focus placed on the low temperature behavior. An approach towards fracture characterization has been suggested based on the description of elastic-plastic deformation of impact loaded specimens on the stage of crack initiation and growth at ambient and lower temperatures. The analysis of the impact loading diagrams and fracture energy values for the 17Mn1Si pipe steel reveals the fracture mechanisms depending on the notch shape. It has been found that the testing temperature reduction plays a decisive role in plastic strain localization followed by dynamic fracture of the specimens with differently shaped notches.

  5. High Temperature Ultrasonic Probe and Pulse-Echo Probe Mounting Fixture for Testing and Blind Alignment on Steam Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Lih, Shyh-Shiuh (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Takano, Nobuyuki (Inventor); Ostlund, Patrick N. (Inventor); Lee, Hyeong Jae (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A high temperature ultrasonic probe and a mounting fixture for attaching and aligning the probe to a steam pipe using blind alignment. The high temperature ultrasonic probe includes a piezoelectric transducer having a high temperature. The probe provides both transmitting and receiving functionality. The mounting fixture allows the high temperature ultrasonic probe to be accurately aligned to the bottom external surface of the steam pipe so that the presence of liquid water in the steam pipe can be monitored. The mounting fixture with a mounted high temperature ultrasonic probe are used to conduct health monitoring of steam pipes and to track the height of condensed water through the wall in real-time.

  6. Development and Testing of a Linear Polarization Resistance Corrosion Rate Probe for Ductile Iron Pipe (Web Report 4361)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North American water and wastewater community has hundreds of millions of feet of ductile iron pipe in service. Only a portion of the inventory has any form of external corrosion control. Ductile iron pipe, in certain environments, is subject to external corrosion.Linear Pola...

  7. The Analysis of the Field Application Methodology of Electromagnetic Ultrasonic Testing for Piping in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chi Seung; Joo, Keum Jong; Choi, Jung Kweun; Um, Byung Kook; Park, Jea Suk [Korea Advanced Ispection Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Nuclear plant piping is classified as the safety class and non-safety class piping in usual. Safety class piping has been examined in accordance with ASME Section XI and V during PSI/ISI using RT, UT, PT, ECT, etc and evaluated periodically for integrity. But failures in piping had reported at non-welded parts and non-safety class pipings as well as the safety class pipings. The existing NDT methods are suitable for the specific parts for instance weldments to inspect but difficult to examine all parts (total coverage) of pipe line and very expensive in cost and consume the time. And also inspection using those methods is difficult and limited for the parts which are complex configuration, embedded under ground and installed at high radiation area in nuclear power plants. In order to inspect all parts of long range piping systems and reduce the inspection time and cost, the electromagnetic ultrasonic inspection technology is suitable and effective. The electromagnetic ultrasonic method can cover more than 50 m apart from sensor at one time without moving the sensor and examined the parts which are in difficulties for accessibility, for example, high radiation area, insulated components and embedded under ground.

  8. Side-suspended High-Tc Superconducting Maglev Prototype Vehicle Running at a High Speed in an Evacuated Circular Test Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Zhao, Lifeng; Cui, Chenyu; Zhang, Yong; Guo, Jianqiang; Zhao, Yong

    2017-07-01

    High-T c superconductor (HTS) and permanent magnetic guideway (PMG) based maglev train is intensively studied in China, Japan, Germany and Brazil, mainly through static or vibration test. Amongst these studies, only a few of reports are available for the direct and effective assessment on the dynamic performance of the HTS maglev vehicle by running on a straight or circular PMG track. The highest running speed of these experiments is lower than 50 km/h. In this paper, a side-suspended HTS permanent magnetic guideway maglev system was proposed and constructed in order to increase the running speed in a circular track. By optimizing the arrangement of YBCO bulks besides the PMG, the side-suspended HTS maglev prototype vehicle was successfully running stably at a speed as high as 150 km/h in a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter, and in an evacuated tube environment, in which the pressure is 5 × 103 Pa.

  9. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium -- Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium - water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 K and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  10. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium-water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  11. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  12. Accounting the mechanical resistance of testing device for straight-flow branch pipe in the transverse direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, D. V.; Klishin, S. V.; Zubarev, A. V.; Shvarts, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    The flexible inserts as a rubber-cord branch pipe are used to reduce the vibrations distributed from units of a hydraulic system through the pipelines. The device with completely rigid elements is used for the experimental determination of the stiffness characteristics of the branch pipes that determine their anti-vibration properties. In the paper the study of the mechanical resistances of an experimental device construction is carried out by method of the harmonic analysis in a frequency range of 1 Hz to 1000 Hz. Then these mechanical resistances are compared with the mechanical resistance of the branch pipe with diameter 100 mm obtained experimentally. It is found as a result it is necessary to take into account the value of the device mechanical resistance when the stiffness characteristics of the rubber-cord branch pipes with diameter 100 mm in the transverse direction at frequencies above 735 Hz are determined experimentally.

  13. A heat pipe quick disconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Otterstedt, P. J.

    1985-07-01

    This paper reports the proof of concept demonstration of a heat pipe quick disconnect being developed for the space constructible radiator system. The disconnect provides a maintainable coupling between the heat pipe evaporator, which is brazed to a mating heat exchanger, and the replaceable condenser section of a monogroove heat pipe radiator element. Test results, with pressurized nitrogen gas, confirm low leakage rates in both demated and mated configurations. Comparative thermal tests in a working 3 m (10 ft) test bed heat pipe using ammonia fluid revealed a 30 percent decrease in heat transport due to the additional minor pressure losses from the quick disconnect. The bulk of this loss is attributed to the transition section that joins the two adjacent heat pipe flow channels to the separated liquid and vapor passages within the disconnect coupling. It would be possible to decrease this overall loss in heat transport to under 10 percent with a redesigned transition section.

  14. Piping systems physical benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezler, P.; Subudhi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Physical benchmark evaluations are used to assess the accuracy and adequacy of the analysis methods and assumptions used in typical piping qualification evaluations. To date physical benchmark evaluations have been completed for five systems involving both laboratory tested and in situ piping. In each evaluation elastic finite element methods are used to predict the time history response of a system for which physical test results are available. In the analytical simulations the measured support excitations and the measured damping properties are used as input and the acceleration and displacement response of piping interior points are predicted as output. Most evaluations were performed blind in that only the measured inputs are provided at the time of analysis. A summary of the overall results as well as predicted and measured time history traces for selected points are included.

  15. In-situ test methods for assessment of surface pH of corroding sewer pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Vollertsen, Jes

    A method for measuring the surface pH of corroding concrete was developed in the lab and tested in the field. The method is based on direct application of pH indicator solution on the corroding surfaces. Comparison against point measurements using a flat surface pH electrode (flatrode) confirmed...... the accuracy of the method. Blind testing of concrete specimens exposed to different acid concentrations demonstrated that it was possible to determine the surface pH within ±0.5 pH units in the pH range of one to five. The developed method provides a simple and reliable estimate on the extent of concrete...

  16. Using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing in Lieu of Radiography for Acceptance of Carbon Steel Piping Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Nove, Carol A.

    2014-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting studies for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the capability, effectiveness, and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) as a replacement method for radiographic testing (RT) for volumetric examination of nuclear power plant (NPP) components. This particular study focused on evaluating the use of UT on carbon steel plate welds. Welding fabrication flaws included a combination of planar and volumetric types, e.g., incomplete fusion, lack of penetration, cracks, porosity, and slag inclusions. The examinations were conducted using phased-array (PA) UT techniques applied primarily for detection and flaw type characterization. This paper will discuss the results of using UT in lieu of RT for detection and classification of fabrication flaws in carbon steel plate welds.

  17. The applicability of the Pennsylvania Notch Test for a new generation of PE pipe grades

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbedová, E.; Hutař, Pavel; Zouhar, Michal; Knésl, Zdeněk; Sadílek, J.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2013), s. 106-114 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1560; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : PENT test * Lifetime prediction * HDPE * Slow crack growth * Fracture mechanics Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.816, year: 2013

  18. Heat-pipes-based first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, V. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, PO Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Khripunov, V. [Russian Research Center `Kurchatov Institute`, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Antipenkov, A. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, PO Box 788, Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation); Ulianov, A. [State Enterprise `Krasnaya Zvezda`, Electrolytny pr-d., 1a, Moscow 115230 (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    Feasibilities of heat pipes application for the heat transfer out of plasma facing components in test and power fusion reactors are discussed. Based on the space technology and practice the ``hot`` ITER first wall with liquid metal and water heat pipes are proposed in two options: heat-pipes and vapor-chamber options. Other high heat loading in-vessel elements such as divertor target and limiter can be provided by effective and reliable heat pipe cooling systems. (orig.).

  19. Technical Letter Report, An Evaluation of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Reactor Piping System Components Containing Dissimilar Metal Welds, JCN N6398, Task 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-11-30

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light-water reactor components. The scope of this research encom¬passes primary system pressure boundary materials including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, inlays and onlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in steel components that challenge standard and/or conventional inspection methodologies. This interim technical letter report provides a summary of a technical evaluation aimed at assessing the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of small-bore DMW components that exist in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Operating experience and events such as the circumferential cracking in the reactor vessel nozzle-to-RCS hot leg pipe at V.C. Summer nuclear power station, identified in 2000, show that in PWRs where primary coolant water (or steam) are present under normal operation, Alloy 82/182 materials are susceptible to pressurized water stress corrosion cracking. The extent and number of occurrences of DMW cracking in nuclear power plants (domestically and internationally) indicate the necessity for reliable and effective inspection techniques. The work described herein was performed to provide insights for evaluating the utility of advanced NDE approaches for the inspection of DMW components such as a pressurizer surge nozzle DMW, a shutdown cooling pipe DMW, and a ferritic (low-alloy carbon steel)-to-CASS pipe DMW configuration.

  20. Model of a nuclear thermal test pipe using ATHENA. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibben, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion offers significant improvements in rocket engine specific impulse over rockets employing chemical propulsion. The computer code ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) was used in a parametric analysis of fuelpipe. The fuelpipe is an annular particle bed fuel element of the reactor with radially inward flow of hydrogen through it. The outlet temperature of the hydrogen is parametrically related to key effects, including the effect of reactor power at two different pressure drops, the effect of the power coupling factor of the Annular Core Research Reactor, and the effect of hydrogen flow. Results show that the outlet temperature is linearly related to the reactor power and nonlinearly to the change in pressure drop. The linear relationship at higher temperatures is probably not valid due to dissociation of hydrogen. Once thermal properties of hydrogen become available, the ATHENA model for this study could easily be modified to test this conjecture.

  1. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of water -pipe wall interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Heidari; Poria Ghassemi

    2015-01-01

    Tube wall analysis on unsteady network flow of pipe shows that the column is separated when it reached to vapor pressure. In this study, we experiment dynamic behavior of fluid distribution pipe system. The model used in is a straight suspended pipe, which is striked by a solid steel bar. Then the results of pressure change in different parts of pipe has been studied and compared with valid results.

  2. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  3. High Temperature Properties Test and Research of 9Cr1Mo (P9) Seamless Pipe Used in Petrochemical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qijiang; Zhou, Yedong; Zhang, Qinglian

    Production technical process of BaoSteel-produced 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe is presented, and creep property of isothermal annealed state of that steel is studied under the temperatures of 550 °C, 600 °C, 650 °C, 700 °C. Also, isothermal extrapolation method and Larson-Miller method are employed to extrapolate creep rupture strength of the steel at the creep time of 20000h, 40000h, 60000h and 100000h. The results show that high temperature properties of BaoSteel-produced 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe meets the API 530 standard of USA and the SH/T3037 standard of China's petrochemical industry, and the steel can be used in large scale petroleum cracking equipment. Meantime, the comparison of creep properties at 650 °C and transient elevated temperature properties at different temperatures between isothermal annealed state and normalized + tempered state of 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe as well as the microstructure analysis show that the normalized + tempered 9Cr1Mo (P9) seamless pipe presents better high temperature properties.

  4. Full-scale Testing and Numerical Modeling oF Axial and Lateral Soil Pipe Interaction in Deepwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraf Joshaghani, M.; M Raheem, A.

    2014-12-01

    A thorough understanding of the behavior of deep sea pipes is crucial for off-shore oil & gas industry. During the service life, network of oil and gas pipelines that connect the floating platforms to the subsea wells in deepwater undergo significant changes in temperature and pressure resulting in high shears, strains and movement. These pipelines laid on the very soft seabed become susceptible to large movement and lateral buckling resulting in global instability of the entire system. Hence, it is of paramount importance to address the aforementioned issues through combined numerical modeling and experimental study of various conditions in the field. Modeling this behavior needs to take into account the complex interactions between pipe, water, and soil (which, in this case, will be a saturated porous media). Physical experiments can be challenging as the undrained shear strength is very low of the order of 0.01 kPa. In this research, we have performed large-scale experiments as well as numerical modeling. Several full-scale models have been designed and constructed to investigate the behavior of various types of pipes (steel, plastic) on the simulated clayey sea bed (undrained shear strength ranged from 0.01 kPa to 0.11 kPa). Axial and lateral pipe soil interactions have been characterized, and appropriate mitigation solutions for axial walking and lateral buckling have been proposed. On the numerical modeling front, the pipe-soil behavior is simulated using the Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) and Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulations.

  5. Heat pipes for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrigan, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development work on the high temperature ceramic recuperator at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described and involved material investigations, fabrication methods development, compatibility tests, heat pipe operation, and the modeling of application conditions based on current industrial usage. Solid ceramic heat pipes, ceramic coated refractory pipes, and high-temperature oxide protected metallic pipes are investigated. Economic studies of the use of heat pipe based recuperators in industrial furnaces are conducted and payback periods determined as a function of material, fabrication, and installation cost.

  6. PPOOLEX experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through either one or two vertical transparent blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. Five experiments with one pipe and six with two parallel pipes were carried out. The main purpose of the experiments was to study loads caused by chugging (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. In the experiments the initial temperature of the condensation pool water varied from 12 deg. C to 55 deg. C, the steam flow rate from 40 g/s to 1 300 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 120 deg. C to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with only one transparent blowdown pipe chugging phenomenon didn't occur as intensified as in the preceding experiments carried out with a DN200 stainless steel pipe. With the steel blowdown pipe even 10 times higher pressure pulses were registered inside the pipe. Meanwhile, loads registered in the pool didn't indicate significant differences between the steel and polycarbonate pipe experiments. In the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes, the steamwater interface moved almost synchronously up and down inside both pipes. Chugging was stronger than in the one pipe experiments and even two times higher loads were measured inside the pipes. The loads at the blowdown pipe outlet were approximately the same as in the one pipe cases. Other registered loads around the pool were about 50-100 % higher than with one pipe. The experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes gave contradictory results compared to the earlier studies dealing with chugging loads in case of multiple pipes. Contributing

  7. Development of Pipe Holding Mechanism for Pipe Inspection Robot Using Flexible Pneumatic Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Kyujun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pipe inspection robot is useful to reduce the inspection cost. In the previous study, a novel pipe inspection robot using a flexible pneumatic cylinder that can move forward along to the pipe by changing the robot’s body naturally was proposed and tested. In this paper, to improve its mobility for a corner of a pipe, the thin pipe holding mechanism using pneumatic bellows was proposed and tested. As a result of its driving test, the holding performance of the mechanism was confirmed.

  8. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  9. An interlaboratory study as useful tool for proficiency testing of chemical oxygen demand measurements using solid substrates and liquid samples with high suspended solid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, F; de la Rubia, M A; Borja, R; Alaiz, M; Beltrán, J; Cavinato, C; Clinckspoor, M; Demirer, G; Diamadopoulos, E; Helmreich, B; Jenicek, P; Martí, N; Méndez, R; Noguerol, J; Pereira, F; Picard, S; Torrijos, M

    2009-11-15

    In 2008, the first Proficiency Testing Scheme of Chemical Oxygen Demand (1(st)COD-PT(ADG)) was conducted to assess the results obtained for different research groups whose field work is mainly anaerobic digestion. This study was performed using four samples, two solid samples as raw materials and two solid samples to prepare high concentration suspended solid solutions. Invitations were sent to a large number of laboratories, mainly to anaerobic digestion research groups. Finally, thirty labs from sixteen countries agreed to participate, but for different reasons four participants could not send any data. In total, twenty-six results were reported to the COD-PT coordinator. This study showed the importance of continuous participation in proficiency testing (PT) schemes in order to compare the results obtained. Taking into account the lack of a general standard method and high quality certified reference materials (CRMs), the traceability of COD determination is not currently easy to check. In addition, the spread of participants' results obtained was high and pointed to the advisability of using consensus values due to their unreliability. Therefore, the theoretical oxygen demand (ThOD) values were considered as assigned values for all the samples analysed. On the other hand, in this PT the established standard deviation (ESD) has been determined by the Horwitz modified function. Participants of this 1(st)COD-PT(ADG) were asked to give a short report on the analytical method used. Although all the participants used potassium dichromate as their oxidant reagent, their experimental procedures were very different. With the purpose of comparing the results obtained, the different experimental conditions used were classified into five methods, corresponding to two main categories, open and closed reflux. The performance of laboratories was expressed by the z-score, whose value is considered satisfactory when z-score

  10. Improving suspended sediment measurements by automatic samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, Melissa; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud; DeGroot, Gregory; Brand, Joshua; Mohseni, Omid; Erickson, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Suspended solids either as total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is an integral particulate water quality parameter that is important in assessing particle-bound contaminants. At present, nearly all stormwater runoff quality monitoring is performed with automatic samplers in which the sampling intake is typically installed at the bottom of a storm sewer or channel. This method of sampling often results in a less accurate measurement of suspended sediment and associated pollutants due to the vertical variation in particle concentration caused by particle settling. In this study, the inaccuracies associated with sampling by conventional intakes for automatic samplers have been verified by testing with known suspended sediment concentrations and known particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 μm to 355 μm under various flow rates. Experimental results show that, for samples collected at a typical automatic sampler intake position, the ratio of sampled to feed suspended sediment concentration is up to 6600% without an intake strainer and up to 300% with a strainer. When the sampling intake is modified with multiple sampling tubes and fitted with a wing to provide lift (winged arm sampler intake), the accuracy of sampling improves substantially. With this modification, the differences between sampled and feed suspended sediment concentration were more consistent and the sampled to feed concentration ratio was accurate to within 10% for particle sizes up to 250 μm.

  11. Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat pipe topical, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-07-01

    Work performed by Dynatherm Corporation for Teledyne Isotopes during a program entitled ''Heat Pipe Fabrication, Associated Technical Support and Reporting'' is reported. The program was initiated on November 29, 1972; the main objectives were accomplished with the delivery of the heat pipes for the HPG. Life testing of selected heat pipe specimens is continuing to and beyond the present date. The program consisted of the following tasks: Heat Pipe Development of Process Definition; Prototype Heat Pipes for Fin Segment Test; HPG Heat Pipe Fabrication and Testing; Controlled Heat Pipe Life Test; and Heat Pipe Film Coefficient Determination. (TFD)

  12. Basic hydraulic experiment on the saturated concentration of suspended load due to tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Somekawa, Shiho

    2016-04-01

    When tsunamis arrive in the shallow sea, a huge amount of suspended load is generated by large velocity and strong turbulence. The suspended load causes the geomorphic processes of erosion and deposition. Because the suspended load cannot be increased endlessly, it should have the saturated concentration. Many numerical models of sediment transport due to tsunamis have assumed a constant value of 1% for the saturated concentration empirically. However, it is supposed as a function of velocity. In this study, a hydraulic experiment was carried out to investigate a relationship between velocity and the saturated concentration of suspended load when tsunamis attack. A water circulation pipe used in the experiment was 10 cm in a diameter, 260 cm in length and 50 cm in width. A velocity of water flow in the pipe had been controlled by two pumps and two valves. It was changed from 0.24 to 1.22 m/s. Various amounts of sand was spread on the bottom of pipe. The amount of sand was changed from 0.1 to 10% as converted in the concentration of suspended load if all sand suspended. A diameter and a density of the sand were 0.267 mm and 2.64 x 103 kg/m^3. A condition of sediment transport in the pipe was recorded by video camera from a transparent window at the side of pipe. The condition was judged as all sand particles were suspended or not. The former condition indicates that the concentration of suspended load is saturated and the latter does it is not saturated. When velocity was smaller than 0.47 m/s, there was no suspended load because of a weak tractive force. When velocity became larger, the suspended load was generated and the concentration also became higher. However, the concentration had the upper limit and surplus sand appeared on the bed of pipe when velocity became much larger. The condition gave the saturated concentration of suspended load. When velocity was 0.665 m/s, the saturated concentration was smaller than 1% which is used in many numerical simulations

  13. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  14. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  15. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  16. Novel Robotic Tools for Piping Inspection and Repair, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    mock piping test track was erected consisting of segments of schedule 40 PVC piping (Figure 3). Figure 3- 3 in. Mock piping Grippers were...Lip seal reinforcement Alternate gripper bag material research During the robot’s lifecycle test the gripper bags were determined to be too

  17. Sludge pipe flow pressure drop prediction using composite power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pipes, the rheology of the fluid plays an important role, especially with increasing concentration of the suspended matter in the sludge. The f-Re relationship is often applied when designing pipelines, but it depends on the rheological parameters of the fluid and what definition of non-Newtonian Reynolds number is used.

  18. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  19. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the research onHigh Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite -- HPFRCC --pipes recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The project combines material development, processing technique development......-w$ relationship is presented. Structural development involved definition of a new type of semi-flexiblecement based pipe, i.e. a cement based pipe characterized by the fact that the soil-pipe interaction related to pipe deformation is an importantcontribution to the in-situ load carrying capacity of the pipe...

  20. Detecting pipe bursts by monitoring water demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Van der Roer, M.; Sperber, V.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm which compares measured and predicted water demands to detect pipe bursts was developed and tested on three data sets of water demand and reported pipe bursts of three years. The algorithm proved to be able to detect bursts where the water loss exceeds 30% of the average water demand in

  1. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  2. Cable suspended windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Moses G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  3. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-03-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  4. Shielded Metal Arc Pipe Welding. Teacher Edition. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    This second edition of the shielded metal arc pipe welding curriculum guide presents both basic and advanced pipe welding skills. All specifications for procedure and welder qualification are presented according to national standards. The standards also include the test position for both groove and fillet pipe welding. The guide contains three…

  5. Comparing the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the effect of various pipe materials on biofilm formation, surface water was used as the test water source; plastic-based pipe materials (polyvinyl chloride-PVC, unplasticised polyvinyl chloride-UPVC, medium density polyethylene-MDPE) and cement-based pipe materials (cement and asbestos cement) are ...

  6. Centrally activated pipe snubbing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, William E.

    1985-01-01

    An electromechanical pipe snubbing system and an electromechanical pipe snubber. In the system, each pipe snubber, in a set of pipe snubbers, has an electromechanical mechanism to lock and unlock the snubber. A sensor, such as a seismometer, measures a quantity related to making a snubber locking or unlocking decision. A control device makes an electrical connection between a power supply and each snubber's electromechanical mechanism to simultaneously lock each snubber when the sensor measurement indicates a snubber locking condition. The control device breaks the connection to simultaneously unlock each snubber when the sensor measurement indicates a snubber unlocking condition. In the snubber, one end of the shaft slides within a bore in one end of a housing. The other end of the shaft is rotatably attached to a pipe; the other end of the housing is rotatively attached to a wall. The snubber's electromechanical mechanism locks the slidable end of the shaft to the housing and unlocks that end from the housing. The electromechanical mechanism permits remote testing and lockup status indication for each snubber.

  7. Prevalence of water pipe smoking in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran and its effect on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossain Boskabady

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of water pipe (WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods: The prevalence of WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF, peak expiratory flow (PEF, maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the FVC (MEF75,50,25 were compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. Results: A total of 673 individuals including 372 males and 301 females were interviewed. The number of WP smokers was 58 (8.6% including 24 males (6.5% and 34 females (11.3%. All pulmonary functional test (PFT values in WP smokers were lower as compared to the non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001. The prevalence and severity of respiratory symptoms (RS in WP smokers were higher than non-smokers (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001. There were negative correlations between PFT values and positive correlation between RS and duration, rate, as well as total smoking (duration X rate (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001. Conclusion: In this study the prevalence of WP smoking in Mashhad city was evaluated for the first time. The results also showed a significant effect of WP smoking on PFT values and respiratory symptoms.

  8. Prevalence of water pipe smoking in the city of Mashhad (North East of Iran) and its effect on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossain; Farhang, Lila; Mahmoodinia, Mahbobeh; Boskabady, Morteza; Heydari, Gholam Reza

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of water pipe (WP) smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. The prevalence of WP smoking was studied using a standard questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximal expiratory flow at 75%, 50%, and 25% of the FVC (MEF75,50,25) were compared between WP smokers and non-smokers. A total of 673 individuals including 372 males and 301 females were interviewed. The number of WP smokers was 58 (8.6%) including 24 males (6.5%) and 34 females (11.3%). All pulmonary functional test (PFT) values in WP smokers were lower as compared to the non-smokers (P prevalence and severity of respiratory symptoms (RS) in WP smokers were higher than non-smokers (P prevalence of WP smoking in Mashhad city was evaluated for the first time. The results also showed a significant effect of WP smoking on PFT values and respiratory symptoms.

  9. Anti-Icing and De-Icing of Pipe Structures on Marine Vessels using Waste Heat Recovery - Numerical Simulations and Experimental Testing of Ulmatec Pyro's Double-Pipe Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Æsøy, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Shipping, fishing and exploration activities in Arctic waters are endangered by ice accretion on critical structures causing various safety risks. Ulmatec Pyro have developed an anti-icing/de-icing system using waste heat circulation in a double pipe system , for hand railings, helicopter decks and stairway applications. The research objectives of this master thesis was to support Ulmatec Pyro in the design process, using theoretical models for design optimization, and to develop experiment...

  10. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.

    1983-06-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  11. 76 FR 61087 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation... Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391 Malaysia (A-557-809) (2nd Review...

  12. Comparison Between Stress Obtained by Numerical Analysis and In-Situ Measurements on a Flexible Pipe Subjected to In-Plane Bending Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Lukassen, Troels; Glejbøl, Kristian; Lyckegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    variations will allow for performance optimization of the armour layers. To study the detailed stress variations in flexible pipes during dynamic loading, a comprehensive three-dimensional implicit nonlinear finite element model has been developed. The predicted numerical stress variations will be compared......To predict the lifetime and long-term properties of tensile armour wires in a dynamically loaded pipe, it is essential to have a tool which allows detailed prediction of the stress variations in the tensile armour wires during global pipe loading. Furthermore, detailed understanding of the stress...

  13. Plastic Pipe Failure, Risk, and Threat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-29

    The three primary failure modes that may be exhibited by polyethylene (PE) gas pipe materials were described in detail. The modes are: ductile rupture, slow crack growth (SCG), and rapid crack propagation (RCP). Short term mechanical tests were evalu...

  14. On Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM) UF6 Tests for 1.5" Sch40 SS Pipe, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    March-Leuba, José A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garner, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Younkin, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Simmons, Darrell W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    gas within the unit header pipe as a function of time. The OLEM components have been tested on ORNL UF6 flow loop. Data were collected at five different enrichment levels (0.71%, 2.97%, 4.62%, 6.0%, and 93.7%) at several pressure conditions. The test data were collected in the standard OLEM N.4242 file format for each of the conditions with a 10-minute sampling period and then averaged over the span of constant pressures. Analysis of the collected data has provided enrichment constants that can be used for 1.5” stainless steel schedule 40 pipe measurement sites. The enrichment constant is consistent among all the wide range of enrichment levels and pressures used.

