WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspended growth biological

  1. Optimization of biological phosphorus and ammonia removal in a combined fixed and suspended growth wastewater treatment system: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This project was conducted to optimize design and operational criteria for enhanced biological phosphorus removal and nitrification of ammonia in the fixed growth reactor-suspended growth reactor (FGR-SGR) process. The research completed the investigation of optimum hydraulic retention times for biological phosphorus removal in both the unaerated and aerated phases of the suspended growth components of the FGR-SGR system, including an assessment of the possibility of reducing suspended growth aeration requirements by using oxidized forms of nitrogen rather than dissolved oxygen for biological phosphorus uptake; investigated the effects on biological phosphorus removal and nitrification of varying the internal recycle flow rates; and investigated the optimum solids retention time, or the optimum operating mixed liquor suspended solids concentration, in the suspended growth component of the system for biological phosphorus removal and nitrification-denitrification.

  2. Modelling of biological Cr(VI) removal in draw-fill reactors using microorganisms in suspended and attached growth systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Tsiflikiotou, Maria; Akritidou, Lydia; Viennas, Anastasios; Tsiamis, George; Pavlou, Stavros; Bourtzis, Kostas; Vayenas, Dimitris V

    2013-02-01

    The kinetics of hexavalent chromium bio-reduction in draw-fill suspended and attached growth reactors was examined using sugar as substrate and indigenous microorganisms from the industrial sludge of the Hellenic Aerospace Industry. Initially, experiments in suspended growth batch reactors for Cr (VI) concentrations of 1.4-110 mg/l were carried out, to extensively study the behaviour of a mixed culture. The maximum Cr(VI) reduction rate of 2 mg/l h was achieved for initial concentration 12.85 mg/l with biomass production rate 4.1 mg biomass/l h. Analysis of the microbial structure in the batch reactor culture indicated that the dominant bacterial communities were constituted by bacterial members of Raoultella sp., Citrobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Achromobacter sp. and Kerstersia sp. while the dominant fungal strain was that of Pichia jadinii. Experiments using the same mixed culture were also carried out in packed-bed reactors with plastic support media. High removal rates were achieved (2.0 mg/l h) even in high initial concentrations (109 mg/l). A combination of the model of Tsao and Hanson for growth enhancement and that of Aiba and Shoda for growth inhibition was used in order to describe and predict the process of Cr(VI) bio-reduction in suspended growth and packed-bed reactors. Kinetic constants of the equation obtained from both batch (or draw-fill) culture experiments. In the draw-fill experiments at the packed-bed reactor, hexavalent chromium inhibitory effects were minimized increasing the inhibitory constant value K(i)' at 148.5 mg/l, compared to suspended growth experiments which was K(i) = 8.219 mg/l. The model adequately predicts hexavalent chromium reduction in both batch reactors for all initial concentrations tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological nutrient and organic removal from meat packing wastewater with a unique sequence of suspended growth and fixed-film reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S J; Kim, S H; Fox, P

    2009-01-01

    A unique sequence of anaerobic filter/suspended anaerobic/aerobic (AO) reactor/aerobic filter system was developed to alleviate the drawbacks of conventional suspended growth and fixed growth systems. An anaerobic filter (AF) was used to efficiently produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) prior to the aerobic suspended growth. A second anaerobic reactor was installed in the A/O return activated sludge line to improve phosphorus uptake by potentially controlling glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs). One biological aerobic filter (BAF) was used for nitrification followed by an anoxic filter for denitrification and a second BAF was used for effluent polishing. The meat packing wastewater had a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 853 mg/L and total nitrogen (T-N) and total phosphorus (T-P) concentrations of 61.1 mg/L and 5.8 mg/L, respectively. The BOD removal efficiency was 99.0-99.7% and the suspended solids (SS) concentration in the effluent was below 10 mg/L. The T-N removal efficiency was maintained at greater than 75.0% except at low C/N ratios. A high T-P removal efficiency, 74.7-83.9%, was also obtained when the system was operated at a hydraulic retention time of 15.7 hrs. The AF successfully produced VFAs that aided in phosphorus removal. Additionally, recycled concrete aggregate used as attachment media in the biological filters continuously provided micronutrients and stabilized the pH.

  4. Method for separating biological cells. [suspended in aqueous polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. E. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method for separating biological cells by suspending a mixed cell population in a two-phase polymer system is described. The polymer system consists of droplet phases with different surface potentials for which the cell populations exhibit different affinities. The system is subjected to an electrostatic field of sufficient intensity to cause migration of the droplets with an attendant separation of cells.

  5. Physical and biological changes of suspended particles in a free surface flow constructed wetland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.; van den Boomen, R.M.; Claassen, T.H.L.; van der Geest, H.G.; Kappelhof, J.W.N.M.; Admiraal, W.

    2013-01-01

    Suspended particles are considered as contaminants in treated wastewater and can have profound effects on the biological, physical and chemical properties of receiving aquatic ecosystems, depending on the concentration, type and nature of the suspended particles. Constructed wetlands are known to

  6. The effect of light direction and suspended cell concentrations on algal biofilm growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurr, Peter J; Espie, George S; Allen, D Grant

    2014-10-01

    Algae biofilms were grown in a semicontinuous flat plate biofilm photobioreactor to study the effects of light direction and suspended algal cell populations on algal biofilm growth. It was determined that, under the growth conditions and biofilm thicknesses studied, light direction had no effect on long-term algal biofilm growth (26 days); however, light direction did affect the concentration of suspended algal cells by influencing the photon flux density in the growth medium in the photobioreactors. This suspended algal cell population affected short-term (7 days) algae cell recruitment and algal biofilm growth, but additional studies showed that enhanced suspended algal cell populations did not affect biofilm growth rates over the long term (26 days). Studying profiles of light transmittance through biofilms as they grew showed that most of the light became attenuated by the biomass after just a few days of growth (88 % after 3 days). The estimated biofilm thicknesses after these few days of growth were approximately 150 μm. The light attenuation data suggests that, although the biofilms grew to 700-900 μm, under these light intensities, only the first few hundred micrometers of the biofilm is receiving enough light to be photosynthetically active. We postulate that this photosynthetically active layer of the biofilm grows adjacent to the light source, while the rest of the biofilm is in a stationary growth phase. The results of this study have implications for algal biofilm photobioreactor design and operation.

  7. Effect of suspended clay on growth rates of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasil, Jandeson; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Attayde, José L.; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; van Oosterhout, Frank; Lürling, Miquel

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sediment resuspension may lead to the collapse of C. raciborskii dominance, which suggests that clay might have a negative effect on the growth of C. raciborskii. To test the hypothesis that suspended clay creates an unfavorable environment for growth of C.

  8. Effect of suspended clay on growth rates of the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasil, Jandeson; Huszar, Vera L.M.; Attayde, José L.; Marinho, Marcelo M.; Oosterhout, Van Frank; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sediment resuspension may lead to the collapse of C. raciborskii dominance, which suggests that clay might have a negative effect on the growth of C. raciborskii. To test the hypothesis that suspended clay creates an unfavorable environment for growth of C.

  9. Growth and energetics in Spisula subtruncata (Da Costa) and the effect of suspended bottom material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, F.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    The influence of suspended bottom material (0-25 mg/l) and algal cells (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) (0-500 .mu.g dry org wt[organic weight]/l) on clearance, growth and energetics in S. subtruncata (da Costa) was studied. Clearance and respiration rate were independent of concentrations of algae...... bottom material on growth is due to a higher efficiency of assimilation of the ingested algae and/or the utilization of organic matter in the suspended bottom material. The efficiency of algal assimilation decreased from 76% at a low (150 .mu.g dry org wt/l) to 33% at a high (500 .mu.g) algal...

  10. Modelling mussel growth in ecosystems with low suspended matter loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, P.; Fernández-Reiriz, M. J.; Filgueira, R.; Labarta, U.

    2010-10-01

    Over the last decades a large number of bivalve growth models were described in the literature with most emphasis on cultivated species with important economic value. These models describe the rates of energy absorption and utilization as a function of environmental conditions. Some of the most important issues in bivalve modelling are water pumping, filtration, pre-ingestive rejection/pseudofaeces production and ingestion of living and non-living organic and inorganic matter. According to some authors, bivalve suspension-feeders may selectively ingest and/or digest different food items whilst making adjustments to maximize the utilization of chlorophyll rich particles. In clear water ecosystems such as the Galician Rias (total particulate matter ( TPM) Galician Rias. Model runs were made for a large number of individual mussels, each with a random parameter set, selected among possible parameter ranges reported in the literature, allowing a quick model calibration and an evaluation of those parameters explaining most of the variance in predicted mussel growth. Obtained results provide a useful feedback for upcoming experimental work where efforts should be concentrated on accurate estimates of these more influential parameters to improve model results.

  11. Comparison of the efficiencies of attached- versus suspended-growth SBR systems in the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Abu Hasan, Hassimi; Abd Rahim, Reehan Adnee

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stimulation of Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis in Hindlimb Suspended Rats by Resistance Exercise and Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderman, Jon K.; Whittall, Justen B.; Gosselink, Kristin L.; Wang, Tommy J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Booth, Frank W.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of a single bout of resistance exercise alone or in combination with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis (Ks) in hindlimb suspended (HLS) adult female rats. Plantar flexor muscles were stimulated with resistance exercise, consisting of 10 repetitions of ladder climbing on a 1 m grid (85 deg.), carrying an additional 50% of their body weight attached to their tails. Saline or rhGH (1 mg/kg) was administered 30' prior to exercise, and Ks was determined with a constant infusion of H-3-Leucine at 15', 60', 180', and 360' following exercise. Three days of HLS depressed Ks is approx. equal to 65% and 30-40% in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Exercise increased soleus Ks in saline-treated rats 149% 60' following exercise (p less than or equal to 0.05), decaying to that of non-exercised animals during the next 5 hours. Relative to suspended, non-exercised rats rhGH + exercise increased soleus Ks 84%, 108%, and 72% at 15', 60' and 360' following exercise (p is less than or equal to 0.05). Gastrocnemius Ks was not significantly increased by exercise or the combination of rhGH and exercise up to 360' post-exercise. Results from this study indicate that resistance exercise stimulated Ks 60' post-exercise in the soleus of HLS rats, with no apparent effect of rhGH to enhance or prolong exercise-induced stimulation. Results suggests that exercise frequency may be important to maintenance of the slow-twitch soleus during non-weightbearing, but that the ability of resistance exercise to maintain myofibrillar protein content in the gastrocnemius of hindlimb suspended rats cannot be explained by acute stimulation of synthesis.

  13. Biologically Induced Deposition of Fine Suspended Particles by Filter-Feeding Bivalves in Land-Based Industrial Marine Aquaculture Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67±0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43±0.98 cm) was 77.84±7.77 and 6.37±0.67 mg ind−1•d−1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73±0.27 and 2.76±0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (Paquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products. PMID:25250730

  14. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Shaojun; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-01-01

    Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm) and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm) was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1) • d(-1), respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS) deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  15. Biohydrogen production in the suspended and attached microbial growth systems from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Li, Feifei; Tang, Junhong

    2016-10-01

    Waste pastry was hydrolyzed by glucoamylase and protease which were obtained from solid state fermentation of Aspergillus awamori and Aspergillus oryzae to produce waste pastry hydrolysate. Then, the effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) (4-12h) on hydrogen production rate (HPR) in the suspended microbial growth system (continuous stirred tank reactor, CSTR) and attached microbial growth system (continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor, CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate were investigated. The maximum HPRs of CSTR (201.8mL/(h·L)) and CMISR (255.3mL/(h·L)) were obtained at HRT of 6h and 4h, respectively. The first-order reaction could be used to describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of waste pastry. The carbon content of the waste pastry remained 22.8% in the undigested waste pastry and consumed 77.2% for carbon dioxide and soluble microbial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study which reports biohydrogen production from waste pastry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biologically induced deposition of fine suspended particles by filter-feeding bivalves in land-based industrial marine aquaculture wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhou

    Full Text Available Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1 • d(-1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P < 0.001. Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P < 0.05. It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.

  17. Suspended microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Casavant, Benjamin P.; Berthier, Erwin; Theberge, Ashleigh B.; Jean BERTHIER; Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Bischel, Lauren L.; Brakke, Kenneth; Hedman, Curtis J.; Bushman, Wade; Keller, Nancy P.; Beebe, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Although the field of microfluidics has made significant progress in bringing new tools to address biological questions, the accessibility and adoption of microfluidics within the life sciences are still limited. Open microfluidic systems have the potential to lower the barriers to adoption, but the absence of robust design rules has hindered their use. Here, we present an open microfluidic platform, suspended microfluidics, that uses surface tension to fill and maintain a fluid in microscale...

  18. From growth physiology to systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Moselio

    2006-09-01

    As it focuses on the integrated behavior of the entire cell, systems biology is a powerful extension of growth physiology. Here, I briefly trace some of the origins of modern-day bacterial growth physiology and its relevance to systems biology. I describe how growth physiology emerged from the foggy picture of the growth curve as a self-contained entity. For this insight, we can thank Henrici, Hershey, Monod, Maaløe, and others. As a result of their work, growth rate is understood to be the unitary manifestation of the response to nutritional conditions and to the control condition for studies on the effect of environmental stresses. For this response to be usefully reproducible, cultures must be in the steady state known as balanced growth. I point out that present-day experimenters are not always aware of this imperative and thus do not always use conditions that ensure the balanced growth of their control cultures.

  19. Cell Biology of Hyphal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Gero; Peñalva, Miguel A; Riquelme, Meritxell; Wösten, Han A; Harris, Steven D

    2017-04-01

    Filamentous fungi are a large and ancient clade of microorganisms that occupy a broad range of ecological niches. The success of filamentous fungi is largely due to their elongate hypha, a chain of cells, separated from each other by septa. Hyphae grow by polarized exocytosis at the apex, which allows the fungus to overcome long distances and invade many substrates, including soils and host tissues. Hyphal tip growth is initiated by establishment of a growth site and the subsequent maintenance of the growth axis, with transport of growth supplies, including membranes and proteins, delivered by motors along the cytoskeleton to the hyphal apex. Among the enzymes delivered are cell wall synthases that are exocytosed for local synthesis of the extracellular cell wall. Exocytosis is opposed by endocytic uptake of soluble and membrane-bound material into the cell. The first intracellular compartment in the endocytic pathway is the early endosomes, which emerge to perform essential additional functions as spatial organizers of the hyphal cell. Individual compartments within septated hyphae can communicate with each other via septal pores, which allow passage of cytoplasm or organelles to help differentiation within the mycelium. This article introduces the reader to more detailed aspects of hyphal growth in fungi.

  20. The mathematics and mechanics of biological growth

    CERN Document Server

    Goriely, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents a general mechanical theory for biological growth. It provides both a conceptual and a technical foundation for the understanding and analysis of problems arising in biology and physiology. The theory and methods is illustrated on a wide range of examples and applications. A process of extreme complexity, growth plays a fundamental role in many biological processes and is considered to be the hallmark of life itself. Its description has been one of the fundamental problems of life sciences, but until recently, it has not attracted much attention from mathematicians, physicists, and engineers. The author herein presents the first major technical monograph on the problem of growth since D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson’s 1917 book On Growth and Form. The emphasis of the book is on the proper mathematical formulation of growth kinematics and mechanics. Accordingly, the discussion proceeds in order of complexity and the book is divided into five parts. First, a general introduction on the pro...

  1. Growth of juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on suspended collectors in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Beauchemin, C.; Riegman, R.

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, fishing for juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) on wild beds is gradually replaced by harvesting of seeds from suspended collectors. Both the relaxation of fishing as well as the up-scaling of the number of seed collectors are expected to result in an increase in the number of

  2. Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Isolated Ge Crystals and Suspended Layers on Micrometric Si Pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas; Ballabio, Andrea; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Salvalaglio, Marco; Miglio, Leo; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-10-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

  3. Nano-Integrated Suspended Polymeric Microfluidics (SPMF) Platform for Ultra-Sensitive Bio-Molecular Recognition of Bovine Growth Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadabadi, Hamid; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2017-09-08

    The development of sensitive platforms for the detection of biomolecules recognition is an extremely important problem in clinical diagnostics. In microcantilever (MC) transducers, surface-stress is induced upon bimolecular interaction which is translated into MC deflection. This paper presents a cost-effective and ultra-sensitive MC-based biosensing platform. To address these goals, the need for costly high-resolution read-out system has been eliminated by reducing the cantilever compliance through developing a polymer-based cantilever. Furthermore a microfluidic system has been integrated with the MC in order to enhance sensitivity and response time and to reduce analytes consumption. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are synthesized on the surface of suspended microfluidics as the selective layer for biomolecule immobilization. The biosensing results show significant improvement in the sensitivity of the proposed platform compared with available silicon MC biosensor. A detection limit of 2 ng/ml (100pM) is obtained for the detection of bovine growth hormones. The results validated successful application of suspended polymeric microfluidics (SPMF) as the next generation of biosensing platforms which could enable femtomolar (fM) biomolecular recognition detection.

  4. Some open questions concerning biological growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the properties of radially growing interfaces and their connection to biological growth. We focus on simplified models which result from the abstraction of only considering domain growth and not the interface curvature. Linear equations can be exactly solved and the phenomenology of growth can be inferred from the explicit solutions. Nonlinear equations pose interesting open questions that are summarized herein.

    En este trabajo revisamos brevemente las propiedades de las superficies que crecen de forma radial y su conexión con el crecimiento biológico. Nos vamos a concentrar en modelos simplificados que resultan de la abstracción de sólo considerar el crecimiento del dominio y no la curvatura de la interfaz. Las ecuaciones lineales se pueden resolver exactamente y la fenomenología del crecimiento puede ser inferida de las soluciones explítas. Las ecuaciones no lineales dan lugar a interesantes problemas abiertos que vamos a resumir aquí.

  5. Contribution of food availability to the more rapid growth of the scallop, Euvola ziczac (Pteroida, Pectinidae in bottom than in suspended culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hunauld

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a 5-month experiment at Turpialito in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela, to examine whether the previously reported more rapid growth of scallop Euvola ziczac in bottom compared to suspended culture can be attributed to more abundant or higher quality food resources near the sediment/water interface. The various body components (shell, muscle, digestive gland, gonad and remaining tissues increased in size at a much greater rate for scallops maintained on the bottom, in partly buried cages at 5 m in depth, than in cages suspended at the same depth in the water column. Furthermore, survival was greater on the bottom. Food abundance and quality were examined by analyzing the seston collected in sediment traps at the sediment/water interface in the vicinity of the bottom cages and next to the suspended cages. Phytoplankton abundance (chlorophyll a and the proportion of various fatty acids in the lipid fraction of the seston were similar on the bottom and in suspension. However, sestonic protein, lipid and carbohydrate levels, and the estimated energetic content of the seston, were higher on the bottom than in suspension, and probably contributed to the greater growth on the bottom. As the increase in the energetic content of the seston on the bottom compared to in suspension was less than the increase in growth (biomass on the bottom compared to in suspension, and the evidence showed in previous studies above the negative influence of fouling and wave action in suspended culture, we conclude that the more rapid growth of Euvola ziczac in bottom than suspended culture is principally due to stress relative to suspended culture system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 455-461. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

  6. Interactive effects of growth hormone and exercise on muscle mass in suspended rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, Roland R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Grossman, Elena J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Jiang, Bian; Pierotti, David J.; Rudolph, Ingrid

    1994-01-01

    Measures to attenuate muscle atrophy in rats in response to simulated microgravity (hindlimb suspension (HS)) have been only partially successful. In the present study, hypophysectomized rats were in HS for 7 days, and the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (GH), exercise (Ex), or GH+Ex on the weights, protein concentrations, and fiber cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of hindlimb muscles were determined. The weights of four extensor muscles, i.e., the soleus (Sol), medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius, and plantaris (Plt), and one adductor, i.e., the adductor longus (AL), were decreased by 10-22% after HS. Fiber CSAs were decreased by 34% in the Sol and by 1 17% in the MG after HS. In contrast, two flexors, i.e., the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), did not atrophy. In HS rats, GH treatment alone maintained the weights of the fast extensors (MG, LG, Plt) and flexors (TA, EDL) at or above those of control rats. This effect was not observed in the slow extensor (Sol) or AL. Exercise had no significant effect on the weight of any muscle in HS rats. A combination of GH and Ex treatments yielded a significant increase in the weights of the fast extensors and in the CSA of both fast and slow fibers of the MG and significantly increased Sol weight and CSA of the slow fibers of the Sol. The AL was not responsive to either GH or Ex treatments. Protein concentrations of the Sol and MG were higher only in the Sol of Ex and GH+Ex rats. These results suggest that while GH treatment or intermittent high intensity exercise alone have a minimal effect in maintaining the mass of unloaded muscle, there is a strong interactive effect of these two treatments.

  7. Growth and development and their environmental and biological determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly da Rocha Neves

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The results showed a high prevalence of stunting and below‐average results for cognitive/language development among the participating children. Both environmental and biological factors were related to growth and development. However, biological variables showed a greater association with growth, whereas environmental variables were associated with development.

  8. Differences in microbial communities and performance between suspended and attached growth anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating synthetic municipal wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2015-08-14

    Two lab-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), one up-flow attached-growth (UA) and another continuously stirred (CSTR), were operated under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) while treating synthetic municipal wastewater (800 mg L−1 COD). Each reactor was attached to both polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) microfiltration (MF) membranes in an external cross-flow configuration. Both reactors were started up and run under the same operating conditions for multiple steady-state experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were similar for both reactors (90–96%), but captured methane was found to be 11–18% higher for the CSTR than the UA reactor. Ion Torrent sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes showed that several operational taxonomic units (OTUs) most closely related to fermentative bacteria (e.g., Microbacter margulisiae) were dominant in the suspended biomass of the CSTR, accounting for 30% of the microbial community. Conversely, methanogenic archaea (e.g., Methanosaeta) and syntrophic bacteria (e.g., Smithella propionica) were found in significantly higher relative abundances in the UA AnMBR as compared to the CSTR due to their affinity for surface attachment. Of the methanogens that were present in the CSTR sludge, hydrogenotrophic methanogens dominated (e.g., Methanobacterium). Measured EPS (both proteins and carbohydrates), which has been broadly linked to fouling, was determined to be consistently lower in the UA AnMBR membrane samples than in CSTR AnMBR membrane samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on HPLC profiles of soluble microbial products (SMPs) further demonstrated these differences between reactor types in replicate runs. The results of this study showed that reactor configuration can significantly impact the development of the microbial communities of AnMBRs that are responsible for both membrane and reactor performance.

  9. The Biology and Economics of Coral Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Schutter, M.; Griffioen, B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Shafit, S.; Henard, S.; Taruffi, M.; Gili, C.; Lavorano, S.

    2011-01-01

    To protect natural coral reefs, it is of utmost importance to understand how the growth of the main reef-building organisms-the zooxanthellate scleractinian corals-is controlled. Understanding coral growth is also relevant for coral aquaculture, which is a rapidly developing business. This review

  10. Statistical analysis of joint toxicity in biological growth experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Henrik; Tørslev, J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors formulate a model for the analysis of designed biological growth experiments where a mixture of toxicants is applied to biological target organisms. The purpose of such experiments is to assess the toxicity of the mixture in comparison with the toxicity observed when the toxicants are...... is applied on data from an experiment where inhibition of the growth of the bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens caused by different mixtures of pentachlorophenol and aniline was studied....

  11. Age, growth and reproductive biology of the blue shark Prionace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The age, growth and reproductive biology of the blue shark Prionace glauca from South African waters were assessed using 205 specimens, ranging in total length (TL) from 72 to 313 cm. Greater number of males (120) than females (85) were examined as they were more frequently caught. Age and growth parameters ...

  12. Intrinsic geometry of biological surface growth

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Philip H

    1986-01-01

    1.1 General Introduction The work which comprises this essay formed part of a multidiscip­ linary project investigating the folding of the developing cerebral cortex in the ferret. The project as a whole combined a study, at the histological level, of the cytoarchitectural development concom­ itant with folding and a mathematical study of folding viewed from the perspective of differential geometry. We here concentrate on the differential geometry of brain folding. Histological results which have some significance to the geometry of the cortex are re­ ferred to, but are not discussed in any depth. As with any truly multidisciplinary work, this essay has objectives which lie in each of its constituent disciplines. From a neuroana­ tomical point of view, the work explores the use of the surface geo­ metry of the developing cortex as a parameter for the underlying growth process. Geometrical parameters of particular interest and theoretical importance are surface curvatures. Our experimental portion reports...

  13. GROWTH ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF PIG’S BIOLOGICAL MAXIMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Vincek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model which can be used to describe the growth of domestic animals in an attempt to predict the optimal time of slaughter/weight or the development of body parts or tissues and estimate the biological maximum. The study was conducted on 60 pigs (30 barrows and 30 gilts in the interval between the age of 49 and 215 days. By applying the generalized logistic function, the growth of live weight and tissues were described. The observed gilts reached the inflection point in approximately 121 days (I = 70.7 kg. The point at which the interval of intensive growth starts was at the age of approximately 42 days, (TB=17.35 kg and the saturation point the pigs reached at the age of 200.5 days (TC=126.74 kg. The estimated biological maximum weight of gilts was 179.79 kg. The barrows reached the inflection point in approximately 149 days (I=92.2 kg. The point at which the intensive interval of growth starts was estimated at the age of approximately 52 days (TB=22.93 kg, and the saturation point the barrows reached at the age of 245 days (TC=164.8 kg. The estimated biological maximum weight of barrows was 233.25 kg. Muscle tissue of gilts reached the inflection point (I = 28.46 kg in approximately 110 days. The point at which the interval of intensive growth of muscle tissue starts (TB=6.06 kg was estimated at approximately 53 days, and the saturation point of growth (TC=52.25 kg the muscle tissue of gilts reached at the age of 162 days. The estimated maximum biological growth of muscle tissue in gilts was 75.79 kg. The muscle tissue of barrows reached the inflection point (I=28.78 kg in approximately 118 days, the point at which the interval of intensive growth starts (TB=6.36 kg at the age of approximately 35 days. The saturation point of muscle tissue growth in barrows (TC=52.51 kg was reached at the age of 202 days. The estimated maximum biological growth of muscle tissue in barrows was 75.74 kg. The

  14. Systems-biology dissection of eukaryotic cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Justen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent article in BMC Biology illustrates the use of a systems-biology approach to integrate data across the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of budding yeast in order to dissect the relationship between nutrient conditions and cell growth. See research article http://jbiol.com/content/6/2/4 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/68

  15. Cell and molecular biology of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresa, Brian P; Peterson, Joanne L

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been one of the most intensely studied cell surface receptors due to its well-established roles in developmental biology, tissue homeostasis, and cancer biology. The EGFR has been critical for creating paradigms for numerous aspects of cell biology, such as ligand binding, signal transduction, and membrane trafficking. Despite this history of discovery, there is a continual stream of evidence that only the surface has been scratched. New ways of receptor regulation continue to be identified, each of which is a potential molecular target for manipulating EGFR signaling and the resultant changes in cell and tissue biology. This chapter is an update on EGFR-mediated signaling, and describes some recent developments in the regulation of receptor biology.

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factors: Biology, Function, and Application for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Rang Yun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs that signal through FGF receptors (FGFRs regulate a broad spectrum of biological functions, including cellular proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation. The FGF signal pathways are the RAS/MAP kinase pathway, PI3 kinase/AKT pathway, and PLCγ pathway, among which the RAS/MAP kinase pathway is known to be predominant. Several studies have recently implicated the in vitro biological functions of FGFs for tissue regeneration. However, to obtain optimal outcomes in vivo, it is important to enhance the half-life of FGFs and their biological stability. Future applications of FGFs are expected when the biological functions of FGFs are potentiated through the appropriate use of delivery systems and scaffolds. This review will introduce the biology and cellular functions of FGFs and deal with the biomaterials based delivery systems and their current applications for the regeneration of tissues, including skin, blood vessel, muscle, adipose, tendon/ligament, cartilage, bone, tooth, and nerve tissues.

  17. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Kramer

    Full Text Available Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1 as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2 competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3 however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  18. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L; Veile, Amanda; Otárola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1) as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2) competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3) however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  19. Reproductive biology and growth of the yellowbelly rockcod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the reproductive biology and growth of the yellowbelly rockcod Epinephelus marginatus from South-East Africa confirms that the species is a monandric protogynous hermaphrodite, i.e. males are derived from females, probably as a result of environmental or social cues. Spawning occurred during summer, ...

  20. Growth and development and their environmental and biological determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Neves, Kelly; de Souza Morais, Rosane Luzia; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pinto, Priscilla Avelino Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    To investigate child growth, cognitive/language development, and their environmental and biological determinants. This was a cross-sectional, predictive correlation study with all 92 children aged 24-36 months who attended the municipal early childhood education network in a town in the Vale do Jequitinhonha region, in 2011. The socioeconomic profile was determined using the questionnaire of the Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa. The socio-demographicand maternal and child health profiles were created through a self-prepared questionnaire. The height-for-age indicator was selected to represent growth. Cognitive/language development was assessed through the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development. The quality of educational environments was assessed by Infant/Toddler Environment Scale; the home environment was assessed by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment. The neighborhood quality was determined by a self-prepared questionnaire. A multivariate linear regression analysis was performed. Families were predominantly from socioeconomic class D, with low parental education. The prevalence of stunted growth was 14.1%; cognitive and language development were below average at 28.6% and 28.3%, respectively. Educational institutions were classified as inadequate, and 69.6% of homes were classified as presenting a risk for development. Factors such as access to parks and pharmacies and perceived security received the worst score regarding neighborhood environment. Biological variables showed a greater association with growth and environmental variables with development. The results showed a high prevalence of stunting and below-average results for cognitive/language development among the participating children. Both environmental and biological factors were related to growth and development. However, biological variables showed a greater association with growth, whereas environmental variables were associated with development

  1. Suspended microfluidics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjamin P. Casavant; Erwin Berthier; Ashleigh B. Theberge; Jean Berthier; Sara I. Montanez-Sauri; Lauren L. Bischel; Kenneth Brakke; Curtis J. Hedman; Wade Bushman; Nancy P. Keller; David J. Beebe

    2013-01-01

    Although the field of microfluidics has made significant progress in bringing new tools to address biological questions, the accessibility and adoption of microfluidics within the life sciences are still limited...

  2. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  3. Universality of thermodynamic constants governing biological growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkrey, Ross; Olley, June; Ratkowsky, David; McMeekin, Tom; Ross, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models exist that quantify the effect of temperature on poikilotherm growth rate. One family of such models assumes a single rate-limiting 'master reaction' using terms describing the temperature-dependent denaturation of the reaction's enzyme. We consider whether such a model can describe growth in each domain of life. A new model based on this assumption and using a hierarchical Bayesian approach fits simultaneously 95 data sets for temperature-related growth rates of diverse microorganisms from all three domains of life, Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Remarkably, the model produces credible estimates of fundamental thermodynamic parameters describing protein thermal stability predicted over 20 years ago. The analysis lends support to the concept of universal thermodynamic limits to microbial growth rate dictated by protein thermal stability that in turn govern biological rates. This suggests that the thermal stability of proteins is a unifying property in the evolution and adaptation of life on earth. The fundamental nature of this conclusion has importance for many fields of study including microbiology, protein chemistry, thermal biology, and ecological theory including, for example, the influence of the vast microbial biomass and activity in the biosphere that is poorly described in current climate models.

  4. Universality of thermodynamic constants governing biological growth rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Corkrey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mathematical models exist that quantify the effect of temperature on poikilotherm growth rate. One family of such models assumes a single rate-limiting 'master reaction' using terms describing the temperature-dependent denaturation of the reaction's enzyme. We consider whether such a model can describe growth in each domain of life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new model based on this assumption and using a hierarchical Bayesian approach fits simultaneously 95 data sets for temperature-related growth rates of diverse microorganisms from all three domains of life, Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. Remarkably, the model produces credible estimates of fundamental thermodynamic parameters describing protein thermal stability predicted over 20 years ago. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The analysis lends support to the concept of universal thermodynamic limits to microbial growth rate dictated by protein thermal stability that in turn govern biological rates. This suggests that the thermal stability of proteins is a unifying property in the evolution and adaptation of life on earth. The fundamental nature of this conclusion has importance for many fields of study including microbiology, protein chemistry, thermal biology, and ecological theory including, for example, the influence of the vast microbial biomass and activity in the biosphere that is poorly described in current climate models.

  5. Protein thermodynamics can be predicted directly from biological growth rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Corkrey

    Full Text Available Life on Earth is capable of growing from temperatures well below freezing to above the boiling point of water, with some organisms preferring cooler and others hotter conditions. The growth rate of each organism ultimately depends on its intracellular chemical reactions. Here we show that a thermodynamic model based on a single, rate-limiting, enzyme-catalysed reaction accurately describes population growth rates in 230 diverse strains of unicellular and multicellular organisms. Collectively these represent all three domains of life, ranging from psychrophilic to hyperthermophilic, and including the highest temperature so far observed for growth (122 °C. The results provide credible estimates of thermodynamic properties of proteins and obtain, purely from organism intrinsic growth rate data, relationships between parameters previously identified experimentally, thus bridging a gap between biochemistry and whole organism biology. We find that growth rates of both unicellular and multicellular life forms can be described by the same temperature dependence model. The model results provide strong support for a single highly-conserved reaction present in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA. This is remarkable in that it means that the growth rate dependence on temperature of unicellular and multicellular life forms that evolved over geological time spans can be explained by the same model.

  6. Protein thermodynamics can be predicted directly from biological growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkrey, Ross; McMeekin, Tom A; Bowman, John P; Ratkowsky, David A; Olley, June; Ross, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Life on Earth is capable of growing from temperatures well below freezing to above the boiling point of water, with some organisms preferring cooler and others hotter conditions. The growth rate of each organism ultimately depends on its intracellular chemical reactions. Here we show that a thermodynamic model based on a single, rate-limiting, enzyme-catalysed reaction accurately describes population growth rates in 230 diverse strains of unicellular and multicellular organisms. Collectively these represent all three domains of life, ranging from psychrophilic to hyperthermophilic, and including the highest temperature so far observed for growth (122 °C). The results provide credible estimates of thermodynamic properties of proteins and obtain, purely from organism intrinsic growth rate data, relationships between parameters previously identified experimentally, thus bridging a gap between biochemistry and whole organism biology. We find that growth rates of both unicellular and multicellular life forms can be described by the same temperature dependence model. The model results provide strong support for a single highly-conserved reaction present in the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). This is remarkable in that it means that the growth rate dependence on temperature of unicellular and multicellular life forms that evolved over geological time spans can be explained by the same model.

  7. Biological potential of extraterrestrial materials - 1. Nutrients in carbonaceous meteorites, and effects on biological growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Michael N.

    1997-06-01

    Soil nutrient analysis of the Murchison C2 carbonaceous chondrite shows biologically available S, P, Ca, Mg, Na, K and Fe and cation exchange capacity (CEC) at levels comparable with terrestrial agricultural soils. Weathering, and aqueous, hydrothermal (121°C, 15 min) and high-temperature (550°C, 3 h) processing increase the extractable nutrients. Extractable phosphorus (by 0.3 M NH 4F + 0.1 M HCl) content, which may be growth-limiting, is 6.3 μg g -1 in the unprocessed meteorite, but increases to 81 μg g -1 by hydrothermal processing and weathering, and to 130 μg g -1 by high temperature processing. The cation exchange capacity (CEC), attributed mainly to the organic fraction, corresponds responds to 345 meq per 100 g of the polymer, suggesting one ionizable COOH or OH group per 3-4 aromatic rings. The Allende C3(V) meteorite has low extractable Ca, Mg and K, in parallel to its low organic content and CEC, but high extractable P levels (160 μg g -1). Biological effects are observed on growth of the soil microorganisms Flavobacterium oryzihabitans and Nocardia asteroides in meteorite extracts, and the population levels suggest that P is the limiting nutrient. Effects on plant growth are examined on Solanum tuberosum (potato), where extracts of the Murchison meteorite lead to enhanced growth and pigmentation. The biologically available organic and inorganic nutrients in carbonaceous chondrites can provide concentrated solutions for prebiotic and early life processes, and serve as soils and fertilizers for future space-based biological expansion.

  8. Role of Transforming Growth Factor β in Uterine Fibroid Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ciebiera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Uterine fibroids (UFs are benign tumors of the female genital tract made of the smooth muscle of the uterus. UF growth depends mostly on the influence of the steroid hormones and selected growth factors. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-βs is a polypeptide that consists of three isoforms: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. At present, TGF-β is considered to be one of the key factors in the pathophysiology of UFs. It plays a major role in cellular migration within the tumor, stimulates tumor growth, and enhances tumor metabolism. As a consequence of various dependencies, the synthesis and release of TGF-β in a UF tumor is increased, which results in excessive extracellular matrix production and storage. High concentrations or overexpression of TGF-β mediators may be responsible for clinically symptomatic UFs. The aim of this review was to check the available evidence for the influence of the TGF-β family on UF biology. We conducted their search in PubMed of the National Library of Medicine with the use of the following selected keywords: “uterine fibroid”, “leiomyoma”, and “transforming growth factor β”. After reviewing the titles and abstracts, more than 115 full articles were evaluated. We focused on the TGF-β-related molecular aspects and their influence on the most common symptoms that are associated with UFs. Also, we described how the available data might implicate the current medical management of UFs.

  9. Effects of Inoculated Bacillus subtilis on Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol Removal in Suspended Growth Reactors Using Aquacultural Waste for Biofloc Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guozhi; Wang, Jiao; Ma, Niannian; Liu, Zefeng; Tan, Hongxin

    2016-08-28

    Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) are two of the most common taint compounds that adversely affect the quality of aquacultural animals. In the present study, 94% of geosmin and 97% of 2-MIB in suspended growth reactors producing bioflocs (SGRs) with aquaculture waste were removed after inoculation with Bacillus subtilis, significantly higher than that of control SGRs (70% of geosmin and 86.4% of 2-MIB). The lowest concentrations of geosmin and 2-MIB achieved in the effluent of the SGRs were 2.43 ± 0.42 ng/l and 2.23 ± 0.15 ng/l, respectively. The crude protein content of the bioflocs produced in the SGRs was 35 ± 4%. The NH4(+)-N and NO2(-)-N concentrations in the effluent of the reactors were 1.13 ± 0.21 mg/l and 0.42 ± 0.04 mg/l, respectively. These results suggest that inoculated with Bacillus subtilis, SGRs have a better performance to reuse the nitrogen in fish waste and to remove geosmin and 2-MIB from the culture water efficiently.

  10. Mathematical modeling of biological growth for some Vicia faba varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionel, Samfira; Andreea, Ghica; Marius, Boldea; Monica, Butnariu; Marius, Sendroni; Andrei, M.-Kiss

    2013-10-01

    Vicia faba is one of the legume species of importance for human and animal nutrition. Over the past decade, the areas cultivated with this species have significantly increased. Given that the levels of the yield and quality obtained from this species depend largely on the specific soil and climate conditions, the present paper focuses on the study of the morpho-productive features under the conditions in Banat Plain, in the west of Romania. A collection of varieties and genetic lines was studied, with focus on the interdependence between plant height, characteristics of the foliage and in the end the foliar surface of the leaf and of the entire plant. The observations led to the conclusion that variety Melodie has the best response of biological growth on the plain.

  11. Adaptation, Growth, and Resilience in Biological Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Katifori, Eleni

    Highly optimized complex transport networks serve crucial functions in many man-made and natural systems such as power grids and plant or animal vasculature. Often, the relevant optimization functional is nonconvex and characterized by many local extrema. In general, finding the global, or nearly global optimum is difficult. In biological systems, it is believed that such an optimal state is slowly achieved through natural selection. However, general coarse grained models for flow networks with local positive feedback rules for the vessel conductivity typically get trapped in low efficiency, local minima. We show how the growth of the underlying tissue, coupled to the dynamical equations for network development, can drive the system to a dramatically improved optimal state. This general model provides a surprisingly simple explanation for the appearance of highly optimized transport networks in biology such as plant and animal vasculature. In addition, we show how the incorporation of spatially collective fluctuating sources yields a minimal model of realistic reticulation in distribution networks and thus resilience against damage.

  12. BIOLOGY AND INTRINSIC GROWTH RATE OF EARWIG (Euborellia annulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnina Nonci

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Earwig (Euborellia annulata is a potential predator of corn borer (Ostrinia furnacalis, one of the most important pests of corn. To include the use of predator in integrated pest management (IPM to control the pest, it is necessary to understand the basic information of the predator. This study aimed to know biology and intrinsic growth rate of the predator feed on an artificial media (dog food. Ten pairs of newly emerging adults of the predator were placed in a small plastic container containing a mixture of soil and sand (1:1 v/v supplemented with an artificial food. The average temperature and relative humidity during the study were kept at 27.9-30.3oC and 76.7-92.3%, respectively. The biological aspects of the predator evaluated were number of eggs laid, hatched, and died, as well as its oviposition period and adult mortality. The intrinsic growth rate was studied from a group of 200 newly laid eggs and results were analyzed based on the method of Birch. The biological aspects study showed that number of eggs laid by a single female of E. annulata was 86-166, which were laid five times in a group of 9-45 eggs. The nymph consists of five instars. Length of nymphs varied ranging from 4 to 13 mm depends on their instar. The fifth instar nymph period was 4-6 days for female and 2-3 days for male. The period of first mating was shorter; the shortest was 2 minutes and the longest one was 70 minutes. Both male and female were able to do mating several times at an interval of several seconds or minutes. Pre-oviposition period was 6-13 days. The eggs were deposited five times, the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth oviposition period were 7-22 days, 7-21 days, 7-18 days, 11-18 days, and 11-21 days, respectively. The oviposition period was 32-59 days and postoviposition period was 21-51 days. Ratio between male and female was 1.4:1.0. The average natural mortality of E. annulata was 10.5% which means that 89.5% of deposited eggs hatched became

  13. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  14. Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... constraint of grain quality and sorghum production. Various ... respectively. Key words: Sorghum, Aspergillus flavus, AFB1, biological control. ..... J. Appl. Microbiol. 2: 297-306. Mishra HN, Chitrangada D (2003). A review on biological control and metabolism of aflatoxin. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 43(3): ...

