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Sample records for suspended particulates collected

  1. Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were analysed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) for up to 10 elements. It was found that 66% of the samples collected at two metres and 50% of the samples collected at four metres height exceeded the WHO 24 guideline of 70μg m-3. Reduction in ...

  2. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected at Two Different. Heights above the Ground in A Sub-Urban Site in Kenya. Gitari W. M1, Kinyua A. M. 2, Kamau G. N3 and C. K. Gatebe C. K4. Abstract. Suspended particulate matter samples were collected in a sub-urban area in Nairobi over a 12 month ...

  3. Suspended particulate matter collection methods influence the quantification of polycyclic aromatic compounds in the river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhelou, Fayez; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Catteloin, Delphine; Collin, Valéry; Bauer, Allan; Kanbar, Hussein Jaafar; Gley, Renaud; Manceau, Luc; Thomas, Fabien; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle

    2017-08-16

    In this study, we compared the influence of two different collection methods, filtration (FT) and continuous flow field centrifugation (CFC), on the concentration and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) occurring in river waters. SPM samples were collected simultaneously with FT and CFC from a river during six sampling campaigns over 2 years, covering different hydrological contexts. SPM samples were analyzed to determine the concentration of PACs including 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 11 oxygenated PACs (O-PACs), and 5 nitrogen PACs (N-PACs). Results showed significant differences between the two separation methods. In half of the sampling campaigns, PAC concentrations differed from a factor 2 to 30 comparing FT and CFC-collected SPMs. The PAC distributions were also affected by the separation method. FT-collected SPM were enriched in 2-3 ring PACs whereas CFC-collected SPM had PAC distributions dominated by medium to high molecular weight compounds typical of combustion processes. This could be explained by distinct cut-off threshold of the two separation methods and strongly suggested the retention of colloidal and/or fine matter on glass-fiber filters particularly enriched in low molecular PACs. These differences between FT and CFC were not systematic but rather enhanced by high water flow rates.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Lead in Suspended Particulate Matter Collected From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the sample as follows: 7.2.1.5.1 Rinse watch glass and sides of beaker with D.I. water. 7.2.1.5.2.... 1.1 Ambient air suspended particulate matter is collected on a glass-fiber filter for 24 hours using... lead content of the sample is analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry using an air-acetylene flame...

  5. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system. KEY WORDS: Environmental toxicology, Suspended particulate matter, Dust analysis, Hematological indices, Wister albino rats. Bull.

  6. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust) samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological ...

  7. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS)are important constituents of organic matter.However,very little is known about their cycling in marine waters.In this research,we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal.For this purpose,samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM)were collected from 8 ...

  8. Atmospheric trace metal concentrations in Suspended Particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The particulate samples from where the metals were characterized and quantified, were collected between December 2007 and March 2008, using a Gravimetric technique a portable SKC 506673 High volume Gravimetric sampler. The air particulate samples were collected from the kitchens, living rooms and outdoor ...

  9. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the... suspended particulates persist. The biological and the chemical content of the suspended material may react with the dissolved oxygen in the water, which can result in oxygen depletion. Toxic metals and organics...

  10. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface water concentrations of inorganic nutrients and suspended particulate matter (SPM) components from Mtwapa and Shirazi creeks in Kenya were measured and compared. This was aimed at assessing the contribution of phytoplankton carbon, particulate organic carbon (POC) and detritus on the total SPM pool, and ...

  11. [Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1

  12. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  13. Levels of As, Pb, Cd and Fe in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) collected from three different artisans' workshops was analyzed for As, Cd, Pb and Fe by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The range of SPM concentrations for the three workshops was 583-20,166Bg/m3. The highest concentrations of these elements were observed in Motor ...

  14. Assessment of CO, CO2 and Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Isah ABDULKARIM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of carbon oxides (CO and CO2 and suspended particulate matter at Benue Cement Company (BCC and Tse-Kucha community was investigated. Results obtained, shows that concentrations of carbon dioxide of 34.40ppm, 39.50 ppm, 48.50 ppm, 78.55 ppm, 65.25 ppm, 26.80 ppm and 29.5 ppm for quarry, raw mill, cement mill, Kiln, packing house, limestone stockpile and Tse-Kucha community respectively were below the maximum standard natural concentration of CO2 in atmosphere of 600ppm while concentrations of CO (1.25ppm - 4.00ppm measured in all the sample stations were below the Nigerian Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS and WHO max limit of 10 ppm - 20 ppm for an 8-hourly average time. Lastly, the concentrations of suspended particulate matter of 375 μg/m3, 338 μg/m3 and 290 μg/m3 at the cement mill, packing house and raw mill respectively were also above the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s Guidelines and Standards for Ambient Air Quality which stipulates a range of 150 μg/m3 to 230 μg/m3 for a 24- hourly average.

  15. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  16. Spatial distribution of suspended particulate matter in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: inferences on the estuarine turbidity maximum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suja, S.; Kessarkar, P.M; Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Fernandes, L.L.

    The present study estimate the suspended particulate matter in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. samples were collected from the Mandovi (M0A–M9) and Zuari (Z0–Z8) estuaries and Cumbarjua canal (C0–C3).The spatial distribution of SPM in the Ma...

  17. Mass transfer within electrostatic precipitators: in-flight adsorption of mercury by charged suspended particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2006-06-01

    Electrostatic precipitation is the dominant method of particulate control used for coal combustion, and varying degrees of mercury capture and transformation have been reported across ESPs. Nevertheless, the fate of gas-phase mercury within an ESP remains poorly understood. The present analysis focuses on the gas-particle mass transfer that occurs within a charged aerosol in an ESP. As a necessary step in gas-phase mercury adsorption or transformation, gas-particle mass transfer-particularly in configurations other than fixed beds-has received far less attention than studies of adsorption kinetics. Our previous analysis showed that only a small fraction of gas-phase mercury entering an ESP is likelyto be adsorbed by collected particulate matter on the plate electrodes. The present simplified analysis provides insight into gas-particle mass transfer within an ESP under two limiting conditions: laminar and turbulent fluid flows. The analysis reveals that during the process of particulate collection, gas-particle mass transfer can be quite high, easily exceeding the mass transfer to ESP plate electrodes in most cases. Decreasing particle size, increasing particle mass loading, and increasing temperature all result in increased gas-particle mass transfer. The analysis predicts significantly greater gas-particle mass transfer in the laminar limitthan in the turbulent limit; however, the differences become negligible under conditions where other factors, such as total mass of suspended particulates, are the controlling mass transfer parameters. Results are compared to selected pilot- and full-scale sorbent injection data.

  18. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  19. Natural isotopic composition of nitrogen in suspended particulate matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Bhosle, N.B.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    The first measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition (delta sup(15) N) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the surface Bay of Bengal (BOB) at 24 different locations during pre- (April-May 2003) and post- (September-October 2002) monsoon...

  20. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy..., the State must repromulgate Regulation No. 1 to satisfy reasonably available control technology...

  1. 78 FR 22425 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total... is taking direct final action to delete certain area designations for total suspended particulate... the attainment or unclassifiable areas for total suspended particulate in Clark County as well as the...

  2. 78 FR 22501 - Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total Suspended Particulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 81 Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes; State of Nevada; Total... proposing to delete certain area designations for total suspended particulate within the State of Nevada... unclassifiable areas for total suspended particulate in Clark County as well as the following nonattainment areas...

  3. Trace metals in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Severnaya Dvina estuary, Russian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koukina, S.E.; Calafat-Frau, A.; Hummel, H.; Palerud, R.

    2001-01-01

    A geochemical study of the Severnaya Dvina estuary was carried out during two oceanographic cruises to the White Sea. The amount and distribution of trace (Mn, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and major (Al and Fe) elements in suspended particulate matter and sediments were determined. The main source of

  4. Personal exposure to total suspended particulates of adolescents living in Vanderbijlpark, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Terblanche, APS

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Personal monitoring of exposure to air pollution is becoming increasingly important in health studies as a method of characterizing total exposure. We monitored the exposure of 31 teenagers to total suspended particulates (TSP) over a 12-hour period...

  5. Role of livestock effluent suspended particulate in sealing effluent ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J McL; Warren, B R

    2015-05-01

    Intensive livestock feed-lots have become more prevalent in recent years to help in meeting the predicted food production targets based on expected population growth. Effluent from these is stored in ponds, representing a potential concern for seepage and contamination of groundwater. Whilst previous literature suggests that effluent particulate can limit seepage adequately in combination with a clay liner, this research addresses potential concerns for sealing of ponds with low concentration fine and then evaluates this against proposed filter-cake based methodologies to describe and predict hydraulic reduction. Short soil cores were compacted to 98% of the maximum dry density and subject to ponded head percolation with unfiltered-sediment-reduced effluent, effluent filtered to sealing was shown to follow mathematical models of filter-cake formation, but without the formation of a physical seal on top of the soil surface. Management considerations based on the results are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biogenic vanadium in total suspended particulate matter from Cabo Frio upwelling region, Southeast, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Silvia M.; Neves, Alessandra F.; Moreira, Josino Costa; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    In this work total suspended particulate (TSP) was collected during a year, in two municipalities located in a coastal region of Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast, Brazil, from February 2004 to January 2005. Two sites were chosen: site 1 located in front of the sea and representative of sea salt spray influence; site 2 in a tall booth of a highway representing vehicle exhaust influence. Samples were collected in glass fibre filters using Hi-Vol samplers and stored. 1/8 of those loaded filters were cut and digested in a microwave oven. The extract obtained was used to determine metal Ca, Cu, Mo, Mn, Ti, V, Zn and K concentration in the atmosphere. The results showed that TSP levels in site 1 (23.1-659 μg m -3) was higher than in site 2 (24.5-55.6 μg m -3) due to marine aerosol which is responsible for particle emissions with higher diameter. Vanadium was the only element studied whose concentration were higher in site 1 (0.840-20.9 ng m -3) compared to site 2 (0.655-7.07 ng m -3). The highest vanadium concentrations in site 1 were obtained during upwelling events, with NE winds predominance at high speed, which indicates the influence of this phenomena in V presence in the atmosphere. Principal components analysis was able to identify atmospheric particulate sources distributed in four factors. In site 1, those factors explain 86.5% of total data variance and indicate two sources: continental and marine. In site 2, those factors explain 89.2% of total data variance and indicate that vehicle exhaust is the main metals source in the atmosphere.

  7. Optical and Gravimetric Partitioning of Coastal Ocean Suspended Particulate Inorganic Matter (PIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavn, R. H.; Zhang, X.; Falster, A. U.; Gray, D. J.; Rick, J. J.; Gould, R. W., Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Recent work on the composition of suspended particulates of estuarine and coastal waters increases our capabilities to investigate the biogeochemal processes occurring in these waters. The biogeochemical properties associated with the particulates involve primarily sorption/desorption of dissolved matter onto the particle surfaces, which vary with the types of particulates. Therefore, the breakdown into chemical components of suspended matter will greatly expand the biogeochemistry of the coastal ocean region. The gravimetric techniques for these studies are here expanded and refined. In addition, new optical inversions greatly expand our capabilities to study spatial extent of the components of suspended particulate matter. The partitioning of a gravimetric PIM determination into clay minerals and amorphous silica is aided by electron microprobe analysis. The amorphous silica is further partitioned into contributions by detrital material and by the tests of living diatoms based on an empirical formula relating the chlorophyll content of cultured living diatoms in log phase growth to their frustules determined after gravimetric analysis of the ashed diatom residue. The optical inversion of composition of suspended particulates is based on the entire volume scattering function (VSF) measured in the field with a Multispectral Volume Scattering Meter and a LISST 100 meter. The VSF is partitioned into an optimal combination of contributions by particle subpopulations, each of which is uniquely represented by a refractive index and a log-normal size distribution. These subpopulations are aggregated to represent the two components of PIM using the corresponding refractive indices and sizes which also yield a particle size distribution for the two components. The gravimetric results of partitioning PIM into clay minerals and amorphous silica confirm the optical inversions from the VSF.

  8. Circulation and suspended particulate matter transport in a tidally dominated estuary: caravelas estuary, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto França Schettini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The circulation and transport of suspended particulate matter in the Caravelas Estuary are assessed. Nearly-synoptic hourly hydrographic, current (ADCP velocity and volume transport and suspended particulate matter data were collected during a full semidiurnal spring tide, on the two transects Boca do Tomba and Barra Velha and on longitudinal sections at low and high tide. On the first transect the peak ebb currents (-1.5 ms-1 were almost twice as strong as those of the wider and shallow Barra Velha inlet (-0.80 ms-1 and the peak flood currents were 0.75 and 0.60 ms-1, respectively. Due to the strong tidal currents both inlets had weak vertical salinity stratification and were classified with the Stratification-circulation Diagram as Type 2a (partially mixed-weakly stratified and Type 1a (well mixed. Volume transports were very close, ranging from -3,500 to 3,100 m³s-1 at the ebb and flood, respectively, with a residual -630 m³s-1. The concentration of the suspended particulate matter was closely related to the tidal variation and decreased landwards from 50 mg.L-1 at the estuary mouth, to 10 mg.L-1 at distances of 9 and 16 km for the low and high tide experiments, respectively. The total residual SPM transport was out of the estuary at rates of -18 tons per tidal cycle.A circulação e o transporte de material particulado em suspensão no Estuário de Caravelas são pesquisados. Dados quase-sinóticos hidrográficos, de correntes (velocidade e transporte de volume com ADCP e de material particulado em suspensão, foram medidos em intervalos horários durante um ciclo semidiurno de maré de sizígia, em duas seções transversais na Boca do Tomba e na Barra Velha e também em seções longitudinais na baixa-mar e na preamar. Na primeira transversal as correntes máximas de vazante (-1,50 m s-1 foram quase duas vezes mais intensas do que na seção transversal mais larga e rasa Barra Velha, (-0,80 m s-1 e as maiores velocidades das correntes de

  9. 2010 Lead (Pb) Air Monitoring Requirements & 2013 Method for Determination of Lead (Pb) in Total Suspended Particulate Matter Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a variety of fact sheets and other documents that are supplementary to the 2010 final revisions to lead (Pb) ambient air monitoring requirements and the 2013 final method for determination of Pb in total suspended particulate matter.

  10. Seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surficial sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material in Lake Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sander D; Landrum, Peter F; Van Hoof, Patricia L; Eadie, Brian J

    2008-02-01

    A unique time series of surface sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) samples were collected at a 45-m deep site off Grand Haven (MI, USA) over a 14-month period. Both concentrations and congener distributions remained constant for the sediments, although there were seasonal and interannual variability in the other matrices. Trapped settling material and suspended particulate material PCB concentrations were substantially lower (~50%) in 1997 than in the samples from December 1997 through July 1998. The cause could not be determined from the data collected, but there were some very large storms during the winter-spring period of 1998, resulting in major sediment resuspension throughout the southern basin. Observed seasonal variation in PCB concentration and congener distribution on particles likely was due to the changes in particle composition. These include particle size and the source of particles (such as the amount of resuspended sediment in trapped settling material), and the role of diagenesis of the organic matter on particles.

  11. Distribution and sources of suspended particulate matter in the Kara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kravchishina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentration in the Kara Sea was analysed based on ship and satellite data during the lowest ice cover periods in the Arctic (2007 and 2011. The distance of the river runoff with terrigenous SPM was recognized up to at least 76–76.5° N on the basis of isotope data and SPM concentrations and composition. The complex studies of SPM in the water column and in the benthic boundary layer provided new information about the supply and transformation of particles in the marine ecosystem.

  12. A review of the effects of particle types on oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2016-12-01

    Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate (OSA) can form naturally when oil and particles interact. The interaction between oil and suspended particulate matter makes oil less sticky, and facilitates its dispersion in the water column. The high oil-water surface contact enhances the biodegradation of oil and thus increases the efficiency of remediation processes. There are many factors that affect OSA formation, but, particle type is one of the most important. Because different particle types have different physical, chemical, and biological properties, their interactions with oil differ greatly. Particle properties such as interlayer spaces, hydrophobicity, surface charges, polarity, organic content, and size affect the interactions between materials and oil. These different interactions determine the type, buoyancy, size, and stability of OSA that forms, thus determining its fate in the environment. This review provides a current understanding of (1) OSA formation mechanisms, (2) sources and classes of marine materials, (3) oil-particle interactions, (4) material properties and their effects on oil interaction, and (5) future research needs.

  13. Individual particle analysis of coarse air suspended particulate material by synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: perez@lnls.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this work is evaluate the size of individual particles present in the air suspended particulate material collected in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, and analyze quantitatively the particles using the synchrotron radiation X-ray micro fluorescence ({mu}-SRXRF) associated with the fundamental parameter method to correct attenuation/absorption effects by the matrix. The particles analyzed have size between 50-10 {mu}m and to perform the spatial distribution a white beam of synchrotron radiation condensed by a conical capillary (13 {mu}m diameter) was used. For the quantitative analysis punctual measures in thin films standards in Mylar subtract were performed. The elements detected were Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb. (author)

  14. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  15. Suspended particulate composition: evolution along a river linear and influence of regime flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meur, Mathieu; Montargès-Pelletier, Emmanuelle; Bauer, Allan; Gley, Renaud; Migot, Sylvie; Mansuy-Huault, Laurence; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Villièras, Frédéric

    2015-04-01

    Suspended Particulate Matters are recognized to play a crucial role in the transport and fate of chemicals like trace metal elements. The affinity of trace metals with natural SPM is influenced by (i) the nature of metal (ii) physical-chemical conditions of the water column (iii) SPM physical characteristics (grain size, surface area) (iiii) SPM chemical characteristics (elemental composition, mineralogy, organic composition). Some authors observed that the SPM composition was the predominant factor controlling the affinity of trace metals with natural SPM. One purpose of this work is to follow the physical and chemical characteristics of SPM along the river linear in order to better understand the affinity between SPM and heavy metals. One other purpose is to study the influence of regime flow on SPM physical and chemical composition in order to detect any variation of SPM composition with regime flow. SPM were sampled along Moselle river (North East of France) following an urbanization gradient. Two tributaries were also sampled, the Madon river which drains an agricultural catchment and the Fensch stream which flows through an ancient steel-making basin. SPM were sampled several times during high flow and low flow. Particulate matter was extracted on field using continuous flow field centrifuge. Frozen-dried samples were then characterized in terms of size distribution, elemental composition (ICP - AES, ICP - MS), mineralogy (XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM), surface properties (gas adsorption techniques) and organic composition (Py-GC-MS and GC-MS). Grain size distribution evidenced the presence of coarser particles during high flow but no difference in the grain size distribution could be evidenced between the different stations. The grain size distribution of collected SPM appeared globally identical, although the increase of conductivity due to the junction of Meurthe river . In terms of composition, major element contents in SPM are characterized by the predominance of

  16. Influence of Hydrodynamic Sorting on the Composition and Age of Yellow River Suspended Particulate Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Haghipour, N.; Montluçon, D. B.; Wacker, L.; Hou, P.; Zhao, M.

    2016-12-01

    The transport of organic carbon (OC) by rivers to coastal oceans is an important component of the global carbon cycle. The Yellow River (YR), the second largest river in China, transports large amounts of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the Chinese marginal seas, with fossil and pre-aged (ca, 1600 yr) OC comprising the dominant components. However, the influence of hydrodynamic processes on the origin, composition and age of POC exported by the YR remains poorly understood, yet these processes likely ultimately play an important role in determining OC fate in the Chinese marginal seas. We address this question through bulk, biomarker and carbon isotopic (δ13C and Δ14C) characterization of organic matter associated with different grain size fractions of total suspended particles (TSP) in the YR. Surface TSP samples were collected in the spring, summer, fall and during the Water-Sediment Regulation period (WSR, July) of 2015. TSP samples were separated into five grain-size fractions (63μm) for organic geochemical and isotope analysis. Generally, the 16-32 and 32-63μm fractions contributed most of the TSP mass and the majority of OC resided in 16-32μm fraction. TOC% decreased with increasing grain size and 14C ages exhibited significant variability, ranging from 3,335 yr (63μm fraction in autumn), but did not show any systematic trend among grain size fractions or across sampling times. In contrast, compound-specific 14C analysis of long-chain n-fatty acids (C26-30 FAs) revealed two clear patterns: first, C26-30 FAs age decreased with increasing grain size for all sampling times; second, the C26-30 FAs age difference was the largest among the different size fractions during the WSR period, and smallest after the WSR. These findings have important implications for our understanding of riverine POC transport mechanisms and their influence on the dispersal and burial efficiency of terrestrial OC in coastal oceans.

  17. Turbidity-based methods for continuous estimates of suspended sediment, particulate carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Alsuliman, Malek; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A good evaluation of surface water pollution is mainly limited by the monitoring strategy and sampling frequencies. Carbon and nutrient monitoring at finer time intervals is still very difficult and expensive. Therefore, establishing relationships between grab sampling and continuous commonly available data can be considered as a favorable solution to turn this problem. The aim of this study was to develop a method to continuously estimate instream sediment, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations based on high resolution measurement of turbidity, discharge, electrical conductivity and oxygen concentration. To achieve our gaols, high frequency data (30 min interval) were generated during 3 years at the UFZ- TERENO platform Bode (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories). Samples were analysed for suspended sediment concentration (SSC), particulate organic carbon (POC), total organic carbon (TOC), particulate nitrogen (PN) and particulate phosphorus (PP) using simple and multiple linear regression models. For this study, measurements from six sub-catchments with different geographical characteristics were considered. The available data sets were divided into two years (2010-2012) calibration and one year (2012-2013) validation periods. Results revealed that the turbidity was the most predictor variable in all models, particularly for suspended sediment concentrations. For all gauging stations, the SSC could be explained using simple linear regression model by the turbidity with a lowest correlation coefficient of 0.93. The non-uniqueness of the simple linear equation obtained between the stations reflected the sensitivity of the turbidity signal to the differences in land use and agriculture management between the sub-catchments. Best predictions of POC, TOC, PP and PN were achieved when multiple linear regression models were used including discharge, electrical conductivity and oxygen concentrations as predictor variables in addition to turbidity (lowest

  18. Simulation of the transport of suspended particulate matter in the Rio de la Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausstein, H.

    2008-11-06

    Numerical simulations of the transport of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Rio de la Plata estuary were performed with a three dimensional model for coastal waters driven by wave sand currents. Aturbulence based flocculation approach is implemented to the model. The model is for the first time applied under heavy conditions, since the Rio de la Plata has discharges up to 25000 m{sup 3}/s and SPM concentrations up to 300-400 mg/l. Such concentrations are also difficult to compute from satellite measurements. SeaWiFs satellite images served for the validation of the model results. The model is able to reproduce the shape and the position of the front as well as the zone of the turbidity maximum. It also identifies the zones of erosion and deposition which is of significant importance because of the dense ship traffic along the navigational channels towards Buenos Aires and the cities upstream the rivers. (orig.)

  19. Quantifying the response of optical backscatter devices and transmissometers to variations in suspended particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Jamie A. C.; Larcombe, Piers; Jago, Colin F.

    1999-07-01

    Optical instruments have been used effectively in studies of sediment dynamics for several decades. Without accurate instrument calibrations, calculated concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) may be unreliable, with implications for interpretations of sedimentary processes and sediment fluxes. This review aims to quantify the effect of variations in SPM characteristics on the response of optical instruments (optical backscatter sensors OBS and transmissometers) and to note the implications for users of these instruments. A number of factors have a significant impact on instrument response, for example; a change in grain size from medium sands to fine silts may lead to a×100 increase in instrument response; flocculation of fine particles may decrease instrument response by×2; and the presence of plankton in suspension may lead to poor instrument calibrations of SPM concentration. Calibrations carried out in environments either with multi-modal bottom sediments, where flocculation of fine-grained sediments is likely, or where the hydrodynamics or grain type are highly variable must also include a determination of the changing nature of the suspended load in space and time. A more complete understanding of instrument response to SPM and of calibration requirements may enable optical devices to be used to a greater potential as long-term measures of SPM concentration, and also enable improvements in calculations of net sediment fluxes.

  20. Improving the description of the suspended particulate matter concentrations in the southern North Sea through assimilating remotely sensed data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Serafy, G.Y.; Eleveld, M.A.; Blaas, M.; van Kessel, T.; Gaytan Aguilar, S.; van der Woerd, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of remote sensing data of suspended particulate matter (SPM) into numerical models is useful to improve the understanding of the temporal and spatial behaviour of SPM in dynamic shelf seas. In this paper a generic method based on the Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) for assimilating

  1. Bacteriohopanepolyol distribution in Yenisei River and Kara Sea suspended particulate matter and sediments traces terrigenous organic matter input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, C.; Talbot, H.M.; Bischoff, J.; Cherkashov, G.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are ubiquitous bacterial membrane lipids, encountered in soils, river and marine suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. Their abundance and distribution provides a direct means to identify bacterial inputs and can be used to trace soil-derived bacterial

  2. Distribution and geochemical composition of suspended particulate material in the shallow embayment of northern Thermaikos Gulf, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanoglou, K.; Anagnostou, Ch.; Krasakopoulou, E.; Pagou, K.; Karageorgis, A. P.; Pavlidou, A.; Albanakis, K.; Tsirambides, A.

    2017-07-01

    The distribution and the chemical composition of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), in the northern Thermaikos Gulf, were studied during an annual experiment, carried out from June 2004 to June 2005. Water samples were collected at three depths (1 m below surface, 10 m depth, and 2 m above bottom) and filtered to obtain SPM, particulate organic carbon (POC), total particulate nitrogen (PNtot) and particulate phosphorus (PP) concentrations. SPM and POC concentrations exhibited strong spatial and temporal variations, related to the different environmental characteristics in the study area such as river network, biological productivity, anthropogenic interferences, wind regime, and resuspension of the bottom sediments. The highest SPM concentrations were recorded at the surface (mean = 1.45 ± 0.75 mg/l, maximum value = 11.60 mg/l) and close to the bottom (mean = 1.49 ± 0.67 mg/l, maximum value = 11.72 mg/l), creating surface and bottom nepheloid layers (SNL and BNL), respectively. The maximum values were recorded close to the river mouths; the rivers are identified as the major sources of SPM. The Axios and Aliakmon rivers supplied the gulf with particulate matter, during the entire sampling period. Chemical analysis has revealed the significant correlation among the elements Al, Si, Fe, Ti, K, V, Mg and Ba suggesting the presence of terrigenous aluminosilicate minerals. Silica and Ca have terrigenous origin, but also come from autochthonous biogenic fraction. Chromium, Ni and Co, are of natural origin and derived from mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Axios and Aliakmon watersheds. Copper and Zn are correlated with each other and their distributions follow that of POC; these two metals are derived from partially treated domestic and industrial effluents. The vertical distribution of organic matter implies increased primary production within the upper layer of the water column. Phosphorus is present mainly in an organic form. During the sampling period, the water

  3. Seasonal trends of benzo(apyrene in suspended particulate matter in urban areas of Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Matić-Besarabić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were identified to be one of the major toxic air pollutants in urban environment. PAHs are mostly formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic material. According to Serbian National Legislation, benzo(apyrene (BaP concentration in total suspended particles (TSP in ambient air in the Belgrade metropolitan area has been determined in the last ten years, as a part of a local air pollution monitoring program performed by the Public Health Institute of Belgrade and funded by Belgrade’s Municipality. Air samples for analysis of BaP in suspended particleshave been collected (as 24 h sample once per month at selected onitoring sites within the municipal air quality monitoring network. At the beginning, according to National Regulation, all samples were taken as total suspended particles (TSP. Since mid-2008, the procedure of sampling methodology was harmonized with EU requirements and solid fraction PM10 has been collected and analyzed using GC/MS. In this study, we have analyzed results of TSP collected between 2005 and 2008. Looking through the results obtained during the period of a whole year, it can be noticed that concentrations of BaP were much higher during winter season at almost all measuring sites.

  4. Oil-suspended particulate material aggregates as a tool in preventing potential ecotoxicological impacts in the São Paulo river, Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil: Influence of salinity and suspended particulate material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Lorena S; Moreira, Ícaro T A; Oliveira, Olívia M C; Santos, Carlito P; Pinheiro, Samires M M; Oliveira, Lua M L; Martins, Adriele B O; Filho, Milton S C

    2016-11-15

    Recent studies have revealed the occurrence of a natural process of interaction between oil droplets and suspended particulate material, resulting in the formation of aggregates which are dispersed in the water column, known as oil-suspended particulate material aggregates (OSAs). The experiments aimed to investigate the contribution of OSAS in indicating where most likely is the oil sedimentation in the São Paulo river, Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, in order to predict possible ecotoxicological risks caused by oil spills. The results showed that salinity and MPS concentration interfere on the formation of aggregates. In addition, the point 3 was nominated as the most vulnerable area to the potential ecotoxicological impacts of oil spills and should be treated as a priority area for the application of preventive and mitigating techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Horizontal distributions of biogenic and lithogenic elements of suspended particulate matter in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, N. B.; Brand, T.; Pates, J. M.; Mowbray, S.; Theocharis, A.; Civitarese, G.; Miserocchi, S.; Heussner, S.; Lindsay, F.

    1999-08-01

    A study has been made of the distribution of terrigenous (Al and Mn ex, Fe ex) and biogenic (POC, PN tot, P org, Si bio, Ba ex) elements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) on a series of transects in three marginal areas of the Mediterranean Sea; the NW Mediterranean, the western Adriatic to the Strait of Otranto and the southern (Cretan) and northern Aegean Sea, with the intention of assessing the influence that river discharges have on their concentrations. In the Adriatic, high Al concentrations (60-200 μgl -1) occur as a consequence of direct discharge from the River Po but importantly from sediment resuspension the amount of which, under steady state conditions, is also related to riverine discharge. In the Otranto Strait high Al concentrations overlie its western shelf and slope. On the NW Mediterranean only waters influenced by the River Rhone, as off Banyuls-sur-mer, show high Al. Particulate Mn is mostly river derived, but principally exists in marginal areas from redox cycling in surficial sediments, a consequence of high biological production induced by nutrient discharges from rivers. High particulate Mn ex concentrations were measured in the northern Adriatic, off Banyuls-sur-mer and the northern Aegean, where there are strong river influences. In contrast, the more oligotrophic seawaters off Marseilles, the Balearics and the Cretan Sea show lower concentrations of Mn ex, and depth profiles of Mn ex especially in the latter area are similar to those found in ocean waters. Of the biogenic elements studied, the assumed presence of terrigenous organic carbon, especially on the Adriatic shelf, largely precludes POC concentrations from being an indicator of marine production. A better guide to productivity induced by river nutrient discharges is seen in the distribution of P org and Si bio concentrations, which show a gradual southward reduction along the Adriatic shelf and higher concentrations off Banyuls-sur-mer than on other transects in the NW

  6. Simultaneous atmospheric correction and quantification of suspended particulate matter in the Guadalquivir estuary from Landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpintero, M.; Polo, M. J.; Suhyp Salama, Mhd.

    2015-05-01

    Earth observations (EOs) following empirical and/or analytical approaches are a feasible alternative to obtain spatial and temporal distribution of water quality variables. The limitations observed in the use of empirical approaches to estimate high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the estuarine water of Guadalquivir have led the authors to use a semi-analytical model, which relates the water constituents' concentration to the water leaving reflectance. In this work, the atmospheric correction has been carried out simultaneously and the aerosol reflectance and backscattering coefficients of SPM obtained. The results are validated using in situ SPM data series provided by a monitoring network in the study area. The results show that the model allows us to successfully estimate backscattering coefficients of SPM in the estuary, differentiating clear and turbid water and using two ɛ(4,5) .These considerations improve the value of R2 from 0.68 (single ɛ(4,5)) to 0.86 (two ɛ( 4,5)) on 18 May 2009. This method could be used as a preliminary approach to obtain SPM concentration in the Guadalquivir estuary with the limitations that the model shows for turbid waters.

  7. Simultaneous atmospheric correction and quantification of suspended particulate matter in the Guadalquivir estuary from Landsat images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carpintero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Earth observations (EOs following empirical and/or analytical approaches are a feasible alternative to obtain spatial and temporal distribution of water quality variables. The limitations observed in the use of empirical approaches to estimate high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM in the estuarine water of Guadalquivir have led the authors to use a semi-analytical model, which relates the water constituents’ concentration to the water leaving reflectance. In this work, the atmospheric correction has been carried out simultaneously and the aerosol reflectance and backscattering coefficients of SPM obtained. The results are validated using in situ SPM data series provided by a monitoring network in the study area. The results show that the model allows us to successfully estimate backscattering coefficients of SPM in the estuary, differentiating clear and turbid water and using two ε(4,5 .These considerations improve the value of R2 from 0.68 (single ε(4,5 to 0.86 (two ε( 4,5 on 18 May 2009. This method could be used as a preliminary approach to obtain SPM concentration in the Guadalquivir estuary with the limitations that the model shows for turbid waters.

  8. Determination of suspended particulate matter concentration from turbidity measurements: particle size effects and calibration procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, J.; Schmidt, A.

    2003-07-01

    Measurements of suspended particulate matter concentration and turbidity point towards the possibility of a site-specific algorithm (SPM), relating SPM to nephelometric turbidity units (NTU). In this paper regression models are presented that account for changes in the relationship of SPM and NTU as a result of changes in particle properties. The models have been developed by the use of daily measurements of SPM concentration and a continuous record of turbidity for the period from June 1996 to February 2001 in the River Elbe, a major river in the eastern part of Germany.The effect of changes in the particle properties with increasing water discharge was taken into account by varying the slope of a linear regression equation according to a logistic function. Water discharge, Q, was defined to be the only variable of this function - as an adequate substitute of the parameter bottom shear stress, which cannot be measured directly. Measurements of flow velocity in the River Elbe show that bottom shear stress is related almost linearly to water discharge up to bankful discharges.Regression models with slopes varying continuously with hydraulic parameters may account for the effects resulting from changes of particle characteristics and thus may have some advantages compared with models with a constant slope or models calibrated for different seasons.

  9. Land-use impacts on fatty acid profiles of suspended particulate organic matter along a larger tropical river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boëchat, Iola; Krüger, Angela; Chavez, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    .8 and 10.2 mg dry weight (DW) L− 1 and between 130.6 and 268.2 μg DW L− 1, respectively, in our study. Urbanization was the only land-use category correlating with both FA composition and concentrations, despite its low contribution to whole catchment (1.5–5.6%) and riparian buffer land cover (1......Land-use change, such as agricultural expansion and urbanization, can affect riverine biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. Identifying the major stressors associated with catchment land-use change is a prerequisite for devising successful river conservation and restoration strategies....... Here, we analyzed land-use effects on the fatty acid (FA) composition and concentrations in suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) along a fourth-order tropical river, the Rio das Mortes. Thereby, we aimed at testing the potential of fatty acids in riverine suspended particulate organic matter...

  10. Seasonal and spatial distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; Bhosle, N.B.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhushan, R.

    The temporal, spatial and depth related variation of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) in the Bay of Bengal are assessed in this paper. For this purpose, suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples were collected from eight depths (2 to 1000...

  11. How much suspended particulate matter enters long-term in-channel storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Stephan; Kleisinger, Carmen; Kehl, Nora; Schubert, Birgit; Hillebrand, Gudrun

    2017-04-01

    The route of suspended particulate matter (SPM) downstream rivers strongly depends on discharge conditions and involves transport times and periods with resting times in deposits e.g. at areas with low-flow conditions near the channel bed. It is, however, difficult to estimate the contribution of SPM on the bed load. In this study, particle-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), which were released by an incident in the Elbe river (Central Europe) in spring 2015, could be used as unique tracer for transport pathways of SPM along the whole river stretch (over 700 km length), including low mountain ranges, lowlands, and the estuary. In 2015 the Elbe River was characterized by low-discharge conditions. Thus, the export of SPM on flood plains was strongly limited. The incident was monitored by concentration measurements of seven indicator PCB congeners along the inland part of the Elbe River as well as in the Elbe estuary. Data from ten monitoring stations (settling tanks) are considered. The total PCB load is calculated for all stations on the basis of monthly contaminant concentrations and daily suspended sediment concentrations. Monte-Carlo simulations assess the uncertainties of the calculated load. It is shown that the ratio of high versus low chlorinated PCB congeners is a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load of the incident from the long-term background signal (hereafter PCB6 ratio). We demonstrate that both the load of PCB as well as its chemical fingerprint allows the estimation of transport durations for the transport processes involved. Only a little part of the suspension has been transported via wash load. The PCB6 ratio is used to estimate mean transport velocities of the wash load fraction. A direct transport of wash load via the mean flow velocity of the water was not observed. Shortly after the incident, the PCB6 ratio was monitored 257 km downstream of the incident site in April 2015, in May first occurrence was monitored 514 km downstream of

  12. Analysis of the high-temperature particulate collection problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razgaitis, R.

    1977-10-01

    Particulate agglomeration and separation at high temperatures and pressures are examined, with particular emphasis on the unique features of the direct-cycle application of fluidized-bed combustion. The basic long-range mechanisms of aerosol separation are examined, and the effects of high temperature and high pressure on usable collection techniques are assessed. Primary emphasis is placed on those avenues that are not currently attracting widespread research. The high-temperature, particulate-collection problem is surveyed, together with the peculiar requirements associated with operation of turbines with particulate-bearing gas streams. 238 references.

  13. REE in suspended particulate matter and sediment of the Zuari estuary and adjacent shelf, western India: Influence of mining and estuarine turbidity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Parthiban, G.; Balakrishnan, S.; Narvekar, T.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    Concentrations of Al, Fe, Mn and rare earth elements (REE) were measured in 122 samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and 70 surficial sediments from the Zuari estuary and the adjacent shelf to understand their distribution, provenance...

  14. Spatial correlativity of atmospheric particulate components simultaneously collected in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funasaka, Kunihiro; Asakawa, Daichi; Oku, Yuichiro; Kishikawa, Naoya; Deguchi, Yuya; Sera, Nobuyuki; Seiyama, Tetsurou; Horasaki, Kazunori; Arashidani, Keiichi; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Takako; Ikemori, Fumikazu; Inaba, Yohei; Tonokura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kokunai, Osamu; Coulibaly, Souleymane; Hasei, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Tetsushi

    2016-02-01

    The simultaneous sampling of total suspended particles was performed at 14 sites in Japan during July 2008-June 2009. The spatial correlativity of each particulate composition toward Osaka was obtained for nine selected sites to overview the chemical composition and geographical distribution of particulate components across a wide range of areas nationwide. The spatial correlatives of atmospheric particulate components were extended to an even wider range of areas up to 950 km distance (meso-alpha scale region, >200 km) for a far-reaching distance analysis unique in the literature. Overall, the spatial correlations of ionic species and both organic and elemental carbons were significant, suggesting their shared advections, including their long-range transport from East Asia. Although sulfate ions are widely dispersed across Japan, such is not necessarily correlated with organic and elemental carbon, possibly indicating that the sulfate emission source, including long-range transport, differs from that of carbonaceous particulates. By contrast, the characteristics of spatial correlatives of metallic constituents vary; for example, particulate Pb and Cd show a significantly wide range of spatial correlatives to Osaka, while Mn-though limited to cities neighboring Osaka-shows significant spatial correlations. Other metallic constituents showed no significant spatial correlatives, indicating the effects of local pollutants. Moreover, the extent of the spatial dispersion of the particulate components and the relationships among chemical components were analyzed via factor analysis to highlight the effects of long-range inflow and local original emissions. In this treatment, 13 particulate components among the 19 measured were implicated in long-range transport.

  15. Laboratory investigation of oil–suspended particulate matter aggregation under different mixing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Juan, E-mail: juan.sun@upc.edu.cn [College of Chemistry Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266580 (China); Khelifa, Ali [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A0H3 (Canada); Zhao, Chaocheng; Zhao, Dongfeng [College of Chemistry Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266580 (China); Wang, Zhendi [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A0H3 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    Oil–suspended particulate matter aggregation (OSA) has been recognized by the oil spill remediation community to effectively enhance the cleansing of spilled oil in the marine environment. While studies have investigated the application of mineral fines as an effective method to facilitate oil dispersion, decision-makers still lack information on the role of mixing energy in OSA formation and its significance to oil dispersion in real spills. This work studied the effect of level and duration of mixing energy on OSA formation using the standard reference material 1941b and Arabian light crude oil. The results showed that dispersed small oil droplets increased with an increase of both the level and duration of mixing energy to form multi-droplet OSAs. The sizes of the dispersed droplets varied between 5 and 10 μm under different conditions studied. The maximum oil trapping efficiency increased from 23% to 33%, the oil to sediment ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.43 g oil/g sediment, and the required shaking time decreased from 2.3 to 1.1 h as the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. Based on the size measurement results, a breakage effect on the formed OSAs and sediment flocs was confirmed under high mixing energy level. - Highlights: • Dispersed oil droplets increased as the mixing energy increased. • Size of dispersed droplets increased from 5 to 10 μm as the mixing time increased. • Both level and duration of mixing energy increased the oil trapping efficiency. • The oil to sediment ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.5 as the mixing energy increased. • The higher the mixing energy, the stronger the breakage effect on formed aggregates exists.

  16. Suspended Particulates Concentration (PM10 under Unstable Atmospheric Conditions over Subtropical Urban Area (Qena, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El-Nouby Adam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the suspended particulates (PM10 in the atmosphere under unstable atmospheric conditions. The variation of PM10 was investigated and primary statistics were employed. The results show that, the PM10 concentrations values ranged from 6.00 to 646.74 μg m−3. The average value of PM10 is equal to 114.32 μg m−3. The high values were recorded in April and May (155.17 μg m−3 and 171.82 μg m−3, respectively and the low values were noted in February and December (73.86 μg m−3 and 74.05 μg m−3, respectively. The average value of PM10 of the hot season (125.35 × 10−6 g m−3 was higher than its value for the cold season (89.27 μg m−3. In addition, the effect of weather elements (air temperature, humidity and wind on the concentration of PM10 was determined. The multiple R between PM10 and these elements ranged from 0.05 to 0.47 and its value increased to reach 0.73 for the monthly average of the database used. Finally, the PM10 concentrations were grouped depending on their associated atmospheric stability class. These average values were equal to 122.80 ± 9 μg m−3 (highly unstable or convective, 109.37 ± 12 μg m−3 (moderately unstable and 104.42 ± 15 μg m−3 (slightly unstable.

  17. Seasonal changes in suspended particulate component in Bombay High oil field (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, K.L.; Verlecar, X.N.; Venkat, K.

    of phytoplankton biomass. Ratio of silicate and nitrate to phosphate was 16:16:1 for monsoon and postmonsoon periods. Annual values of particulate carbohydrates, particulate proteins and particulate lipids in surface waters ranged from 40 to 265 mu g l sup(-1), 21...

  18. Quantifying uncertainty in measurement of mercury in suspended particulate matter by cold vapor technique using atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nahar; Ahuja, Tarushee; Ojha, Vijay Narain; Soni, Daya; Tripathy, S Swarupa; Leito, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    As a result of rapid industrialization several chemical forms of organic and inorganic mercury are constantly introduced to the environment and affect humans and animals directly. All forms of mercury have toxic effects; therefore accurate measurement of mercury is of prime importance especially in suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected through high volume sampler (HVS). In the quantification of mercury in SPM samples several steps are involved from sampling to final result. The quality, reliability and confidence level of the analyzed data depends upon the measurement uncertainty of the whole process. Evaluation of measurement uncertainty of results is one of the requirements of the standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (European Standard EN IS/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, issue1:1-28, 2006). In the presented study the uncertainty estimation in mercury determination in suspended particulate matter (SPM) has been carried out using cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometer-Hydride Generator (AAS-HG) technique followed by wet chemical digestion process. For the calculation of uncertainty, we have considered many general potential sources of uncertainty. After the analysis of data of seven diverse sites of Delhi, it has been concluded that the mercury concentration varies from 1.59 ± 0.37 to 14.5 ± 2.9 ng/m(3) with 95% confidence level (k = 2).

  19. Particulate flux calculation based on metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations relationship: case study of turbid alpine river (Isere, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutordoir, Solene; Nemery, Julien; Guedron, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jérémy; Minaudo, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe; Landas-Maneval, Jacqueline; Rivière, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    In the context of increasing stress on aquatic environment, the improvement of pollutant flux quantification in large rivers presents a strong stake. Isere at Grenoble city (5570 km2) is an alpine river in the Northern French Alps with high suspended sediment transport reaching 10 to 20 g L-1 during floods. It is known that for elements like P, Ni, Mn, Cr, Pb, Fe et Al, most of river transport is done under particulate forms. Isere River is susceptible to transport particulate pollutants such as metals, given mining history and industrial activities at the upstream watershed. Moreover, this river receives Grenoble city's effluents (500 000 inhabitants) and stormwaters during rain events. Three metals (Hg, Ni, Pb) identified as priority substances regarding European Water Framework Directive and As known to be one of the most metal of concern were chosen in this study. High frequency samplings of suspended sediments were realized between 2011 and 2012 in order to evaluate the temporal variation of metals contents and to determine geochemical background during high flow periods. In the same sampling site (situated upstream urban effluents of Grenoble city), discharge and suspended sediment concentration by turbidity were measured at 30 min frequency by a monitoring station. The use of historical and new databases ranging between low and high discharge (10 years return flood) allowed determining relationships between metal contents and suspended sediment concentrations and discharges. Results show a good correlation for the studied metals and permit to defined the geochemical backgrounds for each metals measured above 0.5 g L-1, (Hg = 68 +/- 48 ng g-1, Ni = 30 +/- 10 mg g-1, Pb = 43 +/-13 mg g-1, As = 15 +/- 4 mg g-1). These models were validated on a separated period than the one used for the calibration and applied to calculate particulate metals concentrations and associated incertitude at 30 min frequency using SSC and discharge database. Cumulative 30 minutes

  20. Design and evaluation of a low-volume total suspended particulate sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    The regulation of particulate matter (PM) emitted by agricultural sources, e.g., cotton gins, feed mills, and concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), is based on downwind concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 and 2.5 'm (PM10 and PM2.5) aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED). Both...

  1. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  2. Particulate matter from re-suspended mineral dust and emergency cause-specific respiratory hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Vivian C.; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai

    2017-09-01

    While contribution from non-exhaust particulate matter (PM) emissions towards traffic-related emissions is increasing, few epidemiologic evidence of their health impact is available. We examined the association of short-term exposure to PM10 apportioned to re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for three major respiratory causes in Hong Kong between 2001 and 2008. Time-series regression model was constructed to examine association of PM10 from re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for upper respiratory infection (URI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma at exposure lag 0-5 days, adjusting for time trends, seasonality, temperature and relative humidity. An interquartile range (6.8 μg/m3) increment in re-suspended mineral dust on previous day was associated with 0.66% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.98) increase in total respiratory hospitalizations, and 1.01% (95% CI: 0.14, 1.88) increase in URI hospitalizations. A significant 0.66%-0.80% increases in risk of COPD hospitalizations were found after exposure to re-suspended mineral dust at lag 3 or later. Exposure to mineral dust at lag 4 was linked to 1.71% increase (95% CI: 0.14, 2.22) in asthma hospitalizations. Associations from single-pollutant models remained significant in multi-pollutant models, which additionally adjusted for PM10 contributing from vehicle exhaust, regional combustion, residual oil, fresh sea salt, aged sea salt, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, or gaseous pollutants (i.e., nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or ozone), respectively. Our findings provide insight into the biological mechanism by which non-exhaust pollution may be associated with risk of adverse respiratory outcomes, and also stress the needs for strategies to reduce emission and re-suspension of mineral dust. More research is warranted to assess the health effects of different non-exhaust PM emissions under various roadway conditions and vehicle fleets.

  3. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  4. Bacteriohopanepolyol distribution in Yenisei River and Kara Sea suspended particulate matter and sediments traces terrigenous organic matter input and submerged permafrost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.; Talbot, Helen M.; Bischoff, Juliane; Stadnitskaia, A.N.; Cherkashov, Georgy; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriohopanepolyols (BHPs) are ubiquitous bacterial membrane lipids, encountered in soils, river and marine suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. Their abundance and distribution provides a direct means to identify bacterial inputs and can be used to trace soil-derived bacterial

  5. Observations on suspended particulate matter (SPM) and microalgae in the Dollard Estuary, The Netherlands: Importance of late winter ice cover of the intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, N.; De Deckere, E.; Kornman, B.; van der Lee, W.; Termaat, R.; Terwindt, J.; de Winder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Three years of combined physical and biological measurements in the Dollard tidal basin showed that in the early spring of 1996, suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were low compared to observations in spring 1995 and 1997. Since in 1996 the duration of ice formation on the tidal flats

  6. Spatial distribution of organic contaminants in three rivers of Southern England bound to suspended particulate material and dissolved in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John L; Hooda, Peter S; Swinden, Julian; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    The spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other emerging contaminants (ECs) such as plasticisers, perflourinated compounds (PFCs) and illicit drug metabolites in water and bound to suspended particulate material (SPM) is not well-understood. Here, we quantify levels of thirteen selected contaminants in water (n=88) and their partition to suspended particulate material (SPM, n=16) in three previously-unstudied rivers of Greater London and Southern England during a key reproduction/spawning period. Analysis was conducted using an in-house validated method for Solid Phase Extraction followed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass-Spectrometry. Analytes were extracted from SPM using an optimised method for ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction. Detection frequencies of contaminants dissolved in water ranged from 3% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (bisphenol-A). Overall mean concentrations in the aqueous-phase ranged from 14.7ng/L (benzoylecgonine) to 159ng/L (bisphenol-A). Sewage treatment works (STW) effluent was the predominant source of pharmaceuticals, while plasticisers/perfluorinated compounds may additionally enter rivers via other sources. In SPM, detection frequencies ranged from 44% (PFOA) to 94% (hydroxyacetophenone). Mean quantifiable levels of analytes bound to SPM ranged from 13.5ng/g dry SPM (0.33ng bound/L water) perfluorononanoic acid to 2830ng/g dry SPM (14.3ng bound/L water) perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. Long chain (>C7) amphipathic and acidic PFCs were found to more preferentially bind to SPM than short chain PFCs and other contaminants (Kd=34.1-75.5 vs work (n=104) enabled ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD post-hoc tests to establish significant trends in PPCP/EC spatial distribution from headwaters through downstream stretches of studied rivers. Novel findings include environmental Kd calculations, the occurrence of contaminants in river headwaters, increases in contaminant metabolite concentrations

  7. Characterisation of the suspended particulate matter in a stratified estuarine environment employing complementary techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Luis P.; Marino, Beatriz M.; Szupiany, Ricardo N.; Gallo, Marcos N.