  15. Dispersive suspended microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Yu; Lu, Yue-Le; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2011-11-14

    A novel sample pre-treatment technique termed dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) has been developed for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, malathion, chlorpyrifos, isocarbophos, methidathion, fenamiphos, profenofos, triazophos) in aqueous samples. In this method, both extraction and two phases' separation process were performed by the assistance of magnetic stirring. After separating the two phases, 1 μL of the suspended phase was injected into GC for further instrument analysis. Varieties of experiment factors which could affect the experiment results were optimized and the following were selected: 12.0 μL p-xylene was selected as extraction solvent, extraction speed was 1200 rpm, extraction time was 30 s, the restoration speed was 800 rpm, the restoration time was 8 min, and no salt was added. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detections (LODs) varied between 0.01 and 0.05 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSDs, n=6) ranged from 4.6% to 12.1%. The linearity was obtained by five points in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0 μg L(-1). Correlation coefficients (r) varied from 0.9964 to 0.9995. The enrichment factors (EFs) were between 206 and 243. In the final experiment, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wine and tap water samples and the obtained recoveries were between 83.8% and 101.3%. Compared with other pre-treatment methods, DSME has its own features and could achieve satisfied results for the analysis of trace components in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE pipe filled with Geopolymer Materials for Piping Application: Compression Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Hashim Mohammad Firdaus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to achieve the highest compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with the geopolymer filler content of weight percentage that were used in glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The samples were prepared by using the filament winding method. The effect of weight percentage of geopolymer materials in epoxy hardener was studied under mechanical testing, which is using the compression test. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 – 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is white clay were prepared. The compression strength of the glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled geopolymer materials is determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples with white clay geopolymer filler are much higher compare to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. Moreover, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with white clay geopolymer filler was increased from 10 wt% to 30 wt% of geopolymer content. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler suddenly decreased when added to 40 wt%. The results indicated that the blending of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  17. Lab-scale impact test to investigate the pipe-soil interaction and comparative study to evaluate structural responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Man Ryu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the dynamic response of a subsea pipeline under an impact load to determine the effect of the seabed soil. A laboratory-scale soil-based pipeline impact test was carried out to investigate the pipeline deformation/strain as well as the interaction with the soil-pipeline. In addition, an impact test was simulated using the finite element technique, and the calculated strain was compared with the experimental results. During the simulation, the pipeline was described based on an elasto-plastic analysis, and the soil was modeled using the Mohr-Coulomb fail-ure criterion. The results obtained were compared with ASME D31.8, and the differences between the analysis results and the rules were specifically investigated. Modified ASME formulae were proposed to calculate the precise structural behavior of a subsea pipeline under an impact load when considering sand- and clay-based seabed soils.

  18. Effect of Geopolymer filler in Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) Pipe for Piping Application: Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus Abu Hashim, Mohammad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Che; Hussin, Kamarudin; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    The present work is aimed to carry out the effect of geopolymer material which is fly ash as filler in the glass reinforced epoxy pipe on the micro structure of fly ash geopolymer, compression properties, and bulk density using the filament winding method. Conventional glass reinforced epoxy pipes has its own disadvantages such as high corrosion resistance at acidic environment and low strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymer is a type of amorphous alumino-silicate and can be synthesized by geopolymerization process. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentage geopolymer filler which is fly ash with 4 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of the raw material fly ash and fly ash based-geopolymer surface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the additions of fly ash at the beginning with 10 wt% are showing higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without fly ash geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these series of samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. It was found that compressive strength for samples fly ash based-geopolymer filler are higher as compared to glass reinforced epoxy pipe without geopolymer filler. However, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with fly ash geopolymer filler continues to decline when added to 20 wt% - 40 wt% of geopolymer filler loading. The results showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be obtained in this study.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FLEXIBLE BURIED PIPE DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR UNDER VARIOUS BACKFILL CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Niyazi Uğur TERZİ; Sönmez YILDIRIM

    2009-01-01

    Deformation characteristics of polyethylene based flexible pipes are different than rigid pipes such as concrete and iron pipes. Deflection patterns and stress-strain behaviors of flexible pipes have strict relation between the engineering properties of backfill and its settlement method. In this study, deformation behavior of a 100 mm HDPE flexible pipe under vertical loads is investigated in laboratory conditions. Steel test box, pressurized membrane, raining system, linear position transdu...

  20. Study of the performances of acoustic emission testing for glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes containing defects; Etude des performances du controle par emission acoustique de tubes en materiaux composites resine-fibre de verre contenant des defauts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villard, D.; Vidal, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Glass fibre reinforced plastic pipes are more and more often used, in nuclear power plants, for building or replacement of water pipings classified `nuclear safety`. Tests have been performed to evaluate the performances of acoustic emission testing for in service inspection of these components. The tests were focused on glass fibre reinforced polyester and vinyl-ester pipes, in as received conditions or containing impacts, and intentionally introduced defects. They have been carried out by CETIM, following the ASTM Standard E 1118 (code CARP), to a maximum pressure lever of 25 Bar The results show that the CARP procedure can be used for detection of defects and evaluation of their noxiousness towards internal pressure: most of the tubes containing low energy impacts could not be distinguished from tubes without defect; on the other hand the important noxiousness of lacks of impregnation of roving layer appeared clearly. Complementary tests have been performed on some tubes at a more important pressure lever, for which the damage of the tubes in enough to deteriorate there elastic properties. The results showed that CARP procedure give valuable informations on damage level. It would be interesting to evaluate acoustic emission on tubes containing realistic in-service degradations. (author). 11 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs., 2 appends.

  1. Experimental study of the naphtaline heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, I.; Suzuki, A.; Abe, Y.; Sugihara, S.

    1984-03-01

    Industrial needs for heat pipes which are operable at medium and high temperature ranges over 200 C are increasing in order to recover waste heat from high temperature furnaces or to cool aluminum diecasting molds. Naphthaline is attractive working fluid due to its cost and easiness of handling for medium temperature range. In the heat transfer characteristics, the fabrication method and also the life test result of the heat pipes using naphtaline as the working fluid are reported.

  2. Study on unstable fracture characteristics of light water reactor piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-08-01

    Many testing studies have been conducted to validate the applicability of the leak before break (LBB) concept for the light water reactor piping in the world. It is especially important among them to clarify the condition that an inside surface crack of the piping wall does not cause an unstable fracture but ends in a stable fracture propagating only in the pipe thickness direction, even if the excessive loading works to the pipe. Pipe unstable fracture tests performed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute had been planned under such background, and clarified the condition for the cracked pipe to cause the unstable fracture under monotonous increase loading or cyclic loading by using test pipes with the inside circumferential surface crack. This paper examines the pipe unstable fracture by dividing it into two parts. One is the static unstable fracture that breaks the pipe with the inside circumferential surface crack by increasing load monotonously. Another is the dynamic unstable fracture that breaks the pipe by the cyclic loading. (author). 79 refs.

  3. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  4. The monster sound pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  5. Casing free district heating pipes; Mantelfria fjaerrvaermeroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Nilsson, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyurethane insulation (PUR foam) on district heating pipes acts as protection against water if it is of good quality, i.e. free from cracks, cavities and other defects. On the other hand water vapour easily diffuses through PUR foam. However this is not a problem as long as the steel pipe is warmer than the surface layer, since the high temperature will prevent the vapour from condensating. What will happen with the insulation of a casing free district heating pipe where the ground water level occasionally reaches above the pipe has not been studied in detail. The current project has studied to what extent moisture enters the PUR foam insulation of two approximately one meter long district heating pipes without casing which have been in the ground for four years. Occasionally, the ground-water has entirely covered the pipes. In addition, the foam has been studied with respect to damage from the surrounding backfill material. Test specimens were taken out of the casing free pipes and were analysed with respect to moisture content. Additional measurements were done with a moisture indicator, and the electric resistance between the steel pipes and the four surveillance wires in each pipe was measured. The results from the various measurement techniques were the compared. The results show that the PUR foam remains dry as long as the service pipe is hot if no defects, such as crack and cavities, are present. Close to the service pipe, the foam actually dries out over time. The moisture content of the middle layer remains more or less constant. Only the colder parts on the outside exhibit an increase in moisture content. It was also seen that defects may lead to water ingress with subsequent humidification of the foam. However, the damaged foam area is limited. This is not the case for a regular pipe with a vapour tight casing, where experience show that moisture tend to spread along the pipe. The pipes were buried in sand and no

  6. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, E.S.

    2007-01-01

    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe

  7. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  8. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  9. Heat pipes with variable thermal conductance property for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravets, V.; Alekseik, Ye.; Alekseik, O.; Khairnasov, S. [National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Baturkin, V.; Ho, T. [Explorationssysteme RY-ES, Bremen (Germany); Celotti, L. [Active Space Technologies GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    The activities presented in this paper demonstrate a new approach to provide passive thermal control using heat pipes, as demonstrated on the electronic unit of DLR’s MASCOT lander, which embarked on the NEA sample return mission Hayabusa 2 (JAXA). The focus is on the development and testing of heat pipes with variable thermal conductance in a predetermined temperature range. These heat pipes act as thermal switches. Unlike standard gasloaded heat pipes and thermal-diode heat pipes construction of presented heat pipes does not include any additional elements. Copper heat pipes with metal fibrous wicks were chosen as baseline design. We obtained positive results by choosing the heat carrier and structural parameters of the wick (i.e., pore diameter, porosity, and permeability). The increase in the thermal conductivity of the heat pipes from 0.04 W/K to 2.1 W/K was observed in the temperature range between −20 °C and +55 °C. Moreover, the heat pipes transferred the predetermined power of not less than 10 W within the same temperature range. The heat pipes have been in flight since December 2014, and the supporting telemetry data were obtained in September 2015. The data showed the nominal operation of the thermal control system.

  10. The pipes of pan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalif, David J

    2004-12-01

    The pipes of pan is the crowning achievement of Pablo Picasso's neoclassical period of the 1920s. This monumental canvas depicts a mythological Mediterranean scene in which two sculpted classical giants stare out, seemingly across the centuries, toward a distant and lost Arcadia. Picasso was influenced by Greco-Roman art during his travels in Italy, and his neoclassical works typically portray massive, immobile, and pensive figures. Pan and his pipes are taken directly from Greek mythological lore by Picasso and placed directly into 20th century art. He frequently turned to various mythological figures throughout his metamorphosing periods. The Pipes of Pan was also influenced by the painter's infatuation with the beautiful American expatriate Sara Murphy, and the finished masterpiece represents a revision of a previously conceived neoclassical work. The Pipes of Pan now hangs in the Musee Picasso in Paris.

  11. Drag reduction properties of superhydrophobic mesh pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldi, Nicasio R.; Dodd, Linzi E.; Xu, Ben B.; Wells, Gary G.; Wood, David; Newton, Michael I.; McHale, Glen

    2017-09-01

    Even with the recent extensive study into superhydrophobic surfaces, the fabrication of such surfaces on the inside walls of a pipe remains challenging. In this work we report a convenient bi-layered pipe design using a thin superhydrophobic metallic mesh formed into a tube, supported inside another pipe. A flow system was constructed to test the fabricated bi-layer pipeline, which allowed for different constant flow rates of water to be passed through the pipe, whilst the differential pressure was measured, from which the drag coefficient (ƒ) and Reynolds numbers (Re) were calculated. Expected values of ƒ were found for smooth glass pipes for the Reynolds number (Re) range 750-10 000, in both the laminar and part of the turbulent regimes. Flow through plain meshes without the superhydrophobic coating were also measured over a similar range (750  pipe of the same diameter. This demonstrates that a superhydrophobic mesh can support a plastron and provide a drag reduction compared to a plain mesh, however, the plastron is progressively destroyed with use and in particular at higher flow rates.

  12. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible heat pipes charged with different filling ratios were measured under thermal power inputs ranging from 2 W to 12 W while the device was bent at different angles. The fabricated heat pipes with a 30% filling ratio demonstrated a low thermal resistance less than 0.01 K/W. Compared with the vertically oriented straight heat pipes, bending from 30° up to 120° has negligible influence on the heat-transfer performance. Furthermore, repeated heating tests indicated that the fabricated flexible heat pipes have consistent and reliable heat-transfer performance, thus would have important applications for advanced thermal management in three dimensional and flexible electronic devices.

  13. The Monster Sound Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-01-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which…

  14. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  15. INVESTIGATIONS ON DESIGN OF HEAT STORAGE PIPE CONNECTIONS FOR SOLAR COMBISYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    . In general the results showed only very little differences between external connection and internal PEX pipes, if the internal PEX pipes have thick walls. Typically used PEX pipes with only 2 mm wall thickness lead to reduced system performance compared to PEX pipes with 6 mm wall thickness and external pipe......This paper describes how different designed pipe connections on a tank for solar combisystems were evaluated based on experimental tests and theoretical investigations with the simulation tool TRNSYS. Measurement results from laboratory measurements were used to calibrate a TRNSYS model...... for simulations with parameter analysis. The possibility to connect pipes at the bottom and use internal PEX pipes to reach the inlet/outlet level in the tank was compared with the possibility to connect the pipe at the side of the tank and pass to the bottom level of the tank inside the tank insulation...

  16. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached

  17. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FLEXIBLE BURIED PIPE DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR UNDER VARIOUS BACKFILL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Uğur TERZİ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation characteristics of polyethylene based flexible pipes are different than rigid pipes such as concrete and iron pipes. Deflection patterns and stress-strain behaviors of flexible pipes have strict relation between the engineering properties of backfill and its settlement method. In this study, deformation behavior of a 100 mm HDPE flexible pipe under vertical loads is investigated in laboratory conditions. Steel test box, pressurized membrane, raining system, linear position transducers and strain gauge rosettes are used in the laboratory tests. In order to analyze the buried pipe performance; Masada Derivation Formula which is mostly used by designers is employed. According to the test and mathematical studies, it is understood that relative density of backfill and its settlement method is a considerable effect on buried pipe performance and Masada Derivation method is very efficient for predicting the pipe performance.

  18. Intrusion of Soil Water through Pipe Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a series of experiments conducted at U.S. EPA’s Test and Evaluation Facility in 2013-2014 to study the intrusion of contaminated soil water into a pipe crack during simulated backflow events. A test rig was used consisting of a 3’ x 3’ x 3’ acrylic soil bo...

  19. Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90/sup 0/ sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions.

  20. Effect on mechanical properties of glass reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with different geopolymer filler molarity for piping application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, M. F. Abu; Abdullah, M. M. A.; Ghazali, C. M. R.; Hussin, K.; Binhussain, M.

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the use of a novel white clay geopolymer as a filler to produce high strength glass reinforced epoxy pipe. It was found that using white clay geopolymer as filler gives better compressive strength to the glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The disadvantages of current glass reinforced epoxy pipes such low compressive strength which can be replaced by the composite pipes. Geopolymerization is an innovative technology that can transform several aluminosilicate materials into useful products called geopolymers or inorganic polymers. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled with 10 - 40 weight percentages white clay geopolymer filler with 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity were prepared. Morphology of white clay geopolymer filler surface was indicates using scanning electron microscopy. The additions of white clay geopolymer filler for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity show higher compressive strength than glass reinforced epoxy pipe without any geopolymer filler. The compressive test of these epoxy geopolymer pipe samples was determined using Instron Universal Testing under compression mode. Nonetheless, the compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with white clay geopolymer filler continues to drop when added to 40 wt% of the geopolymer filler loading for both 4 Molarity and 8 Molarity. These outcomes showed that the mixing of geopolymer materials in epoxy system can be attained in this research.

  1. Effect of piping systems on surge in centrifugal compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hideaki [Products Development Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    There is a possibility that the exchange of the piping system may change the surge characteristic of a compressor. The piping system of a plant is not always the same as that of a test site. Then it is important to evaluate the effect of piping systems on surge characteristics in centrifugal compressors. Several turbochargers combined with different piping systems were tested. The lumped parameter model which was simplified to be solved easily was applied for the prediction of surge point. Surge lines were calculated with the linearlized lumped parameter model. The difference between the test and calculated results was within 10 %. Trajectory of surge cycle was also examined by solving the lumped parameter model. Mild surge and deep surge were successfully predicted. This study confirmed that the lumped parameter model was a very useful tool to predict the effect of piping systems on surge characteristics in centrifugal compressors, even though that was a simple model

  2. Predictions for fatigue crack growth life of cracked pipes and pipe welds using RMS SIF approach and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Punit, E-mail: punit@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Department of Atomic Energy, Maharashtra, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, P.K.; Bhasin, Vivek; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Department of Atomic Energy, Maharashtra, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Pukazhendhi, D.M.; Gandhi, P.; Raghava, G. [Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2011-10-15

    The objective of the present study is to understand the fatigue crack growth behavior in austenitic stainless steel pipes and pipe welds by carrying out analysis/predictions and experiments. The Paris law has been used for the prediction of fatigue crack growth life. To carry out the analysis, Paris constants have been determined for pipe (base) and pipe weld materials by using Compact Tension (CT) specimens machined from the actual pipe/pipe weld. Analyses have been carried out to predict the fatigue crack growth life of the austenitic stainless steel pipes/pipes welds having part through cracks on the outer surface. In the analyses, Stress Intensity Factors (K) have been evaluated through two different schemes. The first scheme considers the 'K' evaluations at two points of the crack front i.e. maximum crack depth and crack tip at the outer surface. The second scheme accounts for the area averaged root mean square stress intensity factor (K{sub RMS}) at deepest and surface points. Crack growth and the crack shape with loading cycles have been evaluated. In order to validate the analytical procedure/results, experiments have been carried out on full scale pipe and pipe welds with part through circumferential crack. Fatigue crack growth life evaluated using both schemes have been compared with experimental results. Use of stress intensity factor (K{sub RMS}) evaluated using second scheme gives better fatigue crack growth life prediction compared to that of first scheme. Fatigue crack growth in pipe weld (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) can be predicted well using Paris constants of base material but prediction is non-conservative for pipe weld (Shielded Metal Arc Welding). Further, predictions using fatigue crack growth rate curve of ASME produces conservative results for pipe and GTAW pipe welds and comparable results for SMAW pipe welds. - Highlights: > Predicting fatigue crack growth of Austenitic Stainless Steel pipes and pipe welds. > Use of RMS-SIF and

  3. Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Peter J; Tisherman, Samuel A

    2002-04-01

    'Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation' is a new concept for attempting resuscitation from cardiac arrest of patients who currently (totally or temporarily) cannot be resuscitated, such as traumatic exsanguination cardiac arrest. Suspended animation means preservation of the viability of brain and organism during cardiac arrest, until restoration of stable spontaneous circulation or prolonged artificial circulation is possible. Suspended animation for exsanguination cardiac arrest of trauma victims would have to be induced within the critical first 5 min after the start of cardiac arrest no-flow, to buy time for transport and resuscitative surgery (hemostasis) performed during no-flow. Cardiac arrest is then reversed with all-out resuscitation, usually requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Suspended animation has been explored and documented as effective in dogs in terms of long-term survival without brain damage after very prolonged cardiac arrest. In the 1990s, the Pittsburgh group achieved survival without brain damage in dogs after cardiac arrest of up to 90 min no-flow at brain (tympanic) temperature of 10 degrees C, with functionally and histologically normal brains. These studies used emergency cardiopulmonary bypass with heat exchanger or a single hypothermic saline flush into the aorta, which proved superior to pharmacologic strategies. For the large number of normovolemic sudden cardiac death victims, which currently cannot be resuscitated, more research in large animals is needed.

  4. Flexible Cryogenic Heat Pipe Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A heat pipe was designed for operation in the 100 - 200 K temperature range with maximum heat transport as a primary design goal; another designed for operation in the 15 - 100 K temperature range with maximum flexibility as a design goal. Optimum geometry and materials for the container and wicking systems were determined. The high power (100 - 200 K) heat pipe was tested with methane at 100 - 140 K, and test data indicated only partial priming with a performance limit of less than 50 percent of theoretical. A series of tests were conducted with ammonia at approximately 280 K to determine the performance under varying fluid charge and test conditions. The low temperature heat pipe was tested with oxygen at 85 - 95 K and with methanol at 295 - 315 K. Performance of the low temperature heat pipe was below theoretical predictions. Results of the completed testing are presented and possible performance limitation mechanisms are discussed. The lower-than-expected performance was felt to be due to small traces of non-condensible gases which prevented the composite wick from priming.

  5. Round dance in pipes; Runddans i roer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2004-07-01

    On the offshore production plants, oil, water, and gas are separated from the well streams. The oil is sold on the market while the gas is in part exported, in part reinjected into the wells in large quantities to sustain the pressure in the reservoirs. The water is cleaned, some is pumped to the sea and some returned to the reservoir. Although these processes may seem straightforward, they cause a great deal of worry since there are so many complex processing and pipe systems taking up space. Pipes vibrate and make noise, most often because of pressure fluctuations created by the flowing liquid and gas. Or vortices form inside the pipe that make the whole pipe drone. In the offshore activities, these phenomena can be very annoying; on the Statfjord B platform people baulked at entering the area where the produced water treatment system was standing. A new system had to be developed since existing equipment would take up too much space. In the new system, a pipe section is installed in the pipeline that makes the gas/liquid mixture spin rapidly as in a centrifuge. The gas collects along the centre of the pipe and is tapped off. The principle can also be used to separate liquid from gas. In many gas treatment systems, liquid accumulation, or carry over, is detrimental. But gas dehydrators are usually dimensioned for a minimal content of liquid in the gas. Important features of these new pipe-based separators are that they are small, remove bottlenecks in the production, and are straightforward to install. But operators who live with the problems every day are very sceptical about the new separators and should be given the opportunity to test them on land before they are installed in the field.

  6. Heat Pipe Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  7. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  8. Experimental basis for parameters contributing to energy dissipation in piping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibanez, P.; Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews several pipe testing programs to suggest the phenomena causing energy dissipation in piping systems. Such phenomena include material damping, plasticity, collision in gaps and between pipes, water dynamics, insulation straining, coupling slippage, restraints (snubbers, struts, etc.), and pipe/structure interaction. These observations are supported by a large experimental data base. Data are available from in-situ and laboratory tests (pipe diameters up to about 20 inches, response levels from milli-g's to responses causing yielding, and from excitation wave forms including sinusoid, snapback, random, and seismic). A variety of pipe configurations have been tested, including simple, bare, straight sections and complex lines with bends, snubbers, struts, and insulation. Tests have been performed with and without water and at zero to operating pressure. Both light water reactor and LMFBR piping have been tested.

  9. Performance of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  10. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  11. Haights Creek RPM Pipe Failures

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, Haights Creek Irrigation Company replaced 730 linear feet of 24- and 27-inch-diameter RPM (reinforced plastic mortar) pipe because of several failures. Bureau of Reclamation personnel examined the pipe before and after exhumation, the surrounding soil conditions, and measured diametral deflections. Major longitudinal cracks in the pipe invert appear to be the result of hard spots in the pipe foundation. Some of these hard spots were caused from mounding, or using a mound of soil u...

  12. Heat pipe radiator. [for spacecraft waste heat rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdling, B.; Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    A 15,000 watt spacecraft waste heat rejection system utilizing heat pipe radiator panels was investigated. Of the several concepts initially identified, a series system was selected for more in-depth analysis. As a demonstration of system feasibility, a nominal 500 watt radiator panel was designed, built and tested. The panel, which is a module of the 15,000 watt system, consists of a variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) header, and six isothermalizer heat pipes attached to a radiating fin. The thermal load to the VCHP is supplied by a Freon-21 liquid loop via an integral heat exchanger. Descriptions of the results of the system studies and details of the radiator design are included along with the test results for both the heat pipe components and the assembled radiator panel. These results support the feasibility of using heat pipes in a spacecraft waste heat rejection system.

  13. Torsion instability of Flexible Pipes at the TDP - Torsjonsinstabilitet av fleksible rør med sjøbunnskontakt

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Linn Storesund

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic flexible risers are a common term for cables, umbilicals and flexible pipes,that are freely or semi-freely suspended between two points (offshore). Flexible pipes are mostly used to transport fluids between platforms/ships etc. to a flow-line/sea floor installation or similar. The safe operating window for the installation is limited by whether induced motion of the installation vessel giving rise to dynamic tension and curvature at the touch-down-zone (TDZ). By investigation and ...

  14. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part thereof during a particular period of time specified in the rule. ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means to...

  15. [Study on pipe material's influence on chlorine dioxide drinking water disinfection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao; Yue, Yinling; Ling, Bo; Zhang, Lan

    2010-09-01

    To study the pipe material's influence on chlorine dioxide drinking water disinfection. 0.8 mg/L chlorine dioxide solution was injected into 5 kinds of pipes respectively, PPR, PVC-U, Steel with Zinc coating, copper and PE pipes. Dipped free from light for 48 hours and the concentrations of chlorine dioxide, chlorite and chlorate were tested from samples taken from each kind of pipe at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours respectively. Chlorine dioxides decay rates in the water dipping the pipes increase as the dipping time increases and the decay of chlorine dioxide mainly occurs within 6 hours after the dipping. But for different pipe, the influence of decay differs. The consumption of chlorine dioxide of the metal pipes is more than that of the plastic pipes. And with 2 hours after the dipping experiment begins, the concentrations of the chlorite of the copper pipe and of the steel with zinc coating pipe increase quickly and reach the maximum concentration. But then the chlorite concentration decreases greatly. After dipped 24 hours, the chlorite in the water in the pipe can not be detected. For other plastic piples, all the chlorite concentrations in the dipping water increase as the dipping time increase. Compared with the start of the dipping experiment, the chlorate concentration in the dipping water of each pipe has no obvious change. The material of the water transportation pipe does have influence on chlorine dioxide drinking water disinfection.

  16. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  17. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  18. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  19. Flexible Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Narrow Tube carries 10 watts or more to moving parts. Heat pipe 12 inches long and diameter of 0.312 inch (7.92mm). Bent to minimum radius of 2.5 blocks. Flexible section made of 321 stainless steel tubing (Cajon Flexible Tubing or equivalent). Evaporator and condenser made of oxygen free copper. Working fluid methanol.

  20. Heat-pipe planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2017-09-01

    Observations of the surfaces of all terrestrial bodies other than Earth reveal remarkable but unexplained similarities: endogenic resurfacing is dominated by plains-forming volcanism with few identifiable centers, magma compositions are highly magnesian (mafic to ultra-mafic), tectonic structures are dominantly contractional, and ancient topographic and gravity anomalies are preserved to the present. Here we show that cooling via volcanic heat pipes may explain these observations and provide a universal model of the way terrestrial bodies transition from a magma-ocean state into subsequent single-plate, stagnant-lid convection or plate tectonic phases. In the heat-pipe cooling mode, magma moves from a high melt-fraction asthenosphere through the lithosphere to erupt and cool at the surface via narrow channels. Despite high surface heat flow, the rapid volcanic resurfacing produces a thick, cold, and strong lithosphere which undergoes contractional strain forced by downward advection of the surface toward smaller radii. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling is the last significant endogenic resurfacing process experienced by most terrestrial bodies in the solar system, because subsequent stagnant-lid convection produces only weak tectonic deformation. Terrestrial exoplanets appreciably larger than Earth may remain in heat-pipe mode for much of the lifespan of a Sun-like star.

  1. Vactub, a new high performance insulation system for pipe in pipe in ultra-deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenin, L. [Bouygues Offshore, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, 78 - St-Quentin-Yvelines (France); Poirson, L. [Saibos, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, 78 - St-Quentin-Yvelines (France)

    2002-12-01

    Conventional pipe-in-pipe insulation considers various materials located in the annulus space to provide a thermal barrier between the inner pipe which conveys the fluid and the outer pipe which protect it from the hydrostatic load and environment. The thermal performance requirements in the deep and ultra-deep water developments tend to increase with the length of the flow-line. Therefore, the actual thermal performance of the PIP system needs to reach far better level than was typical ten years ago. The PIP design presented hereafter is a new and efficient way to consider the thermal barrier for oil field applications, especially in ultra deep water. The proposed insulation system is an application of an existing technology coming from the refrigeration industry where high vacuum level has been used since more than 10 years. Its technology is based on a Vacuum Insulated Tube set around the inner pipe with a minimum of thermal bridges, allowing very low OHTC (Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient) in many conditions. This thermal barrier so called VACTUB has been primarily developed for polyurethane foam, cylindrically encapsulated within a gas impermeable film barrier which is evacuated and sealed at a low vacuum level (10-1 mbar). The VACTUB conductivity under this type of vacuum level is as low as 0.007 W/m. deg. K. With such a drastic decrease in thermal conductivity, the prime interest of the VACTUB is to be an excellent candidate for the lowest U-value actually envisaged with value as low as 0.6 to 0.5 W/m{sup 2}/K. The other great impact of the VACTUB low conductivity is the reduction of the insulation thickness. A further innovative optimisation of the outer pipe to resist collapse loading gives a further weight decrease for ultra-deep-water pipe-in-pipe applications. Such a new design reduces the outer casing wall thickness up to 50 % and makes ultra-deep-water pipe-in-pipe installation accessible to existing pipe-laying equipment. The required technology to

  2. An assessment of seismic margins in nuclear plant piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.P.; Jaquay, K.R. [Energy Technology Engineering Center, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Chokshi, N.C.; Terao, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington DC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Interim results of an ongoing program to assist the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in developing regulatory positions on the seismic analyses of piping and overall safety margins of piping systems are reported. Results of: (1) reviews of seismic testing of piping components performed as part of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/NRC Piping and Fitting Dynamic Reliability (PFDR) Program, and (2) assessments of safety margins inherent in the ASME Code, Section III, piping seismic design criteria as revised by the 1994 Addenda are reported. The reviews indicate that the margins inherent in the revised criteria may be less than acceptable and that modifications to these criteria may be required.