  15. "A mission-driven discipline": the growth of conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meine, Curt; Soulé, Michael; Noss, Reed E

    2006-06-01

    Conservation biology emerged in the mid-1980s, drawing on established disciplines and integrating them in pursuit of a coherent goal: the protection and perpetuation of the Earth's biological diversity. Opportunistic in its borrowing and application of knowledge, conservation biology had its roots within the established biological sciences and resource management disciplines but has continually incorporated insights from the empirical experience of resource managers, from the social sciences and humanities, and from diverse cultural sources. The Society for Conservation Biology (SCB) has represented the field's core constituency, while expanding that constituency in keeping with the field's integrative spirit. Conservation Biology has served as SCB's flagship publication, promoting research, dialog, debate, and application of the field's essential concepts. Over the last 20 years the field, SCB, and the journal have evolved to meet changing conservation needs, to explore gaps in our knowledge base, to incorporate new information from related fields, to build professional capacity, and to provide expanded opportunities for international participation. In turn, the field, SCB, and journal have prompted change in related fields, organizations, and publications. In its dedication to advancing the scientific foundations of biodiversity conservation and placing that science at the service of society in a world whose variety, wildness, and beauty we care for conservation biology represents both a continuation and radical reconfiguration of the traditional relationship between science and conservation.

  16. Exposure of clownfish larvae to suspended sediment levels found on the Great Barrier Reef: Impacts on gill structure and microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sybille; Wenger, Amelia S; Ainsworth, Tracy D; Rummer, Jodie L

    2015-06-22

    Worldwide, increasing coastal development has played a major role in shaping coral reef species assemblages, but the mechanisms underpinning distribution patterns remain poorly understood. Recent research demonstrated delayed development in larval fishes exposed to suspended sediment, highlighting the need to further understand the interaction between suspended sediment as a stressor and energetically costly activities such as growth and development that are essential to support biological fitness. We examined the gill morphology and the gill microbiome in clownfish larvae (Amphiprion percula) exposed to suspended sediment concentrations (using Australian bentonite) commonly found on the inshore Great Barrier Reef. The gills of larvae exposed to 45 mg L(-1) of suspended sediment had excessive mucous discharge and growth of protective cell layers, resulting in a 56% thicker gill epithelium compared to fish from the control group. Further, we found a shift from 'healthy' to pathogenic bacterial communities on the gills, which could increase the disease susceptibility of larvae. The impact of suspended sediments on larval gills may represent an underlying mechanism behind the distribution patterns of fish assemblages. Our findings underscore the necessity for future coastal development to consider adverse effects of suspended sediments on fish recruitment, and consequently fish populations and ecosystem health.

  17. A stress driven growth model for soft tissue considering biological availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, S.; Bellomo, F. J.; Armero, F.; Nallim, L. G.

    2010-06-01

    Some of the key factors that regulate growth and remodeling of tissues are fundamentally mechanical. However, it is important to take into account the role of bioavailability together with the stresses and strains in the processes of normal or pathological growth. In this sense, the model presented in this work is oriented to describe the growth of soft biological tissue under "stress driven growth" and depending on the biological availability of the organism. The general theoretical framework is given by a kinematic formulation in large strain combined with the thermodynamic basis of open systems. The formulation uses a multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient, splitting it in a growth part and visco-elastic part. The strains due to growth are incompatible and are controlled by an unbalanced stresses related to a homeostatic state. Growth implies a volume change with an increase of mass maintaining constant the density. One of the most interesting features of the proposed model is the generation of new tissue taking into account the contribution of mass to the system controlled through biological availability. Because soft biological tissues in general have a hierarchical structure with several components (usually a soft matrix reinforced with collagen fibers), the developed growth model is suitable for the characterization of the growth of each component. This allows considering a different behavior for each of them in the context of a generalized theory of mixtures. Finally, we illustrate the response of the model in case of growth and atrophy with an application example.

  18. Parabolic equations in biology growth, reaction, movement and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Perthame, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    This book presents several fundamental questions in mathematical biology such as Turing instability, pattern formation, reaction-diffusion systems, invasion waves and Fokker-Planck equations. These are classical modeling tools for mathematical biology with applications to ecology and population dynamics, the neurosciences, enzymatic reactions, chemotaxis, invasion waves etc. The book presents these aspects from a mathematical perspective, with the aim of identifying those qualitative properties of the models that are relevant for biological applications. To do so, it uncovers the mechanisms at work behind Turing instability, pattern formation and invasion waves. This involves several mathematical tools, such as stability and instability analysis, blow-up in finite time, asymptotic methods and relative entropy properties. Given the content presented, the book is well suited as a textbook for master-level coursework.

  19. Biological mechanisms discriminating growth rate and adult body weight phenotypes in two Chinese indigenous chicken breeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dou, Tengfei; Zhao, Sumei; Rong, Hua; Gu, Dahai; Li, Qihua; Huang, Ying; Xu, Zhiqiang; Chu, Xiaohui; Tao, Linli; Liu, Lixian; Ge, Changrong; Pas, te, Marinus F.W; Jia, Junjing

    2017-01-01

    .... The biological mechanisms underlying selection responses remain largely unknown. Non-artificially-selected indigenous Chinese chicken breeds display a wide variety of phenotypes, including differential growth rate, body weight, and muscularity...

  20. Severe linear growth retardation in rural Zambian children: the influence of biological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Kaftwembe, E.M.; Musonda, R.M.; Mwanakasale, V.; Staveren, W.A. van; Hof, M.A. van 't; Sauerwein, R.W.; Willems, J.L.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stunting in preschool children in Zambia is high; stunting has detrimental effects on concurrent psychomotor development and later working capacity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate biological variables that may contribute to linear growth retardation in

  1. Effect of irrigation disruption and biological nitrogen on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-01-30

    Jan 30, 2012 ... Interaction effect between irrigation and biological nitrogen was significant on the leaf ... main chemical constituents of C. officinalis include terpenoids ... The calculation was carried out for each ..... Physiological and phytochemical response to drought stress of. German ... Crop Weed, 3: 69-74. Duke JA ...

  2. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time. These new levels may reduce light penetration and lower the rate of photosynthesis and the... suspended particulates persist. The biological and the chemical content of the suspended material may react with the dissolved oxygen in the water, which can result in oxygen depletion. Toxic metals and organics...

  3. Biological control of Aspergillus flavus growth and subsequent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... This study, therefore explored the potential use of certain biocontrol agents for the reduction of growth of toxigenic Aspergillus flavus and subsequent aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production in sorghum. Among all the biocontrol agents tested, culture filtrate of Rhodococcus erythropolis completely inhibited the A.

  4. Original paper Influence of biologic therapy on growth in children with chronic inflammatory connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Świdrowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Connective tissue diseases (CTD are a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory conditions. One of their complications in children is the inhibition of growth velocity. Due to direct inflammation within the musculoskeletal system as well as glucocorticoid therapy, this feature is the most essential and is mainly expressed in the course of juvenile spondyloarthropathies and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Duration of the disease, but predominantly the activity of the inflammatory process, seems to have a significant impact on the abnormal growth profile in children. Effective biological therapy leads to improvement of the patient’s clinical condition and also, through the extinction of disease activity and reduction of daily doses of glucocorticosteroids (GCS, it gradually accelerates and normalizes the growth rate in children with CTD. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of biological therapy on growth in children with chronic inflammatory CTD. Material and methods: Data from 24 patients with CTD treated with tumor necrosis factor--blockers (etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab and an interleukin-6 receptor blocker (tocilizumab were reviewed at the time of disease onset, biological treatment initiation and at least 12 up to 24 months onwards. The rate of growth was correlated with the daily doses of GCS, and the type and duration of biological therapy. Results : Patient median height, measured as the change in height standard deviation score, was 0.36 ±1.07 at disease onset and –0.13 ±1.02 at biologic therapy initiation. The growth velocity accelerated in 17 patients (70.1% during the biological treatment. Mean height-SDS improvement between biological treatment initiation up to two years was 0.51 ±0.58. In 47% of patients daily doses of GCS were reduced to 0 mg/kg/day. Conclusions : In the treatment of CTD, biological agents restore growth velocity not only by inflammation inhibition, but also through limiting GCS

  5. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.

  6. New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2002-01-01

    Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well...... as a new method where 10 mul of a spore suspension is placed in a spot on the test sample. The new method gave additional information about fungal growth on biologically derived materials, revealing a clear difference between survival and growth. PHB and PIA turned out to be most suitable for food...

  7. Strontium hexaferrite nanomagnets suspended in a cosmetic preparation: a convenient tool to evaluate the biological effects of surface magnetism on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioni, T; Perkas, N; Wolfus, Y; Soroka, Y; Popov, I; Oron, M; Perelshtein, I; Bruckental, Y; Brégégère, F M; Ma'or, Z; Gedanken, A; Yeshurun, Y; Neuman, R; Milner, Y

    2010-08-01

    Magnetic therapy has been popular for ages, but its therapeutic abilities remain to be demonstrated. We aimed to develop a homogeneous, stable dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles in a skin-care preparation, as a tool to analyze the biological and physiological effects of superficial magnetism in skin. SrFe(12)O(19) nanoparticles were generated by ultrasound, dispersed in glycerol, stabilized in Dermud cream and permanently magnetized. The magnetic cream was applied on the epidermis of human skin organ cultures. The effects on UV-induced cell toxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine expression were analyzed. A clinical test was performed to check skin moisturization. Nanomagnets were found to be homogenously and stably dispersed. After magnetization, the preparation generated a magnetic field of 1-2 G. Upon cream application, no cytotoxicity and no impairment of cellular vitality were found after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties of Dermud were not modified, but its long-term effect on moisturization in vivo was slightly increased. Nanomagnetic Dermud cream can be used as a tool to analyze the biological effects of nanomagnets dispersed on the skin surface at the cellular and molecular levels, thus allowing to explore the possible therapeutic uses of superficial magnetism for skin care.

  8. Insulin-like growth factor I: a biologic maturation indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Ramy Abdul Rahman; Soliman, Sanaa Abou Zeid; Foda, Manal Yehya; Fayed, Mona Mohamed Salah

    2012-11-01

    Determination of the maturation level and the subsequent evaluation of growth potential during preadolescence and adolescence are important for optimal orthodontic treatment planning and timing. This study was undertaken to evaluate the applicability of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) blood level as a maturation indicator by correlating it to the cervical vertebral maturation index. The study was conducted with 120 subjects, equally divided into 60 males (ages, 10-18 years) and 60 females (ages, 8-16 years). A lateral cephalometric radiograph and a blood sample were taken from each subject. For each subject, cervical vertebral maturation and IGF-I serum level were assessed. Mean values of IGF-I in each stage of cervical vertebral maturation were calculated, and the means in each stage were statistically compared with those of the other stages. The IGF-I mean value at each cervical vertebral maturation stage was statistically different from the mean values at the other stages. The highest mean values were observed in stage 4, followed by stage 5 in males and stage 3 in females. IGF-I serum level is a reliable maturation indicator that could be applied in orthodontic diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Third international congress of plant molecular biology: Molecular biology of plant growth and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallick, R.B. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    The Congress was held October 6-11, 1991 in Tucson with approximately 3000 scientists attending and over 300 oral presentations and 1800 posters. Plant molecular biology is one of the most rapidly developing areas of the biological sciences. Recent advances in the ability to isolate genes, to study their expression, and to create transgenic plants have had a major impact on our understanding of the many fundamental plant processes. In addition, new approaches have been created to improve plants for agricultural purposes. This is a book of presentation and posters from the conference.

  10. Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrillo Juan I

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell growth underlies many key cellular and developmental processes, yet a limited number of studies have been carried out on cell-growth regulation. Comprehensive studies at the transcriptional, proteomic and metabolic levels under defined controlled conditions are currently lacking. Results Metabolic control analysis is being exploited in a systems biology study of the eukaryotic cell. Using chemostat culture, we have measured the impact of changes in flux (growth rate on the transcriptome, proteome, endometabolome and exometabolome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each functional genomic level shows clear growth-rate-associated trends and discriminates between carbon-sufficient and carbon-limited conditions. Genes consistently and significantly upregulated with increasing growth rate are frequently essential and encode evolutionarily conserved proteins of known function that participate in many protein-protein interactions. In contrast, more unknown, and fewer essential, genes are downregulated with increasing growth rate; their protein products rarely interact with one another. A large proportion of yeast genes under positive growth-rate control share orthologs with other eukaryotes, including humans. Significantly, transcription of genes encoding components of the TOR complex (a major controller of eukaryotic cell growth is not subject to growth-rate regulation. Moreover, integrative studies reveal the extent and importance of post-transcriptional control, patterns of control of metabolic fluxes at the level of enzyme synthesis, and the relevance of specific enzymatic reactions in the control of metabolic fluxes during cell growth. Conclusion This work constitutes a first comprehensive systems biology study on growth-rate control in the eukaryotic cell. The results have direct implications for advanced studies on cell growth, in vivo regulation of metabolic fluxes for comprehensive metabolic engineering, and for

  11. Cable suspended windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Moses G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  12. The growth and development of the Annals of Human Biology: a 25-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J M

    1999-01-01

    The history of the founding in 1958 of the Society for the Study of Human Biology is outlined, and the circumstances in which the Annals of Human Biology began publication in 1974. The contents of the papers published 1974-1997 are reviewed; about 40% concern Population Biology, 40% Auxology and 20% Population Physiology. Some outstanding contributions in the first two of these fields are mentioned. Many consist of groups of papers from an ongoing study: 11 papers from the Otmoor villages study by Harrison and colleagues, and 11 concerning the growth of children in the Zurich Longitudinal Study, by Gasser and colleagues. Papers concerning the analysis of growth data and modelling of the growth curve, especially by Healy, are noted, and papers giving evidence of mini-spurts in growth and the saltation-stasis growth model are recalled. Wilson's papers on catch-up and growth regulation in twins are reviewed; also the contribution to growth-as-a-mirror of social conditions by workers at the Stockholm Institute of Education. The National Study of Health and Growth, led by Rona, contributed 13 papers over 14 years to the Annals, and there were outstanding one-off papers from the National Child Development Study, and the Cuban National Growth Study of 1972, and concerning the secular trend towards greater leg length in Japan, the upward social mobility of the taller of pairs of brothers, the growth of 18th century children in Vienna and Stuttgart and the measurements of 19th century slaves in the USA.

  13. The Swine Plasma Metabolome Chronicles "Many Days" Biological Timing and Functions Linked to Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, Timothy G.; Idaghdour, Youssef; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Crenshaw, Thomas D.; Ovsiy, Olexandra; Rotter, Björn; Hoffmeier, Klaus; Schrenk, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm of chronobiology is based almost wholly upon the daily biological clock, or circadian rhythm, which has been the focus of intense molecular, cellular, pharmacological, and behavioral, research. However, the circadian rhythm does not explain biological timings related to fundamental aspects of life history such as rates of tissue/organ/body size development and control of the timing of life stages such as gestation length, age at maturity, and lifespan. This suggests that another biological timing mechanism is at work. Here we focus on a "many days" (multidien) chronobiological period first observed as enigmatic recurring growth lines in developing mammalian tooth enamel that is strongly associate with all adult tissue, organ, and body masses as well as life history attributes such as gestation length, age at maturity, weaning, and lifespan, particularly among the well studied primates. Yet, knowledge of the biological factors regulating the patterning of mammalian life, such as the development of body size and life history structure, does not exist. To identify underlying molecular mechanisms we performed metabolome and genome analyses from blood plasma in domestic pigs. We show that blood plasma metabolites and small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) drawn from 33 domestic pigs over a two-week period strongly oscillate on a 5-day multidien rhythm, as does the pig enamel rhythm. Metabolomics and genomics pathway analyses actually reveal two 5-day rhythms, one related to growth in which biological functions include cell proliferation, apoptosis, and transcription regulation/protein synthesis, and another 5-day rhythm related to degradative pathways that follows three days later. Our results provide experimental confirmation of a 5-day multidien rhythm in the domestic pig linking the periodic growth of enamel with oscillations of the metabolome and genome. This association reveals a new class of chronobiological rhythm and a snapshot of the biological bases that

  14. Microbial-enzymatic-hybrid biological fuel cell with optimized growth conditions for Shewanella oneidensis DSP-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jared N; Luckarift, Heather R; Sizemore, Susan R; Farrington, Karen E; Lau, Carolin; Johnson, Glenn R; Atanassov, Plamen

    2013-07-10

    In this work we present a biological fuel cell fabricated by combining a Shewanella oneidensis microbial anode and a laccase-modified air-breathing cathode. This concept is devised as an extension to traditional biochemical methods by incorporating diverse biological catalysts with the aim of powering small devices. In preparing the biological fuel cell anode, novel hierarchical-structured architectures and biofilm configurations were investigated. A method for creating an artificial biofilm based on encapsulating microorganisms in a porous, thin film of silica was compared with S. oneidensis biofilms that were allowed to colonize naturally. Results indicate comparable current and power densities for artificial and natural biofilm formations, based on growth characteristics. As a result, this work describes methods for creating controllable and reproducible bio-anodes and demonstrates the versatility of hybrid biological fuel cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brown seaweed fucoidan: biological activity and apoptosis, growth signaling mechanism in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Manivasagan, Panchanathan; Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2013-09-01

    Seaweeds, being abundant sources of bioactive components have much interest in recent times. The complex polysaccharides from the brown, red and green seaweeds possess broad spectrum therapeutic properties. The sulfated polysaccharides are routinely used in biomedical research and have known biological activities. Fucoidan, a fucose-rich polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed has various biological functions including anticancer effects. Cellular damage induces growth arrest and tumor suppression by inducing apoptosis, the mechanism of cell death depends on the magnitude of DNA damage following exposure to anticancer agents. Apoptosis is mainly regulated by cell growth signaling molecules. Number of research studies evidenced that fucoidan shown to induce cytotoxicity of various cancer cells, induces apoptosis, and inhibits invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis of cancer cells. There are few articles discussing on fucoidan biological activity but no specific review on cancer and its signaling mechanism. Hence, this review discusses the brown seaweed fucoidan structure and some biological function and role in apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and growth signal mechanism on cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Separating biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technique utilizing electric field to promote biological cell separation from suspending medium in zero gravity increases speed, reduces sedimentation, and improves efficiency of separation in normal gravity.

  17. Publication Growth in Biological Sub-Fields: Patterns, Predictability and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biologists are producing ever-increasing quantities of papers. The question arises of whether current rates of increase in scientific outputs are sustainable in the long term. I studied this issue using publication data from the Web of Science (1991–2010 for 18 biological sub-fields. In the majority of cases, an exponential regression explains more variation than a linear one in the number of papers published each year as a function of publication year. Exponential growth in publication numbers is clearly not sustainable. About 75% of the variation in publication growth among biological sub-fields over the two studied decades can be predicted by publication data from the first six years. Currently trendy fields such as structural biology, neuroscience and biomaterials cannot be expected to carry on growing at the current pace, because in a few decades they would produce more papers than the whole of biology combined. Synthetic and systems biology are problematic from the point of view of knowledge dissemination, because in these fields more than 80% of existing papers have been published over the last five years. The evidence presented here casts a shadow on how sustainable the recent increase in scientific publications can be in the long term.

  18. Dispersive suspended microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Yu; Lu, Yue-Le; Wu, Tong; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2011-11-14

    A novel sample pre-treatment technique termed dispersive suspended microextraction (DSME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) has been developed for the determination of eight organophosphorus pesticides (ethoprophos, malathion, chlorpyrifos, isocarbophos, methidathion, fenamiphos, profenofos, triazophos) in aqueous samples. In this method, both extraction and two phases' separation process were performed by the assistance of magnetic stirring. After separating the two phases, 1 μL of the suspended phase was injected into GC for further instrument analysis. Varieties of experiment factors which could affect the experiment results were optimized and the following were selected: 12.0 μL p-xylene was selected as extraction solvent, extraction speed was 1200 rpm, extraction time was 30 s, the restoration speed was 800 rpm, the restoration time was 8 min, and no salt was added. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detections (LODs) varied between 0.01 and 0.05 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSDs, n=6) ranged from 4.6% to 12.1%. The linearity was obtained by five points in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0 μg L(-1). Correlation coefficients (r) varied from 0.9964 to 0.9995. The enrichment factors (EFs) were between 206 and 243. In the final experiment, the developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in wine and tap water samples and the obtained recoveries were between 83.8% and 101.3%. Compared with other pre-treatment methods, DSME has its own features and could achieve satisfied results for the analysis of trace components in complicated matrices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A multiscale analysis of nutrient transport and biological tissue growth in vitro

    KAUST Repository

    O'Dea, R. D.

    2014-10-15

    © The authors 2014. In this paper, we consider the derivation of macroscopic equations appropriate to describe the growth of biological tissue, employing a multiple-scale homogenization method to accommodate explicitly the influence of the underlying microscale structure of the material, and its evolution, on the macroscale dynamics. Such methods have been widely used to study porous and poroelastic materials; however, a distinguishing feature of biological tissue is its ability to remodel continuously in response to local environmental cues. Here, we present the derivation of a model broadly applicable to tissue engineering applications, characterized by cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition in porous scaffolds used within tissue culture systems, which we use to study coupling between fluid flow, nutrient transport, and microscale tissue growth. Attention is restricted to surface accretion within a rigid porous medium saturated with a Newtonian fluid; coupling between the various dynamics is achieved by specifying the rate of microscale growth to be dependent upon the uptake of a generic diffusible nutrient. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Darcy-type equation governing fluid flow, with flow characteristics dictated by the assumed periodic microstructure and surface growth rate of the porous medium, coupled to an advection-reaction equation specifying the nutrient concentration. Illustrative numerical simulations are presented to indicate the influence of microscale growth on macroscale dynamics, and to highlight the importance of including experimentally relevant microstructural information to correctly determine flow dynamics and nutrient delivery in tissue engineering applications.

  20. Detrimental effects of discectomy on intervertebral disc biology can be decelerated by growth factor treatment during surgery: a large animal organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Lu, Young; Purmessur, Devina; Mayer, Jillian E; Walter, Benjamin A; Roughley, Peter J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Iatridis, James C

    2014-11-01

    Lumbar discectomies are common surgical interventions that treat radiculopathy by removing herniated and loose intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues. However, remaining IVD tissue can continue to degenerate resulting in long-term clinical problems. Little information is available on the effects of discectomy on IVD biology. Currently, no treatments exist that can suspend or reverse the degeneration of the remaining IVD. To improve the knowledge on how discectomy procedures influence IVD physiology and to assess the potential of growth factor treatment as an augmentation during surgery. To determine effects of discectomy on IVDs with and without transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) augmentation using bovine IVD organ culture. This study determined effects of discectomy with and without TGFβ3 injection using 1-, 6-, and 19-day organ culture experiments. Treated IVDs were injected with 0.2 μg TGFβ3 in 20 μL phosphate-buffered saline+bovine serum albumin into several locations of the discectomy site. Cell viability, gene expression, nitric oxide (NO) release, IVD height, aggrecan degradation, and proteoglycan content were determined. Discectomy significantly increased cell death, aggrecan degradation, and NO release in healthy IVDs. Transforming growth factor beta 3 injection treatment prevented or mitigated these effects for the 19-day culture period. Discectomy procedures induced cell death, catabolism, and NO production in healthy IVDs, and we conclude that post-discectomy degeneration is likely to be associated with cell death and matrix degradation. Transforming growth factor beta 3 injection augmented discectomy procedures by acting to protect IVD tissues by maintaining cell viability, limiting matrix degradation, and suppressing NO. We conclude that discectomy procedures can be improved with injectable therapies at the time of surgery although further in vivo and human studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrient control of eukaryote cell growth: a systems biology study in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilley Kathryn S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate the biological processes affected by changes in growth rate and nutrient availability, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome responses of chemostat cultures of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, growing at a range of growth rates and in four different nutrient-limiting conditions. Results We find significant changes in expression for many genes in each of the four nutrient-limited conditions tested. We also observe several processes that respond differently to changes in growth rate and are specific to each nutrient-limiting condition. These include carbohydrate storage, mitochondrial function, ribosome synthesis, and phosphate transport. Integrating transcriptome data with proteome measurements allows us to identify previously unrecognized examples of post-transcriptional regulation in response to both nutrient and growth-rate signals. Conclusions Our results emphasize the unique properties of carbon metabolism and the carbon substrate, the limitation of which induces significant changes in gene regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, as well as altering how many genes respond to growth rate. By comparison, the responses to growth limitation by other nutrients involve a smaller set of genes that participate in specific pathways. See associated commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/62

  2. High suspended solids as a factor in reproductive failure of a freshwater mussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Gascho-Landis; Wendell R. Haag; James A. Stoeckel

    2013-01-01

    Elevated suspended solids are a widespread stressor of aquatic ecosystems, but their effects on growth and reproduction in freshwater mussels are largely unknown. We fertilized experimental ponds to create a gradient in total suspended solids (TSS) and examined the effects of TSS on growth, nutritional status, reproduction, and clearance rate in Ligumia subrostrata....

  3. Biological implications from an autonomous version of Baranyi and Roberts growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasz, Peter; Vadasz, Alisa S

    2007-03-20

    An autonomous version of Baranyi and Roberts model (Int. J. Food Microbiology, 23, 1994, pp. 277-294) is developed and analyzed to reveal some subtle points, which are difficult to observe accurately from its equivalent non-autonomous form. In particular we are able to provide a meaningful interpretation to the "physiological state of the cells at inoculation", a parameter introduced by Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J., Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294] that has a profound impact on microbial growth but is not a direct measurable quantity. In addition, the analysis shows that the transient growth depends on the initial cell concentration and the initial growth rate, but is independent of "the history of the cells" and depends only indirectly (via the initial growth rate) on the previous (pre-inoculation) environment. The stationary solution is independent of the initial conditions. A new, more natural, and biologically meaningful formulation of LAG duration is being suggested in terms of initial conditions being in the neighborhood of one of the unstable stationary points revealed by this autonomous version of the model.

  4. A multiscale analysis of nutrient transport and biological tissue growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, R D; Nelson, M R; El Haj, A J; Waters, S L; Byrne, H M

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the derivation of macroscopic equations appropriate to describe the growth of biological tissue, employing a multiple-scale homogenization method to accommodate explicitly the influence of the underlying microscale structure of the material, and its evolution, on the macroscale dynamics. Such methods have been widely used to study porous and poroelastic materials; however, a distinguishing feature of biological tissue is its ability to remodel continuously in response to local environmental cues. Here, we present the derivation of a model broadly applicable to tissue engineering applications, characterized by cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition in porous scaffolds used within tissue culture systems, which we use to study coupling between fluid flow, nutrient transport, and microscale tissue growth. Attention is restricted to surface accretion within a rigid porous medium saturated with a Newtonian fluid; coupling between the various dynamics is achieved by specifying the rate of microscale growth to be dependent upon the uptake of a generic diffusible nutrient. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Darcy-type equation governing fluid flow, with flow characteristics dictated by the assumed periodic microstructure and surface growth rate of the porous medium, coupled to an advection-reaction equation specifying the nutrient concentration. Illustrative numerical simulations are presented to indicate the influence of microscale growth on macroscale dynamics, and to highlight the importance of including experimentally relevant microstructural information to correctly determine flow dynamics and nutrient delivery in tissue engineering applications. © The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling Biolog profiles' evolution for yeast growth monitoring in alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNittis, M; Zanoni, B; Minati, J L; Gorra, R; Ambrosoli, R

    2011-02-01

    A research was undertaken to explore the possibility to express with suitable mathematical models Biolog metabolic curves obtained for oenological yeasts and to use such models for monitoring yeast growth in alcoholic fermentation. Experimental curves of metabolic activity in Biolog YT microplates, obtained in a previous work for various oenological yeast strains in pure cultures and mixed populations, at various cell concentrations, have been modelled with Gompertz's, Gompertz's modified and Lindstrom's mathematical equations. Lindstrom's model proved to be the most suitable to fit the curves of the oenological yeasts under study, providing the highest correlation coefficients between experimental and calculated data. The model made it possible to recognize, in mixed yeast populations, the presence of active dry yeasts used for guided fermentations. Model's constant parameters were used for a numerical characterization of yeast curves.   The application of the model to the experimental data resulted to be suitable for an early prediction of the successive evolution of yeast growth. The results obtained indicate the possibility to develop protocols for monitoring yeast presence during alcoholic fermentation, with an early assessment of the correct evolution of their growth, especially when active dry yeasts are employed. © 2010 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Campos, Rossana Gómez; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-09-25

    Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls' height (p nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight).

  7. Biological effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on human endometrial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; de la Fuente, María; Ferrando, Marcos; Quintana, Fernando; Larreategui, Zaloa; Matorras, Roberto; Orive, Gorka

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the biological outcomes of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on human endometrial fibroblasts in culture. PRGF was obtained from three healthy donors and human endometrial fibroblasts (HEF) were isolated from endometrial specimens from five healthy women. The effects of PRGF on cell proliferation and migration, secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), procollagen type I and hyaluronic acid (HA) and contractility of isolated and cultured human endometrial fibroblasts (HEF) were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed in order to compare the effects of PRGF with respect to control situation (T-test or Mann-Whitney U-test). We report a significantly elevated human endometrial fibroblast proliferation and migration after treatment with PRGF. In addition, stimulation of HEF with PRGF induced an increased expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF and favored the endometrial matrix remodeling by the secretion of procollagen type I and HA and endometrial regeneration by elevating the contractility of HEF. These results were obtained for all PRGF donors and each endometrial cell line. The myriad of growth factors contained in PRGF promoted HEF proliferation, migration and synthesis of paracrine molecules apart from increasing their contractility potential. These preliminary results suggest that PRGF improves the biological activity of HEF in vitro, enhancing the regulation of several cellular processes implied in endometrial regeneration. This innovative treatment deserves further investigation for its potential in "in vivo" endometrial development and especially in human embryo implantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elastic cavitation, tube hollowing, and differential growth in plants and biological tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, A.

    2010-07-01

    Elastic cavitation is a well-known physical process by which elastic materials under stress can open cavities. Usually, cavitation is induced by applied loads on the elastic body. However, growing materials may generate stresses in the absence of applied loads and could induce cavity opening. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of spontaneous growth-induced cavitation in elastic materials and consider the implications of this phenomenon to biological tissues and in particular to the problem of schizogenous aerenchyma formation. Copyright © EPLA, 2010.

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation of Biological Growth Control by Chlorine-Based Biocides in Power Plant Cooling Systems Using Tertiary Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Dzombak, David A.; Vidic, Radisav D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have shown that treated municipal wastewater can be a reliable cooling water alternative to fresh water. However, elevated nutrient concentration and microbial population in wastewater lead to aggressive biological proliferation in the cooling system. Three chlorine-based biocides were evaluated for the control of biological growth in cooling systems using tertiary treated wastewater as makeup, based on their biocidal efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Optimal chemical regimens for achieving successful biological growth control were elucidated based on batch-, bench-, and pilot-scale experiments. Biocide usage and biological activity in planktonic and sessile phases were carefully monitored to understand biological growth potential and biocidal efficiency of the three disinfectants in this particular environment. Water parameters, such as temperature, cycles of concentration, and ammonia concentration in recirculating water, critically affected the biocide performance in recirculating cooling systems. Bench-scale recirculating tests were shown to adequately predict the biocide residual required for a pilot-scale cooling system. Optimal residuals needed for proper biological growth control were 1, 2–3, and 0.5–1 mg/L as Cl2 for NaOCl, preformed NH2Cl, and ClO2, respectively. Pilot-scale tests also revealed that Legionella pneumophila was absent from these cooling systems when using the disinfectants evaluated in this study. Cost analysis showed that NaOCl is the most cost-effective for controlling biological growth in power plant recirculating cooling systems using tertiary-treated wastewater as makeup. PMID:23781129

  10. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling: ensuring continued growth and future leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi; Rietman, Edward A; Wu, Rongling

    2013-07-11

    Theoretical biology encompasses a broad range of biological disciplines ranging from mathematical biology and biomathematics to philosophy of biology. Adopting a broad definition of "biology", Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, an open access journal, considers original research studies that focus on theoretical ideas and models associated with developments in biology and medicine.

  11. Age, growth, and reproductive biology of three catostomids from the Apalachicola River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Timothy B.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Ely, Patrick C.

    2012-01-01

    Riverine catostomids can show a wide range of interspecific variation in life-history characteristics. Understanding these differences is an important consideration in evaluating the sensitivity of these fishes to disturbance and in formulating effective conservation strategies, particularly when dealing with an assemblage consisting of multiple species within a watershed. We collected Apalachicola redhorse Moxostoma n. sp. cf. poecilurum (n = 125), spotted sucker Minytrema melanops (n = 94), and quillback Carpiodes cyprinus (n = 94) to determine age, growth, and reproductive biology of spawning catostomids in the Apalachicola River, Florida, during 2007. Quillback was the smallest in total length at age; longest-lived; most fecund; and produced the smallest eggs. Apalachicola redhorse was the largest in body size; had an intermediate life span; and produced the fewest yet largest eggs. Spotted sucker was more similar to Apalachicola redhorse in most characteristics. Growth during ages 1-3 in all three species seemed to be negatively related to the proportion of observations of extreme flow, both high (Q90) and low (Q10), per year and a positive response in growth rate to high flows (>Q75 but histories and ecological response of Apalachicola River catostomids to flow regulation are important components for developing strategies that incorporate the needs of these fishery resources into an ecosystem-based management approach.

  12. Morphology, growth pattern, feeding and reproductive biology of Mystus gulio (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822 (Siluriformes: Bagridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mystus gulio is a euryhaline fish, occurring mostly in freshwater; it has also been found to thrive in backwaters of low salinity. It is a popular food fish due to its good taste and recently it has also been reported to be exported as indigenous ornamental fish from India. Number of workers earlier has studied morphology, age, growth pattern, food and feeding habit and reproductive biology of this fish species; but no such collective documentation on these aspects is available. With this view, the current review work has been made to document all available information along with noting down those which are lacking and will be beneficial for future fishery and management of this fish species.

  13. Effect of chemically and biologically synthesized Ag nanoparticles on the algae growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Mražiková; Oksana, Velgosová; Jana, Kavuličová

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years green methods for preparation of silver nanoparticles has become necessary due to its friendly influence on ecosystem. In the present work antimicrobial properties of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Bio-AgNPs) using green algae extract and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Chem-AgNPs) using sodium citrate against algae Parachlorella kessleri is investigated. Both used Bio-AgNPs and Chem-AgNPs exhibit long-term stability as demonstrated by UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. The results revealed stronger toxic effects of Bio-AgNPs on agar plates what was confirmed clear inhibition zone around wells impregnated with Bio-AgNPs. On the other hand Bio-AgNPs were confirmed to be less toxic in aquatic environments for the growths of green algae P. kessleri comparing to Chem-AgNPs.

  14. The biological effects of the insect growth regulators; pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron on the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Hany A; Khater, Emad I M

    2010-12-01

    The biological effects of two insect growth regulators (IGRs), pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron against larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) have been evaluated. Mosquitoes were collected from Jeddah governorate, west of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and maintained in the laboratory. According to IC50 values obtained (concentrations which inhibit the emergence of 50% of adults), diflubenzuron (0.00036 ppm) proved to be more effective by 11.4 fold of pyriproxyfen (0.0041 ppm). In addition to the delayed lethal action, larval treatment with the two IGRs, pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron led to pronounced reduction in the reproductive potential of mosquito adults that emerged from these treatments. Pyriproxyfen caused a 33.2% decrease in egg production compared to 25.5% for diflubenzuron. The reduction in egg hatchability was by 40.6 and 36.2% for pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron, respectively, with up to 4 fold higher reduction rates than in the control tests. These results shed light on the extended biological effects of IGRs on mosquitoes and encourage further testing of IGRs for wider use in the control of Ae. aegypti and other important disease vectors in Arabia and the world.

  15. Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Peter J; Tisherman, Samuel A

    2002-04-01

    'Suspended animation for delayed resuscitation' is a new concept for attempting resuscitation from cardiac arrest of patients who currently (totally or temporarily) cannot be resuscitated, such as traumatic exsanguination cardiac arrest. Suspended animation means preservation of the viability of brain and organism during cardiac arrest, until restoration of stable spontaneous circulation or prolonged artificial circulation is possible. Suspended animation for exsanguination cardiac arrest of trauma victims would have to be induced within the critical first 5 min after the start of cardiac arrest no-flow, to buy time for transport and resuscitative surgery (hemostasis) performed during no-flow. Cardiac arrest is then reversed with all-out resuscitation, usually requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Suspended animation has been explored and documented as effective in dogs in terms of long-term survival without brain damage after very prolonged cardiac arrest. In the 1990s, the Pittsburgh group achieved survival without brain damage in dogs after cardiac arrest of up to 90 min no-flow at brain (tympanic) temperature of 10 degrees C, with functionally and histologically normal brains. These studies used emergency cardiopulmonary bypass with heat exchanger or a single hypothermic saline flush into the aorta, which proved superior to pharmacologic strategies. For the large number of normovolemic sudden cardiac death victims, which currently cannot be resuscitated, more research in large animals is needed.

  16. Cow milk consumption, insulin-like growth factor-I, and human biology: a life history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Andrea S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the life history consequences of cow milk consumption at different stages in early life (prenatal to adolescence), especially with regard to linear growth and age at menarche and the role of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in mediating a relationship among milk, growth and development, and long-term biological outcomes. United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 1999 to 2004 and review of existing literature. The literature tends to support milk's role in enhancing growth early in life (prior to age 5 years), but there is less support for this relationship during middle childhood. Milk has been associated with early menarche and with acceleration of linear growth in adolescence. NHANES data show a positive relationship between milk intake and linear growth in early childhood and adolescence, but not middle childhood, a period of relatively slow growth. IGF-I is a candidate bioactive molecule linking milk consumption to more rapid growth and development, although the mechanism by which it may exert such effects is unknown. Routine milk consumption is an evolutionarily novel dietary behavior that has the potential to alter human life history parameters, especially vis-à-vis linear growth, which in turn may have negative long-term biological consequences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport controls on river mouth morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcini, F.; Piliouras, A.; Garra, R.; Guerin, A.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Rowland, J.; Paola, C.

    2014-01-01

    mouths building into standing bodies of water have strikingly varied growth habits. This presents a compelling pattern formation problem that is also of great practical relevance for subsurface prediction and managing coastal wetlands. Here we present a generalized 2.5-dimensional potential vorticity (PV) theory that explains sedimentation patterns of a sediment-laden stationary jet by coupling an understanding of vorticity with suspended sediment concentration fields. We explore the physical meaning of this new sediment-PV definition, and its impact on outflow depositional patterns, by analyzing data from a shallow wall-bounded plane jet experiment and by discussing new theoretical insights. A key result is that lateral advection and diffusion of suspended sediment are directly proportional to jet vorticity, a feature that reveals the mechanistic process that forms elongated channels by focused levee deposition. The new PV theory constitutes a more generalized mathematical framework that expands the Rouse theory for the equilibrium of suspended sediment.

  18. 7 CFR 1206.21 - Suspend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... part thereof during a particular period of time specified in the rule. ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.21 Suspend. Suspend means to...

  19. The biological role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in growth and feeding behavior in juvenile fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Juana Maria; Oliva, Aymé; Morales, Antonio; Reyes, Osvaldo; Garay, Hilda Elisa; Herrera, Fidel; Cabrales, Ania; Pérez, Ever; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2010-11-01

    To date, many technologies have been developed to increase efficiency in aquaculture, but very few successful biotechnology molecules have arrived on the market. In this context, marine biotechnology has an opportunity to develop products to improve the output of fish in aquaculture. Published in vivo studies on the action of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in fish are scarce. Recently, our group, for the first time, demonstrated the biological role of this neuropeptide administrated by immersion baths in the growth and development of larval fish. In this work, we have evaluated the effects of recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administration by intraperitoneal injection on growth performance and feeding behavior in juvenile fish. Our results showed the physiological role of this peptide for growth control in fish, including the juvenile stage, and confirm that its biological functions are well conserved in fish, since C. gariepinus PACAP stimulated growth in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In addition, we have observed that the growth-promoting effect of PACAP in juvenile tilapia was correlated with higher GH concentration in serum. With regard to the neuroendocrine regulation of growth control by PACAP, it was demonstrated that PACAP stimulates food intake in juvenile tilapia. In general, PACAP appears to act in the regulation of the growth control in juvenile fish. These findings propose that PACAP is a prominent target with the potential to stimulate fish growth in aquaculture. Copyright © 2010 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  1. Biofilm growth of Chlorella sorokiniana in a rotating biological contactor based photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanken, W; Janssen, M; Cuaresma, M; Libor, Z; Bhaiji, T; Wijffels, R H

    2014-12-01

    Microalgae biofilms could be used as a production platform for microalgae biomass. In this study, a photobioreactor design based on a rotating biological contactor (RBC) was used as a production platform for microalgae biomass cultivated in biofilm. In the photobioreactor, referred to as Algadisk, microalgae grow in biofilm on vertical rotating disks partially submerged in a growth medium. The objective is to evaluate the potential of the Algadisk photobioreactor with respect to the effects of disk roughness, disk rotation speed and CO2 concentration. These objectives where evaluated in relationship to productivity, photosynthetic efficiency, and long-term cultivation stability in a lab-scale Algadisk system. Although the lab-scale Algadisk system is used, operation parameters evaluated are relevant for scale-up. Chlorella Sorokiniana was used as model microalgae. In the lab-scale Algadisk reactor, productivity of 20.1 ± 0.7 g per m(2) disk surface per day and a biomass yield on light of 0.9 ± 0.04 g dry weight biomass per mol photons were obtained. Different disk rotation speeds did demonstrate minimal effects on biofilm growth and on the diffusion of substrate into the biofilm. CO2 limitation, however, drastically reduced productivity to 2-4 g per m(2) disk surface per day. Productivity could be maintained over a period of 21 weeks without re-inoculation of the Algadisk. Productivity decreased under extreme conditions such as pH 9-10, temperature above 40°C, and with low CO2 concentrations. Maximal productivity, however, was promptly recovered when optimal cultivation conditions were reinstated. These results exhibit an apparent opportunity to employ the Algadisk photobioreactor at large scale for microalgae biomass production if diffusion does not limit the CO2 supply. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    We report a fabrication method, which uses standard UV-lithography to pattern the catalyst for the chemical vapour deposition(CVD) of suspended double clamped single walled carbon nanotubes. By using an aqueous solution of Fe(NO3)3 the patterning of the catalyst material onto microelectrodes can...... be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...