    2017-09-01

    The ability to predict the sediment and nutrient circulation within estuarine waters is of significant economic and ecological importance. In these complex systems, flocculation is a dynamically active process that is directly affected by the prevalent environmental conditions. Consequently, the floc properties continuously change, which greatly complicates the characterisation of the suspended particle matter (SPM). In the present study, three different techniques are combined in a stratified estuary under quiet weather conditions and with a low river discharge to search for a solution to this problem. The challenge is to obtain the concentration, size and flux of suspended elements through selected cross-sections using the method based on the simultaneous backscatter records of 1200 and 600 kHz ADCPs, isokinetic sampling data and LISST-25X measurements. The two-ADCP method is highly effective for determining the SPM size distributions in a non-intrusive way. The isokinetic sampling and the LISST-25X diffractometer offer point measurements at specific depths, which are especially useful for calibrating the ADCP backscatter intensity as a function of the SPM concentration and size, and providing complementary information on the sites where acoustic records are not available. Limitations and potentials of the techniques applied are discussed.

  8. 14 CFR 1261.416 - Suspending or terminating collection action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and is unable to make payments on the Government's claim or effect a compromise at the time, but the... applicable statute of limitations has been tolled or started running anew; or (ii) Future collection can be...'s inability to pay, the following factors, among others, may be considered: Age and health of the...

  9. Suspended particulate variations and mass size distributions of incense burning at Tzu Yun Yen temple in Taiwan, Taichung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Yang, Chang-Ju; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Yang, I-Lin

    2002-11-01

    Ambient suspended particulate concentrations were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple in this study. This is characteristic place of incense burning and indoor air pollution sampling site. A universal sampler, micro-orifice uniform deposited impactor (MOUDI) sampler and dry deposition plate were used to measure particulate concentrations. Tzu Yun Yen temple is a typical famous Buddhist-Taoist combined temple, where many pilgrims come from different areas and various belief systems indicating the eclecticism of the temple. The average number of people visiting this temple is above 5000 per day. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios ranged between 31.2 and 87.4% and averaged 69.6+/-12.3% during the incense-burning period, respectively. The results also demonstrated that the fine particulates concentrations (PM2.5) constituted the majority of indoor-suspended particulates at Tzu Yun Yen temple. PM10 concentration was 110.1 microg m(-3) for Zhong Yuan Jie (A festival on the seventh full moon in a lunar year, otherwise known as a summer lantern festival and (or) the commemoration of the dead. Almost all temples have maximum pilgrims for the commemoration of the dead on this day.) and the 1st or 15th of nong li (Nong li is a Chinese lunar calendar system in which 1 year is divided into fixed periods, and the beginning and end of a year is determined. The new moon and full moon are the 1st and 15th, respectively of each month in the Chinese lunar calendar. Many pilgrims appeared at each temple for blessing and good luck for themselves on the 1st and 15th of each Chinese lunar month.) with numbers higher than non-Zhong Yuan Jie and non-1st or -15th day of nong li (average = 85.5 microg m(-3)). In general, the average dry deposition flux (49.4 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in the indoor environment is lower than those measured in the outdoor environment (184.0 mg m(-2) day(-1)) in this study. The mean dry deposition flux of indoor/outdoor ratio was 46.2%. The average mass size distributions were bimodal

  10. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.

    2016-12-22

    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  11. Suspended particulate matter and vertical fluxes of sedimentary material in bays of the Murmansk (Barents Sea) and Karelian (White Sea) coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mityaev, M. V.; Gerasimova, M. V.; Berger, V. Ja.

    2017-03-01

    Synchronous measurement of the total suspended organic and mineral particulate matter, together with vertical sedimentary matter flux, carried out in various areas of Yarnyschnaya Inlet (Murmansk coast of the Barents Sea) and Chupa Inlet (Karelian coast of the White Sea) revealed that the seston organic component plays no part in sedimentation, being almost completely utilized in the water column, while the majority of mineral matter is transported out of the bay. The total amount of suspended matter and its components in the water column is estimated, as well as the total flux of sedimentary matter to the bottom of Chupa and Yarnyschnaya inlets.

  12. Effect of the resuspension technique on distribution of the heavy metals in sediment and suspended particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabadehei, Mehdi; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2016-06-01

    Harbour areas play important roles in the economy worldwide. Human activities, however, in those areas, generate contamination, which mostly accumulates in sediments. On the other hand, harbour areas have been facing deposition of significant amounts of sediment each year. As a consequence, shallowness and accumulation of contaminants in sediment become challenging issues in harbours. Among the various management options for remediation of contaminated sediments in harbours, resuspension technique was introduced as a new approach to address those issues. The concept of the resuspension method is that finer sediments have a greater tendency to adsorb the contamination. Therefore, removing the finer sediments instead of dredging the whole contaminated area is the main goal of the resuspension technique. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of the resuspension method on reducing the concentration of contamination and distribution of heavy metals in sediment and suspended particulate matter. The resuspension method was successful in reducing the concentration of seven selected heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) by removing just 4% of the contaminated sediment. The contamination intensity in the sediment, presented by geoaccumulation index, was reduced for Cd and Pb as the main contaminants by 26 and 28 percent and the rest of the selected heavy metals returned to the natural level. The results of the sequential extraction tests and enrichment factor implied that the resuspension technique is capable of decreasing the risk of remobilization of heavy metals in the aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional composition of suspended particulate matter in a tropical mangrove creek during a tidal cycle (Can Gio, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Frank; Marchand, Cyril; Taillardat, Pierre; Thành-Nho, Nguyễn; Meziane, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    Mangrove forests are highly productive ecosystems and mangrove-derived organic matter has generally been assumed to play a basal role in sustaining coastal food webs. However, the mechanisms of mangrove-derived organic matter utilisation by consumers are not fully understood. In this study, we were interested in hourly changes in the nutritional quality of suspended particulate matter (SPM) entering and departing a mangrove creek during a tidal cycle. We determined the fatty acid composition and δ13C stable isotope signature of SPM during a 26 h tidal cycle in a creek of the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve (Southern Vietnam). Regarding fatty acids, the nutritional quality of SPM was low during most of the tidal cycle. However, it greatly increased during the first part of the strongest flood tide, occurring during daytime. The pulse of highly nutritive organic matter brought to the ecosystem was mostly composed of algal cells growing in specific shallow zones of the mangrove, that use nutrients and CO2 exported during the preceding ebb tide and originating from the mineralisation of mangrove-derived organic matter, as evidenced by their δ13C signatures. This study confirms that mangrove-derived carbon plays a basal role in sustaining trophic webs of mangrove tidal creeks, but that its nutritive value is greatly enhanced when a first step of mineralisation is achieved and CO2 is photosynthesised by algal cells.

  14. A MODIS-Based Retrieval Model of Suspended Particulate Matter Concentration for the Two Largest Freshwater Lakes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter concentration (CSPM is a key parameter describing case-II water quality. Empirical and semi-empirical models are frequently developed and applied for estimating CSPM values from remote sensing images; however, they are usually region- or season-dependent. This study aimed to develop a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-based retrieval model of CSPM for Poyang and Dongting Lake together. The 89 CSPM measurements in Poyang and Dongting Lake as well as their corresponding MODIS Terra images were used to calibrate CSPM retrieval models, and the calibration results showed that the exponential models of MODIS red band and red minus shortwave infrared (SWIR band at 1240 nm both explained about 76% of the variation of CSPM of Poyang and Dongting Lake together. When the two models were applied to the validation datasets, the results indicated that the exponential model of red band obtained more stable CSPM estimations with no bias at a significance level of 0.05 in both lakes. The MODIS red-band-based model achieved acceptable results for estimating CSPM in both Poyang and Dongting Lake, and it provided a foundation for obtaining comparable spatiotemporal information of CSPM, which will be helpful for comparing, understanding, managing, and protecting the two aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Atmospheric Correction of Satellite GF-1/WFV Imagery and Quantitative Estimation of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Yangtze Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Shang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Multispectral Wide Field of View (WFV camera on the Chinese GF-1 satellite, launched in 2013, has advantages of high spatial resolution (16 m, short revisit period (4 days and wide scene swath (800 km compared to the Landsat-8/OLI, which make it an ideal means of monitoring spatial-temporal changes of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM in large estuaries like the Yangtze Estuary. However, a lack of proper atmospheric correction methods has limited its application in water quality assessment. We propose an atmospheric correction method based on a look up table coupled by the atmosphere radiative transfer model (6S and the water semi-empirical radiative transfer (SERT model for inversion of water-leaving reflectance from GF-1 top-of-atmosphere radiance, and then retrieving SPM concentration from water-leaving radiance reflectance of the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent sea. Results are validated by the Landsat-8/OLI imagery together with autonomous fixed station data, and influences of human activities (e.g., waterway construction and shipping on SPM distribution are analyzed.

  16. 7 CFR 3.20 - Standards for suspending or terminating collection activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for suspending or terminating collection activities. 3.20 Section 3.20 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Standards... authorized or required by law. ...

  17. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  18. N-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in total suspended particulates from the southeastern Tibetan Plateau: concentrations, seasonal variations, and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Cao, Junji; Zhao, Jing; Xu, Hongmei; Arimoto, Richard; Wang, Gehui; Han, Yongming; Shen, Zhenxing; Li, Guohui

    2014-02-01

    Sixty-two suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected from Lulang on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau from July 2008 and July 2009 to investigate the concentrations, seasonal variations, and sources of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Samples were analyzed using thermal-deposition gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The concentrations of particulate total n-alkanes ranged from 0.10 to 21.83 ng m(-3), with an annual mean of 1.25 ng m(-3); the PAHs ranged from 0.06 to 2.53, with a mean of 0.59 ng m(-3). Up to 70% of PAHs were 5- and 6-ring compounds. The n-alkanes and PAHs both showed higher concentrations in winter and lower concentrations in summer. Analyses of diagnostic ratios indicate that 6.4% to 58.9% (mean 24.9%) of the n-alkanes were from plant waxes. Source characterization studies, i.e. diagnostic ratio and positive factor matrix analysis, suggest that the PAHs were from biomass burning as well as from fossil fuel combustion. Backward trajectory analysis suggests that the biomass mass burning pollutants could be from South Asia and western China via long distance transport. The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the concentrations, seasonal variations, and sources of n-alkanes and PAHs in a remote background area in Tibetan Plateau. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human health risk assessment based on trace metals in suspended air particulates, surface dust, and floor dust from e-waste recycling workshops in Hong Kong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winifred Ka Yan; Liang, Peng; Man, Yu Bon; Chung, Shan Shan; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated health risks exerted on electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workers exposed to cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and zinc (Zn) in Hong Kong. E-waste recycling workshops were classified into eight working areas: 1 = office, 2 = repair, 3 = dismantling, 4 = storage, 5 = desoldering, 6 = loading, 7 = cable shredding, and 8 = chemical waste. The aforementioned metal concentrations were analyzed in suspended air particulates, surface dust and floor dust collected from the above study areas in five workshops. Elevated Pb levels were measured in dismantling and desoldering areas (582 and 486 μg/100 cm(2) in surface and 3,610 and 19,172 mg/kg in floor dust, respectively). Blood lead levels of 10 and 39.5 μg/dl were estimated using United States Environmental Protection Agency's Adult Lead Model as a result of exposure to the floor dust from these two areas. Human health risk assessments were conducted to evaluate cancer and noncancer risks resulting from exposure to floor dust through the combined pathways of ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation. Findings indicated that workers may be exposed to cancer risks above the acceptable range at 147 in a million at the 95th percentile in the dismantling area. Workers should be informed of associated risks to safeguard their health.

  20. Isotope fractionation between dissolved and suspended particulate Fe in the oxic and anoxic water column of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Staubwasser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe isotope ratios and concentrations of dissolved Fe (Fedis, < 0.45 μm and of suspended particulate Fe (FeSPM were analyzed from a depth profile through the anoxic Eastern Gotland Basin water column, Baltic Sea. Results show a sharp gradient in δ56Fedis across the ferruginous layer with δ56Fedis = −0.4‰ in the euxinic deep basin and δ56Fedis = +0.3‰ in the oxic upper water column. The isotopic gradient overlaps with a strong concentration gradient of Fedis, a concentration maximum in FeSPM and lower δ56FeSPM values than δ56Fedis. These features indicate preferential loss of light Fe isotopes from solution to suspended iron-oxyhydroxides (FeIOH during typical oxidative precipitation across the redox interface. The sign of the overall fractionation, Δ56FeIOH-Fe(II(aq < 0‰, is in contrast to similar, mostly non-marine redox environments, where Δ56FeIOH-Fe(II(aq > 0‰. The difference appears to be the result of isotope exchange dominated by reaction kinetics in the marine water column, rather than equilibrium fractionation generally inferred for oxidative Fe precipitation elsewhere. High residual δ56Fedis immediately above the oxic–ferruginous interface and throughout the oxic water column suggests that any potential dissolved Fe export from marine reducing waters into the oxic open water column is enriched in the heavy isotopes. In the deep, mildly euxinic water column above the level of Fe sulfide saturation, a decreasing δ56FeSPM trend with depth and a generally low δ56Fedis are comparable to trends generally observed in marine anoxic sediment profiles where microbial reductive Fe dissolution occurs. The isotope composition of the redox-cycled Fe

  1. Short-term Influences on Suspended Particulate Matter Distribution in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Satellite and Model Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S. Ko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Energetic meteorological events such as frontal passages and hurricanes often impact coastal regions in the northern Gulf of Mexico that influence geochemical processes in the region. Satellite remote sensing data such as winds from QuikSCAT, suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations derived from SeaWiFS and the outputs (sea level and surface ocean currents of a nested navy coastal ocean model (NCOM were combined to assess the effects of frontal passages between 23-28 March 2005 on the physical properties and the SPM characteristics in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Typical changes in wind speed and direction associated with frontal passages were observed in the latest 12.5 km wind product from QuikSCAT with easterly winds before the frontal passage undergoing systematic shifts in direction and speed and turning northerly, northwesterly during a weak and a strong front on 23 and 27 March, respectively. A quantitative comparison of model sea level results with tide gauge observations suggest better correlations near the delta than in the western part of the Gulf with elevated sea levels along the coast before the frontal passage and a large drop in sea level following the frontal passage on 27 March. Model results of surface currents suggested strong response to wind forcing with westward and onshore currents before the frontal passage reversing into eastward, southeastward direction over a six day period from 23 to 28 March 2005. Surface SPM distribution derived from SeaWiFS ocean color data for two clear days on 23 and 28 March 2005 indicated SPM plumes to be oriented with the current field with increasing concentrations in nearshore waters due to resuspension and discharge from the rivers and bays and its seaward transport following the frontal passage. The backscattering spectral slope γ, a parameter sensitive to particle size distribution also indicated lower γ values (larger particles in nearshore waters that decreased

  2. Quantifying uncertainty in the measurement of arsenic in suspended particulate matter by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with hydride generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuja Tarushee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arsenic is the toxic element, which creates several problems in human being specially when inhaled through air. So the accurate and precise measurement of arsenic in suspended particulate matter (SPM is of prime importance as it gives information about the level of toxicity in the environment, and preventive measures could be taken in the effective areas. Quality assurance is equally important in the measurement of arsenic in SPM samples before making any decision. The quality and reliability of the data of such volatile elements depends upon the measurement of uncertainty of each step involved from sampling to analysis. The analytical results quantifying uncertainty gives a measure of the confidence level of the concerned laboratory. So the main objective of this study was to determine arsenic content in SPM samples with uncertainty budget and to find out various potential sources of uncertainty, which affects the results. Keeping these facts, we have selected seven diverse sites of Delhi (National Capital of India for quantification of arsenic content in SPM samples with uncertainty budget following sampling by HVS to analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer-Hydride Generator (AAS-HG. In the measurement of arsenic in SPM samples so many steps are involved from sampling to final result and we have considered various potential sources of uncertainties. The calculation of uncertainty is based on ISO/IEC17025: 2005 document and EURACHEM guideline. It has been found that the final results mostly depend on the uncertainty in measurement mainly due to repeatability, final volume prepared for analysis, weighing balance and sampling by HVS. After the analysis of data of seven diverse sites of Delhi, it has been concluded that during the period from 31st Jan. 2008 to 7th Feb. 2008 the arsenic concentration varies from 1.44 ± 0.25 to 5.58 ± 0.55 ng/m3 with 95% confidence level (k = 2.

  3. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on post-dredging metal re-contamination across the sediment-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Fan, Chengxin; Shen, Qiushi; Shao, Shiguang; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Qilin

    2016-02-01

    Environmental dredging is often used in river mouth areas to remove heavy metals. However, following dredging, high levels of metal-adsorbed suspended particulate matter (SPM) originating from polluted inflowing rivers might adversely affect the sediment-water interface (SWI). Here, we conducted a 360-day-long experiment investigating whether the riverine SPM adversely affects dredging outcome in a bay area of Lake Chaohu, China. We found that the heavy metal concentrations in the post-dredging surface sediment increased to pre-dredging levels for all metals studied (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) after the addition of SPM. In addition, the increased concentrations were mostly detected in the relatively bioavailable non-residual fractions. Of the metals studied, the rate of increase was the greatest for Zn and Cd (482.98% and 261.07%, respectively), mostly in the weak acid extractable fraction. These results were probably due to certain characteristics of SPM (fine grain size, and high concentrations of organic matter and heavy metals) and the good oxic conditions of the SWI. Furthermore, As was the only metal for which we observed an increasing trend of diffusive flux across the SWI. However, the flux was still significantly lower than that measured before dredging. In conclusion, the quantity and character of riverine metal-adsorbed SPM affect metal re-contamination across the post-dredging SWI, and this information should be incorporated into the management schemes of dredging projects dedicated to reducing metal contamination in similar areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Origins of suspended particulate matter based on sterol distribution in low salinity water mass observed in the offshore East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Jin, Yongnu; Han, Gi Myeong; Lee, Taehee; Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Choi, Dong-Lim; Kannan, Narayanan

    2016-07-15

    The molecular composition and distribution of sterols were investigated in the East China Sea to identify the origins of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in offshore waters influenced by Changjiang River Diluted Water (CRDW). Total sterol concentrations ranged from 3200 to 31,900pgL(-1) and 663 to 5690pgL(-1) in the particulate and dissolved phases, respectively. Marine sterols dominated representing 71% and 66% in the particulate and dissolved phases, respectively. Typical sewage markers, such as coprostanol, were usually absent at ~250km offshore. However, sterols from allochthonous terrestrial plants were still detected at these sites. A negative relationship was observed between salinity and concentrations of terrestrial sterols in SPM, suggesting that significant amounts of terrestrial particulate matter traveled long distance offshore in the East China Sea, and the Changjiang River Diluted Water (CRDW) was an effective carrier of land-derived particulate organic matter to the offshore East China Sea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluvial fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter, and nutrients and potential impacts on tropical coastal water Biogeochemistry: Oahu, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D.J.; MacKenzie, F.T.

    2009-01-01

    Baseflow and storm runoff fluxes of water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and nutrients (N and P) were assessed in conservation, urban, and agricultural streams discharging to coastal waters around the tropical island of Oahu, Hawai'i. Despite unusually low storm frequency and intensity during the study, storms accounted for 8-77% (median 30%) of discharge, 57-99% (median 93%) of SPM fluxes, 11-79% (median 36%) of dissolved nutrient fluxes and 52-99% (median 85%) of particulate nutrient fluxes to coastal waters. Fluvial nutrient concentrations varied with hydrologic conditions and land use; land use also affected water and particulate fluxes at some sites. Reactive dissolved N:P ratios typically were ???16 (the 'Redfield ratio' for marine phytoplankton), indicating that inputs could support new production by coastal phytoplankton, but uptake of dissolved nutrients is probably inefficient due to rapid dilution and export of fluvial dissolved inputs. Particulate N and P fluxes were similar to or larger than dissolved fluxes at all sites (median 49% of total nitrogen, range 22-82%; median 69% of total phosphorus, range 49-93%). Impacts of particulate nutrients on coastal ecosystems will depend on how efficiently SPM is retained in nearshore areas, and on the timing and degree of transformation to reactive dissolved forms. Nevertheless, the magnitude of particulate nutrient fluxes suggests that they represent a significant nutrient source for many coastal ecosystems over relatively long time scales (weeks-years), and that reductions in particulate nutrient loading actually may have negative impacts on some coastal ecosystems.

  6. Natural, anthropogenic and fossil organic matter in river sediments and suspended particulate matter: a multi-molecular marker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micić, V; Kruge, M A; Köster, J; Hofmann, T

    2011-02-01

    Different classes of organic matter (OM) have been systematically investigated in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) along the Danube River in order to understand causes of compositional changes. Analytical pyrolysis revealed the dominance of natural organic matter (NOM) in most of the samples. The predominance of aquatic biomass is evident mainly from the abundance of organonitrogen compounds and phenol distributions. As the river enters a forested gorge, the terrestrial component of the NOM in sediments is more significant. This is reflected in abundant methoxyphenols and a very high carbon preference index. SPM sample from a tributary shows a unique geochemical signature. It contains abundant carboxylic acids, amines, isoprenoids in the pyrolyzate, and is dominated by phytol and 24-methyl-cholesta-5,24(28)-dien-3β-ol in the extract, produced by a diatom bloom. Wax esters with a relatively high proportion of short, methyl-branched alkyl-chains appear together with abundant phytadienes and n-C(17) alkane in some samples, suggesting a microbial origin. Anthropogenic OM from runoff and atmospheric deposition was evident from a minor input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originating from mixed combustion sources. Multivariate analysis using PAH data led us to define simple molecular ratios to distinguish the PAH composition in sand and silty sediments. The newly defined ratios are the alkylated phenanthrenes and anthracenes ratio (APA; C(1)-C(3)/C(0)-C(3) phenanthrenes and anthracenes) and the PAH ring number ratio (RN; 5-6 ring parent PAHs/all parent PAHs). This demonstrates that alkylated, as well as 5-6 ring PAHs are better preserved in the finer than in coarser grained sediments. A ubiquitous, but minor input of petroleum-related contamination with a uniform composition was evident in all samples as revealed by the analysis of petroleum biomarkers. This study demonstrates that the investigation of different classes of riverine OM

  7. Effectiveness of dust control methods for crystalline silica and respirable suspended particulate matter exposure during manual concrete surface grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Milz, Sheryl A; Wagner, Cynthia D; Bisesi, Michael S; Ames, April L; Khuder, Sadik; Susi, Pam; Akbar-Khanzadeh, Mahboubeh

    2010-12-01

    Concrete grinding exposes workers to unacceptable levels of crystalline silica dust, known to cause diseases such as silicosis and possibly lung cancer. This study examined the influence of major factors of exposure and effectiveness of existing dust control methods by simulating field concrete grinding in an enclosed workplace laboratory. Air was monitored during 201 concrete grinding sessions while using a variety of grinders, accessories, and existing dust control methods, including general ventilation (GV), local exhaust ventilation (LEV), and wet grinding. Task-specific geometric mean (GM) of respirable crystalline silica dust concentrations (mg/m³ for LEV:HEPA-, LEV:Shop-vac-, wet-, and uncontrolled-grinding, while GV was off/on, were 0.17/0.09, 0.57/0.13, 1.11/0.44, and 23.1/6.80, respectively. Silica dust concentrations (mg/m³ using 100-125 mm (4-5 inch) and 180 mm (7 inch) grinding cups were 0.53/0.22 and 2.43/0.56, respectively. GM concentrations of silica dust were significantly lower for (1) GV on (66.0%) vs. off, and (2) LEV:HEPA- (99.0%), LEV:Shop-vac- (98.1%) or wet- (94.4%) vs. uncontrolled-grinding. Task-specific GM of respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP) concentrations (mg/m³ for LEV:HEPA-, LEV:Shop-vac-, wet-, and uncontrolled grinding, while GV was off/on, were 1.58/0.63, 7.20/1.15, 9.52/4.13, and 152/47.8, respectively. GM concentrations of RSP using 100-125 mm and 180 mm grinding cups were 4.78/1.62 and 22.2/5.06, respectively. GM concentrations of RSP were significantly lower for (1) GV on (70.2%) vs. off, and (2) LEV:HEPA- (98.9%), LEV:Shop-vac- (96.9%) or wet- (92.6%) vs. uncontrolled grinding. Silica dust and RSP were not significantly affected by (1) orientation of grinding surfaces (vertical vs. inclined); (2) water flow rates for wet grinding; (3) length of task-specific sampling time; or, (4) among cup sizes of 100, 115 or 125 mm. No combination of factors or control methods reduced an 8-hr exposure level to below the

  8. Mutagenicity of organic pollutants adsorbed on suspended particulate matter in the center of Wrocław (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełcik, Maciej; Trusz-Zdybek, Agnieszka; Galas, Ewa; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    Mutagenicity of pollutants adsorbed on suspended dust of the PM10 fraction, collected in winter and summer season alike over the Wrocław city centre (Poland) was studied using the standard Salmonella assay (plate-incorporation) and the Kado modified assay (microsuspension method). The dust was collected using Staplex high volume air sampler. Further on it was extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet apparatus. PAH content in extracts was determined by the high performance liquid chromatography technique using fluorescence detection, whereas the nitro-PAH content- by the gas chromatography using mass detection. Two Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA98 and YG1041, were used in the assays. The assays were conducted with and without a metabolic activation. Investigated air pollution extracts differed against each other with regard to a total content as well as to a percentage of individual compounds, depending on the sampling season. Both the total PAH content and the nitro-PAH content in the tested samples, and their spectrum as well, were found the highest in winter season. Higher mutagenic effect was noted for the dust extract from samples collected in wintertime than from those collected in summer. Pollutants directly affecting the genetic material and those showing such indirect action were present in the examined samples. The YG1041 strain turned out to be the most sensitive, which was the sign that large amounts of nitro-aromatic compounds were present in the tested samples. Obtained results proved that the Kado modified Salmonella assay would be useful for the atmospheric air pollution monitoring in urban agglomerations. Mutagenic effect in assays conducted according to the Kado procedure was obtained by using in the assays lower concentrations of tested extracts, compared to the classical assay.

  9. Multi-temporal dynamics of suspended particulate matter in a macro-tidal river Plume (the Gironde) as observed by satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Sorin; Doxaran, David; Derkacheva, Anna; Novoa, Stéfani; Lavigne, Héloïse

    2018-03-01

    The Gironde River plume area is unique in terms of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) dynamics. Multiple factors contribute to the variations of SPM at multiple time scales, from river outputs to wind stress, currents and tidal cycles. The formation and evolution of the Maximum Turbidity Zone (MTZ) inside the estuary also plays a significant role. Thus, detailed analyses and monitoring of the region is important for better understanding the mechanisms governing the turbid plume dynamics, for proper future management and monitoring of SPM export from the estuary to the coastal ocean. In this study we use an unprecedented volume of satellite data to capture and better understand the dynamics of the river plume. We combine two types of satellite information in order to achieve these goals: data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensors. The integrated information allows accounting for multiple time scales, i.e. from seasonal to diurnal cycles. We show and parameterize the overall effects of river discharge rates over the plume extension. Seasonal variations are also analyzed and an overall relationship between river discharge rates and plume magnitude is computed. For the first time, we clearly observe and explain the diurnal cycle of SPM dynamics in the river plume. Despite the limited capabilities of the SEVIRI sensor, geostationary data was successfully used to derive such information and results similar to in-situ datasets were obtained. The same patterns are observed, with significant increase in SPM plume during spring/ebb tide periods. Results from our study can be further used to refine sediment transport models and to gain a better perspective on the ecological implications of the sediment output in the continental shelf area.

  10. A new protocol for the analysis of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and hormones in sediments and suspended particulate matter from rivers and municipal wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwano, Hicham; Duy, Sung Vo; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-05-01

    We developed a protocol to quantify 12 emerging contaminants (ECs) (pharmaceuticals and hormones) and pesticides extracted from suspended particulate matter (SPM) of river water and municipal wastewaters samples as well as river sediments. The separation of suspended solids was realized using filtration of water samples. We tested a series of six different filter types. The effect of filtration on the concentrations of dissolved contaminants was evaluated to minimize losses of target compounds. The river sediment samples were lyophilized, and both SPM and sediment samples were subjected to ultrasonic extraction combined with C18 cartridge clean-up. Quantifications were realized using mass spectrometry. The method recoveries of all compounds ranged from 38 to 112 % in all studied matrices; poorer recoveries were achieved for sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac (as low as 38 %), whereas the recoveries for all other compounds in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) samples were between 68 and 111 %. The detection limits in sediments and SPM from river samples for the 12 analytes varied from 0.7 to 9.4 ng g(-1) and from 21 to 92 ng g(-1) for WWTP SPM samples. All targeted ECs were detected with concentrations ranging from 3 to 5,440 ng g(-1) in the studied matrices with the highest concentrations observed in WWTP SPM samples. A significant portion of the contaminants in a water sample is clearly associated with the suspended particulates. Optimization of water-treatment processes and environmental fate must absolutely consider the fraction of contaminants that is particulate-bound if one hopes to have a reasonable mass balance.

  11. Dispersal and sink pathways of suspended particulate matter from the orographically enhanced SWM regime of the SE Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Kader, U.S.A.; Vaidya, P.; Rajawat, A.S.; Ajai; Ramakrishnan, R.

    suspended matter (TSM) into the continental margin of the SE Arabian Sea has been evaluated from subweekly synoptic variations in TSM and its advection rates, currents and winds during the southwest monsoon (SWM) and postmonsoon season. Our study endorses...

  12. Assessment of suspended particulate matters and their heavy metal content in the ambient air of Mobarakeh city, Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Avazali Saririan Mobarakeh; Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi; Mahnaz Nikaeen; Mohammad Mehdi Amin; Akbar Hassanzadeh; Kazem Nadafi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the quality of Mobarakeh ambient air in terms of suspended particles and heavy metals. Material and Methods: The current study was carried out in Mobarakeh city, Isfahan, Iran. Air sampling was performed in three sites for a 1-year period (in 2007). Measurement of total suspended particles (TSP) and heavy metals was achieved using high volume air sampler with fiberglass filter. The concentration of heavy metals, including Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe, and ...

  13. Source apportionment of atmospheric fine particulate matter collected at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The trends in secondary organic aerosol at a remote location are studied using atmospheric fine particulate matter samples collected at Seney National Wildlife...

  14. 15 CFR 19.8 - When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt? 19.8 Section 19.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.8 When will...

  15. 36 CFR 1011.8 - When will the Presidio Trust suspend or terminate debt collection on a debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust suspend or terminate debt collection on a debt? 1011.8 Section 1011.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.8 When will the Presidio...

  16. Using VIIRS/NPP and MODIS/Aqua data to provide a continuous record of suspended particulate matter in a highly turbid inland lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Duan, Hongtao; Shen, Ming; Ma, Ronghua; Xue, Kun; Liu, Dong; Xiao, Qitao

    2018-02-01

    Inland lakes are generally an important source of drinking water, and information on their water quality needs to be obtained in real time. To date, Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data have played a critical, effective and long-term role in fulfilling this function. However, the MODIS instruments on board both the Terra and Aqua satellites have operated beyond their designed five-year mission lifespans (Terra was launched in 1999, whereas Aqua was launched in 2002), and these instruments may stop running at any time in the near future. The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP, which was launched in Oct 2011) is expected to provide a consistent, long-term data record and continue the series of observations initiated by MODIS. To date, few evaluations of the consistency between VIIRS and MODIS have been conducted for turbid inland waters. In this study, we first used synchronous MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data (±1 h) collected during 2012-2015 to evaluate the consistency of Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc) observations over Lake Hongze (the fourth-largest freshwater lake in China), since accurate remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) values cannot be acquired over turbid inland waters. Second, we used recently developed algorithms based on Rrc in the red band to estimate the concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data. Finally, we assessed the consistency of the SPM products derived from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP. The results show the following. (1) The differences in Rrc among the green (VIIRS 551 nm and MODIS 555 nm) and red bands (VIIRS 671 nm and MODIS 645 nm) indicate a satisfactory consistency, and the unbiased percentage difference (UPD) is products obtained using MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP have a satisfactory degree of consistency (0-150 mg/L SPM: R2 = 0.81, UPD < 16% and 0-80 mg/L SPM: R2 = 0.85, UPD < 12%, respectively

  17. Size-selective sampling performance of six low-volume “total” suspended particulate (TSP) inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several low-volume inlets (flow rates ≤ 16.7 liters per minute (Lpm)) are commercially available as components of low-cost, portable ambient particulate matter samplers. Because the inlets themselves do not contain internal fractionators, they are often assumed to representati...

  18. Monitoring the effects of disposal of fine sediments from maintenance dredging on suspended particulate matter concentration in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Francken, Frederic; Lauwaert, Brigitte; Van den Eynde, Dries; Van Lancker, Vera; Martens, Chantal; Michielsen, Tinne

    2011-02-01

    The impact of continuous disposal of fine-grained sediments from maintenance dredging works on the suspended particulate matter concentration in a shallow nearshore turbidity maximum was investigated during dredging experiment (port of Zeebrugge, southern North Sea). Before, during and after the experiment monitoring of SPM concentration using OBS and ADV altimetry was carried out at a location 5 km west of the disposal site. A statistical analysis, based on the concept of populations and sub-sampling, was applied to evaluate the effect. The data revealed that the SPM concentration near the bed was on average more than two times higher during the dredging experiment. The disposed material was mainly transported in the benthic layer and resulted in a long-term increase of SPM concentration and formation of fluid mud layers. The study shows that SPM concentration can be used as an indicator of environmental changes if representative time series are available. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The chemistry of suspended particulate material in a highly contaminated embayment of Port Jackson (Australia) under quiescent, high-wind and heavy-rainfall conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Gavin; O'Hea, Laura

    2007-11-01

    This study investigated physico-chemical characteristics of the water column and chemistry of suspended particulate material (SPM) under quiescent, high-wind and high-wind/heavy-rainfall conditions in Homebush Bay, a highly contaminated embayment of Port Jackson (Australia) to distinguish source and possible adverse effects to benthic and pelagic animals. Mean concentrations in surficial sediment were chemistry indicated these metals had multiple sources, i.e. the estuary, stormwater and industry. Mean total suspended solids (TSS) were 7, 17 and 20 mg L-1 during quiescent, high-rainfall and heavy rainfall/high wind conditions, respectively, whereas SPM Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations varied between 13-25, 166-259, 127-198, 38-82, 236-305 and 605-865 μg g-1, respectively under these conditions. TSS and total water metal concentrations were lowest during quiescent conditions. High TSS and metal loads in surface water characterised high-rainfall events. Wind-induced resuspension contributed the greatest mass of SPM and metals to the water column. Benthic animals may be adversely affected by Pb and Zn in sediment. Total water Cu and Zn concentrations may pose a risk to filter-feeding animals in the water column due to resuspension of contaminated sediment.

  20. Novel concepts for preparation of reference materials as whole water samples for priority substances at nanogram-per-liter level using model suspended particulate matter and humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elordui-Zapatarietxe, Saioa; Fettig, Ina; Philipp, Rosemarie; Gantois, Fanny; Lalère, Béatrice; Swart, Claudia; Petrov, Panayot; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi; Vanermen, Guido; Boom, Gerard; Emteborg, Håkan

    2015-04-01

    One of the unresolved issues of the European Water Framework Directive is the unavailability of realistic water reference materials for the organic priority pollutants at low nanogram-per-liter concentrations. In the present study, three different types of ready-to-use water test materials were developed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and tributyltin (TBT) at nanogram-per-liter levels. The first type simulated the dissolved phase in the water and comprised of a solution of humic acids (HA) at 5 mg L(-1) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and a spike of the target compounds. The second type of water sample incorporated the particulate phase in water. To this end, model suspended particulate matter (SPM) with a realistic particle size was produced by jet milling soil and sediments containing known amounts of PAHs, PBDEs and TBT and added as slurry to mineral water. The most complex test materials mimicked "whole water" consequently containing both phases, the model SPM and the HA solution with the target analytes strongly bound to the SPM. In this paper, the development of concepts, processing of the starting materials, characterisation of the HA and model SPMs as well as results for homogeneity and stability testing of the ready-to-use test materials are described in detail.

  1. A critical examination of the possible application of zinc stable isotope ratios in bivalve mollusks and suspended particulate matter to trace zinc pollution in a tropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniel; Machado, Wilson; Weiss, Dominik; Mulholland, Daniel S; Boaventura, Geraldo R; Viers, Jerome; Garnier, Jeremie; Dantas, Elton L; Babinski, Marly

    2017-07-01

    The application of zinc (Zn) isotopes in bivalve tissues to identify zinc sources in estuaries was critically assessed. We determined the zinc isotope composition of mollusks (Crassostrea brasiliana and Perna perna) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in a tropical estuary (Sepetiba Bay, Brazil) historically impacted by metallurgical activities. The zinc isotope systematics of the SPM was in line with mixing of zinc derived from fluvial material and from metallurgical activities. In contrast, source mixing alone cannot account for the isotope ratios observed in the bivalves, which are significantly lighter in the contaminated metallurgical zone (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.49 ± 0.06‰, 2σ, n = 3) compared to sampling locations outside (δ 66 Zn JMC  = +0.83 ± 0.10‰, 2σ, n = 22). This observation suggests that additional factors such as speciation, bioavailability and bioaccumulation pathways (via solution or particulate matter) influence the zinc isotope composition of bivalves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modelling the light absorption properties of particulate matter forming organic particles suspended in sea water. Part 3. Practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Majchrowski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to a close our cycle of articles on modelling the light absorption properties of particulate organic matter (POM in the sea. In the first two parts of this cycle (Woźniaket al. 2005a,b we discussed these properties with reference to various model chemical classes and physical types of POM. We have put these results into practice in the present third part. As a result of the appropriate theoretical speculations, logically underpinned by empirical knowledge, we selected 25 morphological variants of marine organic detritus, to which we ascribed definite chemical compositions and physical types. On this basis and using known spectra of the mass-specific coefficients of light absorption by various naturally occurring organic substances (systematised in Parts 1 and 2, we determined the absorption properties of these 25 morphological groups of particles, that is, the spectra of the imaginary part of the refractive index n'p(λ (in the 200-700 nm range of the particulate matter. They can be applied, with the aid of Mie's or some other similar theory, to calculate the bulk optical properties (absorbing and scattering of such sets of particles in the sea.

  3. Characterization of atmospheric particulate and metallic elements at Taichung Harbor near Taiwan Strait during 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Lin, Jum-Bo; Lin, Chi-Kwong; Rau, Jui-Yeh; Huang, Shih-Han

    2006-06-01

    Air aerosol samples for TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)), fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter metallic elements were collected during March 2004 to January 2005 at TH (Taichung Harbor) in central Taiwan. The seasonal variation average concentration of TSP (total suspended particulate), coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) and fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter metallic elements Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during spring. Seasonal variation of metallic elements Pb, Cr and Mg in the TSP (total suspended particulate) shows that higher concentration was observed during winter. The average metallic element TSP (total suspended particulate) concentration order was Fe>Zn>Mg>Cu>Cr>Mn>Pb in spring. In addition, at the TH sampling site, the average concentration variation of TSP (total suspended particulate) displayed the following order: spring>winter>autumn>summer. However, the average concentration variation of coarse particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter 2.5-10 microm, PM(2.5-10)) displayed the following order: spring>winter>summer>autumn. Finally, the average concentration variations of fine particulate (particle matter with aerodynamical diameter spring>summer>autumn at the TH sample site.

  4. Suspended sediment dynamics on a seasonal scale in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Narvekar, T.; Blossom, V.; Mehra, P.

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected at regular stations from the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries indicates that the peaks of high SPM coincide with peaks of high rainfall and low salinity and also with peaks of moderate/low rainfall coupled...

  5. Apparatus for real-time airborne particulate radionuclide collection and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, John E.; Perkins, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus for collecting and analyzing an airborne particulate radionuclide having a filter mounted in a housing, the housing having an air inlet upstream of the filter and an air outlet downstream of the filter, wherein an air stream flows therethrough. The air inlet receives the air stream, the filter collects the airborne particulate radionuclide and permits a filtered air stream to pass through the air outlet. The improvement which permits real time counting is a gamma detecting germanium diode mounted downstream of the filter in the filtered air stream. The gamma detecting germanium diode is spaced apart from a downstream side of the filter a minimum distance for a substantially maximum counting detection while permitting substantially free air flow through the filter and uniform particulate radionuclide deposition on the filter.

  6. Modelling the light absorption properties of particulate matter forming organic particles suspended in seawater. Part 2. Modelling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Model spectra of mass-specific absorption coefficients a*OM(λ were established for 26 naturally occurring organic substances or their possible mixtures, capable of forming particulate organic matter (POM in the sea. An algorithm was constructed, and the set of spectra of a*OM(λ was used to determine the spectra of the imaginary part of the complex refractive index n'p(λ characteristic of different physical types and chemical classes of POM commonly occurring in sea water. The variability in the spectra and absolute values of n'p for the various model classes and types of POM was shown to range over many orders of magnitude. This implies that modelling the optical properties of sea water requires a multi-component approach that takes account of the numerous living and non-living fractions of POM, each of which has a different value of n'p.

  7. Particulate air pollution, with emphasis on traffic generated aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik

    constitute each about 5 wt-% of the collected suspended particulate matter in inner city air. The particle size distribution shows that 92 % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 µm. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about 1 µm for the bitumen particles...

  8. Seasonal characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions and carbonaceous aerosols in total suspended particulate matter at a rural semi-arid site, Kadapa (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begam, G Reshma; Vachaspati, C Viswanatha; Ahammed, Y Nazeer; Kumar, K Raghavendra; Reddy, R R; Sharma, S K; Saxena, Mohit; Mandal, T K

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the sources as well as characterization of regional aerosols at a rural semi-arid region Kadapa (India), size-resolved composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations was sampled and analysed. This was carried out by using the Anderson low-pressure impactor for a period of 2 years during March 2013-February 2015. Also, the variations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble inorganic ion components (WSICs) present in total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were studied over the measurement site. From the statistical analysis, the PM mass concentration showed a higher abundance of coarse mode particles than the fine mode during pre-monsoon season. In contrast, fine mode particles in the PM concentration showed dominance over coarse mode particle contribution during the winter. During the post-monsoon season, the percentage contributions of coarse and fine fractions were equal, whereas during the monsoon, coarse mode fraction was approximately 26 % higher than the fine mode. This distinct feature in the case of fine mode particles during the studied period is mainly attributed to large-scale anthropogenic activities and regional prevailing meteorological conditions. Further, the potential sources of PM have been identified qualitatively by using the ratios of certain ions. A high sulphate (SO4) concentration at the measurement site was observed during the studied period which is caused by the nearby/surrounding mining activity. Carbon fractions (OC and EC) were also analysed from the TSPM, and the results indicated (OC/EC ratio of ~4.2) the formation of a secondary organic aerosol. At last, the cluster backward trajectory analyses were also performed at Kadapa for different seasons to reveal the origin of sources from long-range transport during the study period.

  9. Barium in Twilight Zone suspended matter as a potential proxy for particulate organic carbon remineralization: Results for the North Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehairs, F.; Jacquet, S.; Savoye, N.; Van Mooy, B.A.S.; Buesseler, K.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Lamborg, C.H.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.; Boyd, P.W.; Casciotti, K.L.; Monnin, C.

    2008-04-10

    This study focuses on the fate of exported organic carbon in the twilight zone at two contrasting environments in the North Pacific: the oligotrophic ALOHA site (22 degrees 45 minutes N 158 degrees W; Hawaii; studied during June-July 2004) and the mesotrophic Subarctic Pacific K2 site (47 degrees N, 161 degrees W; studied during July-August 2005). Earlier work has shown that non-lithogenic, excess particulate Ba (Ba{sub xs}) in the mesopelagic water column is a potential proxy of organic carbon remineralization. In general Ba{sub xs} contents were significantly larger at K2 than at ALOHA. At ALOHA the Ba{sub xs} profiles from repeated sampling (5 casts) showed remarkable consistency over a period of three weeks, suggesting that the system was close to being at steady state. In contrast, more variability was observed at K2 (6 casts sampled) reflecting the more dynamic physical and biological conditions prevailing in this environment. While for both sites Ba{sub xs} concentrations increased with depth, at K2 a clear maximum was present between the base of the mixed layer at around 50m and 500m, reflecting production and release of Ba{sub xs}. Larger mesopelagic Ba{sub xs} contents and larger bacterial production in the twilight zone at the K2 site indicate that more material was exported from the upper mixed layer for bacterial degradation deeper, compared to the ALOHA site. Furthermore, application of a published transfer function (Dehairs et al., 1997) relating oxygen consumption to the observed Ba{sub xs} data indicated that the latter were in good agreement with bacterial respiration, calculated from bacterial production. These results corroborate earlier findings highlighting the potential of Ba{sub xs} as a proxy for organic carbon remineralization. The range of POC remineralization rates calculated from twilight zone excess particulate Ba contents did also compare well with the depth dependent POC flux decrease as recorded by neutrally buoyant sediment traps

  10. The influence of air-suspended particulate concentration on the incidence of suicide attempts and exacerbation of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackerson, Naomy S.; Zilberman, Arkadi; Todder, Doron; Kaplan, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the concentration of solid air-suspended particles (SSP) in the incidence of mental disorders. The study is based on 1,871 cases, registered in the Beer-Sheva Mental Health Center (BS-MHC) at Ben-Gurion University (Israel) during a 16-month period from 2001 to 2002; 1,445 persons were hospitalized due to exacerbation of schizophrenia (ICD-10: F20-F29) and 426 after committing a suicide attempt using a variety of means as coded in the ICD-10 (ICD-10: X60-X84). Pearson and Spearman test correlations were used; the statistical significance was tested at p 0.3, p 0.2). A trend towards positive correlation ( ρ > 0.2, p psychotic attack ( N PS ) in periods with dominant eastern winds (4-9 am, local time) has been observed, while in the afternoon and evening hours (1-8 pm local time) with dominant western winds, N C and N PS are not correlated (p > 0.1). Obviously, concentration of SSP is not the one and only parameter of air pollution state determining meteorological-biological impact, involving incidence of mental disorders, although its role can scarcely be overstated. However, since it is one of the simplest measured parameters, it could be widely used and helpful in the daily struggle for human life comfort in semi-arid areas as well as urban and industrial surroundings, where air pollution reaches crucial values. This study may permit determination of the limits for different external factors, which do not overcome threshold values (without provoking avalanche situations), to single out the group of people at increased risk (with according degree of statistic probability), whose reactions to the weather violations can involve the outbreak of frustration points and prevent or alleviate detrimental mental effects.

  11. Distribution and Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Water Dissolved Phase, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediment from Weihe River in Northwest China

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    Yuyun Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Weihe River is a typical river located in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. In this study, the distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in Weihe River were investigated. The concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 351 to 4427 ng/L with a mean value of 835.4 ng/L in water dissolved phase (WDP, from 3557 ng/L to 147,907 ng/L with a mean value of 20,780 ng /L in suspended particulate matter (SPM, and from 362 to 15,667 ng/g dry weight (dw with a mean value of 2000 ng/g dw in sediment, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in Weihe River were higher compared with other rivers in the world. In both WDP and sediment, the highest concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the middle reach, while the lowest concentrations of ∑PAHs were found in the lower reach. For SPM, however, the PAHs concentrations in the lower reach were highest and the PAHs concentrations in the upper reach were lowest. The ratios of anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene and fluoranthene/ (fluoranthene + pyrene reflected a pattern of both pyrolytic and petrogenic input of PAHs in Weihe River. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that harmful biological impairments occur frequently in Weihe River.

  12. Temporal variation of suspended particulate matter and turbulence in a high energy, tide-stirred, coastal sea: Relative contributions of resuspension and disaggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.; Sykes, P.; Rippeth, T.

    2006-11-01

    Measurements of turbulence and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were measured over a 50 h period at a site in high tidal energy, mixed waters of the Irish Sea, NW European shelf. Turbulence parameters included both production (variance method from seabed ADCP) and dissipation (FLY profiler); SPM parameters included mass and volume concentrations and particle size (LISST 100 C). It is shown that the resultant SPM time series was due to a combination of time-varying turbulence at the measurement site and space-varying turbulence advecting through the site. Time asymmetry in turbulence at the site produced an asymmetric M 4 signal in SPM volume concentration due to resuspension and disaggregation of flocs at times of peak turbulent energy. In terms of mass, the disaggregation contribution was 43% as much as the resuspension contribution near the bed, and 20% as much integrated throughout the water column. There was aggregation of flocs at high and low slack waters but the largest flocs occurred at low slack waters. Space-varying ambient turbulence was responsible for a horizontal gradient in floc size with small and large flocs at the high and low ends of the gradient, respectively; this generated a M 2 signal in SPM properties. SPM concentrations and properties at any time resulted from combination of M 2 and M 4 variations which are responsible for the well-known twin peaks signature seen in transmissometer time series in tidal waters.

  13. Investigation of the UK37' vs. SST relationship for Atlantic Ocean suspended particulate alkenones: An alternative regression model and discussion of possible sampling bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jessica; Kienast, Markus; Dowd, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Alkenone unsaturation, expressed as the UK37' index, is closely related to growth temperature of prymnesiophytes, thus providing a reliable proxy to infer past sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Here we address two lingering uncertainties related to this SST proxy. First, calibration models developed for core-top sediments and those developed for surface suspended particulates organic material (SPOM) show systematic offsets, raising concerns regarding the transfer of the primary signal into the sedimentary record. Second, questions remain regarding changes in slope of the UK37' vs. growth temperature relationship at the temperature extremes. Based on (re)analysis of 31 new and 394 previously published SPOM UK37' data from the Atlantic Ocean, a new regression model to relate UK37' to SST is introduced; the Richards curve (Richards, 1959). This non-linear regression model provides a robust calibration of the UK37' vs. SST relationship for Atlantic SPOM samples and uniquely accounts for both the fact that the UK37' index is a proportion, and so must lie between 0 and 1, as well as for the observed reduction in slope at the warm and cold ends of the temperature range. As with prior fits of SPOM UK37' vs. SST, the Richards model is offset from traditional regression models of sedimentary UK37' vs. SST. We posit that (some of) this offset can be attributed to the seasonally and depth biased sampling of SPOM material.

  14. A critical and comparative appraisal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and suspended particulate material from a large South American subtropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Fernanda D; Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Martins, César C

    2016-07-01

    The Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (PEC) is an important socioeconomic estuary of the Brazilian coast that is influenced by the input of pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Because of the apparent lack of comparative studies involving PAHs in different estuarine compartments, the aim of this study was to determine and compare PAH concentrations in surface sediment and suspended particulate material (SPM) in the PEC to evaluate their behaviour, compositions, sources and spatial distributions. The total PAH concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.6 to 63.8 ng g(-1) (dry weight), whereas in the SPM these concentrations ranged from 391 to 4164 ng g(-1). Diagnostic ratios suggest distinct sources of PAHs to sediments (i.e., pyrolytic sources) and SPM (i.e., petrogenic sources such as vessel traffic). Thus, the recent introduction of PAHs is more clearly indicated in the SPM since oil related-compounds (e.g., alkyl-PAHs) remain present in similar concentrations. Further, this matrix may better reflect the current state of the environment at the time of sampling because of the absence of significant degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution and Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water Dissolved Phase, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediment from Weihe River in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyun; Jia, Rui; Yang, Shengke

    2015-11-06

    Weihe River is a typical river located in the arid and semi-arid regions of Northwest China. In this study, the distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Weihe River were investigated. The concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 351 to 4427 ng/L with a mean value of 835.4 ng/L in water dissolved phase (WDP), from 3557 ng/L to 147,907 ng/L with a mean value of 20,780 ng /L in suspended particulate matter (SPM), and from 362 to 15,667 ng/g dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 2000 ng/g dw in sediment, respectively. The concentrations of PAHs in Weihe River were higher compared with other rivers in the world. In both WDP and sediment, the highest concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the middle reach, while the lowest concentrations of ∑PAHs were found in the lower reach. For SPM, however, the PAHs concentrations in the lower reach were highest and the PAHs concentrations in the upper reach were lowest. The ratios of anthracene/(anthracene + phenanthrene) and fluoranthene/ (fluoranthene + pyrene) reflected a pattern of both pyrolytic and petrogenic input of PAHs in Weihe River. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that harmful biological impairments occur frequently in Weihe River.