  3. Pipe-cleaner Model of Neuronal Network Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Armstrong, Eve

    2016-01-01

    We present a functional model of neuronal network connectivity in which the single architectural element is the object commonly known in handicraft circles as a pipe cleaner. We argue that the dual nature of a neuronal circuit - that it be at times highly robust to external manipulation and yet sufficiently flexible to allow for learning and adaptation - is embodied in the pipe cleaner, and thus that a pipe cleaner framework serves as an instructive scaffold in which to examine network dynamics. Regarding the dynamics themselves: as pipe cleaners possess no intrinsic dynamics, in our model we attribute the emergent circuit dynamics to magic. Magic is a strategy that has been largely neglected in the neuroscience community, and may serve as an illuminating comparison to the common physics-based approaches. This model makes predictions that it would be really awesome to test experimentally. Moreover, the relative simplicity of the pipe cleaner - setting aside the fact that it comes in an overwhelming variety of...

  4. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  5. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  6. Modelling and performance of heat pipes with long evaporator sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wits, Wessel W.; te Riele, Gert Jan

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a planar cooling strategy for advanced electronic applications using heat pipe technology. The principle idea is to use an array of relatively long heat pipes, whereby heat is disposed to a long section of the pipes. The proposed design uses 1 m long heat pipes and top cooling through a fan-based heat sink. Successful heat pipe operation and experimental performances are determined for seven heating configurations, considering active bottom, middle and top sections, and four orientation angles (0°, 30°, 60° and 90°). For all heating sections active, the heat pipe oriented vertically in an evaporator-down mode and a power input of 150 W, the overall thermal resistance was 0.014 K/W at a thermal gradient of 2.1 K and an average operating temperature of 50.7 °C. Vertical operation showed best results, as can be expected; horizontally the heat pipe could not be tested up to the power limit and dry-out occurred between 20 and 80 W depending on the heating configuration. Heating configurations without the bottom section active demonstrated a dynamic start-up effect, caused by heat conduction towards the liquid pool and thereafter batch-wise introducing the working fluid into the two-phase cycle. By analysing the heat pipe limitations for the intended operating conditions, a suitable heat pipe geometry was chosen. To predict the thermal performance a thermal model using a resistance network was created. The model compares well with the measurement data, especially for higher input powers. Finally, the thermal model is used for the design of a 1 kW planar system-level electronics cooling infrastructure featuring six 1 m heat pipes in parallel having a long ( 75%) evaporator section.

  7. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (a) Pipe weight loads; (b) Acceleration loads; (c) Internal pressure loads; (d) Thermal loads; and (e... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet the...

  8. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family Mimosoideae) were evaluated comparatively with those of Compound Tragacanth, Acacia and Gelatin at concentration range of 0.5 – 4.0%w/v in Sulphadimidine suspension. Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum. Sedimentation ...

  9. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending ability of the different ratios was evaluated in magnesium trisilicate suspension, and compared with a suspension prepared with Compound Tragacanth Powder BP (CTP) as well as a commercially available magnesium trisilicate suspension (MTS). The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, ...

  10. Rippling instabilities in suspended nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Upmanyu, Moneesh

    2012-11-01

    Morphology mediates the interplay between the structure and electronic transport in atomically thin nanoribbons such as graphene as the relaxation of edge stresses occurs preferentially via out-of-plane deflections. In the case of end-supported suspended nanoribbons that we study here, past experiments and computations have identified a range of equilibrium morphologies, in particular, for graphene flakes, yet a unified understanding of their relative stability remains elusive. Here, we employ atomic-scale simulations and a composite framework based on isotropic elastic plate theory to chart out the morphological stability space of suspended nanoribbons with respect to intrinsic (ribbon elasticity) and engineered (ribbon geometry) parameters, and the combination of edge and body actuation. The computations highlight a rich morphological shape space that can be naturally classified into two competing shapes, bendinglike and twistlike, depending on the distribution of ripples across the interacting edges. The linearized elastic framework yields exact solutions for these rippled shapes. For compressive edge stresses, the body strain emerges as a key variable that controls their relative stability and in extreme cases stabilizes coexisting transverse ripples. Tensile edge stresses lead to dimples within the ribbon core that decay into the edges, a feature of obvious significance for stretchable nanoelectronics. The interplay between geometry and mechanics that we report should serve as a key input for quantifying the transport along these ribbons.

  11. Multileg Heat-Pipe Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Parallel pipes provide high heat flow from small heat exchanger. Six parallel heat pipes extract heat from overlying heat exchanger, forming evaporator. Vapor channel in pipe contains wick that extends into screen tube in liquid channel. Rods in each channel hold wick and screen tube in place. Evaporator compact rather than extended and more compatible with existing heat-exchanger geometries. Prototype six-pipe evaporator only 0.3 m wide and 0.71 m long. With ammonia as working fluid, transports heat to finned condenser at rate of 1,200 W.

  12. Surface Hardness of Friction Stir Welded AA6063 Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Azman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The external surface hardness of friction stir welded aluminum alloy 6063 pipe joint was investigated in this paper. The 89mm of outside diameter pipe with 5mm of wall thickness was used as test pipe piece for this experiment on closed butt joint configuration by utilising Bridgeport 2216 CNC milling machine and orbital clamping unit specially designed to cater for this task and function. Several welded samples were produced on varying process parameters which were successfully joined by using a non-consumable tool with a flat shoulder and a cylindrical pin.

  13. Space qualification of high capacity grooved heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, M.; Mullender, B.; Druart, J. [SABCA, Societe Anomyme Belgel de Construction Aeronautique (Belgium); Supper, W.; Beddows, A. [ESTEC-The (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    Based on the thermal requirements of the future telecommunication satellites, the development of a High Capacity Grooved Heat Pipe (HPG), was contracted by ESA to SABCA leading to an aluminium extruded heat pipe (outer diameter of 25 mm) based on a multi re-entrant grooves design. After an intensive acceptance test campaign whose results showed a good confidence in the design and the fulfillment of the required specifications of heat transport and on tilt capability (experimental maximum heat transport capability of 1500 Watt metres for a vapour temperature of 20 deg C), similar heat pipes have been developed with various outer diameters (11 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm) and with various shapes (circular outer shapes, integrated saddles). Several of these heat pipes were tested during two parabolic flight campaigns, by varying the heat loads during the micro-gravity periods. This HGP heat pipe family is now being submitted to a space qualification program according to ESA standards (ESA PSS-49), both in straight and bent configuration. Within this qualification, the heat pipes are submitted to an extended test campaign including environmental (random/sinus vibration, constant acceleration) and thermal tests (thermal performance, thermal cycle, thermal soak, ageing). (authors) 9 refs.

  14. Autogenous Metallic Pipe Leak Repair in Potable Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-07-21

    Copper and iron pipes have a remarkable capability for autogenous repair (self-repair) of leaks in potable water systems. Field studies revealed exemplars that metallic pipe leaks caused by nails, rocks, and erosion corrosion autogenously repaired, as confirmed in the laboratory experiments. This work demonstrated that 100% (N = 26) of 150 μm leaks contacting representative bulk potable water in copper pipes sealed autogenously via formation of corrosion precipitates at 20-40 psi, pH 3.0-11.0, and with upward and downward leak orientations. Similar leaks in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 5.5 and 8.5, but two leaks did not self-repair permanently at pH 11.0 suggesting that water chemistry may control the durability of materials that seal the leaks and therefore the permanence of repair. Larger 400 μm holes in copper pipes had much lower (0-33%) success of self-repair at pH 3.0-11.0, whereas all 400 μm holes in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 4.0-11.0. Pressure tests indicated that some of the repairs created at 20-40 psi ambient pressure could withstand more than 100 psi without failure. Autogenous repair has implications for understanding patterns of pipe failures, extending the lifetime of decaying infrastructure, and developing new plumbing materials.

  15. Study on Monitoring Rock Burst through Drill Pipe Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to identify the danger of rock burst from the response of drill pipe torque during drilling process to overcome many defects of the conventional volume of drilled coal rubble method. It is based on the relationship of rock burst with coal stress and coal strength. Through theoretic analysis, the change mechanism of drill pipe torque and the relationship of drill pipe torque with coal stress, coal strength, and drilling speed are investigated. In light of the analysis, a new device for testing drill pipe torque is developed and a series of experiments is performed under different conditions; the results show that drill pipe torque linearly increases with the increase of coal stress and coal strength; the faster the drilling speed, the larger the drill pipe torque, and vice versa. When monitoring rock burst by drill pipe torque method, the index of rock burst is regarded as a function in which coal stress index and coal strength index are principal variables. The results are important for the forecast of rock burst in coal mine.

  16. Detecting Pipe Bursts Using Heuristic and CUSUM Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, M.; Jung, D; Vreeburg, J.; van de Roer, M.; Lansey, K.; Rietveld, L.

    2014-01-01

    Pipe bursts in a drinking water distribution system lead to water losses, interruption of supply, and damage to streets and houses due to the uncontrolled water flow. To minimize the negative consequences of pipe bursts, an early detection is necessary. This paper describes a heuristic burst detection method, which continuously compares forecasted and measured values of the water demand. The forecasts of the water demand were generated by an adaptive water demand forecasting model. To test th...

  17. 77 FR 64471 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... diameter (``O.D.'') not more than 16 inches (406.4 mm), regardless of wall thickness, surface finish (e.g... coupled), or industry specification (e.g., American Society for Testing and Materials International (``ASTM''), proprietary, or other) generally known as standard pipe, fence pipe and tube, sprinkler pipe...

  18. Cured in Place Pipe Repair

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Insituform Technologies Inc. offers a pipe lining system called Paltem which uses a woven synthetic fiber covered with a polyester elastomer as the lining material. This system is used to rehabilitate pressure pipelines that have been damaged by corrosion or are experiencing leakage through joints, pinholes or other pipe defects.

  19. Research and development of half pipe materials. Hankatsukanro zairyo no kaihatsu kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Kazumi; Hanato, Shohei; Asari, Kazunari (The Kansai electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka, (Japan))

    1989-09-26

    Half pipe materials to be used for the alterlation and repair of underground power line conduit pipes with superior watertightness and workability were develped. As the main body of the half pipes was selected from existing four-kind PFP, UPFP, FRP, AP pipes, and finaly UPFP pipe with light weight and low price was adopted by the results of cut dimension test, strength test for bending and collapse. The sealant of pipe body was determined to T-type sponge with membrene (chloroprene foam). And polyethylene product was adopted to their joints by the result of strength/watertight test in accordance with the following reasons: it was furnished with rigidity to prevent the deformation of the pipe induced by water pressure, it must be installed by simple method as there are many joints in pipes, its watertightness is to be secured at 1 kg/cm{sup 3} for three minute, it is light weight and low price. About the sealant of joints in half pipes, it was determined that fluid sealant was used which is a little increased in volume as it infiltrates into pipe chink. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Liquid metal micro heat pipes for space radiator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerner, F. M.; Henderson, H. T.

    1995-07-01

    Micromachining is a chemical means of etching three-dimensional structures, typically in single-crystalline silicon. These techniques are leading toward what is coming to be referred to as MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems), where in addition to the ordinary two dimensional (planar) microelectronics, it is possible to build three-dimensional micromotors, electrically-actuated microvalves, hydraulic systems, and much more on the same microchip. These techniques become possible because of differential etching rates of various crystallographic planes and materials used for semiconductor microfabrication. The University of Cincinnati group in collaboration with NASA Lewis formed micro heat pipes in silicon by the above techniques. Work is ongoing at a modest level, but several essential bonding and packaging techniques have been recently developed. Currently, we have constructed and filled water/silicon micro heat pipes. Preliminary thermal tests of arrays of 125 micro heat pipes etched in a 1 inch x 1 inch x 250 micron silicon wafer have been completed. These pipes are instrumented with extremely small P-N junctions to measure their effective conductivity and their maximum operating power. A relatively simple one-dimensional model has been developed in order to predict micro heat pipes' operating characteristics. This information can be used to optimize micro heat pipe design with respect to length, hydraulic diameter, and number of pipes. Work is progressing on the fabrication of liquid-metal micro heat pipes. In order to be compatible with liquid metal (sodium or potassium), the inside of the micro heat pipes will be coated with a refractory metal (such as tungsten, molybdenum, or titanium).

  1. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  2. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  3. OTEC Cold Water Pipe-Platform Subsystem Dynamic Interaction Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Robert [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Manassas, VA (United States); Halkyard, John [John Halkyard and Associates, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Peter [BMT Scientific Marine Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shi, Shan [Houston Offshore Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Marinho, Thiago [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). LabOceano

    2014-05-09

    A commercial floating 100-megawatt (MW) ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant will require a cold water pipe (CWP) with a diameter of 10-meter (m) and length of up to 1,000 m. The mass of the cold water pipe, including entrained water, can exceed the mass of the platform supporting it. The offshore industry uses software-modeling tools to develop platform and riser (pipe) designs to survive the offshore environment. These tools are typically validated by scale model tests in facilities able to replicate real at-sea meteorological and ocean (metocean) conditions to provide the understanding and confidence to proceed to final design and full-scale fabrication. However, today’s offshore platforms (similar to and usually larger than those needed for OTEC applications) incorporate risers (or pipes) with diameters well under one meter. Secondly, the preferred construction method for large diameter OTEC CWPs is the use of composite materials, primarily a form of fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). The use of these material results in relatively low pipe stiffness and large strains compared to steel construction. These factors suggest the need for further validation of offshore industry software tools. The purpose of this project was to validate the ability to model numerically the dynamic interaction between a large cold water-filled fiberglass pipe and a floating OTEC platform excited by metocean weather conditions using measurements from a scale model tested in an ocean basin test facility.

  4. Specialist meeting on leak before break in reactor piping and vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholome, G.; Bazant, E.; Wellein, R. [Siemens KWU, Stuttgart (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A series of research projects sponsored by the Federal Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology, Bonn are summarized and compared to utility, manufacturer, and vendor tests. The purpose of the evaluation was to experimentally verify Leak-before-Break behavior, confirm the postulation of fracture preclusion for piping (straight pipe, bends and branches), and quantify the safety margin against massive failure. The results are applicable to safety assessment of ferritic and austenitic piping in primary and secondary nuclear power plant circuits. Moreover, because of the wide range of the test parameters, they are also important for the design and assessment of piping in other technical plant. The test results provide justification for ruling out catastrophic fractures, even on pipes of dimensions corresponding to those of a main coolant pipe of a pressurized water reactor plant on the basis of a mechanical deterministic safety analysis in correspondence with the Basis Safety Concept (Principle of Fracture Exclusion).

  5. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected at Two Different. Heights above the Ground in A Sub-Urban Site in Kenya. Gitari W. M1, Kinyua A. M. 2, Kamau G. N3 and C. K. Gatebe C. K4. Abstract. Suspended particulate matter samples were collected in a sub-urban area in Nairobi over a 12 month ...

  6. Experimental study on silicon micro-heat pipe arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launay, S.; Sartre, V.; Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Villeurbanne (France). Centre de Thermique

    2004-02-01

    In this study, micro-heat pipe arrays etched into silicon wafers have been investigated for electronic cooling purposes. Micro-heat pipes of triangular cross-section and with liquid arteries were fabricated by wet anisotropic etching with a KOH solution. The microchannels (230 {mu}m wide) are closed by molecular bonding of a plain wafer with the grooved one. A test bench was developed for the micro-heat pipe filling and the thermal characterisation. The temperature profile on the silicon surface is deduced from experimental measurements. The results show that with the artery micro-heat pipe array, filled with methanol, the effective thermal conductivity of the silicon wafer is significantly improved compared to massive silicon. (author)

  7. Protection of Buried Pipe under Repeated Loading by Geocell Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, Omid; Joz Darabi, N.; Moghaddas Tafreshi, S. N.; Mašek, Bohuslav

    2017-12-01

    With increase in cities’ population and development of urbane life, passing buried pipelines near ground’s surface is inevitable in urban areas, roads, subways and highways. This paper presents the results of three-dimensional full scale model tests on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe with diameter of 250 mm in geocell reinforced soil, subjected to repeated loading to simulate the vehicle loads. The effect of geocell’s pocket size (55*55 mm and 110*110 mm) and embedment depth of buried pipe (1.5 and 2 times pipe diameter) in improving the behaviour of buried pipes was investigated. The geocell’s height of 100 mm was used in all tests. The repeated load of 800 kPa was applied on circular loading plate with diameter of 250 mm. The results show that the pipe displacement, soil surface settlement and transferred pressure on the pipe’s crown has been influenced significantly upon the use of geocells. For example, the vertical diametric strain (VDS) and soil surface settlement (SSS), in a way that using a geocell with pocket size of 110*110 mm reduces by 27% and 43%, respectively, compared with the unreinforced one. Meanwhile, by increasing buried depth of pipe from 1.5D to 2D, the use of geocell of 110*110 mm delivers about 50% reduction in SSS and VDS, compared with the unreinforced soil.

  8. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S. [Sung Kyun Kwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  9. The share flight experiment - An advanced heat pipe radiator for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Otterstedt, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and thermal vacuum certification testing of the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE) Shuttle flight experiment, with primary emphasis on the heat pipe radiator system. The main objective of the SHARE experiment is to demonstrate suitable 0 g heat transfer performance of a 50 ft-long high-capacity monogroove heat pipe radiator element being developed for possible Space Station application. All of the flight certification tests were achieved, including a maximum heat rejection of 2 kW and thawing of a frozen heat pipe; and uninterrupted operation under cycling environmental and evaporator heat loads.

  10. Cool-down and frozen start-up behavior of a grooved water heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1990-01-01

    A grooved water heat pipe was tested to study its characteristics during the cool-down and start-up periods. The water heat pipe was cooled down from the ambient temperature to below the freezing temperature of water. During the cool-down, isothermal conditions were maintained at the evaporator and adiabatic sections until the working fluid was frozen. When water was frozen along the entire heat pipe, the heat pipe was rendered inactive. The start-up of the heat pipe from this state was studied under several different operating conditions. The results show the existence of large temperature gradients between the evaporator and the condenser, and the moving of the melting front of the working fluid along the heat pipe. Successful start-up was achieved for some test cases using partial gravity assist. The start-up behavior depended largely on the operating conditions.

  11. An experimental study of naturally driven heated air flow in a vertical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Mostafa; Bayat, Mohammad Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Specifications of warm air flow within a vertical pipe which is induced by the buoyancy effect were investigated in this study. Air from surroundings was directed into a heating chamber connected to a vertical pipe to establish a flow within the pipe. The temperature and the velocity were measured at different points within the stable flow and the mean values of these parameters were computed. Mass flow rate of air was evaluated using ideal gas assumption. In order to investigate the effect of the thermal boundary condition of the pipe, two tests were conducted; once for the pipe exposed to the surroundings and then for the pipe with a thermal insulation. A model for predicting the induced flow rate of warm air was developed and the predictions of the model were compared with the experimental data over the tested range of the parameters. (author)

  12. Brittle fracture in casing pipes; Sproeda brott i mantelroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan; Thoernblom, Kristian; Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Bergstroem, Gunnar [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Rapid Crack Propagation (RCP) has been observed in the casing pipe of large diameter district heating pipes on several occasions. An RCP crack is driven by hoop stresses in the casing pipe wall. It is a problem during installation work in cold weather. The casing pipe material is more brittle in low temperatures, and a temperature decrease will cause a hoop stress build-up since the thermal contraction of the casing pipe is constrained by the steel pipe and the PUR foam. RCP fracture has been documented at temperatures around -18 deg C but has likely, at some instances, occurred already at few degrees below 0 deg C. Three different polyethylene materials were evaluated with respect to the risk for brittle fracture of the casing pipe. One unimodal material of PE80 quality which have been used in casing to a large extent previously, one modern unimodal PE80 material which is used today and, finally, a bimodal PE80 material of a quality which currently is the dominant choice among pipe producers. Modern materials are in general much more resistant to brittle fracture, since it is an important design property for the raw material producers. Tests were done on casing of both large (up to 630 mm in diameter) and small (160 mm) dimension. A handling test was made where the pipes were cooled down and worked on with power tools in a manner similar to actual field work. An RCP fracture occurred at -25 deg C during cutting with angle grinder on a pipe with a diameter of 500 mm on the modern unimodal PE80 material. The same material also fractured during impact testing according to EN 253 at -20 deg C on both small and large diameter pipes. The bimodal PE80 resin passed both tests without fracture. A series of impact tests were done on pipes with diameter 160 mm with the purpose of determining critical temperatures and temperature stress levels with respect to brittle fracture. The results show that the bimodal material is so resistant that there is no real risk for RCP in

  13. Guided wave attenuation in coated pipes buried in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is routinely used for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines in various industries. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to aboveground pipelines due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this study, we aim to increase test ranges for buried pipelines. The effect of pipe coatings on the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave attenuation is investigated using a full-scale experimental apparatus and model predictions. Tests are performed on a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8" pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand over a frequency range of 10-35 kHz. The application of a low impedance coating is shown to effectively decouple the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. We demonstrate ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both pipe and sand and the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dBm-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam, where the measured attenuation is in the range of 1.7-4.7 dBm-1. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry technique and used in model predictions of guided wave propagation in a buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the attenuation measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges, so such coatings would be attractive for new pipeline installations.

  14. Experimental realization of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, Jefferson; Ugarte, Daniel [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sato, Fernando; Galvao, Douglas Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Coura, Pablo Zimmerman; Dantas, Socrates de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Fisica

    2006-07-01

    We report high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics results of the first experimental test of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species formed from spontaneous stretching of metallic nanowires. (author)

  15. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint or...

  16. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic pipe...

  17. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings or...

  18. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for use...

  19. Head Access Piping System Desing

    OpenAIRE

    中大路 道彦; 一宮 正和; 向坊 隆一; 前田 清彦; 永田 敬

    1994-01-01

    PNC made design studies on loop type FBR plants:a 600 MWe class in '91, and a 1300 MWe class in '93 both with the "head access" primary piping system. This paper focuses on the features of the smaller plant at first and afterwards on the extension to the larger one. The contents of the paper consist of R/V wall protection mechanism, primary piping circuit, secondary piping circuit, plant layout and then, discusses the extension of the applicability of the wall protection mechanism, primary pi...

  20. Study of verification and validation of standard welding procedure specifications guidelines for API 5L X-70 grade line pipe welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi H. A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Verification and validation of welding procedure specifications for X-70 grade line pipe welding was performed as per clause 8.2, Annexure B and D of API 5L, 45th Edition to check weld integrity in its future application conditions. Hot rolled coils were imported from China, de-coiling, strip edge milling, three roller bending to from pipe, inside and outside submerged arc welding of pipe, online ultrasonic testing of weld, HAZ and pipe body, cutting at fixed random length of pipe, visual inspection of pipe, Fluoroscopic inspection of pipe, welding procedure qualification test pieces marking at weld portion of the pipe, tensile testing, guided bend testing, CVN Impact testing were performed. Detailed study was conducted to explore possible explanations and variation in mechanical properties, WPS is examined and qualified as per API 5L 45th Edition.

  1. Solar dynamic heat rejection technology. Task 2: Heat pipe radiator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    League, Mark; Alario, Joe

    1988-05-01

    This report covers the design, fabrication, and test of several dual slot heat pipe engineering development units. The following dual-slot heat pipes were fabricated and tested: two 6-ft. aluminum heat pipes; a 20-ft. aluminum heat pipe; and a 20-ft. aluminum heat pipe with a four-leg evaporator section. The test results of all four test articles are presented and compared to the performance predicted by the design software. Test results from the four-leg article are incomplete. The methodology for fabricating stainless steel dual slot heat pipes was also studied by performing a tool life test with different single point cutters, and these results are also presented. Although the dual-slot heat pipe has demonstrated the potential to meet the requirements for a high capacity radiator system, uncertainties with the design still exist. The startup difficulties with the aluminum test articles must be solved, and a stainless steel/methanol heat pipe should be built and tested.

  2. 46 CFR 61.15-10 - Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liquefied-petroleum-gas piping for heating and cooking. 61.15-10 Section 61.15-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-10 Liquefied-petroleum-gas...

  3. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki [and others

    1997-04-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program.

  4. Monogroove heat pipe development for the space constructible radiator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Brown, R.; Kosson, R.

    1983-06-01

    A high-capacity, high-reliability space radiator is needed in order to satisfy the future heat rejection requirements of large space platforms or space stations. The Space Constructible Radiator (SCR) system is being developed to fill this need. The most important component of the SCR system is the high-capacity monogroove heat pipe which theoretically has a heat transport capacity of 12,700 W-m to 25,400 W-m. This performance represents a better than two order of magnitude increase in transport capacity over currently existing heat pipes. The present investigation is concerned with testing developments which occurred in connection with the monogroove heat pipe during the last two years. A short description of the SCR system is presented, and results are provided for two series of tests which were run on a 15.7-m long heat pipe. The first test series included both performance and diagnostic tests, which pointed to some design modifications which were necessary. The second test series, run on the modified heat pipe, showed improved performance.

  5. Procedures for measuring the properties of heat-pipe wick materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, D.R.; Dykhuizen, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    Accurate measurements of wick properties must be available to design high-performance beat pipes and to properly interpret results from heat pipe tests. In a program that is aimed at developing heat-pipe receivers for solar-Stirling electric systems, we have recently explored procedures to measure the effective pore radius and permeability of wick materials in their final ``as fabricated`` condition. Measurement techniques are compared in this paper and problems that are frequently encountered in measuring wick properties are discussed.

  6. Morphology and Properties of Geopolymer Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe

    OpenAIRE

    Shahedan Noor Fifinatasha; Abdullah Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Ghazali Che Mohd Ruzaidi; Binhussain Mohammed; Al Husaini Mohammed; Hussin Kamarudin; Ramasamy Shamala

    2016-01-01

    Geopolymer coatings were coated on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE) pipe by using kaolin, white clay and silica sand as source materials and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) as alkaline solution. The microstructure and mechanical property of geopolymer coating on GRE pipe were methodically investigated through morphology analysis, and flexural strength test. The result indicates the microstructure and interfacial layer between geopolymer coating and GRE pipe significant...

  7. Analysis of frozen startup of high-temperature heat pipes and three-dimensional modeling of block-heated heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Amir

    1991-11-01

    The use of high-temperature heat pipes has been proposed for cooling the leading edges and nose cones of re-entry vehicles, rail guns, and laser mirrors, as well as for the thermal management of future hypersonic vehicle structures. The startup behavior of high temperature heat pipes from the frozen state was investigated both numerically and experimentally for various heat loads and input locations. A high temperature sodium/stainless steel heat pipe with multiple heat sources and sinks was fabricated, processed, and tested. A numerical simulation of the transient heat pipe performance including the vapor region, wick structure, and the heat pipe wall is given. Furthermore, experimental and numerical analyses of several operating parameters of a low-temperature copper-water heat pipe under uniform circumferential heating and block heating has been performed. Finally, a numerical analysis of transient heat pipe performance including nonconventional heat pipes with nonuniform heat distributions is presented. Numerical calculations were then made for a leading edge heat pipe with localized high heat fluxes.