  3. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  4. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  5. The biology and preliminary host range of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) and its impact on kudzu growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2012-01-01

    The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.), recently was discovered in the United States feeding on kudzu, Pueraria montana Lour. (Merr.) variety lobata (Willd.), an economically important invasive vine. We studied its biology on kudzu and its impact on kudzu growth. We also tested its ability to use other common forest legumes for oviposition and development. Flight...

  6. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--mechanism of growth hormone stimulation of skeletal muscle growth in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Ge, X

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone, also called somatotropin (ST), is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. The major functions of GH include stimulating bone and skeletal muscle growth, lipolysis, milk production, and expression of the IGF-I gene in the liver. Based on these functions, recombinant bovine ST (bST) and recombinant porcine ST (pST) have been used to improve milk production in dairy cows and lean tissue growth in pigs, respectively. However, despite these applications, the mechanisms of action of GH are not fully understood. Indeed, there has been a lot of controversy over the role of liver-derived circulating IGF-I and locally produced IGF-I in mediating the growth-stimulatory effect of GH during the last 15 yr. It is in this context that we have conducted studies to further understand how GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results do not support a role of skeletal muscle-derived IGF-I in GH-stimulated skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results indicate that GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle, in part, by stimulating protein synthesis in muscle through a GH receptor-mediated, IGF-I-independent mechanism. In this review, besides discussing these results, we also argue that liver-derived circulating IGF-I should be still considered as the major mechanism that mediates the growth-stimulatory effect of GH on skeletal muscle in cattle and other domestic animals.

  7. Anoxic growth of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Rong; Wentzel, M C; Ekama, G A

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, research on the growth performance of phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) was conducted based on literature and experimental investigations on biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated sludge (BNRAS) systems. The research aims at presenting the occurrence of denitrifying PAOs (DPAOs), abstracting information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of PAOs under anoxic conditions and determining the conditions that stimulate the PAO growth under anoxic conditions. The research results indicate that the PAOs are capable of utilizing nitrate as electron acceptor instead of oxygen in BNRAS systems, particularly in external nitrification BNRAS (ENBNRAS) systems. However, the growth yield of PAOs under anoxic conditions should be reduced to about 70% of that under aerobic conditions, and further the stoichiometric coefficient for anoxic P uptake per PHB COD utilized should be reduced to about 80% of that under aerobic conditions as the DPAOs show a significantly lower BEPR performance and use the influent RBCOD less "efficiently" compared with aerobic PAOs (APAOs). The research results also indicate that the major factor influencing the occurrence of DPAOs and associated anoxic P uptake is the nitrate load into the anoxic reactor, i.e. the nitrate load should be large enough or exceeds the denitrification potential of ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHOs), i.e. non-PAO organisms in the anoxic reactor to stimulate DPAOs in the system as the specific denitrification rate of OHOs (K'2 OHO) is significantly larger than that of PAOs (K'2 PAO). In terms of this competition, if the nitrate load into the main anoxic reactor is less than the denitrification potential of OHOs, then the OHOs will outcompete PAOs for using the limited nitrate, while if the nitrate load in the main anoxic reactor exceeds the denitrification potential of OHOs, then the PAOs would have opportunities to use the "excess" nitrate and so develop in the system. The other factors that

  8. The occurrence of rare minerals on decayed medieval Scottish building stone colonized by biological growths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones, M. S.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available During the course of a study of biodeterioration at Hermitage Castle in the Scottish Borders various rare minerals: monohydrocalcite, nesquehonite and dypingite were found in association with the biological growths. Monohydrocalcite was found particularly in association with a green alga "Trentepohlia aurea". A brief review of previous publications concerning these minerals is given and the theory put forward with regard to the possible origin of the monohydrocalcite as a biogenic by product.

    En el transcurso de un estudio sobre el biodeterioro existente en el 'Hermitage Castle', localizado en los 'Scottish Borders' (frontera entre Escocia e Inglaterra, se detectó la presencia de monohidrocalcita, nesquehonita y dipingita, minerales considerados como poco frecuentes, asociados con la colonización biológica presente, especialmente en el caso de la monohidrocalcita y el alga verde Trentepohlia áurea. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre estos minerales así como la teoría del posible origen biogénico de la monohidrocalcita.

  9. Chemical and Biological Sensing Using Diatom Photonic Crystal Biosilica With In-Situ Growth Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Squire, Kenny; Li, Erwen; LeDuff, Paul; Rorrer, Gregory L.; Tang, Suning; Chen, Bin; McKay, Christopher P; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we described a new type of bioenabled nano-plasmonic sensors based on diatom photonic crystal biosilica with in-situ growth silver nanoparticles and demonstrated label-free chemical and biological sensing based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERs) from complex samples. Diatoms are photosynthetic marine micro-organisms that create their own skeletal shells of hydrated amorphous silica, called frustules, which possess photonic crystal-like hierarchical micro-& nanoscale periodic pores. Our research shows that such hybrid plasmonic-biosilica nanostructures formed by cost-effective and eco-friendly bottom-up processes can achieve ultra-high limit of detection for medical applications, food sensing, water/air quality monitoring and geological/space research. The enhanced sensitivity comes from the optical coupling of the guided-mode resonance of the diatom frustules and the localized surface plasmons of the silver nanoparticles. Additionally, the nanoporous, ultra-hydrophilic diatom biosilica with large surface-to-volume ratio can concentrate more analyte molecules to the surface of the SERS substrates, which can help to detect biomolecules that cannot be easily adsorbed by metallic nanoparticles. PMID:27959817

  10. Production of human mutant biologically active hepatocyte growth factor in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongsheng; Wan, Aini; Peng, Lin; Chen, Yun; He, Yang; Yang, Jianfeng; Jin, Jian

    2017-05-28

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent multifunctional cytokine that affects proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis of various cells. HGF is secreted as an inactive single-chain precursor protein and activated by the cleavage of serine proteases to form heterodimers. In our current study, the cleavage site of HGF was blocked by replaced Arg 494 of Glu (R494E) that resulted in the single-chain HGF (R494E) unable to be cleaved by serine proteases. We established Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells overexpressing HGF (R494E), the expression of HGF (R494E) achieved 12 mg/L and was similar to a previously reported study. The recombinant protein was then purified from culture medium using a two-step chromatographic procedure that resulted in about a 40% recovery rate. The purified HGF (R494E) was obtained as a single-chain active protein. It concluded that HGF (R494E) exhibited a biologically active protein and the overexpressing CHO cell line supplied sufficient material for future studies. The R494E replacement of the cleavage site would be beneficial to the utility of other similar therapeutic proteins.

  11. Seed Coating with Biological Agent to Increace Plant Growth and Yield of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantri Palupi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality is an important factor in rice production. Bacterial leaf blight (BLB caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo is a seedborne disease of rice that cause serious yield losses in Indonesia. Experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Rice Research Babakan, IPB, Bogor; Laboratory of Seed Science and Technology at IPB, Bogor; and the Laboratory of Seed PT. EWSI, Purwakarta, from April to August 2011. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of coating Xoo contaminated rice seeds with biological agents on plant growth and crop yield. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with one factor (seed coating treatment,i.e. T0 = negative control, healthy seed; T1 = positive control, the seeds contaminated with Xoo; T2 = P. diminuta A6 and B. subtilis 5/B; T3 = alginate 3% + 1% peat + P. diminuta A6 and B. subtilis % 5/B; T4 = arabic gum 3% + 1% gypsum + P. diminuta A6 and B. subtilis 5/B; T5 = CMC 1.5% + 1% talc + P. diminuta A6 and B. subtilis 5/B, and T6 = bactericide streptomycin sulfat 4%. The results showed that seed coating treatment with with 3% alginate + 1% peat + P. diminuta A6 + B. subtilis 5/B was the best treatment based on the percentage of full and empty grain weight per panicle, and the percentage of number of full and empty grains per panicle.

  12. The Influence of Estrogens on the Biological and Therapeutic Actions of Growth Hormone in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fernández-Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available GH is main regulator of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism and gender-dependent dimorphism in mammals. The liver is a direct target of estrogens because it expresses estrogen receptors which are connected with development, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, hepatic carcinogenesis, protection from drug-induced toxicity and fertility. In addition, estrogens can modulate GH actions in liver by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and, peripherally, by modulating GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signalling pathway. Therefore, the interactions of estrogens with GH actions in liver are biologically and clinically relevant because disruption of GH signaling may cause alterations of its endocrine, metabolic, and gender differentiated functions and it could be linked to dramatic impact in liver physiology during development as well as in adulthood. Finally, the interplay of estrogens with GH is relevant because physiological roles these hormones have in human, and the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. This review highlights the importance of these hormones in liver physiology as well as how estrogens modulate GH actions in liver which will help to improve the clinical use of these hormones.

  13. Salinity fluctuation influencing biological adaptation: growth dynamics and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in a euryhaline bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Meng, Yang; Song, Youxin; Tan, Yalin; Warren, Alan; Li, Jiqiu; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2017-07-01

    Although salinity fluctuation is a prominent characteristic of many coastal ecosystems, its effects on biological adaptation have not yet been fully recognized. To test the salinity fluctuations on biological adaptation, population growth dynamics and Na + /K + -ATPase activity were investigated in the euryhaline bacterium Idiomarina sp. DYB, which was acclimated at different salinity exposure levels, exposure times, and shifts in direction of salinity. Results showed: (1) bacterial population growth dynamics and Na + /K + -ATPase activity changed significantly in response to salinity fluctuation; (2) patterns of variation in bacterial growth dynamics were related to exposure times, levels of salinity, and shifts in direction of salinity change; (3) significant tradeoffs were detected between growth rate (r) and carrying capacity (K) on the one hand, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity on the other; and (4) beneficial acclimation was confirmed in Idiomarina sp. DYB. In brief, this study demonstrated that salinity fluctuation can change the population growth dynamics, Na + /K + -ATPase activity, and tradeoffs between r, K, and Na + /K + -ATPase activity, thus facilitating bacterial adaption in a changing environment. These findings provide constructive information for determining biological response patterns to environmental change. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Artificial Neural Networks, and Evolutionary Algorithms as a systems biology approach to a data-base on fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Maria E; Buscema, Massimo; Smerieri, Arianna; Montanini, Luisa; Grossi, Enzo

    2013-12-01

    One of the specific aims of systems biology is to model and discover properties of cells, tissues and organisms functioning. A systems biology approach was undertaken to investigate possibly the entire system of intra-uterine growth we had available, to assess the variables of interest, discriminate those which were effectively related with appropriate or restricted intrauterine growth, and achieve an understanding of the systems in these two conditions. The Artificial Adaptive Systems, which include Artificial Neural Networks and Evolutionary Algorithms lead us to the first analyses. These analyses identified the importance of the biochemical variables IL-6, IGF-II and IGFBP-2 protein concentrations in placental lysates, and offered a new insight into placental markers of fetal growth within the IGF and cytokine systems, confirmed they had relationships and offered a critical assessment of studies previously performed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Technological advances in suspended-sediment surrogate monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.

    2009-01-01

    Surrogate technologies to continuously monitor suspended sediment show promise toward supplanting traditional data collection methods requiring routine collection and analysis of water samples. Commercially available instruments operating on bulk optic (turbidity), laser optic, pressure difference, and acoustic backscatter principles are evaluated based on cost, reliability, robustness, accuracy, sample volume, susceptibility to biological fouling, and suitable range of mass concentration and particle size distribution. In situ turbidimeters are widely used. They provide reliable data where the point measurements can be reliably correlated to the river's mean cross section concentration value, effects of biological fouling can be minimized, and concentrations remain below the sensor's upper measurement limit. In situ laser diffraction instruments have similar limitations and can cost 6 times the approximate $5000 purchase price of a turbidimeter. However, laser diffraction instruments provide volumetric-concentration data in 32 size classes. Pressure differential instruments measure mass density in a water column, thus integrating substantially more streamflow than a point measurement. They are designed for monitoring medium-to-large concentrations, are generally unaffected by biological fouling, and cost about the same as a turbidimeter. However, their performance has been marginal in field applications. Acoustic Doppler profilers use acoustic backscatter to measure suspended sediment concentrations in orders of magnitude more streamflow than do instruments that rely on point measurements. The technology is relatively robust and generally immune to effects of biological fouling. Cost of a single-frequency device is about double that of a turbidimeter. Multifrequency arrays also provide the potential to resolve concentrations by clay silt versus sand size fractions. Multifrequency hydroacoustics shows the most promise for revolutionizing collection of continuous

  16. Future Food Production System Development Pulling From Space Biology Crop Growth Testing in Veggie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Romeyn, Matt; Fritsche, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary crop testing using Veggie indicates the environmental conditions provided by the ISS are generally suitable for food crop production. When plant samples were returned to Earth for analysis, their levels of nutrients were comparable to Earth-grown ground controls. Veggie-grown produce food safety microbiology analysis indicated that space-grown crops are safe to consume. Produce sanitizing wipes were used on-orbit to further reduce risk of foodborne illness. Validation growth tests indicated abiotic challenges of insufficient or excess fluid delivery, potentially reduced air flow leading to excess water, elevated CO2 leading to physiological responses, and microorganisms that became opportunistic pathogens. As NASA works to develop future space food production, several areas of research to define these systems pull from the Veggie technology validation tests. Research into effective, reusable water delivery and water recovery methods for future food production systems arises from abiotic challenges observed. Additionally, impacts of elevated CO2 and refinement of fertilizer and light recipes for crops needs to be assessed. Biotic pulls include methods or technologies to effectively sanitize produce with few consumables and low inputs; work to understand the phytomicrobiome and potentially use it to protect crops or enhance growth; selection of crops with high harvest index and desirable flavors for supplemental nutrition; crops that provide psychosocial benefits, and custom space crop development. Planning for future food production in a deep space gateway or a deep space transit vehicle requires methods of handling and storing seeds, and ensuring space seeds are free of contaminants and long-lived. Space food production systems may require mechanization and autonomous operation, with preliminary testing initiated to identify operations and capabilities that are candidates for automation. Food production design is also pulling from Veggie logistics

  17. Future Food Production System Development Pulling from Space Biology Crop Growth Testing in Veggie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Romeyn, M. W.; Fritsche, R. F.

    2017-01-01

    Preliminary crop testing using Veggie indicates the environmental conditions provided by the ISS are generally suitable for food crop production. When plant samples were returned to Earth for analysis, their levels of nutrients were comparable to Earth-grown ground controls. Veggie-grown produce food safety microbiology analysis indicated that space-grown crops are safe to consume. Produce sanitizing wipes were used on-orbit to further reduce risk of foodborne illness. Validation growth tests indicated abiotic challenges of insufficient or excess fluid delivery, potentially reduced air flow leading to excess water, elevated CO2 leading to physiological responses, and microorganisms that became opportunistic pathogens. As NASA works to develop future space food production, several areas of research to define these systems pull from the Veggie technology validation tests. Research into effective, reusable water delivery and water recovery methods for future food production systems arises from abiotic challenges observed. Additionally, impacts of elevated CO2 and refinement of fertilizer and light recipes for crops needs to be assessed. Biotic pulls include methods or technologies to effectively sanitize produce with few consumables and low inputs; work to understand the phytomicrobiome and potentially use it to protect crops or enhance growth; selection of crops with high harvest index and desirable flavors for supplemental nutrition; crops that provide psychosocial benefits, and custom space crop development. Planning for future food production in a deep space gateway or a deep space transit vehicle requires methods of handling and storing seeds, and ensuring space seeds are free of contaminants and long-lived. Space food production systems may require mechanization and autonomous operation, with preliminary testing initiated to identify operations and capabilities that are candidates for automation. Food production design is also pulling from Veggie logistics

  18. Growth factors and myometrium: biological effects in uterine fibroid and possible clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Islam, Md Soriful; Reis, Fernando M; Gray, Peter C; Bloise, Enrrico; Petraglia, Felice; Vale, Wylie; Castellucci, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Growth factors are proteins secreted by a number of cell types that are capable of modulating cellular growth, proliferation and cellular differentiation. It is well accepted that uterine cellular events such as proliferation and differentiation are regulated by sex steroids and their actions in target tissues are mediated by local production of growth factors acting through paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. Myometrial mass is ultimately modified in pregnancy as well as in tumour conditions such as leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are benign tumours of the uterus, considered to be one of the most frequent causes of infertility in reproductive years in women. For this review, we searched the database MEDLINE and Google Scholar for articles with content related to growth factors acting on myometrium; the findings are hereby reviewed and discussed. Different growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and TGF-β perform actions in myometrium and in leiomyomas. In addition to these growth factors, activin and myostatin have been recently identified in myometrium and leiomyoma. Growth factors play an important role in the mechanisms involved in myometrial patho-physiology.

  19. Rippling instabilities in suspended nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Upmanyu, Moneesh

    2012-11-01

    Morphology mediates the interplay between the structure and electronic transport in atomically thin nanoribbons such as graphene as the relaxation of edge stresses occurs preferentially via out-of-plane deflections. In the case of end-supported suspended nanoribbons that we study here, past experiments and computations have identified a range of equilibrium morphologies, in particular, for graphene flakes, yet a unified understanding of their relative stability remains elusive. Here, we employ atomic-scale simulations and a composite framework based on isotropic elastic plate theory to chart out the morphological stability space of suspended nanoribbons with respect to intrinsic (ribbon elasticity) and engineered (ribbon geometry) parameters, and the combination of edge and body actuation. The computations highlight a rich morphological shape space that can be naturally classified into two competing shapes, bendinglike and twistlike, depending on the distribution of ripples across the interacting edges. The linearized elastic framework yields exact solutions for these rippled shapes. For compressive edge stresses, the body strain emerges as a key variable that controls their relative stability and in extreme cases stabilizes coexisting transverse ripples. Tensile edge stresses lead to dimples within the ribbon core that decay into the edges, a feature of obvious significance for stretchable nanoelectronics. The interplay between geometry and mechanics that we report should serve as a key input for quantifying the transport along these ribbons.

  20. Determining annual suspended sediment and sediment-associated trace element and nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Suspended sediment is a major factor in the biological and geochemical cycling of trace elements and nutrients in aquatic systems. The design of effective studies involving the collection, processing, and subsequent chemical analysis of suspended sediment requires a clear understanding of the problems associated with using this sample medium. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge relative to the various issues/problems associated with the collection of representative suspended sediment samples in fluvial systems. It also addresses issues associated with accurately determining the concentrations and fluxes of sediment-associated trace elements and nutrients.

  1. Easy Growth Experiment on Peas Stimulates Interest in Biology for 10-11 Year Old Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    How do we support the enthusiasm children show for biology in school? Unfortunately, lack of exciting practical work and boring biology lessons seem to make science less popular. As a senior lecturer in plant physiology at Karlstad University I have simplified experiments intended for students at university and then tested them on 10-11 year old…

  2. Slower growth of skull base meningiomas compared with non-skull base meningiomas based on volumetric and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Naoya; Rabo, Carter S; Okita, Yoshiko; Kinoshita, Manabu; Kagawa, Naoki; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Morii, Eiichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Maruno, Motohiko; Kato, Amami; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2012-03-01

    The precise natural history of incidentally discovered meningiomas (IDMs) remains unknown. It has been reported that for symptomatic meningiomas, tumor location can be used to predict growth. As to whether the same is true for IDMs has not been reported. This study aims to answer this question and provide biological evidence for this assumption by extending the study to involve symptomatic cases. A total of 113 IDMs were analyzed by fine volumetry. A comparison of growth rates and patterns between skull base and non-skull base IDMs was made. Subsequently, materials obtained from 210 patients with symptomatic meningiomas who were treated in the authors' hospital during the same period were included for a biological comparison between skull base and non-skull base tumors using the MIB-1 index. The 110 patients with IDMs included 93 females and 17 males, with a mean follow-up period of 46.9 months. There were 38 skull base (34%) and 75 non-skull base (66%) meningiomas. Forty-two (37%) did not exhibit growth of more than 15% of the volume, whereas 71 (63%) showed growth. Only 15 (39.5%) of 38 skull base meningiomas showed growth, whereas 56 (74.7%) of 75 non-skull base meningiomas showed growth (p = 0.0004). In the 71 IDMs (15 skull base and 56 non-skull base), there was no statistical difference between the 2 groups in terms of mean age, sex, follow-up period, or initial tumor volume. However, the percentage of growth (p = 0.002) was significantly lower and the doubling time (p = 0.008) was significantly higher in the skull base than in the non-skull base tumor group. In subsequently analyzed materials from 94 skull base and 116 non-skull base symptomatic meningiomas, the mean MIB-1 index for skull base tumors was markedly low (2.09%), compared with that for non-skull base tumors (2.74%; p = 0.013). Skull base IDMs tend not to grow, which is different from non-skull base tumors. Even when IDMs grow, the rate of growth is significantly lower than that of non-skull base

  3. Expression profiling and Ingenuity biological function analyses of interleukin-6- versus nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriades-Schmutz Beatrice

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major goal of the study was to compare the genetic programs utilized by the neuropoietic cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and the neurotrophin (NT Nerve Growth Factor (NGF for neuronal differentiation. Results The designer cytokine Hyper-IL-6 in which IL-6 is covalently linked to its soluble receptor s-IL-6R as well as NGF were used to stimulate PC12 cells for 24 hours. Changes in gene expression levels were monitored using Affymetrix GeneChip technology. We found different expression for 130 genes in IL-6- and 102 genes in NGF-treated PC12 cells as compared to unstimulated controls. The gene set shared by both stimuli comprises only 16 genes. A key step is upregulation of growth factors and functionally related external molecules known to play important roles in neuronal differentiation. In particular, IL-6 enhances gene expression of regenerating islet-derived 3 alpha (REG3A; 1084-fold, regenerating islet-derived 3 beta (REG3B/PAPI; 672-fold, growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15; 80-fold, platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFA; 69-fold, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH; 30-fold, adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP; 20-fold and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF; 5-fold. NGF recruits GDF15 (131-fold, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1; 101-fold and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; 89-fold. Both stimuli activate growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43 indicating that PC12 cells undergo substantial neuronal differentiation. Moreover, IL-6 activates the transcription factors retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA; 20-fold and early growth response 1 (Egr1/Zif268; 3-fold known to play key roles in neuronal differentiation. Ingenuity biological function analysis revealed that completely different repertoires of molecules are recruited to exert the same biological functions in neuronal differentiation. Major sub-categories include cellular growth and differentiation, cell migration, chemotaxis, cell

  4. A developmental approach to predicting neuronal connectivity from small biological datasets: a gradient-based neuron growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, Roman; Al Azad, Abul Kalam; Conte, Deborah; Roberts, Alan; Soffe, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Relating structure and function of neuronal circuits is a challenging problem. It requires demonstrating how dynamical patterns of spiking activity lead to functions like cognitive behaviour and identifying the neurons and connections that lead to appropriate activity of a circuit. We apply a "developmental approach" to define the connectome of a simple nervous system, where connections between neurons are not prescribed but appear as a result of neuron growth. A gradient based mathematical model of two-dimensional axon growth from rows of undifferentiated neurons is derived for the different types of neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of young tadpoles of the frog Xenopus. Model parameters define a two-dimensional CNS growth environment with three gradient cues and the specific responsiveness of the axons of each neuron type to these cues. The model is described by a nonlinear system of three difference equations; it includes a random variable, and takes specific neuron characteristics into account. Anatomical measurements are first used to position cell bodies in rows and define axon origins. Then a generalization procedure allows information on the axons of individual neurons from small anatomical datasets to be used to generate larger artificial datasets. To specify parameters in the axon growth model we use a stochastic optimization procedure, derive a cost function and find the optimal parameters for each type of neuron. Our biologically realistic model of axon growth starts from axon outgrowth from the cell body and generates multiple axons for each different neuron type with statistical properties matching those of real axons. We illustrate how the axon growth model works for neurons with axons which grow to the same and the opposite side of the CNS. We then show how, by adding a simple specification for dendrite morphology, our model "developmental approach" allows us to generate biologically-realistic connectomes.

  5. A developmental approach to predicting neuronal connectivity from small biological datasets: a gradient-based neuron growth model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Borisyuk

    Full Text Available Relating structure and function of neuronal circuits is a challenging problem. It requires demonstrating how dynamical patterns of spiking activity lead to functions like cognitive behaviour and identifying the neurons and connections that lead to appropriate activity of a circuit. We apply a "developmental approach" to define the connectome of a simple nervous system, where connections between neurons are not prescribed but appear as a result of neuron growth. A gradient based mathematical model of two-dimensional axon growth from rows of undifferentiated neurons is derived for the different types of neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of young tadpoles of the frog Xenopus. Model parameters define a two-dimensional CNS growth environment with three gradient cues and the specific responsiveness of the axons of each neuron type to these cues. The model is described by a nonlinear system of three difference equations; it includes a random variable, and takes specific neuron characteristics into account. Anatomical measurements are first used to position cell bodies in rows and define axon origins. Then a generalization procedure allows information on the axons of individual neurons from small anatomical datasets to be used to generate larger artificial datasets. To specify parameters in the axon growth model we use a stochastic optimization procedure, derive a cost function and find the optimal parameters for each type of neuron. Our biologically realistic model of axon growth starts from axon outgrowth from the cell body and generates multiple axons for each different neuron type with statistical properties matching those of real axons. We illustrate how the axon growth model works for neurons with axons which grow to the same and the opposite side of the CNS. We then show how, by adding a simple specification for dendrite morphology, our model "developmental approach" allows us to generate biologically-realistic connectomes.

  6. Biological control of botrytis cinerea growth on apples stored in modified atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dock, Lise Lotte; Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Floros, John D.

    1998-01-01

    The combined effect of modified-atmosphere packaging and theapplication of a bacterial antagonist (Erwinia sp.) on Botrytiscinerea growth on apples (cv. 'Golden Delicious') was investigated.Inoculated apples were stored in polyethylene bags at 5 degrees C. Theinitial gas composition in each bag......,while increased CO2 levels delayed its growth by about 4 days.Application of the antagonist resulted in a significant interactionbetween O2 and CO2. At low O2 levels, CO2 had no effect on moldgrowth, but at high O2, CO2 enhanced mold growth. O2 and theantagonist worked synergistically to reduce mold growth...... by about 6days at low levels of CO2. However, at high CO2 levels, O2 had noeffect. The strongest antagonistic effect was observed under ambientconditions. Overall, results showed that high CO2 atmospheres can slowthe growth of B. cinerea and that Erwinia sp. was an effectiveantagonist against B. cinerea...

  7. Isolation and biological activity of a new plant growth regulator of Vicia faba L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sembdner, G.; Dathe, W.; Bergner, C.; Roensch, H. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1983-01-01

    Jasmonic acid was identified as a plant growth inhibitor of the pericarp of Vicia faba by means of gas-liquid chromatography, high resolution mass spectrometry as well as /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR. The highest level of jasmonic acid was reached during intensive pericarp growth. Jasmonic acid is a plant growth inhibitor possessing a relative activity in the wheat seedling bioassay of 1-2.5 % compared to ABA (=100%). Contrary to ABA, jasmonic acid does not cause retardation of leaf emergence. In the dwarf rice gibberellin bioassay relative low concentrations of jasmonic acid inhibit both autonomous and GA/sub 3/-stimulated growth. Jasmonic acid does not influence seed germination of Amaranthus caudatus. The possible physiological role of jasmonic acid in the Vicia pericarp and the distribution in plants of this new plant growth regulator type are discussed.

  8. 23 Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Elemental Composition of Suspended Particulate Matter Collected at Two Different. Heights above the Ground in A Sub-Urban Site in Kenya. Gitari W. M1, Kinyua A. M. 2, Kamau G. N3 and C. K. Gatebe C. K4. Abstract. Suspended particulate matter samples were collected in a sub-urban area in Nairobi over a 12 month ...

  9. Control of biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using treated secondary effluent as makeup water with monochloramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Chowdhury, Indranil; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Li, Heng; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2012-12-01

    Secondary-treated municipal wastewater, an abundant and widely distributed impaired water source, is a promising alternative water source for thermoelectric power plant cooling. However, excessive biological growth is a major challenge associated with wastewater reuse in cooling systems as it can interfere with normal system operation as well as enhance corrosion and scaling problems. Furthermore, possible emission of biological aerosols (e.g., Legionella pneumophila) with the cooling tower drift can lead to public health concerns within the zone of aerosol deposition. In this study, the effectiveness of pre-formed and in-situ-formed monochloramine was evaluated for its ability to control biological growth in recirculating cooling systems using secondary-treated municipal wastewater as the only makeup water source. Bench-scale studies were compared with pilot-scale studies for their ability to predict system behavior under realistic process conditions. Effectiveness of the continuous addition of pre-formed monochloramine and monochloramine formed in-situ through the reaction of free chlorine with ammonia in the incoming water was evaluated in terms of biocide residual and its ability to control both planktonic and sessile microbial populations. Results revealed that monochloramine can effectively control biofouling in cooling systems employing secondary-treated municipal wastewater and has advantages relative to use of free chlorine, but that bench-scale studies seriously underestimate biocide dose and residual requirements for proper control of biological growth in full-scale systems. Pre-formed monochloramine offered longer residence time and more reliable performance than in-situ-formed monochloramine due to highly variable ammonia concentration in the recirculating water caused by ammonia stripping in the cooling tower. Pilot-scale tests revealed that much lower dosing rate was required to maintain similar total chlorine residual when pre-formed monochloramine

  10. Impact of soil salinity on the plant-growth – promoting and biological control abilities of root associated bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdieva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of plant growth – promoting bacteria is variable under different biotic and abiotic conditions. Abiotic factors may negatively affect the beneficial properties and efficiency of the introduced PGPR inoculants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant growth – promoting rhizobacteria on plant growth and on the control of foot and root rot of tomatoes caused by Fusarium solani under different soil salinity conditions. Among the five tested strains, only Pseudomonas chlororaphis TSAU13, and Pseudomonas extremorientalis TSAU20 were able to stimulate plant growth and act as biological controls of foot and root rot disease of tomato. The soil salinity did not negatively affect the beneficial impacts of these strains, as they were able to colonize and survive on the roots of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions. The improved plant height and fruit yield of tomato was also observed for plants inoculated with P. extremorientalis TSAU20. Our results indicated that, saline condition is not crucial factor in obtaining good performance with respect to the plant growth stimulating and biocontrol abilities of PGPR strains. The bacterial inoculant also enhanced antioxidant enzymes activities thereby preventing ROS induced oxidative damage in plants, and the proline concentrations in plant tissue that play an important role in plant stress tolerance.

  11. The effect of different drugs on the preparation and biological outcomes of plasma rich in growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; Troya, María; Zalduendo, Mari Mar; Orive, Gorka

    2014-12-01

    Chronic diseases are the major contributors to the global burden of disease and involve prodigious consumption of various drugs that usually affect platelet function. The autologous technology of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) provides a biological approach using autologous platelets as a reservoir and local delivery of proteins to promote tissue healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of acetylsalicylic acid, acenocoumarol and glucosamine sulfate on the preparation as well as on the biological properties of the PRGF technology. Clotting time and platelet activation of PRGF was evaluated. The latter was performed by flow cytometry. PRGF growth factor content and the release of various biomolecules by gingival fibroblasts were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell proliferation was evaluated by means of a fluorescence-based method and cell migration was performed on culture inserts. None of the parameters evaluated was modified by the consumption of any of the three drugs tested; only the plasma of patients who had consumed acetylsalicylic acid and acenocoumarol expressed greater gingival fibroblast migration compared to plasma control. The intake of acetylsalicylic acid, acenocoumarol and glucosamine sulfate does not alter the preparation and biological properties of the autologous technology of PRGF.

  12. Growth responses of five desert plants as influenced by biological soil crusts from a temperate desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanming; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    In almost all dryland systems, biological soil crusts (biocrusts) coexist alongside herbaceous and woody vegetation, creating landscape mosaics of vegetated and biocrusted patches. Results from past studies on the interaction between biocrusts and vascular plants have been contradictory. In the Gurbantunggut desert, a large temperate desert in northwestern China, well-developed lichen-dominated crusts dominate the areas at the base and between the sand dunes. We examined the influence of these lichen-dominated biocrusts on the germination, growth, biomass accumulation, and elemental content of five common plants in this desert: two shrubs (Haloxylon persicum, Ephedra distachya) and three herbaceous plants (Ceratocarpus arenarius, Malcolmia africana and Lappula semiglabra) under greenhouse conditions. The influence of biocrusts on seed germination was species-specific. Biocrusts did not affect percent germination in plants with smooth seeds, but inhibited germination of seeds with appendages that reduced or eliminated contact with the soil surface or prevented seeds from slipping into soil cracks. Once seeds had germinated, biocrusts had different influences on growth of shrub and herbaceous plants. The presence of biocrusts increased concentrations of nitrogen but did not affect phosphorus or potassium in tissue of all tested species, while the uptake of the other tested nutrients was species-specific. Our study showed that biocrusts can serve as a biological filter during seed germination and also can influence growth and elemental uptake. Therefore, they may be an important trigger for determining desert plant diversity and community composition in deserts.

  13. Normalizing for biology: accounting for technical and biological variation in levels of reference gene and insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1) transcripts in fish livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David C; Luckenbach, J Adam; Shimizu, Munetaka; Beckman, Brian R

    2012-09-01

    Feeding, fasting and re-feeding is a common experimental paradigm for studying growth endocrinology. Herein we demonstrate dynamic changes in the livers of coho salmon under these conditions and how changes in liver composition can influence quantification and interpretation of liver gene expression data. A three-week fast resulted in decreases in hepatosomatic index (liver size), liver glycogen content, and liver DNA concentration. In addition, significant differences were found in liver transcript levels from fed and fasted fish for the reference genes, arp and ef1a, when these were normalized to total RNA. We took the additional step of normalizing reference gene transcript levels to the liver homogenate RNA/DNA ratio to account for differences in RNA yield/cell and the number of cells sampled, normalizing to transcript number per cell rather than transcript number per unit RNA. After this additional step no significant differences in liver transcript levels of reference genes were found. The significance of these results was illustrated by normalizing liver transcript levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1) to ef1a transcript levels or ef1a transcript levels by RNA/DNA. The different normalization strategies resulted in differing patterns of change in igf1 transcript levels between fed and fasted fish. The novelty of this work rests in a two-step normalization process, attempting to account for both 1) technical errors in reverse transcription and qPCR reactions, and 2) biological variance in liver samples. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. How are macroinvertebrates of slow flowing lotic systems directly affected by suspended and deposited sediments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J., E-mail: ben.kefford@rmit.edu.a [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Zalizniak, Liliana [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Dunlop, Jason E. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Smart Water Research Facility, Griffith University, Queensland (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [Biotechnology and Environmental Biology, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Choy, Satish C. [Department of Environment and Resource Management (DERM), 120 Meiers Rd, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The effects of suspended and deposited sediments on the macroinvertebrates are well documented in upland streams but not in slower flowing lowland rivers. Using species found in lowland lotic environments, we experimentally evaluate mechanisms for sediments to affect macroinvertebrates, and in one experiment whether salinity alters the effect of suspended sediments. Suspended kaolin clay reduced feeding of Ischnura heterosticta (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) at high turbidity (1000-1500 NTU) but had no effects on feeding of Hemianax papuensis (Odonata: Aeshnidae) and Micronecta australiensis (Hemiptera: Corixidae). In freshwater (0.1 mS/cm), survival of Ischnura aurora was poor in clear water, but improved with suspended kaolin. Growth and feeding of I. aurora were unaffected by suspended sediments and salinity. Burial (1-5 mm) of eggs with kaolin or sand reduced hatching in Physa acuta (Gastropoda: Physidae), Gyraulus tasmanica (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and Chironomus cloacalis (Diptera: Chironomidae). Settling sediments may pose greater risk to lowland lotic invertebrates than suspended sediments. - Sediment deposition may be more directly detrimental to macroinvertebrates of lowland rivers than suspended sediments.

  15. Improving suspended sediment measurements by automatic samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettel, Melissa; Gulliver, John S; Kayhanian, Masoud; DeGroot, Gregory; Brand, Joshua; Mohseni, Omid; Erickson, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Suspended solids either as total suspended solids (TSS) or suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is an integral particulate water quality parameter that is important in assessing particle-bound contaminants. At present, nearly all stormwater runoff quality monitoring is performed with automatic samplers in which the sampling intake is typically installed at the bottom of a storm sewer or channel. This method of sampling often results in a less accurate measurement of suspended sediment and associated pollutants due to the vertical variation in particle concentration caused by particle settling. In this study, the inaccuracies associated with sampling by conventional intakes for automatic samplers have been verified by testing with known suspended sediment concentrations and known particle sizes ranging from approximately 20 μm to 355 μm under various flow rates. Experimental results show that, for samples collected at a typical automatic sampler intake position, the ratio of sampled to feed suspended sediment concentration is up to 6600% without an intake strainer and up to 300% with a strainer. When the sampling intake is modified with multiple sampling tubes and fitted with a wing to provide lift (winged arm sampler intake), the accuracy of sampling improves substantially. With this modification, the differences between sampled and feed suspended sediment concentration were more consistent and the sampled to feed concentration ratio was accurate to within 10% for particle sizes up to 250 μm.

  16. The biology of amphibians and reptiles in old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.P. Blaustein; J.J. Beatty; D.H. Olson; R.M. Storm

    1995-01-01

    The amphibian and reptile fauna of older forest ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest includes several endemic species, species with unique behavioral and ecological characteristics, and species whose populations have been in decline in recent years. We review the biology of these species and include information on their distinguishing characteristics, behavior, and...

  17. Potent 5-nitrofuran derivatives inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi growth: Electrochemical, spectroscopic and biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Aravena, C.; Claudio Olea, A.; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Maya, Juan Diego; Rodríguez-Becerra, Jorge

    2011-07-01

    Cyclic voltammetry and electron spin resonance techniques were used in the investigation of several potential antiprotozoal containing thiosemicarbazone and carbamate nitrofurans. In the electrochemical behaviour, a self-protonation process involving the nitro group was observed. The reactivity of the nitro anion radical for these derivatives with glutathione, a biological relevant thiol, was also studied in means of cyclic voltammetry. These studies demonstrated that glutathione could react with radical species from 5-nitrofuryl system. Furthermore, from the voltammetric results, some parameters of biological significance as E71 (indicative of the biological nitro anion radical formation), and K (thermodynamic indicator the of oxygen redox cycling) have been calculated. We also evaluated the stability of the nitro anion radical in terms of the dimerization constant ( kd). The nitrofuran-free radicals from cyclic voltammetry were characterized by electron spin resonance. A clear dependence between both the thiosemicarbazone or carbamate substructure and the length of the linker, furyl- or furylpropenyl-spacer, and the delocalization of the unpaired electron was observed. Through of biological assays we obtained important parameters that account for the selective anti-trypanosomal activity of these derivatives. The trypomastigote viability study showed that all derivatives are as active as in the epimastigote form of the parasite in a doses dependent manner.

  18. The ups and downs of Mexican economic growth: the biological standard of living and inequality, 1870-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, Moramay; Condey, Raúl Porras

    2003-06-01

    The secular change in the biological standard of living of the Mexican population between 1870 and 1950 is examined based on evidence on the physical stature from military and passport records. While Mexico industrialized and experienced rapid economic growth during this period, there was only a modest overall improvement in the height, health and nutritional status of the Mexican population. The average Mexican born in the 1940s was not only slightly taller than its compatriot of the 1870s. There were, however, considerable social differences: the Mexican upper class was markedly taller than the working class and the gap increased prior to the revolution. Economic growth with systemic inequality largely accounts for such a pattern.

  19. Using biologically-fixed nitrogen by native plants to enhance growth of hardwood saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Van Sambeek; Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall

    2013-01-01

    Available soil nitrogen is frequently low in old-field plantings. Underplanting forage legumes and interplanting nitrogen-fixing shrubs can improve growth of hardwood saplings, especially black walnut and pecan. Most of the nitrogen-fixing shrubs and forbs have been introduced, and several are now considered invasive species. Research trials have been established on...

  20. Biological subsoil management: new insights into processes of structure building and implications for crop growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmann, Miriam; Kautz, Timo; Köpke, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Large sized continuous biopores (diameter > 2 mm) in arable subsoils can contribute to enhance soil aeration, increase water infiltration, reduce water runoff and serve as preferential pathways for root growth. Biopores can be generated by taproots, but these pores probably have limited physical stability unless they are colonized by anecic earthworms and coated with worm cast. Long-term field experiments have shown that populations of anecic earthworms and numbers of biopores are promoted by perennial fodder cropping, no-till cropping and reduced tillage systems, i.e. extended soil rest. Potential effects of biopores on root growth of annual crops include accelerating access to deep soil layers, facilitating exploitation of water while simultaneously allowing nutrient acquisition from the pore wall and the bulk soil. Biopores can be considered as hot spots for nutrient acquisition of crops, especially when the pore wall is enriched in nutrients as a consequence of deposition of decaying plant material and feces of earthworms. However, the extent of such effects largely depends on physical properties of the bulk soil. Preferential root growth through biopores has been observed in many types of subsoil. The role of biopores is expected to be relevant especially when rooting in the bulk soil is impeded by high penetration resistance. Nevertheless, in hard-setting clay soils clumping of roots has been reported, when roots were unable to re-enter the bulk soil from biopores' lumen. Recent field experiments on a deep loamy Haplic Luvisol indicated increased biopore density in the subsoil promoting root growth of winter cereals and winter oilseed rape not necessarily resulting in significant effects on shoot parameters. Nevertheless, in a dry year increased biopore density had beneficial effects on N uptake, root and shoot growth and grain yield of spring crops.