  16. Toxic and inflammatory effects of filters frequently used for the collection of airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, C. A. J.; Stone, V.; Brown, D. M.; Watt, M.; Cherrie, J. W.; Howarth, S.; Seaton, A.; Donaldson, K.

    Epidemiological studies indicate that exacerbations of airway diseases and cardio-respiratory mortality have been associated with high levels of particulate air pollution. In the search for explanatory mechanisms, there is a need to collect particulate matter (such as PM 10/PM 2.5) onto filters for biological analysis. The removal of airborne particulate matter from a filter into solution involves agitation of the samples to release the particles and this is done by such methods as high-speed vortexing. Since it is possible that components of filters could contaminate the preparation and interfere with biological investigations it is necessary to find an inert filter suitable for both particulate collection and biological analysis. Extracts of the following six filters were assessed for toxicological activity both in vivo and in vitro:-Millipore AP20, Whatman GF/A, Whatman WCN, Gelman TF1000, Gelman DM800 and polycarbonate (PC). Treatment with the extract of either Whatman GF/A, Gelman DM800 or Millipore AP20 filters for 24 h significantly ( prat lungs was carried out to investigate their ability to cause inflammation. The cellular components of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed for the number of neutrophils, as markers of inflammation. After 24 h the filter extract of the Millipore AP20, polycarbonate (PC), Whatman WCN and Whatman GF/A induced a significant ( Prat lung. Finally the ability of each filter to absorb phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was assessed. The Whatman GF/A increased in weight 13 fold and the Millipore AP20 8 fold. In comparison the polycarbonate and the Gelman TF1000 were hydrophobic. These results suggest that of the six filters tested, the Teflon Gelman TF1000 filter was the most suitable for the collection and subsequent biological analysis of airborne particulate matter, as it releases little in the way of toxic material.

  17. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations.

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    Aine Marie Gormley-Gallagher

    Full Text Available Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05 for Mn (r2 = 0.0063, Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021, Ni (r2 = 0.0023, Cd (r2 = 0.00001, Co (r2 = 0.096, Hg (r2 = 0.116 or Pb (r2 = 0.164. The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  18. The Applicability of the Distribution Coefficient, KD, Based on Non-Aggregated Particulate Samples from Lakes with Low Suspended Solids Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley-Gallagher, Aine Marie; Douglas, Richard William; Rippey, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Separate phases of metal partitioning behaviour in freshwater lakes that receive varying degrees of atmospheric contamination and have low concentrations of suspended solids were investigated to determine the applicability of the distribution coefficient, KD. Concentrations of Pb, Ni, Co, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg and Mn were determined using a combination of filtration methods, bulk sample collection and digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Phytoplankton biomass, suspended solids concentrations and the organic content of the sediment were also analysed. By distinguishing between the phytoplankton and (inorganic) lake sediment, transient variations in KD were observed. Suspended solids concentrations over the 6-month sampling campaign showed no correlation with the KD (n = 15 for each metal, p > 0.05) for Mn (r2 = 0.0063), Cu (r2 = 0.0002, Cr (r2 = 0.021), Ni (r2 = 0.0023), Cd (r2 = 0.00001), Co (r2 = 0.096), Hg (r2 = 0.116) or Pb (r2 = 0.164). The results implied that colloidal matter had less opportunity to increase the dissolved (filter passing) fraction, which inhibited the spurious lowering of KD. The findings conform to the increasingly documented theory that the use of KD in modelling may mask true information on metal partitioning behaviour. The root mean square error of prediction between the directly measured total metal concentrations and those modelled based on the separate phase fractions were ± 3.40, 0.06, 0.02, 0.03, 0.44, 484.31, 80.97 and 0.1 μg/L for Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Cr and Co respectively. The magnitude of error suggests that the separate phase models for Mn and Cu can be used in distribution or partitioning models for these metals in lake water.

  19. Improving suspended sediment measurements by automatic samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, Melissa; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud; DeGroot, Gregory; Brand, Joshua; Mohseni, Omid; Erickson, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Suspended solids either as total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is an integral particulate water quality parameter that is important in assessing particle-bound contaminants. At present, nearly all stormwater runoff quality monitoring is performed with automatic samplers in which the sampling intake is typically installed at the bottom of a storm sewer or channel. This method of sampling often results in a less accurate measurement of suspended sediment and associated pollutants due to the vertical variation in particle concentration caused by particle settling. In this study, the inaccuracies associated with sampling by conventional intakes for automatic samplers have been verified by testing with known suspended sediment concentrations and known particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 μm to 355 μm under various flow rates. Experimental results show that, for samples collected at a typical automatic sampler intake position, the ratio of sampled to feed suspended sediment concentration is up to 6600% without an intake strainer and up to 300% with a strainer. When the sampling intake is modified with multiple sampling tubes and fitted with a wing to provide lift (winged arm sampler intake), the accuracy of sampling improves substantially. With this modification, the differences between sampled and feed suspended sediment concentration were more consistent and the sampled to feed concentration ratio was accurate to within 10% for particle sizes up to 250 μm.

  20. Occurrence and seasonal loads of pesticides in surface water and suspended particulate matter from a wetland of worldwide interest--the Ria Formosa Lagoon, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Rocha, Eduardo; Rocha, Maria João

    2015-11-01

    Two novel methods were developed to extract and quantify 56 pesticides in surface waters, considering their content in both dissolved aqueous phase (DAP) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) fractions. These procedures were applied to coastal samples taken seasonally during 2012-2013, from three strategic sampling sites along the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south of Portugal). Briefly, 500 mL of water samples were filtrated, separating both fractions. The DAP fraction was extracted and pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE), while the SPM was extracted using ultrasonic extraction technique (USE). Both fractions were then analyzed, and the pesticides were quantified and identified, within 35 min, by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC-MS/MS), respectively. The extraction of pesticides from the SPM fraction showed average recoveries of 102%, detection limits below 2.2 ng/L, and quantification limits ranging from 0.3 to 6.6 ng/L. Considering the real water samples, 73% of the selected pesticides were quantified in both DAP and SPM fractions (ΣDAP+SPM 2.3 μg/L) and their maximum levels were measured in autumn and winter. By category, the global loads of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides were ≈407, ≈323, and ≈1.6 μg/L, respectively. Thirty-one percent of the quantified pesticides exceeded the European directives levels (2008/105/EC and 98/83/EC). From the total loads, the SPM fraction contribution was 32%, showing the importance of measuring pesticides in that fraction. The water physicochemical parameters revealed that the total nitrogen amounts were very high relatively to the legal required values, mainly close to the city of Faro (2.6 mg/L). In light of the above, measures are in need to meet European directives and protect both fauna and humans that use this area for leisure.

  1. The relationship between Suspended Particulate Matter and Turbidity at a mooring station in a coastal environment: consequences for satellite-derived products

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    Madihah Jafar-Sidik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From a data set of observations of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM concentration, Turbidity in Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU and fluorescence-derived chlorophyll-a at a mooring station in Liverpool Bay, in the Irish Sea, we investigate the seasonal variation of the SPM:Turbidity ratio. This ratio changes from a value of around 1 in winter (minimum in January–February to 2 in summer (maximum in May–June. This seasonal change can be understood in terms of the cycle of turbulence and of the phytoplankton population that affects the nature, shape and size of the particles responsible for the Turbidity. The data suggest a direct effect of phytoplankton on the SPM:Turbidity ratio during the spring bloom occurring in April and May and a delayed effect, likely due to aggregation of particles, in July and August. Based on the hypothesis that only SPM concentration varies, but not the mass-specific backscattering coefficient of particles bbp*, semi-analytical algorithms aiming at retrieving SPM from satellite radiance ignore the seasonal variability of bbp* which is likely to be inversely correlated to the SPM:Turbidity ratio. A simple sinusoidal modulation of the relationship between Turbidity and SPM with time helps to correct this effect at the location of the mooring. Without applying a seasonal modulation to bbp*, there is an underestimation of SPM in summer by the Ifremer semi-analytical algorithm (Gohin et al., 2015 we tested. SPM derived from this algorithm, as expected from any semi-analytical algorithm, appears to be more related to in situ Turbidity than to in situ SPM throughout the year.

  2. Analysis of Suspended Particulate Matter and Its Drivers in Sahelian Ponds and Lakes by Remote Sensing (Landsat and MODIS: Gourma Region, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sahelian region is characterized by significant variations in precipitation, impacting water quantity and quality. Suspended particulate matter (SPM dynamics has a significant impact on inland water ecology and water resource management. In-situ data in this region are scarce and, consequently, the environmental factors triggering SPM variability are yet to be understood. This study addresses these issues using remote sensing optical data. Turbidity and SPM of the Agoufou Lake in Sahelian Mali were measured from October 2014 to present, providing a large range of `values (SPM ranging from 106 to 4178 mg/L. These data are compared to satellite reflectance from Landsat (ETM+, OLI and MODIS (MOD09GQ, MYD09GQ. For each of these sensors, a spectral band in the near infrared region is found to be well suited to retrieve turbidity and SPM, up to very high values (R2 = 0.70 seldom addressed by remote sensing studies. The satellite estimates are then employed to assess the SPM dynamics in the main lakes and ponds of the Gourma region and its links to environmental and anthropogenic factors. The main SPM seasonal peak is observed in the rainy season (June to September in relation to precipitation and sediment transport. A second important peak occurs during the dry season, highlighting the importance of resuspension mechanisms in maintaining high values of SPM. Three different periods are observed: first, a relatively low winds period in the early dry season, when SPM decreases rapidly due to deposition; then, a period of wind-driven resuspension in January‒March; and lastly, an SPM deposition period in April–May, when the monsoon replaces the winter trade wind. Overall, a significant increase of 27% in SPM values is observed between 2000 and 2016 in the Agoufou Lake. The significant spatio-temporal variability in SPM revealed by this study highlights the importance of high resolution optical sensors for continuous monitoring of water quality in

  3. Fusion of Landsat-8/OLI and GOCI Data for Hourly Mapping of Suspended Particulate Matter at High Spatial Resolution: A Case Study in the Yangtze (Changjiang Estuary

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    Yanqun Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations ([SPM] in the Yangtze estuary, which has third-order bifurcations and four outlets, exhibit large spatial and temporal variations. Studying the characteristics of these variations in [SPM] is important for understanding sediment transport and pollutant diffusion in the estuary as well as for the construction of port and estuarine engineering structures. The 1-h revisit frequency of the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI sensor and the 30-m spatial resolution of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (L8/OLI provide a new opportunity to study the large spatial and temporal variations in the [SPM] in the Yangtze estuary. In this study, [SPM] images with a temporal resolution of 1 h and a spatial resolution of 30 m are generated through the product-level fusion of [SPM] data derived from L8/OLI and GOCI images using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM. The results show that the details and accuracy of the spatial and temporal variations are maintained well in the [SPM] images that are predicted based on the fused images. Compared to the [SPM] observations at fixed field stations, the mean relative error (MRE of the predicted SPM is 17.7%, which is lower than that of the GOCI-derived [SPM] (27.5%. In addition, thanks to the derived high-resolution [SPM] with high spatiotemporal dynamic changes, both natural phenomena (dynamic variation of the maximum turbid zone and human engineering changes leading to the dynamic variability of SPM in the channel are observed.

  4. PAH occurrence in chalk river systems from the Jura region (France). Pertinence of suspended particulate matter and sediment as matrices for river quality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiffre, Axelle; Degiorgi, François; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Bolard, Audrey; Chanez, Etienne; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediment upstream and downstream of the discharges of two wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. Relationships between the levels of PAHs in these different matrices were also investigated. The sum of 16 US EPA PAHs ranged from 73.5 to 728.0 ng L(-1) in surface water and from 85.4 to 313.1 ng L(-1) in effluent. In SPM and sediment, ∑16PAHs ranged from 749.6 to 2,463 μg kg(-1) and from 690.7 μg kg(-1) to 3,625.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. Investigations performed upstream and downstream of both studied WWTPs showed that WWTP discharges may contribute to the overall PAH contaminations in the Loue and the Doubs rivers. Comparison between gammarid populations upstream and downstream of WWTP discharge showed that biota was impacted by the WWTP effluents. When based only on surface water samples, the assessment of freshwater quality did not provide evidence for a marked PAH contamination in either of the rivers studied. However, using SPM and sediment samples, we found PAH contents exceeding sediment quality guidelines. We conclude that sediment and SPM are relevant matrices to assess overall PAH contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, we found a positive linear correlation between PAH contents of SPM and sediment, showing that SPM represents an integrating matrix which is able to provide meaningful data about the overall contamination over a given time span.

  5. ESR signal intensity of quartz in the fine-silt fraction of riverbed sediments from the Yangtze River: a provenance tracer for suspended particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Keita; Tada, Ryuji; Zheng, Hongbo; Irino, Tomohisa; Luo, Chao; He, Mengying; Wang, Ke; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

    2017-12-01

    The Asian summer monsoon exerts a strong influence on the hydrologic cycle in East Asia. Moreover, the distribution of heavy precipitation in the Yangtze River basin, which covers a large area of South China, is sensitive to changes in monsoon intensity. Thus, the paleo-distribution of heavy precipitation in the Yangtze basin is key in reconstructing the paleo-monsoon intensity. In this study, we established proxies for distinguishing sediments from the northwestern and southeastern parts of the Yangtze River basin, with the goal of using them to reconstruct the paleo-distribution of heavy precipitation in the basin based on changes in the provenance of detrital sediments, as determined using sediment records at the river mouth. The proxies included the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal intensity and the crystallinity index (CI) of quartz in modern riverbed sediments along the mainstream and tributaries of the Yangtze River. The data revealed that the fine-silt fraction of the sediments (which represents suspended particulate matter, SPM) from each major tributary can be distinguished on the basis of ESR signal intensity and CI values. The values for each tributary reflect the age and type of bedrock in the tributary basin and show distinct regional variations according to the distribution of geological blocks within the Yangtze basin. In addition, the analyzed ESR signal intensity and CI values of the fine-silt fraction of riverbed sediments below mainstream-tributary junctions agree well with values calculated according to a simple mixing model of SPM discharged from the tributaries and the mainstream.

  6. Development of a Semi-Analytical Algorithm for the Retrieval of Suspended Particulate Matter from Remote Sensing over Clear to Very Turbid Waters

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    Bing Han

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of suspended particulate matter, SPM, from space has long been used to assess its spatio-temporal variability in various coastal areas. The associated algorithms were generally site specific or developed over a relatively narrow range of concentration, which make them inappropriate for global applications (or at least over broad SPM range. In the frame of the GlobCoast project, a large in situ data set of SPM and remote sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ, has been built gathering together measurements from various coastal areas around Europe, French Guiana, North Canada, Vietnam, and China. This data set covers various contrasting coastal environments diversely affected by different biogeochemical and physical processes such as sediment resuspension, phytoplankton bloom events, and rivers discharges (Amazon, Mekong, Yellow river, MacKenzie, etc.. The SPM concentration spans about four orders of magnitude, from 0.15 to 2626 g·m−3. Different empirical and semi-analytical approaches developed to assess SPM from Rrs(λ were tested over this in situ data set. As none of them provides satisfactory results over the whole SPM range, a generic semi-analytical approach has been developed. This algorithm is based on two standard semi-analytical equations calibrated for low-to-medium and highly turbid waters, respectively. A mixing law has also been developed for intermediate environments. Sources of uncertainties in SPM retrieval such as the bio-optical variability, atmospheric correction errors, and spectral bandwidth have been evaluated. The coefficients involved in these different algorithms have been calculated for ocean color (SeaWiFS, MODIS-A/T, MERIS/OLCI, VIIRS and high spatial resolution (LandSat8-OLI, and Sentinel2-MSI sensors. The performance of the proposed algorithm varies only slightly from one sensor to another demonstrating the great potential applicability of the proposed approach over global and contrasting coastal waters.

  7. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

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    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  8. CHARACTERISTIC OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM TWO SEMI INDUSTRIAL SITES IN BANDUNG, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Air particulate matter concentrations, black carbon as well as elemental concentrations in two semi industrial sites were investigated as a preliminary study for evaluation of air quality in these areas. Sampling of airborne particulate matter was conducted in July 2009 using a Gent stacked filter unit sampler and a total of 18 pairs of samples were collected. Black carbon was determined by reflectance measurement and elemental analysis was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE. Elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and As were detected. Twenty four hour PM2.5 concentration at semi industrial sites Kiaracondong and Holis ranged from 4.0 to 22.2 µg m-3, while the PM10 concentration ranged from 24.5 to 77.1 µg m-3. High concentration of crustal elements, sulphur and zinc were identified in fine and coarse fractions for both sites. The fine fraction data from both sites were analyzed using a multivariate principal component analysis and for Kiaracondong site, identified factors are attributed to sea-salt with soil dust, vehicular emissions and biomass burning, non ferrous smelter, and iron/steel work industry, while for Holis site identified factors are attributed to soil dust, industrial emissions, vehicular emissions with biomass burning, and sea-salt. Although particulate samples were collected from semi industrial sites, vehicular emissions constituted with S, Zn and BC were identified in both sites.

  9. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2011-01-01

    is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels...... exposed to the predatory shore crab (Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended...

  10. Contrasting biological potency of particulate matter collected at sites impacted by distinct industrial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Errol M; Breznan, Dalibor; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; MacKinnon-Roy, Christine; Vuong, Ngoc Q; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Celo, Valbona; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Kumarathasan, Prem; Brook, Jeffrey R; Vincent, Renaud

    2016-12-01

    Industrial sources contribute a significant proportion of anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions, producing particles of varying composition that may differentially impact health. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected near industrial sites in relation to particle size and composition. Size-fractionated particles (ultrafine, PM0.1-2.5, PM2.5-10, PM>10) were collected in the vicinity of steel, copper, aluminium, and petrochemical industrial sites. Human lung epithelial-like A549 and murine macrophage-like J774A.1 cells were exposed for 24 h to particle suspensions (0, 30, 100, 300 μg/cm(2)). Particle potency was assessed using cytotoxic (resazurin reduction, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release) and inflammatory (cytokine release) assays, and regressed against composition (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), endotoxin). Coarse (PM2.5-10, PM>10) particle fractions were composed primarily of iron and aluminium; in contrast, ultrafine and fine (PM0.1-2.5) fractions displayed considerable variability in metal composition (especially water-soluble metals) across collection sites consistent with source contributions. Semi-volatile and PM-associated PAHs were enriched in the fine and coarse fractions collected near metal industry. Cell responses to exposure at equivalent mass concentrations displayed striking differences among sites (SITE x SIZE and SITE x DOSE interactions, p Industrial sources produce particulate emissions with varying chemical composition that differ in their in vitro potency in relation to particle size and the levels of specific constituents.

  11. Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfani Novoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of suspended particulate matter (SPM concentrations in coastal waters is of crucial importance for ecosystem studies, sediment transport monitoring, and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean. Ocean color remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor SPM spatio-temporal variability in coastal waters. However, near-shore satellite images are complex to correct for atmospheric effects due to the proximity of land and to the high level of reflectance caused by high SPM concentrations in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The water reflectance signal (ρw tends to saturate at short visible wavelengths when the SPM concentration increases. Using a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery and in situ SPM and water reflectance data, this study presents (i an assessment of existing atmospheric correction (AC algorithms developed for turbid coastal waters; and (ii a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive SPM vs. ρw relationship, to avoid saturation effects when computing the SPM concentration. The approach is applied to satellite data acquired by three medium-high spatial resolution sensors (Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager, National Polar-Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer to map the SPM concentration in some of the most turbid areas of the European coastal ocean, namely the Gironde and Loire estuaries as well as Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast. For all three sensors, AC methods based on the use of short-wave infrared (SWIR spectral bands were tested, and the consistency of the retrieved water reflectance was examined along transects from low- to high-turbidity waters. For OLI data, we also compared a SWIR-based AC (ACOLITE with a method based on multi-temporal analyses of atmospheric constituents (MACCS. For the selected scenes, the ACOLITE-MACCS difference was

  12. [Grain Size Distribution Characteristics of Suspended Particulate Matter as Influenced by the Apparent Pollution in the Eutrophic Urban Landscape Water Body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dan-yan; Pan, Yang; Huang, Yong; Bao, Wei; Li, Qian-qian

    2016-03-15

    Grain size distribution characteristics of suspended particulate matter (SPM) reflects the apparent polluted condition of the urban landscape water. In order to explore the internal relationship between the eutrophication of urban landscape water's apparent pollution and grain size distribution of SPM, and its influencing factors, this paper selected five representative sampling sites in Feng Jin River which is a typical eutrophication river in Suzhou City, measured the grain size distribution of SPM, sensation pollution index (SPI) and water quality index, and analyzed their correlation. The results showed that: The rich nutrient water possessed a similar characteristics in grain size distribution. The grain size distribution of SPM in water was multimodal, and the the peak position was roughly the same; the grain size distribution of SPM was composed by multiple components. It could be roughly divided into six parts with the particle size range of every group being 516 µm. The component III was superior (with an average volume fraction of 38.3%-43.2%), and its volume fraction had a significant positive relation with the SPI value and the Chl-a content. The increase of component III volume fraction was the reflection of particle size's result of increasing SPI value. The increase of component III volume fraction was mainly derived from the increasing algal content. The volume fraction of group IV + group VI + group V was significantly higher under the condition of exogenous enter. When there was no exogenous component, the volume fraction of group IV + group VI + group V had a significant negative correlation with SPI value; when there were exogenous components, the volume fraction of group IV + group VI + group V had a weak positive correlation with SPI value, but the correlation did not reach a significant level. Environmental factors (Fv/Fm and DO) and exogenous factors had an influence by functioning on the algal content which signified the polluted material

  13. Collection, measurement and analysis of airborne magnetic particulates from pollution in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanders, P.J. (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-05-15

    Magnetic particulates in the environment, collected from surfaces and directly from the atmosphere, are reported. A significant percentage of magnetic material in many air-borne samples; consists of spherical magnetite from coal-burning utilities and from iron/steel manufacturing with particle diameters 2-10 [mu]m which correspond to average coercive fields of approximately 100 Oe and remanence to saturation ratios of approximately 0.1. The amount of air-borne magnetic material that settles to the ground varies inversely with distance from its source.

  14. Collection of ultrafine diesel particulate matter (DPM) in cylindrical single-stage wet electrostatic precipitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyasitpanich, Phirun; Keener, Tim C; Lu, Mingming; Khang, Soon-Jai; Evans, Douglas E

    2006-12-15

    Long-term exposures to diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions are linked to increasing adverse human health effects due to the potential association of DPM with carcinogenicity. Current diesel vehicular particulate emission regulations are based solely upon total mass concentration, albeit it is the submicrometer particles that are highly respirable and the most detrimental to human health. In this study, experiments were performed with a tubular single-stage wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) to evaluate its performance for the removal of number-based DPM emissions. A nonroad diesel generator utilizing a low sulfur diesel fuel (500 ppmw) operating under varying load conditions was used as a stationary DPM emission source. An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to quantify the number concentration distributions of diesel particles in the diluted exhaust gas at each tested condition. The wESP was evaluated with respect to different operational control parameters such as applied voltage, gas residence time, etc., to determine their effect on overall collection efficiency, as well as particle size dependent collection efficiency. The results show that the total DPM number concentrations in the untreated diesel exhaust are in the magnitude of approximately108/cm(3) at all engine loads with the particle diameter modes between 20 and 40 nm. The measured collection efficiency of the wESP operating at 70 kV based on total particle numbers was 86% at 0 kW engine load and the efficiency decreased to 67% at 75 kW due to a decrease in gas residence time and an increase in particle concentrations. At a constant wESP voltage of 70 kV and at 75 kW engine load, the variation of gas residence time within the wESP from approximately 0.1 to approximately 0.4 s led to a substantial increase in the collection efficiency from 67% to 96%. In addition, collection efficiency was found to be directly related to the applied voltage, with increasing collection efficiency

  15. Urban sewage lipids in the suspended particulate matter of a coral reef under river influence in the South West Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón-Palau, Laura; Parrish, Christopher C; Pérez-España, Horacio

    2017-10-15

    Nutritional quality of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and the degree of human fecal pollution in the largest coral reef system in the southwest Gulf of Mexico were evaluated using lipid classes, fatty acids (FA) and sterols in the dry and rainy seasons. High proportions of triacylglycerols and saturated and monounsaturated FA were detected in the SPM however it was considered poor quality because it had low proportions of highly unsaturated FA which can be used to determine production of marine biogenic material of dietary value to pelagic and benthic organisms. Urban sewage organic carbon was traced with coprostanol. The reference value of coprostanol from the point source of pollution was set using two samples from a sewage treatment plant processing waste from >140,000 people near the coral reef system, and it was contrasted with one river station and nine marine stations including six coral reefs. The concentration of coprostanol in the SPM was 3621 ± 98 ng L-1 comprising 26% of total sterols. During the dry season, the river was contaminated upstream with human feces as evidenced by coprostanol at 1823 ng L-1, the 5β-coprostanol: cholesterol ratio at 0.5, and 5β-coprostanol: [5α-cholestanol+5β-coprostanol] at 0.7. In contrast, marine stations had concentrations of coprostanol lower than a suggested regulation limit for tropical marine coastal waters (30 ng L-1), ranging between 6 and 28 ng L-1. During the rainy season a dilution effect was detected in the river, however significantly higher concentrations of coprostanol in the marine stations were detected ranging between 15 and 215 ng L-1, higher than the tentative tropical regulation range (30-100 ng L-1). Among the reefs, the nearshore one, 14.3 km from the treatment plant, was more exposed to human-fecal pollution, and offshore reefs, >17.3 km from the plant, had a lower degree of contamination. Finally, only three stations were clearly uncontaminated during both seasons including

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, G.L.; Abbey, D.E.; Magie, A.R.; Hodgkin, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) symptoms was ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire on 7445 Seventh-Day Adventists. They were non-smokers, at least 25 yr of age, and had lived 11 yr or more in areas ranging from high to low photochemical air pollution in California. Participant cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated using monthly residence zip code histories and interpolated dosages from state air monitoring stations. These pollutant thresholds were entered individually and in combination in multiple logistic regression analyses with eight covariables including passive smoking. Statistically significant associations with chronic symptoms were seen for: SO/sub 2/ exposure above 4 pphm (104 mcg/m3), (p = .03), relative risk 1.18 for 500 hr/yr of exposure; and for total suspended particulates (TSP) above 200 mcg/m3, (p less than .00001), relative risk of 1.22 for 750 hr/yr.

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptom effects of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates and sulfur dioxide in California Seventh-Day Adventist residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, G L; Abbey, D E; Magie, A R; Hodgkin, J E

    1987-01-01

    Risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms due to long-term exposure to ambient levels of total suspended particulates (TSP) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) symptoms was ascertained using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) respiratory symptoms questionnaire on 7,445 Seventh-Day Adventists. They were non-smokers, at least 25 yr of age, and had lived 11 yr or more in areas ranging from high to low photochemical air pollution in California. Participant cumulative exposures to each pollutant in excess of four thresholds were estimated using monthly residence zip code histories and interpolated dosages from state air monitoring stations. These pollutant thresholds were entered individually and in combination in multiple logistic regression analyses with eight covariables including passive smoking. Statistically significant associations with chronic symptoms were seen for: SO2 exposure above 4 pphm (104 mcg/m3), (p = .03), relative risk 1.18 for 500 hr/yr of exposure; and for total suspended particulates (TSP) above 200 mcg/m3, (p less than .00001), relative risk of 1.22 for 750 hr/yr.

  18. Analysis of trace elements in airborne particulate matters collected in Ankara, Turkey by TXRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durukan I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main focus point of the presented study was the assessment of atmospheric burden of particulate matter and toxic trace metals in the atmosphere of Ankara, Turkey. For this purpose, outdoor samplings were accomplished in the capital city, Ankara. The types of filters, sample collection and sample preparation methods were investigated and optimized. Analyses were provided by the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF spectroscopic technique in Germany. Spatial and temporal variations of air particulate matter (APM levels in the city were examined. In some stations, APM sampled in according to their size distribution such as PM10 and PM2.5. Elemental characterization of size distributed PM were achieved and evaluated. It was detected that the elements mainly originated from soil in Beytepe station, from soil and solid fuel usage in Kayas station and from traffic and a variety of human activities in Sıhhiye station in air samplings. While the elements of natural origin observed in PM10 fraction, the elements from traffic and human activities were in PM2.5. Eventually, enrichment calculations were performed in order to identify the pollution sources.

  19. Assessing the origin of suspended particulate matter in the Rhône River from the geochemical signature of the particulate residual fraction and hydro-sedimentary numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrin, Aymeric; Bretier, Marie; Dugué, Violaine; Masson, Matthieu; Le-Bescond, Chloé; Panay, Josselin; Le Coz, Jérôme; Coquery, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) transport through rivers is a major vector for nutrient and pollutant fluxes to continental shelf areas. Since physico-chemical properties of SPM from each sub-catchment will determine pollutant reactivity, it is necessary to obtain relevant information on the origin of SPM, in order to apply effective strategies for sediment management. Fingerprinting approaches based on the concentrations of trace metals, rare earth elements, mineralogy or radionuclides, have been developed allowing identifying SPM at the sub-catchment scale. However, confounding factors such as non-conservative behavior and enrichment/depletion of elements during the sediment delivery process represent a main concern. In this way, few studies addressed SPM origin in large river systems from the upstream part to the coastal environment by applying multi-tracer signatures. This is probably due to evolution of non-conservative element signatures during transport linked to biogeochemical processes (e.g. organic matter degradation, flocculation, desorption). To avoid the problem of non-conservative element signatures, we propose a significant improvement of fingerprinting approaches based on the concentrations of major elements and trace metals measured in the residual (conservative) fraction of SPM. The aim of our study was to apply this original geochemical approach to the upper part of the Rhône River (France). This approach was used to estimate, at each given time in the Rhône River, the SPM inputs contribution of several sub-basins (Arve, Ain, Fier, Guiers and Bourbre rivers). The concentrations in the residual fraction were estimated by the difference of concentrations obtained after two different extraction methods on SPM (a total extraction by using a mixture of HN03, HCl and HF acids; and a soft extraction by applying only HCl 1M). By this method, we were able to determine a geochemical signature typical of each sub-basin which should be conservative in

  20. Spatial distribution of respirable and inhalable particulate matter concentration in sawmills of South-South Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.F. Ediagbonya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust particles in the air that can be respired into the nose or mouth during normal breathing are known as inhalable particle. Inhalation decreases gradually with increasing particle diameter. The respirable and inhalable sawdust were collected from nine different sawmills in Benin City from November 2009 to February 2010 using portable programmable SKC Air Check XR5000 High Volume Gravimetric Sampler Model 210-5000 Serial No. 20537 and I.O.M (Institute Occupational Medicine Edinburg Multi dust sampler, Batch No. 221442/1. The objective of this study is to know the concentration of inhalable suspended particulate matter fraction and the respirable suspended particulate matter fraction in sawmill particulate. The mean concentration range of the respirable suspended particulate matter was 173.61-520.83 g/m3 and the inhalable suspended particulate matter was in a range of 555.56-2,013.98 g/m3. A strong positive correlation existed for inhalable suspended particulate matter and respirable suspended particulate matter. And the spatial variation was significant and remarkable.

  1. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 green and red band imagery supplemented by U-2 photographs provides synoptic views of turbid, nearshore, near-surface bodies of water which adds to the body of knowledge about the coastal ocean necessary for a thorough understanding of the dynamic environment. Tubidity and suspended sediment measurements made in the Gulf of the Farallones correlate well with water tonal patterns visible on satellite imagery. Three successively seaward zones of turbid water could be delineated. Secchi disc visibility tests were the most definitive, ranging from or = 2 meters in the main plume, to almost 3 meters in the second zone of turbid water, to 4 meters in the furthest seaward zone of turbid water measured. These variations in water clarity were reinforced by suspended sediment concentrations which ranged from 26-28 mg/1, to 20-24 mg/1, to 11-15 mg/1, respectively, in each of the three masses of water. Transmissiometer readings were basically in agreement with the suspended sediment and Secchi disc values measured. Satellite imagery and U-2 photographs of the California coastal zone taken early in April 1973 show numerous plumes of suspended sediment being deflected southward. This indicates a southward flow of the nearshore, near-surface waters, a reversal from that noted in January 1973.

  2. Assessment of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of sediment-associated contaminants are typically associated with urban areas such as San Antonio, Texas, in Bexar County, the seventh most populous city in the United States. This report describes an assessment of selected sediment-associated contaminants in samples collected in Bexar County from sites on the following streams: Medio Creek, Medina River, Elm Creek, Martinez Creek, Chupaderas Creek, Leon Creek, Salado Creek, and San Antonio River. During 2007-09, the U.S. Geological Survey periodically collected surficial streambed-sediment samples during base flow and suspended-sediment (large-volume suspended-sediment) samples from selected streams during stormwater runoff. All sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and for organic compounds including halogenated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Selected contaminants in streambed and suspended sediments in watersheds of the eight major streams in Bexar County were assessed by using a variety of methods—observations of occurrence and distribution, comparison to sediment-quality guidelines and data from previous studies, statistical analyses, and source indicators. Trace elements concentrations were low compared to the consensus-based sediment-quality guidelines threshold effect concentration (TEC) and probable effect concentration (PEC). Trace element concentrations were greater than the TEC in 28 percent of the samples and greater than the PEC in 1.5 percent of the samples. Chromium concentrations exceeded sediment-quality guidelines more frequently than concentrations of any other constituents analyzed in this study (greater than the TEC in 69 percent of samples and greater than the PEC in 8 percent of samples). Mean trace element concentrations generally are lower in Bexar County samples compared to concentrations in samples collected during previous studies in the Austin and Fort Worth, Texas, areas, but considering the relatively

  3. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean. [California coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator); Janda, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Release-recovery paths of drift cards released in conjunction with ERTS-1 overflight show that nearshore surface currents along the central and northern California coast flowed southward at an average rate in excess of 10 cm/sec (8.5 km/day) during August and September 1973 (California Current). By the middle of October 1973, the nearshore surface currents had reversed and the dominant flow velocity was northward at an average rate in excess of 20 cm/sec (17 km/ day) (Davidson Current). The August-September data suggested the presence of counterclockwise gyres in Monterey Bay and the Gulf of the Farallones, but by the middle of October, the gyres were no longer evident. Imagery of April 1973 showed well developed plumes of suspended sediment in Monterey Bay from the Salinas River and in the Gulf of the Farallones from San Francisco Bay. ERTS-1 imagery provides an effective means of monitoring timber harvest in the redwood forest along the northern California coast. ERTS-1 imagery also clearly portrays contrasting topographic belts characterized by fluvial erosion and by mass movement. The most visually apparent and most persistent river mouth suspended sediment plumes are associated with those rivers that drain belts of topography that appear to have been eroded primarily by mass movement.

  4. Method for analysis of psychopharmaceuticals in real industrial wastewater and groundwater with suspended organic particulate matter using solid phase extraction disks extraction and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křesinová, Zdena; Linhartová, Lucie; Petrů, Klára; Krejčová, Lucie; Šrédlová, Kamila; Lhotský, Ondřej; Kameník, Zdeněk; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    A rapid and reliable analytical method was developed for the quantitative determination of psychopharmaceuticals, their precursors and by-products in real contaminated samples from a pharmaceutical company in Olomouc (Czech Republic), based on SPE disk extraction and detection by ultra performance liquid chromatography, combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The target compounds were quantified in the real whole-water samples (water including suspended particles), both in the presence of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and high concentrations of other organic pollutants. A total of nine compounds were analyzed which consisted of three commonly used antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants and antipsychotics), one antitussive agent and five by-products or precursors. At first, the SPE disk method was developed for the extraction of water samples (dissolved analytes, recovery 84-104%) and pressurised liquid extraction technique was verified for solid matrices (sludge samples, recovery 81-95%). In order to evaluate the SPE disk technique for whole water samples containing SPM, non contaminated groundwater samples were also loaded with different amounts (100 and 300mgL(-1)) of real contaminated sludge originating from the same locality. The recoveries from the whole-water samples obtained by SPE disk method ranged between 67 and 119% after the addition of the most contaminated sludge. The final method was applied to several real groundwater (whole-water) samples from the industrial area and high concentrations (up to 10(3)μgL(-1)) of the target compounds were detected. The results of this study document and indicate the feasibility of the SPE disk method for analysis of groundwater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. On the origin and variability of suspended particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Michael; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kizas, Christos; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean (EM) lies at the crossroad of three different continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa). EM is a densely populated region including several cities with 3M inhabitants or more (e.g. Athens, Istanbul, Izmir, and Cairo). It has been identified as the most polluted area in Europe with respect to particulate matter (PM) mainly due to the combination of high photochemical activity, which causes pollutants to oxidize and partitioning in the particle phase, with the elevated pollutants emissions from neighboring regions. In addition, the proximity to Africa and the Middle East allows frequent transport of dust particles. At the center of the Eastern Mediterranean lies the island of Cyprus, which has received very little attention regarding its PM levels despite being the location in Europe most frequently impacted by air masses from the Middle East. Herewith, we present a historical PM archive that spans 2 decades. It involves ongoing monitoring on a daily basis of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 μm (PM10), 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and 1 μm (PM1) conducted in at least one, of the 12 currently existing air quality stations in Cyprus since 1997, 2005, and 2009, respectively. The most extended PM datasets correspond a) to the Agia Marina Xyliatou (AMX) monitoring station established at a remote area at the foothills of mount Troodos and b) that of the inland capital, Nicosia. Based on this long-term dataset, the diurnal, temporal and annual variability is assessed. Prior to 2010, PM10 concentration at all sites remained relatively constant, but at different levels, violating the annual EU legislated PM10 limit of 40 μg m-3. Since 2010, coarse mode levels have decreased at all sites. The reported decrease was equal to 30% at AMX. As a result, since 2010 the observed levels comply with the EU legislation threshold. Satellite observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA

  6. Control of fine particulate emissions from coal-fired utility boilers: Spin filter collection device (rotary cyclone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Bo X.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the concept of placing a porous cylindrical surface (such as a metal screen) at the core of a container and spinning the surface with an external motor for fine particulate/gas separation. The rotating surface enhances the centrifugal effects in the annular region and provides a smooth transition between the flow in the annular and core regions and acts like an enhanced cyclone. It is therefore called a rotary cyclone.'' The porous surface is self-cleaning and offers good steady-state pressure drop characteristics. Objectives of this project are: (1) to carry out theoretical and experimental investigations using the rotary cyclone concept to capture particulates in the 0.5 to 10 micron size range; and (2) to evaluate its economic feasibility based on an engineering scale-up and comparison with conventional fabric filter and electrostatic precipitator systems. It was demonstrated that the efficiency in separating fine particulates is governed by two major characteristics, i.e., the magnitude of the centrifugal force and the approach velocity or the gas-to-surface area ratio. Results from the bench-scale tests have shown a collection efficiency of well over 99% for a typical fly ash. A preliminary conceptual design for a 40 MW installation was developed based on the experimental work. 4 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Modelling the light absorption properties of particulate matter forming organic particles suspended in seawater.Part 1. Model description, classification of organic particles, and example spectra of the light absorption coefficient and the imaginary part of the refractive index of particulate matter for phytoplankton cells and phytoplankton-like particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Woźniak

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on organic substances in the sea are applied to distinguish hypothetical chemical classes and physical types of suspended particulate organic matter (POM in seawater. Spectra of the light absorption coefficients of particulate matter apm(λ and the imaginary refractive index n'p(λ, are assessed for some of these classes and types of POM in seawater, that is, for live phytoplankton cells and phytoplankton-like particles. The spectral characteristics of these coefficients are established and the probable ranges of variability of their absolute magnitudes defined on the basis of the mass-specific coefficients of light absorption by the various organic substances forming the particles. Also presented are mathematical relationships linking the coefficients apm(λ and n'p(λ for the various chemical classes of POM with their physical parameters, such as the relative contents of organic matter, water, air or some other gas. This article is part of a bio-optical study undertaken by the authors, the objective of which is to implement remote sensing techniques in the investigation of Baltic ecosystems (Woźniak et al. 2004.

  8. Comparison of three methods for the extraction of selected anions from media used for the collection of airborne particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenke, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    Three methods commonly employed for the extraction of sulfate and nitrate from atmospheric particulates collected on filter media were compared with respect to extraction efficiency and reproducibility. Methodologies employed included ultrasonic, boiling water and a three step, warm solution extraction. The technique's performance was examined by extraction of spiked media and standard reference papers. Based on a consideration of reproducibility, extraction efficiency and media homogeneity, the Teflon media/boiling water extraction combination appeared to be superior to the others tested.

  9. Metals distribution on the surface of quartz fiber filters used for particulate matter collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widziewicz Kamila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented study aimed to determine metals distribution on the quartz fiber filters surface coated with particulate matter by using high and low-volume samplers. The distribution pattern was tested using two different sub-sampling schemes. Each sub-sample was mineralized in the nitric acid in a microwave oven. An analysis was performed by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with electrothermal atomization GF-AAS technique, and the determined elements were: As, Cd, Pb and Ni. A validation of the analytical procedure was carried out using NIES 28 Urban Aerosols standard reference material.

  10. Changes in toxicity and Ah receptor agonist activity of suspended particulate matter during flood events at the rivers Neckar and Rhine - a mass balance approach using in vitro methods and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölz, Jan; Engwall, Magnus; Maletz, Sibylle; Olsman Takner, Helena; van Bavel, Bert; Kammann, Ulrike; Klempt, Martin; Weber, Roland; Braunbeck, Thomas; Hollert, Henner

    2008-10-01

    As a consequence of flood events, runoff and remobilized sediments may cause an increase of ecotoxicologically relevant effects from contaminant reservoirs. Aquatic and terrestrial organisms as well as cattle and areas of settlement are exposed to dislocated contaminants during and after flood events. In this study, the impacts of two flood events triggered by intense rain at the rivers Neckar and Rhine (Southern Germany) were studied. Effects in correlation to flood flow were assessed at the river Neckar using samples collected at frequent intervals. River Rhine suspended particulate matter (SPM) was sampled over a longer period at normal flow and during a flood event. Three cell lines (H4L1.1c4, GPC.2D.Luc, RTL-W1) were used to compare Ah receptor agonist activity in different biotest systems. Multilayer fractionation was performed to identify causative compounds, focusing on persistent organic contaminants. Native water and SPM of flood events were collected at the river Neckar and at the monitoring station (Rheinguetestation, Worms, Germany) of the river Rhine. Water samples were XAD-extracted. SPM were freeze-dried and Soxhlet-extracted using acetone and finally dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Resulting crude extracts were analyzed for cytotoxicity with the neutral red assay. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity was measured in a set of biological test systems (DR-CALUX, GPC.2D, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay) and different cell lines. In addition, crude extracts were fractionated using a combined method of multilayer (sequence of acidified silica layers) and carbon fractionation. Fractions from the multilayer fractionation contained persistent organic compounds (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)); fractions from the carbon fractionation were separated into a PCDD/F and a PCB fraction. Dioxin-like activity of multilayer and

  11. Chlorophyll A, hydrostatic pressure, and water density measurements collected from New Horizon in Gulf of California and North Pacific Ocean from 2004-07-14 to 2008-08-06. (NCEI Accession 0130065)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Extracted chlorophyll A, normalized to filtered volume, from suspended particulate material collected via Niskin bottle from the Gulf of California in the summers of...

  12. Chemical content and estimated sources of fine fraction of particulate matter collected in Krakow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Lucyna; Stegowski, Zdzislaw; Furman, Leszek; Fiedor, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The monitored level of pollution remains high in Krakow, Poland. Alerts regarding increased levels of pollution, which advise asthmatics, the elderly, and children to limit their exposure to open air, continue to be issued on numerous days. In this work, seasonal variations in PM2.5 (particulate matter containing particles with aerodynamic diameter no higher than 2.5 μm) concentrations are shown. An increasing trend is reported, which is enhanced during the colder seasons. The mean PM2.5 concentrations in Krakow exceeded the target value of 25 μg/m3 specified for 2015 in the spring, autumn, and winter seasons. For this reason, particulate matter pollution is of special concern. Elemental concentrations as well as the presence of black carbon (BC) and black smoke (BS) in PM2.5 samples were determined. Seasonal variations of Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb concentrations were observed whereas V, Cr, Ni, BC, and BS concentrations did not significantly change with the time of year. Seven factors were identified by the positive matrix factorization (PMF) technique, and one was non-identified. They were attributed to the following sources of pollution: steel industry, traffic (diesel exhaust), traffic (gasoline exhaust, brake wear), road dust, construction dust, combustion (biomass, coal), and non-ferrous metallurgical industry. The last, non-identified source, could be attributed to secondary aerosols. It is worth to mention that combustion shows significant seasonal variations with a high impact in winter. The reported results of the completed studies may significantly aid in solving air quality issues in the city by highlighting major sources of air pollution.

  13. Suspended microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Casavant, Benjamin P.; Berthier, Erwin; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jean BERTHIER; Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Bischel, Lauren L.; Brakke, Kenneth; Hedman, Curtis J.; Bushman, Wade; Keller, Nancy P.; Beebe, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Although the field of microfluidics has made significant progress in bringing new tools to address biological questions, the accessibility and adoption of microfluidics within the life sciences are still limited. Open microfluidic systems have the potential to lower the barriers to adoption, but the absence of robust design rules has hindered their use. Here, we present an open microfluidic platform, suspended microfluidics, that uses surface tension to fill and maintain a fluid in microscale...

  14. Toxicologically important trace elements and organic compounds investigated in size-fractionated urban particulate matter collected near the Prague highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sysalova, Jirina, E-mail: Jirina.Sysalova@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology, AAS Laboratory, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sykorova, Ivana; Havelcova, Martina [Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, V Holesovickach 41, 182 09, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Szakova, Jirina [Czech University of Agriculture, Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, 165 21 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Trejtnarova, Hana [Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, V Holesovickach 41, 182 09, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kotlik, Bohumil [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Prague 10 (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-15

    Urban particulate matter was collected in the most exposed area of Prague, near a busy highway, in order to provide petrographic and chemical characterization useful for health impact assessment in that locality or other applications. Samples were collected from filters of the air conditioning system in two years, 2009 and 2010, and sieved into four grain-size fractions: 0.507-0.119 mm, 0.119-0.063 mm, < 0.063 mm and sub-fraction < 0.025 mm. Methods of destructive and non-destructive analyses were used for the determination of total analyte (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) contents. Labile forms of some toxicologically important analytes were tested in 2M HNO{sub 3} extracted solutions. A composition of inorganic and carbonaceous particles of natural and anthropogenic origin and their morphology were studied by optical and electron microscopy. Organic solvent extracts of the samples were analyzed using gas chromatography to compare the organic compound distribution in fractions. Only slight differences between 2009 and 2010 years are visible. The relatively high extractable part of most investigated elements confirms mobility and potential availability to organisms. The changes can be recognized in the petrographic and organic composition in samples from both years, which were likely the result of various inputs of source materials. Specific organic marker compounds indicate contribution from fossil fuels, plant materials and bacteria. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uncommon urban particulate matter collected near the highway in years 2009 and 2010 was deeply characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Harmful organic compounds and toxic analytes were tested in grain-size fractions and completed with electron microscopy studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very similar concentration levels were found in elemental composition in samples from two years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petrographic and organic compositions were different in both samples. Black

  15. Difference in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Induced in THP1 Cells by Particulate Matter Collected on Days with and without ASIAN Dust Storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The associations between particulate matter from Asian dust storms (ADS and health disorders differ among studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, ADS and non-ADS particles were tested for their potential to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with adverse respiratory effects. Particulate matter was collected in Japan during four periods in 2013 (2 × ADS periods; 2 × non-ADS. THP1 cells were exposed to this particulate matter, and the levels of various interleukins (ILs, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured. Levels of IL-2 increased significantly following exposure to all particulate matter samples (compared to levels in a solvent control. Increased levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were also observed following exposure to particles collected during three (one ADS and two non-ADS and two (one ADS and one non-ADS collection periods, respectively. Thus, the effects of particulate matter on cytokine responses differed according to collection period, and the effects of ADS particles differed for each ADS event. Additionally, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ADS particles were not always higher than those induced by non-ADS particles.

  16. Difference in Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Responses Induced in THP1 Cells by Particulate Matter Collected on Days with and without ASIAN Dust Storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-07-09

    The associations between particulate matter from Asian dust storms (ADS) and health disorders differ among studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, ADS and non-ADS particles were tested for their potential to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with adverse respiratory effects. Particulate matter was collected in Japan during four periods in 2013 (2 × ADS periods; 2 × non-ADS). THP1 cells were exposed to this particulate matter, and the levels of various interleukins (ILs), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. Levels of IL-2 increased significantly following exposure to all particulate matter samples (compared to levels in a solvent control). Increased levels of IL-10 and TNF-α were also observed following exposure to particles collected during three (one ADS and two non-ADS) and two (one ADS and one non-ADS) collection periods, respectively. Thus, the effects of particulate matter on cytokine responses differed according to collection period, and the effects of ADS particles differed for each ADS event. Additionally, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by ADS particles were not always higher than those induced by non-ADS particles.

  17. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  18. Removal of Particulate Matter in a Tubular Wet Electrostatic Precipitator Using a Water Collection Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Ho; Yoo, Hee-Jung; Hwang, You-Seong; Kim, Hyeok-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    As one of the effective control devices of air pollutants, the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is an effective technique to eliminate acid mist and fine particles that are re-entrained in a collection electrode. However, its collection efficiency can deteriorate, as its operation is subject to water-induced corrosion of the collection electrode. To overcome this drawback, we modified the wet ESP system with the installation of a PVC dust precipitator wherein water is supplied as a replacement of the collection electrode. With this modification, we were able to construct a compact wet ESP with a small specific collection area (SCA, 0.83 m2/(m3/min)) that can acquire a high collection efficiency of fine particles (99.7%). PMID:22577353

  19. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    vaseline oil to reduce particles bouncing off. The PM10 inlet was placed at a height of two metres above the ground for the first seven months and four metres for five months. Two polycarbonate nuclepore filters in sequence were used, both of 47mm diameter. These were coarse (8μm pore) and fine (0.4μm pore) diameter to ...