  8. The Collection of Ice in Jet A-1 Fuel Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Thomas C.

    Ice collection and blockages in fuel systems have been of interest to the aerospace community since their discovery in the late 1950's when a B-52 crashed. A recent growth of interest was provoked by several incidents that occurred within the last few years. This study seeks to understand the underlying principles of ice growth in fuel flow systems. Tests were performed in a recirculated fuel system with a fuel tank that held approximately 115 gallons of Jet A-1 fuel and ice accumulation was observed in two removable test pipes. The setup was in an altitude chamber capable of -60 °F and the experiments involved full scale flow components. Initially, tests were done to better understand the system and variables that effected accumulation. First, initial conditions within the test pipes were varied. Next, pipe geometry, pipe surface properties, initial water content of the fuel and heat transfer from the fuel pipe were varied. As a result of the tests, observations were made about other effects involved in the study. The effects include: the result of sequentially run tests, the effect of the fuel on the freezing temperature of the entrained water, the effect of ice accumulation on pipe welds, and the effect of the test pipe entrance and exit flow conditions on ice accumulation. The results of initial tests were qualitative. Later quantitative tests were done to demonstrate the dependence of temperature, Reynolds number, and heat transfer on ice accumulation. Tests were quantified with a pressure increase across the pipe sections that was normalized by the expected theoretical initial pressure. As a result of these tests the effect of contamination in the fuel was revealed. For ease of reference, the initial tests were called "stage I" and the later tests were called "stage II". The results of stage I showed that accumulation of soft ice was greatest when a layer of hard ice had initially formed on the pipe surface. Stainless steel collected more ice than Teflon

  9. Light pipes for LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  10. Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Piping Fragility due to Earthquake Fault Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu Seog Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lifeline system, serving as an energy-supply system, is an essential component of urban infrastructure. In a hospital, for example, the piping system supplies elements essential for hospital operations, such as water and fire-suppression foam. Such nonstructural components, especially piping systems and their subcomponents, must remain operational and functional during earthquake-induced fires. But the behavior of piping systems as subjected to seismic ground motions is very complex, owing particularly to the nonlinearity affected by the existence of many connections such as T-joints and elbows. The present study carried out a probabilistic risk assessment on a hospital fire-protection piping system’s acceleration-sensitive 2-inch T-joint sprinkler components under seismic ground motions. Specifically, the system’s seismic capacity, using an experimental-test-based nonlinear finite element (FE model, was evaluated for the probability of failure under different earthquake-fault mechanisms including normal fault, reverse fault, strike-slip fault, and near-source ground motions. It was observed that the probabilistic failure of the T-joint of the fire-protection piping system varied significantly according to the fault mechanisms. The normal-fault mechanism led to a higher probability of system failure at locations 1 and 2. The strike-slip fault mechanism, contrastingly, affected the lowest fragility of the piping system at a higher PGA.

  11. Field tests with vertical perforated drain pipes used for beach protection at Southern Holmsland Barrier on the Danish North Sea Coast (half year report)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    In accordance with the agreement of 18 August 2004 between Skagen Innovation Center (SIC) and the Danish Governmental Coastal Authority (KDI) a field test with the purpose of demonstrating the efficiency of the SIC vertical drain method as a mean for coastal protecting was initiated in a meeting 24...... August 2004. The test period is three years after which a final report has to be presented. The report shall contain an evaluation of the drain system with respect to qualitative and quantitative efficiency and environmental impact, as well as a related comparison with conventional coastal protection...

  12. Field tests with vertical perforated drain pipes used for beach protection at Southern Holmsland Barrier on the Danish North Sea Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    In accordance with the agreement of 18 August 2004 between Skagen Innovation Center (SIC) and the Danish Governmental Coastal Authority (KDI) a field test with the purpose of demonstrating the efficiency of the SIC vertical drain method as a mean for coastal protecting was initiated in a meeting 24...... August 2004. The test period is three years after which a final report has to be presented. The report shall contain an evaluation of the drain system with respect to qualitative and quantitative fficiency and environmental impact, as well as a related comparison with conventional coastal protection...

  13. The monogroove high performance heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1981-06-01

    The development of the monogroove heat pipe, a fundamentally new high-performance device suitable for multi-kilowatt space radiator heat-rejection systems, is reported. The design separates heat transport and transfer functions, so that each can be separately optimized to yield heat transport capacities on the order of 25 kW/m. Test versions of the device have proven the concept of heat transport capacity control by pore dimensions and the permeability of the circumferential wall wick structure, which together render it insensitive to tilt. All cases tested were for localized, top-side heat input and cooling and produced results close to theoretical predictions.

  14. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  15. Transient response of a high-capacity heat pipe for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, J. H.; Holmes, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-capacity heat pipe radiator panels have been proposed as the primary means of heat rejection for Space Station Freedom. In this system, the heat pipe would interface with the thermal bus condensers. Changes in system heat load can produce large temperature and heat load variations in individual heat pipes. Heat pipes could be required to start from an initially cold state, with heat loads temporarily exceeding their low-temperature transport capacity. The present research was motivated by the need for accurate prediction of such transient operating conditions. In this work, the cold startup of a 6.7-meter long high-capacity heat pipe is investigated experimentally and analytically. A transient thermohydraulic model of the heat pipe was developed which allows simulation of partially-primed operation. The results of cold startup tests using both constant temperature and constant heat flux evaporator boundary conditions are shown to be in good agreement with predicted transient response.

  16. A flexible film type EMAT for inspection of small diameter pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Cuixiang; Xiao, Pan; Zhao, Siqi; Chen, Zhenmao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Takagi, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    Pipe structures are widely applied in industries, and different kinds of defects may occur in the structures during their long-time service. For non-destructive testing of defects in pipes of small diameter, it has to be conducted from the inner side of the pipe when there is no space for detection from the outside or the geometry of the outside tube surface is too complicated. In this work, a flexible film type Electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) probe with a dual coil configuration is developed. The new probe is flexible and can be inserted into the pipe for inspection. First, the feasibility of the new probe was studied through numerical simulation. Then the feasibility of the proposed flexible EMAT for detection of wall thinning in small diameter pipe was verified experimentally. It was found that the new EMAT method is suitable for the detection of wall thinning defects for small pipes.

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of J55ERW Steel Pipe Processed by On-Line Spray Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique. Industrial tests for J55 ERW steel pipe were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the OSWC process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the J55 ERW steel pipe processed by the OSWC technology were investigated. The optimized OSWC technical parameters are presented based on the mechanical properties and impact the performance of steel pipes. The industrial tests show that the OSWC process can be used to efficiently control the microstructure, enhance mechanical properties, and improve production flexibility of steel pipes. The comprehensive mechanical properties of steel pipes processed by the OSWC are superior to those of other published J55 grade steels.

  18. Leaks in pipe networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudar, Ranko S.; Liggett, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Leak detection in water-distribution systems can be accomplished by solving an inverse problem using measurements of pressure and/or flow. The problem is formulated with equivalent orifice areas of possible leaks as the unknowns. Minimization of the difference between measured and calculated heads produces a solution for the areas. The quality of the result depends on number and location of the measurements. A sensitivity matrix is key to deciding where to make measurements. Both location and magnitude of leaks are sensitive to the quantity and quality of pressure measurements and to how well the pipe friction parameters are known. The overdetermined problem (more measurements than suspected leaks) gives the best results, but some information can be derived from the underdetermined problem. The variance of leak areas, based on the quality of system characteristics and pressure data, indicates the likely accuracy of the results. The method will not substitute for more traditional leak surveys but can serve as a guide and supplement.

  19. Piping inspection round robin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

  20. A comparative examination of the fire performance of pipe insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babrauskas, V. [Fire Science and Technology Inc., Kelso, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A standard method for evaluating the fire performance of pipe insulation is not available in North America. In Europe, however, the regional standards organization NORDTEST has had available for several years now a method specifically designed for this purpose. The NORDTEST NT FIRE 036 test is a full-scale room fire test where the pipe insulation is installed along the ceiling and subjected to a gas burner fire. Four classes of performance (Class I through III, plus unrated) are used to evaluate the products. In the present work, 4 different pipe insulation products, representing the most common materials used for this purpose, have been examined according to this test. The results showed that rock wool insulation gave the best fire performance, with phenolic foam being in the least safe rated category. Synthetic foam rubber and polyethylene insulation products gave intermediate performance. 12 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  2. Thermal performance of a selected heat pipe at different tilt angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuram, Jasti; Phani Kumar, K. V. N. K.; Khiran, G. V.; Snehith, K.; Bhanu Prakash, S.

    2017-08-01

    An attempt is made to design, fabricate and test a copper heat pipe with 12 mm diameter, 300mm length and thickness of 1mm with a heat input of 7.29W. Experiments were conducted with and without working fluid for different inclinations to assess the thermal performance of heat pipe. The working fluids chosen for the study are acetone and distilled water and are compared. The thermal performance of the heat pipe was quantified in terms of thermal resistance and overall heat transfer coefficient by measuring temperature distribution across the heat pipe. The heat pipe was aligned for different inclinations and an optimum tilt angle was found experimentally, validated the same with simulation result obtained by computational fluid dynamics analysis and also with a reference paper. The copper heat pipe is found to be effective when acetone is used as working fluid. The optimum inclination angle of heat pipe for maximum rate of heat transfer is found to be 60° for both the working fluids tested. Even the cost of the heat pipe fabricated is very less compared to the commercial heat pipes available in the market.

  3. An Experimental Study of Contaminant Intrusion Through Pipe Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a series of experiments conducted at U.S. EPA’s Test and Evaluation Facility in 2013-2014 to study the intrusion of contaminated soil water into a pipe crack during simulated backflow events. A test rig was used consisting of a 3’ x 3’ x 3’ acrylic soil bo...

  4. The choice of the optimal technology for processing pipe steels by analyzing the stages of the fracture process in impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyagina, Lyudmila S.; Gordienko, Antonina I.; Vlasov, Ilya V.

    2017-12-01

    The fracture toughness and cold resistance of low-carbon steels 10Mn2VNbAl and 12GBA subjected to different thermomechanical processing have been studied. It is shown that the helical rolling of 10Mn2VNbAl steel significantly improves its low-temperature fracture characteristics and reduces the ductile-brittle transition temperature from -32°C for the initial state to the temperature range below -55°C. As a result of warm rolling, the impact toughness KCV of 12GBA steel at room temperature increased 2.8 times. The test temperature reduction leads to a sharp decrease in the KCV values, with the ductile-brittle transition temperature maintained at the level of the initial state of the steel.

  5. Evaluation of Installation Quality on Polyethelene Pipe Performance under Surcharge Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Niyazi U.; Dusunceli, Necmi; Yilmazturk, Ferruh; Yildirim, S.

    2010-06-01

    In this study, a comprehensive laboratory test on 100 mm diameter HDPE 100 polyethylene flexible pipe buried in quartz sand is described. The laboratory test was performed in a 40 mm thick plexiglass-fronted test tank which replicated a classical trench section in field conditions. The polyethylene flexible pipe was positioned against the glass with its longitudinal axis perpendicular to the glass. This allowed direct observation of the backfill-pipe interactions and pipe performance under surcharge loads. Three high definition photogrammetric cameras were taken photogrammetric images through the glass allowing the discrete measurement and image processing of the deformation patterns of the polyethelene pipe conduit during the pipe installation and incremental surcharge loading. Vertical loads were applied in increments of 10 kPa to 150 kPa using air pressure membranes. According to the test results, it is understood that the installation technique and backfill properties have an important effect on circumferential strains, performance and deformation characteristics of polyethelene HDPE pipe. It was also observed that close-range image processing is a very simple and appropriate method for measuring three dimensional pipe deformations under various conditions.

  6. Use of Nitrocarburizing for Strengthening Threaded Joints of Drill Pipes from Medium-Carbon Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Stepanchukova, A. V.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    Nitrocarburizing is tested at the Drill Equipment Plant for reinforcing threaded joints of drill pipes for units with retrievable core receiver (RCR). The effect of the nitrocarburizing on the mechanical properties of steels of different alloying systems is considered. Steels for the production of threaded joints of drill pipes are recommended.

  7. Failure and factors of safety in piping system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antaki, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    An important body of test and performance data on the behavior of piping systems has led to an ongoing reassessment of the code stress allowables and their safety margin. The codes stress allowables, and their factors of safety, are developed from limits on the incipient yield (for ductile materials), or incipient rupture (for brittle materials), of a test specimen loaded in simple tension. In this paper, we examine the failure theories introduced in the B31 and ASME III codes for piping and their inherent approximations compared to textbook failure theories. We summarize the evolution of factors of safety in ASME and B31 and point out that, for piping systems, it is appropriate to reconsider the concept and definition of factors of safety.

  8. Failure and factors of safety in piping system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antaki, G.A.

    1993-06-01

    An important body of test and performance data on the behavior of piping systems has led to an ongoing reassessment of the code stress allowables and their safety margin. The codes stress allowables, and their factors of safety, are developed from limits on the incipient yield (for ductile materials), or incipient rupture (for brittle materials), of a test specimen loaded in simple tension. In this paper, we examine the failure theories introduced in the B31 and ASME III codes for piping and their inherent approximations compared to textbook failure theories. We summarize the evolution of factors of safety in ASME and B31 and point out that, for piping systems, it is appropriate to reconsider the concept and definition of factors of safety.

  9. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  10. The cleaning method selected for new PEX pipe installation can affect short-term drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Cooley, Racheal; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    The influence of four different cleaning methods used for newly installed polyethylene (PEX) pipes on chemical and odor quality was determined. Bench-scale testing of two PEX (type b) pipe brands showed that the California Plumbing Code PEX installation method does not maximize total organic carbon (TOC) removal. TOC concentration and threshold odor number values significantly varied between two pipe brands. Different cleaning methods impacted carbon release, odor, as well the level of drinking water odorant ethyl tert-butyl ether. Both pipes caused odor values up to eight times greater than the US federal drinking water odor limit. Unique to this project was that organic chemicals released by PEX pipe were affected by pipe brand, fill/empty cycle frequency, and the pipe cleaning method selected by the installer.

  11. Pipe inspection using the BTX-II. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  12. Turkish Adolescent Perceptions about the Effects of Water Pipe Smoking on their Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Vahide; Cinar, Nursan

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of tobacco in the form of a water pipe has recently increased, especially among young people. This study aimed to develop a scale which would be used in order to detect perceptions about the effects of water pipe smoking on health and to test its validity and reliability. Our scale named "a scale of perception about the effects of water pipe smoking on health" was developed in order to detect factors effecting the perception of adolescents about the effects of water pipe smoking on health. The sample consisted of 150 voluntary students in scale development and 750 voluntary students in the study group. Data were collected via a questionnaire prepared by researchers themselves and 5-pont Likert scale for "a scale of perception about the effects of water pipe smoking on health" which was prepared through the literature. Data evaluation was carried out on a computer with SPSS. The findings of the study showed that "a scale of perception about the effects of water pipe smoking on health" was valid and reliable. Total score average of the adolescents participated in the study was 58.5±1.25. The mean score of the ones who did not smoke water pipe (60.1±11.7) was higher than the mean score of the ones who smoked water pipe (51.6±13.8), the difference being statistically significant. It is established that "a scale of perception about the effects of water pipe smoking on health" was a reliable and valid measurement tool. It is also found out that individuals who smoked a water pipe had a lower level of perception of water pipe smoking effects on health than their counterparts who did not smoke a water pipe.

  13. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  14. Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

    2008-01-01

    Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

  15. Water pipe smoking and health-related quality of life: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavafian, Sedigheh-Sadat; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Zare, Shahram

    2009-05-01

    Water pipe smoking is increasing in Eastern Mediterranean Region. The objective of this study was to investigate any relationship between water pipe smoking and health-related quality of life in the general population of Bandar Abbas, Iran. Using a multistage sampling method, a random sample of 1675 individuals aged 15 years and over was studied from June through July 2007. All eligible participants were interviewed using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire and a short questionnaire containing items regarding socio-demographic characteristics and water pipe smoking status. To compare SF-36 scores between water pipe smokers and nonsmokers, t-test was performed. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of water pipe smoking on SF-36 scores after adjusting for other independent variables. In all, 1675 individuals were studied. The mean age of the respondents was 42.1 (SD=16.5) years. One hundred and seventy-two participants (10.4%) were water pipe smokers. There were statistically significant differences between water pipe smokers and nonsmokers on all scales except for role emotional (Pwater pipe was a risk factor for decreasing Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores [OR (95% CI): 2.15 (1.56-2.96), Pwater pipe carried a higher risk for poorer health-related quality of life.

  16. Effects of flow and water chemistry on lead release rates from pipe scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanjiao; Giammar, Daniel E

    2011-12-01

    Lead release from pipe scales was investigated under different water compositions, stagnation times, and flow regimes. Pipe scales containing PbO(2) and hydrocerussite (Pb(3)(OH)(2)(CO(3))(2)) were developed on lead pipes by conditioning the pipes with water containing free chlorine for eight months. Water chemistry and the composition of the pipe scales are two key factors affecting lead release from pipe scales. The water rarely reached equilibrium with pipe scales within one day, which makes solid-water contact time and corrosion product dissolution rates the controlling factors of lead concentrations for the conditions tested. Among five water compositions studied, a solution with orthophosphate had the lowest dissolved lead release rate and highest particulate lead release rate. Free chlorine also decreased the dissolved lead release rate at stagnant conditions. Water flow increased rates of release of both dissolved and particulate lead by accelerating the mass transfer of lead out of the porous pipe scales and by physically destabilizing pipe scales. Dissolved lead comprised the majority of the lead released at both stagnant and laminar flow conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors influencing lead and iron release from some Egyptian drinking water pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheen, M R; Sharaby, C M; El-Kholy, N G; Elsherif, I Y; El-Wakeel, S T

    2008-12-30

    The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of stagnation time, pipe age, pipes material and water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity and chloride to sulfate mass ratio on lead and iron release from different types of water pipes used in Egypt namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and galvanized iron (GI), by using fill and dump method. Low pH increased lead and iron release from pipes. Lead and iron release decreased as pH and alkalinity increased. Lead and iron release increased with increasing chloride to sulfate mass ratio in all pipes. EDTA was used as an example of natural organic matter which may be influence metals release. It is found that lead and iron release increased then this release decreased with time. In general, GI pipes showed to be the most effected by water quality parameters tested and the highest iron release. PVC pipes are the most lead releasing pipes while PP pipes are the least releasing.

  18. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  19. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  20. Performance evaluation of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts installed ...

  1. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  2. High-Performance Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Kosson, R.; Haslett, R.

    1985-01-01

    Single vapor channel and single liquid channel joined by axial slot. New design, permits high heat-transport capacity without excessively reducing heat-transfer efficiency. Contains two large axial channels, one for vapor and one for liquid, permitting axial transport and radial heat-transfer requirements met independently. Heat pipe has capacity of approximately 10 to sixth power watt-inches (2.5 X 10 to sixth power watt-cm) orders of magnitude greater than heat capacity of existing heat pipes. Design has high radial-heat-transfer efficiency, structurally simple, and has large liquid and vapor areas.

  3. Cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of spiral artery cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes was continued. Ethane was the working fluid and stainless steel the heat pipe material in all cases. The major tasks included: (1) building a liquid blockage (blocking orifice) thermal diode suitable for the HEPP space flight experiment; (2) building a liquid trap thermal diode engineering model; (3) retesting the original liquid blockage engineering model, and (4) investigating the startup dynamics of artery cryogenic thermal diodes. An experimental investigation was also conducted into the wetting characteristics of ethane/stainless steel systems using a specially constructed chamber that permitted in situ observations.

  4. High performance flexible heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaubach, R. M.; Gernert, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Phase I SBIR NASA program for developing and demonstrating high-performance flexible heat pipes for use in the thermal management of spacecraft is examined. The program combines several technologies such as flexible screen arteries and high-performance circumferential distribution wicks within an envelope which is flexible in the adiabatic heat transport zone. The first six months of work during which the Phase I contract goal were met, are described. Consideration is given to the heat-pipe performance requirements. A preliminary evaluation shows that the power requirement for Phase II of the program is 30.5 kilowatt meters at an operating temperature from 0 to 100 C.

  5. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  6. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  7. Evaluation of abrasion resistance of pipe and pipe lining materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    This project summarizes an evaluation of pipe material resistance to abrasion over a 5-year period (2001-2006) at a site known to be abrasive. : The key focus of the project was to gather more information to compare against existing guidance to desig...

  8. High-Capacity Heat-Pipe Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, J. A.; Duschatko, R. J.; Voss, F. E.; Sauer, L. W.

    1989-01-01

    Heat pipe with cylindrical heat-input surface has higher contact thermal conductance than one with usual flat surface. Cylindrical heat absorber promotes nearly uniform flow of heat into pipe at all places around periphery of pipe, helps eliminate hotspots on heat source. Lugs in aluminum pipe carry heat from outer surface to liquid oozing from capillaries of wick. Liquid absorbs heat, evaporates, and passes out of evaporator through interlug passages.

  9. Stirling engine external heat system design with heat pipe heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godett, Ted M.; Ziph, Benjamin

    1986-01-01

    This final report presents the conceptual design of a liquid fueled external heating system (EHS) and the preliminary design of a heat pipe heater for the STM-4120 Stirling cycle engine, to meet the Air Force mobile electric power (MEP) requirement for units in the range of 20 to 60 kW. The EHS design had the following constraints: (1) Packaging requirements limited the overall system dimensions to about 330 mm x 250 mm x 100 mm; (2) Heat flux to the sodium heat pipe evaporator was limited to an average of 100 kW/m and a maximum of 550 kW/m based on previous experience; and (3) The heat pipe operating temperature was specified to be 800 C based on heat input requirements of the STM4-120. An analysis code was developed to optimize the EHS performance parameters and an analytical development of the sodium heat pipe heater was performed; both are presented and discussed. In addition, construction techniques were evaluated and scale model heat pipe testing performed.

  10. Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.; Lindemuth, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this Phase 2 SBIR program was to develop and demonstrate a practically insoluble coating for nickel-based superalloys for Stirling engine heat pipe applications. Specific technical objectives of the program were: (1) Determine the solubility corrosion rates for Nickel 200, Inconel 718, and Udimet 72OLI in a simulated Stirling engine heat pipe environment, (2) Develop coating processes and techniques for capillary groove and screen wick structures, (3) Evaluate the durability and solubility corrosion rates for capillary groove and screen wick structures coated with an insoluble coating in cylindrical heat pipes operating under Stirling engine conditions, and (4) Design and fabricate a coated full-scale, partial segment of the current Stirling engine heat pipe for the Stirling Space Power Convertor program. The work effort successfully demonstrated a two-step nickel aluminide coating process for groove wick structures and interior wall surfaces in contact with liquid metals; demonstrated a one-step nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures; and developed and demonstrated a two-step aluminum-to-nickel aluminide coating process for nickel screen wick structures. In addition, the full-scale, partial segment was fabricated and the interior surfaces and wick structures were coated. The heat pipe was charged with sodium, processed, and scheduled to be life tested for up to ten years as a Phase 3 effort.

  11. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  12. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt welds...

  13. Modular heat-pipe-radiator panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    Heat-Pipe panel assembled by joining series of Heat-Pipe modules is presented. Each module is identical and includes own radiator Fin and Fluid-Header section. Arrangement gives high turn-down ratio permitting ammonia heat pipes to freeze under low conditions.

  14. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1101 - Piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piping systems. 127.1101 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1101 Piping systems. Each piping system within the marine transfer area for LHG used for the transfer of LHG must meet the...

  16. Collapse of UOE manufactured steel pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, A.M.; Foeken, R.J. van; Chen, S.

    2000-01-01

    The manufacturing method (seamless, UO, UOE) has a con-siderable influence on the collapse pressure of steel pipes. For UOE manufactured pipe, a significant reduction in collapse strength has been observed compared to not expanded pipe. A research program has been carried out to investigate the

  17. Smoking water pipe is injurious to lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Ringbæk, Thomas; Lange, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pulmonary consequences of water pipe smoking. Smoking water pipe affects the lung function negatively, is significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increases the risk of lung infections. Case reports suggest that regular smokers of water pipe...

  18. Bending system using CNC pipe bender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kenji (Toshiba Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    Generally the pipings in plants are constructed with welding type piping parts. However recently, the shortage of welding workers and piping workers advanced rapidly, accordingly, the omitting of welding has been investigated. In such background, attention has been paid to pipe bending, and in particular, cold bending method which is easy to handle and the equipment is cheap has been adopted. In order to increase the application of bending and improve its quality, the bending system utilizing an NC pipe bender for small bore pipes has been developed, and in the application to actual plants carried out so far, the results were obtained. The drive for pipe bending, pipe clamp, pipe cutter, pipe end positioning device, rear work support, spring back automatic measuring instrument and controller are the main components of the system, and their functions are explained. The integrated design-production system by utilizing CAD and 3D data, the system of assigning pipes to materials, the continuous manufacture of bent pipes by incorporating a cutting machine, the improvement of bending accuracy by spring back measurement and so on are the features of the system. (K.I.).

  19. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    fields up to 74 kilohertz (KHz), a removable section of copper wire can be placed inside the composite pipe to short the tool joints electrically allowing electromagnetic signals inside the collar to induce and measure the same within the rock formation. By embedding a pair of wires in the composite section and using standard drill pipe box and pin ends equipped with a specially developed direct contact joint electrical interface, power can be supplied to measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) bottom hole assemblies. Instantaneous high-speed data communications between near drill bit and the surface are obtainable utilizing this 'smart' drilling technology. The composite drill pipe developed by ACPT has been field tested successfully in several wells nationally and internationally. These tests were primarily for short radius and ultra short radius directional drilling. The CDP in most cases performed flawlessly with little or no appreciable wear. ACPT is currently marketing a complete line of composite drill collars, subs, isolators, casing, and drill pipe to meet the drilling industry's needs and tailored to replace metal for specific application requirements.

  20. Lateral impact on pressurized glass/epoxy pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Rafael C.; Alves, Marcilio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], e-mail: rafael.santiago@poli.usp.br, e-mail: maralves@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    This work studies the impact of a drop mass against glass/epoxy composite pipes. The experimental tests comprises an impact hammer and the set-up is such that a drop mass falls transversally to the main length of the tube. The impact response is measured with a non-contact laser system and reveals some issues explored here in a numerical model. Inner pressure was applied to the tube in order to access its influence on failure. It has been found that the numerical model represents well the structural collapse of a pressurized pipe under a lateral impact. (author)

  1. Experimental study of ``laminar'' bubbly flows in a vertical pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashinsky, O. N.; Timkin, L. S.; Cartellier, A.

    1993-09-01

    Measurement of bubbly two-phase flow parameters in a vertical pipe were performed. To keep the pipe Reynolds number below that for single-phase turbulent transition, a water-glycerin solution was used as the test liquid. Local void fraction and liquid velocity profiles along with the wall shear stress were measured by an electrochemical method. Experiments were made with bubbles of two different sizes. As the gas flow rate was increased, a gradual development of the liquid velocity profile from the parabolic Poiseuille flow to a flattened two-phase profile was observed. The evolution of the wall shear stress and of the velocity fluctuations were also quantified.

  2. Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC

  3. Hydrogen evolution in nickel-water heat pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made of the evolution of hydrogen gas in nickel-water heat pipes for the purpose of investigating methods of accelerated life testing. The data were analyzed in terms of a phenomenological corrosion model of heat pipe degradation which incorporates corrosion and oxidation theory and contains parameters which can be determined by experiment. The gas was evolved with a linear time dependence and an exponential temperature dependence with an activation energy of 1.03 x 10 to the minus 19th joules. A flow-rate dependence of the gas evolution was found in the form of a threshold. The results were used to predict usable lifetimes of heat pipes operated at normal operating conditions from results taken under accelerated operating conditions.

  4. Three phase pipe flow imaging using a capacitance tomography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaksen, Oe.