  1. A Systems Chemical Biology Study of Malate Synthase and Isocitrate Lyase Inhibition in Mycobacterium tuberculosis During Active and NRP Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to survive in low oxygen environments enables the bacterium to persist in a latent state within host tissues. In vitro studies of Mtb growth have identified changes in isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS) that enable bacterial persistent under low oxygen and other environmentally limiting conditions. Systems chemical biology (SCB) enables us to evaluate the effects of small molecule inhibitors not only on the reaction catalyzed by malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, but the effect on the complete tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) by taking into account complex network relationships within that system. To study the kinetic consequences of inhibition on persistent bacilli, we implement a systems-chemical biology (SCB) platform and perform a chemistry-centric analysis of key metabolic pathways believed to impact Mtb latency. We explore consequences of disrupting the function of malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL) during aerobic and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP) growth by using the SCB method to identify small molecules that inhibit the function of MS and ICL, and simulating the metabolic consequence of the disruption. Results indicate variations in target and non-target reaction steps, clear differences in the normal and low oxygen models, as well as dosage dependent response. Simulation results from singular and combined enzyme inhibition strategies suggest ICL may be the more effective target for chemotherapeutic treatment against Mtb growing in a microenvironment where oxygen is slowly depleted, which may favor persistence. PMID:24121675

  2. Growth Curve Models for the Analysis of Phenotype Arrays for a Systems Biology Overview of Yersinia pestis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, I K; Holtz-Morris, A E; McCutchen-Maloney, S L

    2005-09-08

    The Phenotype MicroArray technology of Biolog, Inc. (Hayward, CA) measures the respiration of cells as a function of time in thousands of microwells simultaneously, and thus provides a high-throughput means of studying cellular phenotypes. The microwells contain compounds involved in a number of biochemical pathways, as well as chemicals that test the sensitivity of cells against antibiotics and stress. While the PM experimental workflow is completely automated, statistical methods to analyze and interpret the data are lagging behind. To take full advantage of the technology, it is essential to develop efficient analytical methods to quantify the information in the complex datasets resulting from PM experiments. We propose the use of statistical growth-curve models to rigorously quantify observed differences in PM experiments, in the context of the growth and metabolism of Yersinia pestis cells grown under different physiological conditions. The information from PM experiments complement genomic and proteomic results and can be used to identify gene function and in drug development. Successful coupling of phenomics results with genomics and proteomics will lead to an unprecedented ability to characterize bacterial function at a systems biology level.

  3. Optimal control of suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratianingsih, R.; Resnawati, Azim, Mardlijah, Widodo, B.

    2017-08-01

    Talaga Lake is one of several lakes in Central Sulawesi that potentially to be managed in multi purposes scheme because of its characteristic. The scheme is addressed not only due to the lake maintenance because of its sediment but also due to the Algae farming for its biodiesel fuel. This paper governs a suspended sediment distribution model of Talaga lake. The model is derived from the two dimensional hydrodynamic shallow water equations of the mass and momentum conservation law of sediment transport. An order reduction of the model gives six equations of hyperbolic systems of the depth, two dimension directional velocities and sediment concentration while the bed elevation as the second order of turbulent diffusion and dispersion are neglected. The system is discreted and linearized such that could be solved numerically by box-Keller method for some initial and boundary condition. The solutions shows that the downstream velocity is play a role in transversal direction of stream function flow. The downstream accumulated sediment indicate that the suspended sediment and its changing should be controlled by optimizing the downstream velocity and transversal suspended sediment changing due to the ideal algae growth need.

  4. Taguchi Experimental Design for Optimization of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Production in CHO Cell Lines and Comparing its Biological Activity with Prokaryotic Growth Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Zahra Sadat; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid

    2018-02-01

    Growth hormone deficiency results in growth retardation in children and the GH deficiency syndrome in adults and they need to receive recombinant-GH in order to rectify the GH deficiency symptoms. Mammalian cells have become the favorite system for production of recombinant proteins for clinical application compared to prokaryotic systems because of their capability for appropriate protein folding, assembly, post-translational modification and proper signal. However, production level in mammalian cells is generally low compared to prokaryotic hosts. Taguchi has established orthogonal arrays to describe a large number of experimental situations mainly to reduce experimental errors and to enhance the efficiency and reproducibility of laboratory experiments.In the present study, rhGH was produced in CHO cells and production of rhGH was assessed using Dot blotting, western blotting and Elisa assay. For optimization of rhGH production in CHO cells using Taguchi method An M16 orthogonal experimental design was used to investigate four different culture components. The biological activity of rhGH was assessed using LHRE-TK-Luciferase reporter gene system in HEK-293 and compared to the biological activity of prokaryotic rhGH.A maximal productivity of rhGH was reached in the conditions of 1%DMSO, 1%glycerol, 25 µM ZnSO 4 and 0 mM NaBu. Our findings indicate that control of culture conditions such as the addition of chemical components helps to develop an efficient large-scale and industrial process for the production of rhGH in CHO cells. Results of bioassay indicated that rhGH produced by CHO cells is able to induce GH-mediated intracellular cell signaling and showed higher bioactivity when compared to prokaryotic GH at the same concentrations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Amelioration of Salinity Stress: A Systems Biology Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Ilangumaran

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. Recent advances in molecular studies have yielded insights into the signaling networks of plant–microbe interactions that contribute to salt tolerance. The beneficial effects of PGPR involve boosting key physiological processes, including water and nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, and source-sink relationships that promote growth and development. The regulation of osmotic balance and ion homeostasis by PGPR are conducted through modulation of phytohormone status, gene expression, protein function, and metabolite synthesis in plants. As a result, improved antioxidant activity, osmolyte accumulation, proton transport machinery, salt compartmentalization, and nutrient status reduce osmotic stress and ion toxicity. Furthermore, in addition to indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase biosynthesis, other extracellular secretions of the rhizobacteria function as signaling molecules and elicit stress responsive pathways. Application of PGPR inoculants is a promising measure to combat salinity in agricultural fields, thereby increasing global food production.

  6. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Amelioration of Salinity Stress: A Systems Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilangumaran, Gayathri; Smith, Donald L

    2017-01-01

    Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Recent advances in molecular studies have yielded insights into the signaling networks of plant-microbe interactions that contribute to salt tolerance. The beneficial effects of PGPR involve boosting key physiological processes, including water and nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, and source-sink relationships that promote growth and development. The regulation of osmotic balance and ion homeostasis by PGPR are conducted through modulation of phytohormone status, gene expression, protein function, and metabolite synthesis in plants. As a result, improved antioxidant activity, osmolyte accumulation, proton transport machinery, salt compartmentalization, and nutrient status reduce osmotic stress and ion toxicity. Furthermore, in addition to indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase biosynthesis, other extracellular secretions of the rhizobacteria function as signaling molecules and elicit stress responsive pathways. Application of PGPR inoculants is a promising measure to combat salinity in agricultural fields, thereby increasing global food production.

  7. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Amelioration of Salinity Stress: A Systems Biology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilangumaran, Gayathri; Smith, Donald L.

    2017-01-01

    Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. Harnessing the potential of beneficial microorganisms present in the rhizosphere is an alternative strategy for improving plant stress tolerance. This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Recent advances in molecular studies have yielded insights into the signaling networks of plant–microbe interactions that contribute to salt tolerance. The beneficial effects of PGPR involve boosting key physiological processes, including water and nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, and source-sink relationships that promote growth and development. The regulation of osmotic balance and ion homeostasis by PGPR are conducted through modulation of phytohormone status, gene expression, protein function, and metabolite synthesis in plants. As a result, improved antioxidant activity, osmolyte accumulation, proton transport machinery, salt compartmentalization, and nutrient status reduce osmotic stress and ion toxicity. Furthermore, in addition to indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase biosynthesis, other extracellular secretions of the rhizobacteria function as signaling molecules and elicit stress responsive pathways. Application of PGPR inoculants is a promising measure to combat salinity in agricultural fields, thereby increasing global food production. PMID:29109733

  8. Effects of irradiated Ergosan on the growth performance and mucus biological components of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Chehrara, Fatemeh; Heidarieh, Marzieh; Nofouzi, Katayoon; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Effects of irradiated and non-irradiated Ergosan extract (alginic acid) on rainbow trout growth performance and skin mucosal immunity were compared. Ergosan was irradiated at 30 kGy in a cobalt-60 irradiator. A total of 252 fish (128.03±9.4 g) were randomly divided into four equal groups, given the basal diet either unsupplemented with Ergosan (control group) or supplemented with crude Ergosan (5 g/kg), ethanol-extracted Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) or irradiated Ergosan (0.33 g/kg) according to this protocol: basal diet for 15 days, treatment diet for 15 days, basal diet for 10 days and treatment diet for 15 days. Highest growth performance was observed in fish fed irradiated Ergosan ( P alkaline phosphatase level and hemagglutination titer compared with the control (basal diet without Ergosan) on day 55 of feeding trial ( P <0.05). Furthermore, the highest value of lysozyme activity was observed in gamma-irradiated Ergosan on day 55. In conclusion, gamma-irradiated Ergosan at 0.33 g/kg was found to improve growth performance and mucus biological components significantly in comparison with the control group (basal diet without Ergosan).

  9. Effects of low power microwave radiation on biological activity of Collagenase enzyme and growth rate of S. Cerevisiae yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaim, Hamad S.; Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, microwave radiation, a type/subset of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been widely used in industry, medicine, as well as food technology and mobile communication. Use of mobile phones is rapidly growing. Four years from now, 5.1 billion people will be mobile phone users around the globe - almost 1 billion more mobile users than the 4.3 billion people worldwide using them now. Consequently, exposure to weak radiofrequency/microwave radiation generated by these devices is markedly increasing. Accordingly, public concern about potential hazards on human health is mounting [1]. Thermal effects of radiofrequency/microwave radiation are very well-known and extensively studied. Of particular interest are non-thermal effects of microwave exposures on biological systems. Nonthermal effects are described as changes in cellular metabolism caused by both resonance absorption and induced EMR and are often accompanied by a specific biological response. Non-thermal biological effects are measurable changes in biological systems that may or may not be associated with adverse health effects. In this study we studied non-thermal effects of low power microwave exposures on kinetics of L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and growth rate of yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae strains type II. The selected model systems were continuously exposed to microwave radiation at the frequency of 968MHz and power of 10dBm using the designed and constructed (custom made) Transverse Electro-Magnetic (TEM) cell [2]. The findings reveal that microwave radiation at 968MHz and power of 10dBm inhibits L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity by 26% and increases significantly (15%) the proliferation rate of yeast cells.

  10. Biologic control ability of plant growth-promoting Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 isolated from milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DasGupta, S M; Khan, N; Nautiyal, C S

    2006-12-01

    A plant growth-promoting Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 (B-30488) was isolated from cows' milk. Bacterial colonization and growth responses of different plant species after inoculation with B-30488 were evaluated in a controlled environment and in microplot assays. Survival and colonization of B-30488 in the phytosphere of plants and soil was monitored using a chromosomally located rifampicin-marked mutant B-30488 (B-30488R). The strain showed variable ability to invade plants. The interaction between B-30488R and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase enzymes were produced when B-30488R was grown in the presence of colloidal chitin as sole carbon source. Deliberate dilution of B-30488R with field soil offers a reliable process for decreasing the cost of bacterial inoculants in developing countries. Seed treatment of chickpea demonstrated significantly (P = 0.05) greater seedling mortality in nonbacterized compared with bacterized seedlings. Bacterization significantly (P = 0.05) improved seed germination, plant height, number of pods/plant(-1), and seed dry weight.

  11. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols: beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Gao

    Full Text Available Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols, have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF. We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  12. Polyhydroxy Fullerenes (Fullerols or Fullerenols): Beneficial Effects on Growth and Lifespan in Diverse Biological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Yihai; Folta, Kevin M.; Krishna, Vijay; Bai, Wei; Indeglia, Paul; Georgieva, Angelina; Nakamura, Hideya; Koopman, Ben; Moudgil, Brij

    2011-01-01

    Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols), have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF) and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF). We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF. PMID:21637768

  13. Polyhydroxy fullerenes (fullerols or fullerenols): beneficial effects on growth and lifespan in diverse biological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Yihai; Folta, Kevin M; Krishna, Vijay; Bai, Wei; Indeglia, Paul; Georgieva, Angelina; Nakamura, Hideya; Koopman, Ben; Moudgil, Brij

    2011-01-01

    Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols), have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF) and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF). We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.

  14. Growth, reproductive biology and life cycle of the vermicomposting earthworm, Perionyx ceylanensis Mich. (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmegam, Natchimuthu; Daniel, Thilagavathy

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the growth, reproduction and life cycle of the earthworm, Perionyx ceylanensis Mich. in cowdung for the period of 340 days. Results showed that the overall mean growth rate was 1.79, 1.57 and 1.34 mg/worm/day respectively for the worms cultured singly, in batches of four and eight. Cocoon production rate was found between 0.85 and 0.94 cocoons/worm/day and the hatching success between 74.67% and 82.67%. The majority of the cocoons (95.16-96.77%) hatched only one hatchling. Worms raised singly also produced viable cocoons indicating that P. ceylanensis reproduce parthenogenetically. The life cycle of the worms cultured singly was +/-57 days and it was +/-50 days for the worms cultured in batches of four and eight. There is a vast scope to utilize P. ceylanensis for vermiculture practices due to short period of life cycle.

  15. Assessing the biological contribution to microbialite growth and morphogenesis utilizing lipid biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, S. R.; Gomez, F. J.; Bradley, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microbialites are sedimentary structures that arise from the interaction of microbial, geochemical, and physical processes. These structures are among the oldest evidence for life on Earth, and are abundant through much of the Proterozoic before declining in the Phanerozoic. Microbialites are of great importance geobiologically as they provide a record of microbial life and its interaction with the environment throughout Earth history. Yet, our capacity to use microbialites to reconstruct biological processes on ancient Earth is complicated by our lack of understanding of the mechanisms controlling the formation of these structures. The modern microbialites of Laguna Negra in northeastern Argentina [1] offer an opportunity to examine the biological and geochemical differences among microbialites displaying distinct morphological diversity in a single setting. Three broad types of microbialites are found at this site: oncoids, stromatolites, and laminar crusts. Each of these types of microbialites are associated with visually distinct microbial mats. We have examined the structural and isotopic composition of lipid biomarkers from each of these microbialite types, and their associated mats. Sterol profiles detected from microbial mats and microbialites showed abundant C27 to C29 sterols and indicate that primary producers are dominated by algae. Decreased abundances of more labile unsaturated fatty acids relative to more recalcitrant saturated fatty acids were observed in microbialites compared to extant mats suggesting preferential loss of these compounds during diagenesis. Among the three different microbialite morphologies, no statistically discernable differences in biomarker profiles were detected. This implies that morphological changes are due to either geochemical/physical changes across the zone of microbialite formation or changes in community structure that are not observable in the present biomarker set. [1] Gomez et al. (2014) Palaios 29, 233-249

  16. Growth and development of Arabidopsis in the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) hardware designed for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, Rodney

    Wild type (Col 0) Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in a growth chamber within the single mid-deck sized Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) spaceflight hardware developed by NASA Kennedy Space Center. Before beginning this experiment, the plants, each rooted in individual transferable tubes containing nutrients, were cultivated hydroponically on halfstrength Hoagland's solution beneath either LED lighting similar to that provided by the ABRS growth chamber or white fluorescent lighting. The leaves of the basal whorl of plants pre-grown in ABRS lighting were small and purplish at the start of the experiment, whereas those under fluorescent lighting were larger and green. The plants were transferred to the ABRS soon after their inflorescence axes had started to elongate, and thereafter they were maintained under preset conditions (22 o C, approximately 1500 ppm CO2 , predominantly 125 µmol m-2 s-1 PAR) with pulses of water provided at 1-3 d intervals (as needed) to the module into which the root tubes were inserted. That module was pre-treated with half-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution on day 0, but no additional nutrients were provided the plants thereafter. Strong primary growth of all inflorescence stems occurred soon after initiating the ABRS experiment, and the plants began forming an overarching canopy of flowering stems beneath the LED lighting module within two weeks. After 38 days the root module was littered with seeds, siliques and abscised leaves, but all plants remained alive. Plants pre-grown in ABRS lighting were more advanced toward senescence, and leaves and stems of plants pre-grown in fluorescent lighting although greener were also acquiring a purplish hue. Microscopy revealed that the flowering stems achieved no secondary growth; however, progressive inward conversion of pith parenchyma into sclerenchyma cells did occur resulting in the inflorescence stems becoming abnormally woody.

  17. Towards systems biology of the gravity response of higher plants -multiscale analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, Klaus; Aubry, D.; Bensch, M.; Schmidt, T.; Ronneberger, O.; Neu, C.; Li, X.; Wang, H.; Santos, F.; Wang, B.; Paponov, I.; Ditengou, F. A.; Teale, W. T.; Volkmann, D.; Baluska, F.; Nonis, A.; Trevisan, S.; Ruperti, B.; Dovzhenko, A.

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Up to now, little is known about the molecular organisation of the signal transduction cascades and networks which co-ordinate gravity perception and response. By using an integrated systems biological approach, a systems analysis of gravity perception and the subsequent tightly-regulated growth response is planned in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This approach will address questions such as: (i) what are the components of gravity signal transduction pathways? (ii) what are the dynamics of these components? (iii) what is their spatio-temporal regulation in different tis-sues? Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model-we use root growth to obtain insights in the gravity response. New techniques enable identification of the individual genes affected by grav-ity and further integration of transcriptomics and proteomics data into interaction networks and cell communication events that operate during gravitropic curvature. Using systematic multiscale analysis we have identified regulatory networks consisting of transcription factors, the protein degradation machinery, vesicle trafficking and cellular signalling during the gravire-sponse. We developed approach allowing to incorporate key features of the root system across all relevant spatial and temporal scales to describe gene-expression patterns and correlate them with individual gene and protein functions. Combination of high-resolution microscopy and novel computational tools resulted in development of the root 3D model in which quantitative descriptions of cellular network properties and of multicellular interactions important in root growth and gravitropism can be integrated for the first time.

  18. Impact of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles on the growth and physiological responses in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Venkatesh, Jelli; Park, Se Won

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were extensively used in various fields, particularly in medicine as an antimicrobial agent. The unavoidable and extensive usage of AgNPs in turn accumulates in the environment. Plants are the essential base of ecosystem and are ready to disturb by environmental pollutants. Therefore, in the present study, we have planned to evaluate the impact of biologically synthesized AgNPs on the essential food crop Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). The effects of AgNP-induced plant morphological and physiological changes were investigated in different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 mg/L). The results of morphological features showed that AgNPs at lower concentrations (100 mg/L) exhibit growth-stimulating activity, whereas at higher concentrations (250 and 500 mg/L), particularly, 500 mg/L exhibited growth-suppressing activities which are in terms of reduced root, shoot growth, and fresh biomass. The increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde production, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and decreased chlorophyll content were also more obviously present at higher concentrations of AgNPs. The concentration-dependent DNA damage was observed in the AgNP-treated plants. The molecular responses of AgNPs indicate that most of the genes related to secondary metabolism (glucosinolates, anthocyanin) and antioxidant activities were induced at higher concentrations of AgNP treatment. The dose-dependent phytotoxicity effects of AgNPs were also observed. Taken together, the highest concentration of AgNPs (500 mg/L) could induce growth-suppressing activities via the induction of ROS generation and other molecular changes in B. rapa seedlings.

  19. On the Growth of Scientific Knowledge: Yeast Biology as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xionglei; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2009-01-01

    The tempo and mode of human knowledge expansion is an enduring yet poorly understood topic. Through a temporal network analysis of three decades of discoveries of protein interactions and genetic interactions in baker's yeast, we show that the growth of scientific knowledge is exponential over time and that important subjects tend to be studied earlier. However, expansions of different domains of knowledge are highly heterogeneous and episodic such that the temporal turnover of knowledge hubs is much greater than expected by chance. Familiar subjects are preferentially studied over new subjects, leading to a reduced pace of innovation. While research is increasingly done in teams, the number of discoveries per researcher is greater in smaller teams. These findings reveal collective human behaviors in scientific research and help design better strategies in future knowledge exploration. PMID:19300476

  20. On the growth of scientific knowledge: yeast biology as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionglei He

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tempo and mode of human knowledge expansion is an enduring yet poorly understood topic. Through a temporal network analysis of three decades of discoveries of protein interactions and genetic interactions in baker's yeast, we show that the growth of scientific knowledge is exponential over time and that important subjects tend to be studied earlier. However, expansions of different domains of knowledge are highly heterogeneous and episodic such that the temporal turnover of knowledge hubs is much greater than expected by chance. Familiar subjects are preferentially studied over new subjects, leading to a reduced pace of innovation. While research is increasingly done in teams, the number of discoveries per researcher is greater in smaller teams. These findings reveal collective human behaviors in scientific research and help design better strategies in future knowledge exploration.

  1. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-12-04

    This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under Different Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica De Falco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows. This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  3. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi, E-mail: shilpi@dbeb.iitd.ac.in

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  4. Brain metastasis in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer: from biology to treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Tae Ryool [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Ah [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is found in about 20% of breast cancer patients. With treatment using trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, systemic control is improved. Nonetheless, the incidence of brain metastasis does not be improved, rather seems to be increased in HER2-positive breast cancer. The mainstay treatment for brain metastases is radiotherapy. According to the number of metastatic lesions and performance status of patients, radiosurgery or whole brain radiotherapy can be performed. The concurrent use of a radiosensitizer further improves intracranial control. Due to its large molecular weight, trastuzumab has a limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. However, small tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as lapatinib, has been noted to be a promising agent that can be used as a radiosensitizer to affect HER2-positive breast cancer. This review will outline general management of brain metastases and will focus on preclinical findings regarding the radiosensitizing effect of small molecule HER2 targeting agents.

  5. Earthworms and root-knot nematodes: effect on soil biological activity and tomato growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilian Carlo Demetrio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are a representative soil invertebrate, and their living habits are known to influence a large diversity of organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of Amynthas spp. to change the biological attributes of soil, and its potential to reduce infection by root-knot nematodes on tomato crop. The study was conducted in the greenhouse of the Diagnostic Center Marcos Enrietti, Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. The treatments earthworms at the following densities: control (absence of earthworms, two, four, six, and eight, which were inoculated into different pots, with five replicates per group. In each pot, a single tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum was used, and a suspension of Meloidogyne javanica containing 3000 eggs and/or juveniles was added 14 days after seeding. During the experiment, edaphic respiration was evaluated at 96-h intervals. After 91 days, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial soil respiration (MSR, the metabolic quotient (qCO2, dry mass of roots (DMR, dry mass of plants (DMP, and the number of root galls were determined per plant. We observed that inoculation with higher earthworm densities increased the MBC. Furthermore, the lowest earthworm density (two animals resulted in a MBC that was 75% higher than that of the control treatment (earthworms absent. There was a positive correlation between MBC and DMP, and a negative correlation between MBC and qCO2. The DMR was not influenced by inoculation with earthworms. A linear increase in DMP was observed with earthworms; however, gall formations on the tomato root were not suppressed.

  6. Growth of novel ceramic layers on metals via chemical and heat treatments for inducing various biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi eKokubo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present authors’ systematic studies on growth of novel ceramic layers on Ti metal and its alloys by chemical and heat treatments for inducing bone-bonding bioactivity and some other biological functions are reviewed. Ti metal formed an apatite on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF, when heat-treated after exposure to strong acid solutions to form rutile surface layer, or to strong alkali solutions to form sodium titanate surface layer. Both types of Ti metal tightly bonded to the living bone.The alkali and heat treatment was applied to the surface Ti metal of an artificial hip joint and successfully used in the clinic since 2007. The acid and heat treatments was applied to porous Ti metal to induce osteoconductivity as well as osteoinductivity. The resulting product was successfully used in clinical trials for spinal fusion devices. For the Ti-based alloys, the alkali and heat treatment was a little modified to form calcium titanate surface layer. Bone-growth promoting Mg, Sr, and Zn ions as well as the antibacterial Ag ion were successfully incorporated into the calcium titanate layer.

  7. Diameter Growth, Biological Rotation Age and Biomass of Chinese Fir in Burning and Clearing Site Preparations in Subtropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustained forest management of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China is restricted by the limited availability of quantitative data. This study combines inventory data and tree-ring analysis of Chinese fir from natural and plantation forests that were subjected to controlled burning or brush clearing site preparations. Inter-annual variation of Chinese fir tree-ring widths were measured for the controlled burning, brush clearing and natural forest sites. The mean annual diametric growth of Chinese fir was 0.56 cm·year−1 for the natural forest, 0.80 cm·year−1 for the brush clearing site and 1.10 cm·year−1 for the controlled burning site. The time needed to reach the minimum cutting/logging diameter of 15 cm was 14 years in the controlled burning site, 19 years in the brush clearing site and >40 years in the natural forest. The biological rotation ages for the burning, cutting and natural forest sites were 15, 26 and >100 years, respectively. The total aboveground biomasses for the burning and clearing sites were 269.8 t·ha−1 and 252 t·ha−1, respectively. These results suggest that the current 25-year cutting cycle greatly underestimates the growth rate of Chinese fir plantations.

  8. Key Factors Controlling the Growth of Biological Soil Crusts: Towards a Protocol to Produce Biocrusts in Greenhouse Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Ayuso, Sergio; María Giraldo Silva, Ana; Nelson, Corey; Barger, Nichole; Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (= biocrusts) are topsoil communities comprise of, but not limited to, cyanobacteria, algae, lichens, and mosses that grow intimately associated with soil particles in drylands. Biocrusts have central ecological roles in these areas as sources of carbon and nutrients, and efficiently retain water and prevent soil erosion, which improves soil structure and promotes soil fertility. However, human activities, such as cattle grazing, hiking or military training, are rapidly striking biocrusts. Although it is well known that the inoculation with cyanobacteria or lichens can enhance the recovery of biocrusts in degraded soils, little is known about the factors that control their growth rates. Using soil and inocula from four different sites located in one cold desert (Utah) and in one hot desert (New Mexico), we performed a fractional factorial experiment involving seven factors (water, light, P, N, calcium carbonate, trace metals and type of inoculum) to screen their effects on the growth of biocrusts. After four months, we measured the concentration of chlorophyll a, and we discovered that water, light and P, N or P+N were the most important factors controlling the growth of biocrusts. In the experimental treatments involving these three factors we measured a similar concentration of chlorophyll a (or even higher) to this found in the field locations. Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene segment using universal bacteria primers revealed a microbial community composition in the biocrusts grown that closely corresponds to initial measurements made on inocula. In summary, based on our success in obtaining biocrust biomass from natural communities in greenhouse facilities, without significantly changing its community composition at the phylum and cyanobacterial level, we are paving the road to propose a protocol to produce a high quality-nursed inoculum aiming to assist restoration of arid and semi-arid ecosystems affected by large-scale disturbances.

  9. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  10. Hierarchically nanostructured hydroxyapatite: hydrothermal synthesis, morphology control, growth mechanism, and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchically nanosized hydroxyapatite (HA) with flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks was successfully synthesized by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate via a hydrothermal method at 200°C for 24 hours. The effects of heating time and heating temperature on the products were investigated. As a chelating ligand and template molecule, the potassium sodium tartrate plays a key role in the formation of hierarchically nanostructured HA. On the basis of experimental results, a possible mechanism based on soft-template and self-assembly was proposed for the formation and growth of the hierarchically nanostructured HA. Cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the hierarchically nanostructured HA had good biocompatibility. It was shown by in-vitro experiments that mesenchymal stem cells could attach to the hierarchically nanostructured HA after being cultured for 48 hours. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop facile and effective methods for the synthesis of novel hydroxyapatite (HA) with hierarchical nanostructures assembled from independent and discrete nanobuilding blocks. Methods A simple hydrothermal approach was applied to synthesize HA by using CaCl2, NaH2PO4, and potassium sodium tartrate at 200°C for 24 hours. The cell cytotoxicity of the hierarchically nanostructured HA was tested by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Results HA displayed the flower-like structure assembled from nanosheets consisting of nanorod building blocks. The potassium sodium tartrate was used as a chelating ligand, inducing the formation and self-assembly of HA nanorods. The heating time and heating temperature influenced the aggregation and morphology of HA. The cell viability did not decrease with the increasing concentration of hierarchically nanostructured HA added. Conclusion A novel, simple and reliable hydrothermal route had been developed for the synthesis of

  11. The mineralogy and trace element constituents of suspended stream sediments of the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather Khan, I. S. A.

    The mineralogy and trace element concentrations of suspended stream sediments were determined at selected stations in the Linggi River Basin, Malaysia, while conducting an intensive study on water quality and a biological assessment of water pollution in the basin. The minerals that were identified from the X-ray patterns of the suspended stream sediments are kaolinite, mica, feldspar and quartz. Kaolinite was the most abundant mineral, followed by mica. By considering mean concentrations of various trace elements, aluminum and manganese were the most abundant elements. Higher concentrations of copper and zinc at some stations were due to pollutants from the nearby Senawang Industrial Estate.

  12. Polishing of POME by Chlorella sp. in suspended and immobilized system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahin, F. A.; Sarbatly, R.; Suali, E.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of using suspended and immobilized growth of Chlorella sp. to treat POME was studied. Cotton and nylon ropes were used as the immobilization material in a rotating microalgae biofilm reactor. The result showed that POME treated in suspended growth system was able to remove 81.9% and 55.5% of the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) respectively. Whereas the immobilized system showed lower removal of 77.22% and 53.02% for TN and TP. Lower performance of immobilized microalgae is due to the limited light penetration and supply of CO2 inside the immobilization materials. The rotating microalgae biofilm reactor was able to reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to 90 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to 720 mg/L. Higher BOD and COD reading were obtained in suspended growth due to the presence of small number of microalgae cell in the samples. This study shows that suspended growth system is able to remove higher percentages of nitrogen and phosphorus. However, an efficient separation method such as membrane filtration is required to harvest the cultivated microalgae cell to avoid organic matter release into water bodies.

  13. Effect of Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and Bacterial Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Makarian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes environmental problems such as water resource pollution and decrease in soil fertility. Organic matters are excellent sources of plant-available nutrients and their addition to soil could maintain high microbial populations and activities. In crop studies, Prabha et al. (2007 reported that there was excellent plant growth as well as yield in garlic plants that received vermicompost as nutrient in the field (28. Recent studies confirmed that, a number of bacterial species mostly associated with the plant rhizosphere, are found to be beneficial for plant growth, yield and crop quality. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the growth promoting effects of organic and bio-fertilizers on tomato growth and yield. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the College of Agricultural, University of Shahrood in 2011. Geographically, the site is located in Bastam (36° 25’E, 54° 58’N, 1349 m a.s.l..The climate of this region is semi-arid. Treatments included three levels of organic fertilizers: vermicompost (1300 kgha-1, cow manure (3350 kgha-1, and control, biological fertilizer in four levels (Pseudomonas putyda, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Azotobacter chrococcum and control. The bacterial suspension for each species was applied at a rate of 3 liters per hectare. Metribuzin herbicide (wettable 80% powder was used at a rate of 1000 gr. ha-1. Petopride No. 2' variety of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. was used in the present experiment. At the time of harvesting, the plant characteristics namely lengths and diameter of stem, number and weight of fruit, weight of stem and leaf were also registered. Statistical analyses of data were performed with statistical software Mstatc. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test. Results

  14. Infiltration, water holding capacity and growth patterns of biological soil crusts on sand dunes under arid and temperate climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Yair, A.; Veste, M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellency and, once wetted, finer pores and grains, pore clogging as well as higher water holding capacities of biological soil crusts (BSCs) are known to inhibit infiltration and to promote surface runoff, thereby holding moisture inside the crusts and redirecting rain off the slope towards the dune base. On the other hand, available water is crucial for growth and development of crust microphytes, mosses and vascular plants. In a 2-factorial design we studied the relation between crust microstructure, infiltration and water holding capacity under arid and temperate conditions (Factor A: Climate) on BSCs sampled along a catena on mobile sand dunes (Factor B: Catena). The arid and temperate study sites were located near Nizzana, Israel (precipitation: ~80 mm a-1, PET: ~2500 mm a-1) and Lieberose, Germany (precipitation: ~600 mm a-1, PET: ~750 mm a-1), respectively. BSCs were sampled near the dune crest, at the center of the dune slope and at the dune base at each site. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize BSC development and microstructure. Infiltration was determined using microinfiltrometry under controlled moisture conditions in the lab, water holding capacities were determined after water saturation of the dry BSCs. Wettability of the crusts was characterized using a "repellency index", which was calculated from water and ethanol sorptivities. It was found that thickness and density of biogenic elements in the BSCs increased downslope at each study site and correlated positively with water holding capacities and negatively with infiltration and wettability with one exception: At the dune base of the temperate site, where water holding capacity was highest, infiltration and wettability increased again due to emergence of mosses. It is hypothesized that a positive feedback between crust growth and surface runoff intensifies downslope, resulting in highest water availability in the topsoil of the dune base. Under arid conditions, low

  15. 9 CFR 201.81 - Suspended registrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 201.81 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ACT Services § 201.81 Suspended registrants. No stockyard owner, packer, market agency, or dealer shall employ...

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  17. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the control values were found significant at 99% confidence level. Possible inhalatory problems are thus anticipated from prolonged accumulation of the dust in the respiratory system. KEY WORDS: Environmental toxicology, Suspended particulate matter, Dust analysis, Hematological indices, Wister albino rats. Bull.

  18. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    face area, shape, minerals and source) and conse- quent interaction with heavy metal concentrations. (HMCs). Recent studies have shown a growing awareness of the wider environmental significance of the suspended sediment loads transported by rivers and streams. This includes the importance of fine grain sediment in ...

  19. Environmental toxicology: Acute effects of suspended particulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elemental contents of suspended particulate matter (dust) samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria, were determined which showed appreciably high levels for especially Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, K, Ca, and. Na. Wister albino rats were exposed to graded doses of phosphate buffered saline carried dust particles. The hematological ...

  20. A depth integrated model for suspended transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galappatti, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and

  1. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  2. Flow Laminarization and Acceleration by Suspended Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, M.; Hulshof, J.; Prostokishin, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    In [Comm. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci., 4(2009), pp. 153-175], Barenblatt presents a model for partial laminarization and acceleration of shear flows by the presence of suspended particles of different sizes, and provides a formal asymptotic analysis of the resulting velocity equation. In the present

  3. Emulsifying and Suspending Properties of Enterolobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:The thermodynamic instability of emulsions and suspensions necessitate the incorporation of emulsifiers and suspending agents respectively, in order to stabilize the formulations and ensure administration of accurate doses. Objective:Enterolobium cyclocarpum gum was characterized and evaluated for its ...

  4. Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2013-04-01

    Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased

  5. Giant reed growth and effects on soil biological fertility in assisted phytoremediation of an industrial polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, N; Ventorino, V; Rocco, C; Cenvinzo, V; Agrelli, D; Gioia, L; Di Mola, I; Adamo, P; Pepe, O; Fagnano, M

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a cost-effective "green technology" that uses plants to improve the soil properties of polluted sites, preventing the dispersion of pollutants and reducing the mobility of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) through their adsorption and accumulation by roots or precipitation within the root zone. Being highly tolerant to pollutants and other abiotic stresses, giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is a suitable biomass crop for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. We report the results of a two-year open-air lysimeter study aimed at assessing the adaptability of giant reed to grow on industrial substrates polluted by Pb and Zn and at testing commercial humic acids from leonardite as improvers of plant performance. We evaluated giant reed potential for: 1) biomass production for energy or biomaterial recovery; 2) PTE phytoextraction and 3) soil fertility restoration. Chemical fertility was monitored by measuring soil C while soil biological fertility was estimated by quantifying the abundance of bacterial functional genes regulating nitrogen fixation (nifH) and nitrification (amoA). Giant reed above-ground growth on the polluted soils was slightly lower (-16%) than on a non-polluted soil, with a preferential storage of biomass in the rhizome acting as a survival strategy in limiting growing conditions. Humic acids improved plant stress tolerance and production levels. As aerial biomass (shoots) did not accumulate PTEs, the plant in question can be used for bioenergy or biopolymer production. In contrast, below-ground biomass (rhizomes) accumulated PTEs, and can thus be harvested and removed from soil to improve phytoremediation protocols and also used as industrial biofuel. Giant reed growth increased the abundance of N-cycling bacteria and soil C in the rhizospheric soil, as well as reduced soil Pb and Zn EDTA extractable fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The biology and preliminary host range of Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) and its impact on kudzu growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Hanula, James L; Horn, Scott

    2012-02-01

    The bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.), recently was discovered in the United States feeding on kudzu, Pueraria montana Lour. (Merr.) variety lobata (Willd.), an economically important invasive vine. We studied its biology on kudzu and its impact on kudzu growth. We also tested its ability to use other common forest legumes for oviposition and development. Flight intercept traps operated from 17 May 2010 to 31 May 2011 in a kudzu field near Athens, GA showed three peaks of adult flight activity suggesting there are two generations per year on kudzu. Vine samples examined for eggs from April 2010 to April 2011 and June to October 2011 showed two periods of oviposition activity in 2010, which coincided with the peaks in adult activity. In 2011, the second period of oviposition began on or before 24 June and then egg abundance declined gradually thereafter until late August when we recovered <2 eggs/0.5 m of vine. Samples of the five nymphal instars and adults on vines did not show similar trends in abundance. Adults did not lay eggs on the various legume species tested in 2010 in a no-choice test possibly because the cages were too small. In the 2011 field host range experiments conducted in a kudzu field by using 12 legume species, M. cribraria preferentially oviposited on kudzu over soybean, Glycine max Merrill., but they still laid 320 eggs per plant on soybean. Lespedeza hirta (L.) Hornem. and Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don had 122.2 and 108.4 eggs per plant, respectively. Kudzu and soybean were the only species M. cribraria completed development on. Plots protected from M. cribraria feeding by biweekly insecticide applications had 32.8% more kudzu biomass than unprotected plots. Our results show that M. cribraria has a significant impact on kudzu growth and could help suppress this pest weed.

  7. EBP2R - an innovative enhanced biological nutrient recovery activated sludge system to produce growth medium for green microalgae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Ramin, Elham; Smets, Barth F; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-01-01

    Current research considers wastewater as a source of energy, nutrients and water and not just a source of pollution. So far, mainly energy intensive physical and chemical unit processes have been developed to recover some of these resources, and less energy and resource demanding alternatives are needed. Here, we present a modified enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (referred to as EBP2R) that can produce optimal culture media for downstream micro-algal growth in terms of N and P content. Phosphorus is recovered as a P-stream by diversion of some of the effluent from the upstream anaerobic reactor. By operating the process at comparably low solids retention times (SRT), the nitrogen content of wastewater is retained as free and saline ammonia, the preferred form of nitrogen for most micro-algae. Scenario simulations were carried out to assess the capacity of the EBP2R system to produce nutrient rich organic-carbon depleted algal cultivation media of target composition. Via SRT control, the quality of the constructed cultivation media can be optimized to support a wide range of green micro-algal growth requirements. Up to 75% of the influent phosphorus can be recovered, by diverting 30% of the influent flow as a P-stream at an SRT of 5 days. Through global sensitivity analysis we find that the effluent N-to-P ratio and the P recovered are mainly dependent on the influent quality rather than on biokinetics or stoichiometry. Further research is needed to demonstrate that the system performance predicted through the model-based design can be achieved in reality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optical Measurement of Cell Colonization Patterns on Individual Suspended Sediment Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu Ha; Tang, Fiona H. M.; Maggi, Federico

    2017-10-01

    Microbial processes can make substantial differences to the way in which particles settle in aquatic environments. A novel method (OMCEC, optical measurement of cell colonization) is introduced to systematically map the biological spatial distribution over individual suspended sediment aggregates settling through a water column. OMCEC was used to investigate (1) whether a carbon source concentration has an impact on cell colonization, (2) how cells colonize minerals, and (3) if a correlation between colonization patterns and aggregate geometry exists. Incubations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and stained montmorillonite at four sucrose concentrations were tested in a settling column equipped with a full-color microparticle image velocimetry system. The acquired high-resolution images were processed to map the cell distribution on aggregates based on emission spectra separation. The likelihood of cells colonizing minerals increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Colonization patterns were classified into (i) scattered, (ii) well touched, and (iii) poorly touched, with the second being predominant. Cell clusters in well-touched patterns were found to have lower capacity dimension than those in other patterns, while the capacity dimension of the corresponding aggregates was relatively high. A strong correlation of colonization patterns with aggregate biomass fraction and properties suggests dynamic colonization mechanisms from cell attachment to minerals, to joining of isolated cell clusters, and finally cell growth over the entire aggregate. This paper introduces a widely applicable method for analyses of microbial-affected sediment dynamics and highlights the microbial control on aggregate geometry, which can improve the prediction of large-scale morphodynamics processes.

  9. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth: Designing Professional Development to Support Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Rebecca; Howes, Elaine V.; Carlson, Janet; Roth, Kathleen; Bourdelat-Parks, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    AAAS and BSCS are collaborating to develop and study a curriculum unit that supports students' ability to explain a variety of biological processes such as growth in chemical terms. The unit provides conceptual coherence between chemical processes in nonliving and living systems through the core idea of atom rearrangement and conservation during…

  10. Effect of biologically treated petroleum sludge on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyabalan Sangeetha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to study the response of different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge on seed germination, root and shoot length and tolerance of Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. The biologically treated petroleum sludge with bacterial consortium showed 54.8% reduction in total petroleum hydrocarbons. Treated sludge was utilized with agricultural soil in known concentration for the assessment of growth of V. unguiculata. A remarkable absence of seed germination was observed at higher sludge concentration. The different concentrations of treated petroleum sludge showed severe decline on the length, weight and vigour index of the tested seedlings with increasing sludge concentrations. The results showed that the difference in rate of seed germination was significant among various concentrations. Under environmental stress condition, germination is the most critical phase of life cycle in crop plants. In this present study, the high oil content found to alter the osmotic relation between seed and water and thus reduce the amount of water absorbed. It was concluded that the concentration of nutrients and oil present in the treated sludge were toxic to the plant.