  20. Determination of Vanadium, Tin and Mercury in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cement Dust Samples by Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, Kamal T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution study applies direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) to samples of total suspended particulate matter collected in two industrial areas and one residential area, and cement dust collected near major cement factories. These samples were analyzed for vanadium, tin, and mercury. The results indicate the…

  1. Microbial and size characterization of airborne particulate matter collected on sticky tapes along US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Delgado, Amir; Shukla, Manoj K; DuBois, David W; Flores-Márgez, Juan P; Hernández Escamilla, Joel A; Olivas, Evangelina

    2017-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from various sources can affect significantly human health and environmental quality especially in the Chihuahuan Desert region along US-Mexico border. The objective of this study was to use the low-cost sticky tape method to collect airborne PM for size characterization and identification of fungal spores. Sticky tape samplers were placed at 1.0 and 2.0m above the ground surface at experimental sites in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico and at 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8m at New Mexico sites, USA. Soil samples were collected in both countries to determine fungal diversity, texture and moisture content. Dust particles collected from all of the experimental sites had a dominant texture of clay (Mexico and US sites. Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus were the three groups of airborne fungal microorganisms consistently present in the US and Mexican sites. The low-cost sticky tape method has the potential to be used for characterizing different airborne microorganisms and dust particles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Design and characterization of a sequential cyclone system for the collection of bulk particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Ana M; Geyh, Alison S; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P; Mihalic, Jana N; Margulies, Jared D; Polyak, Lisa M; Kesavan, Jana; Breysse, Patrick N

    2010-10-06

    In this paper, we describe the design, development and characterization of a high-volume sequential cyclone system for the collection of size-segregated PM in dry bulk form from the ambient environment in sufficient quantity for physical, chemical and toxicological characterization. The first stage of the system consists of a commercially available high volume PM(10) inlet. The second stage cyclone was designed by us to collect inhalable coarse particles (2.5 µm). When tested individually with a challenge aerosol, a D(50) cut-size of this stage was found to be 2.3 µm at a flow rate of 1 m(3) min(-1). The third stage, a commercially available cyclone designed for surface dust sampling, had a D(50) cut-size of 0.3 µm when tested at the same flow rate. The purpose of the third stage is to collect the fine particle portion of PM(2.5) or accumulation mode (PM 0.1 µm). Thus, the sequential cyclone system will collect bulk samples of both the inhalable coarse particles and the fine particle portion of PM(2.5). The operation and maintenance of the new system are straightforward and allow for reliable collection of dry bulk ambient PM at relatively low cost.

  3. Distribution and partitioning of aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between water, suspended particulate matter, and sediment in harbours of the West coastal of the Gulf of Tunis (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzoughi, Nadia; Chouba, Lassaad

    2011-03-01

    Harbours of La Goulette, Rades and Sidi Bou Said are considered as the principal largest and most important port in the Gulf of Tunis characterised by a direct influence of different activities (sailing, industry and fishing) to the Mediterranean Sea. Due to their social and economic impact, a comprehensive assessment of the spatial distribution and partitioning of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 18 aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) in summer and in winter among overlying water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediments is essential. Distribution of hydrophobic organic contaminants in abiotic compartments is important for describing their transfer and fate in aquatic ecosystems and to identify the potential danger due to mobilization of contaminants produced by managing of the same sediments. Total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between 4.3% and 6.5%, with an average value of 5.9% in summer, and between 2.3% and 9.6%, with an average value of 6.1% in winter. The average concentrations of ΣPAH in winter and in summer were respectively 703.1 ng L⁻¹ and 378.4 ng L⁻¹ in seawater, 4599.1 ng g⁻¹ and 3114 ng g⁻¹ in SPM, and 1507.6 ng g⁻¹ dw (dry weight) and 1294.6 ng g⁻¹ dw in surface sediment. For ΣAH the average concentrations in winter and in summer were respectively 701 ng L⁻¹ and 741.7 ng L⁻¹ in seawater, 6743.5 ng g⁻¹ and 6282.9 ng g⁻¹ in SPM, and 4971.3 ng g⁻¹ and 4588.1 ng g⁻¹ in surface sediment. Higher PAH and AH concentrations were observed in SPM than in surface sediment. SPM and water were dominated by PAH with low molecular weight, while for sediment low and high molecular weight PAHs were present. PAH and AH fingerprint ratios, such as pristane to phytane (Pr/Ph), phenanthrene to anthracene (Phe/An) and fluoranthene to pyrene (Fl/Py), suggest that hydrocarbons in all harbours may originate from both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources derived from discharge of untreated sewage and wastewater

  4. Seasonal and interannual variabilities of coccolithophore blooms in the Bay of Biscay and the Celtic Sea observed from a 18-year time-series of non-algal Suspended Particulate Matter images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Laurie; Gohin, Francis; Ruiz-Pino, Diana; Lampert, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Coccolithophores belong to the nano-phytoplankton size-class and produce CaCO3 scales called coccoliths which form the «shell» of the algae cell. Coccoliths are in the size range of a few μm and can also be detached from the cell in the water. This phytoplankton group has an ubiquitous distribution in all oceans but blooms only in some oceanic regions, like the North East Atlantic ocean and the South Western Atlantic (Patagonian Sea). At a global scale coccolithopore blooms are studied in regard of CaCO3 production and three potential feedback on climate change: albedo modification by the way of dimethylsulfide (DMS) production and atmospheric CO2 source by calcification and a CO2 pump by photosynthesis. As the oceans are more and more acidified by anthropogenic CO2 emissions, coccolithophores generally are expected to be negatively affected. However, recent studies have shown an increase in coccolithophore occurrence in the North Atlantic. A poleward expansion of the coccolithophore Emiliana Huxleyi has also been pointed out. By using a simplified fuzzy method applied to a 18-year time series of SeaWiFS (1998-2002) and MODIS (2003-2015) spectral reflectance, we assessed the seasonal and inter-annual variability of coccolithophore blooms in the vicinity of the shelf break in the Bay of Biscay and the Celtic Sea After identification of the coccolith pixels by applying the fuzzy method, the abundance of coccoliths is assessed from a database of non-algal Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). Although a regular pattern in the phenology of the blooms is observed, starting south in April in Biscay and moving northwards until July in Ireland, there is a high seasonal and interannual variability in the extent of the blooms. Year 2014 shows very low concentrations of detached coccoliths (twice less than average) from space and anomalies point out the maximum level in 2001. Non-algal SPM, derived from a procedure defined for the continental shelf, appears to be well

  5. Toxicologically important trace elements and organic compounds investigated in size-fractionated urban particulate matter collected near the Prague highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysalová, Jiřina; Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Száková, Jiřina; Trejtnarová, Hana; Kotlík, Bohumil

    2012-10-15

    Urban particulate matter was collected in the most exposed area of Prague, near a busy highway, in order to provide petrographic and chemical characterization useful for health impact assessment in that locality or other applications. Samples were collected from filters of the air conditioning system in two years, 2009 and 2010, and sieved into four grain-size fractions: 0.507-0.119 mm, 0.119-0.063 mm, Organic solvent extracts of the samples were analyzed using gas chromatography to compare the organic compound distribution in fractions. Only slight differences between 2009 and 2010 years are visible. The relatively high extractable part of most investigated elements confirms mobility and potential availability to organisms. The changes can be recognized in the petrographic and organic composition in samples from both years, which were likely the result of various inputs of source materials. Specific organic marker compounds indicate contribution from fossil fuels, plant materials and bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1) Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Kaczmarek, Konrad; Mainka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se) content in highly mobile (F1), mobile (F2), less mobile (F3) and not mobile (F4) fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF) and a principal component analysis (PCA). There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health. PMID:26501310

  7. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1 Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Zajusz-Zubek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se content in highly mobile (F1, mobile (F2, less mobile (F3 and not mobile (F4 fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF and a principal component analysis (PCA. There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  8. Air pollution particulate matter collected from an Appalachian mountaintop mining site induces microvascular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Esch, Laura; McCawley, Michael; Hendryx, Michael; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-02-01

    Air pollution PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In Appalachia, PM from mining may represent a health burden to this sensitive population that leads the nation in cardiovascular disease, among others. Cardiovascular consequences following inhalation of PM(MTM) are unclear, but must be identified to establish causal effects. PM was collected within 1 mile of an active MTM site in southern WV. The PM was extracted and was primarily rats were IT with 300 μg PM(MTM) . Twenty-four hours following exposure, rats were prepared for intravital microscopy, or isolated arteriole experiments. PM(MTM) exposure blunted endothelium-dependent dilation in mesenteric and coronary arterioles by 26%, and 25%, respectively, as well as endothelium-independent dilation. In vivo, PM(MTM) exposure inhibited endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation (60% reduction). α-adrenergic receptor blockade inhibited PVNS-induced vasoconstriction in exposed animals compared with sham. These data suggest that PM(MTM) exposure impairs microvascular function in disparate microvascular beds, through alterations in NO-mediated dilation and sympathetic nerve influences. Microvascular dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular disease in regions with MTM sites. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. International Odra project (IOP) 'Interdisciplinary German Polish studies on the behaviour of pollutants in the Oder system'. Sub project 4: the state of suspended particulate matter in the Odra River system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, K.H.; Damke, H.; Kasbohm, J.; Puff, T.; Breitenbach, E.; Theel, O.; Kiessling, A.

    2001-05-20

    The purpose of the present project was to characterise the pollutant freight of suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments in the Oder river system on the basis of large samples drawn at selected sampling sites. One of the major goals was to assess and draw up a balance of the transport regime of suspended matter between the compartments water, suspended matter and sediments. Special attention was given to the composition and structure of suspended matter as well as to the distribution of trace elements in the various components. Furthermore, the study was intended to provide ecology-related information on the basis of selected biogenic components. Statements on the time course of pollution of estuarine waters and the Baltic Sea by way of the Oder can be derived from a characterisation of current fluviatile solids (suspended matter and suspended-matter-borne sediments) and determination of their quantitative proportions. The following research strategy was derived from these goals: for a characterisation of suspended matter in terms of composition, structure and biogenic origin it is necessary to determine the concentration of suspended matter, its granulometric composition, carbon and sulphur content, biogenic opal content, mineral content, phase composition, metal content, structure of suspended flakes and association of diatoms in the suspended flakes and on the periphyton. [German] Das Vorhaben ist darauf ausgerichtet, den Belastungszustand der Schwebstoffe und schwebstoffbuertigen Sedimente im Oderflusssystem anhand von Grossproben ausgewaehlter Probenahmeorte zu charakterisieren. Ein wesentliches Ziel ist die Beurteilung des Transportregimes der Schwebstoffe zwischen den Kompartimenten Wasser, Schwebstoff und Sediment sowie seine Bilanzierung. Dabei gilt die besondere Aufmerksamkeit der Zusammensetzung und der Struktur der Schwebstoffe sowie die Spurenelementspeziation an die unterschiedlichen Bestandteile. Weiterhin werden oekologische Aussagen

  10. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM(10) and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM(10) collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM(10) exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate induced variability of suspended matter and nutrient in the discharge of Kali river, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    elevations above the riverbed following the methodology of Stern et al. (1986, 1991). Suspended particulate matter in the river water is estimated at 10 stations. The collection time in the estuarine samples was mid-tide synchronous during August..., in Manual and Guides 29, Paris, Scientific 9 committee on oceanic research, pp. 170. Stern, M. K., Jr. J. W. Day, and K. G. Teague (1986), Seasonality of materials transport through a coastal freshwater marsh: riverine versus tidal forcing...

  12. A study of particulates and metallic element concentrations in temple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G C; Lin, S J; Lee, J F; Chang, C C

    2009-03-01

    Concentrations of ambient suspended particulates were measured at Tzu Yun Yen temple in Taiwan (120 degrees , 34', 46.2''E, 24 degrees , 16', 17.1''N), where semi-open incense burning is characteristic. Many pilgrims from different areas with various beliefs visit the temple and burn incense. Samples were collected with a universal sampler used for measuring suspended particulate concentrations. Sampling period was from August 8, 2006, to October 6, 2006. The average PM(10) concentrations measured at the temple were 16% higher than 125 microg/m(3) (this value is the outdoor air quality standard according to Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA)). In coarse particulates (PM(2.5-10)), the mean metallic elements concentrations are in the order of Ca>Mg>Zn>Fe>Mn>Cr>Cu>Pb during weekend and weekday sampling. In addition, the fine particulates (PM(2.5)) mean metallic elements concentrations are in the order of Ca>Mg>Fe>Zn>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu during weekend sampling and Ca>Fe>Mg>Zn>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu during weekday sampling.

  13. Chemical composition of sediments, suspended matter, river water and ground water of the Nile (Aswan-Sohag traverse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekov, V M; Komy, Z; Araújo, F; Van Put, A; Van Grieken, R

    1997-08-18

    Sediment, suspended matter, river water and ground water samples were collected at twelve sites in the drainage valley of the Nile River, around Sohag (Central Egypt) and close to the Aswan High Dam. Elemental composition of the river water (27 elements), ground water (eight elements), suspended matter (12 elements) and sediments (12 elements) was studied. Aswan High Dam construction, agricultural and industrial human activities have led to dramatic changes in the Nile River chemistry. Nowadays, the Nile River has the highest dissolved salt content among the major African rivers. Dissolved transport is a major process for Ca, K, Sr, Zn, Cu, Ni and V. Manganese, Fe and Cr are mainly carried by suspended matter. The Nile suspended matter is exhausted in almost all elements studied (except for Mn) compared to the world average river suspended matter. Along the course of the river, the distribution of elements in the suspended matter and sediments is generally controlled by natural processes: the relative importance of elemental transport phases; and the oxidation, precipitation and sedimentation of mineral species through the varying physico-chemical conditions of the environment. Pollution input in the Nile particulate load is not major, as compared to the natural inputs. Eight genetic particle types describe the composition of the Nile suspended matter and sediments: (1) biogenous-aeolian (or silica); (2) terrigenous (Fe-aluminosilicate); (3) authigenic (calcium carbonate); (4) biogenous (apatite); (5) authigenous-terrigenous (Fe-oxyhydroxide-montmorillonite); (6) diagenetic (iron-sulfide); (7) terrigenous (titanium oxide); (8) authigenous (Mn-Fe-oxyhydroxide).

  14. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hong [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Shamy, Magdy [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Chen, Lung-Chi [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM{sub 10} and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse health effects. Human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to PM{sub 10} collected from Saudi Arabia for 1 or 4 days, and whole transcript expression was profiled using the GeneChip human gene 1.0 ST array. A total of 140 and 230 genes were identified that significantly changed more than 1.5 fold after PM{sub 10} exposure for 1 or 4 days, respectively. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that different exposure durations triggered distinct pathways. Genes involved in NRF2-mediated response to oxidative stress were up-regulated after 1 day exposure. In contrast, cells exposed for 4 days exhibited significant changes in genes related to cholesterol and lipid synthesis pathways. These observed changes in cellular oxidative stress and lipid synthesis might contribute to PM related respiratory and cardiovascular disease. -- Highlights: ► PM exposure modulated gene expression and associated pathways in BEAS-2B cells. ► One-day exposure to PM induced genes involved in responding to oxidative stress. ► 4-day exposure to PM changed genes associated to cholesterol and lipid synthesis.

  15. Nature and sources of suspended particulate organic matter in a tropical estuary during the monsoon and pre-monsoon: Insights from stable isotopes (delta 13C POC, delta 15 N TPN) and carbohydrate signature compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    by Parsons et al. (1984). In order to analyze δ13CPOC, and δ15NTPN, GF/F filters containing particulate material were treated with vapours of concentrated HCl to remove carbonates, and oven dried at 40 °C for 24 h (Hedges 6 and Stern, 1984). The bulk...

  16. Distribution of some chemical elements between dissolved and particulate phases in the ocean. Research period: August 1, 1975--July 31, 1976. [Fallout /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb diffusion in oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the distributions of fallout /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in dissolved and particulate states in the Gulf of Maine and a transect of the equatorial North Atlantic Ocean. The ratio of /sup 210/Pb//sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Po//sup 210/Pb in seawater and suspended particulate matter in samples collected from 10 stations in the tropical and eastern North Atlantic and two stations in the Pacific was also determined. (CH)

  17. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to airborne particulate matter collected from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Hong; Shamy, Magdy; Kluz, Thomas; Muñoz, Alexandra B.; Zhong, Mianhua; Laulicht, Freda; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Chen, Lung-Chi; Costa, Max

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have established a positive correlation between human mortality and increased concentration of airborne particulate matters (PM). However, the mechanisms underlying PM related human diseases, as well as the molecules and pathways mediating the cellular response to PM, are not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the global gene expression changes in human cells exposed to PM10 and to identify genes and pathways that may contribute to PM related adverse heal...

  18. Distribution of particulate organic matter in Rajapur and Vagothan estuarines (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tulaskar, A.S; Sawant, S.S; Wagh, A.B.

    The distribution of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and particulate proteins (PP) in the suspended particulate matter was studied. The POC, PCHO and PP concentrations ranged from 176 to 883 mu g.l/1, 115 to 647 mu...

  19. Influence of particulates on phosphorus loading exported from farm drainage during a storm event in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of particulates on P loading captured during a single storm event. The Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida comprises 280,000 hectares of organic soil farmland artificially drained by ditches, canals and pumps. Phosphorus (P)-enriched suspended particulates in canals are susceptible to transport and can contribute significantly to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture particulates during tropical storm Isaac in 2012 from three farms approximately 2.4 to 3.6 km2 in size. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 liter settling tanks over a seven-day drainage period, during tropical storm Isaac. Water from the settling tanks was siphoned through Imhoff settling cones, where the particulates were allowed to settle and collected for P-fractionation analyses, and compared to intact sediment cores collected from the bottom of the canals. The discharged particulates contained higher organic matter content (OM), total P, and labile P fractions compared to the canal bottom sediments. Based on the equilibrium P concentrations, surface sediments behave as a source of P to the water column. A seven-day continuous drainage event exported 4.7 to 11.1 metric tons of suspended solids per farm, corresponding to 32 to 63 kg of particulate P being lost to downstream ecosystems. Drainage associated to a single seven-day storm event exported up to 61% of the total annual farm P load. It is evident from this study that short-term, high-intensity storm events can skew annual P loads due to the export of significantly higher particulate matter from farm canals. Exported particulates rich in P can provide a supplemental source of nutrients if captured and replenished back into the farmlands, as a sustainable farming practice.

  20. Assessment of heterogeneity of metal composition of fine particulate matter collected from eight U.S. counties using principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Inkyu; Mihalic, Jana N; Ramos-Bonilla, Juan P; Rule, Ana M; Polyak, Lisa M; Peng, Roger D; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives of this study are to (1) characterize chemical constituents of particulate matter (PM) and (2) compare overall differences in PM collected from eight US. counties. This project was undertaken as a part of a larger research program conducted by the Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center (JHPMRC). The goal of the JHPMRC is to explore the relationship between health effects and exposure to ambient PM of differing composition. The JHPMRC collected weekly filter-based ambient fine particle samples from eight US. counties between January 2008 and January 2010. Each sampling effort consisted of a 5-6-week sampling period. Filters were analyzed for 25 metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Overall compositional differences were ranked by principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that weekly concentrations of each element varied 3-40 times between the eight counties. PCA showed that the first five principal components explained 85% of the total variance. The authors found significant overall compositional differences in PM as the average of standardized principal component scores differed between the counties. These findings demonstrate PCA is a useful tool to identify the differences in PM compositional mixtures by county. These differences will be helpful for epidemiological and toxicological studies to help explain why health risks associated with PM exposure are different in locations with similar mass concentrations of PM.

  1. Genotoxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitro-Derived in Respirable Airborne Particulate Matter Collected from Urban Areas of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos de Rainho, Claudia; Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Luiz Mazzei, José; Alessandra Fortes Aiub, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution toxic effects are mainly attributed to small inhalable particulates with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM 2.5). Our objective was to investigate mutagenic and clastogenic activity in PM samples collected in Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler at three sites: with low traffic and (2) and (3) with a heavy traffic. Six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and the derivative strains YG1021 and YG1024 were used in mutagenicity assays in the presence of organic extracts (10–50 µg/ plate) with and without exogenous metabolization. Allium cepa test was performed to evaluate possible cytotoxic and clastogenic activities. The highest PM 2.5 µm (132.73 µm/m3) and PAH values (1.22 ng/m3 for benzo(a)pyrene) were detected at site 3. High mutagenic frameshift responses in absence and presence of metabolic activation were detected at site 3. The participation of nitroarenes and dinitroarenes was detected in the total mutagenicity of the extracts studied. The cytotoxic effect and the abnormalities detected by Allium cepa test can be attributed to the PAH nitroderivatives in the organic extracts. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of urban airborne particulate matter is important as a basis for decision making by regulatory authorities. PMID:23738331

  2. A suspended-particle rosette multi-sampler for discrete biogeochemical sampling in low-particle-density waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breier, J. A.; Rauch, C. G.; McCartney, K.; Toner, B. M.; Fakra, S. C.; White, S. N.; German, C. R.

    2010-06-22

    To enable detailed investigations of early stage hydrothermal plume formation and abiotic and biotic plume processes we developed a new oceanographic tool. The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampling system has been designed to collect geochemical and microbial samples from the rising portion of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes. It can be deployed on a remotely operated vehicle for sampling rising plumes, on a wire-deployed water rosette for spatially discrete sampling of non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes, or on a fixed mooring in a hydrothermal vent field for time series sampling. It has performed successfully during both its first mooring deployment at the East Pacific Rise and its first remotely-operated vehicle deployments along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is currently capable of rapidly filtering 24 discrete large-water-volume samples (30-100 L per sample) for suspended particles during a single deployment (e.g. >90 L per sample at 4-7 L per minute through 1 {mu}m pore diameter polycarbonate filters). The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampler has been designed with a long-term goal of seafloor observatory deployments, where it can be used to collect samples in response to tectonic or other events. It is compatible with in situ optical sensors, such as laser Raman or visible reflectance spectroscopy systems, enabling in situ particle analysis immediately after sample collection and before the particles alter or degrade.

  3. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rennan G.O., E-mail: rgoa01@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica Ambiental, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Sao Cristovao, 49.100-000, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vignola, Fabiola; Castilho, Ivan N.B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3{sigma}), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.12 ng m{sup -3} in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m{sup 3} collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g{sup -1}, equivalent to 0.41 ng m{sup -3} in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between < 40 ng g{sup -1} and 381 {+-} 24 ng g{sup -1}. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between < 0.12 ng m{sup -3} and 1.47 {+-} 0.09 ng m{sup -3}. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  4. Aquatic macrophytes drive sediment stoichiometry and the suspended particulate organic carbon composition of a tropical coastal lagoon Macrófitas aquáticas determinam a estequiometria do sedimento e a composição do carbono orgânico particulado em suspensão de uma lagoa costeira tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Cardoso Marinho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research aimed to evaluate (1 the influence of the aquatic macrophytes Typha domingensis Pers., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult. (emergent and Potamogeton stenostachys K. Schum. (submersed on sediment stoichiometry and (2 the contribution of these aquatic macrophytes to organic carbon composition in different compartments of a tropical coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé-RJ; METHODS: The concentration of carbon (C, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P was determined in 2-cm intervals in the first 10 cm of sediment in both littoral and limnetic regions. In the littoral region, the sediment was collected in three different sites: T. domingensis, E. interstincta and P. stenostachys stands. In order to know the pathways of C in Cabiunas lagoon, the isotopic signature (δ13C of restinga terrestrial vegetation, zooplankton, phytoplankton, macrophytes, dissolved and suspended material on water were evaluated; RESULTS: The concentrations of C and N in the sediment of the E. interstincta and T. domingensis stands were significantly higher than in the sediment of the limnetic region. The concentration of phosphorus in the sediment colonized by T. domingensis was higher than in the limnetic region and in P. stenostachys stand. The highest molar C:P ratios were found in E. interstincta and P. stenostachys stands. The highest N:P ratios were also found in the littoral region. Carbon stable isotopic analysis (δ13C signatures showed that a majority of the particulate organic carbon (POC in the water column had aquatic macrophyte tissues origin; CONCLUSIONS: Emergent macrophytes strongly contribute to nutrient enrichment of the sediment of Cabiúnas lagoon. In general, macrophyte detritus alters the littoral region sediment stoichiometry and quality for decomposers, by accumulating much more C in relation to N and P when compared to limnetic region. However, macrophytes importance isn't restricted to the sediment once they have a central

  5. Quality Assurance Plan for Data Collection: Characterizing and Quantifying Local and Regional Particulate Matter Emissions from Department of Defense Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillies, J

    2000-01-01

    ...-post regional visibility effects. This document has been assembled to describe the quality assurance plan for data collection for the different components of the proposed research. Quality control (QC...

  6. Particulate nitrogen and phosphorus in the East China Sea and its adjacent Kuroshio waters and evaluation of budgets for the East China Sea Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jiulong; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in suspended particles are important to the cycles of N and P in marine ecosystem. Suspended particles were collected from the East China Sea (ECS) and its adjacent Kuroshio waters to investigate the composing and distribution characteristics of particulate inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus (PIN, PIP, PON and POP, respectively). The particulate N and P concentrations were fairly low in the Kuroshio water but much higher in the ECS water, especially in nearshore waters. PON and PIP were the dominant forms of particulate N and P, with an exception that POP was the major form of particulate P in the Kuroshio upper water. The regime of particulate N and P in the ECS was strongly influenced by riverine input, oceanic input, ocean current and photosynthesis. Among them, PON and POP were mainly from biogenic source, while PIN and PIP were originated from biogenic and external sources. And sedimentation, remineralization and resuspension were important influencing factors for the vertical distributions of particulate N and P. The budgets of particulate N and P for the ECS Shelf during rainy season (May-October) were also evaluated. The total particulate N and P (TPN and TPP) fluxes from oceanic input are respectively 10.99 and 2.49 times of those from riverine input. And oceanic input contains more POP, which is liable to be decomposed into phosphate, than riverine input. Furthermore, particulate nutrients fluxes from photosynthesis are the overriding source of total influxes for the ECS Shelf, accounting for 90.93% of TPN and 89.37% of TPP influxes. As for the photosynthetic fixed N and P, only 6.17% and 7.60% of them can reach the seafloor, while up to 87.73% and 60.06% of them are likely to be remineralized. The POP-rich oceanic input and the intensive photosynthesis and remineralization processes play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of N and P in the ECS.

  7. Tropical river suspended sediment and solute dynamics in storms during an extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn E.; Shanley, James B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Perdrial, Julia N.; Plante, Alain F.; McDowell, William H.

    2017-05-01

    Droughts, which can strongly affect both hydrologic and biogeochemical systems, are projected to become more prevalent in the tropics in the future. We assessed the effects of an extreme drought during 2015 on stream water composition in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. We demonstrated that drought base flow in the months leading up to the study was sourced from trade-wind orographic rainfall, suggesting a resistance to the effects of an otherwise extreme drought. In two catchments (Mameyes and Icacos), we sampled a series of four rewetting events that partially alleviated the drought. We collected and analyzed dissolved constituents (major cations and anions, organic carbon, and nitrogen) and suspended sediment (inorganic and organic matter (particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen)). The rivers appeared to be resistant to extreme drought, recovering quickly upon rewetting, as (1) the concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships deviated little from the long-term patterns; (2) "new water" dominated streamflow during the latter events; (3) suspended sediment sources had accumulated in the channel during the drought flushed out during the initial events; and (4) the severity of the drought, as measured by the US drought monitor, was reduced dramatically after the rewetting events. Through this interdisciplinary study, we were able to investigate the impact of extreme drought through rewetting events on the river biogeochemistry.

  8. Tropical river suspended sediment and solute dynamics in storms during an extreme drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kathryn E.; Shanley, James B.; Scholl, Martha A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Perdrial, Julia N.; Plante, Alain F.; McDowell, William H.

    2017-01-01

    Droughts, which can strongly affect both hydrologic and biogeochemical systems, are projected to become more prevalent in the tropics in the future. We assessed the effects of an extreme drought during 2015 on stream water composition in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. We demonstrated that drought base flow in the months leading up to the study was sourced from trade-wind orographic rainfall, suggesting a resistance to the effects of an otherwise extreme drought. In two catchments (Mameyes and Icacos), we sampled a series of four rewetting events that partially alleviated the drought. We collected and analyzed dissolved constituents (major cations and anions, organic carbon, and nitrogen) and suspended sediment (inorganic and organic matter (particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen)). The rivers appeared to be resistant to extreme drought, recovering quickly upon rewetting, as (1) the concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships deviated little from the long-term patterns; (2) “new water” dominated streamflow during the latter events; (3) suspended sediment sources had accumulated in the channel during the drought flushed out during the initial events; and (4) the severity of the drought, as measured by the US drought monitor, was reduced dramatically after the rewetting events. Through this interdisciplinary study, we were able to investigate the impact of extreme drought through rewetting events on the river biogeochemistry.

  9. Difference in interleukin-8 transcriptional activity induced in THP-G8 cells by particulate matter collected in winter and summer in western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Minato, Sayaka; Noma, Hisashi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Rumiko; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Hatakeyama, Keisuke; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) may stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thus exposure to PM affects pulmonary diseases. However, the effects of PM on pulmonary diseases have differed among studies. PM was collected from February 2 to 28 (winter) and June 1 to 17 (summer) in 2013 in Yurihama, Japan, using filters to separate particles with different aerodynamic diameters (1.1 to G8 cells was examined in response to winter and summer PM with different diameters. IL-8 transcriptional activity induced by winter PM was significantly higher than that with summer PM for each diameter. For winter PM, IL-8 activity increased with an increased diameter, whereas this activity did not differ between a solvent control and each summer PM diameter. This indicates that summer PM does not stimulate production of IL-8 in THP-G8 cells. The effects of PM on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines differ with the season and PM diameter. This suggests that the compositions of PM differ on season, and the evaluation of compositions of PM is important in understanding the association of health with short-term exposure to PM.

  10. Particle Size Characteristics of Fluvial Suspended Sediment in Proglacial Streams, King George Island, South Shetland Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the characterization of particle size distribution of suspended sediment that is transported by streams (Ornithologist Creek, Ecology Glacier Creeks, Petrified Forest Creek, Czech Creek, Vanishing Creek, Italian Creek) in the area of the Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station is presented. During the first period of the summer season, the aforementioned streams are supplied by the melting snow fields, while later on, by thawing permafrost. The water samples were collected from the streams at monthly intervals during the Antarctic summer season (January - March) of 2016. The particle size distribution was measured in the laboratory with a LISST-25X laser diffraction particle size analyser. According to Sequoia Scientific Inc., LISST-25X can measure particle sizes (Sauter Mean Diameter) between 2.50 and 500 μm. The results of particle size measurements were analysed in relation to flow velocity (0.18–0.89 m/s), the cross-sectional parameters of the streams, suspended sediment concentration (0.06–167.22 mg/dm3) and the content of particulate organic matter (9.8–84.85%). Overall, the mean particle size ranged from 28.8 to 136 μm. The grain size of well-sorted sediments ranged from 0.076 to 0.57, with the skewness and kurtosis values varying from -0.1 to 0.4, and from 0.67 to 1.3, respectively. Based on the particle size characteristics of suspended sediment, the streams were divided into two groups. For most of the streams, the sediment was very well sorted, while fine sand and very fine sand were dominant fractions displaying symmetric and platykurtic distributions, respectively. Only in two streams, the suspended sediment consisted of silt-size grains, well or moderately well sorted, with coarse-skewness and mostly mesokurtic distribution. The C-M chart suggested that the transportation processes of suspended sediment included the suspended mode only. The grain-size distribution of suspended sediment was mainly influenced by the stream runoff

  11. Determination of heavy metals in suspended waste water collected from Oued El Harrach Algiers River by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouziane, S.; Amokrane, A.; Toumert, I.

    2013-12-01

    A preliminary study of the atmospheric pollution in the centre of Algiers is one of the important fields of applications in the environmental science. Nowadays, we need to evaluate the level of the contamination which has an unfavourable effect on physicochemical properties of soils and plants and namely also on human health. In the present work, water samples collected from Oued El-Harrach Algiers River, have been filtered in 0.45 μm Millipore filters to be analysed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence technique using 109Cd radioisotope source. Concentrations of the toxic elements like heavy metals are determined and compared with the published ones values by Yoshida [1] and those obtained using PIXE and NAA techniques [6].

  12. LEVELS OF As, Pb, Cd AND Fe IN SUSPENDED PARTICULATE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    elements were observed in Motor Spray Painting (MSP),8528±389 g/m3 and Welding and Panel- beating (WDP) workshops, 11086.8±10644 g/m3. The calculated enrichment factor revealed Cd to be highly enriched in Battery Maintenance and Charging (BMC) and MSP. The enrichment factor of all the elements suggests ...

  13. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cycle (McCarthy et al 1997). The distribution and cycling of AS in sedimenting particles and marine sediments have been well documented (Belluomini et al 1986; Haake et al 1992; Jennerjahn and. Ittekkot 1997; Hashimoto et al 1998; Gupta and. Kawahata 2000). Conversely, little is known about the distribution of AS in the ...

  14. Respirable particulate monitoring with remote sensors. (Public health ecology: Air pollution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severs, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring atmospheric aerosols in the respirable range from air or space platforms was studied. Secondary reflectance targets were located in the industrial area and near Galveston Bay. Multichannel remote sensor data were utilized to calculate the aerosol extinction coefficient and thus determine the aerosol size distribution. Houston Texas air sampling network high volume data were utilized to generate computer isopleth maps of suspended particulates and to establish the mass loading of the atmosphere. In addition, a five channel nephelometer and a multistage particulate air sampler were used to collect data. The extinction coefficient determined from remote sensor data proved more representative of wide areal phenomena than that calculated from on site measurements. It was also demonstrated that a significant reduction in the standard deviation of the extinction coefficient could be achieved by reducing the bandwidths used in remote sensor.

  15. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water; Caracterizacion y morfologia de solidos suspendidos en agua de lluvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy.

  16. Cable suspended windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Moses G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  17. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  18. Characteristics and source appointment of atmospheric particulate mercury over East China Sea: Implication on the deposition of atmospheric particulate mercury in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Cheng, Na; Xiu, Guangli; Wang, Fujiang; Chen, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Huaniao Island in northern East China Sea (ECS) from March 2012 to January 2013. Chemical analysis were conducted to measure the concentration of total particulate mercury (TPM) and speciated particulate mercury including HCl-soluble particulate mercury (HPM), elemental particulate mercury (EPM) and residual particulate mercury (RPM). The bromine (Br) and iodine (I) on particles were also detected. The mean concentration of TPM during the study period was 0.23 ± 0.15 ng m -3 , while the obviously seasonal variation was found that the concentrations of TPM in spring, summer, fall and winter were 0.34 ± 0.20 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.03 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.05 ng m -3 and 0.27 ± 0.26 ng m -3 , respectively. The statistically strong correlation of bromine and iodine to HPM was only found in spring with r = 0.81 and 0.77 (p mercury due to the deposition of mercury over the sea. The cluster of air mass across the sea had low concentration of HPM in winter, which suggested that the oxidation of mercury in winter might be related to other oxidants. During the whole sampling period, the air mass from the north of China contributed to the higher concentration of TPM in Huaniao Island. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro toxicity of particulate matter (PM collected at different sites in the Netherlands is associated with PM composition, size fraction and oxidative potential - the RAPTES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebret Erik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ambient particulate matter (PM exposure is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To what extent such effects are different for PM obtained from different sources or locations is still unclear. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected at different sites in the Netherlands in relation to PM composition and oxidative potential. Method PM was sampled at eight sites: three traffic sites, an underground train station, as well as a harbor, farm, steelworks, and urban background location. Coarse (2.5-10 μm, fine (2. Following overnight incubation, MTT-reduction activity (a measure of metabolic activity and the release of pro-inflammatory markers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, TNF-α; Interleukin-6, IL-6; Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-2, MIP-2 were measured. The oxidative potential and the endotoxin content of each PM sample were determined in a DTT- and LAL-assay respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the cellular responses and PM characteristics: concentration, site, size fraction, oxidative potential and endotoxin content. Results Most PM samples induced a concentration-dependent decrease in MTT-reduction activity and an increase in pro-inflammatory markers with the exception of the urban background and stop & go traffic samples. Fine and qUF samples of traffic locations, characterized by a high concentration of elemental and organic carbon, induced the highest pro-inflammatory activity. The pro-inflammatory response to coarse samples was associated with the endotoxin level, which was found to increase dramatically during a three-day sample concentration procedure in the laboratory. The underground samples, characterized by a high content of transition metals, showed the largest decrease in MTT-reduction activity. PM size fraction was not related to MTT-reduction activity, whereas there was a statistically significant

  20. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high levels of all measured elements. Concentrations of most elements at the two sites exhibit strong spatial gradients and concentrations of elements at these sites are higher than other locations. The highest concentrations of elements were observed during June–August because of dust storms, significant increase in energy consumption, and active surface winds. Enrichment factors of elements at the high-level sites have values in the range >10~60 while for Cu and Zn the enrichment factors are much higher (~0–>700 indicating that greater percentage of TSP composition for these three elements in air comes from anthropogenic activities.

  1. Heavy metal content of total suspended air particles in the heavily industrialized town of Gebze, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenekon, Pinar; Ulutaş, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem in industrialized towns, where a significant portion of the residents live in close proximity to factories and major highways with high traffic load. In this study, the ambient air quality in Gebze, an industrial region with an area of 438 km(2) and a population of 300,000, was characterized in terms for total suspended particulate matter and its composition of trace elements, i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb. Samples were collected using high volume samplers from March to June 2009 at two sites during the day and the night. A significantly higher Cu concentrations during night suggested that Cu emissions were the result of a local source. The known air toxics, Cd and Ni, had average concentrations (34 and 43 ng/m(3), respectively) higher than proposed by the European Union's ambient air quality standards. These results highlight the potential health risks for the local population.

  2. Intergrating cavity absorption meter measurements of dissolved substances and suspended particles in ocean water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Robin M.; Weidemann, Alan D.; Fry, Edward S.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a new device to measure the separate contributions to the spectral absorption coefficient due to a pure liquid, due to the particles suspended in it, and due to the substances dissolved in it. This device, the Integrating Cavity Absorption Meter (ICAM), is essentially independent of scattering effects in the sample. In April 1993, a prototype of the ICAM was field tested on board the research vessel USNS Bartlett. A major part of the cruise track included criss-crossing the area where the Mississippi flows into the Gulf of Mexico at various ranges from the mouth of the river; thus samples were collected from areas of blue, green, and brown/black water. We evaluated 35 seawater samples collected with 5-l Niskin bottles from 22 locations to determine absorption spectra (380-700 nm) of suspended particles and dissolved substances (gelbstoff). Results validate the ICAM as a viable tool for marine optical absorption research. Gelbstoff absorption at 432.5 nm ranged from 0.024 to 0.603 m -1. Over the spectral region 380→560 nm, gelbstoff absorption by each of the samples could be accurately fit to a decaying exponential. The particle absorption spectra are generally characteristic of those of phytoplankton and exhibit a local maximum at 430-440 nm. Absorption values at 432.5 nm ranged from ˜zero to ˜1.0 m -1. Some samples with moderate particulate absorption, however, did not show the characteristic local maximum of phytoplankton in the blue and instead resembled the characteristic decaying exponential of detritus with a shape similar to that observed in the gelbstoff. The ratio of gelbstoff to particulate absorption at 432.5 nm ranged from 0.46 to 152.

  3. Sediment and particulate phosphorus characteristics in grassed waterways from row crop corn and alfalfa fields collected using manual University of Exeter and automatic sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) export from agricultural lands above known threshold levels results in adverse impacts to receiving water quality. Phosphorus loss occurs in dissolved and sediment-bound, or particulate P (PP), forms, with the latter often dominating losses from row-cropped systems. To target practice...

  4. Recent developments in particulate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-04

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are the dominant type of particulate control in pulverised coal combustion (PCC) plant; fabric filters (FF) play a smaller role. Environmental pressures and subsequent tighter regulations have lowered emission limit values (ELV) for particulate matter from PCC plant, and they are now extending to specific toxic metals, such as mercury. Lower ELV are generally met by increasing the efficiency of the existing particulate control via numerous enhancements. However, the existing fleet is ageing, various restrictions on site limit what work can be done and PCC plant is progressively operating under non-design conditions. Despite this, further developments in technology have led to significant improvements in collection efficiency and regulations have been met. New hybrid ESP/FF systems aim to become more viable than the individual technology by utilising the advantages of both technologies. The purpose of this report is to review the technical and economic considerations of enhancements in particulate control for PCC plant over the last decade.

  5. Genotoxic effects and oxidative stress induced by organic extracts of particulate matter(PM 10)collected from a subway tunnel in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi Hyun; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Park, Duck Shin; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Oh, Seung Min

    2012-12-12

    Particulate matter (PM) has become an important health risk factor in our society. PM can easily deposit in the bronchi and lungs, causing diverse diseases such as respiratory infections, lung cancers and cardiovascular diseases. In recent days, more and more toxicological studies have been dealing with air particles in distinctive areas including industrial areas, transportation sites, or indoors. Studies on subway PM in particular, have been recognizing PM as an important health risk factor because many people use subways as a major mode of public transportation (4 million people a day in Korea). The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of organic extract (OE) of subway PM10 and potential attribution of PAHs to these effects. Particles were collected in the subway tunnel at Kil-eum station(Line 4) for one month and then extracted with Dichloromethane (DCM). Chinese Hamster Ovary cells(CHO-K1) and human normal bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to OE, and MN and Comet assays were conducted to analyze the genotoxicity. The results showed that OE increased DNA or chromosome damages in both cell lines. In the modified Comet assay and MN assay with free radical scavengers, we confirmed that the genotoxic effect of OE was partially due to the oxidative damage on DNA. DCFHD Aassay also indicated that OE induced ROS generation in BEAS-2B cells. PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene,benzo(k)fluoranthrene, etc.], the most well-known carcinogens in polluted air, were detected in Kil-eum PM10. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that OE of subway PM10 has genotoxic effects on normal human lung cells, and oxidative stress could be one of the major mechanisms of these genotoxic effects.In addition, some genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs were detected in OE by GC/MS/MS, even though PAHs level was not enough to increase CYP1A1 gene. Therefore, we suggest that additive or synergistic effects by unidentified chemicals as well as PAHs contained in OE of subway

  6. [Exploration of a quantitative methodology to characterize the retention of PM2.5 and other atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves: taking Populus tomentosa as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Xi, Ben-Ye; Cao, Zhi-Guo; Jia, Li-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Taking Populus tomentosa as an example, a methodology called elution-weighing-particle size-analysis (EWPA) was proposed to evaluate quantitatively the ability of retaining fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter d ≤ 2.5 μm) and atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves using laser particle size analyzer and balance. This method achieved a direct, accurate measurement with superior operability about the quality and particle size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter retained by plant leaves. First, a pre-experiment was taken to test the stability of the method. After cleaning, centrifugation and drying, the particulate matter was collected and weighed, and then its particle size distribution was analyzed by laser particle size analyzer. Finally, the mass of particulate matter retained by unit area of leaf and stand was translated from the leaf area and leaf area index. This method was applied to a P. tomentosa stand which had not experienced rain for 27 days in Beijing Olympic Forest Park. The results showed that the average particle size of the atmospheric particulate matter retained by P. tomentosa was 17.8 μm, and the volume percentages of the retained PM2.5, inhalable particulate matter (PM10, d ≤ 10 μm) and total suspended particle (TSP, d ≤ 100 μm) were 13.7%, 47.2%, and 99.9%, respectively. The masses of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter were 8.88 x 10(-6), 30.6 x 10(-6), 64.7 x 10(-6) and 64.8 x 10(-6) g x cm(-2) respectively. The retention quantities of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter by the P. tomentosa stand were 0.963, 3.32, 7.01 and 7.02 kg x hm(-2), respectively.

  7. Particulate accumulations in the vital organs of wild Brevoortia patronus from the northern Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millemann, Daniel R; Portier, Ralph J; Olson, Gregory; Bentivegna, Carolyn S; Cooper, Keith R

    2015-11-01

    Histopathologic lesions were observed in the commercially important filter-feeding fish, Brevoortia patronus (Gulf menhaden), along the Louisiana Gulf Coast. Menhaden collected from Louisiana waters in 2011 and 2012, 1 and 2 years following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, showed varying severities of gill lesions as well as an unusual accumulation of black particulates visible at necropsy in the heart and stomach vasculature. The PAH derived particulates were typically 1-4 µm in diameter, but larger aggregates were observed in the coronary vessels on the ventricle surfaces and their location and size was confirmed by light microscopy. Composited particulate composition was consistent with weathered petrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures based on GC-MS analysis. Particulates were present in 63 and 80% of fish hearts and 70 and 89% of stomach muscularis collected in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Tissue embedded particulates can lead to localized cellular damage from bioavailable compounds, as well as chronic effects from occlusion of sensitive tissues' blood flow. The PAH derived particulates appeared to act as emboli in small capillaries, and could associated with localized inflammation, focal necrosis and inappropriate collagen and fibroblast tissue repair. We believe large volume filter feeding teleosts, such as menhaden (up to 3 million gallons per year/fish) with high lipid content, have a higher exposure risk and greater potential for toxicity from toxic particulates than other higher trophic level finfish. Suspended PAH derived particulates following an oil spill therefore, should be considered when assessing long-term ecological impacts and not be limited to physical contact (coating) or water soluble fractions for assessing toxicity (gill and neurologic).

  8. Dispersive suspended microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Yu; Lu, Yue-Le; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2011-11-14

    A novel sample pre-treatment technique termed dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) has been developed for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, malathion, chlorpyrifos, isocarbophos, methidathion, fenamiphos, profenofos, triazophos) in aqueous samples. In this method, both extraction and two phases' separation process were performed by the assistance of magnetic stirring. After separating the two phases, 1 μL of the suspended phase was injected into GC for further instrument analysis. Varieties of experiment factors which could affect the experiment results were optimized and the following were selected: 12.0 μL p-xylene was selected as extraction solvent, extraction speed was 1200 rpm, extraction time was 30 s, the restoration speed was 800 rpm, the restoration time was 8 min, and no salt was added. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detections (LODs) varied between 0.01 and 0.05 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSDs, n=6) ranged from 4.6% to 12.1%. The linearity was obtained by five points in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0 μg L(-1). Correlation coefficients (r) varied from 0.9964 to 0.9995. The enrichment factors (EFs) were between 206 and 243. In the final experiment, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wine and tap water samples and the obtained recoveries were between 83.8% and 101.3%. Compared with other pre-treatment methods, DSME has its own features and could achieve satisfied results for the analysis of trace components in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Simple statistical formulas for estimating biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter in the southern Baltic Sea potentially useful for optical remote sensing applications* Financial support for this research was provided by Statutory Research Programme No. I.1 at the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, by research grant No. N N306 2838 33 awarded to Sławomir B. Woźniak by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, and by the ‘SatBałtyk’ project funded by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund (contract No. POIG.01.01.02-22-011/09 entitled ‘The Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir B. Woźniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple statistical formulas for estimating various biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter in the southern Baltic Sea are presented in this paper. These include formulas for estimating mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM, particulate organic matter (POM, particulate organic carbon (POC and total chlorophyll a (Chl a. Two different approaches have been adopted. The first approach was to use the available empirical material (the results of field measurements and laboratory analyses of discrete water samples and find statistical formulas for estimating the biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter from those of inherent optical properties (IOPs, which are potentially retrievable from remote sensing measurements. The second approach was to find formulas that would enable biogeochemical properties of suspended particulate matter to be estimated directly from spectral values of the remote-sensing reflectance Rrs. The latter was based on statistical analyses of a synthetic data set of Rrs obtained from numerical simulations of radiative transfer for which the available empirical material on seawater IOPs and biogeochemistry served as input data. Among the empirical formulas based on seawater IOPs that could be used as a step in two-stage remote sensing algorithms (the other step is estimating certain IOPs from reflectance, the best error statistics are found for estimates of SPM and POM from the particulate backscattering coefficient bbp in the blue region of light wavelengths (443 nm, and for estimates of POC and Chl a from the coefficient of light absorption by the sum of all non-water (i.e. suspended and dissolved constituents of seawater an, in the blue (443 nm and green (555 nm parts of the spectrum respectively. For the semi-empirical formulas under consideration, which could serve as starting points in the development of local onestage (direct remote sensing algorithms, the best error

  10. Chromium in water, suspended particles, sediments and biota in the Iraja River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.; de Lacerda, L.D.; van Weerfelt, M.; Carbonell, N.

    1982-11-01

    Analyses of chromium concentrations in waters, suspended particles, bottom sediments, fish (Poecilia reticulata), plants (Paspalum vaginatum, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Philoxeros vermicularis), soils and barnacles (Balanus sp.) were performed from August 1976 to September 1980 in samples collected from the Iraja River and inside its estuary in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Sediments and water from the Iraja River showed chromium concentrations of 17536 and 23.39 ppm--a thousand times higher than the published data for freshwater systems. Chromium removed from solution by bottom sediments reaches Guanabara Bay linked to particulate matter. Fish and emergent grass inside the river concentrate chromium from water and/or sediment, returning the metal to the system as detritus. Soil and plants inside the estuary concentrate chromium thirty and ten times higher than in the control area. The vegetal community exhibits a concentration factor smaller than that related to soil and prevents the return of chromium to the estuarine waters. Inside the Guanabara Bay, Balanus sp. appears to be an effective biological monitor as it concentrates chromium in soft tissues 10/sup 3/ times higher than values found in suspended particles (0.012 ..mu..g ml/sup -1/).

  11. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  12. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  13. [Chemical Compositions and Sources Apportionment of Re-suspended Dust in Jincheng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Peng, Lin; Li, Li-juan; Zhang, Teng; Liu, Hai-li; Mu, Ling

    2016-01-15

    In order to make effective plan to provide the scientific basis for prevention and control of re-suspended dust (RD), samples of particulate sources including RD and other pollution sources of Jincheng were collected. Elements, ions and carbon in particulate sources were analyzed. Enrichment factor, potential ecological risk assessment, and chemical mass balance model were used to analyze the chemical composition and the source of RD. The result indicated that the main components in RD of Jingeheng were Si, TC, Ca, OC, Al, Mg, Na, Fe, K and SO4(2-), contributing 61.14% of total mass of RD. The most abundant content of RD was crustal elements, and the ions were enriched in the fine particles. The mass fraction of OC in PM2. was higher, whereas the mass fraction of EC in PM10 was higher, indicating that secondary organic pollutants were mainly dominated in the fine particles. The dust PM2.5 and PM10 potential ecological risk indexes were extremely strong, and PM2.5 had higher ecological harm than PM10. Pb had the highest enrichment factor of 196.97 in PM2.5, which was followed by As, Cr, Ni, V, Zn and Cu, the enrichment factors of which were all greater than 10, indicating that they were apparently enriched and affected by human activities. Soil dust, construction dust, vehicle exhaust, and coal dust were the main sources of RD.