    1996-04-01

    Several tomography systems for pipe flow imaging have been developed in the past decade. Many of them are based on capacitance sensors measuring the permittivity of the flowing components. So far the systems have mostly been tested on two-phase flow, and mainly for oil/gas pipe flow. Several reconstruction techniques for reconstructing the measured capacitances have been developed. The most commonly used reconstruction algorithm is the linear back projection algorithm (LBP), which is fast and fairly crude. This paper shows that in using the LBP algorithm one must be very careful in interpreting the results. Methods for using a capacitance tomography system based on the LBP algorithm for three-phase oil/water/gas pipe flow imaging are outlined and preliminary results are presented. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  5. A Method Using Optical Contactless Displacement Sensors to Measure Vibration Stress of Small-Bore Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Noda, Michiyasu

    2014-02-01

    In nuclear power plants, vibration stress of piping is frequently evaluated to prevent fatigue failure. A simple and fast measurement method is attractive to evaluate many piping systems efficiently. In this study, a method to measure the vibration stress using optical contactless displacement sensors was proposed, the prototype instrument was developed, and the instrument practicality for the method was verified. In the proposed method, light emitting diodes (LEDs) were used as measurement sensors and the vibration stress was estimated by measuring the deformation geometry of the piping caused by oscillation, which was measured as the piping curvature radius. The method provided fast and simple vibration estimates for small-bore piping. Its verification and practicality were confirmed by vibration tests using a test pipe and mock-up piping. The stress measured by both the proposed method and an accurate conventional method using strain gauges were in agreement, and it was concluded that the proposed method could be used for actual plant piping systems.

  6. Baseline experimental investigation of an electrohydrodynamically assisted heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, A. B.

    1995-07-01

    The increases in power demand and associated thermal management requirements of future space programs such as potential Lunar/Mars missions will require enhancing the operating efficiencies of thermal management devices. Currently, the use of electrohydrodynamically (EHD) assisted thermal control devices is under consideration as a potential method of increasing thermal management system capacity. The objectives of the currently described investigation included completing build-up of the EHD-Assisted Heat Pipe Test bed, developing test procedures for an experimental evaluation of the unassisted heat pipe, developing an analytical model capable of predicting the performance limits of the unassisted heat pipe, and obtaining experimental data which would define the performance characteristics of the unassisted heat pipe. The information obtained in the currently proposed study will be used in order to provide extensive comparisons with the EHD-assisted performance observations to be obtained during the continuing investigation of EHD-Assisted heat transfer devices. Through comparisons of the baseline test bed data and the EHD assisted test bed data, accurate insight into the performance enhancing characteristics of EHD augmentation may be obtained. This may lead to optimization, development, and implementation of EHD technology for future space programs.

  7. Evaluation of aluminum drill-pipe material and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Joao C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lourenco, Marcelo I.; Netto, Theodoro Antoun [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Experimental program and numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes designed and manufactured in compliance with ISO 15546. The main objective is to improve the fatigue performance of these components by selecting the appropriate aluminum alloy and by enhancing the mechanical design of the threaded steel connector. This paper presents the experimental test program and numerical analyses conducted on a drill-pipe of different materials (Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg system aluminum alloys) and geometry. Material mechanical properties, including S-N curve, were determined through small-scale tests on specimens cut from actual drill pipes. Full-scale experiments were also performed in laboratory. A finite element model of the drill pipe, including the tool-joint region, was developed. The model simulates, through different load steps, the tool-joint hot assembly, and then reproduces the physical experiments numerically in order to obtain the actual stress distribution. Good correlation between full-scale and small-scale fatigue tests was obtained by adjusting the strain/stress levels monitored in the full-scale tests in light of the numerical simulations and performing fatigue life calculations via multiaxial fatigue models. The weak points of the current practice design are highlighted for further development. (author)

  8. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by gas inside a heated steel pipe when rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. While the effective focal length of such a system has previously been studied...

  9. Transient thermohydraulic heat pipe modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael L.; Doster, Joseph M.

    Many space based reactor designs employ heat pipes as a means of conveying heat. In these designs, thermal radiation is the principle means for rejecting waste heat from the reactor system, making it desirable to operate at high temperatures. Lithium is generally the working fluid of choice as it undergoes a liquid-vapor transformation at the preferred operating temperature. The nature of remote startup, restart, and reaction to threats necessitates an accurate, detailed transient model of the heat pipe operation. A model is outlined of the vapor core region of the heat pipe which is part of a large model of the entire heat pipe thermal response. The vapor core is modeled using the area averaged Navier-Stokes equations in one dimension, which take into account the effects of mass, energy and momentum transfer. The core model is single phase (gaseous), but contains two components: lithium gas and a noncondensible vapor. The vapor core model consists of the continuity equations for the mixture and noncondensible, as well as mixture equations for internal energy and momentum.

  10. Ocean thermal energy conversion cold water pipe preliminary design project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-20

    As part of a DOE goal to develop one or more OTEC Modular Experiment Plants, TRW performed designs, analyses, and evaluations of cold water pipe (CWP) concepts for NOAA. After reviewing the results of the CWP concept selection phase NOAA/DOE selected three concepts for a baseline design: (1) a FRP CWP of sandwich wall construction suspended from the Applied Physics Laboratory/John Hopkins University (APL/JHU) barge at a site 200 miles east of the coast of Brazil using a horizontal deployment scheme (this is TRW's preferred approach); (2) an elastomer CWP suspended from the APL/JHU barge off the southeast coast of Puerto Rico using either a horizontal or vertical deployment scheme; and (3) a polyethylene CWP (single or multiple pipe) suspended from the Gibbs and Cox spar at the Puerto Rico site using a horizontal deployment scheme. TRW has developed a baseline design for each of these configurations. Detailed designs and analyses for the FRP, polyethylene, and elastomer concepts, respectively, are described. A discussion of fabrication plans and processes, schedules for mobilization of facilities and equipment, installation plans, and cost breakdown are given for each concept. (WHK)

  11. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  12. 9 CFR 201.81 - Suspended registrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 201.81 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.81 Suspended registrants. No stockyard owner, packer, market agency, or dealer shall employ...

  13. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  14. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system. KEY WORDS: Environmental toxicology, Suspended particulate matter, Dust analysis, Hematological indices, Wister albino rats. Bull.

  15. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    face area, shape, minerals and source) and conse- quent interaction with heavy metal concentrations. (HMCs). Recent studies have shown a growing awareness of the wider environmental significance of the suspended sediment loads transported by rivers and streams. This includes the importance of fine grain sediment in ...

  16. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust) samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological ...

  17. A depth integrated model for suspended transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galappatti, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and

  18. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  19. Flow Laminarization and Acceleration by Suspended Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, M.; Hulshof, J.; Prostokishin, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    In [Comm. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., 4(2009), pp. 153-175], Barenblatt presents a model for partial laminarization and acceleration of shear flows by the presence of suspended particles of different sizes, and provides a formal asymptotic analysis of the resulting velocity equation. In the present

  20. Emulsifying and Suspending Properties of Enterolobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The thermodynamic instability of emulsions and suspensions necessitate the incorporation of emulsifiers and suspending agents respectively, in order to stabilize the formulations and ensure administration of accurate doses. Objective:Enterolobium cyclocarpum gum was characterized and evaluated for its ...

  1. Inspection of Fusion Joints in Plastic Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connie Reichert

    2005-09-01

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost-effective method exists for assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field. Visual examination and pressure testing are current nondestructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project developed, demonstrated, and validated an in-situ nondestructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system includes a laser-based image-recognition system that automatically generates and interprets digital images of pipe joints and assigns them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. An EWI-patented process, the Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) was developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation, which reveals the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and two destructive forms of testing: short-term tensile testing and long-term creep rupture testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and the destructive testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than destructive testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  2. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  3. Closure report for underground storage tank 161-R1U1 and its associated underground piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

    1994-05-01

    Underground storage tank (UST) 161-31 R at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. UST 161-31R was subsequently renamed UST 161-R1U1 (Fig. A-1, Appendix A). UST 161-R1U1 was installed in 1976, and had a capacity of 383 gallons. This tank system consisted of a fiberglass reinforced plastic tank, approximately 320 feet of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) underground piping from Building 161, and approximately 40 feet of PVC underground piping from Building 160. The underground piping connected laboratory drains and sinks inside Buildings 160 and 161 to UST 161-R1U1. The wastewater collected in UST 161-R1U1, contained organic solvents, metals, inorganic acids, and radionuclides, most of which was produced within Building 161. On June 28, 1989, the UST 161-R1U1 piping system.around the perimeter of Building 161 failed a precision test performed by Gary Peters Enterprises (Appendix B). The 161-R1U1 tank system was removed from service after the precision test. In July 1989, additional hydrostatic tests and helium leak detection tests were performed (Appendix B) to determine the locations of the piping failures in the Building 161 piping system. The locations of the piping system failures are shown in Figure A-2 (Appendix A). On July 11, 1989, LLNL submitted an Unauthorized Release Report to Alameda County Department of Environmental Health (ACDEH), Appendix C.

  4. Transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe with variable heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe were studied by using variable heat load. First, the effects of the property variations of the working fluid with temperature were investigated by operating the water heat pipe at several different temperatures. The experimental results show that, even for the same heat input profile and heat pipe configuration, the heat pipe transports more heat at higher temperature within the tested temperature range. Adequate liquid return to the evaporator due to decreasing viscosity of the working fluid permits continuous vaporization of water without dry-out. Second, rewetting of the evaporator was studied after the evaporator had experienced dry-out. To rewet the evaporator, the elevation of the condenser end was the most effective way. Without elevating the condenser end, rewetting is not straight-forward even with power turned off unless the heat pipe is kept at isothermal condition for sufficiently long time.

  5. Establishing low-power operating limits for liquid metal heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secary, J. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Merrigan, M.A.; Keddy, M.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Liquid metal heat pipes operated at power throughputs well below their design point for long durations may fail as a result of the working fluid migrating to a cold region within the pipe, freezing there, and hot returning to the evaporator section. Eventually sufficient working fluid inventory may be lost to the cold region to cause a local dry-out condition in the evaporator. A joint experimental and analytical effort between the Air Force Phillips Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory is underway to investigate the phenomena. Experiments include both high temperature liquid metal and low temperature organic heat pipes. To date, a low temperature working fluid has been selected and its performance in a heat pipe validated. Additionally, a low-temperature heat pipe has been fabricated and is presently being tested.

  6. A design method of axially grooved heat pipes embedded in equipment panel for communication satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Akihiro; Nakajima, Katsuhiko

    A calculation method of the maximum heat load for an axially grooved heat pipe which is embedded in a honeycomb sandwich panel with multipoint heating is developed by considering the estimation of heat flux rate along the heat pipe. A thermal mathematical model for the panel is also used to estimate the net heat input to the heat pipe. The maximum heat loads predicted for the heat pipe embedded in the panel show good agreement with the data obtained from tests which has been performed in a vacuum chamber. A minimum weight design method for rectangular grooved heat pipes which satisfied heat transport capabilities required are also proposed as a result of this study.

  7. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.

    2016-12-22

    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  8. Ship Pipe Routing Design Using NSGA-II and Coevolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentie Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipe route design plays a prominent role in ship design. Due to the complex configuration in layout space with numerous pipelines, diverse design constraints, and obstacles, it is a complicated and time-consuming process to obtain the optimal route of ship pipes. In this article, an optimized design method for branch pipe routing is proposed to improve design efficiency and to reduce human errors. By simplifying equipment and ship hull models and dividing workspace into three-dimensional grid cells, the mathematic model of layout space is constructed. Based on the proposed concept of pipe grading method, the optimization model of pipe routing is established. Then an optimization procedure is presented to deal with pipe route planning problem by combining maze algorithm (MA, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II, and cooperative coevolutionary nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (CCNSGA-II. To improve the performance in genetic algorithm procedure, a fixed-length encoding method is presented based on improved maze algorithm and adaptive region strategy. Fuzzy set theory is employed to extract the best compromise pipeline from Pareto optimal solutions. Simulation test of branch pipe and design optimization of a fuel piping system were carried out to illustrate the design optimization procedure in detail and to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  9. The Electrochemical Investigation of the Corrosion Rates of Welded Pipe ASTM A106 Grade B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinet Yingsamphancharoen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the corrosion rate of welded carbon steel pipe (ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials A106 Grade B by GTAW under the currents of 60, 70, and 80 A. All welded pipes satisfied weld procedure specifications and were verified by a procedure qualification record. The property of used materials was in agreement with the ASME standard: section IX. The welded pipe was used for schematic model corrosion measurements applied in 3.5 wt % NaCl at various flow rates and analyzed by using the electrochemical technique with Tafel’s equation. The results showed the correlation between the flow rate and the corrosion rate of the pipe; the greater the flow rate, the higher corrosion rate. Moreover, the welded pipe from the welding current of 70 A exhibited higher tensile strength and corrosion resistance than those from currents of 60 and 80 A. It indicated that the welding current of 70 A produced optimum heat for the welding of A106 pipe grade B. In addition, the microstructure of the welded pipe was observed by SEM. The phase transformation and crystallite size were analyzed by XRD and Sherrer’s equation. The results suggested that the welding current could change the microstructure and phase of the welded pipe causing change in the corrosion rate.

  10. Numerical simulation of X90 UOE pipe forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tianxia; Ren, Qiang; Peng, Yinghong; Li, Dayong; Tang, Ding; Han, Jianzeng; Li, Xinwen; Wang, Xiaoxiu

    2013-12-01

    The UOE process is an important technique to manufacture large-diameter welding pipes which are increasingly applied in oil pipelines and offshore platforms. The forming process of UOE mainly consists of five successive operations: crimping, U-forming, O-forming, welding and mechanical expansion, through which a blank is formed into a pipe in a UOE pipe mill. The blank with an appropriate edge bevel is bent into a cylindrical shape by crimping (C-forming), U-forming and O-forming successively. After the O-forming, there is an open-seam between two ends of the plate. Then, the blank is welded by automatic four-electrode submerged arc welding technique. Subsequently, the welded pipe is expanded with a mechanical expander to get a high precision circular shape. The multiple operations in the UOE mill make it difficult to control the quality of the formed pipe. Therefore, process design mainly relies on experience in practical production. In this study, the UOE forming of an API X90 pipe is studied by using finite element simulation. The mechanical properties tests are performed on the API X90 pipeline steel blank. A two-dimensional finite element model under the hypothesis of plane strain condition is developed to simulate the UOE process according to data coming from the workshop. A kinematic hardening model is used in the simulation to take the Bauschinger effect into account. The deformation characteristics of the blank during the forming processes are analyzed. The simulation results show a significant coherence in the geometric configurations comparing with the practical manufacturing.

  11. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.

    Energy components of suspended matter included phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus inclusive of microorganisms adsorbed to detritus. Of these, detritus contributed most of the energy (98%). The average caloric content of suspended detritus...

  12. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  13. INSPECTION OF FUSION JOINTS IN PLASTIC PIPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex Savitski; Connie Reichert; John Coffey

    2005-07-13

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost effective method of assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field exists. Visual examination and pressure testing are current non-destructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project will develop, demonstrate, and validate an in-situ non-destructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system will include a laser based image-recognition system that will automatically generate and interpret digital images of pipe joints and assign them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. A Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) is being developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation and reveal the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and tensile testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and tensile testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than tensile testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  14. Study on dinamic behavior and least burying depth of underground protective pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Tetsuyuki; Kokusyo, Goji; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Kobayashi, Seiichi

    1988-03-30

    Effect of unit load per travel wheel on the protective pipe was studied when electricity cable distribution lines were buried in the depth less than the present standard for electric equipment, and logical burying depth was investigated. Test items were material test of the protective pipe, indoor load test, and field test at loamy ground. Impact resistance hard PVC pipe was used as the protective pipe, and its strength and elastic modulus were measured. Along with these tests, it was confirmed that there was no problem of cracking by repeated flattening or breakage by fatigue. By indoor test, it was observed that, in case of shallow burying, creap deformation was small, stress concentrate occured at the middle of axial direction, and that flattening ratio was seriously affected by the method of backfilling. Field test was conducted by applying the static load of a 20 ton dump truck, and the deformation, stress, and subsidence of the protective pipe, were measured. As the conclusion of those experiments, it was found that burying of protective pipe in the depth of not less than 30 cm is allowable, as long as sufficient bakfilling is made. (14 figs, 3 tabs, 3 refs)

  15. Experiments in turbulent pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torbergsen, Lars Even

    1998-12-31

    This thesis reports experimental results for the mean velocity and turbulence statistics in two straight pipe sections for bulk Reynolds numbers in the range 22000 to 75000. The flow was found consistent with a fully developed state. Detailed turbulence spectra were obtained for low and moderate turbulent Reynolds number. For the pipe centre line location at R{sub {lambda}} = 112, a narrow range in the streamwise power spectrum applied to the -5/3 inertial subrange. However this range was influenced both by turbulence production and viscous dissipation, and therefore did not reflect a true inertial range. The result indicates how the intermediate range between the production and dissipative scales can be misinterpreted as an inertial range for low and moderate R{sub {lambda}}. To examine the universal behaviour of the inertial range, the inertial scaling of the streamwise power spectrum is compared to the inertial scaling of the second order longitudinal velocity structure function, which relate directly by a Fourier transform. Increasing agreement between the Kolmogorov constant C{sub K} and the second order structure function scaling constant C{sub 2} was observed with increasing R{sub {lambda}}. The result indicates that a true inertial range requires several decades of separation between the energy containing and dissipative scales. A method for examining spectral anisotropy is reported and applied to turbulence spectra in fully developed pipe flow. It is found that the spectral redistribution from the streamwise to the two lateral spectra goes primarily to the circumferential component. Experimental results are reported for an axisymmetric contraction of a fully developed pipe flow. 67 refs., 75 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Estimating total suspended sediment yield with probability sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    The ""Selection At List Time"" (SALT) scheme controls sampling of concentration for estimating total suspended sediment yield. The probability of taking a sample is proportional to its estimated contribution to total suspended sediment discharge. This procedure gives unbiased estimates of total suspended sediment yield and the variance of the...

  17. High capacity demonstration of honeycomb panel heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of performance enhancing the sandwich panel heat pipe was investigated for moderate temperature range heat rejection radiators on future-high-power spacecraft. The hardware development program consisted of performance prediction modeling, fabrication, ground test, and data correlation. Using available sandwich panel materials, a series of subscale test panels were augumented with high-capacity sideflow and temperature control variable conductance features, and test evaluated for correlation with performance prediction codes. Using the correlated prediction model, a 50-kW full size radiator was defined using methanol working fluid and closely spaced sideflows. A new concept called the hybrid radiator individually optimizes heat pipe components. A 2.44-m long hybrid test vehicle demonstrated proof-of-principle performance.

  18. Application of cyclic J-integral to low cycle fatigue crack growth of Japanese carbon steel pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, N.; Fujioka, T.; Kashima, K. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Piping for LWR power plants is required to satisfy the LBB concept for postulated (not actual) defects. With this in mind, research has so far been conducted on the fatigue crack growth under cyclic loading, and on the ductile crack growth under excessive loading. It is important, however, for the evaluation of the piping structural integrity under seismic loading condition, to understand the fracture behavior under dynamic and cyclic loading conditions, that accompanies large-scale yielding. CRIEPI together with Hitachi have started a collaborative research program on dynamic and/or cyclic fracture of Japanese carbon steel (STS410) pipes in 1991. Fundamental tensile property tests were conducted to examine the effect of strain rate on tensile properties. Cracked pipe fracture tests under some loading conditions were also performed to investigate the effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on fracture behavior. Based on the analytical considerations for the above tests, the method to evaluate the failure life for a cracked pipe under cyclic loading was developed and verified. Cyclic J-integral was introduced to predict cyclic crack growth up to failure. This report presents the results of tensile property tests, cracked pipe fracture tests, and failure life analysis. The proposed method was applied to the cracked pipe fracture tests. The effect of dynamic and/or cyclic loading on pipe fracture was also investigated.

  19. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Munne

    2006-07-19

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

  20. Dual axial channel heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alario, J.P.; Haslett, R.A.; Kosson, R.L.

    1984-09-11

    A heat pipe comprising an elongated sealed metallic envelope having at least a pair of longitudinal channels extending along the length thereof. One of the channels is for the circulation of the vapor phase of the working medium in operation and the other for the liquid phase and capillary means are provided to furnish fluid communication therebetween. Dedicated vapor and liquid channels result in low viscous pressure drops, the capillary communication means and circumferential grooving in the vapor channel provide high capillary pressure differences, and circumferential grooving is provided to furnish the high evaporation and condensation film coefficients required. To support higher heat fluxes, wicking can be used to augment the capillary flow from the liquid channel. To support higher evaporator heat flux without the need for wicking means, the heat pipe can be provided with more than one liquid channel, each communicating with the vapor channel by capillary means. The heat pipe can be provided with an integral fin or equivalent means for rejection of heat by radiation to ambient or for attachment to a source of heat in the evaporator region thereof.

  1. Optomechanics for thermal characterization of suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J.; Houri, Samer; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J.; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steeneken, Peter G.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal response of graphene is expected to be extremely fast due to its low heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal response of suspended single-layer graphene membranes is investigated by characterization of their mechanical motion in response to a high-frequency modulated laser. A characteristic delay time τ between the optical intensity and mechanical motion is observed, which is attributed to the time required to raise the temperature of the membrane. We find, however, that the measured time constants are significantly larger than the predicted ones based on values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity. In order to explain the discrepancy between measured and modeled τ , a model is proposed that takes a thermal boundary resistance at the edge of the graphene drum into account. The measurements provide a noninvasive way to characterize thermal properties of suspended atomically thin membranes, providing information that can be hard to obtain by other means.

  2. Crack stability in a representative piping system under combined inertial and seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.3 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.; Wilkowski, O.G.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results from Subtask 1.3 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The objective of Subtask 1.3 is to develop data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system under combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The piping system evaluated is an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility is equipped with special hardware to ensure system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe-system experiments. The uncracked experiment was conducted to evaluate piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments evaluated the fracture behavior, pipe system response, and stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Results from all pipe-system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Results of fracture mechanics analyses, dynamic finite element stress analyses, and stability analyses are presented and compared with experimental results.

  3. 49 CFR 195.306 - Test medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (5) The pipe involved is new pipe having a longitudinal joint factor of 1.00. (d) Air or inert gas... this section, water must be used as the test medium. (b) Except for offshore pipelines, liquid...

  4. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  5. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  6. IUTAM symposium on hydrodynamic diffusion of suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.H. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodynamic diffusion refers to the fluctuating motion of nonBrownian particles (or droplets or bubbles) which occurs in a dispersion due to multiparticle interactions. For example, in a concentrated sheared suspension, particles do not move along streamlines but instead exhibit fluctuating motions as they tumble around each other. This leads to a net migration of particles down gradients in particle concentration and in shear rate, due to the higher frequency of encounters of a test particle with other particles on the side of the test particle which has higher concentration or shear rate. As another example, suspended particles subject to sedimentation, centrifugation, or fluidization, do not generally move relative to the fluid with a constant velocity, but instead experience diffusion-like fluctuations in velocity due to interactions with neighboring particles and the resulting variation in the microstructure or configuration of the suspended particles. In flowing granular materials, the particles interact through direct collisions or contacts (rather than through the surrounding fluid); these collisions also cause the particles to undergo fluctuating motions characteristic of diffusion processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. A Passively-Suspended Tesla Pump Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J.; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K.; Paterson, Eric G.; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B.; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E.; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type LAVD blood pump are described. CFD analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 liters/min at a 70 mmHg head rise at 8000 RPM. The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below .02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned as well as endurance testing of the device. PMID:19770799

  8. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  9. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matveev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  10. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  11. Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop heat pipe and loop heat pipe (LHP) working fluids for what is known as the intermediate...

  12. Orifice Blocks Heat Pipe in Reverse Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    High forward-mode conductance is combined with rapid reverse-mode shutoff in a heat pipe originally developed to cool spacecraft payloads. A narrow orifice within the pipe "chokes off" the evaporator if heat sink becomes warmer than source. During normal operation, with source warmer than sink, orifice has little effect. Design is simpler and more compact than other thermal-diode heat pipes and requires no special materials, forgings, or unusual construction techniques.

  13. Bending loss of terahertz pipe waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jen-Tang; Hsueh, Yu-Chun; Huang, Yu-Ru; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2010-12-06

    We present an experimental study on the bending loss of terahertz (THz) pipe waveguide. Bending loss of pipe waveguides is investigated for various frequencies, polarizations, core diameters, cladding thicknesses, and cladding materials. Our results indicate that the pipe waveguides with lower guiding loss suffer lower bending loss due to stronger mode confinement. The unexpected low bending loss in the investigated simple leaky waveguide structure promises variety of flexible applications.

  14. A study of pipe-soil-climate interaction of buried water and gas pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Derek Chun Chuen

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, buried water and gas pipes are reported to have more frequent failures in hot and dry summers, which suggests that soil shrinkage and thermal effects are the main factors associated with pipe failure. Shrinkage and swelling are common behaviours of soils especially for reactive clays due to seasonal variation of soil moisture content. As a result, the differential soil movement beneath buried pipe can lead to flexural bending and circumferential fracture of the pipe. In addition...

  15. Insoluble coatings for Stirling engine heat pipe condenser surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussinger, Peter M.

    1993-09-01

    The work done by Thermacore, Inc., Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for the Phase 1, 1992 SBIR National Aeronautics and Space Administration Contract, 'Insoluble Coatings for Stirling Engine Heat Pipe Condenser Surfaces' is described. The work was performed between January 1992 and July 1992. Stirling heat engines are being developed for electrical power generation use on manned and unmanned earth orbital and planetary missions. Dish Stirling solar systems and nuclear reactor Stirling systems are two of the most promising applications of the Stirling engine electrical power generation technology. The sources of thermal energy used to drive the Stirling engine typically are non-uniform in temperature and heat flux. Liquid metal heat pipe receivers are used as thermal transformers and isothermalizers to deliver the thermal energy at a uniform high temperature to the heat input section of the Stirling engine. The use of a heat pipe receiver greatly enhances system efficiency and potential life span. One issue that is raised during the design phase of heat pipe receivers is the potential solubility corrosion of the Stirling engine heat input section by the liquid metal working fluid. This Phase 1 effort initiated a program to evaluate and demonstrate coatings, applied to nickel based Stirling engine heater head materials, that are practically 'insoluble' in sodium, potassium, and NaK. This program initiated a study of nickel aluminide as a coating and developed and demonstrated a heat pipe test vehicle that can be used to test candidate materials and coatings. Nickel 200 and nickel aluminide coated Nickel 200 were tested for 1000 hours at 800 C at a condensation heat flux of 25 W/sq cm. Subsequent analyses of the samples showed no visible sign of solubility corrosion of either coated or uncoated samples. The analysis technique, photomicrographs at 200X, has a resolution of better than 2.5 microns (.0001 in). The results indicate that the heat pipe environment is not directly

  16. Bending of pipes with inconel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachpitz, Leonardo; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo B.; Vieira, Carlos R. Tavares [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. (PROTUBO), Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The high-frequency induction bending process, using API pipes coated with Inconel 625 reconciled to a mechanical transformation for a higher degree of resistance, was developed through a careful specification and control of the manufacturing parameters and inherent heat treatments. The effects of this technology were investigated by a qualification process consisting of a sequence of tests and acceptance criteria typically required by the offshore industry, and through the obtained results was proved the effectiveness of this entire manufacturing process, without causing interference in the properties and the quality of the inconel cladding, adding a gain of resistance to the base material, guaranteed by the requirements of the API 5L Standard. (author)

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Tarik; Ku, Jentung; Hoang, Triem T.; Cheung, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary focus of this study is to model steady-state performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP). The mathematical model is based on the steady-state energy balance equations at each component of the LHP. The heat exchange between each LHP component and the surrounding is taken into account. Both convection and radiation environments are modeled. The loop operating temperature is calculated as a function of the applied power at a given loop condition. Experimental validation of the model is attempted by using two different LHP designs. The mathematical model is tested at different sink temperatures and at different elevations of the loop. Tbc comparison of the calculations and experimental results showed very good agreement (within 3%). This method proved to be a useful tool in studying steady-state LHP performance characteristics.