  11. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong; Zhang, Sheng-Min; Lee, In-Seop

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants.

  12. Biology of a deep-water sea anemone (Anthozoa: Actiniidae) from eastern Canada: Spawning, development, and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Annie; Baillon, Sandrine; Daly, Marymegan; Macrander, Jason; Hamel, Jean-François

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge of the general biology and reproductive ecology of deep-water species can help predict their resilience to environmental and anthropogenic disturbances. The present study centers on live specimens of a deep-water sea anemone which were collected at bathyal depths between 1100 and 1400 m and kept in a mesocosm for over 6 years. Morphology and DNA sequencing confirmed that the species belongs to the genus Urticina. Male and female (9-10 cm pedal disk diameter, 90 tentacles) spawned 4 years post collection, in early spring (March). Both sexes released gametes through the mouth. The negatively buoyant oocytes (550-600 μm in diameter) quickly settled on the rocks and soft sediments surrounding the female. Lecithotrophic embryonic and larval development occurred on the substratum. Fully developed planula larvae were detected after 17-21 days. Planulae started to crawl and swim around but remained demersal. Metamorphosis and settlement occurred after 30-35 days, exclusively on hard substrata and preferentially on undersurfaces. Offspring grew slowly, developing 8 tentacles after 5 months and 24 tentacles after 12 months (3-4 mm pedal disk diameter). After 2.6 years of growth, the captive-born sea anemones reached 12-16 mm in pedal disk diameter and possessed 48-54 tentacles.

  13. Characterization and in vitro biological evaluation of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide nanocomposites synthesized biomimetically on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cen; Kong, Xiangdong [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhang, Sheng-Min [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lee, In-Seop, E-mail: inseop@yonsei.ac.kr [Bio-X Center, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mineral/OGP nanocomposite layers were synthesized biomimetically on Ti substrates. • Incorporated OGP affected the morphology and ultimate structure of mineral. • Incorporated OGP improved the MSCs adhesion, proliferation, and ALP activity. - Abstract: Nanocomposite layers of mineral/osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) were synthesized on calcium phosphate coated titanium substrates by immersing in calcium-phosphate buffer solution containing OGP. Peptide incorporated mineral was characterized by determining quantity loaded, effects on mineral morphology and structure. Also, the biological activity was investigated by cell adhesion, proliferation assay, and measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay revealed that OGP was successfully incorporated with mineral and the amount was increased with immersion time. Incorporated OGP changed the mineral morphology from sharp plate-like shape to more rounded one, and the octacalcium phosphate structure of the mineral was gradually transformed into apatite. With confocal microscopy to examine the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptide, OGP was evenly distributed throughout mineral layers. Mineral/OGP nanocomposites promoted cell adhesion and proliferation, and also increased ALP activity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results presented here indicated that the mineral/OGP nanocomposites formed on titanium substrates had the potential for applications in dental implants.

  14. Energy content of suspended detritus from Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.

    Energy components of suspended matter included phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus inclusive of microorganisms adsorbed to detritus. Of these, detritus contributed most of the energy (98%). The average caloric content of suspended detritus...

  15. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  16. Development of a Zero-Headspace Aerobic Suspended Growth Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    aboveground reactors. Examples of such systems include activated sludge, sequential batch reactors, and bioslurry reactors. Treatment of contaminated...microorganisms than other biotreat- ment technologies such as bioslurry (10 - 109) or in situ biotreatment (104- _10). Hydraulic retention time (HRT

  17. Estimating total suspended sediment yield with probability sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    The ""Selection At List Time"" (SALT) scheme controls sampling of concentration for estimating total suspended sediment yield. The probability of taking a sample is proportional to its estimated contribution to total suspended sediment discharge. This procedure gives unbiased estimates of total suspended sediment yield and the variance of the...

  18. Optomechanics for thermal characterization of suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolleman, Robin J.; Houri, Samer; Davidovikj, Dejan; Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J.; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Steeneken, Peter G.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal response of graphene is expected to be extremely fast due to its low heat capacity and high thermal conductivity. In this work, the thermal response of suspended single-layer graphene membranes is investigated by characterization of their mechanical motion in response to a high-frequency modulated laser. A characteristic delay time τ between the optical intensity and mechanical motion is observed, which is attributed to the time required to raise the temperature of the membrane. We find, however, that the measured time constants are significantly larger than the predicted ones based on values of the specific heat and thermal conductivity. In order to explain the discrepancy between measured and modeled τ , a model is proposed that takes a thermal boundary resistance at the edge of the graphene drum into account. The measurements provide a noninvasive way to characterize thermal properties of suspended atomically thin membranes, providing information that can be hard to obtain by other means.

  19. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  20. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  1. Relative biological effectiveness of 290 MeV/u carbon ions for the growth delay of a radioresistant murine fibrosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Sachiko; Ando, Koichi; Oohira, Chisa [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    2002-09-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for animal tumors treated with fractionated doses of 290 MeV/u carbon ions was studied. The growth delay of NFSa fibrosarcoma in mice was investigated following various daily doses given with carbon ions or those given with cesium {gamma}-rays, and the RBE was determined. Animal tumors were irradiated with carbon ions of various LET (linear energy transfer) in a 6-cm SOBP (spread-out Bragg peak), and the isoeffect doses; i.e. the dose necessary to induce a tumor growth delay of 15 days were studied. The isoeffect dose for carbon ions of 14 and 20 keV/{mu}m increased with an increase in the number of fractions up to 4 fractions. The increase in the isoeffect dose with the fraction number was small for carbon ions of 44 keV/{mu}m, and was not observed for 74 keV/{mu}m. The {alpha} and {beta} values of the linear-quadratic model for the radiation dose-cell survival relationship were calculated by the Finite element plot (Fe-plot) analysis method. The {alpha} values increased linearly with an increase in the LET, while the {beta} values were independent of the LET. The {alpha}/{beta} ratio was 129{+-}10 Gy for {gamma}-rays, and increased with an increase in the LET, reaching 475{+-}168 Gy for 74 keV/{mu}m carbon ions. The RBE for carbon ions relative to Cs-137 {gamma}-rays increased with the LET. The RBE values for 14 and 20 keV/{mu}m carbon ions were 1.4 and independent of the number of fractions, while those for 44 and 74 keV/{mu}m increased from 1.8 to 2.3 and from 2.4 to 3.0, respectively, when the number of fractions increased from 1 to 4. Increasing the number of fractions further from 4 to 6 was not associated with an increase in the RBE. These results together with our earlier study on the skin reaction support the use of an RBE of 3.0 in clinical trials of 80 keV/{mu}m carbon beams. The RBE values for low doses of carbon beams were also considered. (author)

  2. γ-Polyglutamic acid/chitosan nanoparticles for the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid: Characterization and evaluation of biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A E S; Sandoval-Herrera, I E; Zavala-Betancourt, S A; Oliveira, H C; Ledezma-Pérez, A S; Romero, J; Fraceto, L F

    2017-02-10

    The growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3) has several uses in the field, improving germination, plant development, productivity, and the quality of food. This work describes the development of a nanocarrier system for GA3, based on the poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and chitosan (CS) polymers, Nanoparticles without GA3 (nano-γPGA/CS-GA3) showed colloidal characteristics, with an average size of 117±9nm, PDI of 0.43±0.07, and zeta potential of -29±0.5mV. The encapsulated nanoparticles (nano-γPGA/CS-GA3) presented an average size of 134±9nm, PDI of 0.35±0.05, zeta potential of 27.9±0.5mV, and 61% encapsulation. The images of nanoparticles observed by Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM) showed a spherical shape of the nanoparticles. The system showed sustained release, with 58% release after 48h. Evaluation of thermal properties using DSC and TGA analyses indicated that there was an interaction between the CS and γ-PGA polymers. In tests using Phaseolus vulgaris seeds, nano-γPGA/CS-GA3 showed high biological activity, enhancing the rate of germination in the first day (50-70%) when compared with free GA3 (10-16%). Encapsulated GA3 was also more efficient than the free hormone in the increase of leaf area and the induction of root development (including the formation of lateral roots). These effects were not observed when seeds were treated with nano-γPGA/CS without GA3. The results demonstrated the considerable potential of nano-γPGA/CS-GA3 for use in agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphogenesis of thin hyperelastic plates: A constitutive theory of biological growth in the Föppl-von Kármán limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Julien; Ciarletta, Pasquale; Ben Amar, Martine

    2009-03-01

    The shape of plants and other living organisms is a crucial element of their biological functioning. Morphogenesis is the result of complex growth processes involving biological, chemical and physical factors at different temporal and spatial scales. This study aims at describing stresses and strains induced by the production and reorganization of the material. The mechanical properties of soft tissues are modeled within the framework of continuum mechanics in finite elasticity. The kinematical description is based on the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor into an elastic and a growth term. Using this formalism, the authors have studied the growth of thin hyperelastic samples. Under appropriate assumptions, the dimensionality of the problem can be reduced, and the behavior of the plate is described by a two-dimensional surface. The results of this theory demonstrate that the corresponding equilibrium equations are of the Föppl-von Kármán type where growth acts as a source of mean and Gaussian curvatures. Finally, the cockling of paper and the rippling of a grass blade are considered as two examples of growth-induced pattern formation.

  4. Monitoring of suspended sediment in South Tyrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadalet, Rudi; Dinale, Roberto; Pernter, Martin; Maraldo, Luca; Peterlin, Dieter; Richter, Arnold; Comiti, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the context of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good status of European water bodies, the Hydrographic Office of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano (Italy) extended in 2014 its institutional activities including the monitoring of suspended sediment in the river channel network. Currently, the only active monitoring station is on the Adige River at the gauging station of Ponte Adige near Bolzano (drainage area 2705 km2). The applied monitoring strategy and the data analysis concept are both based on the guidelines issued by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW). The results indicates that the temporal variability strongly differs during the investigated period (2014-2015). In addition to the analysis of precipitation and water discharge, temperature and lightning activity were also included to better understand the sediment transport dynamics observed at the station. In summer 2015, the combination of constantly high daily temperature throughout the Adige basin (which drove intense glacier melting in the headwaters) with a high frequency of convective rainfall events (90% more than in 2014, obtained through lightning detection), led to an annual mass of transported suspended sediment of 260000 t. Interestingly, this value is similar to the one estimated for 2014 (300000 t), which was characterized by very different meteorological conditions (colder and wetter summer), but with the occurrence of an important flood in August, which transported half of the annual amount. Finally, we can conclude that the adopted monitoring strategy is applicable for institutional aims in terms of costs as well as in terms of time effort. During the next years, other stations for suspended sediment monitoring are planned to be installed in the Province to cover the most important river segments.

  5. [Effects of transfection of human epidermal growth factor gene with adenovirus vector on biological characteristics of human epidermal cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kai; Ma, Li; Shen, Chuan'an; Shang, Yuru; Li, Dawei; Li, Longzhu; Zhao, Dongxu; Cheng, Wenfeng

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the suitable transfection condition of human epidermal cells (hECs) with human epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene by adenovirus vector (Ad-hEGF) and its effects on the biological characteristics of hECs. hECs were isolated from deprecated human fresh prepuce tissue of circumcision by enzyme digestion method and then sub-cultured. hECs of the third passage were used in the following experiments. (1) Cells were divided into non-transfection group and 5, 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 fold transfection groups according to the random number table (the same grouping method below), with 3 wells in each group. Cells in non-transfection group were not transfected with Ad-hEGF gene, while cells in the latter six groups were transfected with Ad-hEGF gene in multiplicities of infection (MOI) of 5, 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 respectively. The morphology of the cells was observed with inverted phase contrast microscope, and expression of green fluorescent protein of the cells was observed with inverted fluorescence microscope at transfection hour (TH) 24, 48, and 72. (2) Another three batches of cells were collected, grouped, and treated as above, respectively. Then the transfection rate of Ad-hEGF gene was detected by flow cytometer (n=3), the mass concentration of EGF in culture supernatant of cells was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n=6), and the proliferation activity of cells was detected by cell counting kit 8 (CCK8) and microplate reader (n=6) at TH 24, 48, and 72, respectively. (3) Cells were collected and divided into non-transfection group and transfection group, with 6 wells in each group. Cells in non-transfection group were cultured with culture supernatant of cells without transfection, while cells in transfection group were cultured with culture supernatant of cells which were transfected with Ad-hEGF gene in the optimum MOI (50). CCK8 and microplate reader were used to measure the biological activity of EGF secreted by cells on culture

  6. Active noise cancellation in a suspended interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Driggers, Jennifer C; Pepper, Keenan; Adhikari, Rana

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate feed-forward vibration isolation on a suspended Fabry-Perot interferometer using Wiener filtering and a variant of the common Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive filter algorithm. We compare the experimental results with theoretical estimates of the cancellation efficiency. Using data from the recent LIGO Science Run, we also estimate the impact of this technique on full scale gravitational wave interferometers. In the future, we expect to use this technique to also remove acoustic, magnetic, and gravitational noise perturbations from the LIGO interferometers. This noise cancellation technique is simple enough to implement in standard laboratory environments and can be used to improve SNR for a variety of high precision experiments.

  7. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  8. Safety Harness For Work Under Suspended Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunoo, Su Young

    1994-01-01

    Safety device protects worker under suspended engine or other heavy load. Mechanically linked with load so if load should fall, worker yanked safely away. Worker wears chest-plate vest with straps crossing eye on back. Lower safety cable connected to eye extends horizontally away from worker to nearby wall, wrapped on pulley and extends upward to motion amplifier or reducer. Safety cables transform any sudden downward motion of overhanging load into rapid sideways motion of worker. Net catches worker, preventing worker from bumping against wall.

  9. Host-pathogen systems biology: logical modelling of hepatocyte growth factor and Helicobacter pylori induced c-Met signal transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kähne Thilo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF stimulates mitogenesis, motogenesis, and morphogenesis in a wide range of tissues, including epithelial cells, on binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met. Abnormal c-Met signalling contributes to tumour genesis, in particular to the development of invasive and metastatic phenotypes. The human microbial pathogen Helicobacter pylori can induce chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration and more rarely, gastric adenocarcinoma. The H. pylori effector protein cytotoxin associated gene A (CagA, which is translocated via a type IV secretion system (T4SS into epithelial cells, intracellularly modulates the c-Met receptor and promotes cellular processes leading to cell scattering, which could contribute to the invasiveness of tumour cells. Using a logical modelling framework, the presented work aims at analysing the c-Met signal transduction network and how it is interfered by H. pylori infection, which might be of importance for tumour development. Results A logical model of HGF and H. pylori induced c-Met signal transduction is presented in this work. The formalism of logical interaction hypergraphs (LIH was used to construct the network model. The molecular interactions included in the model were all assembled manually based on a careful meta-analysis of published experimental results. Our model reveals the differences and commonalities of the response of the network upon HGF and H. pylori induced c-Met signalling. As another important result, using the formalism of minimal intervention sets, phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1 was identified as knockout target for repressing the activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2, a signalling molecule directly linked to cell scattering in H. pylori infected cells. The model predicted only an effect on ERK1/2 for the H. pylori stimulus, but not for HGF treatment. This result could be confirmed experimentally in MDCK cells using a specific

  10. Characterization of suspended bacteria from processing units in an advanced drinking water treatment plant of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Weiying; Zhang, Junpeng; Qi, Wanqi; Zhou, Yanyan; Xiang, Yuan; Shi, Nuo

    2017-05-01

    For the drinking water treatment plant (DWTP), the organic pollutant removal was the primary focus, while the suspended bacterial was always neglected. In this study, the suspended bacteria from each processing unit in a DWTP employing an ozone-biological activated carbon process was mainly characterized by using heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs), a flow cytometer, and 454-pyrosequencing methods. The results showed that an adverse changing tendency of HPC and total cell counts was observed in the sand filtration tank (SFT), where the cultivability of suspended bacteria increased to 34%. However, the cultivability level of other units stayed below 3% except for ozone contact tank (OCT, 13.5%) and activated carbon filtration tank (ACFT, 34.39%). It meant that filtration processes promoted the increase in cultivability of suspended bacteria remarkably, which indicated biodegrading capability. In the unit of OCT, microbial diversity indexes declined drastically, and the dominant bacteria were affiliated to Proteobacteria phylum (99.9%) and Betaproteobacteria class (86.3%), which were also the dominant bacteria in the effluent of other units. Besides, the primary genus was Limnohabitans in the effluents of SFT (17.4%) as well as ACFT (25.6%), which was inferred to be the crucial contributors for the biodegradable function in the filtration units. Overall, this paper provided an overview of community composition of each processing units in a DWTP as well as reference for better developing microbial function for drinking water treatment in the future.

  11. [Combined effect of zeatin and hydrogen peroxide on growth of rape and tomato germs as applied to the conditions of biological life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babosha, A V; Komarova, G I

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine-regulated growth of germs' roots and hypocotyls was investigated on a background of modeled oxidative outbreak caused by the stress from exogenous hydrogen peroxide. Germs of rape (1-d old) and tomato (56-d old) in Petri dishes with solutions containing substances under study were subjected to 24-48 hour incubation in the dark. Exogenous zeatin inhibited growth; in different tests treatment with H2O2 brought about both acceleration and inhibition of root and hypocotyl growth. The combined use of two substances deformed concentration curves. Hydrogen peroxide concentration of 100 microM without cytokines inhibited growth of tomato root significantly, whereas application of 0.003-0.01 and 0.9 microM of zeatin intensified root growth. The series of zeatin concentration-effect curves obtained for rape roots and hypocotyls with gradually increasing H2O2 concentration included the inhibition curve (w/o H2O2), curve with predominant growth stimulation and reliable maximum (1 microM of H2O2), intermediate shape curves (0.3 and 3.3-10 microM). Hence, biological life support systems should be designed with consideration for variability of effects of physiologically active substances under conditions of stress.

  12. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  13. Method for forming suspended micromechanical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G.

    2000-01-01

    A micromachining method is disclosed for forming a suspended micromechanical structure from {111} crystalline silicon. The micromachining method is based on the use of anisotropic dry etching to define lateral features of the structure which are etched down into a {111}-silicon substrate to a first etch depth, thereby forming sidewalls of the structure. The sidewalls are then coated with a protection layer, and the substrate is dry etched to a second etch depth to define a spacing of the structure from the substrate. A selective anisotropic wet etchant (e.g. KOH, EDP, TMAH, NaOH or CsOH) is used to laterally undercut the structure between the first and second etch depths, thereby forming a substantially planar lower surface of the structure along a {111} crystal plane that is parallel to an upper surface of the structure. The lateral extent of undercutting by the wet etchant is controlled and effectively terminated by either timing the etching, by the location of angled {111}-silicon planes or by the locations of preformed etch-stops. This present method allows the formation of suspended micromechanical structures having large vertical dimensions and large masses while allowing for detailed lateral features which can be provided by dry etch definition. Additionally, the method of the present invention is compatible with the formation of electronic circuitry on the substrate.

  14. Nutrient and suspended solids removal from petrochemical wastewater via microalgal biofilm cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Alan; Fica, Zachary; Wanlass, Jordan; VanDarlin, Jessica; Sims, Ronald

    2017-05-01

    Wastewater derived from petroleum refining currently accounts for 33.6 million barrels per day globally. Few wastewater treatment strategies exist to produce value-added products from petroleum refining wastewater. In this study, mixed culture microalgal biofilm-based treatment of petroleum refining wastewater using rotating algae biofilm reactors (RABRs) was compared with suspended-growth open pond lagoon reactors for removal of nutrients and suspended solids. Triplicate reactors were operated for 12 weeks and were continuously fed with petroleum refining wastewater. Effluent wastewater was monitored for nitrogen, phosphorus, total suspended solids (TSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD). RABR treatment demonstrated a statistically significant increase in removal of nutrients and suspended solids, and increase in biomass productivity, compared to the open pond lagoon treatment. These trends translate to a greater potential for the production of biomass-based fuels, feed, and fertilizer as value-added products. This study is the first demonstration of the cultivation of mixed culture biofilm microalgae on petroleum refining wastewater for the dual purposes of treatment and biomass production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spiral and target patterns in bivalve nacre manifest a natural excitable medium from layer growth of a biological liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Checa, Antonio G; Escribano, Bruno; Sainz-Díaz, C Ignacio

    2009-06-30

    Nacre is an exquisitely structured biocomposite of the calcium carbonate mineral aragonite with small amounts of proteins and the polysaccharide chitin. For many years, it has been the subject of research, not just because of its beauty, but also to discover how nature can produce such a superior product with excellent mechanical properties from such relatively weak raw materials. Four decades ago, Wada [Wada K (1966) Spiral growth of nacre. Nature 211:1427] proposed that the spiral patterns in nacre could be explained by using the theory Frank [Frank F (1949) The influence of dislocations on crystal growth. Discuss Faraday Soc 5:48-54] had put forward of the growth of crystals by means of screw dislocations. Frank's mechanism of crystal growth has been amply confirmed by experimental observations of screw dislocations in crystals, but it is a growth mechanism for a single crystal, with growth fronts of molecules. However, the growth fronts composed of many tablets of crystalline aragonite visible in micrographs of nacre are not a molecular-scale but a mesoscale phenomenon, so it has not been evident how the Frank mechanism might be of relevance. Here, we demonstrate that nacre growth is organized around a liquid-crystal core of chitin crystallites, a skeleton that the other components of nacre subsequently flesh out in a process of hierarchical self-assembly. We establish that spiral and target patterns can arise in a liquid crystal formed layer by layer through the Burton-Cabrera-Frank [Burton W, Cabrera N, Frank F (1951) The growth of crystals and the equilibrium structure of their surfaces. Philos Trans R Soc London Ser A 243:299-358] dynamics, and furthermore that this layer growth mechanism is an instance of an important class of physical systems termed excitable media. Artificial liquid crystals grown in this way may have many technological applications.

  16. Environmentally-suspended sediment production of the Nasia River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the level of suspended sediment produced in the Nasia River Basin. Hydrological and meteorological data and water samples were used for the study. Average suspended sediment yield (33 years) in the basin was 19.90 t/km2/yr. With mean annual runoff of 439.13m3/s, 322.43 t/yr suspended sediment ...

  17. A systematic approach for the assessment of bacterial growth-controlling factors linked to biological stability of drinking water in distribution systems

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, E. I.

    2016-01-06

    A systematic approach is presented for the assessment of (i) bacterial growth-controlling factors in drinking water and (ii) the impact of distribution conditions on the extent of bacterial growth in full-scale distribution systems. The approach combines (i) quantification of changes in autochthonous bacterial cell concentrations in full-scale distribution systems with (ii) laboratoryscale batch bacterial growth potential tests of drinking water samples under defined conditions. The growth potential tests were done by direct incubation of water samples, without modification of the original bacterial flora, and with flow cytometric quantification of bacterial growth. This method was shown to be reproducible (ca. 4% relative standard deviation) and sensitive (detection of bacterial growth down to 5 μg L-1 of added assimilable organic carbon). The principle of step-wise assessment of bacterial growth-controlling factors was demonstrated on bottled water, shown to be primarily carbon limited at 133 (±18) × 103 cells mL-1 and secondarily limited by inorganic nutrients at 5,500 (±1,700) × 103 cells mL-1. Analysis of the effluent of a Dutch full-scale drinking water treatment plant showed (1) bacterial growth inhibition as a result of end-point chlorination, (2) organic carbon limitation at 192 (±72) × 103 cells mL-1 and (3) inorganic nutrient limitation at 375 (±31) × 103 cells mL-1. Significantly lower net bacterial growth was measured in the corresponding full-scale distribution system (176 (±25) × 103 cells mL-1) than in the laboratory-scale growth potential test of the same water (294 (±35) × 103 cells mL-1), highlighting the influence of distribution on bacterial growth. The systematic approach described herein provides quantitative information on the effect of drinking water properties and distribution system conditions on biological stability, which can assist water utilities in decision-making on treatment or distribution system improvements to

  18. Palifermin (recombinant keratinocyte growth factor-1): a pleiotropic growth factor with multiple biological activities in preventing chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced mucositis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijlevens, N.M.A.; Sonis, S.T.

    2007-01-01

    Oral and intestinal mucositis are among the most significant dose-limiting toxic effects of intensive cancer treatment and are associated with adverse clinical and economic outcomes. Palifermin (Kepivancetrade mark), an N-truncated recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor-1, is the first agent

  19. Suspended sediment yield in Texas watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coonrod, Julia Ellen Allred

    The Texas Water Development Board collected suspended sediment samples across the state of Texas for approximately 60 years. Until this research, no comprehensive analysis of the data had been conducted. This study compiles the suspended sediment data along with corresponding streamflow and rainfall. GIS programs are developed which characterize watersheds corresponding to the sediment gauging stations. The watersheds are characterized according to topography, climate, soils, and land use. All of the data is combined to form several SAS data sets which can subsequently be analyzed using regression. Annual data for all of the stations across the state are classified temporally and spatially to determine trends in the sediment yield. In general, the suspended sediment load increases with increasing runoff but no correlation exists with rainfall. However, the annual average rainfall can be used to classify the watersheds according to climate, which improves the correlation between sediment load and runoff. The watersheds with no dams have higher sediment loads than watersheds with dams. Dams in the drier parts of Texas reduce the sediment load more than dams in the wetter part of the state. Sediment rating curves are developed separately for each basin in Texas. All but one of the curves fall into a band which varies by about two orders of magnitude. The study analyzes daily time series data for the Lavaca River near Edna station. USGS data are used to improve the sediment rating curve by the addition of physically related variables and interaction terms. The model can explain an additional 41% of the variability in sediment concentration compared to a simple bivariate regression of sediment load and flow. The TWDB daily data for the Lavaca River near Edna station are used to quantify temporal trends. There is a high correlation between sediment load and flowrate for the Lavaca River. The correlation can be improved by considering a flow-squared term and by

  20. Biological markers of neonatal calf performance: the relationship of insulin-like growth factor-I, zinc, and copper to poor neonatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T W; Breher, J E; Farver, T B; Cullor, J S; Kehrli, M E; Oberbauer, A M

    2010-08-01

    Raising a heifer calf to reproductive age represents an enormous cost to the producer. Poor neonatal growth exacerbates the costs incurred for rearing, and use of blood variables that may be associated with poorly growing calves may offer predictive value for growth and performance. Thus, the principal objective of the present study was to describe changes in serum IGF-I, zinc, and copper from birth to 90 d in Holstein calves, while accounting for sex and twin status, in poorly growing calves and calves growing well. A second objective was to test the hypothesis that an association exists between these serum variables and morphometric indicators of growth. Measurements of BW, length, and height were recorded at birth and at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Jugular blood (12 mL) was collected from each calf on d 1 to determine serum total protein, serum IgG, packed cell volume, serum zinc, serum copper, serum IGF-I, and CD18 genotype for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency; serum zinc, serum copper, and serum IGF-I (predictor variables) were also determined for each calf on d 2 through 10 and on d 30, 60, and 90. Stepwise multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between the predictor variables and the dependent variables (BW, height, and length at d 30, 60, and 90 of life). Birth weight, sex, serum IGF-I (at all ages), serum copper, and the serum copper-to-zinc ratio were associated, to varying degrees, with the dependent growth variables. Birth weight was consistently the dominant predictor. In conclusion, these results suggest that lighter birth weight, reduced serum IGF-I, and inflammation may be important causes of poor growth in neonatal Holstein dairy calves.

  1. Biological and ecological evidences suggest Stipa krylovii (Pooideae), contributes to optimal growth performance and population distribution of the grasshopper Oedaleus asiaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X B; McNeill, M R; Ma, J C; Qin, X H; Tu, X B; Cao, G C; Wang, G J; Nong, X Q; Zhang, Z H

    2017-06-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus Bey. Bienko is a significant grasshopper pest species occurring in north Asian grasslands. Outbreaks often result in significant loss in grasses and economic losses. Interestingly, we found this grasshopper was mainly restricted to Stipa-dominated grassland. We suspected this may be related to the dominant grasses species, Stipa krylovii Roshev, and hypothesized that S. krylovii contributes to optimal growth performance and population distribution of O. asiaticus. A 4 year investigation showed that O. asiaticus density was positively correlated to the above-ground biomass of S. krylovii and O. asiaticus growth performance variables (survival rate, size, growth rate) were significantly higher in Stipa-dominated grassland. A feeding trial also showed that O. asiaticus had a higher growth performance when feeding exclusively on S. krylovii. In addition, the choice, consumption and the efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) by O. asiaticus was highest for S. krylovii compared with other plant species found in the Asian grasslands. These ecological and biological traits revealed why O. asiaticus is strongly associated with Stipa-dominated grasslands. We concluded that the existence of S. krylovii benefited the growth performance and explained the distribution of O. asiaticus. These results are useful for improved pest management strategies and developing guidelines for the monitoring of grasshopper population dynamics against the background of vegetation succession and changing plant communities in response to activities such as grazing, fire and climate change.

  2. Characterization of terrestrial dissolved organic matter fractionated by pH and polarity and their biological effects on plant growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sleighter, Rachel L; Caricasole, Paolo; Richards, Kristen M; Hanson, Terry; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2015-01-01

    .... To better understand and identify components responsible for plant growth stimulation, a terrestrial aquatic DOM sample was fractionated according to pH and polarity, obtaining acid-soluble and acid...

  3. Design consideration for magnetically suspended flywheel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, D.; Kirk, J. A.; Frommer, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design, fabrication, and testing of a magnetically suspended flywheel system for energy storage applications in space. The device is the prototype of a system combining passive suspension of the flywheel plate by samarium cobalt magnets and active control in the radial direction using eight separate magnetic coils. The bearing assembly was machined from a nickel-iron alloy, and the machine parts are all hydrogen annealed. Slots in the magnetic plate allow four independent quadrants for control. The motor/generator component of the system is a brushless dc-permanent magnetic/ironless engine using electronic communication. The system has been tested at over 2500 rpm with satisfactory results. The system characteristics of the flywheel for application in low earth orbit (LEO) are given in a table.

  4. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  5. Tethering Growth Factors to Collagen Surfaces Using Copper-Free Click Chemistry: Surface Characterization and in Vitro Biological Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jong; Fernandes-Cunha, Gabriella M; Putra, Ilham; Koh, Won-Gun; Myung, David

    2017-07-19

    Surface modifications with tethered growth factors have mainly been applied to synthetic polymeric biomaterials in well-controlled, acellular settings, followed by seeding with cells. The known bio-orthogonality of copper-free click chemistry provides an opportunity to not only use it in vitro to create scaffolds or pro-migratory tracks in the presence of living cells, but also potentially apply it to living tissues directly as a coupling modality in situ. In this study, we studied the chemical coupling of growth factors to collagen using biocompatible copper-free click chemistry and its effect on the enhancement of growth factor activity in vitro. We verified the characteristics of modified epidermal growth factor (EGF) using mass spectrometry and an EGF/EGF receptor binding assay, and evaluated the chemical immobilization of EGF on collagen by copper-free click chemistry using surface X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that the anchoring was noncytotoxic, biocompatible, and rapid. Moreover, the surface-immobilized EGF had significant effects on epithelial cell attachment and proliferation. Our results demonstrate the possibility of copper-free click chemistry as a tool for covalent bonding of growth factors to collagen in the presence of living cells. This approach is a novel and potentially clinically useful application of copper-free click chemistry as a way of anchoring growth factors to collagen and foster epithelial wound healing.

  6. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2011-01-01

    is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels...... exposed to the predatory shore crab (Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended...

  7. Particle Size Characteristics of Fluvial Suspended Sediment in Proglacial Streams, King George Island, South Shetland Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the characterization of particle size distribution of suspended sediment that is transported by streams (Ornithologist Creek, Ecology Glacier Creeks, Petrified Forest Creek, Czech Creek, Vanishing Creek, Italian Creek) in the area of the Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station is presented. During the first period of the summer season, the aforementioned streams are supplied by the melting snow fields, while later on, by thawing permafrost. The water samples were collected from the streams at monthly intervals during the Antarctic summer season (January - March) of 2016. The particle size distribution was measured in the laboratory with a LISST-25X laser diffraction particle size analyser. According to Sequoia Scientific Inc., LISST-25X can measure particle sizes (Sauter Mean Diameter) between 2.50 and 500 μm. The results of particle size measurements were analysed in relation to flow velocity (0.18–0.89 m/s), the cross-sectional parameters of the streams, suspended sediment concentration (0.06–167.22 mg/dm3) and the content of particulate organic matter (9.8–84.85%). Overall, the mean particle size ranged from 28.8 to 136 μm. The grain size of well-sorted sediments ranged from 0.076 to 0.57, with the skewness and kurtosis values varying from -0.1 to 0.4, and from 0.67 to 1.3, respectively. Based on the particle size characteristics of suspended sediment, the streams were divided into two groups. For most of the streams, the sediment was very well sorted, while fine sand and very fine sand were dominant fractions displaying symmetric and platykurtic distributions, respectively. Only in two streams, the suspended sediment consisted of silt-size grains, well or moderately well sorted, with coarse-skewness and mostly mesokurtic distribution. The C-M chart suggested that the transportation processes of suspended sediment included the suspended mode only. The grain-size distribution of suspended sediment was mainly influenced by the stream runoff

  8. Ice growth in supercooled solutions of a biological "antifreeze", AFGP 1-5: an explanation in terms of adsorption rate for the concentration dependence of the freezing point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, C A; DeVries, A L

    2009-07-21

    It is widely accepted, and we agree, that the lowering of the temperature at which ice can grow in a water solution of one of the biological antifreezes is a result of adsorption of the antifreeze molecules at the ice surface. However, how this can produce a well-defined "freezing point" that varies with the solution concentration has remained problematical. The results of a series of measurements of ice growing in supercooled solutions of an effective antifreeze are reported and interpreted in terms of this fundamental problem. It seemed that the solution of the problem would have to rely upon adsorption rate, because that appeared to be the only way for the concentration in solution to be so important. The crystal growth results are most unusual, and appear to confirm this. The growth rates over a wide range of antifreeze concentration in solution (about 0.05 to 9 mg ml(-1)) are zero from the thermodynamic freezing point down to the "non-equilibrium" freezing point, where there is a very sudden increase to a plateau value that then remains about constant as the supercooling is increased by about 2 degrees C. The plateau values of growth rate are faster than those from pure water at the lower-supercooling ends of the plateaus, but slower at higher supercooling, until the growth rate starts rising toward that from pure water. These plateau values of growth rate increase markedly with increasing concentration of the antifreeze in solution. Along with these changes there are complex changes in the growth orientations, from c-axis spicules in the plateaus to those more characteristic of growth from pure water at greater supercooling. We conclude that the non-equilibrium freezing point is determined by the adsorption rate. It is the warmest temperature at which the ice growth rate on the basal plane (where the antifreeze does not adsorb) is fast enough to prevent the area of basal face on a growing ice crystal from becoming too small to grow, which is determined in

  9. Solid and suspended/dissolved waste (N, P, O) from rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying aquaculture waste into different waste fractions will make it possible to design different treatment setups for obtaining specific cleaning objectives. The aim of this study was therefore to measure “all” solid and suspended/dissolved (i.e. unsedimented) waste from juvenile rainbow...... trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) fed three commonly applied commercial diets, “all” waste referring to: total nitrogen (N), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN=NH3-N+NH4-N), total phosphorus (P), and organicmatter characterized by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the biological oxygen demand after 5 days (BOD5...... (ADCs) were used to calculate the solid amounts of undigested nutrients. These were subsequently used for calculating the solid COD output, verified by direct COD measurements. The output of solid and suspended/dissolved BOD5 and COD was measured in the second experiment. There were just minor...

  10. Low-energy electron point projection microscopy/diffraction study of suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Hao; Chang, Wei-Tse; Lin, Chun-Yueh; Chang, Mu-Tung; Hsieh, Chia-Tso; Wang, Chang-Ran; Lee, Wei-Li; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we present our study of suspended graphene with low-energy electrons based on a point projection microscopic/diffractive imaging technique. Both exfoliated and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene samples were studied in an ultra-high vacuum chamber. This method allows imaging of individual adsorbates at the nanometer scale and characterizing graphene layers, graphene lattice orientations, ripples on graphene membranes, etc. We found that long-duration exposure to low-energy electron beams induced aggregation of adsorbates on graphene when the electron dose rate was above a certain level. We also discuss the potential of this technique to conduct coherent diffractive imaging for determining the atomic structures of biological molecules adsorbed on suspended graphene.

  11. Elastic modulus of suspended purple membrane measured by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siitonen, Ari M. [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Sumitomo, Koji [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)], E-mail: sumitomo@will.brl.ntt.co.jp; Ramanujan, Chandra S. [Bionanotechnology IRC, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Shinozaki, Youichi; Kasai, Nahoko; Furukawa, Kazuaki [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Ryan, John F. [Bionanotechnology IRC, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxfordshire OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Torimitsu, Keiichi [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2008-09-30

    We have probed the mechanical properties of purple membrane (PM) in a physiological environment using the atomic force microscope (AFM). By suspending PM over nano-trenches, the elastic properties of PM can be evaluated free from the interaction with the substrate. Force-displacement curves were obtained on the suspended membrane and the data was compared to that of a simple model of a thin film over a trench. By fitting the data to the model, the elastic modulus of PM was estimated to be 8 MPa. When the membrane is repeatedly indented, we observed a change in the force-distance data consistent with damage to the two-dimensional crystal of PM. In this paper we demonstrate that the AFM allows us to evaluate the mechanics of biological membranes in their native conditions.

  12. Biology of atherosclerotic plaque formation: possible role of growth factors in lesion development and the potential impact of soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, E W; Ross, R

    1995-03-01

    The advanced lesions of atherosclerosis occlude the affected artery by increasing the thickness of the intima. The focal thickening of the intima is due to a large increase in smooth muscle cells, formation of new connective tissue matrix by these smooth muscle cells and, in hyperlipidemic individuals, the accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lipid. Additionally, monocytes and T lymphocytes infiltrate the artery wall. Various forms of "injury" may lead to cellular infiltration and proliferation. Localized cellular infiltration of monocytes and T cells may be due to changes in adhesive properties of the endothelial surface, involving the expression of specific adhesion molecules. The directed cell migration and proliferation may represent the cells' response to polypeptide growth factors, acting singly or in concert. These peptide growth factors also modulate matrix synthesis and degradation, angiogenesis, cell-cell adhesion and cellular metabolism, including lipid uptake. In atherosclerosis, growth factors may be delivered by infiltrating cells or by activation of cells within the artery wall. Normally, growth factors and their cell-surface receptors are expressed at low or undetectable levels. Their up-regulation in early and developing atherosclerotic lesions suggests a pathogenic role for these molecules. Increased levels of isoflavonoids, in particular genistein, which are associated with consumption of soy-based diets, inhibit cell adhesion, alter growth factor activity and inhibit cell proliferation involved in lesion formation.

  13. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite derived suspended sediment concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Ratheesh; Rajawat, A. S.

    2012-10-01

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are realized with respect to the sediment size distribution and the bottom bed materials observed in the Gulf. Simulated SSCs are compared with alternate OCM derived SSC. The results are observed to be impetus where the model is able to generate the spatial dynamics of the sediment concentrations. Sediment dynamics like deposition, erosion and dispersion are explained with the simulated tidal currents and OCM derived sediment concentrations. Tidal range is observed as the important physical factor controlling the deposition and resuspension of sediments within the Gulf. From the simulation studies; maximum residual current velocities, tidal fronts and high turbulent zones are found to characterise the islands and shoals within the Gulf, which results in high sediment concentrations in those regions. Remarkable variability in the bathymetry of the Gulf, different bed materials and varying tidal conditions induces several circulation patterns and turbulence creating the unique suspended sediment concentration pattern in the Gulf.

  14. And So It Grows: Using a Computer-Based Simulation of a Population Growth Model to Integrate Biology & Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Garrett M.; Laubach, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    We provide a 5E structured-inquiry lesson so that students can learn more of the mathematics behind the logistic model of population biology. By using models and mathematics, students understand how population dynamics can be influenced by relatively simple changes in the environment.

  15. Exploiting the MDM2-CK1α protein-protein interface to develop novel biologics that induce UBL-kinase-modification and inhibit cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Huart

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions forming dominant signalling events are providing ever-growing platforms for the development of novel Biologic tools for controlling cell growth. Casein Kinase 1 α (CK1α forms a genetic and physical interaction with the murine double minute chromosome 2 (MDM2 oncoprotein resulting in degradation of the p53 tumour suppressor. Pharmacological inhibition of CK1 increases p53 protein level and induces cell death, whilst small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of CK1α stabilizes p53 and induces growth arrest. We mapped the dominant protein-protein interface that stabilizes the MDM2 and CK1α complex in order to determine whether a peptide derived from the core CK1α-MDM2 interface form novel Biologics that can be used to probe the contribution of the CK1-MDM2 protein-protein interaction to p53 activation and cell viability. Overlapping peptides derived from CK1α were screened for dominant MDM2 binding sites using (i ELISA with recombinant MDM2; (ii cell lysate pull-down towards endogenous MDM2; (iii MDM2-CK1α complex-based competition ELISA; and (iv MDM2-mediated ubiquitination. One dominant peptide, peptide 35 was bioactive in all four assays and its transfection induced cell death/growth arrest in a p53-independent manner. Ectopic expression of flag-tagged peptide 35 induced a novel ubiquitin and NEDD8 modification of CK1α, providing one of the first examples whereby NEDDylation of a protein kinase can be induced. These data identify an MDM2 binding motif in CK1α which when isolated as a small peptide can (i function as a dominant negative inhibitor of the CK1α-MDM2 interface, (ii be used as a tool to study NEDDylation of CK1α, and (iii reduce cell growth. Further, this approach provides a technological blueprint, complementing siRNA and chemical biology approaches, by exploiting protein-protein interactions in order to develop Biologics to manipulate novel types of signalling pathways such as cross

  16. A suspended sediment yield predictive equation for river basins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical equation that can be used for estimating the suspended sediment yields of river drainage basins without sediment data has been established for basins in the sub-tropical forest Southwestern river basin system of Ghana. The power law equation relates mean annual specific suspended sediment yield (t km-2 ...