  14. Comparison of hot Soxhlet and accelerated solvent extractions with microwave and supercritical fluid extractions for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated derivatives strongly adsorbed on soot collected inside a diesel particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukebdane, K; Portet-Koltalo, F; Machour, N; Dionnet, F; Desbène, P L

    2010-06-30

    Several methods of extraction were optimized to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their nitrated derivatives and heavy n-alkanes from a highly adsorptive particulate matter resulting from the combustion of diesel fuel in a diesel engine. This particular carbonaceous particulate matter, collected at high temperatures in cordierite diesel particulate filters (DPF), which are optimized for removing diesel particles from diesel engine exhaust emissions, appeared extremely refractory to extractions using the classical extracting conditions for these pollutants. In particular, the method of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is described in detail here. Optimization was performed through experimental design to understand the impact of each factor studied and the factors' possible interactions on the recovery yields. The conventional extraction technique, i.e., Soxhlet extraction, was also carried out, but the lack of quantitative extractions led us to use a more effective approach: hot Soxhlet. It appeared that the extraction of the heaviest PAHs and nitroPAHs by either the optimized ASE or hot Soxhlet processes was far from complete. To enhance recovery yields, we tested original solvent mixtures of aromatic and heteroaromatic solvents. Thereafter, these two extraction techniques were compared to microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). In every case, the only solvent mixture that permitted quantitative extraction of the heaviest PAHs from the diesel soot was composed of pyridine and diethylamine, which has a strong electron-donor character. Conversely, the extraction of the nitrated PAHs was significantly improved by the use of an electron-acceptor solvent or by introducing a small amount of acetic acid into the pyridine. It was demonstrated that, for many desirable features, no single extraction technique stound out as the best: ASE, MAE or SFE could all challenge hot Soxhlet for favourable extractions

  15. Tidal influence on suspended sediment distribution and dispersal in the northern Andaman Sea and Gulf of Martaban

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.; Rao, K.H.; Thwin, S.; Rao, N.S.; Raiker, V.

    Surface and water column profiles of suspended matter collected during April-May 2002, and satellite images were used to study factors influencing suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) and dispersal in the northern Andaman Sea and Gulf...

  16. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-02

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs ( 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow < 5.5 were found at higher desorbing rates. The addition of detergents did not influence the extractability of lighter PAHs but increased desorption rates for the heavier PAHs, potentially contributing to increases in the toxicity of tunnel-wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples.

  17. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  18. Report of meeting on measurement of suspended solids in the Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joziasse, J.; Klaver, G.; Bakker, I.

    2004-01-01

    On June 19/20, 2007 a visit was paid to a suspended particulate matter (SPM) sampling and monitoring site in the Ourthe river (Liège region), between the confluence with the Vesdre river and the mouth of the Ourthe in the Meuse river. The next day, a workshop was organised in which backgrounds,

  19. Delivery of suspended sediment and associated phosphorus and heavy metals to small rural Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubel, A. R.

    The aim of this study is to examine delivery pathways for suspended sediment, and particulate phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from open rural areas to small Danish streams. A further aim is to quantify the contribution from different path-ways and source areas. Such studies are useful as a basis...

  20. Origin and biochemical cycling of particulate nitrogen in the Mandovi estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Loreta

    2011-09-01

    Mandovi estuary is a tropical estuary strongly influenced by the southwest monsoon. In order to understand, sources and fate of particulate organic nitrogen, suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from various locations, was analyzed for particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic nitrogen (PON), δ 13C POC, total hydrolysable amino acid enantiomers ( L- and D- amino acids) concentration and composition. δ 13C POC values were depleted (-32 to -25‰) during the monsoon and enriched (-29.6 to -21‰) in the pre-monsoon season implying that OM was derived from terrestrial and marine sources during the former and latter season, respectively. The biological indicators such as C/N ratio, D-amino acids, THAA yields and degradation indices (DI) indicate that the particulate organic matter (POM) was relatively more degraded during the monsoon season. Conversely, during the pre-monsoon, the biological indicators indicated the presence of relatively fresh and labile POM derived from autochthonous sources. Amino acids such as alanine, aspartic acid, leucine, serine, arginine, and threonine in monsoon and glutamic acid, glycine, valine, lysine, and isoleucine in pre-monsoon were relatively abundant. Presence of bacterial biomarker, D-amino acids in the SPM of the estuary during both the seasons signifies important contribution of bacteria to the estuarine detrital ON pool. Based on D-amino acid yields, bacterial OM accounted for 16-34% (23.0 ± 6.7%) of POC and 29-75% (47.9 ± 18.7%) of PON in monsoon, and 30-78% (50.0 ± 15%) of POC and 34-79% (51.2 ± 13.3%) of the PON in pre-monsoon in the estuary. Substantial contribution of bacterial-N to PON indicates nitrogen (N) enrichment on terrestrial POM during the monsoon season. Transport of terrestrial POM enriched with bacterial OM to the coastal waters is expected to influence coastal productivity and ecosystem functioning during the monsoon season.

  1. Concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter downwind during agricultural practices using air samplers in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Luis Gabriel; Limay-Rios, Victor; Xue, Yingen; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of neonicotinoid seed treatment insecticides as particulate matter in field crops occur mainly for two reasons: 1) due to abraded dust of treated seed generated during planting using vacuum planters, and 2) as a result of disturbances (tillage or wind events) in the surface of parental soils which release wind erodible soil-bound residues. In the present study, concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter were quantified under real conditions using passive and active air samplers. Average neonicotinoid concentrations in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) using passive samplers were 0.48 ng/cm 2 , trace, trace (LOD 0.80 and 0.04 ng/cm 2 for clothianidin and thiamethoxam, respectively), and using active samplers 16.22, 1.91 and 0.61 ng/m 3 during planting, tillage and wind events, respectively. There was a difference between events on total neonicotinoid concentration collected in particulate matter using either passive or active sampling. Distance of sampling from the source field during planting of treated seed had an effect on total neonicotinoid air concentration. However, during tillage distance did not present an effect on measured concentrations. Using hypothetical scenarios, values of contact exposure for a honey bee were estimated to be in the range from 1.1% to 36.4% of the reference contact LD 50 value of clothianidin of 44 ng/bee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  3. Origin and Distribution of PAHs in Ambient Particulate Samples at High Mountain Region in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-hui Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the deposition and transport of PAHs in southern China, a measurement campaign was conducted at a high-elevation site (the summit of Mount Heng, 1269 m A.S.L. from April 4 to May 31, 2009, and a total of 39 total suspended particulate samples were collected for measurement of PAH concentrations. The observed particulate-bound PAHs concentrations ranged from 1.63 to 29.83 ng/m3, with a mean concentration of 6.03 ng/m3. BbF, FLA, and PYR were the predominant compounds. Good correlations were found between individual PAHs and meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and ambient temperature. The backward trajectory analysis suggested that particulate samples measured at the Mount Heng region were predominantly associated with the air masses from southern China, while the air masses transported over northern and northwestern China had relative higher PAHs concentrations. Based on the diagnostic ratios and factor analysis, vehicular emission, coal combustion, industry emission, and unburned fossil fuels were suggested to be the PAHs sources at Mount Heng site. However, the reactivity and degradation of individual PAHs could influence the results of PAH source profiles, which deserves further investigations in the future.

  4. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  5. 36 CFR 1201.20 - What is the extent of the Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend or terminate collection action on such... Archivist's authority to compromise debts owed to NARA, or to suspend or terminate collection action on such debts? (a) The Archivist may compromise, suspend, or terminate collection action on those debts owed to...

  6. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  7. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  8. Measurement of particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) around a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Padma S; Ansari, M Faiyaz; Pipalatkar, P; Kumar, A; Nema, P; Devotta, S

    2008-02-01

    A study on concentrations of ambient particulates viz. total suspended particulate matters (TSP), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were carried out at six sites around the Asia's largest, 12 MMTPA, petroleum refinery in west coast of India. PAH concentrations are correlated with each other in these sites, suggesting that they have related sources and sinks. The present article discusses the monitoring aspects such as sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods and compares the monitored levels for assessing the source receptor distribution pattern. The main sources of RSPM and PAHs in urban air are automobile exhaust (CPCB, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and their effects on human health. " http://www.cpcb.nic.in/ph/ch21103.htm ", 2003; Manuel et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 227-231, 2004) and industrial emissions like petroleum refinery (Vo-Dinh, Chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Wiley: New York, 1989; Wagrowaski and Hites, Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 279-282, 1997). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous constituents of urban airborne particulate mostly generated by anthropogenic activities (Li et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 37:1958-2965, 2003; Thorsen et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 38: 2029-2037, 2004; Ohura et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2004) and some of them are of major health concern mainly due to their well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic properties (Soclo et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40: 387-396, 2000; Chen et al., Environment International, 28: 659-668, 2003; Larsen and Baker, Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2003). Limited information is available on PAHs contributions from refineries to ambient air. Hence this study would not only create a database but also provide necessary inputs towards dose-response relationship for

  9. Aged riverine particulate organic carbon in four UK catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jessica L., E-mail: jesams@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Tipping, Edward, E-mail: et@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Bryant, Charlotte L., E-mail: charlotte.bryant@glasgow.ac.uk [NERC Radiocarbon Facility, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom); Helliwell, Rachel C., E-mail: rachel.helliwell@hutton.ac.uk [The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH Scotland (United Kingdom); Toberman, Hannah, E-mail: hannahtoberman@hotmail.com [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GP (United Kingdom); Quinton, John, E-mail: j.quinton@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-01

    The riverine transport of particulate organic matter (POM) is a significant flux in the carbon cycle, and affects macronutrients and contaminants. We used radiocarbon to characterise POM at 9 riverine sites of four UK catchments (Avon, Conwy, Dee, Ribble) over a one-year period. High-discharge samples were collected on three or four occasions at each site. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was obtained by centrifugation, and the samples were analysed for carbon isotopes. Concentrations of SPM and SPM organic carbon (OC) contents were also determined, and were found to have a significant negative correlation. For the 7 rivers draining predominantly rural catchments, PO{sup 14}C values, expressed as percent modern carbon absolute (pMC), varied little among samplings at each site, and there was no significant difference in the average values among the sites. The overall average PO{sup 14}C value for the 7 sites of 91.2 pMC corresponded to an average age of 680 {sup 14}C years, but this value arises from the mixing of differently-aged components, and therefore significant amounts of organic matter older than the average value are present in the samples. Although topsoil erosion is probably the major source of the riverine POM, the average PO{sup 14}C value is appreciably lower than topsoil values (which are typically 100 pMC). This is most likely explained by inputs of older subsoil OC from bank erosion, or the preferential loss of high-{sup 14}C topsoil organic matter by mineralisation during riverine transport. The significantly lower average PO{sup 14}C of samples from the River Calder (76.6 pMC), can be ascribed to components containing little or no radiocarbon, derived either from industrial sources or historical coal mining, and this effect is also seen in the River Ribble, downstream of its confluence with the Calder. At the global scale, the results significantly expand available information for PO{sup 14}C in rivers draining catchments with low erosion rates

  10. Geospatial approach towards enumerative analysis of suspended sediment concentration for Ganges-Brahmaputra Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Palak; Kunte, Pravin D.

    2016-10-01

    This study presents an easy, modular, user-friendly, and flexible software package for processing of Landsat 7 ETM and Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS data for estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations in the coastal waters. This package includes 1) algorithm developed using freely downloadable SCILAB package, 2) ERDAS Models for iterative processing of Landsat images and 3) ArcMAP tool for plotting and map making. Utilizing SCILAB package, a module is written for geometric corrections, radiometric corrections and obtaining normalized water-leaving reflectance by incorporating Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. Using ERDAS models, a sequence of modules are developed for iterative processing of Landsat images and estimating suspended particulate matter concentrations. Processed images are used for preparing suspended sediment concentration maps. The applicability of this software package is demonstrated by estimating and plotting seasonal suspended sediment concentration maps off the Bengal delta. The software is flexible enough to accommodate other remotely sensed data like Ocean Color monitor (OCM) data, Indian Remote Sensing data (IRS), MODIS data etc. by replacing a few parameters in the algorithm, for estimating suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters.

  11. Particulate Matter over the Western Mediterranean sea: new insights gained from data collected during the 2011, 2012 and 2015 CNR research cruise campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Jessica; D'Amore, Francesco; Naccarato, Attilio; Moretti, Sacha; Mannarino, Valentino; Bencardino, Mariantonia; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean basin, due to its unique geographic position and its peculiar meteo-climatic conditions, appears to be an area with a relevant pollution load. Significant is the contribution of dense ship traffic and highly industrialized population centres surrounding the basin itself but a large influence is also due to geological sources like Saharan dust and volcanic ashes. The transport of both natural dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the marine environment involves considerable interest, not least for its potential impact on marine ecosystems, world climate and air quality. However, whereas there is already a large monitoring database measuring air pollution at surface land-based sites and in ports, there is a relatively little information on atmospheric aerosol directly measured at sea. In order to fill in the gap of observations in the Mediterranean basin and to gain more insight into the atmospheric dynamical and chemical mechanisms leading to high surface Particulate Matter (PM) levels, the Institute of Atmospheric Pollution of the National Research Council (CNR-IIA), since 2003, has started regular ship-borne measurements over the Mediterranean Sea. In the present work we will specifically focus on PM observations obtained, travelling on the sea, during three cruise campaigns performed during autumn 2011, summer 2012 and summer 2015, along different tracks and almost covering the Western Mediterranean sector. We specifically recorded two, gravimetrically determined, PM size fraction mass concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10), whose major and trace elemental composition was subsequently obtained by chemical analysis with an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Overall, we obtained 40 days of data observations whose analysis contributes to investigate the causes of aerosol pollution in this area. Data on PM mass concentrations showed a quite high variability ranging from 10.5 to 38.8 μg.m-3 for the PM10, and from 5.5 to 29.7 μg.m-3 for

  12. Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Peter J; Tisherman, Samuel A

    2002-04-01

    'Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation' is a new concept for attempting resuscitation from cardiac arrest of patients who currently (totally or temporarily) cannot be resuscitated, such as traumatic exsanguination cardiac arrest. Suspended animation means preservation of the viability of brain and organism during cardiac arrest, until restoration of stable spontaneous circulation or prolonged artificial circulation is possible. Suspended animation for exsanguination cardiac arrest of trauma victims would have to be induced within the critical first 5 min after the start of cardiac arrest no-flow, to buy time for transport and resuscitative surgery (hemostasis) performed during no-flow. Cardiac arrest is then reversed with all-out resuscitation, usually requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Suspended animation has been explored and documented as effective in dogs in terms of long-term survival without brain damage after very prolonged cardiac arrest. In the 1990s, the Pittsburgh group achieved survival without brain damage in dogs after cardiac arrest of up to 90 min no-flow at brain (tympanic) temperature of 10 degrees C, with functionally and histologically normal brains. These studies used emergency cardiopulmonary bypass with heat exchanger or a single hypothermic saline flush into the aorta, which proved superior to pharmacologic strategies. For the large number of normovolemic sudden cardiac death victims, which currently cannot be resuscitated, more research in large animals is needed.

  13. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.

    2003-04-01

    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  14. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  15. Instability and Turbulence of Propagating Particulate Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, S.

    2015-11-01

    Propagation of particle-laden fluid into an ambient is a common fluid mechanical process that can be observed in many industrial and environmental applications. Sedimentation fronts, volcanic plumes, dust storms, powder snow avalanches, submarine turbidity currents, explosive powder dispersal and supernovae offer fascinating examples of advancing particulate fronts. The propagating interface can undergo Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and double-diffusive instabilities and result in the formation of lobes and clefts, spikes and bubbles, and particulate fingers. The interplay between suspended particles and turbulence is often complex due to interaction of competing mechanisms. In problems such as turbidity currents, turbulence controls sediment concentration through resuspension and settling of particles at the bed. Also, turbulent entrainment at the propagating front is observed to be influenced by the sediments. Stable stratification due to suspended sediment concentration can damp and even kill turbulence. This complex turbulence-sediment interaction offers possible explanation for massive sediment deposits observed in nature. The talk will also address challenges and recent advancements in the modeling and simulation of such particle-laden turbulent flows.

  16. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part thereof during a particular period of time specified in the rule. ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means to...

  17. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celo V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs, in particular platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rh, from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM is important for the estimation of potential risks to human health and to the ecosystem. The aim of this study is to present the first results from an analysis on the concentration and distribution of Pt, Pd and Rh in PM collected on Teflon filters at two selected urban sites (Toronto, Ontario; Edmonton, Alberta collected within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network. In this work, a quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, combined with microwave assisted acid digestion using aqua regia was used. A cation exchange separation was used to alleviate the matrix-induced spectral and nonspectral interferences prior to ICP-MS analysis. To obtain sufficient material needed for PGEs analysis, fine PM (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm; PM2.5 and coarse PM (with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 mm; PM10-2.5 samples were combined into composite samples on a seasonal basis. The obtained results will be discussed and compared with literature data.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of particulate organic matter in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal waters illustrated by amino acid enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Zongguang; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Zhuoyi; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    Total suspended matter (TSM) was collected in the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent areas of the East China Sea in July, August, and November 2011, to study the composition and fate of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) during an August typhoon event and bottom trawling activities. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), and hydrolyzable particulate amino acids (PAA, D- and L-enantiomers) were higher during July and August than during November; however, D-arginine and alanine levels were significantly higher in November. Seasonal trends in the composition of PAAs indicate that in situ production is a key factor in their temporal distribution. No significant increase in TSM or decrease in labile organic matter was observed during the transit period following a typhoon event in August. In contrast, higher primary production was observed at this time as a result of the penetration of Changjiang Diluted Water caused by the typhoon event. Trawling effects were studied by comparing the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November) at similar sampling sites. The effect of trawling on the composition of bottom organic matter was studied by comparing D-amino acids concentrations and C/N ratios in the calm season (July) with the bottom-trawling period (November). A substantial contribution of microbial organic matter during the November cruise was indicated by a decrease in glutamic acid, an increase in TSM and D-alanine, and a lower carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio. In shallow coastal regions, anthropogenic activities (bottom trawling) may enhance the transfer of low-nutritional-value particulate organic matter into the benthic food chain.

  19. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  20. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of suspension of... Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to suspend a currently approved information collection, the Agricultural...

  1. Monitoring Gaseous and Particulate Air Pollutants near Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air pollutants such as CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2, H2S) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were determined using an active sampler for both dry and wet seasons. The results shows concentration of CO in the urban air ranging from 1.58 – 8.50 ppm during the dry season and 1.22 – 25.75 ppm for wet season, while CO2 ...

  2. CORRELATION BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... Measurement of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out with a view to establish the potential influence of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and global radiation on the mass concentration. Particulate matter (PM) in two size ...

  3. On the Impact of Particulate Matter Distribution on Pressure Drop of Wall-Flow Particulate Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Bermúdez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wall-flow particulate filters are a required exhaust aftertreatment system to abate particulate matter emissions and meet current and incoming regulations applying worldwide to new generations of diesel and gasoline internal combustion engines. Despite the high filtration efficiency covering the whole range of emitted particle sizes, the porous substrate constitutes a flow restriction especially relevant as particulate matter, both soot and ash, is collected. The dependence of the resulting pressure drop, and hence the fuel consumption penalty, on the particulate matter distribution along the inlet channels is discussed in this paper taking as reference experimental data obtained in water injection tests before the particulate filter. This technique is demonstrated to reduce the particulate filter pressure drop without negative effects on filtration performance. In order to justify these experimental data, the characteristics of the particulate layer are diagnosed applying modeling techniques. Different soot mass distributions along the inlet channels are analyzed combined with porosity change to assess the new properties after water injection. Their influence on the subsequent soot loading process and regeneration is assessed. The results evidence the main mechanisms of the water injection at the filter inlet to reduce pressure drop and boost the interest for control strategies able to force the re-entrainment of most of the particulate matter towards the inlet channels’ end.

  4. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  5. Temporal variability and spatial distribution of suspended matter and organic C pool in the Zambezi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoru, Cristian R.; Bouillon, Steven; Borges, Alberto V.; Darchambeau, François; Nyoni, Frank C.; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2014-05-01

    It is increasingly recognized that rivers are active components of global carbon (C) cycling, able of processing, emitting into atmosphere, and transporting to the oceans large quantities of both organic and inorganic carbon derived from the surrounding terrestrial landscape. Although tropical rivers contribute with more than half to the global freshwater discharge to the oceans, there is surprisingly little information on biogeochemistry and C cycling of those systems, especially for Africa. As part of a broader study on the biogeochemistry of large African river basins, we present here data on temporal and spatial variability of total suspended matter (TSM), particulate (POC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) in the Zambezi River (length = 2900 km, catchment area > 1.4 million km2, annual discharge ~ 4150 m3/s) in relation to physico-chemical proprieties (conductivity, oxygen, pH, total alkalinity), bacterial respiration, primary production and net aquatic metabolism. Data were collected along the entire river stretch during 2012 and 2013, and over 2 climatic (dry and wet) seasons to constrain the interannual variability, seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of the investigated parameters, and at two monitoring stations: one on the Zambezi mainstream, and one on the Kafue River (major tributary of the Zambezi; total length ~ 1900 km, catchment ~ 156, 000 km2, annual discharge = 350 m3/s), both located several km upstream their confluence. During the two sampled years, TSM concentrations varied from 1.6 mg/L to 110 mg/L (mean 17 in 2012 and 29 mg/L in 2013) and were systematically higher in the river mainstream (mean 21 mg/L and 36 mg/L in 2012 and 2013, respectively) compared to both reservoirs (the Kariba and the Cahora Bassa) where TSM concentrations average 2.5 mg/L. Despite the disturbance along the aquatic continuum caused by the presence of the two man-made reservoirs, a distinct longitudinal pattern was observed during both years, with TSM increasing

  6. Plutonium removal and diurnal variations of suspended sediment concentrations in the Great Miami River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobula, III, C. M.; Kennedy, C. W.; Bartelt, G. E.

    1979-01-15

    Effluent release experiments previously conducted downstream of the industrial outflal at Mound Laboratory have demonstrated that /sup 238/Pu which enters the aquatic environment as dissolved waste is rapidly adsorbed by suspended solids in the effluent pulse and that the dissolved/particulate distribution of /sup 238/Pu between release events congruent to 5 x 10/sup -2/./sup 3/ Reasonable estimates of the annual transport of /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu based upon long-term discharge and sediment loading data have been reported for a large subwatershed in the upper reaches of the Great Miami River Basin. In this report data are given which characterize the short-term variability of suspended particulate transport downriver of a canal system contaminated with /sup 238/Pu.

  7. Geochemistry of the suspended sediment in the estuaries of the Mandovi and Zuari rivers, central west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessarkar, Pratima M; Shynu, R; Rao, V Purnachandra; Chong, Feng; Narvekar, Tanuja; Zhang, Jing

    2013-05-01

    The geochemistry of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected during the monsoon was determined to identify the sources of SPM and to understand the physicochemical processes in the Mandovi and Zuari river estuaries. The concentrations of SPM decrease seaward in both estuaries, but are relatively high at bay stations. Kaolinite is the most dominant clay mineral in the upstream of both rivers. Smectite increases seaward in both estuaries and is abundant in the bay. Upstream stations of Mandovi, where ore deposits are stored on the shore, exhibit high Fe, Mn, total rare earth elements (∑REE), and middle REE- and heavy REE-enriched patterns. Channel stations of both estuaries exhibit middle REE- and light REE-enriched patterns, which gradually changed seaward to middle REE- and heavy REE-enriched patterns. Canal stations exhibit the highest concentrations of major and trace metals. High metal/Al ratios occur at stations in the upstream of Zuari and at the confluence of canals in the Mandovi estuary. Enrichment factors of metals indicate that Mn is significantly polluted while other metals are moderately polluted. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N of organic matter indicate that the terrigenous organic matter at the upstream is diluted seaward by marine organic matter. Organic matter at bay stations is largely marine and altered-type. The compositions of SPM are controlled by the particulates from ore dust, the geology of the drainage basins, and the physicochemical processes in the estuaries. Particulates resuspended from the bay are dominated by ore dust, which are advected into the channels of both estuaries during the lull periods of the monsoon.

  8. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto, E-mail: ealfaro.incan@gmail.com [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Torres, Victor [Departamento Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Miranda, Javier [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisca, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Martinez, Leticia [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, I.P.N. (Mexico); Rosas, Irma [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Nemery, Benoit [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 {mu}g/mL) or silica (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM{sub 10} presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM{sub 2.5}. In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  9. Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 High-Volume Filter Sampling: Atmospheric Particulate Matter of an Amazon Tropical City and its Relationship to Population Health Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, C. M. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Santos, Erickson O. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Fernandes, Karenn S. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Neto, J. L. [Federal Univ. of Amazonas (Brazil); Souza, Rodrigo A. [Univ. of the State of Amazonas (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Manaus, the capital of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, is developing very rapidly. Its pollution plume contains aerosols from fossil fuel combustion mainly due to vehicular emission, industrial activity, and a thermal power plant. Soil resuspension is probably a secondary source of atmospheric particles. The plume transports from Manaus to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ARM site at Manacapuru urban pollutants as well as pollutants from pottery factories along the route of the plume. Considering the effects of particulate matter on health, atmospheric particulate matter was evaluated at this site as part of the ARM Facility’s Green Ocean Amazon 2014/15 (GoAmazon 2014/15) field campaign. Aerosol or particulate matter (PM) is typically defined by size, with the smaller particles having more health impact. Total suspended particulate (TSP) are particles smaller than 100 μm; particles smaller than 2.5 μm are called PM2.5. In this work, the PM2.5 levels were obtained from March to December of 2015, totaling 34 samples and TSP levels from October to December of 2015, totaling 17 samples. Sampling was conducted with PM2.5 and TSP high-volume samplers using quartz filters (Figure 1). Filters were stored during 24 hours in a room with temperature (21,1ºC) and humidity (44,3 %) control, in order to do gravimetric analyses by weighing before and after sampling. This procedure followed the recommendations of the Brazilian Association for Technical Standards local norm (NBR 9547:1997). Mass concentrations of particulate matter were obtained from the ratio between the weighted sample and the volume of air collected. Defining a relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5 and TSP) and respiratory diseases of the local population is an important goal of this project, since no information exists on that topic.

  10. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  11. Mutual relationships of suspended sediment, turbidity and visual clarity in New Zealand rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Ballantine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many river water quality monitoring programmes do not measure suspended particulate matter (SPM mass concentrations despite significant interest in its multiple effects on aquatic ecosystems. Regular monthly sampling usually intercepts rivers in baseflow when suspended sediment mass concentrations and fluxes are relatively low and not of particular interest. New Zealand’s National Rivers Water Quality Network (NRWQN is probably typical in not measuring SPM mass, although visual clarity and nephelometric turbidity are routinely measured. In order to better characterize SPM in NZ rivers, total suspended sediment (TSS was temporarily added to the NRWQN. Turbidity, visual clarity and TSS are mutually inter-related over all 77 sites, although with considerable data scatter. However, within individual rivers turbidity and visual clarity are typically fairly closely related to TSS and provide fair to excellent surrogates. Therefore, TSS need not be measured routinely because it can be estimated with sufficient precision for many purposes from visibility or turbidity.

  12. Review of total suspended particles (TSP) and PM2.5 concentration variations in Asia during the years of 1998-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Cho, Meng-Hsien; Huang, Chao-Yang; Xiao, You-Fu; Tsai, Kai-Hsiang

    2017-06-05

    In Asian countries such as China, Malaysia, Pakistan, India, Taiwan, Korea, Japan and Hong Kong, ambient air total suspended particulates and PM2.5 concentration data were collected and discussed during the years of 1998-2015 in this study. The aim of the present study was to (1) investigate and collect ambient air total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM2.5 concentrations for Asian countries during the past two decades. (2) Discuss, analyze and compare those particulates (TSP and PM2.5) annual concentration distribution trends among those Asian countries during the past two decades. (3) Test the mean concentration differences in TSP and PM2.5 among the Asian countries during the past decades. The results indicated that the mean TSP concentration order was shown as China > Malaysia > Pakistan > India > Taiwan > Korea > Japan. In addition, the mean PM2.5 concentration order was shown as Vietnam > India > China > Hong Kong > Mongolia > Korea > Taiwan > Japan and the average percentages of PM2.5 concentrations for Taiwan, China, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Mongolia and Other (India and Vietnam) were 8, 21, 6, 8, 14, 13 and 30%, respectively, during the past two decades. Moreover, t test results revealed that there were significant mean TSP and PM2.5 concentration differences for either China or India to any of the countries such as Taiwan, Korea and Japan in Asia during the past two decades for this study. Noteworthy, China and India are both occupied more than 60% of the TSP and PM2.5 particulates concentrations out of all the Asia countries. As for Taiwan, the average PM2.5 concentration displayed increasing trend in the years of 1998-1999. However, it showed decreasing trend in the years of 2000-2010. As for Korea, the average PM2.5 concentrations showed decreasing trend during the years of 2001-2013. Finally, the average PM2.5 concentrations for Mongolia displayed increasing trend in the years of 2004-2013.

  13. Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Brett R; Wooten, Kimberly J; Buser, Michael D; Johnson, Bradley J; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-07-21

    Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.

  14. Exposure assessment of particulate matter and blood chromium levels in people living near a cement plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Jae Bum; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2017-11-21

    This study evaluates the effect of air pollution caused by cement plants on nearby residential areas and performs an exposure assessment of particulate matter (PM) and total Cr, Cr(6+), Pb, and Al. Further, the blood Cr levels of residents exposed to PM released by cement plants are also assessed. Nine buildings (eight residential and one elementary school building) close to cement plants were selected for this study, which were located in Pyeongtaek port, in west of Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. A total of 51 suspended particulate samples were collected at a flow rate of 2.0 L/min. Total Cr was more widely detected in residents' houses and elementary schools. PM levels were higher at distances of 4.1 and 4.8 km than those at closer distances of 2.7 km. This was due to the influence of wind direction. The estimated mean blood level of Cr for the study participants was 3.80 μg/L, which is higher than levels estimated by other studies on Cr blood levels. Therefore, cement plants could cause an increase in total Cr and blood Cr levels in residential areas, and more continuous monitoring is necessary to better understand their impacts.

  15. Microorganisms associated particulate matter: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Mansour A; Shamy, Magdy; Redal, Maria Ana; Khoder, Mamdouh; Awad, Abdel Hameed; Elserougy, Safaa

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to determine the microbiological quality of particulate matter (PM) in an urban area in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during December 2012 to April 2013. This was achieved by the determination of airborne bacteria, fungi, and actinobacteria associated PM10 and PM2.5, as well as their relationships with gaseous pollutants, O3, SO2 and NO2, and meteorological factors (T°C, RH% and Ws). High volume samplers with PM10 and PM2.5 selective sizes, and glass fiber filters were used to collect PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. The filters were suspended in buffer phosphate and aliquots were spread plated onto the surfaces of trypticase soy agar, malt extract agar, and starch casein agar media for counting of bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria-associated PM, respectively. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations averaged 159.9 μg/m(3) and 60 μg/m(3), respectively, with the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 averaged ~0.4. The concentrations of O3, SO2 and NO2 averaged 35.73 μg/m(3), 38.1μg/m(3) and 52.5 μg/m(3), respectively. Fungi and actinobacteria associated PM were found in lower concentrations than bacteria. The sum of microbial loads was higher in PM10 than PM2.5, however a significant correlation (r=0.57, P ≤ 0.05) was found between the sum of microbial loads associated PM10 and PM2.5. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger were the common fungal types associated PM. Temperature significantly correlated with both PM10 (r=0.44), and PM2.5 (r=0.5). Significant negative correlations were found between O3 and PM2.5 (r=-0.47), and between SO2 with PM10 (r=-0.48). Wind speed positively correlated with airborne microorganisms associated PM. The regression model showed that the inverse PM2.5 concentration (1/PM2.5) was a significant determinant of fungal count associated PM. Chemical processes and environmental factors could affect properties of PM and in turn its biological quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Determining annual suspended sediment and sediment-associated trace element and nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Suspended sediment is a major factor in the biological and geochemical cycling of trace elements and nutrients in aquatic systems. The design of effective studies involving the collection, processing, and subsequent chemical analysis of suspended sediment requires a clear understanding of the problems associated with using this sample medium. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge relative to the various issues/problems associated with the collection of representative suspended sediment samples in fluvial systems. It also addresses issues associated with accurately determining the concentrations and fluxes of sediment-associated trace elements and nutrients.

  17. Rippling instabilities in suspended nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Upmanyu, Moneesh

    2012-11-01

    Morphology mediates the interplay between the structure and electronic transport in atomically thin nanoribbons such as graphene as the relaxation of edge stresses occurs preferentially via out-of-plane deflections. In the case of end-supported suspended nanoribbons that we study here, past experiments and computations have identified a range of equilibrium morphologies, in particular, for graphene flakes, yet a unified understanding of their relative stability remains elusive. Here, we employ atomic-scale simulations and a composite framework based on isotropic elastic plate theory to chart out the morphological stability space of suspended nanoribbons with respect to intrinsic (ribbon elasticity) and engineered (ribbon geometry) parameters, and the combination of edge and body actuation. The computations highlight a rich morphological shape space that can be naturally classified into two competing shapes, bendinglike and twistlike, depending on the distribution of ripples across the interacting edges. The linearized elastic framework yields exact solutions for these rippled shapes. For compressive edge stresses, the body strain emerges as a key variable that controls their relative stability and in extreme cases stabilizes coexisting transverse ripples. Tensile edge stresses lead to dimples within the ribbon core that decay into the edges, a feature of obvious significance for stretchable nanoelectronics. The interplay between geometry and mechanics that we report should serve as a key input for quantifying the transport along these ribbons.

  18. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  19. Particulate carbohydrates in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Wagh, A.B.

    Particulate carbohydrate (PECHO) was measured for 183 samples collected from 8 depths at 23 stations. The (PCHO) concentrations varied from 22 to 125 mu g.l-1 (x bar = 52.42 plus or minus 19.56 mu g.l-1 at the surface and decreased from 4.6 to 47...

  20. Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh

    2016-04-01

    Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and

  1. Study by {alpha}-particle scattering, of the collective states of closed shell nuclei with 28 neutrons, 28 and 50 protons; Etude des etats a caractere collectif des noyaux au voisinage des couches fermees par diffusion inelastique des particules {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruge, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-01-01

    This report gives the results from a systematic study by 44 MeV {alpha} particle scattering on the collective states of closed shell nuclei with 28 neutrons, 28 and 50 protons especially in the energy region corresponding to the two phonon vibrational triplet. The nuclei studied are: {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn and {sup 124}Sn. The theoretical analysis has been made with the Austern and Blair model using a phase shift analysis of the elastic scattering. Deformation lengths {delta}{sub I} = {beta}{sub I}R and transition probabilities obtained are compared with several experimental and theoretical data. (author) [French] Ce rapport donne les resultats d'une etude systematique par diffusion de particules {alpha} de 44 MeV des etats collectifs des noyaux au voisinage des couches fermees a 28 neutrons et 28 et 50 protons, specialement dans la region correspondant au triplet vibrationnel a deux phonons. Les noyaux etudies sont: {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn et {sup 124}Sn. L'analyse theorique a ete faite a l'aide du modele de Austern et Blair utilisant une analyse en dephasages de la diffusion elastique. Les longueurs de deformation {delta}I = {beta}{sub I}R obtenues pour chaque niveau sont comparees a plusieurs donnees experimentales et theoriques. (auteur)

  2. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container ({approx}100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide

  3. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using fingerprinting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Neal, C.; Anders, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook and Wildcat Slough sub-watersheds from six potential sources: row-crop agriculture, forest, floodplains, river banks, pastures, and grasslands. Event-based suspended sediment samples were collected by in situ suspended sediment samplers and ISCO automatic pump samplers from the streams. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an unmixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from six potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from channel banks and forest adjacent to meandering reaches in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland areas adjacent to channelized rivers in the low

  4. Turbulence control of suspended matter aggregate size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.; Rippeth, T. P.; Simpson, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    The size and properties of the aggregates which comprise suspended particulate matter (SPM) change on short time and length scales in shelf seas. There is experimental and theoretical evidence to suggest that turbulence plays a key role in aggregation but there is contradictory evidence with respect to disaggregation: it has been proposed that sinking stresses, rather than turbulent stresses, are the dominant control of disaggregation. But there is little observational evidence for turbulence control of particle properties. New observations are presented which provide compelling evidence for turbulence control of both aggregation and disaggregation. TKE dissipation and particle size were measured in situ at stratified sites in the northern North Sea in 110 m water depth during the period of weakening of the seasonal thermocline (in October/November) and in the Clyde Sea in 55 m water depth (April). There were similar vertical distributions of TKE dissipation E, SPM concentration C, and particle size D at both sites. At the base of the thermocline, there were minima in E and C, but a maximum in D, indicating that enhanced aggregation was occurring in this region of low turbulent stress. In the bottom mixed layer, E and C increased, while D decreased due to disaggregation in this region of increasing turbulent stress towards the seabed. Particles settling out of the low stress region at the base of the thermocline began to disaggregate when E increased to 3.2x10-6 watts m-2. D did not correlate directly with E because aggregation is a function of collision frequency (and hence of both C and E): this can be accounted for using a simplified theoretical aggregation model which treats flocs as self-similar fractal entities and allows simultaneous floc formation and break up, specified as functions of C and E. It was found that in the northern North Sea the measured D represents an equilibrium size predicted by the model, while in the Clyde Sea tidal variation in both C

  5. The fluvial flux of particulate organic matter from the UK : quantifying in-stream losses and carbon sinks.

    OpenAIRE

    Worrall, F; Burt, T.P.; Howden, N.J.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers records of fluvial suspended sediment concentration and its organic matter content from across the United Kingdom from 1974 to 2010. Suspended sediment, mineral concentration and river flow data were used to estimate the particulate organic matter (POM) concentration and flux. Median annual POM flux from the UK was 1596 ktonnes/yr. The POM concentration significantly declined after the European Commission’s Urban Wastewater Directive was adopted in 1991 although the POM f...

  6. Particulate trace metals in Cochin backwaters: Distribution of seasonal indices

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Joseph, T.

    A seasonal analysis of particulate trace metals, viz. iron, manganese, zinc, copper, cobalt and nickel collected from 4 stations in Cochin backwaters are presented. The spatial trend for cobalt, iron and nickel was stationary at surface whereas...

  7. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  8. Univers de Particules

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2010-01-01

    Dans l’Univers, tout est fait de particules. Mais d’où viennent-elles? Quelle est l’origine des lois de la nature? Au rez-de-chaussée du Globe de la science et de l’innovation, l’exposition permanente « Univers de particules » vous invite à un voyage vers le Big Bang en explorant le CERN. Avec à la clé des réponses aux questions: pourquoi cette recherche ? Comment accélérer des particules ? Comment les détecter ? Quelles sont les théories sur la matière et sur l’Univers aujourd’hui ? Quelles retombées pour notre vie quotidienne ?

  9. Determination of heavy metals concentrations in airborne particulates matter (APM) from Manjung district, Perak using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Nursyairah; Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Airborne particulates trace metals are considered as public health concern as it can enter human lungs through respiratory system. Generally, any substance that has been introduced to the atmosphere that can cause severe effects to living things and the environment is considered air pollution. Manjung, Perak is one of the development districts that is active with industrial activities. There are many industrial activities surrounding Manjung District area such as coal fired power plant, quarries and iron smelting which may contribute to the air pollution into the environment. This study was done to measure the concentrations of Hg, U, Th, K, Cu, Fe, Cr, Zn, As, Se, Pb and Cd in the Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) collected at nine locations in Manjung District area within 15 km radius towards three directions (North, North-East and South-East) in 5 km intervals. The samples were collected using mini volume air sampler with cellulose filter through total suspended particulate (TSP). The sampler was set up for eight hours with the flow rate of 5 L/min. The filter was weighed before and after sample collection using microbalance, to get the amount of APM and kept in desiccator before analyzing. The measurement was done using calibrated Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. The air particulate concentrations were found below the Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines for TSP (260 µg/m3). All of the metals concentrations were also lower than the guidelines set by World Health Organization (WHO), Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Argonne National Laboratory, USA NCRP (1975). From the concentrations, the enrichment factor were calculated.

  10. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  11. Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based on cost, reliability, robustness, accuracy, sample volume, susceptibility to biological fouling, and suitable range of mass concentration and particle size distribution. In situ turbidimeters are widely used. They provide reliable data where the point measurements can be reliably correlated to the river's mean cross section concentration value, effects of biological fouling can be minimized, and concentrations remain below the sensor's upper measurement limit. In situ laser diffraction instruments have similar limitations and can cost 6 times the approximate $5000 purchase price of a turbidimeter. However, laser diffraction instruments provide volumetric-concentration data in 32 size classes. Pressure differential instruments measure mass density in a water column, thus integrating substantially more streamflow than a point measurement. They are designed for monitoring medium-to-large concentrations, are generally unaffected by biological fouling, and cost about the same as a turbidimeter. However, their performance has been marginal in field applications. Acoustic Doppler profilers use acoustic backscatter to measure suspended sediment concentrations in orders of magnitude more streamflow than do instruments that rely on point measurements. The technology is relatively robust and generally immune to effects of biological fouling. Cost of a single-frequency device is about double that of a turbidimeter. Multifrequency arrays also provide the potential to resolve concentrations by clay silt versus sand size fractions. Multifrequency hydroacoustics shows the most promise for revolutionizing collection of continuous

  12. Temporal variations of source impacts at the receptor, as derived from air particulate monitoring data in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D.; Binh, N.T.; Truong, Y.; Ngo, N.T. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Hanoi (Vietnam)

    1999-08-01

    The paper applied varimax rotation factor analysis to monthly concentrations of elements in total suspended air particulate (TSP) matter in Ho Chi Minh City collected from December 1992 to November 1996, covering four dry/rainy seasons. Six pollution source types were revealed. Resuspended soil/road dust accounts for 74% of the TSP mass loading. Motor vehicles and a source which emits particulates containing arsenic account for 10% and 9% respectively. There are three minor sources namely, cement dust from the nearby construction site, road dust of local traffic origin and burning emissions. The contributions from these sources were estimated with high uncertainties. The interpretation of sources was corroborated by studying source profiles and temporal variations of source contributions. The monthly variations of source contributions at the receptor were modelled by using source apportionment techniques. From the variation patterns, emission scenarios for burning, construction and motor vehicle sources were reproduced. No seasonal change was found for the As-containing particulates, suggesting a speculation on their origin as coal fly ash emitting from any local coal burning source.

  13. Temporal variability of particulate organic carbon in the lower Changjiang (Yangtze River) in the post-Three Gorges Dam period: Links to anthropogenic and climate impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Bao, Hongyan; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Jing; Kattner, Gerhard

    2015-11-01

    Suspended particles from the lower Changjiang were collected monthly from 2003 to 2011, which corresponds to the three construction periods of the Three Gorges Dam. Organic carbon (%OC), organic carbon to total nitrogen molar ratio, stable carbon isotope, and terrestrial biomarkers were examined. Rating curve studies were applied for the temporal trend analysis. The composition of particulate lignin phenols exhibited clear annual and periodic variations but only minor seasonal changes. Lignin phenol ratios (vanillyl/syringyl and cinnamyl/vanillyl) indicated that the terrigenous organic matter (OM) was primarily composed of woody and nonwoody tissue derived from angiosperm plants. The low-lignin phenol yields (Λ8) in combination with higher acid to aldehyde ratios reflected a substantial contribution from soil OM to the particle samples or modifications during river transport. The temporal shift of the lignin phenol vegetation index with the sediment load during the flood seasons revealed particulate organic matter (POM) erosion from soils and the impact of hydrodynamic processes. The dam operations affected the seasonal variability of terrigenous OM fluxes, although the covariation of lignin and sediment loads with discharged water implies that unseasonal extreme conditions and climate change most likely had larger influences, because decreases in the sediment load and lignin flux alter the structure and composition of particulate OM (POM) on interannual time scales, indicating that they may be driven by climate variability. The modification of the composition and structure of POM will have significant impacts on regional carbon cycles and marine ecosystems.

  14. Particle size distribution of suspended solids in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and adjacent shelf waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, M. R.; Oertel, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of suspended solids, including total suspended matter, total suspended inorganics, total suspended organics, particle size distribution, and the presence of the ten most prominent particle types were determined. Four research vessels simultaneously collected samples along four transects. Samples were collected within a 2-hour period that coincided with the maximum ebb penetration of Chesapeake Bay outwelling. The distribution of primary and secondary particle size modes indicate the presence of a surface or near-surface plume, possibly associated with three sources: (1) runoff, (2) resuspension of material within the Bay, and/or (3) resuspension of material in the area of shoals at the Bay mouth. Additional supportive evidence for this conclusion is illustrated with ocean color scanner data.

  15. 76 FR 39377 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the July Sheep and Goat Survey, and Postpone the Renewal of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the July Sheep and Goat Survey, and... Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to suspend one currently approved information collection, (July Sheep...: Suspension of July Sheep and Goat Survey and postponement of Census of Aquaculture and TOTAL surveys. OMB...

  16. 76 FR 78610 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Nursery Production, the Nursery and Floriculture Chemical Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Nursery Production, the Nursery... Service (NASS) to suspend currently approved information collections for all Nursery and Christmas Tree Production Surveys along with the Nursery and Floriculture Chemical Use Survey approved under OMB 0535-0244...

  17. Influence of microorganism content in suspended particles on the particle–water partitioning of mercury in semi-enclosed coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiyi [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Global Bioresources Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyunji [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seunghee, E-mail: shan@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    It is known that particle scavenging of mercury (Hg) can be affected by the abundance of particulate organic matter in coastal waters. However, the role of living organic particles in Hg scavenging is not yet completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that an abundance of living organic particles (i.e., phytoplankton and bacteria) would influence the particle–water partitioning of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight stations in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, in three seasons (November 2009, April 2010, and October 2010) for the determination of concentrations of suspended particulate matter (including chlorophyll-a and bacteria), and Hg in unfiltered and filtered waters. We found that more Hg partitioned toward particulate matter when phytoplankton biomass, indicated from the chlorophyll-a concentration in a particle, was higher. In the low algal season, when [chlorophyll-a] < 0.6 μg L{sup −1}, the bacterial number, instead of chlorophyll-a concentration in particle, showed a positive correlation with the particle–water partition coefficient of Hg. Overall, microbial abundance seems to play a critical role in particle scavenging of Hg in coastal water. Taking this result in light of Hg in pristine coastal zones, we predict that increases in algal biomass amplify the potential for algae to transfer Hg to marine food chains. - Highlights: • Abundance of phytoplankton and bacteria influenced particle–water partitioning of Hg. • More Hg partitioned toward particles when microorganism biomass in particle is large. • Increases of algal biomass may enhance Hg bioaccumulation in coastal ecosystem.

  18. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  19. Suspended-sediment loads and reservoir sediment trap efficiency for Clinton Lake, Kansas, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2012, at a site upstream and downstream from Clinton Lake, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from the reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is inhibiting the ability of Clinton Lake to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The inflow suspended-sediment load was substantially larger than the outflow load and most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. Respectively, the total 2-year inflow and outflow suspended-sediment loads were computed to be 44.4 and 1.49 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 97 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 60,500 pounds per square mile. Because this study was completed during a drought, the estimated inflow suspended-sediment load and suspended-sediment yield likely are substantially less than what would occur during a period of average or above average precipitation and runoff.

  20. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  1. Influences of suspended particles on the runoff of pesticides from an agricultural field at Askim, SE-Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Riise, G; Lundekvam, H; Mulder, J; Haugen, L E

    2004-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to study the loss of particles from agricultural fields, and the role of suspended particles in carrying pesticides in surface runoff and drainage water. Propiconazole, a widely used fungicide was applied to experimental fields located at Askim, SE-Norway. Samples from surface runoff and drainage water were collected and analyzed for sediment mass, pesticides, particulate and dissolved organic carbon through a whole year. The surface soil and the runoff material were characterized by its particle size distribution, organic carbon content in size fractions and its ability to bind propiconazole. The results show that (1) particle runoff mostly occurred during the rainfall event shortly after harrowing in autumn. The highest particle concentration observed in the surface runoff water was 4600 mg l(-1), and in the drainage water 1130 mg l(-1); (2) the erosion of surface soil is size selective. The runoff sediment contained finer particle/aggregates rich in organic matter compared to its original surface soil; (3) the distribution coefficient (Kd) of propiconazole was significantly higher in the runoff sediment than in the parent soil. According to our calculation, particle-bound propiconazole can represent up to 23% of the total amount of propiconazole in a water sample with a sediment concentration of 7600 mg l(-1), which will significantly influence the transport behavior of the pesticide.

  2. Characterization of functional groups of airborne particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitimirova, M.; Katkevics, J.; Baumane, L.; Bakis, E.; Viksna, A.

    2013-12-01

    Particulate matter of organic combustibles burning consists of various hydrocarbons and radicals, which may cause harmful impact to human health. In this study solid particulate matter were collected on the filters from burning of various combustibles in a burning chamber and from atmosphere of city of Riga by dichotomous impactor. FTIR spectra were obtained before and after samples' treatment. Absorptions associated with aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohol functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra. Free radicals of particulate matter were detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  3. Characterization of streamflow, suspended sediment, and nutrients entering Galveston Bay from the Trinity River, Texas, May 2014–December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Zulimar; Lee, Michael T.