  18. Progress of cryogenic pulsating heat pipes at UW-Madison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego Fonseca, Luis; Mok, Mason; Pfotenhauer, John; Miller, Franklin

    2017-12-01

    Space agencies continuously require innovative cooling systems that are lightweight, low powered, physically flexible, easily manufactured and, most importantly, exhibit high heat transfer rates. Therefore, Pulsating Heat Pipes (PHPs) are being investigated to provide these requirements. This paper summarizes the current development of cryogenic Pulsating Heat Pipes with single and multiple evaporator sections built and successfully tested at UW-Madison. Recently, a helium based Pulsating Heat Pipe with three evaporator and three condenser sections has been operated at fill ratios between 20 % and 80 % operating temperature range of 2.9 K to 5.19 K, resulting in a maximum effective thermal conductivity up to 50,000 W/m-K. In addition, a nitrogen Pulsating Heat Pipe has been built with three evaporator sections and one condenser section. This PHP achieved a thermal performance between 32,000 W/m-K and 96,000 W/m-K at fill ratio ranging from 50 % to 80 %. Split evaporator sections are very important in order to spread cooling throughout an object of interest with an irregular temperature distribution or where multiple cooling locations are required. Hence this type of configurations is a proof of concept which hasn’t been attempted before and if matured could be applied to cryo-propellant tanks, superconducting magnets and photon detectors.

  19. LHC Report: A spring clean for the beam pipe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    After a successful calibration run at 1.38TeV, the LHC went into a four-day technical stop on Monday 28 March. Work conducted during the technical stop included wrapping solenoids around vacuum pipes to help counteract electron-cloud effects. X-rays of the cryogenic piping line in Sector 4-5 were also taken, and a cryogeniccompressor was replaced at Point 4.   The recently installed solenoids suppress the electron cloud effect by creating a longitudinal magnetic field that bends back the emitted electrons avoiding their escape from the beam pipe surface and thus preventing their participation in the avalanche process in the beam pipe. After coming out of the technical stop on 1 April, a series of rigorous tests with low-intensity beams was performed to make sure that everything was working as it should. This is standard procedure, as a number of hardware (and software) changes are made during a technical stop and it is imperative that we make sure that none of these have impacted machine protectio...

  20. Heat Pipe Precools and Reheats Dehumidified Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, R. C.; Boggs, W. H.; Barnett, U. R.; Dinh, K.

    1986-01-01

    Precooling and reheating by heat pipe reduces operating costs of air-conditioning. Warm air returned from air-conditioned space and cooled air supplied are precooled and reheated, respectively, by each other through a heat pipe. Heat-pipe technology brought to bear on problem of conserving airconditioning energy in hot, humid environments. Any increase in the cost of equipment due to installation of heat-pipe heat exchangers expected to be recovered in energy savings during service period of 2 years or less.

  1. Experimental investigation of zero phase shift effects for Coriolis flowmeters due to pipe imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enz, Stephanie; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Neumeyer, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of a single, straight, vibrating, fluid-conveying pipe have resulted in simple analytical expressions for the approximate prediction of the spatial shift in vibration phase. The expressions have lead to hypotheses for real Coriolis flowmeters (CFMs). To test these......, the flexural vibrations of two bent, parallel, non-fluid-conveying pipes are studied experimentally, employing an industrial CFM. Special attention has been paid on the phase shift in the case of zero mass flow, i.e. the zero shift, caused by various imperfections to the ‘‘perfect’’ CFM, i.e. non-uniform pipe...

  2. Evaluating the conveying capacity and service life of pipe bends in pneumatic conveying systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, D.; Mason, J.S.

    Thames Polytechnic, England, has devised a method for evaluating the conveying capacity and service life of pipe bends in pneumatic systems conveying erosive solids such as coal. The analysis considers the effects of air velocity, mean particle size of the conveyed product, and the solids-loading ratio or phase density. The results of test work on the erosion of mild-steel pipe bends by pneumatically conveyed suspensions of sand reflect the actual conveying capacities and service lives of the pipe under various conveying conditions.

  3. A New Type of In-Pipe Inspection Minirobot with Adaptable Structure (IPMR-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Pop

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pipe damages and imperfections led to a start in researching ways of inspecting and maintaining the pipelines. An attractive solution is using mobile robots for this matter. This paper presents the development process of a wheeled in-pipe minirobot with adaptable structure called IPMR-3. IPMR-3has three articulated mechanisms placed at 120° angles around its central axis. The actuation is done with three DC motors. IPMR-3 can adapt its structure to pipe diameters ranged between 220 and 380 mm. The end of the paper presents the image capturing method, achieved with a C910 wireless video camera, and images from the testing process.

  4. Characterization of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer repair system for structurally deficient steel piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey M.

    This Dissertation investigates a carbon fiber reinforced polymer repair system for structurally deficient steel piping. Numerous techniques exist for the repair of high-pressure steel piping. One repair technology that is widely gaining acceptance is composite over-wraps. Thermal analytical evaluations of the epoxy matrix material produced glass transition temperature results, a cure kinetic model, and a workability chart. These results indicate a maximum glass transition temperature of 80°C (176°F) when cured in ambient conditions. Post-curing the epoxy, however, resulted in higher glass-transition temperatures. The accuracy of cure kinetic model presented is temperature dependent; its accuracy improves with increased cure temperatures. Cathodic disbondment evaluations of the composite over-wrap show the epoxy does not breakdown when subjected to a constant voltage of -1.5V and the epoxy does not allow corrosion to form under the wrap from permeation. Combustion analysis of the composite over-wrap system revealed the epoxy is flammable when in direct contact with fire. To prevent combustion, an intumescent coating was developed to be applied on the composite over-wrap. Results indicate that damaged pipes repaired with the carbon fiber composite over-wrap withstand substantially higher static pressures and exhibit better fatigue characteristics than pipes lacking repair. For loss up to 80 percent of the original pipe wall thickness, the composite over-wrap achieved failure pressures above the pipe's specified minimum yield stress during monotonic evaluations and reached the pipe's practical fatigue limit during cyclical pressure testing. Numerous repairs were made to circular, thru-wall defects and monotonic pressure tests revealed containment up to the pipe's specified minimum yield strength for small diameter defects. The energy release rate of the composite over-wrap/steel interface was obtained from these full-scale, leaking pipe evaluations and results

  5. Morphology and Properties of Geopolymer Coatings on Glass Fibre-Reinforced Epoxy (GRE pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahedan Noor Fifinatasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer coatings were coated on glass fibre-reinforced epoxy (GRE pipe by using kaolin, white clay and silica sand as source materials and sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 as alkaline solution. The microstructure and mechanical property of geopolymer coating on GRE pipe were methodically investigated through morphology analysis, and flexural strength test. The result indicates the microstructure and interfacial layer between geopolymer coating and GRE pipe significantly influence the mechanical property of geopolymer coating. However, different source materials gave different microstructure and property in geopolymer coating.

  6. Investigation of Freeze and Thaw Cycles of a Gas-Charged Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Krimchansky, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The traditional constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) currently used on most spacecraft run the risk of bursting the pipe when the working fluid is frozen and later thawed. One method to avoid pipe bursting is to use a gas-charged heat pipe (GCHP) that can sustain repeated freeze/thaw cycles. The construction of the GCHP is similar to that of the traditional CCHP except that a small amount of non-condensable gas (NCG) is introduced and a small length is added to the CCHP condenser to serve as the NCG reservoir. During the normal operation, the NCG is mostly confined to the reservoir, and the GCHP functions as a passive variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP). When the liquid begins to freeze in the condenser section, the NCG will expand to fill the central core of the heat pipe, and ice will be formed only in the grooves located on the inner surface of the heat pipe in a controlled fashion. The ice will not bridge the diameter of the heat pipe, thus avoiding the risk of pipe bursting during freeze/thaw cycles. A GCHP using ammonia as the working fluid was fabricated and then tested inside a thermal vacuum chamber. The GCHP demonstrated a heat transport capability of more than 200W at 298K as designed. Twenty-seven freeze/thaw cycles were conducted under various conditions where the evaporator temperature ranged from 163K to 253K and the condenser/reservoir temperatures ranged from 123K to 173K. In all tests, the GCHP restarted without any problem with heat loads between 10W and 100W. No performance degradation was noticed after 27 freeze/thaw cycles. The ability of the GCHP to sustain repeated freeze/thaw cycles was thus successfully demonstrated.

  7. CONTECH(R) A-2000 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Determine the effectiveness and long-term durability of the Contech A-2000 PVC pipe : in an irrigation application. This type of pipe may prove to be a viable alternative to : reinforced concrete pipe (RCP).

  8. Best practices for quality management of stormwater pipe construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stormwater pipe systems are integral features of transportation construction projects. Pipe culverts : direct stormwater away from roadway structures and towards designated discharge areas. The improper : installation of a pipe culvert can result in ...

  9. Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B

    2007-04-01

    Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia.

  10. Experiments on heat pipes submitted to strong accelerations; Experimentation de caloducs soumis a de fortes accelerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuthe, A. [Dassault Aviation, 92 - Saint Cloud (France)

    1996-12-31

    In order to evaluate the possibility to use heat pipes as efficient heat transfer devices in aircrafts, a study of their behaviour during strong accelerations is necessary. This study has been jointly carried out by the Laboratory of Thermal Studies of Poitiers (France) and Dassault Aviation company. It is based on a series of tests performed with an experimental apparatus that uses the centrifugal effect to simulate the acceleration fields submitted to the heat pipe. Un-priming - priming cycles have been performed under different power and acceleration levels and at various functioning temperatures in order to explore the behaviour of heat pipes: rate of un-priming and re-priming, functioning in blocked mode etc.. This preliminary study demonstrates the rapid re-priming of the tested heat pipes when submitted to favourable acceleration situations and the possibility to use them under thermosyphon conditions despite the brief unfavourable acceleration periods encountered. (J.S.)

  11. Heat Pipe with Axial Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jay H. (Inventor); Holmes, Rolland (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A heat pipe has an evaporator portion, a condenser portion, and at least one flexible portion that is sealingly coupled between the evaporator portion and the condenser portion. The flexible portion has a flexible tube and a flexible separator plate held in place within the flexible tube so as to divide the flexible tube into a gas-phase passage and a liquid-phase artery. The separator plate and flexible tube are configured such that the flexible portion is flexible in a plane that is perpendicular to the separator plate.

  12. Influence of the key parameters of suspended structures on the inherent frequency of oil and gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S. Y.; Liu, Q. Y.; Wang, G. R.; Jiang, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    Inherent frequency is an important parameter that reflects the dynamic stability of fluid-conveying pipelines. In engineering applications, the inherent frequency of pipelines is usually increased to improve their dynamic stability. The flow velocity and pressure of oil and gas pipelines cannot be altered freely. Among all of the parameters that affect the inherent frequency of suspended pipelines, the flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder, the tensile force of the cable system, and the pipe-axial precompression force are the most important. Revealing the influence laws of these three parameters could provide theoretical support for engineering designs. In this paper, a suspended crossing pipeline project was simplified as a Hetenyi's elastic foundation model. The flexural stiffness of the stiffening girder and the tensile force of the cable system were simplified as the foundation parameters G and K, respectively. The influence regularities of G, K, and the pipe-axial precompression force T on the pipeline inherent frequency were analyzed. According to the numerical simulation results, the ranks of these three parameters in descending order of importance were G, T, and K. During construction, G should be increased as much as possible. If the inherent frequency needs to be improved while pipelines have already been built up, it should be firstly considered to increase T, to values higher than zero if possible. On this basis, the further improvement of K could achieve a better result.

  13. Monitoring of suspended sediment in South Tyrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadalet, Rudi; Dinale, Roberto; Pernter, Martin; Maraldo, Luca; Peterlin, Dieter; Richter, Arnold; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good status of European water bodies, the Hydrographic Office of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Italy) extended in 2014 its institutional activities including the monitoring of suspended sediment in the river channel network. Currently, the only active monitoring station is on the Adige River at the gauging station of Ponte Adige near Bolzano (drainage area 2705 km2). The applied monitoring strategy and the data analysis concept are both based on the guidelines issued by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). The results indicates that the temporal variability strongly differs during the investigated period (2014-2015). In addition to the analysis of precipitation and water discharge, temperature and lightning activity were also included to better understand the sediment transport dynamics observed at the station. In summer 2015, the combination of constantly high daily temperature throughout the Adige basin (which drove intense glacier melting in the headwaters) with a high frequency of convective rainfall events (90% more than in 2014, obtained through lightning detection), led to an annual mass of transported suspended sediment of 260000 t. Interestingly, this value is similar to the one estimated for 2014 (300000 t), which was characterized by very different meteorological conditions (colder and wetter summer), but with the occurrence of an important flood in August, which transported half of the annual amount. Finally, we can conclude that the adopted monitoring strategy is applicable for institutional aims in terms of costs as well as in terms of time effort. During the next years, other stations for suspended sediment monitoring are planned to be installed in the Province to cover the most important river segments.

  14. Active noise cancellation in a suspended interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Driggers, Jennifer C; Pepper, Keenan; Adhikari, Rana

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate feed-forward vibration isolation on a suspended Fabry-Perot interferometer using Wiener filtering and a variant of the common Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive filter algorithm. We compare the experimental results with theoretical estimates of the cancellation efficiency. Using data from the recent LIGO Science Run, we also estimate the impact of this technique on full scale gravitational wave interferometers. In the future, we expect to use this technique to also remove acoustic, magnetic, and gravitational noise perturbations from the LIGO interferometers. This noise cancellation technique is simple enough to implement in standard laboratory environments and can be used to improve SNR for a variety of high precision experiments.

  15. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  16. Safety Harness For Work Under Suspended Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunoo, Su Young

    1994-01-01

    Safety device protects worker under suspended engine or other heavy load. Mechanically linked with load so if load should fall, worker yanked safely away. Worker wears chest-plate vest with straps crossing eye on back. Lower safety cable connected to eye extends horizontally away from worker to nearby wall, wrapped on pulley and extends upward to motion amplifier or reducer. Safety cables transform any sudden downward motion of overhanging load into rapid sideways motion of worker. Net catches worker, preventing worker from bumping against wall.

  17. Static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS maglev system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dajin; Cui, Chenyu; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiqing; Zhao, Yong

    2017-02-01

    The static and dynamic stability of the guidance force in a side-suspended HTS-PMG (permanent magnetic guideway) system were studied theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are two types of guidance force that exist in the HTS-PMG system, which are sensitive to the levitation gap and the arrangement of YBCO bulks around the central axis of the PMG. An optimized YBCO array was used to stabilize the system, which enabled a side-suspended HTS-PMG maglev vehicle to run stably at 102 km h-1 on a circular test track with 6.5 m in diameter.

  18. Non destructive testing for seamless pipes steel inspection of Vallourec and Mannesmann of Brazil: innovation, quality and satisfaction of their clients; Ensaios nao destrutivos para inspecao de tubos de aco sem costura da Vallourec e Mannesmann do Brasil: inovacao, qualidade e satisfacao de seus clientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eufrasio, Edson; Pawellwtz, Reinhard [V e M do Brasil S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Seamless steel pipes presents wide application in many areas, which require high levels of quality , requirements and security of the product are guaranteed. In face to these requirements, V and M do Brazil is always in the vanguard of the technological innovation, in order to offer products with high level of quality and uniformity to the customers requirements. To guarantee the quality of its products, V and M do Brazil uses an ample variety of destructive and nondestructive testings, systems of measurement and inspection, which are distributed throughout all the productive process, in different production lines. Pioneering in the development of new techniques of inspection, mainly with relation to the non destructive testings, has been a constant mark of V and M do Brazil; assuring of this form, the improvement and expansion of the non destructive testings in the inspection of its products from the use of new techniques, as well as the improvement of the quality. (author)

  19. Finite Element Modeling of Suspended Particle Migration in Non-Newtonian Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altobelli, S.; Baer, T.; Mondy, L.; Rao, R.; Stephens, T.

    1999-03-04

    Shear-induced migration of particles is studied during the slow flow of suspensions of spheres (particle volume fraction {phi} = 0.50) in an inelastic but shear-thinning, suspending fluid in flow between counterrotating concentric cylinders, The conditions are such that nonhydrodynamic effects are negligible. The movement of particles away from the high shear rate region is more pronounced than in a Newtonian suspending liquid. We test a continuum constitutive model for the evolution of particle concentration in a flowing suspension proposed by Phillips et al. (1992) by using shear-thinning, suspending fluids. The fluid constitutive equation is Carreau-like in its shear-thinning behavior but also varies with the local particle concentration. The model is compared with the experimental data gathered with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging.

  20. Experimental study on the thermostable property of aramid fiber reinforced PE-RT pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Guoquan; Wu, Yin; Qi, Dongtao; Wei, Bin; Li, Houbu; Ding, Nan; Cai, Xuehua

    2015-01-01

    Flexible composite pipes are advantageous in ultra high strength, high modulus, pH and corrosion resistance and light weight, but there are still some hidden safety troubles because they are poorer in thermostable capacity. Therefore, test samples of flexible composite pipes were prepared with high-temperature polythene (PE-RT) as the neck bush and aramid fiber as the reinforcement layer. Experimental study was conducted by using HPHT vessel and differential thermal scanner for different work...

  1. A Simplified Approach for the Hydro-Forming Process of Bi-Metallic Composite Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it aims to propose effective approaches for hydro-forming process of bi-metallic composite pipe by assuming plane strain and elastic-perfectly plastic material model. It derives expressions for predicting hydro-forming pressure and residual stress of the forming process of bi-metallic composite pipe. Test data from available experiments is employed to check the model and formulas. It shows the reliability of the proposed model and formulas impersonally.

  2. Determination of the Thermal Resistance of Pipe Insulation Material from Thermal Conductivity of Flat Insulation Products

    OpenAIRE

    Koenen, Alain; Marquis, Damien M.

    2015-01-01

    New European product standards now include a mandatory requirement for manufacturers to declare the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity for each insulation used in building equipments and industrial installations. For pipe insulation systems, the measurement is usually performed by a standard pipe test method, in which the value on a large temperature range is integrated to reduce temperature range and improve temperature measurement control. The alternative proposed in this article co...

  3. Kovar Micro Heat Pipe Substrates for Microelectronic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, David A.; Burchett, Steven N.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Robino, Charles V.; Schmidt, Carrie; Tigges, Chris P.

    1999-04-01

    We describe the development of a new technology for cooling microelectronics. This report documents the design, fabrication, and prototype testing of micro scale heat pipes embedded in a flat plate substrate or heat spreader. A thermal model tuned to the test results enables us to describe heat transfer in the prototype, as well as evaluate the use of this technology in other applications. The substrate walls are Kovar alloy, which has a coefficient of thermal expansion close to that of microelectronic die. The prototype designs integrating micro heat pipes with Kovar enhance thermal conductivity by more than a factor of two over that of Kovar alone, thus improving the cooling of micro-electronic die.

  4. Effect of suspended clay on growth rates of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasil, Jandeson; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Attayde, José L.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; van Oosterhout, Frank; Lürling, Miquel

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sediment resuspension may lead to the collapse of C. raciborskii dominance, which suggests that clay might have a negative effect on the growth of C. raciborskii. To test the hypothesis that suspended clay creates an unfavorable environment for growth of C.

  5. Effect of suspended clay on growth rates of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasil, Jandeson; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Attayde, José L.; Marinho, Marcelo M.; Oosterhout, Van Frank; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sediment resuspension may lead to the collapse of C. raciborskii dominance, which suggests that clay might have a negative effect on the growth of C. raciborskii. To test the hypothesis that suspended clay creates an unfavorable environment for growth of C.

  6. Residual lifetime assessment of UPVC gas pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch gas distribution network consists of about 20% (22,500 km) of unplasticised poly(vinyl chloride) (uPVC) pipes, most of which have been installed from the mid-sixties up to the mid-seventies of the previous century and have been in service ever since. Replacing the uPVC gas pipes exactly

  7. Backward erosion piping : Initiation and progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beek, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Backward erosion piping is an internal erosion mechanism during which shallow pipes are formed in the direction opposite to the flow underneath water-retaining structures as a result of the gradual removal of sandy material by the action of water. It is an important failure mechanism in both dikes

  8. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes § 230...

  9. Vibrations of a pipe on elastic foundations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    is investigated. Two cases of elastic foundations are considered: rotational and both linear and rotational. The major findings are the variations in frequency with flow velocity and displacements at different points and times. Keywords. Cantilevered pipe; vibrations of pipes; elastic foundations; exter- nal transverse force. 1.

  10. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  11. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  12. Gas lensing in a heated spinning pipe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available When a heated pipe is rotated, the dynamics of the gas inside exhibit properties reminiscent of a solid-state positive lens. The properties are a result of a parabolic distribution of refractive index in the pipe which is caused by mixing of hot...

  13. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings..., 2009, by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX; Rotary Drilling Tools, Beasley, TX; Texas Steel...

  14. Transient Response to Rapid Cooling of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Compact fission power systems are under consideration for use in long duration space exploration missions. Power demands on the order of 500 W, to 5 kW, will be required for up to 15 years of continuous service. One such small reactor design consists of a fast spectrum reactor cooled with an array of in-core alkali metal heat pipes coupled to thermoelectric or Stirling power conversion systems. Heat pipes advantageous attributes include a simplistic design, lack of moving parts, and well understood behavior. Concerns over reactor transients induced by heat pipe instability as a function of extreme thermal transients require experimental investigations. One particular concern is rapid cooling of the heat pipe condenser that would propagate to cool the evaporator. Rapid cooling of the reactor core beyond acceptable design limits could possibly induce unintended reactor control issues. This paper discusses a series of experimental demonstrations where a heat pipe operating at near prototypic conditions experienced rapid cooling of the condenser. The condenser section of a stainless steel sodium heat pipe was enclosed within a heat exchanger. The heat pipe - heat exchanger assembly was housed within a vacuum chamber held at a pressure of 50 Torr of helium. The heat pipe was brought to steady state operating conditions using graphite resistance heaters then cooled by a high flow of gaseous nitrogen through the heat exchanger. Subsequent thermal transient behavior was characterized by performing an energy balance using temperature, pressure and flow rate data obtained throughout the tests. Results indicate the degree of temperature change that results from a rapid cooling scenario will not significantly influence thermal stability of an operating heat pipe, even under extreme condenser cooling conditions.

  15. Heat-Pipe Development for Advanced Energy Transport Concepts Final Report Covering the Period January 1999 through September 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.S.Reid; J.F.Sena; A.L.Martinez

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes work in the Heat-pipe Technology Development for the Advanced Energy Transport Concepts program for the period January 1999 through September 2001. A gas-loaded molybdenum-sodium heat pipe was built to demonstrate the active pressure-control principle applied to a refractory metal heat pipe. Other work during the period included the development of processing procedures for and fabrication and testing of three types of sodium heat pipes using Haynes 230, MA 754, and MA 956 wall materials to assess the compatibility of these materials with sodium. Also during this period, tests were executed to measure the response of a sodium heat pipe to the penetration of water.

  16. Experimental studies on the residual lifetime of polyethylene pipes damaged by classified defects, in order to define an acceptance criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, O. [Gaz de France (France); Hill, T. [British Gas plc (United Kingdom); Hoeymissen, L. van [Electrabel (Belgium); Vanspeybroeck, P. [Becetel (Belgium); Wichers-Schreur, P. [Gastec NV (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    One aspect of polyethylene (PE) gas distribution network management is the evaluation of the lifetime of PE pipes. The design lifetime of PE pipe is evaluated assuming that the conditions for using PE are strictly observed. On site, improper installation procedures can create defects such as scrapes or notches. European gas companies have identified damages as resulting from these kinds of defects; however the influence of a notch or a scrape on the lifetime of PE pipe has not been precisely evaluated yet. For this reason, an experimental program has been launched within the GERG in order to estimate the influence of a defect on the lifetime of a pipe. This paper focuses on the preliminary tests which established the parameters of the defects to study and presents the first results of the hydrostatic pressure tests carried out within the GERG group. In addition, the procedures used to make the defects on the pipe and to characterize their geometry are described. (au)

  17. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  18. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  19. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P. [Batelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  20. Basic measurements on a multiple heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, P.; Schippl, K.

    1982-04-01

    A multiple heat pipe which is a specially formed long heat pipe that fulfills the function of several single heat pipes was studied. The suitability of this arrangement for a heat exchanger was investigated. Several laboratory models were manufactured from corrugated tubes and their behavior was measured. Results show that the serpentine model exhibits the expected heat exchange properties. When subjected to severe operating conditions, the pipes remain operational, although somewhat limited in performance. The results are in function of the nature of the exchange media (air-air, air-water, water-water). This corrugated heat pipe design shows good promise for successful further development into an air-air heat exchanger.

  1. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  2. The influence of longitudinal vibrations on the heat transfer performance of inclined heat pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Horng Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on investigating the influence of longitudinal vibrations, the condensation section temperature, and the inclination angles on the heat transfer performance of grooved cylindrical copper heat pipes with lengths of 600 and 150 mm and an outer diameter of 8 mm. The inclination angles of the tested heat pipes were 0°, ±45°, and ±90°. Longitudinal vibrations with frequencies of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 Hz and amplitudes of 2.8, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm, which resulted in accelerations between 0.1 and 1.01 g, were experimentally tested. The condensation section temperatures were set at 20°C, 30°C, and 40°C. A heating jacket and a cooling sleeve were installed at the evaporation and condensation sections of the test cell to simulate a constant heat flux and a constant temperature boundary, respectively. The results showed that with the heat pipe placed with the condensation section on top and the evaporation section on bottom, a fairly low and constant thermal resistance (approximately 0.25 K/W for the 600-mm heat pipe and 0.75–1.2 K/W for the 150-mm heat pipe was obtained, both with and without heat pipe vibration and regardless of the condensation section temperature.

  3. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  4. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  5. PIV measurement at the blowdown pipe outlet. [Particle Image Velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Pyy, L.; Telkkae, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    This report summarizes the findings of the PIV measurement tests carried out in January - February 2013 with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility at LUT. The main objective of the tests was to find out the operational limits of the PIV system regarding suitable test conditions and correct values of different adjustable PIV parameters. An additional objective was to gather CFD grade data for verification/validation of numerical models. Both water and steam injection tests were carried out. PIV measurements with cold water injection succeeded well. Raw images were of high quality, averaging over the whole measurement period could be done and flow fields close to the blowdown pipe outlet could be determined. In the warm water injection cases the obtained averaged velocity field images were harder to interpret, especially if the blowdown pipe was also filled with warm water in the beginning of the measurement period. The absolute values of the velocity vectors seemed to be smaller than in the cold water injection cases. With very small steam flow rates the steam/water interface was inside the blowdown pipe and quite stable in nature. The raw images were of good quality but due to some fluctuation in the velocity field averaging of the velocity images over the whole measured period couldn't be done. Condensation of steam in the vicinity of the pipe exit probably caused these fluctuations. A constant outflow was usually followed by a constant inflow towards the pipe exit. Vector field images corresponding to a certain phase of the test could be extracted and averaged but this would require a very careful analysis so that the images could be correctly categorized. With higher steam flow rates rapid condensation of large steam bubbles created small gas bubbles which were in front of the measurement area of the PIV system. They disturbed the measurements by reflecting laser light like seeding particles and therefore the raw images were of poor quality and they couldn

  6. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.

    2015-04-01

    , Saturation and Intensity (HSI color model) components of the image. Suspended sediment concentration is correlated to both turbidity and image color analysis output data, while the suspended sediment sampler offers the possibility of laboratory analysis for the retained sediment. Each component cooperates with the others in an integrated manner, aiming for the quantification of the suspended sediment and the determination of its spatial distribution throughout a flood event. The innovative system, which has been made compact and portable, is currently tested at the Koiliaris River Basin and the results of the first trials will be presented. This work is elaborated through an on-going THALES project (CYBERSENSORS - High Frequency Monitoring System for Integrated Water Resources Management of Rivers). The project has been co-financed by the European Social Fund - ESF and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social fund.