  17. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud. Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  18. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  19. A wave-resolving model for nearshore suspended sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Chou, Yi-Ju; Shi, Fengyan

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a wave-resolving sediment transport model, which is capable of simulating sediment suspension in the field-scale surf zone. The surf zone hydrodynamics is modeled by the non-hydrostatic model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012). The turbulent flow and suspended sediment are simulated in a coupled manner. Three effects of suspended sediment on turbulent flow field are considered: (1) baroclinic forcing effect; (2) turbulence damping effect and (3) bottom boundary layer effect. Through the validation with the laboratory measurements of suspended sediment under nonbreaking skewed waves and surfzone breaking waves, we demonstrate that the model can reasonably predict wave-averaged sediment profiles. The model is then utilized to simulate a rip current field experiment (RCEX) and nearshore suspended sediment transport. The offshore sediment transport by rip currents is captured by the model. The effects of suspended sediment on self-suspension are also investigated. The turbulence damping and bottom boundary layer effects are significant on sediment suspension. The suspended sediment creates a stably stratified water column, damping fluid turbulence and reducing turbulent diffusivity. The suspension of sediment also produces a stably stratified bottom boundary layer. Thus, the drag coefficient and bottom shear stress are reduced, causing less sediment pickup from the bottom. The cross-shore suspended sediment flux is analyzed as well. The mean Eulerian suspended sediment flux is shoreward outside the surf zone, while it is seaward in the surf zone.

  20. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cola acuminata gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many natural gums are employed as suspending agents in the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. The search to develop locally available natural gum from apparently a waste product as an alternative suspending agent stimulated the interest in this present study. Cola acuminata gum (CAG) extracted from Cola ...

  1. Simulation of suspended sediment transport initialized with satellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Kachchh is simulated utilizing the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) derived from Oceansat OCM imagery, as the initial condition in MIKE-21 Mud Transport model. Optimization of the model mud parameters, like settling velocity and critical shear stress for erosion are ...

  2. Evaluation of the suspending property of grewia gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in sulphadimidine suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for sulphadimidine. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  3. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Adansonia digitata gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentation volume and rate, rheology, and ease of redispersion were employed as evaluation parameters. The results showed that both hot and cold water extracts of the gum used at 2-3 % w/v produced a better suspending property than 4 % w/v Compound Tragacanth gum. The suspending ability of the gums was in ...

  4. Evaluation of the Suspending Property of Grewia Gum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending property of grewia gum in metronidazole suspension was evaluated. The gum was extracted by maceration, filtration, precipitation and drying techniques. It was used at 0.3 to 1% w/v as a suspending agent for metronidazole. Sodiumcarboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) and tragacanth were used as basis for ...

  5. Eruca sativa Might Influence the Growth, Survival under Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions and Some Biological Features of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florinda Fratianni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth and viability of three Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, after their passage through simulated gastric and pancreatic juices were studied as a function of their presence in the growth medium of rocket salad (Eruca sativa. The presence of E. sativa affected some of the biological properties of the strains. For example, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum worked more efficiently in the presence of E. sativa, increasing not only the antioxidant activity of the medium, but also their own antioxidant power and antimicrobial activity; L. rhamnosus was not affected in the same manner. Overall, the presence of vegetables might help to boost, in specific cases, some of the characteristics of lactobacilli, including antioxidant and antimicrobial power.

  6. Circulation and suspended sediment transport in a coral reef lagoon: the south-west lagoon of New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouillon, S; Douillet, P; Lefebvre, J P; Le Gendre, R; Jouon, A; Bonneton, P; Fernandez, J M; Chevillon, C; Magand, O; Lefèvre, J; Le Hir, P; Laganier, R; Dumas, F; Marchesiello, P; Bel Madani, A; Andréfouët, S; Panché, J Y; Fichez, R

    2010-01-01

    The south-west lagoon of New Caledonia is a wide semi-open coral reef lagoon bounded by an intertidal barrier reef and bisected by numerous deep inlets. This paper synthesizes findings from the 2000-2008 French National Program EC2CO-PNEC relative to the circulation and the transport of suspended particles in this lagoon. Numerical model development (hydrodynamic, fine suspended sediment transport, wind-wave, small-scale atmospheric circulation) allowed the determination of circulation patterns in the lagoon and the charting of residence time, the later of which has been recently used in a series of ecological studies. Topical studies based on field measurements permitted the parameterisation of wave set-up induced by the swell breaking on the reef barrier and the validation of a wind-wave model in a fetch-limited environment. The analysis of spatial and temporal variability of suspended matter concentration over short and long time-scales, the measurement of grain size distribution and the density of suspended matter (1.27 kg l(-1)), and the estimation of erodibility of heterogeneous (sand/mud, terrigenous/biogenic) soft bottoms was also conducted. Aggregates were shown to be more abundant near or around reefs and a possible biological influence on this aggregation is discussed. Optical measurements enabled the quantification of suspended matter either in situ (monochromatic measurements) or remotely (surface spectral measurements and satellite observations) and provided indirect calibration and validation of a suspended sediment transport model. The processes that warrant further investigation in order to improve our knowledge of circulation and suspended sediment transport in the New Caledonia lagoon as well as in other coral reef areas are discussed, as are the relevance and reliability of the numerical models for this endeavour. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Polyphase character of the dependence of Brassica napus germ root and hypocotyl growth on zeatin and thidiazuron concentrations with view of applicability to biological life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, G I; Babosha, A V

    2010-01-01

    Physiologically active substances are considered as a potential component of plant cultivation technologies for biological life support systems. In spacelight, plant reactions to growth-regulating agents may be changed by the specific stress factors such as microgravity, radiation, and trace admixtures in cabin air. Complex character of the concentration dependence of PAS efficiency and consequent variability generate a need to optimize plant growth regulating technologies in order to stabilize the wanted effect. Pattern of the concentration dependence of zeatin and tidiazurone effects on roots and hypocotyls growth was analyzed in rape germs. 24-hour Brassica napus germs grown in the dark in thermostat at 24 degrees C were transferred to Petri dishes with solutions of cytokinins under study for continued incubation under the same conditions for the next 24 hours. Roots and hypocotyls were measured. Zeatin concentration curve for roots was multiphase and, in addition to the general trend towards greater inhibition with increase of phyto-hormone concentration and had clearly defined minimum and maximum. The dependence of root growth inhibition on tidiazurone concentration also was not monotonic and had a distinct similarity with the zeatin curve. Gradual increase of tidiazurone concentration used in combination with zeatin brought about a predictable gradual twist of the zeatin curve; however, in most of the instances no additive cytokinin effect was observed. A supposition can be made that PAS interaction with the phytohormone regulation system may be a factor in variability of activity of these substances.

  8. Biologic Roles of Estrogen Receptor-β and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-2 in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalo Hamilton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC occurs in 10–15% of patients yet accounts for almost half of all breast cancer deaths. TNBCs lack expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER-2 overexpression and cannot be treated with current targeted therapies. TNBCs often occur in African American and younger women. Although initially responsive to some chemotherapies, TNBCs tend to relapse and metastasize. Thus, it is critical to find new therapeutic targets. A second ER gene product, termed ERβ, in the absence of ERα may be such a target. Using human TNBC specimens with known clinical outcomes to assess ERβ expression, we find that ERβ1 associates with significantly worse 5-year overall survival. Further, a panel of TNBC cell lines exhibit significant levels of ERβ protein. To assess ERβ effects on proliferation, ERβ expression in TNBC cells was silenced using shRNA, resulting in a significant reduction in TNBC proliferation. ERβ-specific antagonists similarly suppressed TNBC growth. Growth-stimulating effects of ERβ may be due in part to downstream actions that promote VEGF, amphiregulin, and Wnt-10b secretion, other factors associated with tumor promotion. In vivo, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2, along with ERβ1, is significantly expressed in TNBC and stimulates high ERβ mRNA in TNBC cells. This work may help elucidate the interplay of metabolic and growth factors in TNBC.

  9. Predicting Cognitive-Language and Social Growth Curves from Early Maternal Behaviors in Children at Varying Degrees of Biological Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L.; Swank, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    Used growth modeling to examine relationship of early parenting to cognitive, language, and social development from 6 to 40 months in full-term and very low birth weight (medically low or high risk) children. Found that behaviors that were sensitive to children's focus of interest and did not highly control or restrict their behaviors predicted…

  10. Field biology of Halimeda tuna (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) across a depth gradient : comparative growth, survivorship, recruitment, and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, P.S.; Smith, C.M.; Coyer, J.A.; Walters, L.; Hunter, C.L.; Beach, K.S.; Smith, J.E.

    Growth, survivorship, recruitment, and reproduction of Halimeda tuna, a dominant green alga in many reef systems of the Florida Keys, were monitored at a shallow back reef ( 4 - 7m) and deep reef slope ( 15 - 22 m) on Conch Reef. Despite lower light intensities and similar grazing pressures,

  11. Global Qualitative Behavior of a Class of Nonlinear Biological Systems; Application to the Qualitative Validation of Phytoplankton Growth Models

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, Olivier; Gouzé, Jean-Luc

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we propose a methodology to analyze the global qualitative behavior of a class of nonlinear differential systems with respect to their structure. This class of loop structured systems with monotonous interactions encompasses numerous biological models. We show that, independently of the parameters values or of the analytical formulation of the system, the possible successions with respect to time of some qualitative events that characterize the transients of state variables are ...

  12. Electrical isolation of dislocations in Ge layers on Si(001 substrates through CMOS-compatible suspended structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Ajit Shah, Maksym Myronov, Chalermwat Wongwanitwatana, Lewis Bawden, Martin J Prest, James S Richardson-Bullock, Stephen Rhead, Evan H C Parker, Terrance E Whall and David R Leadley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended crystalline Ge semiconductor structures are created on a Si(001 substrate by a combination of epitaxial growth and simple patterning from the front surface using anisotropic underetching. Geometric definition of the surface Ge layer gives access to a range of crystalline planes that have different etch resistance. The structures are aligned to avoid etch-resistive planes in making the suspended regions and to take advantage of these planes to retain the underlying Si to support the structures. The technique is demonstrated by forming suspended microwires, spiderwebs and van der Pauw cross structures. We finally report on the low-temperature electrical isolation of the undoped Ge layers. This novel isolation method increases the Ge resistivity to 280 Ω cm at 10 K, over two orders of magnitude above that of a bulk Ge on Si(001 layer, by removing material containing the underlying misfit dislocation network that otherwise provides the main source of electrical conduction.

  13. Insights into the Structural Requirements of Potent Brassinosteroids as Vegetable Growth Promoters Using Second-Internode Elongation as Biological Activity: CoMFA and CoMSIA Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoll Ferrer-Pertuz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have employed the ligand-based drug design technique, 3D-QSAR, through a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA and a comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA to determine the key factors for the plant growth promoting activity of brassinosteroids reported in literature, using the bean second-internode bioassay measured on two groups of compounds with different molar concentrations. This is the first 3D-QSAR study using the second internode elongation as biological activity. These results provide useful ideas for the design of new molecules, which could be explored in the future to identify novel vegetable growth promoters with similar or greater biological activity than natural brassinosteroids. The reliability of this study was supported by the robust statistical parameters obtained from CoMFA (Model A, r2pred = 0.751; Model B, r2pred = 0.770 and CoMSIA (Model A, r2pred = 0.946; Model B, r2pred = 0.923 analysis.

  14. Diffusion processes in freely suspended smectic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa, I.; Zakharov, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    A molecular model describing translational diffusion in freely suspended smectic films (FSSFs) in air is proposed. This model is based on the random walk theory and allows calculation of the translational diffusion coefficient (TDC) across smectic layers (along the director). All values necessary for calculating the TDC are obtained within the generalized mean-field model considering not only anisotropic interactions between nearest neighbors of molecules forming FSSFs, but also the stabilizing effect of the smectic/air interface. The spatial inhomogeneity of order parameters over the FSSF section, arising in this case, results in the fact that the surface tension at the smectic/air interface not only suppresses thermal fluctuations in surface layers, but also completely suppresses translational diffusion of molecules from the FSSF to air. The results of calculations of dimensional translational diffusion in the bulk of the FSSF formed by 5- n-alkyl-2-(4- n-(perfluoroalkyl-metyleneoxy))pentyl molecules during its thinning show that the TDC monotonically increases as the smectic film is thinned.

  15. Effect of plant growth regulators on in vitro biological control of Fusarium oxysporum by Trichoderma harzianum (T8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, M; Zamani, M R; Motallebi, M

    2007-09-01

    In this study the effect of two plant growth regulators (indolacetic acid, IAA and gibberellic acid, GA3) and also Trichoderma harzianum (T8) on the phytopathogen fungus Fusarium oxysporium (F15) was investigated. IAA and GA3 with 15 and 30 ppm concentration have no significant effect on T. harzianum (T8) growth. The biocontrol activity of T. harzianum on F. oxysporum was slightly decreased by the presence of IAA and/or GA3. Addition of 40 ppm of GA3 to the culture medium of F. oxsporum increased polygalacturonase activity about 100%. A strong increasing effect on chitinase activity (60%) by T. harzianum (T8) was observed in the presence of phytopathogenic fungus F. oxysporum, but 40 ppm IAA and/or GA3 decreased about 47% of chitinase activity of T. harzianum.

  16. The type III epidermal growth factor receptor mutation. Biological significance and potential target for anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, M W; Meltorn, M; Damstrup, L; Poulsen, H S

    2001-06-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor occur frequently in a number of human tumours including gliomas, non-small-cell lung carcinomas, ovarian carcinomas and prostate carcinomas. The type III epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (variously named EGFRvIII, de2-7 EGFR or AEGFR), which lacks a portion of the extracellular ligand binding domain, is the most common. Here, we review the current status with regard to the role of EGFRvIII in human cancers. A detailed discussion of the formation of EGFRvIII and its structure at the protein level are likewise included along with a discussion of its more functional roles. The design and use (preclinical and clinical) of small molecule inhibitors, antibodies, and antisense oligonucleotides against wild-type EGFR are considered in detail as these strategies can be directly adapted to target EGFRvIII. Finally, the status of EGFRvIII targeted therapy is reviewed.

  17. Germination and growth of native and invasive plants on soil associated with biological control of tamarisk (Tamarix spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Rebecca A.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Belnap, Jayne; Ostoja, Steven M.; Reed, Sasha C.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of biocontrol beetles (tamarisk beetles) are causing dieback of exotic tamarisk in riparian zones across the western United States, yet factors that determine plant communities that follow tamarisk dieback are poorly understood. Tamarisk-dominated soils are generally higher in nutrients, organic matter, and salts than nearby soils, and these soil attributes might influence the trajectory of community change. To assess physical and chemical drivers of plant colonization after beetle-induced tamarisk dieback, we conducted separate germination and growth experiments using soil and litter collected beneath defoliated tamarisk trees. Focal species were two common native (red threeawn, sand dropseed) and two common invasive exotic plants (Russian knapweed, downy brome), planted alone and in combination. Nutrient, salinity, wood chip, and litter manipulations examined how tamarisk litter affects the growth of other species in a context of riparian zone management. Tamarisk litter, tamarisk litter leachate, and fertilization with inorganic nutrients increased growth in all species, but the effect was larger on the exotic plants. Salinity of 4 dS m−1 benefitted Russian knapweed, which also showed the largest positive responses to added nutrients. Litter and wood chips generally delayed and decreased germination; however, a thinner layer of wood chips increased growth slightly. Time to germination was lengthened by most treatments for natives, was not affected in exotic Russian knapweed, and was sometimes decreased in downy brome. Because natives showed only small positive responses to litter and fertilization and large negative responses to competition, Russian knapweed and downy brome are likely to perform better than these two native species following tamarisk dieback.

  18. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--role of satellite cells in anabolic steroid-induced muscle growth in feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, W R; White, M E

    2014-01-01

    Both androgenic and estrogenic steroids are widely used as growth promoters in feedlot steers because they significantly enhance feed efficiency, rate of gain, and muscle growth. However, despite their widespread use relatively little is known about the biological mechanism by which androgenic and estrogenic steroids enhance rate and efficiency of muscle growth in cattle. Treatment of feedlot steers with a combined estradiol (E2) and trenbolone acetate (TBA) implant results in an increased number of muscle satellite cells, increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA in muscle tissue, and increased levels of circulating IGF-1. Similarly, treatment of bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures with either TBA or E2 results in increased expression of IGF-1 mRNA, increased rates of proliferation and protein synthesis, and decreased rates of protein degradation. Effects of E2 on BSC are mediated at least in part through the classical E2 receptor, estrogen receptor-α (ESR1), the IGF-1 receptor (IGFR1), and the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), formerly known as G protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR30). The effects of TBA appear to be primarily mediated through the androgen receptor. Based on current research results, it is becoming clear that anabolic steroid-enhanced bovine muscle growth involves a complex interaction of numerous pathways and receptors. Consequently, additional in vivo and in vitro studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms involved in this complex process. The fundamental information generated by this research will help in developing future, safe, and effective strategies to increase rate and efficiency of muscle growth in beef cattle.

  19. Expression of porcine epidermal growth factor in Pichia pastoris and its biology activity in early-weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Der-Nan; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Chen, Ming-Cheng; Tang, Tsung-Yin; Liu, Fu-Hwa; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2006-01-02

    Early-weaned piglets often have abnormalities in intestinal morphology and function. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is critical in the development and in the repair of the gastrointestinal tract in pigs. This study investigated the effects of dietary EGF supplementation on growth performance and small intestinal morphology of early-weaned piglets. The functional domain of porcine EGF (pEGF) was cloned after RT-PCR amplification. The recombinant protein was expression by the Pichia pastoris expression system and the construct pPIC9K-pEGF was transformed into host GS115. The secretary recombinant protein in the supernatants was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The gel indicated that the extra band at 6 kDa in the transformant, which corresponds to the standard hEGF, were both reactive to anti-pEGF antibody by Western blotting. The expression level of pEGF in the culture supernatant was 870 microg/mL. An animal feeding test was conducted to identify the effects of pEGF supplementation on growth performance and the development of digestive tracts of 14-day weaned piglets. The dietary treatment was a corn-soybean meal basal diet either with or without 1.5 mg/kg recombinant pEGF from the transformant fermentative supernatant. Dietary treatments enhanced the daily gain during 0-7 days postweaning (p piglets.

  20. Investigating mutation-specific biological activities of small molecules using quantitative structure-activity relationship for epidermal growth factor receptor in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosha, P; Sakthivel, R; Gromiha, M Michael

    2017-12-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a potential drug target in cancer therapy. Missense mutations play major roles in influencing the protein function, leading to abnormal cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. A number of EGFR inhibitor molecules targeting ATP binding domain were developed for the past two decades. Unfortunately, they become inactive due to resistance caused by new mutations in patients, and previous studies have also reported noticeable differences in inhibitor binding to distinct known driver mutants as well. Hence, there is a high demand for identification of EGFR mutation-specific inhibitors. In our present study, we derived a set of anti-cancer compounds with biological activities against eight typical EGFR known driver mutations and developed quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for each separately. The compounds are grouped based on their functional scaffolds, which enhanced the correlation between compound features and respective biological activities. The models for different mutants performed well with a correlation coefficient, (r) in the range of 0.72-0.91 on jack-knife test. Further, we analyzed the selected features in different models and observed that hydrogen bond and aromaticity-related features play important roles in predicting the biological activity of a compound. This analysis is complimented with docking studies, which showed the binding patterns and interactions of ligands with EGFR mutants that could influence their activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the ice nucleation characteristics of feldspars suspended in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Marcolli, Claudia; Kaufmann, Lukas; Krieger, Ulrich; Peter, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Freezing of liquid droplets and subsequent ice crystal growth affects optical properties of clouds and precipitation. Field measurements show that ice formation in cumulus and stratiform clouds begins at temperatures much warmer than those associated with homogeneous ice nucleation in pure water, which is ascribed to heterogeneous ice nucleation occurring on the foreign surfaces of ice nuclei (IN). Various insoluble particles such as mineral dust, soot, metallic particles, volcanic ash, or primary biological particles have been suggested as IN. Among these the suitability of mineral dusts is best established. The ice nucleation ability of mineral dust particles may be modified when secondary organic or inorganic substances are accumulating on the dust during atmospheric transport. If the coating is completely wetting the mineral dust particles, heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs in immersion mode also below 100 % RH. A previous study by Zobrist et al. (2008) Arizona test dust, silver iodide, nonadecanol and silicon dioxide suspensions in various solutes showed reduced ice nucleation efficiency (in immersion mode) of the particles. Though it is still quite unclear how surface modifications and coatings influence the ice nucleation activity of the components present in natural dust particles at a microphysical scale. To improve our understanding how solute and mineral dust particle surface interaction, we run freezing experiments using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with microcline, sanidine, plagioclase, kaolinite and quartz particles suspended in pure water and solutions containing ammonia, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid. Methodology Suspensions of mineral dust samples (2 - 5 wt%) are prepared in water with varying solute concentrations (0 - 15 wt%). 20 vol% of this suspension plus 80 vol% of a mixture of 95 wt% mineral oil (Aldrich

  2. P-solubilizing Fungi as Biological Control Agents to Increase Growth and Prevent Moler Disease on Red Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiwiyono

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to obtain phosphate-solubilizing fungi have antagonistic ability to Fusarium oxysporum f. cepae, and increase soil available-P. The experiment was hold in April 2013 to February 2014. Antagonistic capability was observed in two stages i.e. in vitro test which was conducted in the Laboratory of Soil Biology and Biotechnology, while in vivo test in green house, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University Surakarta. The experimental design used was completely randomized design (CRD. The treatment factors of in vitro test were kinds of phosphate solubilizing fungi and incubation time with Pikovkaya liquid medium, while the treatment factor of in vivo test was isolates combination of phosphate solubilizing fungi. Each treatment combination was repilcate three times. The observated variable included soil available phosphate, shallot height, shoot dry weight, moler disease intensity, infection rate, and area under the disease progress curve. The research obtained 3 isolates of fungi with high potential as inoculums of P-solubilizing biofertilizer and biological control agents against moler desease of red onion. The resullt showed that mix of JK12 isolate (isolated from Entisol of Bantul District and isolate of JK14 (from Andisol of Tawangmangu sub district demonstrated the highest ability in solubilizing phosphate and suppressing moler disease of red onion.

  3. Influence of charge carriers on corrugation of suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Demid A.; Gorodetsky, Andrei; Baidakova, Marina V.

    2018-02-01

    Electronic degrees of freedom are predicted to play a significant role in mechanics of two-dimensional crystalline membranes. Here we show that appearance of charge carriers may cause a considerable impact on suspended graphene corrugation, thus leading to additional mechanism resulting in charge carriers mobility variation with their density. This finding may account for some details of suspended graphene conductivity dependence on its doping level and suggests that proper modeling of suspended graphene-based device properties must include the influence of charge carriers on its surface corrugation.

  4. Effects of biological and methodological factors on volatile organic compound patterns during cultural growth of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küntzel, Anne; Fischer, Sina; Bergmann, Andreas; Oertel, Peter; Steffens, Markus; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen K; Reinhold, Petra; Köhler, Heike

    2016-09-08

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. Bacterial growth is still the diagnostic 'gold standard', but is very time consuming. MAP-specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) above media could accelerate cultural diagnosis. The aim of this project was to assess the kinetics of a VOC profile linked to the growth of MAP in vitro. The following sources of variability were taken into account: five different culture media, three different MAP strains, inoculation with different bacterial counts, and different periods of incubation. Needle-trap microextraction was employed for pre-concentration of VOCs, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for subsequent analysis. All volatiles were identified and calibrated by analysing pure references at different concentration levels. More than 100 VOCs were measured in headspaces above MAP-inoculated and control slants. Results confirmed different VOC profiles above different culture media. Emissions could be assigned to either egg-containing media or synthetic ingredients. 43 VOCs were identified as potential biomarkers of MAP growth on Herrold's Egg Yolk Medium without significant differences between the tree MAP strains. Substances belonged to the classes of alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. With increasing bacterial density the VOC concentrations above MAP expressed different patterns: the majority of substances increased (although a few decreased after reaching a peak), but nine VOCs clearly decreased. Data support the hypotheses that (i) bacteria emit different metabolites on different culture media; (ii) different MAP strains show uniform VOC patterns; and (iii) cultural diagnosis can be accelerated by taking specific VOC profiles into account.

  5. The effect of different biologic and biosynthetic wound covers on keratinocyte growth, stratification and differentiation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Matoušková

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare, by means of in vitro cultivation technique, five marketed brands of wound covers used in the treatment of burns and other skin defects (Biobrane®, Suprathel®, Veloderm®, Xe-Derma®, and Xenoderm® for their ability to stimulate the keratinocyte growth, stratification, and differentiation. In three independent experiments, human keratinocytes were grown on the tested covers in organotypic cultures by the 3T3 feeder layer technique. Vertical paraffin sections of the wound covers with keratinocytes were processed using hematoxylin–eosin staining and immunostaining for involucrin. Keratinocyte populations on the dressings were assessed for (1 number of keratinocyte strata (primary variable, (2 quantitative growth, (3 thickness of the keratinocyte layer, and (4 cell differentiation. The Xe-Derma wound cover provided the best support to keratinocyte proliferation and stratification, with the number of keratinocyte strata significantly (p < 0.05 higher in comparison to all products studied, except Xenoderm. However, in contrast to Xe-Derma, Xenoderm did not significantly differ from the other dressings. The results of this in vitro study show that the brands based on porcine dermal matrix possess the strongest effect on keratinocyte proliferation and stratification. The distinctive position of Xe-Derma may be related to its composition, where natural dermal fibers form a smooth surface, similar to the basement membrane. Furthermore, the results indicate that in vitro evaluation of effects on epithelial growth may accelerate the development of new bio-engineering-based wound covers.

  6. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  7. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  8. A systems biology, whole-genome association analysis of the molecular regulation of biomass growth and composition in Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-04-14

    Poplars trees are well suited for biofuel production due to their fast growing habit, favorable wood composition and adaptation to a broad range of environments. The availability of a reference genome sequence, ease of vegetative propagation and availability of transformation methods also make poplar an ideal model for the study of wood formation and biomass growth in woody, perennial plants. The objective of this project was to conduct a genome-wide association genetics study to identify genes that regulate bioenergy traits in Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). Populus deltoides is a genetically diverse keystone forest species in North America and an important short rotation woody crop for the bioenergy industry. We searched for associations between eight growth and wood composition traits and common and low-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by targeted resequencing of 18,153 genes in a population of 391 unrelated individuals. To increase power to detect associations with low-frequency variants, multiple-marker association tests were used in combination with single-marker association tests. Significant associations were discovered for all phenotypes and are indicative that low-frequency polymorphisms contribute to phenotypic variance of several bioenergy traits. These polymorphism are critical tools for the development of specialized plant feedstocks for bioenergy.

  9. A systems biology, whole-genome association analysis of the molecular regulation of biomass growth and composition in Populus deltoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirst, Matias [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Poplars trees are well suited for biofuel production due to their fast growing habit, favorable wood composition and adaptation to a broad range of environments. The availability of a reference genome sequence, ease of vegetative propagation and availability of transformation methods also make poplar an ideal model for the study of wood formation and biomass growth in woody, perennial plants. The objective of this project was to conduct a genome-wide association genetics study to identify genes that regulate bioenergy traits in Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). Populus deltoides is a genetically diverse keystone forest species in North America and an important short rotation woody crop for the bioenergy industry. We searched for associations between eight growth and wood composition traits and common and low-frequency single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by targeted resequencing of 18,153 genes in a population of 391 unrelated individuals. To increase power to detect associations with low-frequency variants, multiple-marker association tests were used in combination with single-marker association tests. Significant associations were discovered for all phenotypes and are indicative that low-frequency polymorphisms contribute to phenotypic variance of several bioenergy traits. These polymorphism are critical tools for the development of specialized plant feedstocks for bioenergy.

  10. Experimental methods for screening parameters influencing the growth to product yield (Y(x/CH4 of a biological methane production (BMP process performed with Methanothermobacter marburgensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bernacchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1. Specht M, Brellochs J, Frick V, et al. (2010 Storage of renewable energy in the natural gas grid. Erdoel, Erdgas, Kohle 126: 342-345.2. Thauer RK, Kaster AK, Goenrich M, et al. (2010 Hydrogenases from methanogenic archaea, nickel, a novel cofactor, and H2 storage. Annu Rev Biochem 79: 507-536.3. Liu Y, Whitman WB (2008 Metabolic, phylogenetic, and ecological diversity of the methanogenic archaea. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1125: 171-189.4. Kaster AK, Goenrich M, Seedorf H, et al. (2011 More than 200 genes required for methane formation from H2 and CO2 and energy conservation are present in Methanothermobacter marburgensis and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus. Archaea ID 973848: 1-23.5. Seifert AH, Rittmann S, Herwig C (2014 Analysis of process related factors to increase volumetric productivity and quality of biomethane with Methanothermobacter marburgensis Appl Energ 132: 155-162.6. Bernacchi S, Weissgram M, Wukovits W, et al. (2014 Process efficiency simulation for key process parameters in biological methanogenesis. AIMS bioengineering 1: 53-71.7. Thauer RK, Kaster AK, Seedorf H, et al. (2008 Methanogenic archaea: ecologically relevant differences in energy conservation. Nat Rev Microbiol 6: 579-591.8. Schill N, van Gulik WM, Voisard D, et al. (1996 Continuous cultures limited by a gaseous substrate: development of a simple, unstructure mathematical model and experimental verification with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Biotechnol Bioeng 51: 645-658.9. Jud G, Schneider K, Bachofen R (1997 The role of hydrogen mass transfer for the growth kinetics of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum in batch and chemostat cultures. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 19: 246-251.10. Tsao JH, Kaneshiro SM, Yu SS, et al. (1994 Continuous culture of Methanococcus jannaschii, an extremely thermophilic methanogen. Biotechnol Bioeng 43: 258-261.11. Schill N, van Gulik WM, Voisard D, et al. (1996 Continuous cultures limited by a gaseous substrate: development of a

  11. Ratios of total suspended solids to suspended sediment concentrations by particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbig, W.R.; Bannerman, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Wet-sieving sand-sized particles from a whole storm-water sample before splitting the sample into laboratory-prepared containers can reduce bias and improve the precision of suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC). Wet-sieving, however, may alter concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) because the analytical method used to determine TSS may not have included the sediment retained on the sieves. Measuring TSS is still commonly used by environmental managers as a regulatory metric for solids in storm water. For this reason, a new method of correlating concentrations of TSS and SSC by particle size was used to develop a series of correction factors for SSC as a means to estimate TSS. In general, differences between TSS and SSC increased with greater particle size and higher sand content. Median correction factors to SSC ranged from 0.29 for particles larger than 500m to 0.85 for particles measuring from 32 to 63m. Great variability was observed in each fraction-a result of varying amounts of organic matter in the samples. Wide variability in organic content could reduce the transferability of the correction factors. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  12. Experimental workflow for developing a feed forward strategy to control biomass growth and exploit maximum specific methane productivity of Methanothermobacter marburgensis in a biological methane production process (BMPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krajete

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, interests for new biofuel generations allowing conversion of gaseous substrate(s to gaseous product(s arose for power to gas and waste to value applications. An example is biological methane production process (BMPP with Methanothermobacter marburgensis. The latter, can convert carbon dioxide (CO2 and hydrogen (H2, having different origins and purities, to methane (CH4, water and biomass. However, these gas converting bioprocesses are tendentiously gas limited processes and the specific methane productivity per biomass amount (qCH4 tends to be low. Therefore, this contribution proposes a workflow for the development of a feed forward strategy to control biomass, growth (rx and qCH4 in a continuous gas limited BMPP. The proposed workflow starts with a design of experiment (DoE to optimize media composition and search for a liquid based limitation to control selectively growth. From the DoE it came out that controlling biomass growth was possible independently of the dilution and gassing rate applied while not affecting methane evolution rates (MERs. This was done by shifting the process from a natural gas limited state to a controlled liquid limited growth. The latter allowed exploiting the maximum biocatalytic activity for methane formation of Methanothermobacter marburgensis. An increase of qCH4 from 42 to 129 mmolCH4 g−1 h−1 was achieved by applying a liquid limitation compare with the reference state. Finally, a verification experiment was done to verify the feeding strategy transferability to a different process configuration. This evidenced the ratio of the fed KH2PO4 to rx (R(FKH2PO4/rx has an appropriate parameter for scaling feeds in a continuous gas limited BMPP. In the verification experiment CH4 was produced in a single bioreactor step at a methane evolution rate (MER of   132 mmolCH4*L−1*h−1 at a CH4 purity of 93 [Vol.%].

  13. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed. PMID:22451723

  14. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-06-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed.

  15. Suspended sediment concentration profiles from synoptic satellite observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Rajawat, A; Chauhan, O.S.

    A method is developed to estimate vertical suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles in Gulf of Kachchh, from the sediment concentration values derived from synoptic observations of Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM). Under the influence of currents...

  16. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  17. Systems Biology Model of Interactions between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFβ and ATM Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucinotta, Francis A [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently, the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses, and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low-dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low- and high-LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to crosstalk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  18. Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Peter [University of Oxford; Anderson, Jennifer [University of Oxford

    2014-10-02

    The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGFβ pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGFβ signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGFβ and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental

  19. Suspended-sediment and suspended-sand concentrations and loads for selected streams in the Mississippi River Basin, 1940-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Cline, Teri L.; Glaspie, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents suspended-sediment concentration and streamflow data, describes load-estimation techniques used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment loads, and presents annual suspended-sediment loads for 48 streamgaging stations within the Mississippi River Basin. Available published, unpublished, and computed annual total suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads are presented for water years 1940 through 2009. When previously published annual loads were not available, total suspended-sediment and sand loads were computed using available data for water years 1949 through 2009. A table of suspended-sediment concentration and daily mean streamflow data used in the computation of annual loads is presented along with a table of compiled and computed annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads, annual streamflows, and flow-weighted concentrations for the 48 stations.

  20. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  1. Optical and Gravimetric Partitioning of Coastal Ocean Suspended Particulate Inorganic Matter (PIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavn, R. H.; Zhang, X.; Falster, A. U.; Gray, D. J.; Rick, J. J.; Gould, R. W., Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Recent work on the composition of suspended particulates of estuarine and coastal waters increases our capabilities to investigate the biogeochemal processes occurring in these waters. The biogeochemical properties associated with the particulates involve primarily sorption/desorption of dissolved matter onto the particle surfaces, which vary with the types of particulates. Therefore, the breakdown into chemical components of suspended matter will greatly expand the biogeochemistry of the coastal ocean region. The gravimetric techniques for these studies are here expanded and refined. In addition, new optical inversions greatly expand our capabilities to study spatial extent of the components of suspended particulate matter. The partitioning of a gravimetric PIM determination into clay minerals and amorphous silica is aided by electron microprobe analysis. The amorphous silica is further partitioned into contributions by detrital material and by the tests of living diatoms based on an empirical formula relating the chlorophyll content of cultured living diatoms in log phase growth to their frustules determined after gravimetric analysis of the ashed diatom residue. The optical inversion of composition of suspended particulates is based on the entire volume scattering function (VSF) measured in the field with a Multispectral Volume Scattering Meter and a LISST 100 meter. The VSF is partitioned into an optimal combination of contributions by particle subpopulations, each of which is uniquely represented by a refractive index and a log-normal size distribution. These subpopulations are aggregated to represent the two components of PIM using the corresponding refractive indices and sizes which also yield a particle size distribution for the two components. The gravimetric results of partitioning PIM into clay minerals and amorphous silica confirm the optical inversions from the VSF.

  2. Evidence of a Biological Control over Origin, Growth and End of the Calcite Prisms in the Shells of Pinctada margaritifera (Pelecypod, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cuif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Consistently classified among the references for calcite simple prisms, the microstructural units that form the outer layer of the Pinctada margaritifera have been investigated through a series of morphological, crystallographical and biochemical characterizations. It is often said that the polygonal transverse shape of the prisms result from the competition for space between adjacent crystals. In contrast to this classical scheme the Pinctada prisms appear to be composed of four successive developmental stages from the concentrically growing disks on the internal side of the periostracum to the morphological, structural and compositional changes in both envelopes and mineral components at the end of the prisms. These latest structural and compositional changes predate nacre deposition, so that the end of prism growth is not caused by occurrence of nacre, but by metabolic changes in the secretory epithelium. This sequence makes obvious the permanent biological control exerted by the outer cell layer of the mantle in both organic envelopes and mineralizing organic phases.

  3. Effects of Suspended Sediment on Early Life Stages of Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedel, Burton C; Wilkens, Justin L; Kennedy, Alan J

    2017-01-01

    The resuspension of sediments caused by activities, such as dredging operations, is a concern in Great Lakes harbors where multiple fish species spawn. To address such concerns, smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) were exposed to uncontaminated suspended sediment (nominally 0, 100, 250, and 500 mg/L) continuously for 72 h to determine the effects on egg-hatching success and swim-up fry survival and growth. The test sediments were collected from two harbors: (1) fine-grained sediment in Grand Haven Harbor, Lake Michigan, and (2) coarser-grained sediment in Fairport Harbor, Lake Erie. Eggs exposed to total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations >100 mg/L resulted in decreased survival of post-hatch larval fish. Fry survival was >90 % at the highest exposure concentration (500 mg/L), but growth was decreased when the exposure concentration was >100 mg/L. Growth and survival of swim-up fry held for a 7- and 26-day post-exposure the grow-out period was variable suggesting that the sediment grain size and strain of fish may influence lingering effects after the cessation of exposure. The results suggest that exposed eggs hatched normally; however, newly hatched larvae, which are temporarily immobile, are more vulnerable to the effects of suspended sediment. The swim-up fry were found to be more sensitive to high TSS concentrations in sandy relative to silty sediment. These data represent a conservative exposure scenario that can be extrapolated to high-energy systems in the field to inform management decisions regarding the necessity for dredging windows or need to implement controls to protect M. dolomieu.

  4. Turbulence control of suspended matter aggregate size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Jones, S. E.; Rippeth, T. P.; Simpson, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    The size and properties of the aggregates which comprise suspended particulate matter (SPM) change on short time and length scales in shelf seas. There is experimental and theoretical evidence to suggest that turbulence plays a key role in aggregation but there is contradictory evidence with respect to disaggregation: it has been proposed that sinking stresses, rather than turbulent stresses, are the dominant control of disaggregation. But there is little observational evidence for turbulence control of particle properties. New observations are presented which provide compelling evidence for turbulence control of both aggregation and disaggregation. TKE dissipation and particle size were measured in situ at stratified sites in the northern North Sea in 110 m water depth during the period of weakening of the seasonal thermocline (in October/November) and in the Clyde Sea in 55 m water depth (April). There were similar vertical distributions of TKE dissipation E, SPM concentration C, and particle size D at both sites. At the base of the thermocline, there were minima in E and C, but a maximum in D, indicating that enhanced aggregation was occurring in this region of low turbulent stress. In the bottom mixed layer, E and C increased, while D decreased due to disaggregation in this region of increasing turbulent stress towards the seabed. Particles settling out of the low stress region at the base of the thermocline began to disaggregate when E increased to 3.2x10-6 watts m-2. D did not correlate directly with E because aggregation is a function of collision frequency (and hence of both C and E): this can be accounted for using a simplified theoretical aggregation model which treats flocs as self-similar fractal entities and allows simultaneous floc formation and break up, specified as functions of C and E. It was found that in the northern North Sea the measured D represents an equilibrium size predicted by the model, while in the Clyde Sea tidal variation in both C

  5. Biological evaluation of synthesized allicin and its transformation products obtained by microwaves in methanol: antioxidant activity and effect on cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Dušica P; Stojanović, Sanja; Najman, Stevo; Nikolić, Vesna D; Stanojević, Ljiljana P; Tačić, Ana; Nikolić, Ljubiša B

    2015-01-02

    Allicin is the most biologically active substance present in garlic. It can be synthesized or obtained by extraction of fresh garlic. Transformation products of allicin are also biologically active. The aim of this study was to examine the antioxidant activity of synthesized allicin and its transformation products obtained using microwaves in methanol at 55 °C as well as their effect on HeLa cells growth. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) test. The effect on HeLa cells growth was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) test. For MTT test, allicin and its transformation products were dispersed in carmellose sodium solution and examined in concentrations ranging from 0.3 μg/mL to 3 mg/mL. Allicin showed stronger antioxidant activity than the transformation products. A maximum degree of neutralization of DPPH radicals, about 90%, was reached when the concentration of allicin was 2 mg/mL, with an EC 50 (concentration of sample which is required for reduction of the initial concentration DPPH radicals to 50%) value of 0.37 mg/mL. In our study, allicin and its transformation products were not cytotoxic to HeLa cells under the examined conditions. The highest concentration of allicin and its transformation products had a slight antiproliferative effect, with a more pronounced effect of allicin, which reflected on the morphology of HeLa cells. The examined substances are safe to use on epithelial cells at concentrations up to 3 mg/mL when applied in carmellose sodium solution. Using carmellose sodium as a dispersing agent could be recommended as a good approach for testing liposoluble substances in liquid cell cultures.

  6. Analysing the correlations of long-term seasonal water quality parameters, suspended solids and total dissolved solids in a shallow reservoir with meteorological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Yixuan; Gao, Xueping

    2017-03-01

    To explore the correlations among water quality parameters, suspended solids (SS) and total dissolved solids (TDS) with meteorological factors in a shallow reservoir in China, the long-term variations of water quality were considered. A non-parametric regression method, generalized additive models (GAM), was used to analyse the correlations among eleven physicochemical and biological parameters as well as three meteorological factors (wind speed, rainfall and solar radiation) which we collected from 2000 to 2011. The results indicate that the three meteorological factors may have positive effects on SS. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between many water quality parameters and SS or TDS were exhibited seasonally. The correlations between electrical conductivity (EC) and SS were opposite to correlations between EC and TDS. This finding reveals that TDS have a positive impact on EC, while EC negatively affects SS. The results indicated that many parameters, such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), were related to SS due to the adsorption of SS. Moreover, both positive and negative correlations between COD and TDS were observed in this freshwater reservoir. The positive correlation between chlorophyll a and SS suggested that the change of SS concentration in autumn was caused by the growth of algae. Meanwhile, significant correlations between SS and meteorological factors were also observed, indicating that meteorological factors had effects on SS dynamics. This study provides useful information regarding the correlations among water quality parameters, SS and TDS with meteorological factors in a freshwater reservoir.