    2017-02-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board and the Galveston Bay Estuary Program, collected streamflow and water-quality data at USGS streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Trinity River watershed from May 2014 to December 2015 to characterize and improve the current understanding of the quantity and quality of freshwater inflow entering Galveston Bay from the Trinity River. Continuous streamflow records at four USGS streamflow-gaging stations were compared to quantify differences in streamflow magnitude between upstream and downstream reaches of the lower Trinity River. Water-quality conditions were characterized from discrete nutrient and sedi­ment samples collected over a range of hydrologic conditions at USGS streamflow-gaging station 08067252 Trinity River at Wallisville, Tex. (hereinafter referred to as the “Wallisville site”), approximately 4 river miles upstream from where the Trinity River enters Galveston Bay.Based on streamflow records, annual mean outflow from Livingston Dam into the lower Trinity River was 2,240 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in 2014 and 22,400 ft3/s in 2015, the second lowest and the highest, respectively, during the entire period of record (1966–2015). During this study, only about 54 percent of the total volume measured at upstream sites was accounted for at the Wallisville site as the Trinity River enters Galveston Bay. This difference in water volumes between upstream sites and the Wallisville site indicates that at high flows a large part of the volume released from Lake Livingston does not reach Galveston Bay through the main channel of the Trinity River. These findings indicate that water likely flows into wetlands and water bodies surrounding the main channel of the Trinity River before reaching the Wallisville site and is being stored or discharged through other channels that flow directly into Galveston Bay.To characterize suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in

  4. [Modulatory Effect of Mouse Compact Bone-derived Suspending MSC on T Cells and It's Related Mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wu, Wen-Qing; Ding, Li; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Mao, Ning; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Heng; Ning, Shou-Bin

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the modulatory effect of the MSC derived from low attaching culture systems (suspending MSC) on T lymphocytes and the related mechanisms. The suspending MSC were generated from mouse compact bones by using low attaching plates and adherent cell culture flasks, respectively. The morphology of suspending MSC was observed under the inverted microscope and the cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Further, the surface antigen profile of MSC was analyzed with flow cytometry. In addition, the culture medium (CM) of suspending MSC and adherent MSC was collected and added into the activated T cell cultures before detection of the proliferation by CFSE assay. Moreover, the modulaory effects of the CM on the T cell-derived cytokines were detected by quantitative PCR. Also, the mRNA expression of cytokines of MSC was detected. The suspending MSC grew in floating cell spheres and differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes in the induction medium. Furthermore, the suspending MSC shared the typical immuno-phenotype with their adherent counterparts. In addition, the results of CFSE assay demonstrated that suspending MSC derived CM suppressed ConA induced T cell proliferation. The results of quantitative PCR revealed that suspending MSC expressed transforming factor β1 and interleukin-6 at a higher level and suppressed the T cell expressing interferon γ and interleukine-17A. The suspending MSC exerted an unique modulatoy effect on T cells, which is quite different to adherent MSC.

  5. Filtration and resuspension of particulate matter and phytoplankton on an intertidal mussel bed in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, T.C.; Smaal, A.C.; Pouwer, A.J.; Dankers, N.

    1996-01-01

    In situ measurements were carried out on an intertidal mussel bed in the Oosterschelde estuary, SW Netherlands. Exchange of suspended particulate matter and phytoplankton between the water column and the mussel bed was measured with a Benthic Ecosystem Tunnel. In situ clearance rates of the mussel

  6. [Distribution characteristics of particulate mercury in aerosol in coastal city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-Wang; Zhao, Jin-Ping; Chen, Jin-Sheng; Xu, Ya

    2010-10-01

    Particulate mercury, which is bound with aerosol in atmosphere, has a negative impact on human health and the environment, also plays an important role in the biogeochemical process of mercury. In this paper, taking southeast coastal city of Xiamen as research object, the PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were collected in residential, tourism, industrial area and background, respectively, during four seasons (October 2008-September 2009). RA-915 + mercury analyzer was employed to determinate mercury concentration in different size particle matters based on zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that the contents of particulate mercury in different size of aerosol during Winter, Spring were obviously higher than that of Summer, Autumn; the concentrations of particulate mercury in fine particle during Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter were (51.46 +/- 19.28), (42.41 +/- 12.74), (38.38 +/- 6.08) and (127.23 +/- 33.70) pg/m3, respectively. The experimental data showed that the particulate mercury were mainly distributed in fine particles (PM2.5), which covered 42.48%-67.87%, and it can be concluded that the rate of particulate mercury enrichment in coarse particle was much lower than that of fine particle. The sequence of atmospheric particulate mercury concentration in different functional areas was: background tourism < industrial area < suburban; which showed characteristics of spatial distribution of particulate mercury was affected by the sampling location. On the whole, Xiamen had a low level of atmospheric particulate mercury; the enrichment of PM2.5 to particulate mercury was significantly higher than that of PM10 and TSP, and showed that fine particle pollution should be tightly controlled to reduce particulate mercury.

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons and linear alkylbenzenes in the particulate phase from a subtropical estuary (Guaratuba Bay, SW Atlantic) under seasonal population fluctuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Martins, César C

    2015-12-01

    Guaratuba Bay, a subtropical estuary located in the SW Atlantic, is under variable anthropogenic pressure throughout the year. Samples of surficial suspended particulate matter (SPM) were collected at 22 sites during three different periods to evaluate the temporal and spatial variability of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). These compounds were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The spatial distributions of both compound classes were similar and varied among the sampling campaigns. Generally, the highest concentrations were observed during the austral summer, highlighting the importance of the increased human influence during this season. The compound distributions were also affected by the natural geochemical processes of organic matter accumulation. AHs were associated with petroleum, derived from boat and vehicle traffic, and biogenic sources, related to mangrove forests and autochthonous production. The LAB composition evidenced preferential degradation processes during the austral summer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  9. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using conservative and non-conservative tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Stumpf, A.

    2015-12-01

    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois, USA. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook from five potential sources: farmland, forests, floodplains, river banks, and grasslands. Event-based and accumulated suspended sediment samples were collected by ISCO automatic pump samplers and in situ suspended sediment samplers and from the stream at watershed outlet. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an un-mixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from five potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Organic matter content, trace elements, and radionuclides from soil samples were used as potential tracers. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from floodplains in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland

  10. Microbial biomass on particulate organic matter in seawater of the euphotic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, H

    1970-06-01

    Microbial biomass on suspended organic matter in seawater of the euphotic zone of Saanich Inlet was investigated. The viable microorganisms were measured by the glucose-uptake method. Microbial carbon on particulate organic matter in seawater was determined to be, on the average, 9.9 mug of C/liter, and there was a regression relationship as y = 0.0062 x - 1.79 with an unbiased variance V(yx) = 0.38, where x = particulate organic carbon in seawater (micrograms of C/liter) and y = logarithm of microbial carbon (micrograms of C/liter).

  11. Intrauterine and Early Postnatal Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution and Kawasaki Disease: A Nationwide Longitudinal Survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsukahara, Hirokazu; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-04

    To examine the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to particulate matter on Kawasaki disease (KD) occurrence, using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan that began in 2010. Prenatal and postnatal suspended particulate matter concentrations were obtained at municipality level and assigned to participants based on their municipality of birth. We analyzed data from 30 367 participants with data on either exposure period. We used hospital admission for KD from 6 to 30 months of age as the main outcome of interest. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis, adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. Children who were exposed to higher levels of suspended particulate matter, in particular during pregnancy, were more likely to be hospitalized for KD. The ORs for ≥25 µg/m3 exposure compared with Japan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  13. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  14. Salinity and suspended matter variations in the Tay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John

    2005-03-01

    The concept of salinity-induced density layering in estuaries was first demonstrated from the upper reaches of the Tay. In this study the nature of the layering and its variation through the tidal cycle is demonstrated from time series of observations taken at many locations within this estuary. Thorough mixing of the waters on the rising tide, as defined by depth profiles of salinity, is commonly replaced by salinity layering during the high water slack period. This condition continues into the falling tide. Frequently the mixed waters are abruptly replaced by stratified waters within the half-hourly sampling interval. This is attributed to the activity of longitudinal fronts, manifest as surficial foam bands, along which water masses shear past each other on both the flood and ebb tides. Offsetting of transverse salinity coutours along the fronts is introduced to explain apparent complexities in surface water salinity distributions measured at high water slack. Suspended particulate matter concentrations increase towards the limit of the saline water intrusion before decreasing headwards into the freshwater zone of the estuary. The suspensions in the water column may also be displaced by the lateral offsetting of the waters along the fronts. The recognition of the presence of fronts, and a knowledge of their impact on the estuarine waters may provide an alternative means of understanding the flow characteristics of these challenging water bodies. The techniques of spatial and temporal averaging normally widely used today may not be the most realistic approach to analysis of the flows.

  15. DIII-D Dust Particulate Characterization (June 1998 Vent)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, William Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Dust is a key component of fusion power device accident source term. Understanding the amount of dust expected in fusion power devices and its physical and chemical characteristics is needed to verify assumptions currently used in safety analyses. An important part of this safety research and development work is to characterize dust from existing experimental tokamaks. In this report, we present the collection, data analysis methods used, and the characterization of dust particulate collected from various locations inside the General Atomics DIII-D vacuum vessel following the June 1998 vent. The collected particulate was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two methods were used to collect particulate with the goal of preserving the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of the particulate. Choice of collection technique is important because the sampling method used can bias the particle size distribution collected. Vacuum collection on substrates and adhesion removal with metallurgical replicating tape were chosen as non-intrusive sampling methods. Seventeen samples were collected including plasma facing surfaces in lower, upper, and horizontal locations, surfaces behind floor tiles, surfaces behind divertor tiles, and surfaces behind ceiling tiles. The results of the analysis are presented.

  16. DIII-D dust particulate characterization (June 1998 Vent)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Dust is a key component of fusion power device accident source term. Understanding the amount of dust expected in fusion power devices and its physical and chemical characteristics is needed to verify assumptions currently used in safety analyses. An important part of this safety research and development work is to characterize dust from existing experimental tokamaks. In this report, the authors present the collection, data analysis methods used, and the characterization of dust particulate collected from various locations inside the General Atomics DIII-D vacuum vessel following the June 1998 vent. The collected particulate was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two methods were used to collect particulate with the goal of preserving the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of the particulate. Choice of collection technique is important because the sampling method used can bias the particle size distribution collected. Vacuum collection on substrates and adhesion removal with metallurgical replicating tape were chosen as non-intrusive sampling methods. Seventeen samples were collected including plasma facing surfaces in lower, upper, and horizontal locations, surfaces behind floor tiles, surfaces behind divert or tiles, and surfaces behind ceiling tiles. The results of the analysis are presented.

  17. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  18. Spectral signature of suspended fine particulate material on light absorption properties of CDOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massicotte, Philippe; Stedmon, Colin; Markager, Stiig

    2017-01-01

    Fine submicron organic particles can represent an important fraction of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool in aquatic ecosystems and their optical properties differ from those normally considered dissolved (< 0.2 μm), which means that the choice of filter type/pore size can influence the lig...

  19. Distribution of suspended particulate matter in the waters of eastern continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.M.

    material in the nearshore region and off Godavari. Distribution pattern of TSM indicates that it closely follows the circulation pattern during the study period (August-September 1976). Combustible organic matter varies from 5 to 80% and these compositional...

  20. The effect of suspended particulate material on cyanobacteria--cyanophage interactions in liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnet, Y M; Daft, M J; Stewart, W D

    1984-02-01

    The effect of the lytic phage LPP-DUN1 on the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum has been investigated in batch and in continuous cultures in the presence and absence of silt. In batch culture Plectonema without added phage grew normally; the presence of phage caused rapid lysis of the cyanobacterium and the addition of silt prevented lysis by the phage. In continuous culture the numbers of cyanobacterial cells and phage particles oscillated in a reciprocal manner, but the addition of silt damped down the oscillations in Plectonema biomass without decreasing the numbers of phage particles isolated from the cultures. The presence of silt thus appears to protect the cyanobacterium from lysis by phage, although the total numbers of phage particles are relatively unaffected by the silt, at least in the short-term.

  1. 78 FR 8066 - Method for the Determination of Lead in Total Suspended Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... fountain or eye wash bottle be available during performance of this method. An eye wash bottle has a spout that covers the eye. If acid or any other corrosive gets into the eye, the water in this bottle is... threaded caps for extraction and storage, SCP Science DigiTUBE Item No. 010- 500-063, or equivalent...

  2. 78 FR 40000 - Method for the Determination of Lead in Total Suspended Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... extraction, and also knowledge in the recognition and in the correction of spectral, chemical and physical... improved extraction methods that are now available with improved precision, sample throughput, and extraction efficiency; (2) address advances in measurement technology that have occurred since promulgation...

  3. Signature of terrestrial influence on nitrogen isotopic composition of suspended particulate

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; Sardessai, S.; Patel, P.P.

    Institute of Oceanography, Goa 403 004, I n dia 4 M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, India Nitrogen concentration and its isotopic composition in surface su spended matter have been measured at 24 di f- ferent loc a tions during..., primarily the aste r oids and occasionally Mars and the Moon. They also pr o vide information about the energetic environment in the inte r- planetary space where they spend a considerable p e riod of time, ranging from less than a million years to a few...

  4. Influence of suspended kelp culture on seabed sediment composition in Heini Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxia; Huang, Haijun; Yan, Liwen; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-11-01

    Kelp aquaculture activities occupy large nearshore areas with significant effects on sediment properties, primarily caused by the influence of the suspended kelp on local hydrodynamics. Changes in sediment composition and grain-size distributions were investigated prior to and following the commencement of kelp aquaculture activities in Heini Bay in eastern China. Seabed sediment types and the particulate matter in suspension during the kelp seeding and harvesting periods, and in sediment cores, were analyzed. While suspended sediment in the kelp aquaculture area was up to 20% organic material, sediment organic content on the seabed remained at similar levels as areas lacking aquaculture. The composition of the seabed sediment in the kelp aquaculture area became finer-grained by the capture of fine particles. Within the kelp aquaculture area, the sediments are poorly sorted and positively skewed, whereas at the shoreward and seaward of the aquaculture area the sediments are relatively coarse-grained, well-sorted and nearly symmetrically distributed. Therefore, the kelp aquaculture activities not only increase the fine particulate fraction in the sediments within the aquaculture area, but also result in similar deposits seaward of it, indicating that seabed erosion and accretion is also controlled by the sediment source and the hydrodynamic conditions. The analysis of sediment cores showed that kelp culturing refines the sediment by preferentially capturing particles in the 38-40 μm size class, while having no effect on the kelp aquaculture area. The same effect was observed in the seabed sediments seaward of the aquaculture area.

  5. Particulate matter and heavy metals in the atmospheric aerosol from Cartagena, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Grau, S.; Pérez-Tornell, A.; Bayo, J.; Moreno, J.; Angosto, J. M.; Moreno-Clavel, J.

    Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) and lead (Pb) concentrations were monitored at three sampling stations in Cartagena, Spain, from February 1990 to December 1998, and copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) atmospheric concentrations were measured from January 1991 to December 1998. TSP and Pb values were analysed from samples collected on glassfibre filters, and the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd were calculated from cellulose ester filters, showing no statistically significant difference (95% C.L.) for Pb analysed in both filter types. The geographical and temporal distribution patterns were investigated. There was a trend to find the highest TSP levels during winter and autumn, and the highest Pb concentrations during the winter season. The Pb/Cd average ratios for each sampling point showed a direct anthropogenic contribution for the industrial areas, when compared with Pb/Cd ratio reported for global natural emissions. The correlation among heavy metals displayed similar results, differing from the residential area to the urban and industrial ones.

  6. Pharmaceuticals in settleable particulate material in urban and non-urban waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Marja; Oikari, Aimo

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are important sources of settleable particulate material (SPM), heading to sediments with natural suspended solids. To date, there is little information about the fate of pharmaceuticals in sediment systems. In this study, the objective was to determine if pharmaceuticals are detected in SPM at locations near WWTPs or even in rural areas, thus being susceptible for sedimentation. SPM samples were collected from 10 sites in Finland, grouped as reference, rural and wastewater effluent sites. SPM collectors were placed about 35 cm above bottom for about 2 months during summer. After extraction, a set of 17 pharmaceuticals was analyzed. Several pharmaceuticals were detected in SPM accumulated at sites next to WWTPs. The concentration of citalopram was notably high (300-1350 ng g⁻¹ dw). Also bisoprolol and ciprofloxacin were detected at high concentrations (6-325 and 9-390 ng g⁻¹ dw, respectively). In contrast, none of the pharmaceuticals were detected from reference sites and only two were found from a single rural site. There is no previous information about the presence of pharmaceuticals in SPM. The results showed that pharmaceuticals are sorbed to particles in WWTP and nearby, eventually ending up in sediments. These results also indicate that pharmaceuticals are not markedly contaminating sediments of rural areas in Finland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Water column particulate matter: A key contributor to phosphorus regeneration in a coastal eutrophic environment, the Chesapeake Bay: Particulate phosphorus in the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiying [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA; Reardon, Patrick [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Now at NMR Facility, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon USA; McKinley, James P. [Geochemistry Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Joshi, Sunendra R. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA; Bai, Yuge [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA; Bear, Kristi [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA; Jaisi, Deb P. [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware USA

    2017-04-01

    Particulate phosphorus (PP) in the water column is an essential component of phosphorus (P) cycling in aquatic ecosystems yet its composition and transformations remain largely uncharacterized. To understand the roles of suspended particulates on regeneration of inorganic P (Pi) into the water column as well as sequestration into more stable mineral precipitates, we studied seasonal variation in both organic and inorganic P speciation in suspended particles in three sites in the Chesapeake Bay using sequential P extraction, 1D (31P) and 2D (1H-31P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and electron microprobe analyses (EMPA). Remineralization efficiency of particulate P average 8% and 56% in shallow and deep sites respectively, suggesting the importance of PP remineralization is in resupplying water column Pi. Strong temporal and spatial variability of organic P composition, distributions, and remineralization efficiency were observed relating to water column parameters such as temperature and redox conditions: concentration of orthophosphate monoesters and diesters, and diester-to-monoester (D/M) ratios decreased with depth. Both esters and the D/M ratios were lower in the hypoxic July and September. In contrast, pyrophosphate and orthophosphate increased with depth, and polyphosphates was high in the anoxic water column. Sequential extraction and EMPA analyses of the suspended particles suggest presence of Ca-bound phosphate in the water column. We hypothesize authigenic precipitation of carbonate fluorapatite and/or its precursor mineral(s) in Pi rich water column, supported by our thermodynamic calculations. Our results, overall, reveal the important role suspended particles play in P remineralization and P sequestration in the Chesapeake Bay water column, provide important implications on P bioavailability and P sinks in similar eutrophic coastal environments.

  8. Estuarine Suspended Sediment Dynamics: Observations Derived from over a Decade of Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Reisinger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment dynamics of Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, a shallow-water wind-driven estuary, were investigated by combining field and satellite measurements of total suspended solids (TSS. An algorithm was developed to transform 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Aqua satellite reflectance data into estimated TSS values. The algorithm was developed using a reflectance ratio regression of MODIS Band 1 (red and Band 3 (green with TSS measurements (n = 54 collected by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for Corpus Christi Bay and other Texas estuaries. The algorithm was validated by independently collected TSS measurements during the period of 2011–2014 with an uncertainty estimate of 13%. The algorithm was applied to the period of 2002–2014 to create a synoptic time series of TSS for Corpus Christi Bay. Potential drivers of long-term variability in suspended sediment were investigated. Median and IQR composites of suspended sediments were generated for seasonal wind regimes. From this analysis it was determined that long-term, spatial patterns of suspended sediment in the estuary are related to wind-wave resuspension during the predominant northerly and prevalent southeasterly seasonal wind regimes. The impact of dredging is also apparent in long-term patterns of Corpus Christi Bay as concentrations of suspended sediments over dredge spoil disposal sites are higher and more variable than surrounding areas, which is most likely due to their less consolidated sediments and shallower depths requiring less wave energy for sediment resuspension. This study highlights the advantage of how long-synoptic time series of TSS can be used to elucidate the major drivers of suspended sediments in estuaries.

  9. 9 CFR 201.81 - Suspended registrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 201.81 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.81 Suspended registrants. No stockyard owner, packer, market agency, or dealer shall employ...

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  11. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    face area, shape, minerals and source) and conse- quent interaction with heavy metal concentrations. (HMCs). Recent studies have shown a growing awareness of the wider environmental significance of the suspended sediment loads transported by rivers and streams. This includes the importance of fine grain sediment in ...

  12. A depth integrated model for suspended transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galappatti, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and

  13. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  14. Flow Laminarization and Acceleration by Suspended Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, M.; Hulshof, J.; Prostokishin, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    In [Comm. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., 4(2009), pp. 153-175], Barenblatt presents a model for partial laminarization and acceleration of shear flows by the presence of suspended particles of different sizes, and provides a formal asymptotic analysis of the resulting velocity equation. In the present

  15. Emulsifying and Suspending Properties of Enterolobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The thermodynamic instability of emulsions and suspensions necessitate the incorporation of emulsifiers and suspending agents respectively, in order to stabilize the formulations and ensure administration of accurate doses. Objective:Enterolobium cyclocarpum gum was characterized and evaluated for its ...

  16. Metal removal via particulate material in a lowland river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster-Brown, J G; Dee, T J; Hegan, A F

    2012-01-01

    Twelve month surveys of acid-soluble and dissolved trace metal concentrations in the lower Waikato River (in 1998/9 and 2005/6) showed abnormally low particulate Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations and mass flux in autumn, when the suspended particulate material (SPM) had a relatively high diatom and organic carbon content, and low Fe and Al content. Dissolved Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations also decreased in autumn, while dissolved Fe and Pb concentrations were unaffected. While SPM settlement under the low river flow conditions present in autumn can explain the removal of particulate metals, it does not explain dissolved metal removal. SPM-metal interaction was therefore investigated using seasonal monitoring data, experimental adsorption studies, sequential extraction and geochemical modelling. Pb binding to SPM occurred predominantly via Fe-oxide surfaces, and could be reliably predicted using surface complexation adsorption modelling. Dissolved Mn concentrations were controlled by the solubility of Mn oxide, but enhanced removal during autumn could be attributed to uptake by diatoms. Zn and Cu were also adsorbed on Fe-oxide in the SPM, but removal from the water column in autumn appeared augmented by Zn adsorption onto Mn-oxide, and Cu adsorption onto the organic extracellular surfaces of the diatoms.

  17. Particulates and the cycling of lead in Ullswater, Cumbria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everard, M.; Denny, P.

    1985-04-01

    Ullswater has been affected by former lead mining in the catchment area. An attempt is made to investigate how lead in the lake is re-distributed within the littoral zones. Concentrations in the lakewater are low particulates including phytoplankton, seston and gelatinous ooze overlying lead-enriched sediments can be values from 1.3 to >6.0 and 26 mg Pb g/sup -1/ dry weight respectively. During turbulent conditions, contaminated phytoplankton, settled algae and some of the gelatinous ooze are brought in to near-homogenous suspension within the water column. In calm conditions, settlement of particulates occurs and a rate-zonal distribution results such that, in a vertical column of water, the finer particles in the upper layers have lower concentrations of lead per unit volume of water than the lower layers. In non-turbulent conditions, the particles which settle on all submerged surfaces form a tenuous layer termed ecton. Aufwuchs becomes coated by ecton but the latter is readily re-suspended by disturbances. The intimate contact, and the similarity of concentrations of lead in Aufwuchs and ecton from any one sample, suggests that metal flux occurs between the two. It is concluded that the variety of particulates which comprise the ecton distribute lead during turbulence. In calm conditions the ecton settles on all submerged surfaces and provides a mechanism for transfer of lead into the littoral food web.

  18. Suspended Sediment and Phosphorus Removal in a Woodchip Filter System Treating Agricultural Wash Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Tahina; Robertson, Will Dean; Finnigan, Darryl S

    2016-05-01

    Woodchip filters have received attention in recent years for their ability to sustain denitrification activity across multiyear time frames. However, in some freshwater aquatic ecosystems, P rather than N is the nutrient considered most responsible for eutrophication. Previous studies have indicated that woodchip filters have limited ability to remove dissolved P, but in agricultural terrain, P export in watercourses is often dominated by particulate P (PP). Woodchip media, because of their high porosity and permeability and the surface roughness of the particles, could be effective for PP removal. In this study, we tested a woodchip filter for its ability to remove suspended sediment and associated PP at a farm in southern Ontario, Canada, where vegetable wash water with extremely high total suspended solids (TSS) was generated. The treatment system consisted of a 12.3-m concrete sedimentation tank and a slightly larger woodchip filter (16.1 m) installed in a subsurface trench. During 7 mo of full-scale operation, treating 10.8 m d, the filter system removed 71% of influent total P (TP) averaging 8.8 mg L and 99% of TSS averaging 5800 mg L, with most of the removal occurring in the tank and a lesser amount (6-16%) occurring in the woodchip filter. Almost all of the TP removal was associated with PP (91% removal) because dissolved P, averaging 1.5 mg L in the wash water, was little changed. Woodchip filters, when coupled with a solids settling tank, have the potential to provide high-capacity, low-maintenance treatment of suspended solids and associated particulate P in turbid waters. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Upper Atmospheric Particulate Monitoring and Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Alan; Sohl, John E.

    2010-10-01

    H.A.R.B.O.R. (High Altitude Reconnaissance Balloon for Outreach and Research) is a student-run program in which high-altitude balloon systems are designed, constructed, and flown by students conducting individual or group research projects. One area of interest is in the sampling of particles in the upper atmosphere. Collecting airborne particulates and studying them under an SEM can answer questions on the origins of airborne particulate matter. We could find explanations for climate change or directly measure pollution caused by smokestacks. The SEM has the capacity to capture images of particulates and determine their composition. I am building a system capable of sampling air up to 30km (100,000 ft). The system will contain a servo-controlled filter system for sampling air captured by the ascent of the balloon. Currently, filter types are being evaluated for capture rate and air flow resistance. A circuit has been built to test the mass throughput of the airflow as the balloon travels its course. A vacuum chamber is being built to simulate the nearspace environment. Testing and simulation should be complete in time to fly a finalized sample return mission in spring 2011.

  20. Rapidly changing distribution of velocity and suspended materials under the drifting Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ho Kyung; Im, Jungho; Kim, Yong Hoon; Yae Son, Eun; Lee, Sanggyun

    2015-04-01

    In two summer seasons of 2011 and 2014, the short-term (1-4 days) ice-camp study has been conducted on the drifting Arctic sea ice. In particular, in 2014, the international collaboration with the Marginal Ice Zone program (sponsored by Office of Naval Research) has been integrated. The mooring package comprises the acoustic Doppler velocity profiler, holographic imaging camera, and conductivity-temperature-depth profiler, which are used to understand the dynamic behavior of sea ice and spatial-temporal variation of mixing layer (ML) and suspended particulate matters under the sea ice. Mooring data clearly shows the mixing and entrainment pattern in the upper ML in the marginal ice zone. When ice floes drift toward the pack ice, the upward entrainment from the seasonal pycnocline to sea ice-water boundary was induced by shear across ML and seasonal pycnocline. The entrainment speed was in the range of 0.25-2 m/hr, which matches well with thickening and thinning rate of ML during the near-inertial period (~12 hr). When ice floes drift toward the open ocean, the turbulent wakes at the advancing edge of ice were combined with the entrainment caused by near-inertial motion, which results in a complex mixing pattern of both upward and downward fluxes in the ML. Also, the acoustic backscatter observed by the acoustic Doppler current profiler and beam attenuation from transmissometer revealed the increased concentration of suspended particulate materials in the ML, which can be direct evidence visualizing the mixing pattern. Results suggest that the mixing and entrainment found in our study sustain particulate matters in suspension within the upper ML for a few months.

  1. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  2. Monitoring of the radiocesium in river water in Fukushima using rapid and simultaneous monitoring of particulate and dissolved radiocesium in water with nonwoven fabric cartridge filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, H.; Yasutaka, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan); Kondo, Y. [Japan Vilene Company, Ltd (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Fukushima Agricultural Technology Centre (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The environmental monitoring of dissolved and particulate radiocesium in river became important after the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Traditional monitoring methods, such as evaporative concentration, require time for pre-processing because the concentration of dissolved radiocesium of river water in Fukushima prefecture is currently very low, averagely 0.001 - 0.1 Bq/L. Our research group has developed a monitoring method to investigate the radiocesium concentration in water by each existence form. Yasutaka et al. (2013) and Tsuji et al.(2013) developed a method for rapid and simultaneous monitoring of particulate and dissolved radiocesium in water with nonwoven fabric cartridge filters. This method uses pleated polypropylene nonwoven fabric filter with a pore size of 1-μm to collect particulate radiocesium, and nonwoven fabric impregnated with Prussian blue (PB) to absorb dissolved radiocesium. The fabric was placed into cylindrical plastic cartridges (SS-cartridge and PB-cartridge). This method could catch the 99% of the suspended solid (SS) and absorb 95% of dissolved radiocesium separately in 20 L water within 40 minutes. This device was applied to monitor the water in Abukuma River (January 2013) and upper area of Kuchibuto river (May 2013) at 12 locations, and the results were compared with those obtained by the filtrating and evaporative concentration method. The SS concentration and radioactivity of SS in the Abukuma river water, calculated by weight gain of the SS-cartridge and by sediment weight after filtration with a 0.45-μm membrane filter, agreed well without one location.The radioactivity of the dissolved {sup 137}Cs also agreed well between these two methods. In the Abukuma River, dissolved {sup 137}Cs was 0.006-0.025 Bq/L and particulate {sup 137}Cs was 0.008-0.070 Bq/L by the presented method in January 2013. In addition, the required time for pre-processing was reduced by more than 10 times that by filtrating and

  3. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.

    Energy components of suspended matter included phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus inclusive of microorganisms adsorbed to detritus. Of these, detritus contributed most of the energy (98%). The average caloric content of suspended detritus...

  4. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... particle size distribution (PSD) were correlated with HMC by using bivariate and multivariate regression models. Proposed models were then selected based on statistical criteria. The results showed high correlation between dissolved and particulate chromium content with efficiency coefficients beyond 77% ( > 0.001).

  5. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers - Theory, application, bias, and error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.

    2016-05-04

    It is commonly recognized that suspended-sediment concentrations in rivers can change rapidly in time and independently of water discharge during important sediment‑transporting events (for example, during floods); thus, suspended-sediment measurements at closely spaced time intervals are necessary to characterize suspended‑sediment loads. Because the manual collection of sufficient numbers of suspended-sediment samples required to characterize this variability is often time and cost prohibitive, several “surrogate” techniques have been developed for in situ measurements of properties related to suspended-sediment characteristics (for example, turbidity, laser-diffraction, acoustics). Herein, we present a new physically based method for the simultaneous measurement of suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended‑sand median grain size in rivers, using multi‑frequency arrays of single-frequency side‑looking acoustic-Doppler profilers. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the incoherent scattering of sound by random suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of theory that relates acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We develop the theory and methods, and demonstrate the application of the method at six study sites on the Colorado River and Rio Grande, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustic attenuation and backscatter measurements over many years. The method produces acoustical measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and suspended-sand concentration (in units of mg/L), and acoustical measurements of suspended-sand median grain size (in units of mm) that are generally in good to excellent agreement with concurrent physical measurements of these quantities in the river cross sections at

  6. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  7. Impact of suspended solids concentration on sludge filterability in Full-scale membrane bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousada Ferreira, M.D.C.; Van Lier, J.B.; Van der Graaf, J.H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The relation between activated sludge filterability and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentration in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is framed in a single hypothesis, explaining results seemingly contradictory. A total of 44 activated sludge samples were collected and analyzed on a variety of

  8. The Physical Clogging of the Landfill Leachate Collection System in China: Based on Filtration Test and Numerical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clogging of the leachate collection system (LCS has been a common operation problem in municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in China, which can result in high water levels that threaten the safety of landfill operations. To determine the cause of failure in an LCS, raw leachate from a municipal solid waste transfer station was collected and the high content of particulate matter was characterized. Based on the parameters obtained in a filtration test, a numerical simulation was performed to estimate the influence of particle deposition on drainage system clogging. The results showed that LCSs were confronted with the risk of clogging due to the deposition of particulate matter resulting from the higher concentration of total suspended solids (TSS level > 2200 mg L−1 and larger particle size (>30% TSS particles > 15 μm in the leachate. On one hand, the non-woven geotextile, as the upper layer of the LCS, retained most particulate matter of large diameters, reducing its hydraulic conductivity to approximately 10−8 to 10−9 m s−1 after 1–2 years of operation and perching significant leachate above it (0.6–0.7 m. On the other hand, the geotextile prevented the gravel layer from physically clogging and minimized the leachate head above the bottom liner. Therefore, the role of geotextile should be balanced to optimize the LCS in MSW landfills in China.

  9. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madder, Ryan D., E-mail: ryan.madder@spectrumhealth.org; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    2017-04-15

    Background: Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Results: Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30 weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, p < 0.001; head: 0.5 [1.9] μSv vs 14.9 [51.5] μSv, p < 0.001). Chest-level radiation exposure during robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) or suspended lead (p = 0.046). In robotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (p < 0.001) and 80.0% less than manual PCI performed with suspended lead (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Utilization of suspended lead and robotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. - Highlights: • Use of suspended lead during manual PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 97%. • Robotic PCI reduced cranial radiation among operators by 99%. • Suspended lead and robotics together achieved the lowest levels of radiation exposure.

  10. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  11. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  12. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  13. Estimating total suspended sediment yield with probability sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    The ""Selection At List Time"" (SALT) scheme controls sampling of concentration for estimating total suspended sediment yield. The probability of taking a sample is proportional to its estimated contribution to total suspended sediment discharge. This procedure gives unbiased estimates of total suspended sediment yield and the variance of the...

  14. Optomechanics for thermal characterization of suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J.; Houri, Samer; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J.; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steeneken, Peter G.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal response of graphene is expected to be extremely fast due to its low heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal response of suspended single-layer graphene membranes is investigated by characterization of their mechanical motion in response to a high-frequency modulated laser. A characteristic delay time τ between the optical intensity and mechanical motion is observed, which is attributed to the time required to raise the temperature of the membrane. We find, however, that the measured time constants are significantly larger than the predicted ones based on values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity. In order to explain the discrepancy between measured and modeled τ , a model is proposed that takes a thermal boundary resistance at the edge of the graphene drum into account. The measurements provide a noninvasive way to characterize thermal properties of suspended atomically thin membranes, providing information that can be hard to obtain by other means.

  15. Suspended matter and fluid mud off Alleppey, southwest coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V. Purnachandra; Samiksha, S. V.; Vethamony, P.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Kessarkar, Pratima M.; Babu, M. T.; Dineshkumar, P. K.

    2017-02-01

    Time series measurements on suspended particulate matter (SPM) were made at one non-mud bank (M1) and two mud bank stations (M2 and M3) off Alleppey, south west coast of India. The mean SPM was low in surface (6.2 mg/l) and mid-depth (3.7 mg/l) waters and higher in bottom-depth waters (24.6 mg/l) of these stations, during both pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Near bed suspended sediment results indicated low SPM during July (0.042 g/l) and September (0.018 g/l) at M1, but very high SPM at M2 (9.2 g/l) and M3 (6.2 g/l) during July that decreased (M2: 0.033 g/l; M3: 0.1 g/l) again in September. Observations based on LISST-25X indicated that optical transmission (OT) was high (80-100%) in surface and mid-depth waters but decreased with increasing depth. Near bed waters at M2 and M3 stations showed ∼1 m thick fluid layer with 0% OT and with high particle volume concentrations (150-200 μl/l) during monsoon. Bottom sediments were clayey silts. Sediments of fluid mud close to the bottom at M2 and M3 stations. As the wave height decreased from ∼3 m in May to 0.76 m in July, the dissipated wave energy probably liquefied, eroded and re-suspended the bottom sediment to form fluid mud. Upwelling currents may have been involved in the up keep and transportation of fluid mud. The suspended mud resettled at the bottom soon after the monsoon event.

  16. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  17. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  18. Semivolatile particulate organic material in southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.; Hobbs, P. V.

    2003-07-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's (UW) Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the free troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna fire emissions averaged 130 μg m-3. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous material.

  19. Semivolatile Particulate Organic Material Southern Africa during SAFARI 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eatough, D. J.; Eatough, N. L.; Pang, Y.; Sizemore, S.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Novakov, T.

    2005-01-01

    During August and September 2000, the University of Washington's Cloud and Aerosol Research Group (CARG) with its Convair-580 research aircraft participated in the Southern African Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative (SAFARI) 2000 field study in southern Africa. Aboard this aircraft was a Particle Concentrator-Brigham Young University Organic Sampling System (PC-BOSS), which was used to determine semivolatile particulate material with a diffusion denuder sampler. Denuded quartz filters and sorbent beds in series were used to measure nonvolatile and semivolatile materials, respectively. Results obtained with the PC-BOSS are compared to those obtained with conventional quartz-quartz and Teflon-quartz filter pack samplers. Various 10-120 min integrated samples were collected during flights through the h e troposphere, in the atmospheric boundary layer, and in plumes from savanna fires. Significant fine particulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) were found in all samples. The SVOC was not collected by conventional filter pack samplers and therefore would not have been determined in previous studies that used only filter pack samplers. The SVOC averaged 24% of the fine particulate mass in emissions from the fires and 36% of the fine particulate mass in boundary layer samples heavily impacted by aged emissions from savanna fires. Concentrations of fine particulate material in the atmospheric mixed layer heavily impacted by aged savanna frre emissions averaged 130 micrograms per cubic meter. This aerosol was 85% carbonaceous mated.

  20. Fate of arsenic-bearing phases during the suspended transport in a gold mining district (Isle river Basin, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbois, C; Courtin-Nomade, A; Robin, E; Bril, H; Tamura, N; Schäfer, J; Blanc, G

    2011-11-01

    Arsenic-rich (~140-1520 mg x kg(-1)) suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected daily with an automatic sampler in the Upper Isle River (France) draining a former gold mining district in order to better understand the fate of arsenic during the suspended transport (particles smaller than 50 μm). Various techniques at a micrometric scale (EPMA, quantitative SEM-EDS with an automated particle counting including classification system and μXRD) were used to directly characterize As-bearing phases. The most frequent ones were aggregates of fine clay particles. Their mineralogy varied with particle sources involved. These aggregates were formed by chlorite-phlogopite-kaolinite assemblages during the high flow and chlorite-illite-montmorillonite during the low flow. Among all the observed As-carriers in SPM, these clay assemblages were the least As-rich (0.10 up to 1.58 wt.% As) and their median As concentrations suggested that they were less concentrated during the high flow than during the low flow. Iron oxyhydroxides were evidenced by μXRD in these clay aggregates, either as micro- to nano-sized particles and/or as coating. (Mn, Fe)oxyhydroxides were also present as discrete particles. Manganese oxides (0.14-1.26 wt.% As) transport significantly more arsenic during the low flow than during the high flow (0.16-0.79 wt.% As). The occurrence of Fe oxyhydroxide particles appeared more complex. During the low flow, observations on banks and in wetlands of freshly precipitated Fe hydroxides (ferrihydrite-type) presented the highest As concentrations (up to 6.5 wt.% As) but they were barely detected in SPM at a microscale. During the high flow, As-rich Fe-oxyhydroxides (0.10-2.80 wt.% As) were more frequent, reflecting mechanical erosion and transport when the surface water level increased. Arsenic transfers from SPM to corresponding aqueous fraction mostly depend on As-carrier stability. This study shows the temporal occurrence of each type of As-bearing phases in

  1. Impact of robotics and a suspended lead suit on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madder, Ryan D; VanOosterhout, Stacie; Mulder, Abbey; Elmore, Matthew; Campbell, Jessica; Borgman, Andrew; Parker, Jessica; Wohns, David

    Reports of left-sided brain malignancies among interventional cardiologists have heightened concerns regarding physician radiation exposure. This study evaluated the impact of a suspended lead suit and robotic system on physician radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Real-time radiation exposure data were prospectively collected from dosimeters worn by operating physicians at the head- and chest-level during consecutive PCI cases. Exposures were compared in three study groups: 1) manual PCI performed with traditional lead apparel; 2) manual PCI performed using suspended lead; and 3) robotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead. Among 336 cases (86.6% manual, 13.4% robotic) performed over 30weeks, use of suspended lead during manual PCI was associated with significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians than traditional lead apparel (chest: 0.0 [0.1] μSv vs 0.4 [4.0] μSv, probotic PCI performed in combination with suspended lead was 0.0 [0.0] μSv, which was significantly less chest exposure than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotic PCI the median head-level exposure was 0.1 [0.2] μSv, which was 99.3% less than manual PCI performed with traditional lead (probotics were observed to result in significantly less radiation exposure to the chest and head of operating physicians during PCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscular contribution to low-back loading and stiffness during standard and suspended push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Howarth, Samuel J; Callaghan, Jack P

    2008-06-01

    Push-up exercises are normally performed to challenge muscles that span upper extremity joints. However, it is also recognized that push-ups provide an effective abdominal muscle challenge, especially when the hands are in contact with a labile support surface. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk muscle activation levels and resultant intervertebral joint (IVJ) loading when standard and suspended push-ups were performed, and to quantify and compare the contribution of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness in both exercises. Eleven recreationally trained male volunteers performed sets of standard and suspended push-ups. Upper body kinematic, kinetic, and EMG data were collected and input into a 3D biomechanical model of the lumbar torso to quantify lumbar IVJ loading and the contributions of trunk muscles to IVJ rotational stiffness. When performing suspended push-ups, muscles of the abdominal wall and the latissimus dorsi were activated to levels that were significantly greater than those elicited when performing standard push-ups (pups. Also directly resulting from the increased activation levels of the abdominal muscles and the latissimus dorsi during suspended push-ups was increased muscular contribution to lumbar IVJ rotational stiffness (pups appear to provide a superior abdominal muscle challenge. However, for individuals unable to tolerate high lumbar IVJ compressive loads, potential benefits gained by incorporating suspended push-ups into their resistance training regimen may be outweighed by the risk of overloading low-back tissues.

  3. Carbon sources in suspended particles and surface sediments from the Beaufort Sea revealed by molecular lipid biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    I. Tolosa; S. Fiorini; B. Gasser; J. Martín; J. C. Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Molecular lipid biomarkers (hydrocarbons, alcohols, sterols and fatty acids) and compound-specific isotope analysis of suspended particulate organic matter (SPM) and surface sediments of the Mackenzie Shelf and slope (southeast Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean) were studied in summer 2009. The concentrations of the molecular lipid markers, characteristic of known organic matter sources, were grouped and used as proxies to evaluate the relative importance of fresh algal, detrital a...

  4. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON and PARTICULATE ORGANIC NITROGEN profile, discrete sample and site samples data collected in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean on the NATHANIEL B. PALMER cruises NBP0103, NBP0104 and others as part of the Southern Ocean GLOBEC project from 2001-04-29 to 2002-09-12 (NODC Accession 0112164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112164 includes profile, discrete sample, site samples and chemical data collected aboard the NATHANIEL B. PALMER during cruises NBP0103, NBP0104,...

  5. Quantifying suspended sediment loads delivered to Cheney Reservoir, Kansas: Temporal patterns and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Juracek, Kyle E.; Graham, Jennifer; Foster, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, constructed during 1962 to 1965, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita, the largest city in Kansas. Sediment is an important concern for the reservoir as it degrades water quality and progressively decreases water storage capacity. Long-term data collection provided a unique opportunity to estimate the annual suspended sediment loads for the entire history of the reservoir. To quantify and characterize sediment loading to Cheney Reservoir, discrete suspended sediment samples and continuously measured streamflow data were collected from the North Fork Ninnescah River, the primary inflow to Cheney Reservoir, over a 48-year period. Continuous turbidity data also were collected over a 15-year period. These data were used together to develop simple linear regression models to compute continuous suspended sediment concentrations and loads from 1966 to 2013. The inclusion of turbidity as an additional explanatory variable with streamflow improved regression model diagnostics and increased the amount of variability in suspended sediment concentration explained by 14%. Using suspended sediment concentration from the streamflow-only model, the average annual suspended sediment load was 102,517 t (113,006 tn) and ranged from 4,826 t (5,320 tn) in 1966 to 967,569 t (1,066,562 tn) in 1979. The sediment load in 1979 accounted for about 20% of the total load over the 48-year history of the reservoir and 92% of the 1979 sediment load occurred in one 24-hour period during a 1% annual exceedance probability flow event (104-year flood). Nearly 60% of the reservoir sediment load during the 48-year study period occurred in 5 years with extreme flow events (9% to 1% annual exceedance probability, or 11- to 104-year flood events). A substantial portion (41%) of sediment was transported to the reservoir during five storm events spanning only eight 24-hour periods during 1966 to 2013. Annual suspended sediment load estimates based on streamflow were, on

  6. Multi-faceted monitoring of estuarine turbidity and particulate matter provenance: Case study from Salem Harbor, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeny, J Bradford; Kenney, Melanie; Warren, Barbara; Louisos, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Turbidity is a water quality parameter that is known to adversely affect aquatic systems, however the causes of turbid water are often elusive. We present results of a study designed to constrain the source of particulate matter in a coastal embayment that has suffered from increased turbidity over past decades. Our approach utilized monitoring buoys to quantify turbidity at high temporal resolution complemented by geochemical isotope analysis of suspended sediment samples and meteorological data. Results reveal a complex system in which multiple sources are associated with particulate matter. Weight of evidence demonstrates that phytoplankton productivity in the water column, however, is the dominant source of particulate matter associated with elevated turbidity in Salem Harbor, Massachusetts. Allochthonous matter from the watershed was observed to mix into the pool of suspended particulate matter near river mouths, especially in spring and summer. Resuspension of harbor surface sediments likely provides additional particulates in the regions of boat moorings, especially during summer when recreational boats are attached to moorings. Our approach allows us to constrain the causes of turbidity events in this embayment, is helping with conservation efforts of environmental quality in the region, and can be used as a template for other locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution of particulate organic matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.C.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) of 161 water samples collected from 8 depths (surface to 1000 m) at 21 stations was measured The POC concentrations ranged from 154 to 554 mu g per litre at the surface and decreased in the upper 300 m water column...

  8. Trace metals concentration assessment in urban particulate matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and correlation of selected trace elements (Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State and its environs. Air particulate matter was collected gravimetrically at five stations (using a high volume portable SKC air check MTXSidekickair sampler ...

  9. Effect of particulates generated from asphalt production on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study was carried out to ascertain the effects of particulate matter on the gross morphological and leaf epidermal features of some tropical plants. Two populations of Xanthosoma mafaffa Schott, Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson, and Ageratum conyzoides (L.) were collected; one from an ...

  10. Distribution of particulate organic carbon in the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Dhople, V.M.; Wagh, A.B.

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) of 161 water samples collected from 8 depths (surface to 1000m) at 21 stations was measured. The POC concentrations ranged from 154 to 554 kappa g per litre at the surface and decreased in the upper 300 m water...

  11. Determination of elemental composition of air particulates and soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations were also performed for the elemental composition of soils at the same locations. A cyclone and a dichotomous virtual impactor were used to measure the air particulates. The cyclone was adjusted to collect particles having an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5!m. The virtual impactor, through its fine channel, was ...

  12. Distribution of dissolved and particulate metals in Antarctic sea ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lannuzel, D.; Bowie, A.R.; van der Merwe, P.C.; Townsend, A.T.; Schoemann, V.

    2011-01-01

    Samples were collected in East Antarctic sea ice in late winter/early austral spring 2007 to assess the distributions of Al, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo. Cd and Ba. Total dissolved (<02 mu m) and particulate (>0.2 mu m) concentrations were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry

  13. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sources of particulate organic matter in rivers from the continental usa: lignin phenol and stable carbon isotope compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, Gretchen D.; Canfield, Donald E.; Quay, Paul D.; Hedges, John I.

    2000-10-01

    The origins and forms of particulate organic matter (POM) suspended in rivers are major considerations in assessing how fluvial materials integrate landscape and climate properties and ultimately record these characteristics in marine sedimentary deposits. We examined the elemental, stable carbon isotope and lignin-phenol compositions of well-characterized samples of suspended POM collected from rivers draining the south central United States. The atomic C/N ratios of 17 fine-grained samples (˜11 ± 2, n = 17) are similar to those reported worldwide for texturally similar soil and riverine POM. The corresponding δ 13C values vary from -18.5 to -26.4‰, in patterns that correspond to the relative abundances of C3 and C4 plants in the drainage basins, and hence to temperature and hydrologic patterns. Lignin-phenol yields from 12 samples indicate input of angiosperm-rich plant materials in distributions that also reflect upstream climate and vegetation. The lignin associated with these plant remains has been substantially degraded, as is typical of soil organic matter. The mass- and surface-area-normalized organic carbon contents of the river-borne POM also correspond to drainage basin properties in patterns characteristic of soils. These results indicate that highly degraded soil organic matter is a major component of fine-grained POM transported by rivers of the central US. The Mississippi River currently discharges "heavy" (δ 13C ≈ -20‰) lignin-poor POM. The isotopic composition of this organic matter is difficult to distinguish from marine plankton remains in fine-grained sediments of the northern Gulf of Mexico, whose isotopic compositions have been previously interpreted to broadly indicate limited offshore transport of terrigenous organic matter.

  15. Macromodel for assessing residential concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants: Model development and preliminary predictions for CO, NO/sub 2/, and respirable suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Aceti, J.C.; Apte, M.G.; Smith, B.V.; Green, L.L.; Smith-Reiser, A.; Novak, K.M.; Moses, D.O.

    1989-01-01

    A simulation model (also called a ''macromodel'') has been developed to predict residential air pollutant concentration distributions for specified populations. The model inputs include the market penetration of pollution sources, pollution source characteristics (e.g., emission rates, source usage rates), building characteristics (e.g., house volume, air exchange rates), and meteorological parameters (e.g., outside temperature). Four geographically distinct regions of the US have been modeled using Monte Carlo and deterministic simulation techniques. Single-source simulations were also conducted. The highest predicted CO and NO/sub 2/ residential concentrations were associated with the winter-time use of unvented gas and kerosene space heaters. The highest predicted respirable suspended particulate concentrations were associated with indoor cigarette smoking and the winter-time use of non-airtight wood stoves, radiant kerosene heaters, convective unvented gas space heaters, and oil forced-air furnaces. Future field studies in this area should (1) fill information gaps identified in this report, and (2) collect information on the macromodel input parameters to properly interpret the results. It is almost more important to measure the parameters that affect indoor concentration than it is to measure the concentrations themselves.