  7. Deteriorations of pulmonary function, elevated carbon monoxide levels and increased oxidative stress amongst water-pipe smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Karaduman Yalcin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A water pipe (hookah is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be more harmless than a cigarette, and there are no adequate studies about its hazards to health. Water-pipe smoking is threatening health of the youth in the world today. The objective of this study has been to investigate the carbon monoxide (CO levels in breath, examine the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT and to assess the change of the oxidative stress parameters in blood after smoking a water pipe. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analytical study that has included 50 volunteers who smoke a water pipe and the control group of 50 volunteers who smoke neither a cigarette nor a water pipe. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the breath and pulmonary function tests (PFTs were performed before and after smoking a water pipe. Blood samples were taken from either the volunteer control group or water-pipe smokers group after smoking a water pipe for the purpose of evaluation of the parameters of oxidative stress. Results: Carbon monoxide values were measured to be 8.08±7.4 ppm and 28.08±16.5 ppm before and after smoking a water pipe, respectively. This increment was found statistically significant. There were also significant reductions in PFTs after smoking a water pipe. Total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS and oxidative stress index (OSI were found prominently higher after smoking a water pipe for the group of water-pipe smokers than for the control group. Conclusions: This study has shown that water-pipe smoking leads to deterioration in pulmonary function and increases oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge this study is the only one that has shown the effect of water-pipe smoking on oxidative stress. More studies must be planned to show the side effects of water-pipe habit and protective policies should be planned especially for young people in Europe. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:731

  8. Induction bending of API 5L X80 pipes; Curvamento a quente de tubos API 5L X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Gilmar Z. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: g.zacca@petrobras.com.br; Naschpitz, Leonardo [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. - PROTUBO, Campo Grande, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: naschpitz@protubo.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The present work is a part of an extensive program to make possible the application of API 5L X80 in pipeline construction in Brazil. At this stage, the effect of the induction bending process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the pipe is presented. For this study an API 5L X80 pipe, made by the UOE process, is used. The pipe was manufactured from a plate produced by thermo-mechanically controlled rolling without accelerated cooling. The pipe bending was carried out applying a local induction heating following by water quenching. The bend section, outer and inner curvature regions, of the pipe bend were evaluated and compared with the original pipe. The longitudinal weld and transition zones were not evaluated at this stage. Dimensional analyses, microstructural evaluation, Charpy-V impact tests, and tensile tests were performed. A significant microstructural change was verified in the bend area. The yield strength of the pipe bend was found to be lower than original pipe and standard requirements. Other tensile properties and impact properties are compatible with API 5L X80 requirements. (author)

  9. Environmentally-suspended sediment production of the Nasia River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the level of suspended sediment produced in the Nasia River Basin. Hydrological and meteorological data and water samples were used for the study. Average suspended sediment yield (33 years) in the basin was 19.90 t/km2/yr. With mean annual runoff of 439.13m3/s, 322.43 t/yr suspended sediment ...

  10. Final prototype of magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.; Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Lashley, C.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype of a 500 Wh magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system was designed, built, and tested. The authors present the work done and include the following: (1) a final design of the magnetic bearing, control system, and motor/generator, (2) construction of a prototype system consisting of the magnetic bearing stack, flywheel, motor, container, and display module, and (3) experimental results for the magnetic bearings, motor, and the entire system. The successful completion of the prototype system has achieved: (1) manufacture of tight tolerance bearings, (2) stability and spin above the first critical frequency, (3) use of inside sensors to eliminate runout problems, and (4) integration of the motor and magnetic bearings.

  11. Radiological assessment of petroleum pipe scale from pipe-rattling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, I S; Arno, M G; Rock, J C; Berry, R O; Poston, J W; Cezeaux, J R; Park, J-M

    2004-10-01

    Petroleum pipe scale, consisting of concentrated inorganic solids such as barium sulfate, can deposit on the inside of down-hole pipes during the normal course of oil field pumping operations. A portion of this scale has been shown to contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), predominantly compounds of radium. When these pipes are removed from the well, there is a potential for radiation doses to the oil field workers handling the pipes, especially as the pipes are cleaned for reuse. A thorough sampling and measurement protocol was applied under a variety of weather conditions in an outdoor laboratory to obtain an accurate indication of the radiological and aerodynamic characteristics of scale release and dust dispersion during petroleum pipe scale removal from out-of-service pipes with a restored, historically relevant outdoor pipe-cleaning machine. Exposure rate data were also obtained for both the pre-cleaned pipes, and the general area inhabited by workers during the descaling operation. Four radiation exposure pathways were investigated: inhalation of pipe scale dust generated during pipe rattling, incidental ingestion of the pipe scale dust, external exposure from uncleaned pipes, and external exposure from pipe scale dispersed on the ground. Pipes from three oil fields were rattled to collect as much industry-representative data as possible. The Ra specific activity of the pipe scale ranged from 33.6 +/- 0.4 to 65.5 +/- 0.7 Bq g, depending on the formation. A median atmospheric dust loading of 0.13 mg m was measured in the operator breathing zone. The respirable fraction was observed to be about 42% to 46%. Based on cleaning 20 pipes per day,250 d per year on average, annual committed effective doses for the operator and helper ranged from 0.11 mSv (11 mrem) to 0.45 mSv(45 mrem) for inhalation and from 19 microSv (1.9 mrem) to 97 microSv (9.7 mrem) for incidental ingestion. Worker annual external dose from the pipe racks ranged from 0 to 0

  12. Numerical and experimental investigation of leaks in viscoelastic pressurized pipe flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Meniconi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the analysis concerning the importance in numerical models of unsteady friction and viscoelasticity to transients in plastic pipes with an external flow due to a leak. In fact recently such a benchmarking analysis has been executed for the cases of a constant diameter pipe (Duan et al., 2010, a pipe with a partially closed in-line valve (Meniconi et al., 2012a, and a pipe with cross-section changes in series (Meniconi et al., 2012b. Tests are based on laboratory experiments carried out at the Water Engineering Laboratory (WEL of the University of Perugia, Italy, and the use of different numerical models. The results show that it is crucial to take into account the viscoelasticity to simulate the main characteristics of the examined transients.

  13. Performance Assessment of Subsurface Drip Irrigation System Using Pipes of Varying Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Farid Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface drip irrigation method may play a significant role in overcoming the shortage of water particularly in arid regions. An experimental investigation was carried out to examine the efficiency of varying flexibility pipes installed in subsurface drip irrigation system. The study was also aimed to investigate the effect of subsurface drip irrigation on water requirement and yield of date palms. The testing was undertaken at Al- Qassim, Saudi Arabia. A considerable effect of pipe stiffness was observed on water consumption and yield. It was found that the quantity of irrigation water reduced to 49-53% for drip pipes with low flexibility as compared to that for medium and high flexibility pipes respectively. The yield of date palms also increased and it was found 45-49% more than that for the other two types.

  14. A novel numerical model for estimating the collapse pressure of flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Victor P.P.; Antoun Netto, Theodoro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia], e-mail: victor@lts.coppe.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    As the worldwide oil and gas industry operational environments move to ultra-deep waters, failure mechanisms in flexible pipes such as instability of the armor layers under compression and hydrostatic collapse are more likely to occur. Therefore, it is important to develop reliable numerical tools to reproduce the failure mechanisms that may occur in flexible pipes. This work presents a representative finite element model of flexible pipe capable to reproduce its pre and post-collapse behavior under hydrostatic pressure. The model, developed in the scope of this work, uses beam elements and includes nonlinear kinematics and material behavior influences. The dependability of the numerical results is assessed in light of experimental tests on flexible pipes with 4 inches and 8 inches nominal diameter available in the literature (Souza, 2002). The applied methodology provided coherent values regarding the estimation of the collapse pressures and results have shown that the proposed model is capable to reproduce experimental results. (author)

  15. A study of start-up characteristics of a potassium heat pipe from the frozen state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1992-01-01

    The start up characteristics of a potassium heat pipe were studied both analytically and experimentally. Using the radiation heat transfer mode the heat pipe was tested in a vacuum chamber. The transition temperature calculated for potassium was then compared with the experimental results of the heat pipe with various heat inputs. These results show that the heat pipe was inactive until it reached the transition temperature. In addition, during the start up period, the evaporator experienced dry-out with a heat input smaller than the capillary limit calculated at the steady state. However, when the working fluid at the condensor was completely melted, the evaporation was rewetted without external aid. The start up period was significantly reduced with a large heat input.

  16. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  17. Application of Non-pressure Reinforced Concrete Pipes in Modern Construction and Reconstruction of Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitin, B. A.; Pogorelov, S. N.; Kolmogorova, A. O.

    2017-11-01

    Modern highway construction technologies provide for the quality water discharge systems to increase facilities’ service life. Pipeline operating conditions require the use of durable and reliable materials and structures. The experience in using reinforced concrete pipes for these purposes shows their utilization efficiency. The present paper considers the experience in the use of non-pressure reinforced concrete pipes manufactured by the German company SCHLOSSER-PFEIFFER under the Ural region geological and climatic conditions. The authors analyzed the actual operation of underground pipelines and effective loads upon them. A detailed study of the mechanical properties of reinforced concrete pipes is necessary to improve their production technology and to enhance their serviceability. The use of software-based methods helped to develop a mathematical model and to estimate the strength and crack resistance of reinforced concrete pipes at different laying depths. The authors carried out their complex research of the strain-stress behaviour of reinforced concrete pipes and identified the most hazardous sections in the structure. The calculations performed were confirmed by the results of laboratory tests completed in the construction materials, goods, and structures test center. Based on the completed research, the authors formulated their recommendations to improve the design and technology of non-pressure reinforced concrete pipes.

  18. Stability of cracked pipe under inertial stresses. Subtask 1.1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Wilson, M.; Olson, R.; Marschall, C.; Schmidt, R.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the results of the pipe fracture experiments, analyses, and material characterization efforts performed within Subtask 1.1 of the IPIRG Program. The objective of Subtask 1.1 was to experimentally verify the analysis methodologies for circumferentially cracked pipe subjected primarily to inertial stresses. Eight cracked-pipe experiments were conducted on 6-inch nominal diameter TP304 and A106B pipe. The experimental procedure was developed using nonlinear time-history finite element analyses which included the nonlinear behavior due to the crack. The model did an excellent job of predicting the displacements, forces, and times to maximum moment. The comparison of the experimental loads to the predicted loads by the Net-Section-Collapse (NSC), Dimensionless Plastic-Zone Parameter, J-estimation schemes, R6, and ASME Section XI in-service flaw assessment criteria tended to underpredict the measured bending moments except for the NSC analysis of the A106B pipe. The effects of flaw geometry and loading history on toughness were evaluated by calculating the toughness from the pipe tests and comparing these results to C(l) values. These effects were found to be variable. The surface-crack geometry tended to increase the toughness (relative to CM results), whereas a negative load-ratio significantly decreased the TP304 stainless steel surface-cracked pipe apparent toughness. The inertial experiments tended to achieve complete failure within a few cycles after reaching maximum load in these relatively small diameter pipe experiments. Hence, a load-controlled fracture mechanics analysis may be more appropriate than a displacement-controlled analysis for these tests.

  19. Modelling of fiberglass pipe destruction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Николаев

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important current issue of oil and gas industry of using tubes made of high-strength composite corrosion resistant materials. In order to improve operational safety of industrial pipes it is feasible to use composite fiberglass tubes. More than half of the accidents at oil and gas sites happen at oil gathering systems due to high corrosiveness of pumped fluid. To reduce number of accidents and improve environmental protection we need to solve the issue of industrial pipes durability. This problem could be solved by using composite materials from fiberglass, which have required physical and mechanical properties for oil pipes. The durability and strength can be monitored by a fiberglass winding method, number of layers in composite material and high corrosion-resistance properties of fiberglass. Usage of high-strength composite materials in oil production is economically feasible; fiberglass pipes production is cheaper than steel pipes. Fiberglass has small volume weight, which simplifies pipe transportation and installation. In order to identify the efficiency of using high-strength composite materials at oil production sites we conducted a research of their physical-mechanical properties and modelled fiber pipe destruction process.

  20. Research of Spined Heat-Exchanging Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akulov Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Work is devoted to a research of spined heat-exchanging pipes that are assumed to use in air-cooler exchangers (ACE. The proposed new geometry of finning allows intensifying heat exchange and improving the efficiency of air coolers. It is caused by the increased area of finned surface with a value of finning ratio (the ratio of the area of the smooth pipe to a finned one to 42.7, while in the commercially available ACE, the figure is 22. Besides, the geometrical arrangement of the pin fins turbulizes the airflow. It should be mentioned that an easier method of manufacturing of heat exchanging pipes is proposed to use, which will reduce their costs. The proposed heat exchange pipes are made by winding cut aluminum strip to the supporting pipe or stretching stamped blanks on it. To increase the efficiency of the heat exchange surface pin fins should be as thin and long as possible; however, their strength should be sufficient for deformation-free operation. Fins should be staggered to maximize the distance between them. Spined heat-exchange pipes are designed to operate in a commercially produced ACE and their service is carried out similarly to commercially produced transversely finned pipes.

  1. CTS TEP thermal anomalies: Heat pipe system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, B. D.

    1977-01-01

    A part of the investigation is summarized of the thermal anomalies of the transmitter experiment package (TEP) on the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS) which were observed on four occasions in 1977. Specifically, the possible failure modes of the variable conductance heat pipe system (VCHPS) used for principal thermal control of the high-power traveling wave tube in the TEP are considered. Further, the investigation examines how those malfunctions may have given rise to the TEP thermal anomalies. Using CTS flight data information, ground test results, analysis conclusions, and other relevant information, the investigation concentrated on artery depriming as the most likely VCHPS failure mode. Included in the study as possible depriming mechanisms were freezing of the working fluid, Marangoni flow, and gas evolution within the arteries. The report concludes that while depriming of the heat pipe arteries is consistent with the bulk of the observed data, the factors which cause the arteries to deprime have yet to be identified.

  2. Augmented reality application for training in pipe defects ultrasonic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amza Cătălin Gheorghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development process of an Augmented Reality (AR application used for training operators in using ultrasonic equipment for non-destructive testing (NDT of pipework. The application provides workers useful information regarding the process steps, the main components of ultrasonic equipment and the proper modality of placing, aligning and moving it on pipe and weld. Using tablet or mobile phone device, an operator can see on screen written details and images on standardized working method, thus offering assistance during the training process. Allowing 3D augmented visualization of ultrasonic equipment overlaid on the real-world environment consisting in pipes and welds, the AR application makes the NDT process easier to understand and learn, as the initial evaluation results showed.

  3. Study on analysis of flow field in ejector suction pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Noh Hyeong [GS Caltex Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    An ejector is a fluid transportation device that operates based on the principle that a high pressure fluid is spouted through a driving pipe and the pressure of a low pressure fluid is increased through exchange of momentum with a low pressure gas. Steam steam ejectors have been widely used for suction, mixture, and dehydration. They can be easily used in places where fluid moves and expenses are reasonable. In addition, such ejectors are a semi permanent fluid device that requires little maintenance. In this study, we present an optimized design by analyzing what cannot be obtained through experiments in order to improve the device performance, analyze general contents of a flow by acquiring exact test data on specific and interpretative areas using more advanced experimental techniques, and identify the flow characteristics of a branch pipe by examining the validity of experiments using computer hydrodynamics simulations.

  4. TSTA Piping and Flame Arrestor Operating Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; Willms, R. Scott

    2014-10-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) was a facility dedicated to tritium handling technology and experiment research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The facility operated from 1984 to 2001, running a prototype fusion fuel processing loop with ~100 grams of tritium as well as small experiments. There have been several operating experience reports written on this facility’s operation and maintenance experience. This paper describes analysis of two additional components from TSTA, small diameter gas piping that handled small amounts of tritium in a nitrogen carrier gas, and the flame arrestor used in this piping system. The operating experiences and the component failure rates for these components are discussed in this paper. Comparison data from other applications are also presented.

  5. Prediction of Availability Indicator of Water Pipes Using Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutyłowska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of artificial neural networks application to the availability indicator prediction. The forecasted results indicate that artificial networks may be used to model the reliability level of the water supply systems. The network was trained using 147 and 173 operational data from one Polish medium-sized city (distribution pipes and house connections, respectively. 50% of all data was chosen for learning, 25% for testing and 25% for validation. In prognosis phase, the best created network used 100% of 114 and 133 values for testing. Following functions were used to activate neurons in hidden and output layers: linear, logistic, hyperbolic tangent, exponential. The learning of the artificial network was performed using following input parameters: material, total length, diameter. In the optimal models hyperbolic tangent was chosen to activate the hidden and output neurons in modeling the availability indicator of house connections during 68 epochs of training. Hidden and output neurons were activated (20 epochs of learning respectively by hyperbolic tangent and linear function during the prediction of availability indicator of distribution pipes. The maximum relative errors in learning and prognosis step were equal to 0.10% and 1.20% as well as 0.27% and 1.15% for distribution pipes and house connections, respectively.

  6. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  7. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    We report a fabrication method, which uses standard UV-lithography to pattern the catalyst for the chemical vapour deposition(CVD) of suspended double clamped single walled carbon nanotubes. By using an aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 the patterning of the catalyst material onto microelectrodes can...... be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...

  8. Field experience with a novel pipe protection and monitoring system for large offshore pipeline construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerstaedt, Michael; Blitz, Gunther [ROSEN Swiss AG, Stans (Switzerland); Sabido, Carlos E. [ROSEN Technology and Research Center, Lingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For pipe joints stored during large-scale offshore pipeline construction projects, corrosion protection as well as protection from physical damage of pipelines is very important. Integrity Management does not just start with the operation of a pipeline. In the past, with the much lower risks and cost at stake in on shore constriction, this factor was often overlooked. Sometimes, newly laid pipelines failed upon hydrostatic testing or even during operation. Causes were corrosion or damage the pipe joints took before pipeline laying. For offshore projects, the cost and consequences associated with such failures are orders of magnitude higher and must be avoided by all means. Within six months from the conception of the idea, a system was developed and deployed that protected (and in part still protects) a large number of pipe joints used in a European offshore gas pipeline project more than 2000 km. The pipe joints were physically protected from corrosion, interior contamination, and condensation. At the same time, the system provided real-time monitoring of more than 100'000 pipe joints stored at 5 storage yards distributed over 3 countries with distances of more than 1200 km apart from each other. Every single joint was identified with its location and status at every time during the storage period. Any third-party interference was transmitted to a central control room in real time as well. Protection of the pipe joints was provided vs.: corrosion of pipe joint end cutbacks exposed to the maritime climate for up to 2 years; contamination of the pipe interior by: foreign material, dirt, water, ice, animals. Third party damage to the pipe joints; damage to the protection system or to the transmission network; fire; theft of pipe joints or other equipment. System features were: modular pipe caps that, protect the pipe interior, cover both inner and outer cutback, allow ventilation of the pipe interior, continuously monitor each pipe joint for third party damage

  9. 49 CFR 192.121 - Design of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of plastic pipe. 192.121 Section 192.121... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.121 Design of plastic pipe. Subject to the limitations of § 192.123, the design pressure for plastic pipe is determined by either of the...

  10. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that is...

  11. Modelling and performance of heat pipes with long evaporator sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel W.; te Riele, Gert Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a planar cooling strategy for advanced electronic applications using heat pipe technology. The principle idea is to use an array of relatively long heat pipes, whereby heat is disposed to a long section of the pipes. The proposed design uses 1 m long heat pipes and top cooling

  12. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following... § 192.113. T=Temperature derating factor determined in accordance with § 192.115. (b) If steel pipe that...

  13. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must meet...

  14. 46 CFR 154.526 - Piping joints: Flange connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Flange connection. 154.526 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.526 Piping joints: Flange connection. Flange connections for pipe joints must meet § 56.30-10 and § 56.50-105 (a)(4) and (b)(4) of this chapter. ...

  15. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type of piping joint used shall be suitable for the design conditions and shall be selected with consideration of...

  16. 46 CFR 154.514 - Piping: Electrical bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Electrical bonding. 154.514 Section 154.514... and Process Piping Systems § 154.514 Piping: Electrical bonding. (a) Cargo tanks or piping that are... side. (c) An electrical bond must be made by at least one of the following methods: (1) A metal bonding...

  17. Study Fatigue in Materials of Drill Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Argirov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Upon examination of a fracture burst, it was found out that the main reason for this is the fatigue of the material in the annular section of the pipes. Analysis was made of the stress state and its impact on the nature of the destruction. In a working conditions, especially in rotor drilling, a direct correlation between the loss of stability of the column in the compression zone and the destruction of drill piping due to fatigue failures in material is established. Object of study is the nature of the destruction of defective drill pipe

  18. Drill pipe threaded nipple connection design development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruev, A. L.; Saruev, L. A.; Vasenin, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the behavior of the drill pipe nipple connection under the additional load generated by power pulses. The strain wave propagation through the nipple thread connection of drill pipes to the bottomhole is studied in this paper. The improved design of the nipple thread connection is suggested using the obtained experimental and theoretical data. The suggested connection design allows not only the efficient transmission of strain wave energy to a drill bit but also the automation of making-up and breaking-out drill pipes.

  19. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  20. Wind tunnel data of the analysis of heat pipe and wind catcher technology for the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calautit, John Kaiser; Chaudhry, Hassam Nasarullah; Hughes, Ben Richard

    2015-12-01

    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled 'Climate responsive behaviour heat pipe technology for enhanced passive airside cooling' by Chaudhry and Hughes [10] which presents the passive airside cooling capability of heat pipes in response to gradually varying external temperatures and related to the research article "CFD and wind tunnel study of the performance of a uni-directional wind catcher with heat transfer devices" by Calautit and Hughes [1] which compares the ventilation performance of a standard roof mounted wind catcher and wind catcher incorporating the heat pipe technology. Here, we detail the wind tunnel test set-up and inflow conditions and the methodologies for the transient heat pipe experiment and analysis of the integration of heat pipes within the control domain of a wind catcher design.

  1. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  2. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 4: The pipe failure event database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tomic, B. [ENCONET Consulting GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Visat, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Available public and proprietary databases on piping system failures were searched for relevant information. Using a relational database to identify groupings of piping failure modes and failure mechanisms, together with insights from published PSAs, the project team determined why, how and where piping systems fail. This report represents a compendium of technical issues important to the analysis of pipe failure events, and statistical estimation of failure rates. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A `data driven and systems oriented` analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failure. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 42 refs, 25 figs.

  3. EFFORT OF STEEL PIPE JACKING IN TERMS OF IMPERFECTION PIPES AND HETEROGENEITY OF GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Górski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article presents problem of the influence of local inhomogeneities of ground on the internal forces in the steel pipe. Methodology. The authors presented the differences in the distributions of earth pressures for the pipes. One of the most common methods is the microtunneling technology. The examples of numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM have been calculated. Findings. The results of numerical analysis are presented for selected ground conditions and the distribution of internal forces in the flexible section of the steel pipe is also shown. Originality and Practical value. The obtained results clearly show the influence of flexural rigidity of the pipe on the internal forces, the influence of flexural rigidity and the soil stiffness on the size of the bending moments in the steel of pipe jacking. They depend on the interaction of soil – steel pipe.

  4. Comparative study of bend pipe for circular section and ovality induced bend pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giresh Chaudhari, Akshay; Sharan Chandran, M.

    2017-11-01

    Pipes are used all over the world for the basic utility of transfer of small solids, gases, slurries and liquids. Sometimes the term pipes and tubes is interchangeably used, the difference remains. The cross-sectional variations of these flow components results in the variation of characteristics under pressurized conditions. In the manufacturing of bend pipes the control over the outer diameter is quiet easily possible, but the inner diameter variations can be expected. At the bend, the thinning of the exterior part of the bend and the thickening of the interior part is seen. In the subsequent study the comparative flow analysis of the bend pipe of a circular cross-section and the oval pipe is analyzed. The characteristics flow velocity change, turbulence induced, density and pressure variations, temperature change in its course are focused. ANSYS FLUENT is used for the analysis of a standalone pipe of specified dimensions.

  5. Effect of Hot-Bending Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Property of K65 Submerged ARC Welded Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liming; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Xin; Wang, Yinbai

    Hot-bended pipes are essential parts in the construction of long distance pipeline. They are usually made from longitudinally submerged arc welding (LSAW) pipes subjected to hot bending process including quenching and tempering process, which often deteriorates the impact property of the welded pipe. A hot-bended LSAW pipe with a wall thickness of 30.8 mm was fabricated by double-sided four wires submerged arc welding with solid wire and fused flux. Microstructural and property of both as-weld and as-bended pipe were examined. The pipes in two states show a similar tensile strength of 665-670 MPa, and fail in the heat affected zone during the tensile test. The weld metal of as-welded pipe consists of acicular ferrite and small fraction bainite and M-A constituents, while mixture of polygonal ferrite, degenerate perlite and precipitated carbides of metal elements was found in the weld metal of the as-bended pipe. The hot bending process decreases the fraction of acicular ferrite from 66.4 to 47.5%, and the fraction of high angle grain boundary from 76.8 to 67.1%. Therefore, both the type of microstructure and the fraction of ductile microstructures were the influencing factors of weld metal impact toughness, which lead to a reduction from 162 J to 84 J at -40°C.

  6. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  7. Optimatization of loop heat pipe for cooling of electrotechnical box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Banovcan; Tomas, Puchor; Andrej, Kapjor; Milan, Malcho

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with use of LOOP thermosyphon heat pipe to transfer heat from electrotechnical box and describe of construction individual types of LOOP heat pipes. The LOOP heat pipe is very good cooling device which requires no mechanical parts in their design. LOOP heat pipe use only phase change during heat transfer, without a compressor, fan or pump. LOOP heat pipe is more energy saving compared to conventional cooling systems with forced convection. The main advantage of cooling by heat pipe is that electrotechnical box can be hermetically closed (dust -free construction), because dust reduces the lifetime of electrotechnical elements in box. Lifetime of LOOP heat pipe equals to the lifetime of construction material. The paper describes mathematical model of LOOP thermosyphon heat pipe (condenser). Compares selected types of working fluids which are filled with a heat pipe and construction materials of heat pipe.

  8. Influence of wetting effect at the outer surface of the pipe on increase in leak rate - experimental results and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isozaki, Toshikuni; Shibata, Katsuyuki

    1997-04-01

    Experimental and computed results applicable to Leak Before Break analysis are presented. The specific area of investigation is the effect of the temperature distribution changes due to wetting of the test pipe near the crack on the increase in the crack opening area and leak rate. Two 12-inch straight pipes subjected to both internal pressure and thermal load, but not to bending load, are modelled. The leak rate was found to be very susceptible to the metal temperature of the piping. In leak rate tests, therefore, it is recommended that temperature distribution be measured precisely for a wide area.

  9. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite derived suspended sediment concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Ratheesh; Rajawat, A. S.

    2012-10-01

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are realized with respect to the sediment size distribution and the bottom bed materials observed in the Gulf. Simulated SSCs are compared with alternate OCM derived SSC. The results are observed to be impetus where the model is able to generate the spatial dynamics of the sediment concentrations. Sediment dynamics like deposition, erosion and dispersion are explained with the simulated tidal currents and OCM derived sediment concentrations. Tidal range is observed as the important physical factor controlling the deposition and resuspension of sediments within the Gulf. From the simulation studies; maximum residual current velocities, tidal fronts and high turbulent zones are found to characterise the islands and shoals within the Gulf, which results in high sediment concentrations in those regions. Remarkable variability in the bathymetry of the Gulf, different bed materials and varying tidal conditions induces several circulation patterns and turbulence creating the unique suspended sediment concentration pattern in the Gulf.

  10. A Model for Predicting the Yield Strength Difference between Pipe and Plate of Low-Carbon Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlong; Ding, Dongyan; Gu, Mingyuan

    2012-12-01

    A combination of finite-element calculation and tension-compression tests was employed to predict the yield strength difference between the pipe and plate of low-carbon microalloyed steel (LCMS) in the production of high-frequency straight bead welding pipes (HFSBWPs). The deformation process was divided into bending, flattening, and tension deformations. The bending and flattening deformations were simulated using a finite-element method in order to obtain circumferential strains at pipe wall positions along the wall thickness. These strains were the transition strains in the subsequent tension-compression-tension and compression-tension tests. The yield stresses (0.5 pct proof stresses) at the pipe wall positions were derived from the obtained stress-strain curves. The average of the obtained yield stresses was taken as the predicted yield strength of the pipes. It is found that the difference between the latter and the strength of the original steel plates is a result of the combined action of the Bauschinger effect and strain hardening caused by bending and reverse bending deformations. It is strongly dependent on the ratio of pipe wall thickness to pipe outer diameter ( T/D ratio). At low T/D ratios, the Bauschinger effect was dominant, resulting in a decreased yield strength. Strain hardening due to work hardening was dominant at higher T/D ratios, resulting in an increased yield strength. The increase in yield strength was greater at the inner pipe walls than at outer ones, indicating that strain hardening is stronger at inner pipe walls. The yield strength differences predicted with the presented approach are comparable with the values obtained from industrial productions of HFSBWPs, indicating that this approach can be used to predict the yield strength difference between pipe and plate of LCMS.