  7. Contributions to the biology of molting and growth of the Longarm river prawn Macrobrachium tenellum (Decapoda: Paleamonidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasaki-Granados S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the molting cycle of Macrobrachium tenellum are not available, which limits the scope of studies of growth and reproduction. The duration of the molt cycle was determined under controlled experimental conditions. The prawns were divided into four groups according to weight: Group 1 (1.0-1.9 g, Group 2 (2.0-2.9 g, Group 3 (3.0-3.9 g, and Group 4 (4.0-9.0 g. The increase in total weight was higher in groups 2 (23.4% and 3 (20.3% than in group 1 (~18% and 4 (~18%. The increase in size after molting among all groups was statistically different: in group 1 it increased 6.1% (highest and in group 2 it increased 2.2% (lowest. The duration of a complete cycle was 8.9, 9.4, 10.4, and 15.1 days for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The lengths of the molting cycles were not significantly different between groups 1 and 2, but group 4 was different from group 1.

  8. Using of ants and earthworm to modify of soil biological quality and its effect on cocoa seedlings growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni; Budianto, Wayan; Syaf, Hasbullah; Tufaila, Muhammad; Safuan, La Ode

    2015-09-01

    Ant and earthworm can act as soil ecosystem engineers. Ant and earthworm are very dominant in smallholder cocoa plantation. The first experiment aimed to study the effect of the abundance of ants and earthworms on soil microbial activity and microfauna, and the second experiment to analyse the effect of soil modified by ants and earthworms on the cocoa seedlings growth. Ant (Ponera sp.) and earthworm (Pontoscolex sp.) collected from smallholder cocoa plantation, and kept in a container up to applied. In the first experiment, nine combinations of the abundance of ants and earthworms applied to each pot containing 3 kg of soil from smallholder cocoa plantation, and each combination of the abundance was repeated five times in a completely randomized design. After the soil was incubated for thirty days, ants and earthworms removed from the soil using hand sorting techniques. Soil from each pot was analysed for soil microbial activity, abundance of flagellates and nematodes. In the second experiment, the soil in each pot was planted with cocoa seedlings and maintained up to ninety days. The results showed the FDA hydrolytic activity of microbes, the abundance of flagellates and nematodes between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms have been significantly different. Dry weight of root, shoot and seedling cacao have been significantly different between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms. It was concluded that the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms can be used in ecological engineering to improve soil quality.

  9. Controls on suspended aggregate size in partially mixed estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, David C.; Friedrichs, Carl T.

    2003-10-01

    Knowledge of aggregate size in estuaries is important to determining the fate and transport of suspended sediment and particle adherent contaminants. We have used a suite of in situ instruments to determine the controls of aggregate size distributions in three muddy, partially mixed estuaries in the mid-Atlantic USA. A novel method is presented to estimate turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production and the resulting Kolmogorov microscale ( λK) using a profiling acoustic Doppler velocimeter that has been contaminated by boat motion. The physical processes that control particle size distribution differ in the three estuaries due to the different hydrodynamics and benthic characteristics. Controls within each estuary also vary with different depth regimes. Surface particle size dynamics in all the studied estuaries are affected by irregular advection events. In the hydrodynamically energetic York River, mid-depth regions are controlled tidally by the combined processes of small λK decreasing particle size at high TKE and differential settling increasing particle size during lower TKE, more stratified conditions. Mid-depth regions in the lower energy Elizabeth River are controlled by irregular resuspension and trapping at the pycnocline of large low density particles. Bottom regions in all estuaries are most strongly influenced by resuspension, tidally in the energetic estuaries and irregularly in the low energy estuary. Near-bed particle size distributions are controlled by both λK and the distribution of particles in the bed in the higher energy estuaries. Just above the bed, large porous particles survive resuspension in the lower energy Elizabeth River, particles become smaller with decreased λK in the more energetic York River, and biological aggregation causes large dense particles to resist turbulent breakup in the Chesapeake Bay, which has a more active benthic community. The net result just above the bed is that particle size and settling velocity are

  10. [Effect of PC cell-derived growth factor RNA interference on biological behavior of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing-feng; Liu, Shuo-yan; Wang, Hai-yan; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Xiao-feng; Wang, Jian-jian; Ying, Min-gang; Zheng, Xiong-wei; Lin, Xian-dong; Zhou, Zhi-feng; Gong, Fu-sheng; Xie, Yun-qing

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effect of PC cell-derived growth factor (PCDGF) RNA interference on esophageal squamous carcinoma cells Eca-109 in vitro. The PCDGF-shRNA expression vector was transfected into the Eca-109 cells by liposome. After transfection, the mRNA and protein expressions of PCDGF were detected by RT-PCR and Western-blot respectively. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and Boyden chamber method were performed to measure the cell proliferation and invasion ability respectively. The expression levels of PCDGF mRNA and protein were both decreased in Eca-109 cells transfected with PCDGF-shRNA expression vector (transfection group). Twenty-four, 48 and 72 h after transfection, the cells proliferation in the transfection group was inhibited, and the inhibition rate was 20.4%, 21.1% and 20.9% respectively. The cell proliferation activity in the transfection group was significantly lower than that in the non-transfection group, liposome group and negative vector group (all Pgroup,negative vector group, liposome group and transfection group was 118.8±12.0, 100.8±9.0, 114.3±4.7, and 53.5±16.3 respectively. The differences were statistically significant between the transfection group and the other 3 groups (all P<0.05). PCDGF RNA interference can inhibit the proliferation and invasion abilities of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells in vitro. PCDGF gene may be the new target of gene therapy.

  11. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  12. Observations on suspended particulate matter (SPM) and microalgae in the Dollard Estuary, The Netherlands: Importance of late winter ice cover of the intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, N.; De Deckere, E.; Kornman, B.; van der Lee, W.; Termaat, R.; Terwindt, J.; de Winder, B.

    2001-01-01

    Three years of combined physical and biological measurements in the Dollard tidal basin showed that in the early spring of 1996, suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were low compared to observations in spring 1995 and 1997. Since in 1996 the duration of ice formation on the tidal flats

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Combined Effects of Different Water and Phosphate Levels on Growth and Biological Nitrogen Fixation of Nine Cowpea Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jemo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit and phosphate (Pi deficiency adversely affect growth and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF of legume crops. In this study, we examined the impact of interaction between soil water conditions and available soil-Pi levels on growth, nodule development and BNF potential of nine cowpea varieties grown on dry savanna soils. In our experimental design, soils with different available soil-Pi levels, i.e., low, moderate, and high soil-Pi levels, collected from various farming fields were used to grow nine cowpea varieties under well-watered and water-deficit conditions. Significant and severe water deficit-damaging effects on BNF, nodulation, growth, levels of plant-nitrogen (N and -phosphorus (P, as well as shoot relative water content and chlorophyll content of cowpea plants were observed. Under well-watered and high available soil-Pi conditions, cowpea varieties IT07K-304-9 and Dan'Ila exhibited significantly higher BNF potential and dry biomass, as well as plant-N and -P contents compared with other tested ones. Significant genotypic variations among the cowpeas were recorded under low available soil-Pi and water-deficit conditions in terms of the BNF potential. Principal component (PC analysis revealed that varieties IT04K-339-1, IT07K-188-49, IT07K-304-9, and IT04K-405-5 were associated with PC1, which was better explained by performance for nodulation, plant biomass, plant-N, plant-P, and BNF potential under the combined stress of water deficit and Pi deficiency, thereby offering prospects for development of varieties with high growth and BNF traits that are adaptive to such stress conditions in the region. On another hand, variety Dan'Ila was significantly related to PC2 that was highly explained by the plant shoot/root ratio and chlorophyll content, suggesting the existence of physiological and morphological adjustments to cope with water deficit and Pi deficiency for this particular variety. Additionally, increases in soil

  14. Biological Phosphorus Removal in a Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Helness, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal from municipal wastewater is performed to prevent or reduce eutrophication in the receiving water. Both P and N can be removed physical/chemically as well as biologically. While biological processes have always dominated in N-removal, chemical P-removal is used in many cases. Biological P-removal using enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is normally carried out in suspended culture (activated sludge) processes while biological N-removal (t...

  15. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  16. Effect of intraspecific competition by Aspergillus flavus on aflatoxin formation in suspended disc culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklow, Donald T; Bobell, John R; Palmquist, Debra E

    2003-05-01

    The ability of two non-aflatoxin producing strains of Aspergillus flavus to interfere with aflatoxin production by a toxigenic A. flavus strain was examined using a replacement series with suspended disc culture method. Individual glass fiber discs, affixed to a pin suspended from the caps of scintillation vials, were inoculated with medium containing A. flavus conidial mixtures in different proportions (aflatoxin producer:non-producer = 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 20:80 and 0:100 by vol) at a constant total density (1 x 10(5) spores ml(-1)). Reductions in the total conidial density of these strains when grown alone, had little effect on fungal growth (mycelium dry weight) or aflatoxin production. Significant (P < 0.0001) reductions in aflatoxin B1 were recorded when non-toxigenic strains represented any proportion of the inoculum mixture. Aflatoxin yield values were less than (P < 0.0001) expected from the input ratios for toxigenic vs. non-toxigenic conidial inoculum within the replacement series. Aflatoxin yields were also reduced (P < 0.001), with a corresponding increase in fungal growth (P < 0.001), when conidia from aflatoxin producing strains were mixed in equal proportions. This suggests that the substantial inhibition of aflatoxin yield for inoculum mixtures results from the failure of spore germlings to establish a cooperative mycelial network.

  17. Effects of environmental and biological conditions on the recruitment and growth of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum on the west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Lyeol; Kwon, Soon Hyun; Lee, Hyung-Gon; Yu, Ok Hwan

    2017-03-01

    The distribution of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, which is often dominant in intertidal zones, is influenced by both environmental and biological conditions. However, there have been few comprehensive studies on the interactive effects of these two groups of factors. The present study examined the environmental and biological parameters determining the population dynamics of the clams that is a dominant component of the intertidal communities of Euhangri and Padori on the west coast of Korean peninsula. We collected R. philippinarum and other members of the macrobenthos (> 1 mm long) monthly from 0.25 m2 quadrats deployed in the intertidal zones at Euhangri, Taean, and Padori during the period from August 2013 to January 2015. Physicochemical parameters of the water and sediment were measured at the same time. Water temperature and salinity is high and low in the summer to winter, respectively. While mean grain size of the sediment was higher at Euhangri than at Padori, total mean density of R. philippinarum was higher at Euhangri (325 ind./ 0.25 m2 at Padori vs. 194 ind./0.25 m2 at Euhangri). Settled spat (clams decreased, but as the population density of the spat increased the body condition index increased. The chlorophyll a content of the sediments at Padori exceeded that at Euhangri and decreased as the population of R. philippinarum increased. The shapes of R. philippinarum shells at Euhangri were more prolate than those at Padori, and the condition index at Euhangri exceeded that at Padori, indicating better growth conditions at Euhangri. The condition index and density of R. philippinarum were affected by the amount of chlorophyll a in the water column and in the sediment. The recruitment success of spats was negatively influenced by spat density. We suggest that regulation of habitat conditions for R. philippinarum, including the food supply, will optimize production of these commercial clams.

  18. 1995 Volvo Award in basic sciences. The use of an osteoinductive growth factor for lumbar spinal fusion. Part I: Biology of spinal fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, S D; Schimandle, J H; Hutton, W C; Chen, M I

    1995-12-15

    The histology of lumbar intertransverse process spinal fusion was studied in an experimental model in rabbits. To qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the sequential histology of spinal fusion using a previously validated animal model. Few previous studies have described the sequential histology during the posterolateral spinal fusion healing process using autogenous bone, and a basic understanding of the biology of this repair process is lacking. Fourteen adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent single-level posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process arthrodesis with autogenous iliac bone graft. Animals were killed 1-10 weeks after surgery, and the fusion masses were analyzed histologically and quantitated using a semiautomated image analysis system. Three distinct phases of healing were identified (inflammatory, reparative, and remodeling) and occurred in sequence but in a delayed fashion in the central zone of the fusion mass compared with the outer transverse process zones. Membraneous bone formation, evident first at the ends of the fusion eminating from the decorticated transverse processes, was the predominant mechanism of healing. The central zone was somewhat different in that there was a period of endochondral bone formation during weeks 3 and 4 in this zone where cartilage formed and was converted to bone. Remodeling in the central zone had equilibrated with the transverse process zones by 10 weeks. Lumbar intertransverse process spinal fusion is a complex process from a spatial and temporal standpoint. When autogenous bone is used as the graft material, this process critically depends on a variety of factors from the decorticated host bone and exposed marrow. The persistence of a central cartilage zone may be related to some types of nonunions and deserves future investigation. This enhanced understanding of the biology of spinal fusion with autogenous bone graft will provide a foundation for optimizing the use of osteoinductive bone growth

  19. Phase I pharmacologic and biologic study of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a fully human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratlin, Jennifer L; Cohen, Roger B; Eadens, Matthew; Gore, Lia; Camidge, D Ross; Diab, Sami; Leong, Stephen; O'Bryant, Cindy; Chow, Laura Q M; Serkova, Natalie J; Meropol, Neal J; Lewis, Nancy L; Chiorean, E Gabriela; Fox, Floyd; Youssoufian, Hagop; Rowinsky, Eric K; Eckhardt, S Gail

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE To evaluate the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PKs), pharmacodynamics, and preliminary anticancer activity of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B), a fully human immunoglobulin G(1) monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated once weekly with escalating doses of ramucirumab. Blood was sampled for PK studies throughout treatment. The effects of ramucirumab on circulating vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, tumor perfusion, and vascularity using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were assessed. Results Thirty-seven patients were treated with 2 to 16 mg/kg of ramucirumab. After one patient each developed dose-limiting hypertension and deep venous thrombosis at 16 mg/kg, the next lower dose (13 mg/kg) was considered the MTD. Nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, and proteinuria were also noted. Four (15%) of 27 patients with measurable disease had a partial response (PR), and 11 (30%) of 37 patients had either a PR or stable disease lasting at least 6 months. PKs were characterized by dose-dependent elimination and nonlinear exposure consistent with saturable clearance. Mean trough concentrations exceeded biologically relevant target levels throughout treatment at all dose levels. Serum VEGF-A increased 1.5 to 3.5 times above pretreatment values and remained in this range throughout treatment at all dose levels. Tumor perfusion and vascularity decreased in 69% of evaluable patients. CONCLUSION Objective antitumor activity and antiangiogenic effects were observed over a wide range of dose levels, suggesting that ramucirumab may have a favorable therapeutic index in treating malignancies amenable to VEGFR-2 inhibition.

  20. Dynamic transport of suspended sediment by solitary wave: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    cho, JaeNam; Kim, DongHyun; Hwang, KyuNam; Lee, SeungOh

    2016-04-01

    Solitary waves are able to transport a large amount of suspended sediment when approaching on the beach, which sometimes causes - serious beach erosion, especially in the east and south coastal lines in Korea. But it has rarely been known about the method how to evaluate or estimate the amount of beach erosion caused by solitary waves. Experimental assessment is necessary to comprehend the process of sediment transport on a slope. The prismatic rectangular channel is 12 m long, 0.8 m wide, and 0.75 m high. A sluice gate is applied at prismatic channel in order to produce the solitary waves. Upstream water depth is more than channel water depth and the sluice gate is suddenly opened to simulate conditions of solitary waves. A sand slope with a 1/6 and a sediment thickness is 0.03 m. The experimental sediments are used anthracite (d_50=1.547 mm ,C_u=1.38) and Jumoonjin sand (d_50=0.627 mm ,C_u=1.68). Specific laboratory equipment are designed to collect suspended sediment samples at the same time along the wave propagation at 5 points with evenly space. Each amount of sampling is approximately 25 ml and they are completely dried in oven over 24 hours according to the USGS (Guideline and standard techniques and method 3-C4). Two video cameras (Model No. : Sony, HDR-XR550) are mounted for capturing images at top and side-view when the processes of solitary wave and run up/down on slope. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between Suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Also, this study are analyzed the correlation between suspended sediment concentration and turbidity. Turbidity is used to verify suspended sediment concentration. Dimensionless analyses of experimental results carried out in this study. One dimensionless parameter is expressed with pressure of solitary wave on a slope to suspended sediment concentration, which is concerned about lifting force. The other is relate to drag force presenting with run up/down velocity on a slope and

  1. Design of a LC-tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lichuan; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2011-04-01

    A inductor-capacitor (LC) tuned magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope prototype is designed and analyzed. High permeability ferrite cores are used for providing suspension force, and the rotation system is designed using the switched reluctance motor (SRM) principle. According to the LC-tuned principle, magnetic suspension force expression has been derived. The electromagnetic properties of the gyroscope are simulated by the Ansoft Maxwell software. And our result is expected to be able to serve as a prototype of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) magnetically suspended rotating gyroscope in future practical applications.

  2. Quantum Hall effect in multi-terminal suspended graphene devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Zhao, Yue; Bolotin, Kirill; Kim, Philip

    2010-03-01

    The integer and fractional quantum hall effects have been already observed in two terminal suspended graphene devices. However in this two probe device geometry, mixing between magnetoresistance ρxx and Hall resistance ρxy for incompletely developed quantum Hall states leads to substantial deviation of conductance plateaus values. In this talk, we present the experimental results from four terminal suspended graphene devices. The quality of quantum Hall effect will be discussed in muti-terminal device geometry in conjunction with the current-induced annealing process to improve the quality of graphene samples.

  3. Colorimetry Technique for Scalable Characterization of Suspended Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; Steeneken, Peter G; Centeno, Alba; Zurutuza, Amaia; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houri, Samer

    2016-11-09

    Previous statistical studies on the mechanical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) suspended graphene membranes have been performed by means of measuring individual devices or with techniques that affect the material. Here, we present a colorimetry technique as a parallel, noninvasive, and affordable way of characterizing suspended graphene devices. We exploit Newton's rings interference patterns to study the deformation of a double-layer graphene drum 13.2 μm in diameter when a pressure step is applied. By studying the time evolution of the deformation, we find that filling the drum cavity with air is 2-5 times slower than when it is purged.

  4. Suspended DNA structural characterization by TEM diffraction

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica

    2017-12-01

    In this work, micro-fabrication, super-hydrophobic properties and a physiologically compatible preparation step are combined and tailored to obtain background free biological samples to be investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) diffraction technique. The validation was performed evaluating a well-known parameter such as the DNA interbases value. The diffraction spacing measured is in good agreement with those obtained by HRTEM direct metrology and by traditional X-Ray diffraction. This approach addresses single molecule studies in a simplified and reproducible straightforward way with respect to more conventional and widely used techniques. In addition, it overcomes the need of long and elaborated samples preparations: the sample is in its physiological environment and the HRTEM data acquisition occurs without any background interference, coating, staining or additional manipulation. The congruence in the results reported in this paper makes the application of this approach extremely promising towards those molecules for which crystallization remains a hurdle, such as cell membrane proteins and fibrillar proteins.

  5. Heterologous expression of a truncated form of human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-A and its biological activity in wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khaki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is one of the most effective proteins in angiogenesis, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs differentiation and wound healing. These abilities are therapeutic potential of VEGF in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and other tissue damage circumstances. In this study, recombinant VEGF was produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli system and then biological activity of this protein was evaluated in animal wound healing. Materials and Methods: E. coli BL21 (DE3 competent cells were transformed with pET32a-VEGF clone and induced by isopropyl-β-D-thio-galactoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was purified byaffinity chromatography. Recombinant VEGF-A-based ointment (VEGF/Vaseline 0.8 mg/100 w/w was used for external wound (25×15mm thickness healing in animal model. In vivo activity of ointment was evaluated by clinical evidences and cytological microscopic assessment. Results: The recombinant protein with molecular weight of 45 kilodaltons (kDa and concentration of 0.8 mg/ml was produced.Immunoblotting data showed that the antigenic region of VEGF can be expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein has similar epitopes with close antigenic properties to the natural form. Macroscopic findings and microscopic data showed that the recombinant VEGF-A ointment was effective on excisional wound healing. Conclusion: Recombinant VEGF-A produced by pET32a in E. coli, possesses acceptable structure and has wound healing capability.

  6. Growth, reproduction and feeding biology of an endemic Sucker Catfish, Glyptothorax silviae Coad, 1981 (Actinopterygii: Sisoridae, in the Maroon River, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amini Chermahini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to provide some information on the biological features of the endemic Sucker Catfish, Glyptothorax silviae, from the Maroon River in the Tigris basin, Iran. Samples were collected at monthly intervals throughout the year and 277 individuals of G. silviae were caught. The mean total length and weight were 8.1 ± 1.7 (±SD cm and 5.8 ± 3.5 (±SD g and maximum length and weight were 11.9 cm and 17.4 g, respectively. Length-Weight relationship of the total specimens was calculated as W = 0.006 TL3.205, (R2 = 0.956 indicating allometric growth and was not significantly different between males and females. The overall condition factor was 0.62. The sex-ratio (1.23M:1F was not significantly different from the expected 1:1 ratio. Glyptothorax silviae reproduces during June-September. Absolute and relative fecundity was 1129 eggs/fish and 105 eggs/g body weight, respectively. The egg size ranged from 0.994 to 1.76 mm with a mean value of 1.29 ± 0.171 (±SD mm. The highest values of gonadosomatic index were observed in June-July. The gut content analysis revealed that G. silviae feeds only on aquatic insects.

  7. Land-use impacts on fatty acid profiles of suspended particulate organic matter along a larger tropical river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boëchat, Iola; Krüger, Angela; Chavez, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    .8 and 10.2 mg dry weight (DW) L− 1 and between 130.6 and 268.2 μg DW L− 1, respectively, in our study. Urbanization was the only land-use category correlating with both FA composition and concentrations, despite its low contribution to whole catchment (1.5–5.6%) and riparian buffer land cover (1......Land-use change, such as agricultural expansion and urbanization, can affect riverine biological diversity and ecosystem functioning. Identifying the major stressors associated with catchment land-use change is a prerequisite for devising successful river conservation and restoration strategies....... Here, we analyzed land-use effects on the fatty acid (FA) composition and concentrations in suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) along a fourth-order tropical river, the Rio das Mortes. Thereby, we aimed at testing the potential of fatty acids in riverine suspended particulate organic matter...

  8. Spatial distribution of soil erosion and suspended sediment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sediment transport rate for Chou-Shui river basin ... 5, Anzhong Road,. Tainan 70970, Taiwan. 4. Department of Hydraulics and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1,. University Road, Tainan ... surface runoff discharge, suspended sediment transport rate, quantity of soil erosion, and spatial distribu-.

  9. Calamine lotion: experimenting with a new suspending agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Achi, A; Greenwood, R; Akin-Isijola, A; Bullard, J

    1999-01-01

    The use of a new suspending agent is investigated. Calamine lotion, USP contains bentonite magma as a suspending agent. In this study, bentonite magma was partially or completely replaced with a new suspending agent called tahini. Tahini is sesame paste composed of crushed sesame seeds in sesame oil. It is frequently used in middle eastern food as a thickening and suspending agent. Calamine lotion was prepared, generally, according to the USP method. The formula contained 40% v/v magma. Tahini was added instead of bentonite magma by replacing 100%, 99%, 90%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the magma. The sedimentation volume and the degree of flocculation were calculated for the resulting preparations. Rheological characteristics of bentonite- and tahini-containing lotions were also determined. Sedimentation volume showed 0.723 and 0.851 (p=0.05) for the lotions containing 100% bentonite and 100% tahini, respectively. The degree of flocculation was 2.00 and 2.35 (p=0.05) for the 100% bentonite and 100% tahini lotions, respectively. The rheograms of all the suspensions showed pseudoplastic flow. Overall, the use of tahini in calamine lotion has improved the physical stability of the formula.

  10. Turbulence Flow Characteristics of Suspended Sediments and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These are inturn integrated to give the hydraulic resistance law for sediment laden flow. The law of velocity distribution in open channel flow with suspended sediments was derived introducing Monin-Obukhov Length L . The distribution equation agrees well with the observation of velocity profile in the experiments.

  11. Microscopic characterisation of suspended graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignardi, L.; Dorp, W.F. van; Gottardi, S.; Ivashenko, O.; Dudin, P.; Barinov, A.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Stöhr, M.; Rudolf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-technique characterisation of graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and thereafter transferred to and suspended on a grid for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The properties of the electronic band structure are investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron

  12. Geochemistry of suspended and settling solids in two freshwater lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    This study describes the 1987–1992 time variationof the bulk chemical composition, levels of heavymetals, arsenic, nitrogen and phosporous insuspended and settling solids in Lake Volkerak andLake Zoom (The Netherlands). Suspended and setlingsolids were collected with continuous flowcentrifuges and

  13. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  14. Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Western Cape orchard areas, the last pesticide application of the growing season in summer takes place at the end of February. Pesticides, total phosphates and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured in the Lourens River at the beginning of April 1999 prior to the first rainfall of the rainy season and in the middle of ...

  15. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...

  16. Transport of suspended particles in turbulent open channel flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugem, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments are performed in order to investigate suspended sediment transport in a turbulent open channel flow. The first experiment used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure the fluid velocity with a high spatial resolution, while particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was used to measure

  17. Spatial Distribution of Suspended Particulate Matter in Mtwapa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface water concentrations of inorganic nutrients and suspended particulate matter (SPM) components from Mtwapa and Shirazi creeks in Kenya were measured and compared. This was aimed at assessing the contribution of phytoplankton carbon, particulate organic carbon (POC) and detritus on the total SPM pool, and ...

  18. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  19. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amino sugars (AS)are important constituents of organic matter.However,very little is known about their cycling in marine waters.In this research,we assessed the distribution and cycling of these compounds in waters of the Bay of Bengal.For this purpose,samples of suspended particulate matter (SPM)were collected from 8 ...

  20. Stabilised suspending efficiency of Laponite XLG and sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charged drugs like Sulphamerazine may make pseudoplastic/plastic materials become Newtonian and loose their suspending power. In this study ... For this purpose, the rheograms of the systems were obtained by the use of a Haake rotoviscometer RV 12 utilizing a cup and rotor sensor system MV 1. In the absence of ...

  1. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  2. Spin Transport in High-Quality Suspended Graphene Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guimaraes, Marcos H. D.; Veligura, A.; Zomer, P. J.; Maassen, T.; Vera-Marun, I. J.; Tombros, N.; van Arees, B. J.; Wees, B.J. van

    We measure spin transport in high mobility suspended graphene (mu approximate to 10(5)cm(2)/(V s)), obtaining a (spin) diffusion coefficient of 0.1 m(2)/s and giving a lower bound on the spin relaxation time (tau(s) approximate to 150 ps) and spin relaxation length (lambda(s) = 4.7 mu m) for

  3. 40 CFR 52.330 - Control strategy: Total suspended particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Total suspended... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.330 Control strategy..., the State must repromulgate Regulation No. 1 to satisfy reasonably available control technology...

  4. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family Mimosoideae) were evaluated comparatively with those of Compound Tragacanth, Acacia and Gelatin at concentration range of 0.5 – 4.0%w/v in Sulphadimidine suspension. Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum. Sedimentation ...

  5. Discrete Dynamics of Nanoparticle Channelling in Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Andersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We have observed a previously undescribed stepwise oxidation of mono- and few layer suspended graphene by silver nanoparticles in situ at subnanometer scale in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Over the range of 600–850 K, we observe crystallographically oriented channelling...

  6. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Gillespie, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Well over three million children, K-12, are estimated to have lost instructional "seat time" in 2009-2010 because they were suspended from school, often with no guarantee of adult supervision outside the school. That's about the number of children it would take to fill every seat in every major league baseball park and every NFL stadium…

  7. Investigation of suspended sediment transport using ultrasonic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1994-01-01

    The results of the initial experimental studies involving the scattering of ultrasonic signals from canonical and non-canonical shaped suspended particles with known elastical qualities are reported. These results have formed the basis for the development of a numerical model for ultrasound...

  8. Microwave-induced nonequilibrium temperature in a suspended carbon nanotube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortensius, H.L.; Öztürk, A.; Zeng, P.; Driessen, E.F.C.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Antenna-coupled suspended single carbon nanotubes exposed to 108?GHz microwave radiation are shown to be selectively heated with respect to their metal contacts. This leads to an increase in the conductance as well as to the development of a power-dependent DC voltage. The increased conductance

  9. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of suspended single-wall carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeRoy, B.J.; Lemay, S.G.; Kong, J.; Dekker, C.

    2004-01-01

    We have performed low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy measurements on single-wall carbon nanotubes that are freely suspended over a trench. The nanotubes were grown by chemical vapor deposition on a Pt substrate with predefined trenches etched into it. Atomic resolution was obtained on the

  10. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Coprecipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The suspending ability of the different ratios was evaluated in magnesium trisilicate suspension, and compared with a suspension prepared with Compound Tragacanth Powder BP (CTP) as well as a commercially available magnesium trisilicate suspension (MTS). The parameters tested were sedimentation rate, flow rate, ...

  11. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths...

  12. An analysis of bedload and suspended load interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recking, alain; Navratil, Oldrich

    2013-04-01

    Several approaches were used to develop suspension equations. It includes semi-theoretical equations based on the convection diffusion equation (Einstein 1950; Van Rijn 1984; Camenen and Larson 2008; Julien 2010), semi-empirical tools based on energy concept (Velikanov 1954; Bagnold 1966), empirical adjustments (Prosser and Rusttomji 2000). One essential characteristic of all these equations is that most of them were developed by considering continuity between bedload and suspended load, and that the partitioning between these two modes of transport evolves progressively with increasing shear stress, which is the case for fine bed materials. The use of these equations is thus likely to be welcome in estuaries or lowland sandy rivers, but may be questionable in gravel-bed rivers and headwater streams where the bed is usually structured vertically and fine sediments potentially contributing to suspension are stored under a poorly mobile surface armour comprising coarse sediments. Thus one question this work aimed to answer is does the presence of an armour at the bed surface influence suspended load? This was investigated through a large field data set comprising instantaneous measurements of both bedload and suspension. We also considered the river characteristics, distinguishing between lowland rivers, gravel bed rivers and headwater streams. The results showed that a correlation exist between bedload and suspension for lowland and gravel bed rivers. This suggests that in gravel bed rivers a large part of the suspended load is fed by subsurface material, and depends on the remobilization of the surface material. No correlation was observed for head water streams where the sediment production is more likely related to hillslope processes. These results were used with a bedload transport equation for proposing a method for suspended load estimate. The method is rough, but especially for gravel bed rivers, it predicts suspended load reasonably well when compared to

  13. Chromium in water, suspended particles, sediments and biota in the Iraja River estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.; de Lacerda, L.D.; van Weerfelt, M.; Carbonell, N.

    1982-11-01

    Analyses of chromium concentrations in waters, suspended particles, bottom sediments, fish (Poecilia reticulata), plants (Paspalum vaginatum, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Philoxeros vermicularis), soils and barnacles (Balanus sp.) were performed from August 1976 to September 1980 in samples collected from the Iraja River and inside its estuary in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Sediments and water from the Iraja River showed chromium concentrations of 17536 and 23.39 ppm--a thousand times higher than the published data for freshwater systems. Chromium removed from solution by bottom sediments reaches Guanabara Bay linked to particulate matter. Fish and emergent grass inside the river concentrate chromium from water and/or sediment, returning the metal to the system as detritus. Soil and plants inside the estuary concentrate chromium thirty and ten times higher than in the control area. The vegetal community exhibits a concentration factor smaller than that related to soil and prevents the return of chromium to the estuarine waters. Inside the Guanabara Bay, Balanus sp. appears to be an effective biological monitor as it concentrates chromium in soft tissues 10/sup 3/ times higher than values found in suspended particles (0.012 ..mu..g ml/sup -1/).

  14. A review of the effects of particle types on oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Andrew; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2016-12-01

    Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregate (OSA) can form naturally when oil and particles interact. The interaction between oil and suspended particulate matter makes oil less sticky, and facilitates its dispersion in the water column. The high oil-water surface contact enhances the biodegradation of oil and thus increases the efficiency of remediation processes. There are many factors that affect OSA formation, but, particle type is one of the most important. Because different particle types have different physical, chemical, and biological properties, their interactions with oil differ greatly. Particle properties such as interlayer spaces, hydrophobicity, surface charges, polarity, organic content, and size affect the interactions between materials and oil. These different interactions determine the type, buoyancy, size, and stability of OSA that forms, thus determining its fate in the environment. This review provides a current understanding of (1) OSA formation mechanisms, (2) sources and classes of marine materials, (3) oil-particle interactions, (4) material properties and their effects on oil interaction, and (5) future research needs.

  15. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth: Changing the Research-Based Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Rebecca; Howes, Elaine V.; Carlson, Janet; Roth, Kathleen; Bourdelat-Parks, Brooke; Roseman, Jo Ellen; Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.

    2013-01-01

    Much of modern biology has become increasingly chemical in character. Not surprisingly, students often have trouble understanding key ideas in biology because they lack foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS and BSCS are collaborating to develop and study a curriculum unit that supports students' ability to explain a variety of biological processes…

  16. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth: Paper 5--Using Teacher Measures to Evaluate the Promise of the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Jean C.; Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2013-01-01

    AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) is collaborating with BSCS (Biological Sciences Curriculum Study) in the development of a curriculum unit for eighth grade students that connects fundamental chemistry and biology concepts to better prepare them for high school biology. Recognizing that teachers play an influential role in…

  17. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth: Using Student Measures to Evaluate the Promise of the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Students often have trouble understanding key biology ideas, in part because they lack an understanding of foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS [American Association for the Advancement of Science] is collaborating with BSCS [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study] in the development of a curriculum unit that connects core chemistry and biology ideas…

  18. Pterostilbene prevents AKT-ERK axis-mediated polymerization of surface fibronectin on suspended lung cancer cells independently of apoptosis and suppresses metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Jan Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymeric fibronectin (polyFN assembled on suspended breast cancer cells is required for metastasis. Conceivably, drugs that target such polyFN may fight against cancer metastasis. While stilbene analogs trigger pro-apoptotic effect on attached cancer cells, whether they prevent polyFN assembly and metastasis of suspended cancer cells via an apoptosis-independent manner remains unexplored. Methods We depleted suspended Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC cells of polyFN by silencing the endogenous FN expression or pterostilbene (PS to examine whether metastasis of lung cancer cells could thus be suppressed. We investigated whether PS regulates AKT-ERK signaling axis to suppress polyFN assembly in suspended LLC cells independently of apoptosis. We tested the therapeutic effects of orally administered PS against cancer metastasis. Results Both FN-silencing and PS among the three stilbenoids indeed significantly reduced polyFN assembly and lung metastasis of suspended LLC cells in an apoptosis-independent manner. Mechanistically, PS-induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT and suppressed ERK phosphorylation (pERK in suspended LLC cells, whereas pretreatment with a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, effectively reduced pAKT, rescued pERK, and consequently reversed the PS-suppressed polyFN assembly on LLC cells; these pretreatment effects were then overturned by the ERK inhibitor U0126. Indeed, PS-suppressed lung metastasis was counteracted by LY294002, which was further overruled with U0126. Finally, we found that PS, when orally administered in experimental metastasis assays, both significantly prevented lung colonization and metastasis of LLC cells and reduced the already established tumor growth in the mouse lungs. Conclusions PS suppressed AKT/ERK-regulated polyFN assembly on suspended LLC cells and pulmonary metastasis. PS possesses potency in both preventing and treating lung metastasis of lung cancer cells in apoptosis-independent and apoptosis

  19. Study of the growth, reproductive biology and abundance for invasive shrimps Palaemon elegans Rathke from Garmat Ali river Basrah, Southern Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Khasaf Al-Khafaji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the growth, reproductive biology and abundance of the population of invasive shrimps Palaemon elegans (P. elegans in one of the branches of Garmat Ali river at Basrah, Southern Iraq. Methods: Monthly samples of the prawn P. elegans were collected with a bottom hand net (40 cm, 0.5 mm mesh hauled over a distance of 10 m. A simple random sampling was conducted monthly between December 2012 and November 2013. Results: Seasonal changes were observed in the composition of the population of the species during the study year with the highest abundance in 2013 and the lowest abundance for the males was reported in January and for the females occurred in June. Salinity showed a significant correlation with the abundance of shrimps at the sampling site. The largest female measured 67.90 mm while the corresponding value for males was 61.31 mm. The proportion of ovigerous adults rose during spring season to peak on about July and ovigerous prawns were taken in all months of the year. The sex ratio indicated a preponderance of females over males in all months in the study period. Each females produced around 36–1324 eggs and the incubation period lasted for 11–14 days at 17–29 °C. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that this species has a wide distribution range, high density, and great reproduction potential. This study reveals the lack of researches on this species in environments of Shatt Al-Arab river and its branches. Thus, P. elegans has most likely formed a permanent population in all the brackish waters in Basrah area.

  20. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( >  1000 km2 over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation–deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc., transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation. Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity, and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment

  1. Kinetics of heavy metal removal in a suspended and immobilized bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, S. R. M.; Ezechi, E. H.; Khaw, S. G.; Lai, C. L.; Isa, M. H.

    2017-06-01

    The capacity of microorganisms to remove heavy metal from wastewater has been a subject of diverse interest. Whereas some heavy metals are essential for effective microbial activity, some heavy metals could be toxic to the microorganisms at concentrations higher than their minimal inhibitory limit. The kinetics of Zn2+ removal from aqueous solution was evaluated in terms of substrate removal rate for two identical suspended and immobilized bioreactors. The suspended growth bioreactor was used as a control system (CS) and contains only biomass. The immobilized bioreactor (IB) contains both biomass and microwave incinerated rice husk ash (MIRHA). The bioreactors were operated at a fixed HRT of 29.1 hours, whereas Zn2+ influent concentration was varied in the range of 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L. At steady state conditions, the results show that Zn2+ removal was in the range of 72, 75, 72.5, 68.2, 70.3 and 58.7% for CS, whereas it was in the range of 88, 90, 83, 88.6, 86.2 and 83.7% for IB. The substrate removal rate was found as 1.1856 g/L.d for CS and 4.2693 g/L.d for IB. The results clearly show that Zn2+ removal was more favorable in IB, indicating that the performance of the bioreactor was enhanced by the addition of MIRHA.

  2. Suspended sediment profiles derived from spectral attenuation coefficients measurements using neural network method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, G.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.; Kamath, S.S.

    total suspended matter values from water samples obtained at discrete depths at the same location. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has been used to derive suspended matter from the spectral values of beam attenuation coefficients measured using...

  3. Impact of sound attenuation by suspended sediment on ADCP backscatter calibrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vermeulen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although designed for velocity measurements, acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are widely being used to monitor suspended particulate matter in rivers and in marine environments. To quantify mass concentrations of suspended matter, ADCP backscatter is generally calibrated with in situ

  4. Effect of Martian Suspended Dust on Albedo Measurements from the MGS-TES Data

    OpenAIRE

    A. Zinzi; Palomba, E.; Rinaldi, G.; d'Amore, M.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended dust on Mars influences albedo measurements by orbiting instruments, but not necessary the real surface albedo. The aim of this study is to characterize the role of suspended aerosols on albedo measurement by remote sensing instruments.

  5. Design, analysis and control of cable-suspended parallel robots and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zi, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an essential overview of the authors’ work in the field of cable-suspended parallel robots, focusing on innovative design, mechanics, control, development and applications. It presents and analyzes several typical mechanical architectures of cable-suspended parallel robots in practical applications, including the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae, hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robots, and cooperative cable parallel manipulators for multiple mobile cranes. It also addresses the fundamental mechanics of cable-suspended parallel robots on the basis of their typical applications, including the kinematics, dynamics and trajectory tracking control of the feed cable-suspended structure for super antennae. In addition it proposes a novel hybrid-driven-based cable-suspended parallel robot that uses integrated mechanism design methods to improve the performance of traditional cable-suspended parallel robots. A comparative study on error and performance indices of hybr...

  6. 48 CFR 52.209-6 - Protecting the Government's Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...'s Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended, or Proposed for Debarment. 52....209-6 Protecting the Government's Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended... Government's Interest When Subcontracting With Contractors Debarred, Suspended, or Proposed for Debarment...

  7. 78 FR 48145 - Lemon Juice From Argentina: Continuation of Suspended Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Doc No: 2013-19067] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-818] Lemon Juice... of the suspended investigation on lemon juice from Argentina would likely lead to continuation or... of the suspended antidumping duty investigation on lemon juice from Argentina (``suspended...

  8. Suspended 3D pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    2017-01-01

    Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes for electrochem...... resistance as compared to 2D carbon electrodes. The higher sensitivity of 3D carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical sensing was illustrated by dopamine detection.......Carbon microelectrodes have a wide range of applications because of their unique material properties and biocompatibility. This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended pyrolytic carbon microstructures serving as three-dimensional (3D) carbon microelectrodes...... for electrochemical applications. A 3D polymer template in epoxy based photoresist (SU-8) was fabricated with multiple steps of UV photolithography and pyrolysed at 900 °C to obtain 3D carbon microelectrodes. The pyrolytic carbon microstructures were characterized by SEM, Raman spectroscopy and XPS to determine...

  9. Approximate Series Solutions for Nonlinear Free Vibration of Suspended Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaobing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents approximate series solutions for nonlinear free vibration of suspended cables via the Lindstedt-Poincare method and homotopy analysis method, respectively. Firstly, taking into account the geometric nonlinearity of the suspended cable as well as the quasi-static assumption, a mathematical model is presented. Secondly, two analytical methods are introduced to obtain the approximate series solutions in the case of nonlinear free vibration. Moreover, small and large sag-to-span ratios and initial conditions are chosen to study the nonlinear dynamic responses by these two analytical methods. The numerical results indicate that frequency amplitude relationships obtained with different analytical approaches exhibit some quantitative and qualitative differences in the cases of motions, mode shapes, and particular sag-to-span ratios. Finally, a detailed comparison of the differences in the displacement fields and cable axial total tensions is made.