  16. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  17. Particulate organic matter in rivers of Fukushima: An unexpected carrier phase for radiocesiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulier, Maud; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frédérique; Boyer, Patrick; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Onda, Yuichi

    2017-02-01

    The role of particulate organic matter in radiocesium transfers from soils to rivers was investigated in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Suspended and deposited sediments, filtered water, macro organic debris and dead leaves were sampled along the six most contaminated coastal river catchments of the Fukushima prefecture in the early autumns 2013 and 2014. Radiocesium concentrations of river samples and total organic carbon concentrations in suspended and deposited sediments were measured. Radiocesium concentrations of suspended and deposited sediments were significantly correlated to 137Cs inventories in soils and total organic carbon. The distributions of radiocesium between the organic and mineral phases of both types of sediment were assessed by using a modelling approach. The results suggest that, during the early autumn season, the organic fraction was the main phase that carried the radiocesiums in deposited sediments and in suspended sediments for suspended loads Fukushima could be attributed to the high radiocesium contents of particulate organic matter. Since it is well known that organic compounds generally do not significantly adsorb radiocesium onto specific sites, several hypotheses are suggested: 1) Radiocesiums may have been absorbed into organic components at the early stage of atmospheric radioactive deposits and/or later due to biomass recycling and 2) Those elements would be partly carried by glassy hot particles together with organic matter transported by rivers in Fukushima. Both hypotheses would lead to conserve the amount of radiocesiums associated with particles during their transfers from the contaminated areas to the marine environment. Finally, such organically bound radiocesium would lead to significant deliveries of bioavailable radiocesium for living organisms at Fukushima. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and origin of suspended matter and organic carbon pools in the Tana River Basin, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tamooh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied patterns in organic carbon pools and their origin in the Tana River Basin (Kenya, in February 2008 (dry season, September–November 2009 (wet season, and June–July 2010 (end of wet season, covering the full continuum from headwater streams to lowland mainstream sites. A consistent downstream increase in total suspended matter (TSM, 0.6 to 7058 mg l−1 and particulate organic carbon (POC, 0.23 to 119.8 mg l−1 was observed during all three sampling campaigns, particularly pronounced below 1000 m above sea level, indicating that most particulate matter exported towards the coastal zone originated from the mid and low altitude zones rather than from headwater regions. This indicates that the cascade of hydroelectrical reservoirs act as an extremely efficient particle trap. Although 7Be / 210Pbxs ratios/age of suspended sediment do not show clear seasonal variation, the gradual downstream increase of suspended matter during end of wet season suggests its origin is caused by inputs of older sediments from bank erosion and/or river sediment resuspension. During wet season, higher TSM concentrations correspond with relatively young suspended matter, suggesting a contribution from recently eroded material. With the exception of reservoir waters, POC was predominantly of terrestrial origin as indicated by generally high POC : chlorophyll a (POC : Chl a ratios (up to ~41 000. Stable isotope signatures of POC (δ13CPOC ranged between −32 and −20‰ and increased downstream, reflecting an increasing contribution of C4-derived carbon in combination with an expected shift in δ13C for C3 vegetation towards the more semi-arid lowlands. δ13C values in sediments from the main reservoir (−19.5 to −15.7‰ were higher than those found in any of the riverine samples, indicating selective retention of particles associated with C4

  19. Airborne particulates in refuse-derived fuel plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahar, S. [Wolverhampton Univ., Wolverhampton (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    This study was intended to characterize commonly identified constituents of concern regarding airborne organic dust exposures in refuse-derived fuel (RDF) production facilities. Measurements were made of coral and respirable particulates, total and respirable endotoxin, and total (viable plus nonviable) bioaerosols. Evaluation of particle size distribution was also made through sampling with an eight-stage personal cascade impactor. Sampling locations randomly chosen from a pool of locations frequented by plant personnel were rotated daily. The nature of the particulate at different stages of the RDF process was described through statistical comparisons. Electron microscopic examination of collected dust was conducted to observe particle morphology. (au)

  20. Interaction between ozone and airborne particulate matter in office air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Lars; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the hypotheses that humans are affected by air pollution caused by ozone and house dust, that the effect of simultaneous exposure to ozone and dust in the air is larger than the effect of these two pollutants individually, and that the effects can be measured as release...... of cytokines and changes of the respiratory function. Experimental exposures of eight atopic but otherwise healthy subjects were performed in a climate chamber under controlled conditions. The three controlled exposures were about 75 microg/m3 total suspended particulate matter, 0.3 p.p.m. ozone......, and the combination of these. The exposure duration was 3 h. The outcome measures were interleukins and cells in nasal lavages (NAL), respiratory function, bronchial metacholine responsiveness, rhinometry symptoms and general well-being in a questionnaire and time course of general irritation on a visual analogue...

  1. Temporal and spatial variability of trace metals in suspended matter of the Mandovi estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, T.G.

    of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) in estuaries are controlled by seasonal changes in inputs from river-end and marine-end members, physico-chemical processes occurring at the mixing zone of freshwater and salt water and biological productivity (Boyden et... al. 1979; Kennedy 1984; Balls 1990; Turner et al. 1991; Burton et al. 1994; Balls et al. 1997; Paucot and Wollast 1997; Zwolsman and van Eck 1999; Nolting et al. 1999; Hatje et al. 2001; Qiao et al. 2007; Kessarkar et al. 2009). Flocculation...

  2. Biological and chemical data of oil-derived elements being assimilated by oysters due to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill collected in Alabama and Mississippi coastal waters (NODC Accession 0118498)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen in oyster shell, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill....

  3. Monitoring of suspended sediment in South Tyrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadalet, Rudi; Dinale, Roberto; Pernter, Martin; Maraldo, Luca; Peterlin, Dieter; Richter, Arnold; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good status of European water bodies, the Hydrographic Office of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Italy) extended in 2014 its institutional activities including the monitoring of suspended sediment in the river channel network. Currently, the only active monitoring station is on the Adige River at the gauging station of Ponte Adige near Bolzano (drainage area 2705 km2). The applied monitoring strategy and the data analysis concept are both based on the guidelines issued by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). The results indicates that the temporal variability strongly differs during the investigated period (2014-2015). In addition to the analysis of precipitation and water discharge, temperature and lightning activity were also included to better understand the sediment transport dynamics observed at the station. In summer 2015, the combination of constantly high daily temperature throughout the Adige basin (which drove intense glacier melting in the headwaters) with a high frequency of convective rainfall events (90% more than in 2014, obtained through lightning detection), led to an annual mass of transported suspended sediment of 260000 t. Interestingly, this value is similar to the one estimated for 2014 (300000 t), which was characterized by very different meteorological conditions (colder and wetter summer), but with the occurrence of an important flood in August, which transported half of the annual amount. Finally, we can conclude that the adopted monitoring strategy is applicable for institutional aims in terms of costs as well as in terms of time effort. During the next years, other stations for suspended sediment monitoring are planned to be installed in the Province to cover the most important river segments.

  4. Repair of tegmen defect using cranial particulate bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arin K; Poe, Dennis S

    2015-01-01

    Bone paté is used to repair cranial bone defects. This material contains bone-dust collected during the high-speed burring of the cranium. Clinical and experimental studies of bone dust, however, have shown that it does not have biological activity and is resorbed. We describe the use of bone paté using particulate bone graft. Particulate graft is harvested with a hand-driven brace and 16mm bit; it is not subjected to thermal injury and its large size resists resorption. Bone paté containing particulate graft is much more likely than bone dust to contain viable osteoblasts capable of producing new bone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Active noise cancellation in a suspended interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Driggers, Jennifer C; Pepper, Keenan; Adhikari, Rana

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate feed-forward vibration isolation on a suspended Fabry-Perot interferometer using Wiener filtering and a variant of the common Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive filter algorithm. We compare the experimental results with theoretical estimates of the cancellation efficiency. Using data from the recent LIGO Science Run, we also estimate the impact of this technique on full scale gravitational wave interferometers. In the future, we expect to use this technique to also remove acoustic, magnetic, and gravitational noise perturbations from the LIGO interferometers. This noise cancellation technique is simple enough to implement in standard laboratory environments and can be used to improve SNR for a variety of high precision experiments.

  6. Safety Harness For Work Under Suspended Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunoo, Su Young

    1994-01-01

    Safety device protects worker under suspended engine or other heavy load. Mechanically linked with load so if load should fall, worker yanked safely away. Worker wears chest-plate vest with straps crossing eye on back. Lower safety cable connected to eye extends horizontally away from worker to nearby wall, wrapped on pulley and extends upward to motion amplifier or reducer. Safety cables transform any sudden downward motion of overhanging load into rapid sideways motion of worker. Net catches worker, preventing worker from bumping against wall.

  7. Particulate carbohydrate in the euphotic zone of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; De; Shirodkar, P.V.; Reddy, C

    Particulate matter collected from the Bay of Bengal was analysed for carbohydrate and chlorophyll a. The distribution of chlorophyll a was different from that of carbohydrate. Chlorophyll a increased from north to south, whereas carbohydrate levels...

  8. Short term variation in particulate matter in the shelf waters of the Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Particulate matter collected at a single station in the shelf waters of Princess Astrid coast (70 degrees S, 11 degrees E) Antarctica, during the austral summer (Jan.-Feb. 1986) was analysed for phytoplankton biomass (Chl @ia@@), living carbon (ATP...

  9. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    401. This difference may be the result of using filter media at Station 400 with a smaller pore size than the media used at the other two stations. Average annual gamma exposure at Station 401 is slightly greater than at Station 400 and 402. Average annual gamma exposure at all three TTR stations are in the upper range to slightly higher than values reported for the CEMP stations surrounding the TTR. At higher wind speeds, the saltation counts are greater at Station 401 than at Station 402 while the suspended particulate concentrations are greater at Station 402 than at Statin 401. Although these observations seem counterintuitive, they are likely the result of differences in the soil material present at the two sites. Station 401 is located on an interfluve elevated above two adjacent drainage channels where the soil surface is likely to be composed of coarser material. Station 402 is located in finer sediments at the playa edge and is also subject to dust from a dirt road only 500 m to the north. During prolonged high wind events, suspended dust concentrations at Station 401 peaked with the initial winds then decreased whereas dust concentrations at Station 402 peaked with each peak in the wind speed. This likely reflects a limited PM10 source that is quickly expended at Station 401 relative to an abundant PM10 source at Station 402. In CY2013, to facilitate comparisons between radiological analyses of collected dust, the filter media at all three stations will be standardized. In addition, a sequence of samples will be collected at Station 400 using both types of filter media to enable development of a mathematical relationship between the results derived from the two filter types. Additionally, having acquired approximately four years of observations at Stations 400 and 401 and a year of observations at Station 402, a period-of-record analysis of the radiological and airborne dust conditions will be undertaken.

  10. Turbidity and suspended sediment in the upper Esopus Creek watershed, Ulster County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Michael R.; Siemion, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were measured for 2 to 3 years at 14 monitoring sites throughout the upper Esopus Creek watershed in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The upper Esopus Creek watershed is part of the New York City water-supply system that supplies water to more than 9 million people every day. Turbidity, caused primarily by high concentrations of inorganic suspended particles, is a potential water-quality concern because it colors the water and can reduce the effectiveness of drinking-water disinfection. The purposes of this study were to quantify concentrations of suspended sediment and turbidity levels, to estimate suspended-sediment loads within the upper Esopus Creek watershed, and to investigate the relations between SSC and turbidity. Samples were collected at four locations along the main channel of Esopus Creek and at all of the principal tributaries. Samples were collected monthly and during storms and were analyzed for SSC and turbidity in the laboratory. Turbidity was also measured every 15 minutes at six of the sampling stations with in situ turbidity probes.

  11. Suspended-sediment concentrations, yields, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, as well as transporting harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples were collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011. Analyses of these data indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. The single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River during the 2011 spring runoff. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been known to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. For this study, comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. Regression analysis indicated that 7 out of 14 sites had poor or no relation between SSC and streamflow. Only two sites, the Knife River and the Wild Rice River at Twin Valley, had strong correlations between SSC and streamflow, with coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In contrast, turbidity had moderate to strong

  12. A Seasonally Robust Empirical Algorithm to Retrieve Suspended Sediment Concentrations in the Scheldt River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Raymaekers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A seasonally robust algorithm for the retrieval of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM in the Scheldt River from hyperspectral images is presented. This algorithm can be applied without the need to simultaneously acquire samples (from vessels and pontoons. Especially in dynamic environments such as estuaries, this leads to a large reduction of costs, both in equipment and personnel. The algorithm was established empirically using in situ data of the water-leaving reflectance obtained over the tidal cycle during different seasons and different years. Different bands and band combinations were tested. Strong correlations were obtained for exponential relationships between band ratios and SPM concentration. The best performing relationships are validated using airborne hyperspectral data acquired in June 2005 and October 2007 at different moments in the tidal cycle. A band ratio algorithm (710 nm/596 nm was successfully applied to a hyperspectral AHS image of the Scheldt River to obtain an SPM concentration map.

  13. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  14. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  15. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  16. Depth-integrated suspended sediment and geochemical fluxes in large rivers: the Amazon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, J.; Lupker, M.; Gaillardet, J.; Metivier, F.; France-Lanord, C.; Maurice, L.

    2010-12-01

    Erosion and weathering produce a wide range of residual solid products, in terms of size, density, mineralogy and chemical composition. These solid products are then transported by rivers from the continents to the oceans as suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bedload. Large rivers account for an important part of this transfer of sediments at the global scale. In those rivers, deep channels allow for vertical differentiation, or sorting, of suspended sediment, following their size and density. This hydrodynamic sorting results in vertically heterogeneous depth-profiles in terms of SPM concentration and size distribution (e.g. Garcia, 2008), which in turn likely result in an heterogeneous chemical composition of SPM throughout channel depth (e.g. Galy, 2007), which has to be evaluated. We sampled river water of the main tributaries of the Amazon River system (in the lowland basin), at two distinct water-stages, at various depths following depth-profiles, using a point depth-sampler. After filtration, and SPM recovery, SPM concentration, grain size distribution and chemical composition were determined. River discharge and water velocity throughout the sampled cross-sections were recorded using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). The large increase in SPM concentration with depth observed at most of the sampled depth-profiles is well accounted for by the Rouse model (e.g. Rouse, 1950). This analysis allows us to reliably infer the SPM concentration and grain size distribution throughout the sampled river cross-section, and thus to estimate the spatially-integrated instantaneous SPM flux using ADCP data (Bouchez et al., 2010). The study also emphasizes the potential role of particle aggregation, within the river system, as a complicating factor regarding the prediction of these depth-integrated SPM fluxes from easily measurable hydrodynamic parameters (surface SPM concentration and grain size, and water velocity). Then, using the previous analysis, combined

  17. Modern sampling and analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in marine particulate material using magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Andrew R; Townsend, Ashley T; Lannuzel, Delphine; Remenyi, Tomas A; van der Merwe, Pier

    2010-08-31

    Trace elements often limit phytoplankton growth in the ocean, and the quantification of particulate forms is essential to fully understand their biogeochemical cycling. There is presently a lack of reliable measurements on the trace elemental content of marine particles, in part due to the inadequacies of the sampling and analytical methods employed. Here we report on the development of a series of state-of-the-art trace metal clean methods to collect and process oceanic particulate material in open-ocean and sea ice environments, including sampling, size-fractionated filtration, particle digestions and analysis by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Particular attention was paid to the analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and field blanks, which are typically the limiting factor for the accurate analysis of low concentrations of trace metals in marine particulate samples. Theoretical detection limits (3 s of the blank) were low for all 17 elements considered, and varied according to filter material and porosity (sub-microg L(-1) for polycarbonate filters and 1-2 microg L(-1) for quartz and polyester filters). Analytical accuracy was verified using fresh water CRMs, with excellent recoveries noted (93-103%). Digestion efficiencies for various acid combinations were assessed using sediment and plankton CRMs. Using nitric acid only, good recoveries (79-90%) were achieved for Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga. The addition of HF was necessary for the quantitative recovery of the more refractory trace elements such as U, Al, V and Cr. Bioactive elements such as P can also be analysed and used as a biomass normaliser. Our developed sampling and analytical methods proved reliable when applied during two major field programs in both the open Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice environments during the International Polar Year in 2007. Trace elemental data are presented for particulate samples collected in both

  18. Suspended-sediment concentrations, loads, total suspended solids, turbidity, and particle-size fractions for selected rivers in Minnesota, 2007 through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher A.; Savage, Brett E.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment-laden rivers and streams pose substantial environmental and economic challenges. Excessive sediment transport in rivers causes problems for flood control, soil conservation, irrigation, aquatic health, and navigation, and transports harmful contaminants like organic chemicals and eutrophication-causing nutrients. In Minnesota, more than 5,800 miles of streams are identified as impaired by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) due to elevated levels of suspended sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the MPCA, established a sediment monitoring network in 2007 and began systematic sampling of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC), total suspended solids (TSS), and turbidity in rivers across Minnesota to improve the understanding of fluvial sediment transport relations. Suspended-sediment samples collected from 14 sites from 2007 through 2011 indicated that the Zumbro River at Kellogg in the driftless region of southeast Minnesota had the highest mean SSC of 226 milligrams per liter (mg/L) followed by the Minnesota River at Mankato with a mean SSC of 193 mg/L. During the 2011 spring runoff, the single highest SSC of 1,250 mg/L was measured at the Zumbro River. The lowest mean SSC of 21 mg/L was measured at Rice Creek in the northern Minneapolis- St. Paul metropolitan area. Total suspended solids (TSS) have been used as a measure of fluvial sediment by the MPCA since the early 1970s; however, TSS concentrations have been determined to underrepresent the amount of suspended sediment. Because of this, the MPCA was interested in quantifying the differences between SSC and TSS in different parts of the State. Comparisons between concurrently sampled SSC and TSS indicated significant differences at every site, with SSC on average two times larger than TSS concentrations. The largest percent difference between SSC and TSS was measured at the South Branch Buffalo River at Sabin, and the smallest difference was observed at the Des Moines

  19. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%–30.91%, 83.29%–90.51%, and 61.54–68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff.

  20. Environmentally-suspended sediment production of the Nasia River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the level of suspended sediment produced in the Nasia River Basin. Hydrological and meteorological data and water samples were used for the study. Average suspended sediment yield (33 years) in the basin was 19.90 t/km2/yr. With mean annual runoff of 439.13m3/s, 322.43 t/yr suspended sediment ...

  1. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  2. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  3. Particulate Matter: a closer look

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsman E; Beck JP; Bree L van; Cassee FR; Koelemeijer RBA; Matthijsen J; Thomas R; Wieringa K; LED; MGO

    2005-01-01

    The summary in booklet form 'Fijn stof nader bekeken' (Particulate Matter: a closer look) , published in Dutch by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) and the Environment and Safety Division of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), has been designed to

  4. PARTICULATE SOURCES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elemental concentrations of airborne particulate matter 9 sampled at three urban site classes m Lagos (an industrial city) 1n southWest Nigeria were subjected to statistical -' analysis to determine the number and nature of sources impacting the receptor sites. Inter-elemental Correlation, , '. Principal COmponent Factor ...

  5. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes summaries of analyses performed on particulate samples from Sierra Pacific Power Company's Pinon Pine Power Project. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, and plans for enhancing the data bank with interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  6. Fine particulate pollution and asthma exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Urien, Saik; Guedj, Romain; Carbajal, Ricardo; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Chappuy, Hélène

    2017-12-19

    As the results from epidemiological studies about the impact of outdoor air pollution on asthma in children are heterogeneous, our objective was to investigate the association between asthma exacerbation in children and exposure to air pollutants. A database of 1 264 585 paediatric visits during the 2010-2015 period to the emergency rooms from 20 emergency departments (EDs) of 'Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)', the largest hospital group in Europe, was used. A total of 47 107 visits were classified as asthma exacerbations. Concentration of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10  µm (PM10) and 2.5 µm (PM2.5)), as well as meteorological data, evolution of respiratory syncytial virus infection and pollen exposition, were collected on an hourly or daily basis for the same period using institutional databases. To assess the association between air pollution and asthma, mixed-effects quasi-Poisson regression modelling was performed. The only compound independently associated with ED visits for asthma was PM2.5 (Peffect, was estimated at 13.5 µg/m3. We found an association between daily asthma exacerbation in paediatric visits to the ED and fine particulate air pollutants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Estimates of suspended sediment entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L.J.; Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data collected at Mallard Island as a means of determining suspended-sediment load entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. Optical backscatter (OBS) data were collected every 15 min during water years (WYs) 1995-2003 and converted to SSC. Daily fluvial advective sediment load was estimated by combining estimated Delta outflow with daily averaged SSC. On days when no data were available, SSC was estimated using linear interpolation. A model was developed to estimate the landward dispersive load using velocity and SSC data collected during WYs 1994 and 1996. The advective and dispersive loads were summed to estimate the total load. Annual suspended-sediment load at Mallard Island averaged 1.2??0.4 Mt (million metric tonnes). Given that the average water discharge for the 1995-2003 period was greater than the long -term average discharge, it seems likely that the average suspended-sediment load may be less than 1.2??0.4 Mt. Average landward dispersive load was 0.24 Mt/yr, 20% of the total. On average during the wet season, 88% of the annual suspended-sediment load was discharged through the Delta and 43% occurred during the wettest 30-day period. The January 1997 flood transported 1.2 Mt of suspended sediment or about 11% of the total 9-year load (10.9 Mt). Previous estimates of sediment load at Mallard Island are about a factor of 3 greater because they lacked data downstream from riverine gages and sediment load has decreased. Decreasing suspended-sediment loads may increase erosion in the Bay, help to cause remobilization of buried contaminants, and reduce the supply of sediment for restoration projects. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport

  9. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  10. Effect of ozonation on particulate matter in broiler houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Wang, L; Oviedo-Rondón, E; Parnell, C B

    2010-10-01

    The effects of ozonation on particulate matter were studied on a commercial broiler farm. The farm consisted of 4 identical tunnel-ventilated houses (12.8×152.4 m): 2 houses were treated with O3 (maximum concentration 0.1 ppm) and the other 2 served as control units. The particle size distributions of total suspended particulate (TSP) samples from both control and treated houses were found to have very similar profiles with no statistical difference. The TSP concentrations were significantly higher in treated houses as compared with those in control houses, and the mean of the differences was 5.50 mg/m3. In both treated and control houses, there were substantial vertical TSP concentration gradients and the concentrations decreased with height. At broiler chicken height (0.28 m), TSP concentrations were 13±3 mg/m3 in control houses and 17±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. At human breathing height (1.55 m), TSP concentrations were 8±4 mg/m3 in control houses and 7±2 mg/m3 in treated houses. Particle phase NH4+ concentrations were higher in treated houses (ranging from 0.59 to 42.01 mg/m3 with mean=17.49 mg/m3) than in control houses (ranging from 0.34 to 13.55 mg/m3 with mean=4.42 mg/m3). The TSP samples from locations in the vicinity of the farm showed higher concentrations downwind than that upwind, but there were no significant differences observed among different ambient locations for TSP NH4+ concentrations. The results from this study did not show that direct application of ozonation technique has beneficial effects for particulate matter control in broiler houses.

  11. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  12. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  13. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    We report a fabrication method, which uses standard UV-lithography to pattern the catalyst for the chemical vapour deposition(CVD) of suspended double clamped single walled carbon nanotubes. By using an aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 the patterning of the catalyst material onto microelectrodes can...... be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...

  14. Vertical Distribution of Suspended Sediment under Steady Flow: Existing Theories and Fractional Derivative Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional advection-diffusion equation (fADE model is a new approach to describe the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. However, the advantages and parameter definition of the fADE model in describing the sediment suspension distribution are still unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study first reviews seven models, including the fADE model, for the vertical distribution of suspended sediment concentration in steady turbulent flow. The fADE model, among others, describes both Fickian and non-Fickian diffusive characteristics of suspended sediment, while the other six models assume that the vertical diffusion of suspended sediment follows Fick’s first law. Second, this study explores the sensitivity of the fractional index of the fADE model to the variation of particle sizes and sediment settling velocities, based on experimental data collected from the literatures. Finally, empirical formulas are developed to relate the fractional derivative order to particle size and sediment settling velocity. These formulas offer river engineers a substitutive way to estimate the fractional derivative order in the fADE model.

  15. Effects of Gravity and Shear on the Dynamics and Stability of Particulate and Multiphase Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangani, Ashor S.

    1996-01-01

    The main objectives of this project are to understand the differing particulate and multiphase flow behaviors that will occur in space and in Earth's gravity. More specifically, the project is concerned with understanding the effect of shear and gravity on two relatively ideal suspensions with significant inertial effects. The first is a gas-solid suspension at small Reynolds numbers and finite Stokes numbers. In this type of suspensions the inertia of the particle phase is significant while the hydrodynamic interactions are dominated by viscous forces in the suspending fluid. The other is a bubble suspension at small Weber and large Reynolds numbers. The hydrodynamic interactions in such suspensions are dominated by the inertial effects in the suspending fluid, but these inertial interactions can be described using potential flow theory. Our main objective is to examine the effects of shear and gravity on the average properties and stability of these two suspensions.

  16. A bacterial bioreporter panel to assay the cytotoxicity of atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Nivi; Schauer, James J.; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Melamed, Sahar; Tirosh, Ofir; Belkin, Shimshon; Erel, Yigal

    2012-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that elevated concentrations of suspended atmospheric particulate matter (PM) are associated with adverse health effects. In order to minimize the adverse public health effects of atmospheric PM by exposure management, there is a need for a greater understanding of the toxic mechanisms and the components that are responsible for the toxic effects. The aim of this study was to utilize bioassay techniques to investigate these aspects. For this purpose a reporter panel of 9 genetically engineered bacterial (Escherichia coli) strains was composed. Each panel member was designed to report on a different stress condition with a measurable light signal produced by the luciferase enzyme. Toxic mechanisms and components were studied using six anthropogenic PM source samples, including two vehicle combustion particles, three coal fly ash (CFA) samples and an urban dust sample. The most prominent outcome of the panel exposure results were broad panel responses observed for two of the CFA samples, indicating oxidative stress, respiration inhibition and iron deficiency. These responses were relieved when the samples were treated with EDTA, a non-specific metal chelator, suggesting the involvement of metals in the observed effects. Bioavailability analysis of the samples suggests that chromium was related to the toxic responses induced by two of the CFA samples. Oxidative stress was also observed in several samples of ambient atmospheric aerosols and excess metal toxicity in an urban dust sample collected in a parking lot. The reporter panel approach, as demonstrated in this study, has the potential of providing novel insights as to the mechanisms of atmospheric PM toxicity. Furthermore, combining the panel's results with bioavailability data can enlighten about the role of different PM components in the observed toxicity.

  17. Molecular composition of sugars in atmospheric particulate matter from interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md. Mozammel; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kim, Yongwon

    2015-04-01

    Sugars can account for 0.5-8% of carbon in atmospheric particulate matter, affecting the earth climate, air quality and public health. Total of 33 total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected from Fairbanks, Alaska in June 2008 to June 2009 using a low volume air sampler. Here, we report the molecular characteristics of anhydro-sugars (levoglucosan, galactosan and mannosan), primary saccharides (xylose, fructose, glucose, sucrose and trehalose) and sugar alcohols (erythritol, arabitol, mannitol and inositol). The average contribution of sugars to the organic carbon (OC) was also determined to be 0.92%. Sugar compounds were measured using solvent extraction/TMS-derivatization technique followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The concentrations of total quantified sugar compounds ranged from 2.3 to 453 ng m-3 (average 145 ng m-3). The highest concentration was recorded for levoglucosan in summer, with a maximum concentration of 790 ng m-3 (average 108 ng m-3). Levoglucosan, which is specifically formed by a pyrolysis of cellulose, has been used as an excellent tracer of biomass burning. The highest level of levoglucosan indicates a significant contribution of biomass burning in ambient aerosols. Galactosan (average 20 ng m-3) and mannosan (average 27 ng m-3), which are also formed through the pyrolysis of cellulose/hemicelluloses, were identified in all samples. The average concentrations of arabitol, mannitol, glucose and sucrose were also found 14.7, 14.6, 14.1 and 16.8 ng m-3, respectively. They have been proposed as tracers for resuspension of surface soil and unpaved road dust, which contain biological materials including fungi and bacteria. These results suggest that there is some impact of bioaerosols on climate over Interior Alaska. We will also measure water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and inorganic ions for all samples.

  18. Indoor/outdoor relationship of trace metals in the atmospheric particulate matter of an industrial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Rashida; Shaheen, Nazia; Shah, Munir H.

    2011-08-01

    Present study is based on the measurement and monitoring of indoor and outdoor atmospheric particulate matter from an industrial area (Wah Cantt, Pakistan). The particulate samples are collected on glass fiber filter paper using high volume air sampler. Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sb and Zn) in the particulate samples are estimated by atomic absorption spectrometry. On the average TSP level is significantly higher in outdoor atmosphere than indoor, and both of them are higher than WHO and USEPA standards. The distribution of trace metals is considerably diverse in indoor and outdoor particulates. Average concentrations of Fe, Zn, Co, Cr and Mn are significantly higher in outdoor particulates, whereas Cu and Pb levels are considerably higher in the indoor particulates. Source apportionment carried out by PCA and CA is diverse in indoor/outdoor particulates and the major pollution sources identified are industrial activities, automobile emissions and soil derived dust. Among the trace metals, Cd, Sb, Zn, Pb and Co are found to be highly enriched in the atmospheric particulate matter. The present atmospheric trace metals levels are also compared with those reported from other regions around the world, and are many-folds higher than previously reported results.

  19. Elemental composition of arctic particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, T. A.; Eldred, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of the elemental composition of particulate matter collected in flights in the Arctic in spring 1983 as part of the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten samples of size-selected particles were analyzed by four nondestructive techniques at Davis. Concentrations were determined for H, C, N, and O by Forward Alpha Scattering Techniques (FAST) and for elements heavier than fluorine by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Total mass was measured gravimetrically, and optical absorption was measured using the Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Results of the analyses show dramatic differences in concentrations and elemental ratios from the Alaskan Arctic to the Norwegian Arctic, with indications of wood smoke and sulfuric acid in the arctic atmosphere.

  20. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-02-01

    Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control, called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

  1. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite derived suspended sediment concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Ratheesh; Rajawat, A. S.

    2012-10-01

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are realized with respect to the sediment size distribution and the bottom bed materials observed in the Gulf. Simulated SSCs are compared with alternate OCM derived SSC. The results are observed to be impetus where the model is able to generate the spatial dynamics of the sediment concentrations. Sediment dynamics like deposition, erosion and dispersion are explained with the simulated tidal currents and OCM derived sediment concentrations. Tidal range is observed as the important physical factor controlling the deposition and resuspension of sediments within the Gulf. From the simulation studies; maximum residual current velocities, tidal fronts and high turbulent zones are found to characterise the islands and shoals within the Gulf, which results in high sediment concentrations in those regions. Remarkable variability in the bathymetry of the Gulf, different bed materials and varying tidal conditions induces several circulation patterns and turbulence creating the unique suspended sediment concentration pattern in the Gulf.

  2. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Influence of particulate matter on microfouling biomass in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    slations from the Arabian Sea and analysed for suspended matter (SM) and particulate organic carbon (POC). Microfouling material from aluminium panels at the same stations was analysed for dry weight andior organic carbon. Microfouling biomass (as dry... the SM of the seawater and the dry weight of microfouling material (r=0·84;P~O·OOI).as well as between the poe of the seawater and the organic carbon of the fouling material (r=0·74 and 0·84;P~O·(}OI).Microfouling biomass on aluminium panels in deep...

  4. Relationship between vehicle count and particulate air pollution in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnawaiseh, Nedal Awad; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Isa, Zaleha Md

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this cross-sectional comparative study is to observe the relationship between traffic-related air pollutants, particularly particulate matter (PM) of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM of size 10 µm (PM10), and vehicle traffic in Amman, Jordan. Two study areas were chosen randomly as a high-polluted area (HPA) and low-polluted area (LPA). The findings indicate that TSP and PM10 were still significantly correlated with traffic count even after controlling for confounding factors (temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed): TSP, r = 0.726, P relationship between traffic count and PM level: TSP, P relationship between temperature and PM10 level (P = .018). Traffic volume contributed greatly to high concentrations of TSP and PM10 in areas with high traffic count, in addition to the effect of temperature. © 2012 APJPH.

  5. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical equation that can be used for estimating the suspended sediment yields of river drainage basins without sediment data has been established for basins in the sub-tropical forest Southwestern river basin system of Ghana. The power law equation relates mean annual specific suspended sediment yield (t km-2 ...

  6. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud. Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  7. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  8. A wave-resolving model for nearshore suspended sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Shi, Fengyan

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a wave-resolving sediment transport model, which is capable of simulating sediment suspension in the field-scale surf zone. The surf zone hydrodynamics is modeled by the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012). The turbulent flow and suspended sediment are simulated in a coupled manner. Three effects of suspended sediment on turbulent flow field are considered: (1) baroclinic forcing effect; (2) turbulence damping effect and (3) bottom boundary layer effect. Through the validation with the laboratory measurements of suspended sediment under nonbreaking skewed waves and surfzone breaking waves, we demonstrate that the model can reasonably predict wave-averaged sediment profiles. The model is then utilized to simulate a rip current field experiment (RCEX) and nearshore suspended sediment transport. The offshore sediment transport by rip currents is captured by the model. The effects of suspended sediment on self-suspension are also investigated. The turbulence damping and bottom boundary layer effects are significant on sediment suspension. The suspended sediment creates a stably stratified water column, damping fluid turbulence and reducing turbulent diffusivity. The suspension of sediment also produces a stably stratified bottom boundary layer. Thus, the drag coefficient and bottom shear stress are reduced, causing less sediment pickup from the bottom. The cross-shore suspended sediment flux is analyzed as well. The mean Eulerian suspended sediment flux is shoreward outside the surf zone, while it is seaward in the surf zone.

  9. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many natural gums are employed as suspending agents in the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The search to develop locally available natural gum from apparently a waste product as an alternative suspending agent stimulated the interest in this present study. Cola acuminata gum (CAG) extracted from Cola ...

  10. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  11. Evaluation of the suspending property of grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in sulphadimidine suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for sulphadimidine. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  12. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  13. Evaluation of the Suspending Property of Grewia Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in metronidazole suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for metronidazole. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  14. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  15. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2002-01-31

    This quarterly report presents results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October--December, 2001 study period. The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. The persistent daily trends described in the previous quarterly report are seen in the fall particulate data, superimposed on the seasonal trend toward lower concentrations in the cooler months. Some instrumental issues were noted with the APS and the sulfate monitoring instruments, as described in the main report.

  16. Lantana camara invasion in urban forests of an Indo–Burma hotspot region and its ecosustainable management implication through biomonitoring of particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, north east India falling under an Indo–Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. The phytosociolology of invasive weeds has been studied, showing that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter as well as respirable suspended particulate matter in the ambient air of Aizawl. Biomonitoring through plant leaves has been recognized as a recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter science. We aimed to investigate whether L. camara leaves may act as a biomonitoring tool hence allowing its sustainable management. The quantity of respirable suspended particulate matter and suspended particulate matter at four different sites were much higher than the prescribed limits of Central Pollution Control Board of India during the summer and winter seasons. The dust deposition of L. camara leaves was 1.01 mg/cm2 and, pertaining to the biochemical parameters: pH was 7.49; relative water content 73.74%; total chlorophyll 1.91 mg/g; ascorbic acid 7.06 mg/g; sugar 0.16 mg/g; protein 0.67 mg/g; catalase 30.76 U/mg protein; peroxidase 0.16 U/mg protein; and air pollution tolerance index was 12.91. L. camara was observed in the good category in anticipated performance index, which shows the tolerant and conditioning capacity of air pollution. Therefore, the present study recommends the use of L. camara as biomonitor that may further have sustainable management implications for an invasive plant.

  17. Cycles of selected trace elements in the South Atlantic: Vertical transport and interactions between particulates and solution; Zum Kreislauf ausgewaehlter Spurenmetalle im Suedatlantik: Vertikaltransport und Wechselwirkung zwischen Partikeln und Loesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierssen, H.

    1999-07-01

    Subjects: Concentrations, vertical and regional distributions of dissolved and suspended particulate trace elements; Trace element fluxes - vertical, regional, seasonal; The role of particulate organic carbon and atmospheric dust in vertical transport; Fractionation of trace elements in particulate material during transport. [German] Themen dieser Arbeit sind: Konzentrationen, vertikale und regionale Verteilungen von geloesten und suspendierten partikulaeren Spurenelementem (SE); SE-Fluesse vertikal, regional und saisonal; die Rolle des partikulaeren organischen Kohlenstoffs und des atmosphaerischen Staubeintrags beim Vertikaltransport; Fraktionierung von SE im partikulaeren Material beim Transport. (orig./SR)

  18. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  19. Material Instabilities in Particulate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of a theoretical investigation of material (or constitutive) instability associated with shear induced particle migration in dense particulate suspensions or granular media. It is shown that one can obtain a fairly general linear-stability analysis, including the effects of shear-induced anisotropy in the base flow as well as Reynolds dilatancy. A criterion is presented here for simple shearing instability in the absence of inertia and dilatancy.

  20. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-04-01

    This is the second quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others.

  1. Sediment fingerprinting to determine the source of suspended sediment in a southern Piedmont stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, R; Radcliffe, D E; Ritchie, J C; Risse, L M; McKinley, R A

    2010-01-01

    Thousands of stream miles in the southern Piedmont region are impaired because of high levels of suspended sediment. It is unclear if the source is upland erosion from agricultural sources or bank erosion of historic sediment deposited in the flood plains between 1830 and 1930 when cotton farming was extensive. The objective of this study was to determine the source of high stream suspended sediment concentrations in a typical southern Piedmont watershed using sediment fingerprinting techniques. Twenty-one potential tracers were tested for their ability to discriminate between sources, conservative behavior, and lack of redundancy. Tracer concentrations were determined in potential sediment sources (forests, pastures, row crop fields, stream banks, and unpaved roads and construction sites), and suspended sediment samples collected from the stream and analyzed using mixing models. Results indicated that 137Cs and 15N were the best tracers to discriminate potential sediment sources in this watershed. The delta15N values showed distinct signatures in all the potential suspended sediment sources, and delta15N was a unique tracer to differentiate stream bank soil from upland subsurface soils, such as soil from construction sites, unpaved roads, ditches, and field gullies. Mixing models showed that about 60% of the stream suspended sediment originated from eroding stream banks, 23 to 30% from upland subsoil sources (e.g., construction sites and unpaved roads), and about 10 to 15% from pastures. The results may be applicable to other watersheds in the Piedmont depending on the extent of urbanization occurring in these watersheds. Better understanding of the sources of fine sediment has practical implications on the type of sediment control measures to be adopted. Investment of resources in improving water quality should consider the factors causing stream bank erosion and erosion from unpaved roads and construction sites to water quality impairment.

  2. Particulate Formation from a Copper Oxide-Based Oxygen ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrition behavior and particle loss of a copper oxide-based oxygen carrier from a methane chemical looping combustion (CLC) process was investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. The aerodynamic diameters of most elutriated particulates, after passing through a horizontal settling duct, range between 2 and 5 μm. A notable number of submicron particulates are also identified. Oxygen carrier attrition was observed to lead to increased CuO loss resulting from the chemical looping reactions, i.e., Cu is enriched in small particles generated primarily from fragmentation in the size range of 10-75 μm. Cyclic reduction and oxidation reactions in CLC have been determined to weaken the oxygen carrier particles, resulting in increased particulate emission rates when compared to oxygen carriers without redox reactions. The generation rate for particulates < 10 μm was found to decrease with progressive cycles over as-prepared oxygen carrier particles and then reach a steady state. The surface of the oxygen carrier is also found to be coarsened due to a Kirkendall effect, which also explains the enrichment of Cu on particle surfaces and in small particles. As a result, it is important to collect and reprocess small particles generated from chemical looping processes to reduce oxygen carrier loss. The redox reactions associated with chemical looping combustion play an important role in particle attrition in the fluidized bed. Reaction-induced local stresses, due to the r

  3. On-road particulate emission measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio

    Particulate matter (PM) suspended in the atmosphere has harmful health effects, contributes to visibility impairment, and affects atmospheric radiative transfer, thereby contributing to global change. Vehicles contribute substantially to the ambient PM concentration in urban areas, yet the fraction of ambient PM originating from vehicle emissions is poorly characterized because suitable measurement methods have not been available. This dissertation describes the development and the use of a new vehicle emission remote sensing system (VERSS) for the on-road measurement of PM emission factors for vehicles. The PM VERSS measures PM by ultraviolet backscattering and transmission. PM backscattering and transmission mass efficiencies have been calculated from Mie theory based on an homogeneous spherical model for gasoline particles and on a two-layers, spherical model for diesel particles. The VERSS was used in a large-scale study in Las Vegas, NV. A commercial gaseous VERSS was used for the measurement of gaseous emission factors (i.e., carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide). Speed and acceleration were also measured for each vehicle. A video image of each vehicle's rear license plate was acquired and license plate numbers were matched with the Clark County department of motor vehicle database to retrieve vehicle information such as model year, vehicle weight category and engine ignition type. PM VERSS has precisely estimated PM fleet average emission factors and clearly shown the dependence of PM emission factors on vehicle model year. Under mostly hot-stabilized operation, diesel vehicle PM emission factors are about 25 times higher than those of gasoline vehicles. Furthermore, the fleet frequency distributions of PM emission factors are highly skewed, meaning that most of the fleet emission factor is accounted for by a small portion of the fleet. The PM VERSS can measure PM emission factors for these high emitting vehicles on an individual basis. PM

  4. Diffusion processes in freely suspended smectic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Zakharov, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    A molecular model describing translational diffusion in freely suspended smectic films (FSSFs) in air is proposed. This model is based on the random walk theory and allows calculation of the translational diffusion coefficient (TDC) across smectic layers (along the director). All values necessary for calculating the TDC are obtained within the generalized mean-field model considering not only anisotropic interactions between nearest neighbors of molecules forming FSSFs, but also the stabilizing effect of the smectic/air interface. The spatial inhomogeneity of order parameters over the FSSF section, arising in this case, results in the fact that the surface tension at the smectic/air interface not only suppresses thermal fluctuations in surface layers, but also completely suppresses translational diffusion of molecules from the FSSF to air. The results of calculations of dimensional translational diffusion in the bulk of the FSSF formed by 5- n-alkyl-2-(4- n-(perfluoroalkyl-metyleneoxy))pentyl molecules during its thinning show that the TDC monotonically increases as the smectic film is thinned.

  5. 45 CFR 2506.5 - If a debt is not excluded from these regulations, may it be compromised, suspended, terminated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false If a debt is not excluded from these regulations, may it be compromised, suspended, terminated, or waived? 2506.5 Section 2506.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COLLECTION...

  6. Automatic real-time control of suspended sediment based upon high frequency in situ measurements of nephelometric turbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis; Rand Eads

    1998-01-01

    Abstract - For estimating suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in rivers, turbidity is potentially a much better predictor than water discharge. Since about 1990, it has been feasible to automatically collect high frequency turbidity data at remote sites using battery-powered turbidity probes that are properly mounted in the river or stream. With sensors calibrated...

  7. [Distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles of the estuaries and coastal area of eastern Hainan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Cheng-Lin; Ren, Jing-Ling; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Shao, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Ling; Liu, Su-Mei

    2013-04-01

    The distributions and pollution status of heavy metals in the suspended particles were investigated in the Wanquan and Wenchang/Wenjiao estuaries and the coastal area of eastern Hainan in July 2008. The concentrations of metal elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn) were determined by ICP-AES after microwave digestion. Multivariate statistical methods (e. g. correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to discuss the major factors controlling the variability of heavy metal concentrations and the pollution status in those areas. There was an obvious variability in particulate metal concentrations from upstream to estuary of both rivers. The concentrations first increased with increasing salinity and then decreased with further increase of the salinity; the concentrations were slightly higher at the coastal area in the east. The variability of particulate metal concentrations reduced significantly after the normalization by Al, indicating the effects of grain size. Enrichment factor calculation results showed that there was heavy metal pollution (especially Cu, Ni) in the Wenchang/Wenjiao River and estuary, while the situation in Wanquan River remained at pristine level. Concentrations of particulate metals in the study area were mainly controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as contamination from the discharge of waste water and biological activity.

  8. An extensive study of the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in various river systems and their relationship with catchment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Matsuura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    An extensive investigation of particulate radiocaesium in suspended solids and dissolved radiocaesium in river water was undertaken at 30 sites in Fukushima and Miyagi Prefectures in December 2012, and their relationships with catchment inventory and the solid/liquid distribution coefficient (Kd) were evaluated. Rivers located in the coastal region on the north side of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant exhibited relatively higher particulate radiocaesium concentrations. Significant correlations were found between concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium and average catchment inventories, indicating that the concentrations of particulate/dissolved radiocaesium could be approximated from the catchment inventory. Particulate radiocaesium concentration was significantly correlated with dissolved radiocaesium concentration (with the exception of concentrations measured in estuaries), and the geometric mean Kd was calculated as 3.6 × 10(5) with a 95% confidence interval of 2.6-5.1 × 10(5). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Particulate Hot Gas Stream Cleanup Technical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potius, D.; Snyder, T.

    1997-07-01

    The characteristics of entrained particles generated by advanced coal conversion technologies and the harsh flue gas environments from which these particles must be removed challenge current ceramic barrier filtration systems. Measurements have shown that the size distribution, morphology, and chemical composition of particles generated by pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and gasification processes differ significantly from the corresponding characteristics of conventional pulverized-coal ash particles. The entrained particulate matter from these advanced conversion technologies often comprise fine size distributions, irregular particle morphologies, high specific surface areas, and significant proportions of added sorbent material. These characteristics can create high ash cohesivity and high pressure losses through the filter cakes. In addition, the distributions of chemical constituents among the collected particles provide local, highly concentrated chemical species that promote reactions between adjacent particles that ultimately cause strong, nodular deposits to form in the filter vessel. These deposits can lead directly to bridging and filter element failure. This project is designed to address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic filter elements. The activities conducted under Task 1, Assessment of Ash Characteristics, are discussed in this paper. Activities conducted under Task 2, Testing and Failure Analysis of Ceramic Filters, are discussed in a separate paper included in the proceedings of the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference. The specific objectives of Task I include the generation of a data base of the key characteristics of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and the identification of relationships between HGCU ash properties and the operation and

  10. The role of suspension events in cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Suspension of sand in the surf zone is intermittent. Especially striking in a time series of concentration are periods of intense suspension, suspension events, when the water column suspended sediment concentration is an order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration. The prevalence, timing, and contribution of suspension events to cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport are explored using field data collected in the inner half of the surf zone during a large storm at Duck, NC. Suspension events are defined as periods when the concentration is above a threshold. Events tended to occur during onshore flow under the wave crest, resulting in an onshore contribution to the suspended sediment transport. Even though large events occurred less than 10 percent of the total time, at some locations onshore transport associated with suspension events was greater than mean-current driven offshore-directed transport during non-event periods, causing the net suspended sediment transport to be onshore. Events and fluctuations in longshore velocity were not correlated. However, events did increase the longshore suspended sediment transport by approximately the amount they increase the mean concentration, which can be up to 35%. Because of the lack of correlation, the longshore suspended sediment transport can be modeled without considering the details of the intensity and time of events as the vertical integration of the product of the time-averaged longshore velocity and an event-augmented time-averaged concentration. However, to accurately model cross-shore suspended sediment transport, the timing and intensity of suspension events must be reproduced.

  11. Developing a semi-analytical algorithm to estimate particulate organic carbon (POC) levels in inland eutrophic turbid water based on MERIS images: A case study of Lake Taihu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Heng; Wang, Yannan; Jin, Qi; Shi, Lei; Li, Yunmei; Wang, Qiao

    2017-10-01

    Particulate organic carbon (POC) plays an important role in the carbon cycle in water due to its biological pump process. In the open ocean, algorithms can accurately estimate the surface POC concentration. However, no suitable POC-estimation algorithm based on MERIS bands is available for inland turbid eutrophic water. A total of 228 field samples were collected from Lake Taihu in different seasons between 2013 and 2015. At each site, the optical parameters and water quality were analyzed. Using in situ data, it was found that POC-estimation algorithms developed for the open ocean and coastal waters using remote sensing reflectance were not suitable for inland turbid eutrophic water. The organic suspended matter (OSM) concentration was found to be the best indicator of the POC concentration, and POC has an exponential relationship with the OSM concentration. Through an analysis of the POC concentration and optical parameters, it was found that the absorption peak of total suspended matter (TSM) at 665 nm was the optimum parameter to estimate POC. As a result, MERIS band 7, MERIS band 10 and MERIS band 12 were used to derive the absorption coefficient of TSM at 665 nm, and then, a semi-analytical algorithm was used to estimate the POC concentration for inland turbid eutrophic water. An accuracy assessment showed that the developed semi-analytical algorithm could be successfully applied with a MAPE of 31.82% and RMSE of 2.68 mg/L. The developed algorithm was successfully applied to a MERIS image, and two full-resolution MERIS images, acquired on August 13, 2010, and December 7, 2010, were used to map the POC spatial distribution in Lake Taihu in summer and winter.

  12. Variation in the Effect of Particulate Matter on Pulmonary Function in Schoolchildren in Western Japan and Its Relation with Interleukin-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Saito, Rumiko; Kimura, Yutaka; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-11-09

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of particulate matter (PM) on pulmonary function in schoolchildren, as well as the relationships of these effects with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children during April-May 2012, and in 384 of these children during March-May 2013. PEF's association with the daily levels of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and PM function in schoolchildren and daily levels of SPM and PM2.5, but this association may differ depending on the PM's ability to elicit interleukin-8 production.

  13. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  14. SIMULATION MODEL FOR FLOWAGE OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Ryosuke, KITAMURA; Seisaku, FUKUHARA; George, KISANUKI; Professor, Dept. of Ocean Civil Engineering, Kagoshima University; Technical Clerk, Kagoshima Prefecture (formerly Graduate Student, Kagoshima Univ.); Graduate Student, Kagoshima University

    1995-01-01

    A new slope stability analysis method based on consideration of particle scale is proposed for the analysis of the flowage of particulate material, in which the equilibrium condition of the particulate material is examined on the basis of the inter-particle force at a contact point caused by surface tension. The decrease in inter-particle force is considered as one of the main factors for the flowage of particulate material and corresponds to the slope failure. Several numerical experiments h...

  15. Influence of charge carriers on corrugation of suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Demid A.; Gorodetsky, Andrei; Baidakova, Marina V.

    2018-02-01

    Electronic degrees of freedom are predicted to play a significant role in mechanics of two-dimensional crystalline membranes. Here we show that appearance of charge carriers may cause a considerable impact on suspended graphene corrugation, thus leading to additional mechanism resulting in charge carriers mobility variation with their density. This finding may account for some details of suspended graphene conductivity dependence on its doping level and suggests that proper modeling of suspended graphene-based device properties must include the influence of charge carriers on its surface corrugation.

  16. Seasonal and spatial variability of light absorption by suspended particles in the southern Baltic: A mathematical description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meler, Justyna; Ostrowska, Mirosława; Stoń-Egiert, Joanna; Zabłocka., Monika

    2017-06-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between the light absorption coefficients at 440 nm ap(440) for particles suspended in the surface waters of the southern Baltic Sea and the concentrations of some optically significant constituents in these waters. The analysis covers two main groups of particles: phytoplankton and non-algal. For this purpose we use the extensive database of optical measurements acquired from 2006 to 2013 during 40 cruises of r/v Oceania in various regions of the southern Baltic: open waters, coastal waters, the Gulf of Gdańsk, the Pomeranian Bay and river mouths. Expressions are derived for each of these regions to describe the seasonal variations of the dependence of the light absorption coefficients for phytoplankton aph(440) and non-algal particles aNAP(440) on concentrations of chlorophyll a (Tchla) and suspended particulate matter in sea water (SPM). With a knowledge of these dependences, one can determine the overall absorption coefficient for all suspended particles in any part of the Baltic Sea in particular seasons from known Tchla and SPM concentrations using the relationship ap(440) = aph(440) + aNAP(440) = f(Tchla, SPM). These dependences reflect the characteristics of a study area and season, and their application increases the accuracy of determination of the overall absorption properties of suspended particles and their main constituents as confirmed by statistical error reduction, e.g. standard error factor falls from 1.46 to 1.38. The relationships derived in this work can be applied in the local remote sensing algorithms used for monitoring the southern Baltic.