  11. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical equation that can be used for estimating the suspended sediment yields of river drainage basins without sediment data has been established for basins in the sub-tropical forest Southwestern river basin system of Ghana. The power law equation relates mean annual specific suspended sediment yield (t km-2 ...

  12. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud. Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  13. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  14. A wave-resolving model for nearshore suspended sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Shi, Fengyan

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a wave-resolving sediment transport model, which is capable of simulating sediment suspension in the field-scale surf zone. The surf zone hydrodynamics is modeled by the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012). The turbulent flow and suspended sediment are simulated in a coupled manner. Three effects of suspended sediment on turbulent flow field are considered: (1) baroclinic forcing effect; (2) turbulence damping effect and (3) bottom boundary layer effect. Through the validation with the laboratory measurements of suspended sediment under nonbreaking skewed waves and surfzone breaking waves, we demonstrate that the model can reasonably predict wave-averaged sediment profiles. The model is then utilized to simulate a rip current field experiment (RCEX) and nearshore suspended sediment transport. The offshore sediment transport by rip currents is captured by the model. The effects of suspended sediment on self-suspension are also investigated. The turbulence damping and bottom boundary layer effects are significant on sediment suspension. The suspended sediment creates a stably stratified water column, damping fluid turbulence and reducing turbulent diffusivity. The suspension of sediment also produces a stably stratified bottom boundary layer. Thus, the drag coefficient and bottom shear stress are reduced, causing less sediment pickup from the bottom. The cross-shore suspended sediment flux is analyzed as well. The mean Eulerian suspended sediment flux is shoreward outside the surf zone, while it is seaward in the surf zone.

  15. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many natural gums are employed as suspending agents in the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The search to develop locally available natural gum from apparently a waste product as an alternative suspending agent stimulated the interest in this present study. Cola acuminata gum (CAG) extracted from Cola ...

  16. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the... suspended particulates persist. The biological and the chemical content of the suspended material may react with the dissolved oxygen in the water, which can result in oxygen depletion. Toxic metals and organics...

  17. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  18. Evaluation of the suspending property of grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in sulphadimidine suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for sulphadimidine. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  19. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  20. Evaluation of the Suspending Property of Grewia Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in metronidazole suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for metronidazole. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  1. A simple method for removing leakage of metal pipes, like district heating and NG pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabaeeghomi, Mohammad; Mahmoudi, Jafar (Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden)). E-mail: Jafar.Mahmoudi@mdh.se; Liaghat, Gholamhossien (Tarbiat Modaress Univ., Tehran (Iran))

    2009-07-01

    Explosive welding occur under high velocity oblique impact, though it is possible to use explosive energy to form a usual cold pressure weld. One of the advantages of this method is welding kind of materials with different shapes together. The ability of explosive welding can be used to maintenance of pipes and vessels, preventing pipe leakage especially under water in oil and gas industries. This research suggests a simple explosive welding method for removing the leakage of metal pipes that is very economy and easy for repairing pipes and vessels full of water or liquid

  2. UOE Pipe Manufacturing Process Simulation: Equipment Designing and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistoian, Dmitri; Chirchor, Mihael

    2017-12-01

    UOE pipe manufacturing process influence directly on pipeline resilience and operation capacity. At present most spreaded pipe manufacturing method is UOE. This method is based on cold forming. After each technological step appears a certain stress and strain level. For pipe stress strain study is designed and constructed special equipment that simulate entire technological process.UOE pipe equipment is dedicated for manufacturing of longitudinally submerged arc welded DN 400 (16 inch) steel pipe.

  3. Detection of Fatigue Crack in Basalt FRP Laminate Composite Pipe using Electrical Potential Change Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altabey, Wael A.; Noori, Mohammed

    2017-05-01

    Novel modulation electrical potential change (EPC) method for fatigue crack detection in a basalt fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) laminate composite pipe is carried out in this paper. The technique is applied to a laminate pipe with an embedded crack in three layers [0º/90º/0º]s. EPC is applied for evaluating the dielectric properties of basalt FRP pipe by using an electrical capacitance sensor (ECS) to discern damages in the pipe. Twelve electrodes are mounted on the outer surface of the pipe and the changes in the modulation dielectric properties of the piping system are analyzed to detect damages in the pipe. An embedded crack is created by a fatigue internal pressure test. The capacitance values, capacitance change and node potential distribution of ECS electrodes are calculated before and after crack initiates using a finite element method (FEM) by ANSYS and MATLAB, which are combined to simulate sensor characteristics and fatigue behaviour. The crack lengths of the basalt FRP are investigated for various number of cycles to failure for determining crack growth rate. Response surfaces are adopted as a tool for solving inverse problems to estimate crack lengths from the measured electric potential differences of all segments between electrodes to validate the FEM results. The results show that, the good convergence between the FEM and estimated results. Also the results of this study show that the electrical potential difference of the basalt FRP laminate increases during cyclic loading, caused by matrix cracking. The results indicate that the proposed method successfully provides fatigue crack detection for basalt FRP laminate composite pipes.

  4. Implementation of a Multi-channel Ultrasonic Thickness Monitoring Technique for a High Temperature Pipe Thinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Yong Moo; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Dong Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Se Beom [Dankook Univ., Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Currently pipe thinning has occurred in the carbon steel piping in nuclear power plants. In order to monitor a FAC(Flow Accelerated Corrosion) in a pipe, there is a need to monitor the pipe wall thickness at a high temperature. An ultrasonic thickness measurement method is a well-known and most commonly used nondestructive testing technique for wall thickness monitoring of a piping or plate. However, conventional ultrasonic thickness gauging techniques cannot be applied to high temperatures of above 200 .deg. C, because conventional piezo-ceramic becomes depolarized at temperatures above the Curie temperature as well as the difference of thermal expansion of the substrate, couplant, and piezoelectric materials may cause a failure. In addition, this manual ultrasonic method reveals several disadvantages: inspections have to be performed during shutdowns with the possible consequences of prolonging down time and increasing production losses, insulation has to be removed and replaced for each manual measurement, and scaffolding has to be installed to inaccessible areas, resulting in considerable cost for intervention. In order to solve those fundamental problems occurring during the propagation of ultrasound at high temperature, a shear horizontal waveguide technique for wall thickness monitoring at high temperatures is developed. Multi-channel ultrasonic wall thickness monitoring system for pipe thinning at high temperature is developed. The pitch-catch method was used with two shear horizontal waveguides. A clamping device for dry coupling contact between the end of waveguide and pipe surface is developed. A computer program for multi-channel on-line monitoring of the pipe thickness at high temperature was developed. Measurement errors were minimized by a moving gate control with temperature variation, normalization of signal amplitude, automatic determination of ultrasonic flight time, and temperature compensation capabilities.

  5. Preliminary Study for Development of Welds Integrity Verification Equipment for the Small Bore Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Suk; Lee, Jong Eun; Ryu, Jung Hoon; Cho, Kyoung Youn; Sohn, Myoung Sung [KEA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi Ho [SUNG IL(SIM)Co., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hong Seok [KEPCO KPS, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It has been reported leakage accident of small-bore piping in Korea. Leakage accident of small-bore pipes are those that will increase due to the aging of the nuclear power plant. And if leakage of the pipe is repaired by using the clamping device when it occur accident, it is economically benefits. The clamping device is a fastening device used to hold or secure objects tightly together to prevent movement or separation through the application of inward pressure. However, when the accident occurs, it can't immediately respond because maintenance and repairing technology are not institutionalized in KEPIC. Thus it appears an economic loss. The technology for corresponding thereto is necessary for the safety of the operation of nuclear power plants. The purpose of this research is to develop an online repairing technology of socket welded pipe and vibration monitoring system of small-bore pipe in the nuclear power plant. Specifically, detailed studies are as follows : • Development of weld overlay method of safety class socket welded connections • Development of Mechanical Clamping Devices for Safety Class 2, 3 small-bore pipe. The purpose of this study is to develop an online repairing technology of socket welded pipe and vibration monitoring system of small-bore pipe, resulting in degraded plant systems. And it is necessary to institutionalize the technology. The fatigue crack testing of socket welded overlay will be performed and fatigue life evaluation method will be developed in second year. Also prototype fabrication of mechanical clamping device will be completed. Base on final goal, the intent is to propose practical evaluation tools, design and fabrication methods for socket welded connection integrity. And result of this study is to development of KEPIC code case approved technology for on-line repairing system of socket welded connection and fabrication of mechanical clamping device.

  6. North Dakota Piping Plover Survey : 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Packet of information on conducting piping plover surveys in North Dakota for 1992. These surveys are part of a cooperative effort with other resource agencies and...

  7. Modular Heat Exchanger With Integral Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    1992-01-01

    Modular heat exchanger with integral heat pipe transports heat from source to Stirling engine. Alternative to heat exchangers depending on integrities of thousands of brazed joints, contains only 40 brazed tubes.

  8. Reentrant-Groove Hydrogen Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.

    1982-01-01

    Aluminum heat pipe extruded with reentrant axial grooves, which give better overall performance than conventional rectangular grooves. Reentrant grooves increase wicking height of cryogenic fluids and also lower amount of fluid charge required.

  9. Multi-leg heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.

    1986-04-01

    A multileg heat pipe evaporator facilitates the use and application of a monogroove heat pipe by providing an evaporation section which is compact in area and structurally more compatible with certain heat exchangers or heat input apparatus. The evaporation section of a monogroove heat pipe is formed by a series of parallel legs having a liquid and a vapor channel and a communicating capillary slot therebetween. The liquid and vapor channels and interconnecting capillary slots of the evaporating section are connected to the condensing section of the heat pipe by a manifold connecting liquid and vapor channels of the parallel evaporation section legs with the corresponding liquid and vapor channels of the condensing section.

  10. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  11. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  12. Rhode Island Piping Plover Restoration Project 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The recovery plan for Piping Plover on Rhode Island discusses the current status of the species, habitat requirements and limiting factors, recovery objectives and...

  13. 46 CFR 64.95 - Piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... operator at the cargo pump controls. (c) Each pipe and valve in the pumping system that has an open end... if a backflow condition may occur during pumping. (f) Any non-metallic flexible hose that is used in...

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Heat Pipe Wicks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wick properties are often the limiting factor in a heat pipe design. Current technology uses conventional sintering of metal powders, screen wick, or grooves to...

  15. Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna

    2012-08-01

    Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

  16. 75 FR 8113 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. DATES: Effective Date...

  17. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  18. Failure envelope modelling of glass/epoxy composite pipes using system identification method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ang Jia; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Nor, Azuwir Mohd; Yaacob, Sazali; Ridzuan, M. J. M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper aims to model the performance of the Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) composite pipe under multiaxial loading via system identification approach. System identification modelling depends on the input and output data of the experimental result. In this study, the experimental data used are obtained from a pressurised test rig. The model is based on pure hydrostatic (2H: 1A) loading using GRE pipes with three different winding angles (±45 °, ±55 °, ±63 °). Several models based on different model structures are derived for comparison to obtain the best modelling accuracy. The result shows that the transfer function method could model and has the highest efficiency compared with the experimental result. The ±45 ° pipe model have achieved 92.41% and 85.13% for both its hoop and axial model. The ±55 ° pipe model has achieved 96.64% and 86.1%. Follow by the ±63° which the best fit is 92.41% and 94.26%. At the last part of this research, the ±55° pipe model and experimental data has been use to identified when the damage occur and found that the axial strain of 78 bar can damage the experimental pipe in this research.

  19. A novel freeze protection strategy for shallow buried sewer pipes: temperature modelling and field investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericault, Youen; Risberg, Mikael; Vesterlund, Mattias; Viklander, Maria; Hedström, Annelie

    2017-07-01

    The burial of sewer and water pipes below the maximum ground frost depth can be very costly and laborious in regions with cold winters. If a freeze protection measure is applied, the utility lines can be installed in a shallower trench to reduce the excavation needs. One freeze protection measure, so called heat tracing, consists of supplying heat along the pipes. In this work, the use of 4th generation district heating as a heat tracing solution was investigated at a pilot site in Kiruna, Sweden. The influence of the system on sewer and water pipe temperatures was studied at a snow-free and snow-covered cross section. To this end, five heat tracing temperatures were tested and the corresponding sewer and water pipe temperatures were measured. The field experiment was also simulated with a two dimensional finite volume model. The study showed that, under the climatic conditions of the experiment, a heat tracing temperature of 25 °C allowed prevention of freezing of the pipes while keeping drinking water pipes in a safe temperature range at both cross sections. The other main result was that the developed finite volume model of the sections showed a good fitting to the experimental data.

  20. Dynamic thermal characteristics of heat pipe via segmented thermal resistance model for electric vehicle battery cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifei; Lan, Fengchong; Chen, Jiqing

    2016-07-01

    Heat pipe cooling for battery thermal management systems (BTMSs) in electric vehicles (EVs) is growing due to its advantages of high cooling efficiency, compact structure and flexible geometry. Considering the transient conduction, phase change and uncertain thermal conditions in a heat pipe, it is challenging to obtain the dynamic thermal characteristics accurately in such complex heat and mass transfer process. In this paper, a ;segmented; thermal resistance model of a heat pipe is proposed based on thermal circuit method. The equivalent conductivities of different segments, viz. the evaporator and condenser of pipe, are used to determine their own thermal parameters and conditions integrated into the thermal model of battery for a complete three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The proposed ;segmented; model shows more precise than the ;non-segmented; model by the comparison of simulated and experimental temperature distribution and variation of an ultra-thin micro heat pipe (UMHP) battery pack, and has less calculation error to obtain dynamic thermal behavior for exact thermal design, management and control of heat pipe BTMSs. Using the ;segmented; model, the cooling effect of the UMHP pack with different natural/forced convection and arrangements is predicted, and the results correspond well to the tests.

  1. Suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells device with bottom silver reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xumin; Li, Xin; Yang, Yongchao; Yuan, Wei; Xu, Yin; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yongjin

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we propose, fabricate, and characterize suspended p-n junction InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) device with a bottom silver reflector for diverse applications. The suspended device was achieved through a double-side process on the GaN-on-silicon platform and tested by using a micro-reflectance/transmittance setup. When the suspended device operates under the light-emitting diode mode, a fraction of the emitted light reflected by the bottom silver reflector can enter into the air through the top escape cone, leading to improved light extraction efficiency. When the suspended device operates under the photodiode mode, part of the transmitted light can be reflected back by the bottom silver reflector to enhance the photovoltaic effect. The experimental results demonstrate that such suspended device can be used as both transmitter and receiver for visible light communication. And the detecting features even when the suspended structure is under turn-on state, demonstrating a potential realization of light emission and photodetection simultaneously.

  2. The Effect of Superficial Damage on the Mechanical Properties of Flexible Composite Pipe for Transporting Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Amparo Quintero Ortiz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the influence of outer sheath scratching on the mechanical properties of two systems of flexible composite pipe with nonmetal-reinforcement for transporting hydrocarbons. Tensile testing was carried out on notched rings, using Shore D hardness testing, and by physical characterization using cofocal microscopy on specimens with and without superficial damage. The tests were conducted following international technical standards and specifications. The results showed that variation in the depth and spacing of scratches affect the mechanical properties of the pipe, reducing ultimate tensile strength and leading to unit deformation. The effects are greater the deeper the scratches.

  3. Improvement in Mechanical Properties of SA508 Gr.1a Piping Material by Modifying Microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Choi, Myung Rak [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin; Park, Heung Bae; Kim, Kyung Su [KEPCO E-C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It is attempted to apply LBB concept to the design of secondary piping systems, such as main-steam line and feed-water line. But, for obtaining sufficient margin in LBB analysis for these piping systems, it is necessary to reduce the applied loads by improving structural design and to employ piping material with higher toughness and strength than existing piping materials such as SA106 Gr.C and SA106 Gr.B carbon steels. SA508 Gr.1a ferritic steel has been used for the reactor coolant system (RCS) piping in KSNP (Korea Nuclear Power Plant) and is known to have good toughness and strength as well as weld ability. Such characteristics provide a sufficient margin in the LBB analysis for RCS piping. Based on SA508 Gr.1a piping material, thus, this study attempts to obtain a further improved piping material by modifying microstructure of SA508 Gr.1a without change of chemical composition. In order to obtain a modified microstructure, thus, this study simply heat-treated again SA508 Gr.1a piping material at the same heat-treatment condition that had been employed in the fabrication of SA508 Gr.1a piping material. The microstructure is composed of the homogeneous mixture of fine-grained ferrite and bainite. This is different from that of as-received SA508 Gr.1a. This difference is associated with different size of object to be heat-treated. This shows that SA508 Gr.1a piping material has a microstructure with fine-grained ferrite and bainite mixture, which provides good toughness and strength, if it is properly heat-treated. Tensile and J-R tests were conducted using specimens machined form modified SA508 Gr.1a piping material given by heat-treated, and the results were compared with those tested from as-received SA508 Gr..1a piping material. At 316 .deg. C, however, both strength and elongation of modified SA508 Gr.1a are higher than those of as-received SA508 Gra.1a. The results of J-R tests showed that J-R curve of modified SA508 Gr.1a is almost the same as that of as

  4. Laboratory Investigation of Buried Pipes Using Geogrid and EPS Geofoam Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaj, O.; Azizian, M.; Moghaddas Tafreshi, S. N.; Mašek, B.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory tests conducted on flexible PVC pipes with diameter of 160 mm, buried in unreinforced and reinforced trench with geogrid layer and expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam block. The repeated load with amplitude of 450 kPa and frequency of 0.33 Hz was applied on the trench surface, using plate loading at a diameter of 150 mm to simulate the vehicle loads. Vertical diameter strain (VDS), strain at pipe’s crown and transferred pressure on the pipe’s crown were recorded throughout the test for up to 500 cycles of loading. The variables examined in the testing program include thickness of EPS block (30, 60 and 100 mm) and its density (10, 20 and 30 kg/cm3). The pipes were embedded at depths 1.5 times their diameter and the width of EPS block was kept constant at 2.0 times the pipe diameter in all tests. The results show that the values of VDS and pipe strain increased rapidly during the initial loading cycles, thereafter the rate of deformation and strain reduced significantly as the number of load cycles increased. According to the results, the minimum VDS and pipe’s crown strain were provided by 100 mm thickness and 30 kg/cm3 of EPS block placed over the pipe with a geogrid layer giving values of, respectively, 0.15 and 0.10 times those obtained in the reinforced trench with a geogrid layer.

  5. Heat-Exchanger/Heat-Pipe Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, H. J.; Van Hagan, T. H.

    1987-01-01

    Monolithic assembly reliable and light in weight. Heat exchanger and evaporator ends of heat pipes integrated in monolithic halves welded together. Interface assembly connects heat exchanger of furnace, reactor, or other power source with heat pipes carrying heat to radiator or power-consuming system. One of several concepts proposed for nuclear power supplies aboard spacecraft, interface useful on Earth in solar thermal power systems, heat engines, and lightweight cooling systems.

  6. FEM analysis of soil-pipe interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, P.; Chun, Wu; Burkov, V.; Burkova, S.

    2017-07-01

    One of the most important factors of the pipeline buckling is soil distortion. The paper presents the model of the stress-strain state of the pipeline simulated with ANSYS software package and the finite element model of soil-pipe interaction. The analysis of soil distortions nearby the pipeline and its passive resistance is presented herein with due regard for the different pipe depths.

  7. Drag reduction in riblet-lined pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enyutin, G.V.; Lashkov, Yu.A.; Samoilova, N.V.

    1995-07-01

    The possibilities of reducing the drag in pipes with a circular cross section by lining them with riblets have been investigated experimentally for developed turbulent air flow. The maximum drag reduction of 6-7% in the riblet-lined as compared with the smooth pipe was obtained for a dimensionless riblet pitch, expressed in law-of-the-wall parameters, s{sup +} = 14-18.

  8. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Yang; Chengyi Song; Wen Shang; Peng Tao; Tao Deng

    2015-01-01

    In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible ...

  9. Multilayer fabric stratification pipes for solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    be achieved by use of inlet stratifiers combined with low flow operation in the solar collector loop. In this paper, investigations of a number of different fabric stratification pipes are presented and compared to a non flexible inlet stratifier. Additional, detailed investigations of the flow structure...... close to two fabric stratification pipes are presented for one set of operating conditions by means of the optical PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method....

  10. Heat Pipe Technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This bibliography lists 149 references with abstracts and 47 patents dealing with applications of heat pipe technology. Topics covered include: heat exchangers for heat recovery; electrical and electronic equipment cooling; temperature control of spacecraft; cryosurgery; cryogenic, cooling; nuclear reactor heat transfer; solar collectors; laser mirror cooling; laser vapor cavitites; cooling of permafrost; snow melting; thermal diodes variable conductance; artery gas venting; and venting; and gravity assisted pipes.

  11. Drill pipe threaded nipple connection design development

    OpenAIRE

    Saruev, Aleksey Lvovich; Saruev, Lev Alekseevich; Vasenin, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of the behavior of the drill pipe nipple connection under the additional load generated by power pulses. The strain wave propagation through the nipple thread connection of drill pipes to the bottomhole is studied in this paper. The improved design of the nipple thread connection is suggested using the obtained experimental and theoretical data. The suggested connection design allows not only the efficient transmission of strain wave energy to a drill bit but a...

  12. Analysis of Fracture Behaviour of Multilayer Pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbedová, E.; Knésl, Zdeněk; Vlach, B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2007), s. 207-212 ISSN 1465-8011. [Plastic Pipes /13./. Washington, D. C., 02.10.2006-05.10.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1284 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : multi-layer pipes Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.431, year: 2007

  13. Turbulent transition modification in dispersed two-phase pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Kyle; Longmire, Ellen

    2014-11-01

    In a pipe flow, transition to turbulence occurs at some critical Reynolds number, Rec , and transition is associated with intermittent swirling structures extending over the pipe cross section. Depending on the magnitude of Rec , these structures are known either as puffs or slugs. When a dispersed second liquid phase is added to a liquid pipe flow, Rec can be modified. To explore the mechanism for this modification, an experiment was designed to track and measure these transitional structures. The facility is a pump-driven circuit with a 9m development and test section of diameter 44mm. Static mixers are placed upstream to generate an even dispersion of silicone oil in a water-glycerine flow. Pressure signals were used to identify transitional structures and trigger a high repetition rate stereo-PIV system downstream. Stereo-PIV measurements were obtained in planes normal to the flow, and Taylor's Hypothesis was employed to infer details of the volumetric flow structure. The presentation will describe the sensing and imaging methods along with preliminary results for the single and two-phase flows. Supported by Nanodispersions Technology.

  14. Mechanical Interaction in Pressurized Pipe Systems: Experiments and Numerical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Simão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic interaction between the unsteady flow occurrence and the resulting vibration of the pipe are analyzed based on experiments and numerical models. Waterhammer, structural dynamic and fluid–structure interaction (FSI are the main subjects dealt with in this study. Firstly, a 1D model is developed based on the method of characteristics (MOC using specific damping coefficients for initial components associated with rheological pipe material behavior, structural and fluid deformation, and type of anchored structural supports. Secondly a 3D coupled complex model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, using a Finite Element Method (FEM, is also applied to predict and distinguish the FSI events. Herein, a specific hydrodynamic model of viscosity to replicate the operation of a valve was also developed to minimize the number of mesh elements and the complexity of the system. The importance of integrated analysis of fluid–structure interaction, especially in non-rigidity anchored pipe systems, is equally emphasized. The developed models are validated through experimental tests.

  15. Measurements of terahertz radiation generated using a metallic, corrugated pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl, E-mail: kbane@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stupakov, Gennady [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Antipov, Sergey [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Bolingbrook, IL 60440 (United States); Fedurin, Mikhail; Kusche, Karl; Swinson, Christina [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Xiang, Dao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-02-01

    A method for producing narrow-band THz radiation proposes passing an ultra-relativistic beam through a metallic pipe with small periodic corrugations. We present results of a measurement of such an arrangement at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). Our pipe was copper and was 5 cm long; the aperture was cylindrically symmetric, with a 1 mm (radius) bore and a corrugation depth (peak-to-peak) of 60 µm. In the experiment we measured both the effect on the beam of the structure wakefield and the spectral properties of the radiation excited by the beam. We began by injecting a relatively long beam compared to the wavelength of the radiation, but with short rise time, to excite the structure, and then used a downstream spectrometer to infer the radiation wavelength. This was followed by injecting a shorter bunch, and then using an interferometer (also downstream of the corrugated pipe) to measure the spectrum of the induced THz radiation. For the THz pulse we obtain and compare with calculations: the central frequency, the bandwidth, and the spectral power—compared to a diffraction radiation background signal.

  16. Moisture Accumulation and Its Impact on the Thermal Performance of Pipe Insulation for Chilled Water Pipes in High Performance Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Shanshan; Cremaschi, Lorenzo; Ghajar, Afshin J.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical pipe insulation systems are commonly applied to cold piping surfaces in most industrial and commercial buildings in order to limit the heat losses and prevent water vapor condensation on the pipe exterior surfaces. Due to the fact that the surface temperature of these pipelines is normally below the ambient dew point temperature, water vapor diffuses inside the pipe insulation systems and often condenses when it reaches the pipe exterior surfaces. The water droplets accumulated in ...

  17. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2011-01-01

    is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels...... exposed to the predatory shore crab (Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended...

  18. Space shuttle heat pipe thermal control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, J.

    1973-01-01

    Heat pipe (HP) thermal control systems designed for possible space shuttle applications were built and tested under this program. They are: (1) a HP augmented cold rail, (2) a HP/phase change material (PCM) modular heat sink and (3) a HP radiating panel for compartment temperature control. The HP augmented cold rail is similar to a standard two-passage fluid cold rail except that it contains an integral, centrally located HP throughout its length. The central HP core helps to increase the local power density capability by spreading concentrated heat inputs over the entire rail. The HP/PCM modular heat sink system consists of a diode HP connected in series to a standard HP that has a PCM canister attached to its mid-section. It is designed to connect a heat source to a structural heat sink during normal operation, and to automatically decouple from it and sink to the PCM whenever structural temperatures are too high. The HP radiating panel is designed to conductively couple the panel feeder HPs directly to a fluid line that serves as a source of waste heat. It is a simple strap-on type of system that requires no internal or external line modifications to distribute the heat to a large radiating area.

  19. Small Bore Piping Socket Weld Evaluation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Min; Cho, Hong Seok; Choi, Sang Hoon; Cho, Ki Hyun; Lee, Jang Wook [Korea Plant Service and Enginccring Co., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Kori unit 3 had stopped operation due to leakage at Steam Generator drain line socket weld on June 6, 2008. The Cause of socket weld damage was known as a fatigue crack. According to this case, all socket welds located in RCS pressure boundary are carrying out Radiographic Testing. But to inspect socket welds by RT has some problems. The result of EPRI study showed that RT has limitation to find flaws at socket welds.The orientation of flaws has big influence on RT inspection capability and there is not enough space at socket welds for RT, dose problems as well. Although the gap between coupling and pipe at socket welds must follow up code, surface inspection can't inspect the gap. If there is absence of the gap, socket welds are damaged during operation. The gap should be identified by RT but the distance of gap can't be measured. As this paper, the ultrasonic inspection system was introduced to figure out indication and gap in the socket welds.

  20. State of the art: Technological evolution and performances of polyethylene for pipes manufacturing; Stato dell`arte: Evoluzione tecnologica e prestazioni del polietilene per la fabbricazione di condotte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzariti, Francesco [Solvav S.A. Italia (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    The major characteristics of a new PE-HD generation meant for the manufacture of gas pipes are shown. The PE resin of the third generation for pipe extrusion differs from conventional PE due to its improved mechanical resistance in the long run, its higher resistance to rapid crack propagation, stress cracking and slow crack growth. The results of lab tests and the instructions for assembling PE pipes belonging to different types are reported. The properties of the third generation PE allow to improve the competition of PE pipes towards conventional materials and give a satisfactory safety level.