  17. Inflammation and fine particulate air pollution; Inflammaatio ja pienhiukkaset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, I.; Rissanen, J.; Jaanu, K. [Kymenlaakson ammattikorkeakoulu University of Applied Sciences, Kotka (FI)] (and others)

    2006-10-15

    All project partners participate in the development and application of a new multidisciplinary study approach for assessment of fine particulate exposure, source contributions and health risks. The study protocols and standard operating procedures (SOP) of three previous EU-multicentre studies (AIRGENE, ULTRA, PAMCHAR) are utilised in this development. In a 24-week air quality study in November 2005 - May 2006, the source contributions and the variations of inhalable fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles are examined in ambient air of Kotka. Special attention is paid to local emission sources (road traffic, small-scale wood combustion, industry, harbour, energy production) as well as regional (e.g. Estonian power stations, St. Petersburg region) and long-range (Central Europe) transport. In a simultaneous panel study among ischemic heart disease patients living in Kotkansaari, we investigate, whether increased ambient air PM2.5 mass concentrations or ultrafine particulate number concentrations are associated with detectable inflammation or a tendency towards increased blood coagulation and which particulate sources could be behind these impacts. In addition, we collect size-segregated particulate samples for later toxicological studies. The personal PM2.5 exposure of ischemic heart disease patients is investigated using portable monitors for 24 hours before blood tests. Kymenlaakso University of Applied Sciences utilises also the information systems of the hospital district for examination of the association of PM2.5 level in the living area with the prevalence of hospital admissions and outpatient visits. In addition, Kymenlaakso University of Applied Sciences serves the local companies with particulate emission measurements using their ELPI equipment. (orig.)

  18. Contributions of suspended sediment from highway construction and other land uses to the Olentangy River, Columbus, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsel, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Highway construction within the Olentangy River flood plain in Columbus, Ohio, was projected to be a large source of suspended sediment to the river system. A monitoring program was begun by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 to quantify the implacts of construction process. Sediment information was collected daily at six gaging stations located above, below, and within the construction area. Yields of suspended sediment from the active construction area ranged from 9,580 to 15,700 tons per square mile per year. Surrounding suburban terrain yielded 428 to754 tons per square mile per year. However, the size of the construction project was small in comparison to the surrounding suburbs contributing sediment. No more than 4 percent of the yearly downstream suspended-sediment loads were produced by high-way construction during the monitoring periods.

  19. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  20. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  1. Biodegradability of dissolved and particulate organic matter in tributaries of contrasting land-use in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, B.; Wickland, K.; Stets, E.; Aiken, G.; Striegl, R. G.; Stackpoole, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent estimates of significant CO2 efflux from inland waters have spurred interest in respiration of organic matter (OM) as a contributor to regional carbon budgets. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been the focus of many investigations, with numerous studies targeting the structural and environmental controls on degradation rates. Very little is known about the reactivity of riverine particulate OC (POC), which can be composed of a range of materials from freshly fixed photosynthetic organic matter to ancient sedimentary OC. This study examines OC reactivity in two watersheds with contrasting land-use, the highly forested Chippewa River basin in Wisconsin (45% forested, 19% agricultural) and the heavily agricultural Minnesota River basin in Minnesota (3% forested, 72% agricultural). The Minnesota and Chippewa rivers are the largest tributary sources of suspended sediment to the Mississippi River upstream of Iowa, and their distinct land-use features lead to a diversity in carbon sources and loads across a small geographic range. Respiration incubations were conducted on the DOC and POC collected at different seasonal and flow conditions from these two rivers. Optical oxygen measurements were used for non-destructive monitoring of incubations at high temporal frequency. Coupled with traditional DOC loss and CO2 production approaches, these experiments allow for comparison of potential CO2 production from DOC and POC, determination of oxygen:carbon respiratory quotients, and compositional changes in OM (e.g. DOM fluorescence, POM elemental composition). We observed potential CO2 production from POC that was 1x and 3x greater than that of DOC at field concentrations in the Chippewa and Minnesota rivers, respectively, for incubation samples collected in spring of 2015. By linking OM respiration rates to metrics such as land use types and environmental variables, these results can help improve estimates of CO2 efflux from rivers across seasonal and spatial gradients.

  2. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  3. Characterisation of particulate matter on the receptor level in a city environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Winson; Chen, Qun; Osammor, Ogo; Nolan, Andy; Zhang, Xiaohui; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-03-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has become one of the dominant pollutants with the increasing material and energy demand due to global economic growth. The main objective of this research is to provide a comprehensive receptor level characterisation of the particulate matter collected in a city environment. Particulate matter samples were collected on Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) filters from five monitoring sites over a period of 1 year. An Andersen eight-stage cascade impactor was also used to collect airborne PM samples from three other locations to compare with the samples collected by TEOM. All the samples were then subjected to individual particle morphology and chemical composition analysis by SEM/EDS. Bulk chemical composition of the samples were also analysed through ICP-OES. Based on these analyses, possible sources of the PM samples were identified. The results showed that the monitoring sites in residential environments were dominated by transportation-derived particles and other migratory particulates. Monitoring sites near the city centre were dominant by particles from transportation, with biological particles abundant for the site closer to a river. The monitoring station located close to the industrial area, despite only 200 m away from a motorway, has low contribution of non-exhaust particulates from vehicles. Instead, the particulates collected from this site were dominated by industrial sources. An air dispersion modelling package was also used to model the particulate matter dispersion in the city area for the period of sampling. The results from the model showed that the points of high emissions were around industrial areas.

  4. Suspended sediment concentration profiles from synoptic satellite observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Rajawat, A; Chauhan, O.S.

    A method is developed to estimate vertical suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles in Gulf of Kachchh, from the sediment concentration values derived from synoptic observations of Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM). Under the influence of currents...

  5. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  6. Prediction of suspended-sediment concentrations at selected sites in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogner, Sr., Robert W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mau, David P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, Colorado Water Conservation Board, Colorado Springs City Engineering, and the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District, began a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a computational model of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport for predicting suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the Fountain Creek watershed in Colorado. Increased erosion and sedimentation damage have been identified by the Fountain Creek Watershed Plan as key problems within the watershed. A recommendation in the Fountain Creek Watershed plan for management of the basin is to establish measurable criteria to determine if progress in reducing erosion and sedimentation damage is being made. The major objective of this study was to test a computational method to predict local suspended-sediment loads at two sites with different geomorphic characteristics in order to evaluate the feasibility of using such an approach to predict local suspended-sediment loads throughout the entire watershed. Detailed topographic surveys, particle-size data, and suspended-sediment samples were collected at two gaged sites: Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07103970), and Sand Creek above mouth at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07105600). These data were used to construct three-dimensional computational models of relatively short channel reaches at each site. The streamflow component of these models predicted a spatially distributed field of water-surface elevation, water velocity, and bed shear stress for a range of stream discharges. Using the model predictions, along with measured particle sizes, the sediment-transport component of the model predicted the suspended-sediment concentration throughout the reach of interest. These computed concentrations were used with predicted flow patterns and channel morphology to

  7. Dans le tourbillon des particules

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Accélérateurs géants, détecteurs complexes, particules énigmatiques... La physique subatomique peut sembler bien intimidante pour le novice. Et pourtant, qui n a jamais entendu parler du boson de Higgs et du CERN, le laboratoire européen où il a été découvert en 2012 ? Nul besoin d être un spécialiste pour comprendre de quoi il s agit. Aujourd hui, une théorie extraordinairement élégante, le Modèle Standard, décrit tous les résultats des expériences dans le domaine. Trente-sept particules élémentaires et quatre forces fondamentales : c est tout ce dont nous avons besoin pour expliquer la matière et l Univers ! Ce livre, destiné à un large public, raconte sans équations le long parcours qui a abouti au Modèle Standard. Ce parcours, parfois sinueux, a été entamé lorsque les Grecs anciens, et peut-être d autres avant eux, ont imaginé que la matière est composée de petites « billes ». Il faudra attendre plusieurs siècles pour qu on réalise que la matière, à l échelle micros...

  8. Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley Williamson

    2003-05-31

    This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient fine particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of fine PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.

  9. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary disorders. Clinical and experimental studies have historically focused on the cardiopulmonary effects of PM. However, since PM particles carry numerous biocontaminants that are capable of triggering free radical production and cytokine release, the possibility that PM may affect organs systems sensitive to oxidative stress must be considered. Four independent studies that summarize the neurochemical and neuropathological changes found in the brains of PM exposed animals are described here. These were recently presented at two 2007 symposia sponsored by the Society of Toxicology (Charlotte, NC) and the International Neurotoxicology Association (Monterey, CA). Particulates are covered with biocontaminants (e.g., endotoxins, mold, pollen) which convey free radical activity that can damage the lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins of target cells on contact and stimulate inflammatory cytokine release. Although, the historical focus of PM toxicity has been cardiopulmonary targets, it is now appreciated that inhaled nano-size (<100 nm) particles quickly exit the lungs and enter the circulation where they distribute to various organ systems (l.e., liver, kidneys, testes, lymph nodes) (Takenaka et aI

  10. Suspended-sediment and suspended-sand concentrations and loads for selected streams in the Mississippi River Basin, 1940-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Cline, Teri L.; Glaspie, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow data, describes load-estimation techniques used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment loads, and presents annual suspended-sediment loads for 48 streamgaging stations within the Mississippi River Basin. Available published, unpublished, and computed annual total suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads are presented for water years 1940 through 2009. When previously published annual loads were not available, total suspended-sediment and sand loads were computed using available data for water years 1949 through 2009. A table of suspended-sediment concentration and daily mean streamflow data used in the computation of annual loads is presented along with a table of compiled and computed annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads, annual streamflows, and flow-weighted concentrations for the 48 stations.

  11. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  12. Impact of sampling frequency on mean concentrations and estimated loads of suspended sediment in a Norwegian river: implications for water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarbøvik, Eva; Stålnacke, Per; Bogen, Jim; Bønsnes, Truls E

    2012-09-01

    Reliable estimates of mean concentrations and loads of pollutants in rivers have become increasingly important for management purposes, particularly with the implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). Here, the Numedalslågen River (5500 km(2)) in southern Norway was used as a case study to evaluate the effects of sampling frequency on mean concentrations and estimated loads of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Daily monitoring data from five seasons (April/June-October/November 2001-2005) were analyzed, and three different load estimation techniques were tested: rating curves, linear interpolation, and the ratio method. The reliability of mean SPM concentrations improved with increasing sampling frequency, but even weekly sampling gave error rates as high as 70% in seasons with elevated sediment loads. Load estimates varied considerably depending on both the sampling frequency and the calculation method used. None of the methods provided consistently good results, but the lowest error rate was achieved when using the rating curve on data from fortnightly sampling and additional sampling during floods. Sampling at monthly intervals gave the highest error rates and cannot be recommended for any of the calculation methods applied here. SPM concentrations were correlated (r(2)>0.5) with arsenic, lead, nickel, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus in the Numedalslågen River. Therefore, the current findings may also have implications for substances other than SPM. The discussion considers examples from actual use of infrequently collected data, and it is advised that managers account for uncertainties in both concentration means and load estimates when assessing the state of a water body or planning mitigation measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Suspended-sediment and nutrient loads for Waiakea and Alenaio Streams, Hilo, Hawaii, 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.; Nishimoto, Dale C.

    2008-01-01

    Suspended sediment and nutrient samples were collected during wet-weather conditions at three sites on two ephemeral streams in the vicinity of Hilo, Hawaii during March 2004 to March 2006. Two sites were sampled on Waiakea Stream at 80- and 860-foot altitudes during March 2004 to August 2005. One site was sampled on Alenaio Stream at 10-foot altitude during November 2005 to March 2006. The sites were selected to represent different land uses and land covers in the area. Most of the drainage area above the upper Waiakea Stream site is conservation land. The drainage areas above the lower site on Waiakea Stream, and the site on Alenaio Stream, are a combination of conservation land, agriculture, rural, and urban land uses. In addition to the sampling, continuous-record streamflow sites were established at the three sampling sites, as well as an additional site on Alenaio Stream at altitude of 75 feet and 0.47 miles upstream from the sampling site. Stage was measured continuously at 15-minute intervals at these sites. Discharge, for any particular instant, or for selected periods of time, were computed based on a stage-discharge relation determined from individual discharge measurements. Continuous records of discharge were computed at the two sites on Waiakea Stream and the upper site on Aleniao Stream. Due to non-ideal hydraulic conditions within the channel of Alenaio Stream, a continuous record of discharge was not computed at the lower site on Alenaio Stream where samples were taken. Samples were analyzed for suspended sediment, and the nutrients total nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, and total phosphorus. Concentration data were converted to instantaneous load values: loads are the product of discharge and concentration, and are presented as tons per day for suspended sediment or pounds per day for nutrients. Daily-mean loads were computed by estimating concentrations relative to discharge using graphical constituent loading analysis techniques. Daily

  14. Further theoretical studies of modified cyclone separator as a diesel soot particulate emission arrester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, N; Bose, P K

    2009-10-01

    Soot particulate emission reduction from diesel engine is one of the most emerging problems associated with the exhaust pollution. Diesel particulate filters (DPF) hold out the prospects of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions but the question of the reliable regeneration of filters still remains a difficult hurdle to overcome. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from design complexity, cost, regeneration problem and energy demands. This study presents a computer aided theoretical analysis for controlling diesel soot particulate emission by cyclone separator--a non contact type particulate removal system considering outer vortex flow, inner vortex flow and packed ceramic fiber filter at the end of vortex finder tube. Cyclone separator with low initial cost, simple construction produces low back pressure and reasonably high collection efficiencies with reduced regeneration problems. Cyclone separator is modified by placing a continuous ceramic packed fiber filter placed at the end of the vortex finder tube. In this work, the grade efficiency model of diesel soot particulate emission is proposed considering outer vortex, inner vortex and the continuous ceramic packed fiber filter. Pressure drop model is also proposed considering the effect of the ceramic fiber filter. Proposed model gives reasonably good collection efficiency with permissible pressure drop limit of diesel engine operation. Theoretical approach is predicted for calculating the cut size diameter considering the effect of Cunningham molecular slip correction factor. The result shows good agreements with existing cyclone and DPF flow characteristics.

  15. An assessment of the suspended sediment rating curve approach for load estimation on the Rivers Bandon and Owenabue, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Seán T.; Harrington, Joseph R.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the suspended sediment rating curve approach for load estimation on the Rivers Bandon and Owenabue in Ireland. The rivers, located in the South of Ireland, are underlain by sandstone, limestones and mudstones, and the catchments are primarily agricultural. A comprehensive database of suspended sediment data is not available for rivers in Ireland. For such situations, it is common to estimate suspended sediment concentrations from the flow rate using the suspended sediment rating curve approach. These rating curves are most commonly constructed by applying linear regression to the logarithms of flow and suspended sediment concentration or by applying a power curve to normal data. Both methods are assessed in this paper for the Rivers Bandon and Owenabue. Turbidity-based suspended sediment loads are presented for each river based on continuous (15 min) flow data and the use of turbidity as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration is investigated. A database of paired flow rate and suspended sediment concentration values, collected between the years 2004 and 2011, is used to generate rating curves for each river. From these, suspended sediment load estimates using the rating curve approach are estimated and compared to the turbidity based loads for each river. Loads are also estimated using stage and seasonally separated rating curves and daily flow data, for comparison purposes. The most accurate load estimate on the River Bandon is found using a stage separated power curve, while the most accurate load estimate on the River Owenabue is found using a general power curve. Maximum full monthly errors of - 76% to + 63% are found on the River Bandon with errors of - 65% to + 359% found on the River Owenabue. The average monthly error on the River Bandon is - 12% with an average error of + 87% on the River Owenabue. The use of daily flow data in the load estimation process does not result in a significant loss of accuracy on

  16. Seasonal changes, spatial variability and origin of suspended organic matter in Hornsund, Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinarska, Karina; Szczuciński, Witold; Moskalik, Mateusz; Dominiczak, Aleksander

    2017-04-01

    Carbon stable isotope composition (δ13C) of suspended organic matter (SOM) was investigated to recognize temporal and spatial variability, as well as sources of particulate carbon delivered to the sediments of Hornsund fjord, Spitsbergen. Sampling was carried out between May 2015, when most of the investigated area was covered with sea-ice, and late August 2015. Samples were taken from a number of sites in central part of Hornsund, Burgerbukta, Samarinvegen and Brepolen bay in the innermost part of the fjord. One litre water volume, sampled from a range of depths between the water surface and 100 m, was filtered using GFF filters. δ13C values of the SOM were measured after acid treatment of the filters to remove carbonates. δ13C values of SOM varied both temporarily and spatially reflecting the variable sources of organic carbon, namely the marine production in situ, fresh marine organic carbon brought from the shelf with currents and "old" carbon delivered from land. The samples were most 13C-enriched (-22.4‰) in June, at the time of an intensive primary productivity within the fjord. Later, during the warm season, with the more intensive glaciers melting and thus supply of the suspended sediment load containing the old terrigenous carbon, δ13C values of SOM decreased in all the localities studied towards the carbon isotope values of the local terrestrial end-member, i.e., δ13C values of the old organic carbon in the bedrock. Change in δ13C values of SOM was also observed with increasing distance from glaciers, e.g. in front of the Samarinbreen and reflect changes in the intensity of primary production and supply of the old carbon. The study was supported from National Science Center grant No. 2013/10/E/ST10/00166.

  17. Suspended Matter, Chl-a, CDOM, Grain Sizes, and Optical Properties in the Arctic Fjord-Type Estuary, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland During Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L. C.; Andersen, T. J.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2010-01-01

    Optical constituents as suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll (Chl-a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and grain sizes were obtained on a transect in the arctic fjord-type estuary Kangerlussuaq (66A degrees) in August 2007 along with optical properties. These comprised diffuse...... attenuation coefficient of downwelling PAR (K (d)(PAR)), upwelling PAR (K (u)(PAR)), particle beam attenuation coefficient (c (p)), and irradiance reflectance R(-0, PAR). PAR is white light between 400 and 700 nm. The estuary receives melt water from the Greenland Inland Ice and stations covered a transect...

  18. Measurement of light attenuation extends the application of suspended sediment monitoring in rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity is often monitored continuously as a proxy for suspended sediment in catchment sediment load studies, but is less often applied to measuring optical ‘loads’ as they affect water quality in downstream waters. We added measurements of visual clarity, from which light (beam attenuation can be estimated, to auto-sampler monitoring over storm events in tributary rivers of the Kaipara Harbour, a large barrier enclosed estuary complex in northern New Zealand. This paper presents, for the first time, evidence of the mutual relationships between turbidity, total suspended sediment (TSS, and visual clarity, from water samples collected under event flow conditions. The mutual relationships between turbidity, TSS and visual clarity for our monitoring sites were fairly close over about three orders of magnitude (TSS ranging from about 1–1000 mg L−1. Our results show that visual clarity (and hence light attenuation can be predicted from turbidity, at least as precisely as more traditional predictions of TSS from turbidity. The estimation of light attenuation and corresponding load estimates from visual clarity measurements, for relatively little marginal extra effort, extends the environmental relevance and application of suspended sediment monitoring.

  19. Photocurrent spectroscopy of exciton and free particle optical transitions in suspended carbon nanotube pn-junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shun-Wen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Theiss, Jesse; Hazra, Jubin; Aykol, Mehmet; Kapadia, Rehan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Cronin, Stephen B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-08-03

    We study photocurrent generation in individual, suspended carbon nanotube pn-junction diodes formed by electrostatic doping using two gate electrodes. Photocurrent spectra collected under various electrostatic doping concentrations reveal distinctive behaviors for free particle optical transitions and excitonic transitions. In particular, the photocurrent generated by excitonic transitions exhibits a strong gate doping dependence, while that of the free particle transitions is gate independent. Here, the built-in potential of the pn-junction is required to separate the strongly bound electron-hole pairs of the excitons, while free particle excitations do not require this field-assisted charge separation. We observe a sharp, well defined E{sub 11} free particle interband transition in contrast with previous photocurrent studies. Several steps are taken to ensure that the active charge separating region of these pn-junctions is suspended off the substrate in a suspended region that is substantially longer than the exciton diffusion length and, therefore, the photocurrent does not originate from a Schottky junction. We present a detailed model of the built-in fields in these pn-junctions, which, together with phonon-assistant exciton dissociation, predicts photocurrents on the same order of those observed experimentally.

  20. Acoustic backscatter by suspended cohesive sediments: Field observations, Seine Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cihan; Verney, Romaric; Sheremet, Alexandru; Voulgaris, George

    2017-02-01

    Observations of suspended sediment size and concentration, flow and acoustic backscatter intensity collected on the Seine Estuary (France) are used to study the acoustic response in cohesive-sediment dominated environments. Estimates of suspended sediment concentration based on optical backscatter sensors and water samples are used to calibrate the acoustic backscatter intensity. The vertical structure of suspended sediment concentration is then estimated from acoustic backscatter information. To our knowledge, this is the first field application of the recently proposed model of acoustic scattering by flocculating suspensions based on the variation of particle density (floc-scattering model). The estimates of sediment concentration reproduce well the observations under different tidal (neap/spring) conditions, confirming the applicability of the new model in the field when detailed particle size measurements are available. When particle size measurements are not available, using estimated floc sizes based on the turbulence intensities may provide reasonable SSC profiles. During spring tide events (associated with strong currents, small flocs and large concentrations), the performances of the new floc-scattering model and the previous models given for solid particle-scattering are comparable. The floc-scattering model increases the quality of the SSC estimates especially during low-energy conditions characterized with larger flocs.

  1. Advanced Fine Particulate Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A.M. Rokanuzzaman

    2007-01-31

    The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include fine particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source Apportionment and Management, Organic Carbonaceous Particulate and Metal Speciation for Source Apportionment Studies, Quantum Modeling, and High-Potassium Carbon Production with Biomass-Coal Blending. The key accomplishments included the development of improved automated methods to characterize the inorganic and organic components particulate matter. The methods involved the use of scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis for the inorganic fraction and a combination of extractive methods combined with near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the organic fraction. These methods have direction application for source apportionment studies of PM because they provide detailed inorganic analysis along with total organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) quantification. Quantum modeling using density functional theory (DFT) calculations was used to further elucidate a recently developed mechanistic model for mercury speciation in coal combustion systems and interactions on activated carbon. Reaction energies, enthalpies, free energies and binding energies of Hg species to the prototype molecules were derived from the data obtained in these calculations. Bimolecular rate constants for the various elementary steps in the mechanism have been estimated using the hard-sphere collision theory approximation, and the results seem to indicate that extremely fast kinetics could be involved in these surface reactions. Activated carbon was produced from a blend of lignite coal from the Center Mine in North Dakota and

  2. Methods for Coating Particulate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for coating particulate material are provided. The apparatus includes a vessel having a top and a bottom, a vertically extending conduit having an inlet in the vessel and an outlet outside of the vessel, a first fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a transfer fluid, a second fluid inlet in the bottom of the vessel for introducing a coating fluid, and a fluid outlet from the vessel. The method includes steps of agitating a material, contacting the material with a coating material, and drying the coating material to produce a coated material. The invention may be adapted to coat aerogel beads, among other materials. A coated aerogel bead and an aerogel-based insulation material are also disclosed.

  3. The distribution of tritium between water and suspended matter in a laboratory experiment exposing sediment to tritiated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Fourré, Elise

    2013-02-01

    Following recent suggestions regarding the strong affinity of tritiated water for organic matter in suspended particulates and sediments, two equilibration experiments between sediment organic matter (dry and fresh) and tritiated water were performed to look for potential tritium bio-concentration. The T/H ratios measured at the end of both experiments are lower in the sediment organic matter than in the water, indicating that only a fraction of the hydrogen pool (between 14% and 20%) within the sediment equilibrated with the tritiated water. These results are consistent with the widely used concept of exchangeable and non-exchangeable tritium pools in organic matter and show no sign of tritium bio-accumulation in the sediment relative to water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of suspended particulate matters and their heavy metal content in the ambient air of Mobarakeh city, Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avazali Saririan Mobarakeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that ambient air of Mobarakeh city is polluted by TSP. The high concentration of Fe and Ni in this area may be attributed to the nearby industrial emissions. Therefore, in industrial areas, efforts should be taken to control the atmospheric pollution in order to protect humans from hazardous health effects of these potentially toxic pollutants.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Suspended Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere (High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from this source be minimized by an automatic mechanical device that keeps the filter covered during...) 7.1.8 Pinholes: None. 7.1.9 Tear strength: 500 g minimum for 20 mm wide strip cut from filter in... divided by the inlet area measured in a horizontal plane at the lower edge of the cover. † Ideally, the...

  6. Turbulence control of floc size in suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the river estuary transition zone (RETZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Suzanna; Jago, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying floc properties in relation to physical forcings are key in determining the transfer flux of SPM from the catchment to the coastal ocean. Observations of floc development require high resolution data; in situ optical and acoustic instruments were deployed in the RETZ to obtain SPM and hydrodynamic properties. Results suggest that turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKE) can be correlated to median particle size (D50) and concentration on tidal and lunar time scales. Analysis on a tidal scale indicates terrestrially derived SPM and SPM of a marine origin display different relationships with the local turbulence regime, suggesting the D50 of terrestrially derived SPM is not limited to the eddy length scales of the Kolmogorov microscale. It is essential to improve methods to quantify the role of hydrodynamic processes in controlling SPM properties and thus the fate of the transfer of terrestrially derived organic matter to the coastal ocean.

  7. In situ produced branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in suspended particulate matter from the Yenisei River, Eastern Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Hopmans, E.C.; Cherkashov, G.; Fedotov, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in marine river fan sediments have a potential use for determining changes in the mean annual temperature (MAT) and pH of the river watershed soils. Prior to their incorporation in marine sediments, the compounds are transported

  8. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of suspended particulate organic matter in Zuari Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bardhan, P.; Karapurkar, S.G.; Shenoy, D.M.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; Maya, M.V.; Naik, H.; Varik, S.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    with low values during the monsoon, in spite of large terrestrial input, which can be attributed to microbial modification of terrestrial SPOM. A significant positive correlation of δ13C with salinity suggests the reliability of δ13C as a biogeochemical...

  9. Confirmatory sediment analyses and solid and suspended particulate phase bioassays on sediment from Oakland Inner Harbor, San Francisco, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Apts, C.W.; Woodruff, D.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Cullinan, V.I.; Hyland, J.L.; Campbell, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the US Congress to deepen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California. During review of the environmental impact statement required for this dredging and disposal project, a panel of national experts approved the open-water disposal of dredged sediment from selected areas within the Inner Harbor, subject to results of confirmatory solid phase bioassays. The San Francisco District of the Corps requested the Battle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct these confirmatory studies. The studies provided technical data for an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of this project. Within extremely narrow time constraints, these studies provided chemical and biological information required by ocean dumping regulations to determine suitability of the Oakland Inner Harbor and turning basin sediment for ocean disposal. 23 refs., 18 figs., 45 tabs.

  10. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2001

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; DeSouza, F.P.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhosle, N.B.

    and Sri Lanka on the west and by the Andaman?Nicobar islands and Burma on the east. The uniqueness of the Bay is the reversing monsoons that cause seasonal changes in circulation and weather. Furthermore, the Bay receives large quantities of fresh water...) and reversed phase Shim-Pack HRC-ODS analytical column (4.6 mm ID, 15 cm length, 5?m particle size) was used. A binary solvent system consisting of 50mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 3% of tetrahydrofuran as solvent A and methanol as solvent B...

  11. Size-Selective Sampling Performance of Six Low-Volume “Total” Suspended Particulate (TSP) Inlets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from the comprehensive wind tunnel evaluation of six low-volume aerosol inlets are presented as a function of wind speed and aerodynamic particle diameter....

  12. The phosphorus content of fluvial suspended sediment in three lowland groundwater-dominated catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Deborah J.; Walling, Desmond E.; Collins, Adrian L.; Leeks, Graham J. L.

    2008-07-01

    SummaryThis paper reports an investigation of the phosphorus (P) content of fluvial suspended sediment samples collected from three lowland groundwater-dominated agricultural catchments in the UK. In-stream trap samplers were installed at a total of 21 locations in the catchments of the Rivers Frome and Piddle in Dorset and in the Upper Tern in Shropshire, UK. Time-integrated suspended sediment samples ( n = 187) were collected at regular intervals over a period of 22 months and analysed for total phosphorus (TP), inorganic phosphorus (IP), organic phosphorus (OP) and algal available phosphorus (AAP). TP concentrations varied between sampling sites in the Rivers Frome and Piddle, allowing key P inputs to be identified, while fractionation of P assisted in identifying the nature of these inputs. There was also significant variation in both the TP concentration and the concentration of individual fractions between the Frome and Piddle catchments and the Upper Tern. These contrasts were attributed to the differing underlying geologies, since the Frome and Piddle are underlain predominantly by chalk, whilst the Upper Tern is underlain by sandstone, and also to the different soil types present. The TP content of suspended sediment collected from the Frome catchment showed a statistically significant relationship with specific surface area, but this relationship was not found for the remaining catchments. Temporal variation in P concentrations at both the seasonal and event scale was also investigated. Seasonal variations were noted for TP concentrations and for the concentrations of IP, OP and AAP in all the study catchments, but no consistent seasonal patterns were discernible. Maximum and minimum concentrations of the individual fractions occurred during different months in each of the study catchments, suggesting that different controls operated in the individual catchments. Short-term temporal variations in TP concentrations were documented for two high flow events

  13. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.H. Pontius

    1999-08-30

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report reviews the status of the HGCU data bank of ash and char characteristics, including the interactive querying of measured particulate properties. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank, and issuance of a comprehensive final report on activities conducted under Task 1. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter included preliminary testing of two materials. One material tested was the soft candle filter manufactured by CGC and supplied by ABB. The other material was N610/mullite manufactured by Albany International (AIT).

  14. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  15. Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, AG

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...

  16. Examining N cycling in the northern South China Sea from N isotopic signals in nitrate and particulate phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Yu Terence; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Dai, Minhan; Yan, Xiuli; Lin, Hui-Ling

    2017-08-01

    Nitrogen sources and dynamics, one of the key issues in marine biogeochemical cycles, remain poorly constrained in marginal seas. Here we examine the nitrogen cycle in the northern South China Sea (SCS) by combining data from previous reports with a new data set of N isotopic compositions (δ15N) of nitrate, zooplankton, and sinking particles. Average δ15N in subsurface nitrate is 4.8 ± 0.3‰, similar to that of sinking particles (δ15Nsink of 4.4‰) through the euphotic zone (EZ) collected by floating traps and to documented mean (4.6‰) for long-term mooring traps at 200 m. This along with oft-observed shallow nitracline (<100 m) suggests that subsurface nitrate is the primary source of new N to support export production. Moreover, δ15Nsink at the bottom of the EZ resembles those of suspended particles (4.2 ± 1.0‰) and zooplankton (5.4 ± 1.0‰) inside the EZ. High similarity in δ15N among various types of particles including zooplankton in different size fractions in the EZ implies rapid N turnover in the ecosystem. In deep waters at 2000-3000 m, however, additional particulate N fluxes are found due to lateral transport, which contain 15N-depleted particles, resulting in a downward decreasing trend of δ15Nsink. Incorporation of lighter N by bacteria and selective export of picoplankton are proposed as alternative mechanisms contributing to low δ15Nsink in the deep waters. The significant δ15Nsink change in the deep water column makes the SCS different from most other marginal seas; thus, caution should be made when using sedimentary δ15N to reconstruct paleonitrogen processes.

  17. Spatial and temporal dynamics of stream water particulate and dissolved N, P and C forms along a catchment transect, NE Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutter, M. I.; Langan, S. J.; Cooper, R. J.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe dynamics of dissolved and particulate N, P and organic C were examined for field drains, through a headwater (4 km 2), into a mesoscale stream (51 km 2) and river (1844 km 2) catchment. Distributions of N and P forms were similar in the agricultural headwater and field drains; annual P fluxes of particulate and dissolved forms were of equal magnitude, whilst N was dominated by NO 3-N. Across all scales organic P was an important, often dominant, component of the dissolved P. Temporal variation in nutrient concentrations and proportions was greatest in the headwater, where storms resulted in the generation of large concentrations of suspended particulate matter, particulate and dissolved P, particularly following dry periods. The data suggest that groundwater and minor point source inputs to the mesoscale catchment buffered the temporal variability in hydrochemistry relative to the headwater. Summer low flows were associated with large PO 4-P concentrations in the mesoscale catchment at a critical time of biological sensitivity. At the largest river catchment scale, organic forms of C, N and P dominated. Inorganic nutrient concentrations were kept small through dilution by runoff from upland areas and biological processes converted dissolved N and P to particulate forms. The different processes operating between the drain/headwater to the large river scale have implications for river basin management. Given the prevalence of organic and particulate P forms in our catchment transect, the bioavailability of these fractions needs to be better understood.

  18. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Steven A. Benson; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2003-08-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ''Advanced Hybrid''{trademark} filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultra-high collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot

  19. Theory and Practice of a New Class of Equipment for Separation of Particulates from Gases: the Turbulent Flow Precipitator Le précipitateur turbulent : un nouveau type de dispositif de séparation de particules présentes dans un courant de gaz. Théorie et technologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dullien F. A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main classes of separators of particulates from gases comprise inertial separators, filters, (wet scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators, each of which technique has its proper niche and each has its advantages and its disadvantages. In the present paper a new class of equipment, the turbulent flow precipitator (TFP for gas cleaning is described that, though at the present only in its infancy, is rapidly gaining popularity because it has some advantages over each and every known type of separator and it has very few limitations. TFPs are far more efficient for the removal of fine particles than inertial separators, unlike filters they do not plug up, they do not present secondary disposal problems and they require less maintenance (and are less expensive than electrostatic precipitators. They can be very efficient also in the submicron range of particle size and there are no practical limitations as far as high temperatures and/or corrosive atmospheres are concerned. They are equally suitable for the removal of solid and liquid particles from gases. Turbulent flow precipitators work on the principle of turbulent eddy penetration into deep regions where there is no net flow, where the eddies die out and where the fine particulates carried by the eddies deposit on collector surfaces. TFPs comprise two well defined regions:- straight, uniform and unobstructed flow passages in which the gas carrying the suspended fine particulates is passed in turbulent flow;- and adjacent collection regions where there is no net gas flow and where all of the separation of particles from the gas takes place. Hence, a TFP is a filter in which the separation of the particulates from the gas takes place outside the passages where the gas flows. Les principaux séparateurs de particules dans un courant de gaz existants sur le marché sont les séparateurs par inertie, les filtres, les laveurs et les électrofiltres. Chaque type de séparateur est destiné à une

  20. Electrically heated particulate filter enhanced ignition strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating applied to at least one of the PF and the grid. A control module estimates a temperature of the grid and controls the engine to produce a desired exhaust product to increase the temperature of the grid.

  1. Ultrafine characterisation of emission and impact of ultrafine particulate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Booth, M.J.; Collins, P. (and others) [Corus UK Ltd., Rotherham (United Kingdom). Research Development and Technology, Swindon Technology Centre

    2009-07-01

    The project aimed to provide understanding of emissions and environmental impacts of fine (inferior 2.5 {mu}m) and ultrafine (inferior 0.1 {mu}m) particulate matter (PM) from iron and steelmaking processes enabling suitable abatement strategies to be applied. This is needed because of increasing evidence of adverse health effects from such particulate leading to greater legislation on air quality. A major aim was to develop a method for novel sampling using analytical techniques. Real-time in situ techniques were used including the Dekati electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for analysis of size-segregated particle mass and number concentrations. Aerosol mass spectrometry techniques that deliver size-resolved aerosol composition with high time-resolution were used including the TSI aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TSI ATOFMS) and new aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (ToF-AMS). The ToF-AMS was characterised in the laboratory and data processing algorithms were developed, allowing successful deployment to analyse aerosol emissions and impacts. Offline and online particle analysis based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) provided elemental analysis of size-fractionated size fractionated PM. A new method was developed to measure PAHs by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) in size-segregated PM collected with an ELPI. These techniques were applied to characterise fugitive and primary emissions as well as ambient air samples. Source apportionment was applied to a combined TSI ATOFMS and Aerodyne ToF-AMS dataset. The processes associated with ironmaking and slag processing contributed the most to local ultrafine PM concentrations. Fine particulate was dominated by the transport of aged aerosol to the region whereas ultrafine particulate concentrations were influenced by blast furnace and sintering processes. 111 refs., 98 figs., 26 tabs., 1 app.

  2. Effect of Pigmentation in Particulate Formation from Fluoropolymer Thermodegradation in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rajiv; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Todd, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Fires aboard spacecraft have occurred as a result of overheated electrical wires and thermodegradation of their insulation, which is composed of fluoropolymers. The particulate products of polymer thermodegradation are only 20-50 run in diameter and are thought to play a role in "polymer fume fever". Therefore an experimental study of the particulates produced by intense ohmic heating of various fluoropolymer-insulated 20 AWG copper wire (representative of spacecraft materials) was undertaken in normal gravity and in microgravity. The 2.2 s drop facility at NASA LeRC and 1.5 s drop facility at the Colorado School of Mines were used to achieve low gravity conditions. Thermophoretic sampling was used for particulate collection. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to characterize the smoke particulates. It was found that the color of PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) insulation has an overwhelming effect on the size, shape, morphology and, composition of the particulates. Size distributions and shape analyses using computerized image analysis showed that particle size distributions were also dependent on the pigment of the fluoropolymer insulation. The influence of pigment was observed in experiments under both normal and microgravity. Under microgravity conditions, owing to the lack of natural convective transport of particulates, much more particle aggregation was observed, and the nature of the aggregates was dependent on the color of the insulation.

  3. 7Be/210Pbxs Ratio as an Indicator of Suspended Sediment Age or Fraction New Sediment in Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoff, G.; Wilson, C. G.; Whiting, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    We present a technique to use the 7Be/210Pbxs ratio as a measure of suspended sediment age or as an indicator of the fraction of the suspended sediment that is recently eroded from the landscape. Although both 7Be and 210Pbxs are delivered seasonally and stochastically to the landscape by precipitation, the ratio of the two radionuclides varies substantially less. The 7Be/210Pbxs ratios measured in three different watersheds decrease in the following manner: precipitation (~16) > suspended sediments in rivers (6-7) > suspended sediments in estuaries (4-6) > sediment collected in sediment traps in the estuary (~1) > surface sediment of the estuary (~0.5). Decreases in the 7Be/210Pbxs ratio in suspended sediments can be interpreted to be the result of increased age of the sediment, since 7Be decays faster than 210Pb. Alternatively, a decrease in the 7Be/210Pbxs ratio in suspended sediments can be interpreted to be the result of dilution of newly-tagged 7Be-rich sediment by 7Be-dead sediment, for example, by erosion of soil below the 7Be-enriched surface layer or by resuspension of 7Be-dead bottom sediment. We present a model which uses the 7Be/210Pbxs ratio in suspended sediments to determine the time since the particles were tagged by precipitation-derived radionuclides (i.e., the age of the suspended sediment). In addition, we present an alternative model to determine the fraction of the sediment that is `newly-tagged'. These two models are applied to three watersheds - Old Woman Creek, Ohio; Weeks Bay, Alabama; and South Slough, Oregon - and yield similar findings at all three sites. Sediment ages increase from 0 in newly tagged material to 50-80 days in rivers to about 80-100 days in the estuaries to about 200 days in the sediment traps to about 300 days on surface bottom sediments. Alternatively, the percent new sediment decreases from 100% in newly-tagged material to about 35-50% in rivers to 25-35% in the estuary to less than 10% in the sediment traps to 1

  4. Hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport controls on river mouth morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, F.; Piliouras, A.; Garra, R.; Guerin, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Rowland, J.; Paola, C.

    2014-01-01

    mouths building into standing bodies of water have strikingly varied growth habits. This presents a compelling pattern formation problem that is also of great practical relevance for subsurface prediction and managing coastal wetlands. Here we present a generalized 2.5-dimensional potential vorticity (PV) theory that explains sedimentation patterns of a sediment-laden stationary jet by coupling an understanding of vorticity with suspended sediment concentration fields. We explore the physical meaning of this new sediment-PV definition, and its impact on outflow depositional patterns, by analyzing data from a shallow wall-bounded plane jet experiment and by discussing new theoretical insights. A key result is that lateral advection and diffusion of suspended sediment are directly proportional to jet vorticity, a feature that reveals the mechanistic process that forms elongated channels by focused levee deposition. The new PV theory constitutes a more generalized mathematical framework that expands the Rouse theory for the equilibrium of suspended sediment.

  5. Suspended and Dissolved Matter in the Sacramento River and Delta Region Under Drought Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, S. G.; Rhea, W. J.; Blaser, S.; Wilkerson, F. P.; Dugdale, R. C.; Davis, C. O.; Tufillaro, N. B.

    2016-02-01

    The State of California is experiencing the fourth year of a historic drought that, as it continues to worsen, has raised concerns about future agricultural production and prompted emergency water restrictions. The Sacramento River drainage basin and estuary fall within the drought area classified as extreme to exceptional. To document the ecological effects of this drought and to serve as baseline conditions with which to compare future non-drought conditions, a series of seasonal field campaigns were conducted between June 2014 and October 2015 to characterize the concentration, composition, and morphology of particulate and dissolved matter within the lower reaches of the Sacramento River and delta region. In situ measurements of spectral light scatter and absorption due to water impurities are compared with water sample analyses for pigment and suspended sediment concentration. In situ measurements are used to derive remote sensing algorithms for impurity concentration and composition from above-water and remotely sensed radiometric measurements. Results indicate a seasonally stable riverine water mass and particle population feeding into a delta region with complicated hydrodynamics, point sources of wetland detritus and dissolved organic matter, and heterogeneous particle assemblages. Possible changes as a result of an El Nino are discussed.

  6. Mineral phases containing heavy metals in the suspended dust from Budapest, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipos P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogy, geochemistry and magnetic properties of total suspended particulate (TSP matter in Budapest, Hungary were studied to identify their heavy metal-bearing mineral phases. Amorphous organic matter, magnetite, salts as well as mineral phases characteristic of the surrounding geology are the main components of the TSP. They show significant enrichment in several heavy metals, such as Zn (up to 19 046 mg/kg, Pb (up to 3597 mg/kg, Cu (up to 699 mg/kg and Mo (up to 53 mg/kg. The most frequent heavy metal-bearing mineral phases are spherular or xenomorphic magnetite particles containing 2-3 wt% Pb and Zn. They often form aggregates and are closely associated with soot and/or clay minerals. The size of these particles is rarely below 30 nm. Cu and Mo could be associated to magnetite too. Clay minerals and mica particles may also contain significant amount of Zn (up to 5wt%. Additionally, ZnO and ZnCO3 particles were found in the sample with highest Zn content and our data suggest the potential association of Pb and carbonates, as well. Magnetite particles are resistant to weathering releasing its toxic components slowly to the environment, while layer silicates (and carbonates may be the potential source of mobile toxic metals in the TSP.

  7. The active surface of suspended particles as a predictor of lung function and pulmonary symptoms in Austrian school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Neuberger, Manfred

    At a central elementary school in the capital of Upper Austria children aged 7-10 years underwent repeated respiratory health checkups (questionnaires, diaries, spirometry). Between March and May 2001 the daily means of the signals of a diffusion charging sensor, measuring the "active surface" of suspended particles, and a photoelectric aerosol sensor, measuring the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were related to spirometric results of the total 164 children examined and to the daily symptom scores of a susceptible subgroup. Significant reductions of forced vital capacity ( p=0.006) and forced expiratory volume in the first second ( p=0.001) and significant increases of wheezing ( p=0.001), shortness of breath ( p=0.041), cough in the evening ( p=0.031) and at night ( p=0.018) were found with increase of "active surface" of suspended particles measured at the adjacent outdoor monitoring station, but not with the increase of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Monitoring "active surface" of particles with diameters of about 10 nm-1 μm by means of a diffusion charging sensor might provide additional information in surveillance of particulate matter for prevention of acute effects on respiratory health.

  8. Monitoring suspended sediments and turbidity in Sahelian basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Nogmana, Soumaguel

    2017-04-01

    Suspended matter can carry viruses and bacteria that are pathogenic to humans and can foster their development. Therefore, turbidity can be considered a vector of microbiological contaminants, which cause diarrheal diseases, and it can be used as a proxy for fecal bacteria. Few studies have focused on water turbidity in rural Africa, where many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Diarrheal diseases are indeed the second cause of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, in this region, environment survey is minimal or inexistent. Monitoring water turbidity therefore represents a challenge for health improvement. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and it is well suited to monitoring by remote sensing. Because it varies in space and time and because the small water bodies (remote sensing and questions the methods developed for less turbid waters. In addition, high aerosol loadings (mineral dust and biomass burning) may be detrimental to turbidity retrieval in this region because of inaccurate atmospheric corrections. We propose a method to monitor water quality of Sahelian ponds, lakes and rivers using in-situ and remote sensing data, which is tested at different sites for which in-situ water turbidity and suspended sediments concentration (SSSC) measurements are acquired. Water sample are routinely collected at two sites within the AMMA-CATCH observatory part of the Réseau de Bassin Versants (RBV) French network: the Agoufou pond in northern Mali (starting September 2014), and the Niger River at Niamey in Niger (starting June 2015). These data are used to evaluate different indexes to derive water turbidity from the reflectance in the visible and infrared bands of high resolution optical sensors (LANDSAT, SENTINEL2). The temporal evolution of the turbidity of ponds, lakes and rivers is well captured at the seasonal and interannual scales with the

  9. Long-term continuous acoustical suspended-sediment measurements in rivers – Theory, evaluation, and results from 14 stations on five rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David; Wright, Scott A.; Griffiths, Ronald; Dean, David

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a physically based method for using two acoustic frequencies to measure suspended-silt-and-clay concentration, suspended-sand concentration, and suspended-sand median grain size in river cross sections at 15-minute intervals over decadal timescales. The method is strongly grounded in the extensive scientific literature on the scattering of sound by suspensions of small particles. In particular, the method takes advantage of the specific theoretical relations among acoustic frequency, acoustic attenuation, acoustic backscatter, suspended-sediment concentration, and suspended-sediment grain-size distribution. We briefly describe the theory and methods, demonstrate the application of the method, and compute biases and errors in the method at 14 stations in the Colorado River and Rio Grande basins, where large numbers of suspended-sediment samples have been collected concurrently with acoustical measurements over many years. Quantification of errors in sediment-transport measurements made using this method is essential if the measurements are to be used effectively, e.g., to evaluate uncertainty in long-term sediment loads and budgets

  10. 40 CFR 60.422 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for particulate matter. 60... Manufacture § 60.422 Standards for particulate matter. On or after the date on which the performance test... sulfate dryer, particulate matter at an emission rate exceeding 0.15 kilogram of particulate per megagram...

  11. Preliminary analysis of variability in concentration of fine particulate matter - PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in area of Poznań city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sówka, Izabela; Chlebowska-Styś, Anna; Mathews, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    It is commonly known, that suspended particulate matter pose a threat to human life and health, negatively influence the flora, climate and also materials. Especially dangerous is the presence of high concentration of particulate matter in the area of cities, where density of population is high. The research aimed at determining the variability of suspended particulate matter concentration (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10) in two different thermal seasons, in the area of Poznań city. As a part of carried out work we analyzed the variability of concentrations and also performed a preliminary analysis of their correlation. Measured concentrations of particulate matter were contained within following ranges: PM10 - 8.7-69.6 μg/m3, PM2.5 - 2.2-88.5 μg/m3, PM1.0 - 2.5-22.9 μg/m3 in the winter season and 1.0-42.8 μg/m3 (PM10), 1.2-40.3 μg/m3 (PM2.5) and 2.7-10.4 (PM1.0) in the summer season. Preliminary correlative analysis indicated interdependence between the temperature of air, the speed of wind and concentration of particulate matter in selected measurement points. The values of correlation coefficients between the air temperature, speed of wind and concentrations of particulate matter were respectively equal to: for PM10: -0.59 and -0.55 (Jana Pawła II Street), -0.53 and -0.53 (Szymanowskiego Street), for PM2.5: -0.60 and -0.53 (Jana Pawła II Street) and for PM1.0 -0.40 and -0.59 (Jana Pawła II Street).

  12. Design of a LC-tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lichuan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2011-04-01

    A inductor-capacitor (LC) tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope prototype is designed and analyzed. High permeability ferrite cores are used for providing suspension force, and the rotation system is designed using the switched reluctance motor (SRM) principle. According to the LC-tuned principle, magnetic suspension force expression has been derived. The electromagnetic properties of the gyroscope are simulated by the Ansoft Maxwell software. And our result is expected to be able to serve as a prototype of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope in future practical applications.

  13. Quantum Hall effect in multi-terminal suspended graphene devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Zhao, Yue; Bolotin, Kirill; Kim, Philip

    2010-03-01

    The integer and fractional quantum hall effects have been already observed in two terminal suspended graphene devices. However in this two probe device geometry, mixing between magnetoresistance ρxx and Hall resistance ρxy for incompletely developed quantum Hall states leads to substantial deviation of conductance plateaus values. In this talk, we present the experimental results from four terminal suspended graphene devices. The quality of quantum Hall effect will be discussed in muti-terminal device geometry in conjunction with the current-induced annealing process to improve the quality of graphene samples.

  14. Colorimetry Technique for Scalable Characterization of Suspended Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; Steeneken, Peter G; Centeno, Alba; Zurutuza, Amaia; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houri, Samer

    2016-11-09

    Previous statistical studies on the mechanical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) suspended graphene membranes have been performed by means of measuring individual devices or with techniques that affect the material. Here, we present a colorimetry technique as a parallel, noninvasive, and affordable way of characterizing suspended graphene devices. We exploit Newton's rings interference patterns to study the deformation of a double-layer graphene drum 13.2 μm in diameter when a pressure step is applied. By studying the time evolution of the deformation, we find that filling the drum cavity with air is 2-5 times slower than when it is purged.

  15. Distribution of dissolved and labile particulate trace metals in the overlying bottom water in the Vistula River plume (southern Baltic Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolowski, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Hummel, H.

    2001-01-01

    Overlying bottom water samples were collected in the Vistula River plume, southern Baltic Sea, (Poland) and analysed for dissolved and labile particulate (1 M HCl extractable) Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Fe and Ni, hydrological parameters being measured simultaneously. Particulate organic matter (POM),

  16. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  17. Diesel Particulate Matter Polygons, Arizona, 2005, NATA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national-scale assessment includes 177 air pollutants (a subset of the air toxics on the Clean Air Act's list of 187 air toxics plus diesel particulate matter...

  18. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND NEUROTOXICITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary dis...

  19. Self-Cleaning Particulate Air Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires an innovative solution to the serious issue of particulate fouling on air revitalization component surfaces in order to address the potential for...

  20. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...