  10. [Light absorption by suspended particulate matter in Chagan Lake, Jilin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Dong; Liu, Dian-Wei; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Wang, Zong-Ming; Jiang, Guang-Ji; Tang, Xu-Guang; Lei, Xiao-Chun; Wu, Yan-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Spectral characteristics and the magnitudes of light absorption by suspended particulate matter were determined by spectrophotometry in this optically complex Lake Chagan waters for the purpose of surveying the natural variability of the absorption coefficients to parameterize the bio-optical models for converting satellite or in-situ water reflectance signatures into water quality information. Experiments were carried out on seasonal frozen Lake Chagan, one representative inland case-2 water body in Northeast of China. Particulate absorption properties analyzed using the field data on July 15th and October 12th 2009 were measured using the quantitative filter technique to produce absorption spectra containing several fractions that could be attributed to two main optical active constituents (OACs) phytoplankton pigments and non-algal particulates (mineral sediments, and organic detritus). Results suggested that the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration was higher while phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll-a concentration) was lower in July and that in October. The spectral shape of total suspended particulate matter resembled that of non-algal particulates which contributed greater than phytoplankton in total particulate absorption during both periods. An obvious absorption peak occurring at around 440 nm exhibited an increase in phytoplankton contribution in October. Non-algal particulate absorption at 440 nm (a(NAP) (440)) had better correlation with total suspended particulate matter concentration than that with chlorophyll-a over the two periods. Light absorption by phytoplankton pigments in the Chagan lake region was generally lower than that of non-algal components. Chl. a dominating phytoplankton pigment composition functioned exponentially with its absorption coefficients at 440 and 675 nm specifically, the average values of which in July were 0.146 8 m2 x mg(-1) and 0.050 3 respectively while in October they were 0.153 3 and 0.013 2 m2 x mg(-1

  11. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Dynamics in the Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D. N.; Skarke, A. D.; Silwal, S.; Dash, P.

    2016-02-01

    The Mississippi Sound is a semi-enclosed estuary between the coast of Mississippi and a chain of offshore barrier islands with relatively shallow water depths and high marine biodiversity that is wildly utilized for commercial fishing and public recreation. The discharge of sediment-laden rivers into the Mississippi Sound and the adjacent Northern Gulf of Mexico creates turbid plumes that can extend hundreds of square kilometers along the coast and persist for multiple days. The concentration of suspended sediment in these coastal waters is an important parameter in the calculation of regional sediment budgets as well as analysis of water-quality factors such as primary productivity, nutrient dynamics, and the transport of pollutants as well as pathogens. The spectral resolution, sampling frequency, and regional scale spatial domain associated with satellite based sensors makes remote sensing an ideal tool to monitor suspended sediment dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Accordingly, the presented research evaluates the validity of published models that relate remote sensing reflectance with suspended sediment concentrations (SSC), for similar environmental settings, with 51 in situ observations of SSC from the Mississippi Sound. Additionally, regression analysis is used to correlate additional in situ observations of SSC in Mississippi Sound with coincident observations of visible and near-infrared band reflectance collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Aqua satellite, in order to develop a site-specific empirical predictive model for SSC. Finally, specific parameters of the sampled suspended sediment such as grain size and mineralogy are analyzed in order to quantify their respective contributions to total remotely sensed reflectance.

  12. Development of a microfluidic interface for suspended microchannel resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Suspended microchannel resonators (SMRs) are devices that detect particles in liquid samples. In comparison with similar resonating devices that must be immersed, SMRs allow the fluids to flow through microfluidic resonators. This principle of operation leads to a great reduction of the required sample and to enhanced quality factors. As such, SMRs show great potential for a variety of sensing applications. This thesis reports on the final steps of the microfabrication of SMRs and on the deve...

  13. On the Design of Suspended Roofs with Paraboloidal Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ungureanu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some considerations concerning the design of the paraboloidal suspended roofs are made. The main geometric aspects are first time presented. For the roofs we propose, as pattern, the equivalent continuum membranes, and the efforts in the cable are determined by using the membrane efforts and their equations. Two examples are analyzed: elliptic paraboloide and hyperbolic paraboloide, with horizontal projection under the form of an ellipse.

  14. Segment Fixed Priority Scheduling for Self Suspending Real Time Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    for soft real- time systems [15]. Table 1 shows a brief... for execution are the times when a job of task arrives. For 2 ≤ ≤ , when , finishes its execution, it suspends itself for a time duration that lies...assume , and , can take non-negative values such that , ≤ , and let , = , . For each job, a segment , executes for a time duration that lies in

  15. Suspended biofilm carrier and activated sludge removal of acidic pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falås, Per; Baillon-Dhumez, Aude; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    Removal of seven active pharmaceutical substances (ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, mefenamic acid, and gemfibrozil) was assessed by batch experiments, with suspended biofilm carriers and activated sludge from several full-scale wastewater treatment plants. A distinct...... and attached solids for the carriers) of diclofenac, ketoprofen, gemfibrozil, clofibric acid and mefenamic acid compared to the sludges. Among the target pharmaceuticals, only ibuprofen and naproxen showed similar removal rates per unit biomass for the sludges and biofilm carriers. In contrast...

  16. Strain sensitivity enhancement in suspended core fiber tapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Ricardo M.; Silva, Susana O.; Becker, Martin; Schuster, Kay; Rothardt, M.; Bartelt, H.; Marques, Manuel B.; Frazão, Orlando

    2013-06-01

    Suspended core fiber tapers with different cross sections (with diameters from 70 μm to 120 μm) are produced by filament heating. Before obtaining the taper, the spectral behavior of the suspended core fiber is a multimode interference structure. When the taper is made, an intermodal interference between a few modes is observed. This effect is clearly visible for low taper core dimensions. Since the core and cladding do not collapse, two taper regions exist, one in the core and the other in the cladding. The cladding taper does not affect the light transmission, only the core is reduced to a microtaper. The spectral response of the microtaper based-suspended core fiber is similar to a beat of two interferometers. The strain is applied to the microtaper, and with the reduction in the transverse area, an increase in sensitivity is observed. When the taper is immersed in a liquid with a different index of refraction or subjected to temperature variations, no spectral change occurs.

  17. Abrasion properties of self-suspended hairy titanium dioxide nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-xia; Liu, Si; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xiao-jing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Ya-ming; Li, Shi-yun

    2017-10-01

    Considering the excellent solubility of pyrrolidone ring organic compounds, the synthesized N-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone chlorides was tethered onto titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to improve dispersion of TiO2, and then polyethylene oxide (PEO) oligomer through ion exchange embraced the tethered TiO2 to obtain a novel self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials without any solvent. A variety of techniques were carried out to illustrate the structure and properties of the self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials. It was found that TiO2 nanoparticles embody monodispersity in the hybrid system though the "false reunion" phenomenon occurring due to nonpermanent weak physical cross-linking. Remarkably, self-suspended hairy TiO2 nanomaterials exhibit lower viscosity, facilitating maneuverable and outstanding antifriction and wear resistance properties, due to the synergistic lubricating effect between spontaneously forming lubricating film and nano-lubrication of TiO2 cores, overcoming the deficiency of both solid and liquid lubricants. This make them promising candidates for the micro-electromechanic/nano-electromechanic systems (MEMS/NEMS).

  18. Optical aging observation in suspended core tellurite microstructured fibers under atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutynski, C.; Mouawad, O.; Picot-Clémente, J.; Froidevaux, P.; Désévédavy, F.; Gadret, G.; Jules, J.-C.; Kibler, B.; Smektala, F.

    2017-11-01

    Tellurite glasses are good candidates for the development of broadband supercontinuum (SC) laser sources in the 1-5 μm range. At the moment, beside very few exceptions, SC generation in TeO2-based microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) is limited to 3 μm in the mid-infrared (MIR). We present here an observation of an optical aging occurring in six-hole suspended-core tellurite MOFs. When exposed to atmospheric conditions, such fibers show an alteration of their transmission between 3 and 4 μm. This aging phenomenon leads to the growth of strong additional losses in this wavelengths range over time. Impact of the transmission degradation on spectral broadening is studied through numerical simulations of SC generation.

  19. Bone loss in tail-suspended rats in restricted to the unweighted limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Space flight which results in certain characteristic changes in the skeleton and it was hypothesized that these abnormalities are a direct result of the weightless state. To determine the role of PTH and 1,25(OH)2D in the bone changes associated with weightlessness, we studied bone metabolism under various dietary conditions using an Earth based rat model system which simulates weightlessness. In this model, rats are suspended by their tails such that their rear limbs are completely unloaded while their fore limbs are normally loaded. It is suggested that skeletal unloading induces a localized defect in the unloaded bone which results in abnormal growth and mineralization. It is concluded that skeletal unloading may make the unloaded bone more or less sensitive to a systemic factor which in turn could account for a change in bone metabolism.

  20. Large counterions boost the solubility and renormalized charge of suspended nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; González-Mozuelos, Pedro; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2013-11-26

    Colloidal particles are ubiquitous in biology and in everyday products such as milk, cosmetics, lubricants, paints, or drugs. The stability and aggregation of colloidal suspensions are of paramount importance in nature and in diverse nanotechnological applications, including the fabrication of photonic materials and scaffolds for biological assemblies, gene therapy, diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and molecular labeling. Electrolyte solutions have been extensively used to stabilize and direct the assembly of colloidal particles. In electrolytes, the effective electrostatic interactions among the suspended colloids can be changed over various length scales by tuning the ionic concentration. However, a major limitation is gelation or flocculation at high salt concentrations. This is explained by classical theories, which show that the electrostatic repulsion among charged colloids is significantly reduced at high electrolyte concentrations. As a result, these screened colloidal particles are expected to aggregate due to short-range attractive interactions or dispersion forces as the salt concentration increases. We discuss here a robust, tunable mechanism for colloidal stability by which large counterions prevent highly charged nanoparticles from aggregating in salt solutions with concentrations up to 1 M. Large counterions are shown to generate a thicker ionic cloud in the proximity of each charged colloid, which strengthens short-range repulsions among colloidal particles and also increases the corresponding renormalized colloidal charge perceived at larger separation distances. These effects thus provide a reliable stabilization mechanism in a broad range of biological and synthetic colloidal suspensions.

  1. Influence of environmental factors on the growth of the juvenile, maturing juvenile, and adult tropical scallop, Euvola ziczac (Pteroida: Pectinidae, in suspended culture conditions Influencia de los factores ambientales en el crecimiento de juveniles, juveniles con capacidad reproductiva y adultos de la vieira tropical Euvola ziczac (Pteroida: Pectinidae en condiciones de cultivo suspendido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Lodeiros

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We carried out growth trials on three size groups of the scallop, Euvola ziczac, during two short-term (34-36 days periods at 8, 21, and 34 m depth in Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on growth. Growth was greater in juveniles (initial size: 20-22 mm shell length than in maturing juveniles (30-40 mm and adults (70-75 mm. Somatic tissue growth was more than two-fold greater in juveniles than in maturing individuals. Adult scallops showed losses of tissue mass. The first period (December-January covered the transition from a stratified water column to upwelling conditions, with initial high temperatures and low phytoplankton biomass followed by lower temperatures and greater phytoplankton biomass. The second period (February-March consisted of upwelling, characterized by low temperatures and high phytoplankton production. The greater growth of juvenile and maturing scallops during the second period, particularly at 8 m depth, was associated with the greater availability of phytoplankton, related to coastal upwelling. The first development of gonads in maturing scallops only occurred in the second period, associated with food availability, and the degree of development was correlated with the depth. Our growth trials, which were too short to permit the negative impact of the development of fouling, showed that the growth of E. ziczac was enhanced in the presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass.Se efectuaron ensayos de crecimiento en tres grupos de tallas del pectínido Euvola ziczac, durante dos periodos de corto plazo (34-36 días a 8, 21 y 34 m de profundidad, en el golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela, para evaluar el efecto de factores ambientales en el crecimiento. El crecimiento fue mayor en juveniles (talla inicial 20-22 mm en longitud de concha, que en individuos madurando (30-40 mm y adultos (70-75 mm. El crecimiento del tejido somático fue más del doble en los juveniles que en los organismos en

  2. Detection of phase transitions and cooperative interactions by Avrami analysis of sigmoid biological time curves for muscle, nerve, growth, firefly, and infrared phosphorescence of green leaves, melanin, and cytochrome C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, F W

    1977-01-01

    A simple graphical analysis of sigmoid biological time curves for K+ leakage from muscle and nerve, for muscle tension and myosin ATPase, for animal, plant and bacterial growth, for firefly light flash, and for 3 micron infrared phosphorescence from green leaves, melanin, and cytochrome c shows good curve fits to the Avrami equation for phase transition kinetics. The congruences imply that the analyzed processes are rate-limited by cooperative interactions and phase transitions. That implication is strengthened and its potential usefulness enhanced by the finding that the Avrami exponents of the above biological processes are not randomly distributed but cluster about certain values indicating (in the context of the Avrami theory) whether the spread of the new phase from nuclei within the old phase occurs in one, two, or three dimensions. The implication is further strengthened by the finding that similar types of biological processes show similar values of the Avrami exponent.

  3. Impact of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) co-expression on breast cancer disease characteristics: implications for tumor biology and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaisi, Abeer; Chen, Li; Romond, Edward; Chambers, Mara; Stevens, Mark; Pasley, Grace; Awasthi, Mukta; Massarweh, Suleiman

    2014-11-01

    ER and HER2 are critical drivers of breast cancer biology and can interact when co-expressed, but less data describe the impact of ER/HER2 co-expression on clinical disease characteristics. We studied the impact of ER and HER2 (co)-expression in a cohort of 1,187 patients with invasive breast cancer and compared disease characteristics among different groups according to ER and HER2 status. Age, tumor size, grade, nodal status, TNM stage, and metastatic sites were compared and significance determined using the appropriate t tests. All p values were two-tailed. Compared to ER-negative/HER2-negative disease as the control group, ER expression was associated with older age, smaller tumors, lower grade, earlier TNM stage, and increased bone involvement in de novo metastasis, while HER2 had no significant impact on these characteristics. ER and HER2 co-expression was associated with lower grade and higher bone involvement in de novo metastasis, reflecting a retained impact for ER. HER2 impact on ER-positive disease was reflected by younger age, higher grade and TNM stage, and increased frequency of visceral involvement in de novo metastasis. Within the ER-positive/HER2-positive group, triple positive breast cancer (ER+/PgR+/HER2+) was associated with younger age compared to ER+/PgR-/HER2+ disease (mean age of 50.8 vs. 56 years, p = 0.0226). PgR was also associated with younger age in ER+/HER2- disease with a mean age of 57.6 years in ER+/PgR+/HER2- disease vs. 63.4 years in ER+/PgR-/HER2- disease (p impact on breast cancer characteristics, including a retained impact when co-expressed with HER2. Similarly, HER2 dramatically modulates ER-positive breast cancer making it more aggressive. PgR association with young age may be related to hormonal levels of the premenopausal state, with HER2 providing an earlier growth advantage in triple positive disease, suggesting a specific dependence for this subset on high estrogen levels.

  4. THE EFFECT OF THE ALTERNATIVE FEEDING IN THE BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL POINTERS OF RATS IN GROWTH FED WITH THE QUISSAMA’S DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Tomaz Pacheco

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An adopted measure to diminish the malnutrition in Brazil is the use of mixtures base on not conventional foods (alternative feeding. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of the use of an alternative Alimentary Supplement in the ponderal gain of rats. Methods. After it weans it, 42 male animals, Wistar, had been divided in 7 groups (n=6 fed to the casein base, to the base of the diet of the city of Quissamã/RJ (who uses the alternative feeding in the treatment of undernourished children and both increased or not with the Alimentary Supplement, vitamins and minerals. All the rations had been prepared with 10% of proteins (AIN 93G. The animals had been kept in polypropylene river steamers, in environment with constant temperature and adequate llumination. The water and the ration had been offered ad libitum and had been registered the weight, the consumption of ration and protein to each two days for determination of PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio and CEA (Coefficient of Alimentary Effectiveness. Through collected excrements, the CDap (Coefficient of Apparent Digestibility was determined. To the results, ANOVA was applied. Results. In the end of 28 days, the groups to the casein base had presented similar values of ponderal variation, PER and CEA, with exception of that one to which were only added the Alimentary Supplement, that was extremely inferior (p0,0000 to excessively. The groups fed to the base of the diet of the City of Quissama/RJ had gotten similar ponderal variation to the groups with casein, having suggested to be unnecessary the addition of the Alimentary Supplement to this diet. The digestibility of these groups was inferior (p≤0,0000 to those fed with casein, protein of high biological value. Conclusion. We conclude that the addition of the Alimentary Supplement to the experimental groups that had as proteic base the Diet of Quissama/RJ did not influence in a beneficial way the growth and development of

  5. The effect of the alternative feeding in the biological and chemical pointers of rats in growth fed with the QUISSAMA’S diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Teles Boaventura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An adopted measure to diminish the malnutrition in Brazil is the use of mixtures base on not conventional foods (alternative feeding. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of the use of an alternative Alimentary Supplement in the ponderal gain of rats. Methods. After it weans it, 42 male animals, Wistar, had been divided in 7 groups (n=6 fed to the casein base, to the base of the diet of the city of Quissamã/RJ (who uses the alternative feeding in the treatment of undernourished children and both increased or not with the Alimentary Supplement, vitamins and minerals. All the rations had been prepared with 10% of proteins (AIN 93G. The animals had been kept in polypropylene river steamers, in environment with constant temperature and adequate illumination. The water and the ration had been offered ad libitum and had been registered the weight, the consumption of ration and protein to each two days for determination of PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio and CEA (Coefficient of Alimentary Effectiveness. Through collected excrements, the CDap (Coefficient of Apparent Digestibility was determined. To the results, ANOVA was applied. Results. In the end of 28 days, the groups to the casein base had presented similar values of ponderal variation, PER and CEA, with exception of that one to which were only added the Alimentary Supplement, that was extremely inferior (p0,0000 to excessively. The groups fed to the base of the diet of the City of Quissama/RJ had gotten similar ponderal variation to the groups with casein, having suggested to be unnecessary the addition of the Alimentary Supplement to this diet. The digestibility of these groups was inferior (p≤0,0000 to those fed with casein, protein of high biological value. Conclusion. We conclude that the addition of the Alimentary Supplement to the experimental groups that had as proteic base the Diet of Quissama/RJ did not influence in a beneficial way the growth and development of

  6. Temporal and spatial variability of trace metals in suspended matter of the Mandovi estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, T.G.

    of the suspended particulate matter (SPM) in estuaries are controlled by seasonal changes in inputs from river-end and marine-end members, physico-chemical processes occurring at the mixing zone of freshwater and salt water and biological productivity (Boyden et... al. 1979; Kennedy 1984; Balls 1990; Turner et al. 1991; Burton et al. 1994; Balls et al. 1997; Paucot and Wollast 1997; Zwolsman and van Eck 1999; Nolting et al. 1999; Hatje et al. 2001; Qiao et al. 2007; Kessarkar et al. 2009). Flocculation...

  7. Particulate matter from re-suspended mineral dust and emergency cause-specific respiratory hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Vivian C.; Tian, Linwei; Ho, Kin-fai

    2017-09-01

    While contribution from non-exhaust particulate matter (PM) emissions towards traffic-related emissions is increasing, few epidemiologic evidence of their health impact is available. We examined the association of short-term exposure to PM10 apportioned to re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for three major respiratory causes in Hong Kong between 2001 and 2008. Time-series regression model was constructed to examine association of PM10 from re-suspended mineral dust with emergency hospitalizations for upper respiratory infection (URI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma at exposure lag 0-5 days, adjusting for time trends, seasonality, temperature and relative humidity. An interquartile range (6.8 μg/m3) increment in re-suspended mineral dust on previous day was associated with 0.66% (95% CI: 0.12, 0.98) increase in total respiratory hospitalizations, and 1.01% (95% CI: 0.14, 1.88) increase in URI hospitalizations. A significant 0.66%-0.80% increases in risk of COPD hospitalizations were found after exposure to re-suspended mineral dust at lag 3 or later. Exposure to mineral dust at lag 4 was linked to 1.71% increase (95% CI: 0.14, 2.22) in asthma hospitalizations. Associations from single-pollutant models remained significant in multi-pollutant models, which additionally adjusted for PM10 contributing from vehicle exhaust, regional combustion, residual oil, fresh sea salt, aged sea salt, secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate, or gaseous pollutants (i.e., nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or ozone), respectively. Our findings provide insight into the biological mechanism by which non-exhaust pollution may be associated with risk of adverse respiratory outcomes, and also stress the needs for strategies to reduce emission and re-suspension of mineral dust. More research is warranted to assess the health effects of different non-exhaust PM emissions under various roadway conditions and vehicle fleets.

  8. Biomass of algae growth on natural water medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Tsai, David Dah-Wei; Chen, Paris Honglay

    2015-01-01

    Algae are the dominant primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Since algae are highly varied group organisms, which have important functions in ecosystem, and their biomass is an essential biological resource. Currently, algae have been applied increasingly to diverse range of biomass applications. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the ecological algae features of microalgal production by natural medium, ecological function by lab scale of the symbiotic reactor which is imitated nature ecosystem, and atmospheric CO2 absorption that was related the algal growth of biomass to understand algae in natural water body better. Consequently, this study took advantages of using the unsupplemented freshwater natural medium to produce microalgae. Algal biomass by direct measurement of total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) resulted as 0.14g/L and 0.08g/L respectively. The biomass measurements of TSS and VSS are the sensible biomass index for algae production. The laboratory results obtained in the present study proved the production of algae by the natural water medium is potentially feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress towards Acoustic Suspended Sediment Transport Monitoring: Fraser River, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, M. E.; Venditti, J. G.; Church, M. A.; Kostaschuk, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Our ability to predict the timing and quantity of suspended sediment transport is limited because fine sand, silt and clay delivery are supply limited, requiring empirical modeling approaches of limited temporal stability. A solution is the development of continuous monitoring techniques capable of tracking sediment concentrations and grain-size. Here we examine sediment delivery from upstream sources to the lower Fraser River. The sediment budget of the lower Fraser River provides a long-term perspective of the net changes in the channels and in sediment delivery to Fraser Delta. The budget is based on historical sediment rating curves developed from data collected from 1965-1986 by the Water Survey of Canada. We explore the possibility of re-establishing the sediment-monitoring program using hydro-acoustics by evaluating the use of a 300 kHz side-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), mounted just downstream of the sand-gravel transition at Mission, for continuous measurement of suspended sediment transport. Complementary field observations include conventional bottle sampling with a P-63 sampler, vertical profiles with a downward-looking 600 kHz aDcp, and 1200 kHz aDcp discharge measurements. We have successfully completed calibration of the downward-looking aDcp with the P-63 samples; the side-looking aDcp signals remain under investigation. A comparison of several methods for obtaining total sediment flux indicates that suspended sediment concentration (SSC) closely follows discharge through the freshet and peaks in total SSC and sand SSC coincide with peak measurements of discharge. Low flows are dominated by fine sediment and grain size increases with higher flows. This research assesses several techniques for obtaining sediment flux and contributes to the understanding of sediment delivery to sand-bedded portions of the river.

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of suspended monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Bing-Jie; Lin, Hsing-Ying; Huang, Chen-Han; Shih, Fu-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hua; Liu, Chih-Yi; Chui, Hsiang-Chen

    2013-11-01

    The interactions between phonons and electrons induced by the dopants or the substrate of graphene in spectroscopic investigation reveal a rich source of interesting physics. Raman spectra and surface-enhanced Raman spectra of supported and suspended monolayer graphenes were measured and analyzed systemically with different approaches. The weak Raman signals are greatly enhanced by the ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy which has attracted considerable interests. The technique is regarded as wonderful and useful tool, but the dopants that are produced by depositing metallic nanoparticles may affect the electron scattering processes of graphene. Therefore, the doping and substrate influences on graphene are also important issues to be investigated. In this work, the peak positions of G peak and 2D peak, the I 2D/ I G ratios, and enhancements of G and 2D bands with suspended and supported graphene flakes were measured and analyzed. The peak shifts of G and 2D bands between the Raman and SERS signals demonstrate the doping effect induced by silver nanoparticles by n-doping. The I 2D/ I G ratio can provide a more sensitive method to carry out the doping effect on the graphene surface than the peak shifts of G and 2D bands. The enhancements of 2D band of suspended and supported graphenes reached 138, and those of G band reached at least 169. Their good enhancements are helpful to measure the optical properties of graphene. The different substrates that covered the graphene surface with doping effect are more sensitive to the enhancements of G band with respect to 2D band. It provides us a new method to distinguish the substrate and doping effect on graphene.

  11. Coupling between electronic transport and longitudinal phonons in suspended nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapmaz, S; Jarillo-Herrero, P; Blanter, Ya M; Zant, H S J van der [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-11-15

    Current-voltage characteristics of suspended single-wall carbon nanotube (NT) quantum dots show a series of steps equally spaced in voltage. The energy scale of this harmonic, low-energy excitation spectrum is consistent with that of the longitudinal low-k phonon mode in the NT. Agreement is found with a Franck-Condon-based model in which the phonon-assisted tunnelling process is modelled as a coupling of electronic levels to underdamped quantum harmonic oscillators. Comparison with this model indicates a rather strong electron-phonon coupling factor of order unity. We investigate different electron-phonon coupling mechanisms and give estimates of the coupling factor.

  12. Regional volume changes in canine lungs suspended in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbrecht, Peter H.; Kyle, Richard R.; Bryant, Howard J.; Feuerstein, Irwin

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the absence of a pleural pressure gradient (simulating the presumed condition found in microgravity) upon regional expansion of the lung. We attempted to produce a uniform pressure over the surface of the lung by suspending excised lungs in air. Such studies should help determine whether or not the absence of a pleural pressure gradient leads to uniform ventilation. A preparation in which there is no pleural pressure gradient should also be useful in studying non-gravitational effects on ventilation distribution.

  13. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen

    2010-01-13

    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors observed using experiments performed on time scales of tens of seconds can be projected to obtain maps of their dynamical response on geological time scales. That such extraordinarily slow dynamic processes can be uncovered from real-time measurements by simply stretching a system provides a simple but powerful tool for interrogating extremely slow motions in other jammed physical states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Suspended liminality: Vacillating affects in cyberbullying/research

    OpenAIRE

    Kofoed, J.; Stenner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a concept of liminal hotspots in the context of i) a secondary analysis of a cyberbullying case involving a group of school children from a Danish school, and ii) an altered auto-ethnography in which the authors ‘entangle’ their own experiences with the case analysis. These two sources are used to build an account of a liminal hotspot conceived as an occasion of troubled and suspended transformative transition in which a liminal phase is extended and remains unresolved. Th...

  15. Oscillation of a diamagnetic liquid bubble suspended by magnetic force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, R. E-mail: yamane@kokushikan.ac.jp; Tomita, S.; Mai, J.; Park, M.K.; Oshima, S

    2002-11-01

    The levitation of the diamagnetic liquid droplet with the strong magnetic field is experimentally simulated, using the magnetic fluid as the surrounding fluid in place of air or gas, and the water bubble is levitated with the conventional permanent magnet. When the stepwise magnetic field is superposed, the suspended bubble behaves as a typical step response with the overshoot and viscous damping. The effects of the volume of the bubble, the strength of the magnetic field and the concentration of the magnetic fluid are investigated.

  16. A systems biology approach uncovers cellular strategies used by Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during the switch from multi- to single-carbon growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovran, Elizabeth; Crowther, Gregory J; Guo, Xiaofeng; Yang, Song; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2010-11-24

    When organisms experience environmental change, how does their metabolic network reset and adapt to the new condition? Methylobacterium extorquens is a bacterium capable of growth on both multi- and single-carbon compounds. These different modes of growth utilize dramatically different central metabolic pathways with limited pathway overlap. This study focused on the mechanisms of metabolic adaptation occurring during the transition from succinate growth (predicted to be energy-limited) to methanol growth (predicted to be reducing-power-limited), analyzing changes in carbon flux, gene expression, metabolites and enzymatic activities over time. Initially, cells experienced metabolic imbalance with excretion of metabolites, changes in nucleotide levels and cessation of cell growth. Though assimilatory pathways were induced rapidly, a transient block in carbon flow to biomass synthesis occurred, and enzymatic assays suggested methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase as one control point. This "downstream priming" mechanism ensures that significant carbon flux through these pathways does not occur until they are fully induced, precluding the buildup of toxic intermediates. Most metabolites that are required for growth on both carbon sources did not change significantly, even though transcripts and enzymatic activities required for their production changed radically, underscoring the concept of metabolic setpoints. This multi-level approach has resulted in new insights into the metabolic strategies carried out to effect this shift between two dramatically different modes of growth and identified a number of potential flux control and regulatory check points as a further step toward understanding metabolic adaptation and the cellular strategies employed to maintain metabolic setpoints.

  17. Remote Sensing Studies of Suspended Sediment Concentration Variation in Barito Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisanty, Deasy; Nur Saputra, Aswin

    2017-12-01

    The dynamic of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta depend on the process in upstream. Agriculture, mining, and illegal logging in Barito River upstream has an effect for suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta. The objective of research is to estimate the variation of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta. The data of research consist of Landsat 7 in year 2011 and measurement result data of suspended sediment concentration both in wet season and dry season in year 2011. Data analysis is regression analysis to estimates the variation of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta. The method of research compares three types of spectral transformation for suspended sediment that is Normalized Suspended Material Index (NSMI), Normalized Differences Suspended Sediment Index (NDSSI), and band ratio (green/blue). The result of the transformation is compared with the value of the field measurement. Based on the result of the comparison can be known the suitable type of transformation for the suspended sediment estimation in Barito Delta. The result of research explains that NSMI has the highest value to estimate the variation of suspended sediment concentration in Barito Delta.

  18. The Electromechanical Responses of Suspended Graphene Ribbons for Electrostatic Discharge Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    This dissertation presents a novel suspended graphene ribbon device for electrostatic discharge (ESD) applications. The device structure is proposed and fabricated after careful design considerations. Compared to the conventional ESD devices such as diodes, bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs), the proposed device structure is believed to render several advantages including zero leakage, low parasitic effects, fast response, and high current carrying capability, etc. A process flow is developed for higher yield and reliability of the suspended graphene ribbon device which is very delicate in nature. Direct current (DC) and transmission-line pulse test (TLP) measurements are carried out to investigate the switch-on behavior of the device which is crucial for ESD protection. DC measurement with a different configuration is used to characterize the mechanical shape evolution of the graphene ribbon upon biasing. Finite Element Simulations are also conducted to verify the experimental results, which are in good agreements. Furthermore, the breakdown properties of graphene ribbons are tested using TLP. It is found that graphene has a better current drivability compared to copper wires which is widely used as interconnects in integrated circuits (ICs). Also, bi-layer graphene has a higher breakdown current than monolayer graphene which indicates that multilayer graphene should be superior in current discharging. Last, Ab inito calculations are carried out to study the growth mechanism of multilayer graphene which is needed for graphene homo-epitaxy with precise control. It is found that a carbon cluster with six carbon atoms has the smallest kinetic barrier thus largest surface diffusivity during surface diffusion. So it is believed to be the most favorable diffusing species for graphene homo-epitaxy.

  19. [Effects of Suspending Moxibustion at "Dazhui" (GV 14) on Neurogenic Inflammation in Asthma Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Lin; Xiong, Jun

    2015-10-01

    To observe the effect of suspending-moxibustion stimulation of "Dazhui" (GV 14) with different quantities on the levels of nerve growth factor(NGF) , substance P(SP) , calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA) , neurokinin B (NKB) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (pERK) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthma rats, so as to analyze its mechanisms underlying improving asthma. Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: blank control, model, 15 min-moxibustion (15 min-moxi), 30 min-moxi, 60 min-moxi and 90 min-moxi (n = 10 rats in each group). The asthma model was established by intraperitoneal injection of suspension of egg protein, magaldrate, and inactivated Bacillus pertussis (on day 1 and 8), and inhaling the atomized ovalbumin saline (from day 15 on for 14 days). Mild moxibustion was conducted at "Dazhui" (GV 14) for 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 90 min, respectively, once daily for 7 days. The levels of NGF, SP, CGRP, NKA, NKB, and pERK in the BALF were detected by ELISA (enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay). The contents of NGF, SP, CGRP, NKA, NKB and pERK in the BALF in the model group were obviously higher than those in the blank control group (P 0.05). Suspending-moxibustion stimulation of GV 14 can down-regulate the contents of NGF, SP, CGRP, NKA, NKB, and pERK levels in the BALF in asthma rats, suggesting a relief of neurogenic inflammation reaction after moxibustion. The effect of moxibustion presents a time-dependant manner and peaks at 60 min.

  20. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  1. Thermoelectric unipolar spin battery in a suspended carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; He, Wan-Xiu; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-04-01

    A quantum dot formed in a suspended carbon nanotube exposed to an external magnetic field is predicted to act as a thermoelectric unipolar spin battery which generates pure spin current. The built-in spin flip mechanism is a consequence of the spin-vibration interaction resulting from the interplay between the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the vibrational modes of the suspended carbon nanotube. On the other hand, utilizing thermoelectric effect, the temperature difference between the electron and the thermal bath to which the vibrational modes are coupled provides the driving force. We find that both magnitude and direction of the generated pure spin current are dependent on the strength of spin-vibration interaction, the sublevel configuration in dot, the temperatures of electron and thermal bath, and the tunneling rate between the dot and the pole. Moreover, in the linear response regime, the kinetic coefficient is non-monotonic in the temperature T and it reaches its maximum when {{k}\\text{B}}T is about one phonon energy. The existence of a strong intradot Coulomb interaction is irrelevant for our spin battery, provided that high-order cotunneling processes are suppressed.

  2. Thermoelectric unipolar spin battery in a suspended carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng; He, Wan-Xiu; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-04-26

    A quantum dot formed in a suspended carbon nanotube exposed to an external magnetic field is predicted to act as a thermoelectric unipolar spin battery which generates pure spin current. The built-in spin flip mechanism is a consequence of the spin-vibration interaction resulting from the interplay between the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and the vibrational modes of the suspended carbon nanotube. On the other hand, utilizing thermoelectric effect, the temperature difference between the electron and the thermal bath to which the vibrational modes are coupled provides the driving force. We find that both magnitude and direction of the generated pure spin current are dependent on the strength of spin-vibration interaction, the sublevel configuration in dot, the temperatures of electron and thermal bath, and the tunneling rate between the dot and the pole. Moreover, in the linear response regime, the kinetic coefficient is non-monotonic in the temperature T and it reaches its maximum when [Formula: see text] is about one phonon energy. The existence of a strong intradot Coulomb interaction is irrelevant for our spin battery, provided that high-order cotunneling processes are suppressed.

  3. IUTAM symposium on hydrodynamic diffusion of suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.H. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodynamic diffusion refers to the fluctuating motion of nonBrownian particles (or droplets or bubbles) which occurs in a dispersion due to multiparticle interactions. For example, in a concentrated sheared suspension, particles do not move along streamlines but instead exhibit fluctuating motions as they tumble around each other. This leads to a net migration of particles down gradients in particle concentration and in shear rate, due to the higher frequency of encounters of a test particle with other particles on the side of the test particle which has higher concentration or shear rate. As another example, suspended particles subject to sedimentation, centrifugation, or fluidization, do not generally move relative to the fluid with a constant velocity, but instead experience diffusion-like fluctuations in velocity due to interactions with neighboring particles and the resulting variation in the microstructure or configuration of the suspended particles. In flowing granular materials, the particles interact through direct collisions or contacts (rather than through the surrounding fluid); these collisions also cause the particles to undergo fluctuating motions characteristic of diffusion processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B

    2007-04-01

    Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia.

  5. Skin permeation of lidocaine from crystal suspended oily formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Rakan; Hasegawa, Masaaki; Ishida, Masami; Ebata, Toshiya; Namiki, Noriyuki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2005-09-01

    In vitro permeation of lidocaine (lidocaine base, LID) through excised rat skin was investigated using several LID-suspended oily formulations. The first skin permeation of LID from an LID-suspended oily solution such as liquid paraffin (LP), isopropyl myristate (IPM), polyoxyethylene (2) oleylether (BO-2), and diethyl sebacate (DES) was evaluated and compared with that from polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) solution, a hydrophilic base. The obtained permeation rate of LID, Japp, from PEG400, LP, IPM, BO-2, and DES was in the order of DES>BO-2=IPM>LP>PEG400, and increased with LID solubility in the oily solvents, although LID crystals were dispersed in all solvents. Subsequently, oily formulations that consisted of different ratios of the first oily solvent (IPM, BO-2, or DES) (each 0-20%), the second oily solvent (LP) and an oily mixture of microcrystalline wax/white petrolatum/paraffin (1/5/4) were evaluated. BO-2 groups at a concentration of 5% and 10% had the highest Japp among the oily formulations, although a higher BO-2 resulted in lower skin permeation. In addition, pretreatment with BO-2 increased the skin permeation of LID. These results suggest that the penetration enhancing effect by the system may be related to the skin penetration of BO-2 itself. Finally, mathematical analysis was done to evaluate the effect of BO-2, and it was shown that BO-2 improved the LID solubility in stratum corneum lipids to efficiently enhance the LID permeation through skin.

  6. A Passively-Suspended Tesla Pump Left Ventricular Assist Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J.; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K.; Paterson, Eric G.; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B.; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E.; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type LAVD blood pump are described. CFD analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 liters/min at a 70 mmHg head rise at 8000 RPM. The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below .02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned as well as endurance testing of the device. PMID:19770799

  7. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis

    2013-10-01

    We present the synthesis and characterization of a new class of self-suspended ferrofluids that exhibit remanent magnetization at room temperature. Our system relies on the chemisorption of a thiol-terminated ionic liquid with very low melting point on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic component. The ferrofluids do not show any sign of flocculation or phase separation, despite the strong interactions between the magnetic nanoparticles due to the strong chemisorption of the ionic liquid as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Composites with high FePt loading (40 and 70. wt%) exhibit a pseudo solid-like rheological behavior and high remanent magnetization values (10.1 and 12.8. emu/g respectively). At lower FePt loading (12. wt%) a liquid like behavior is observed and the remanent and saturation magnetization values are 3.5 and 6.2. emu/g, respectively. The magnetic and flow properties of the materials can be easily fine tuned by controlling the type and amount of FePt nanoparticles used. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Assessment of CO, CO2 and Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Isah ABDULKARIM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of carbon oxides (CO and CO2 and suspended particulate matter at Benue Cement Company (BCC and Tse-Kucha community was investigated. Results obtained, shows that concentrations of carbon dioxide of 34.40ppm, 39.50 ppm, 48.50 ppm, 78.55 ppm, 65.25 ppm, 26.80 ppm and 29.5 ppm for quarry, raw mill, cement mill, Kiln, packing house, limestone stockpile and Tse-Kucha community respectively were below the maximum standard natural concentration of CO2 in atmosphere of 600ppm while concentrations of CO (1.25ppm - 4.00ppm measured in all the sample stations were below the Nigerian Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS and WHO max limit of 10 ppm - 20 ppm for an 8-hourly average time. Lastly, the concentrations of suspended particulate matter of 375 μg/m3, 338 μg/m3 and 290 μg/m3 at the cement mill, packing house and raw mill respectively were also above the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s Guidelines and Standards for Ambient Air Quality which stipulates a range of 150 μg/m3 to 230 μg/m3 for a 24- hourly average.

  9. Development of an Integrated Suspended Sediment Sampling System - Prototype Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Moirogiorgou, Konstantia; Efstathiou, Dionissis; Giannakis, George; Voutsadaki, Stella; Zervakis, Michalis; Sibetheros, Ioannis A.; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Karatzas, George P.; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P.

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a unique micro-climate and a complex geologic and geomorphologic environment caused by its position in the Alpine orogenesis belt. Unique features of the region are the temporary rivers that are dry streams or streams with very low flow for most of the time over decadal time scales. One of their key characteristics is that they present flashy hydrographs with response times ranging from minutes to hours. It is crucial to monitor flash-flood events and observe their behavior since they can cause environmental degradation of the river's wider location area. The majority of sediment load is transferred during these flash events. Quantification of these fluxes through the development of new measuring devices is of outmost importance as it is the first step for a comprehensive understanding of the water quality, the soil erosion and erosion sources, and the sediment and nutrient transport routes. This work proposes an integrated suspended sediment sampling system which is implemented in a complex semi-arid Mediterranean watershed (i.e. the Koiliaris River Basin of Crete) with temporary flow tributaries and karstic springs. The system consists of sensors monitoring water stage and turbidity, an automated suspended sediment sampler, and an online camera recording video sequence of the river flow. Water stage and turbidity are continuously monitored and stage is converted to flow with the use of a rating curve; when either of these variables exceeds certain thresholds, the pump of the sediment sampler initiates sampling with a rotation proportional to the stage (flow weighted sampling). The water passes through a filter that captures the sediment, the solids are weighted after each storm and the data are converted to a total sediment flux. At the same time, the online camera derives optical measurements for the determination of the two-dimensional river flow velocity and the spatial sediment distribution by analyzing the Hue

  10. A systems biology approach uncovers cellular strategies used by Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 during the switch from multi- to single-carbon growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Skovran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When organisms experience environmental change, how does their metabolic network reset and adapt to the new condition? Methylobacterium extorquens is a bacterium capable of growth on both multi- and single-carbon compounds. These different modes of growth utilize dramatically different central metabolic pathways with limited pathway overlap. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study focused on the mechanisms of metabolic adaptation occurring during the transition from succinate growth (predicted to be energy-limited to methanol growth (predicted to be reducing-power-limited, analyzing changes in carbon flux, gene expression, metabolites and enzymatic activities over time. Initially, cells experienced metabolic imbalance with excretion of metabolites, changes in nucleotide levels and cessation of cell growth. Though assimilatory pathways were induced rapidly, a transient block in carbon flow to biomass synthesis occurred, and enzymatic assays suggested methylene tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase as one control point. This "downstream priming" mechanism ensures that significant carbon flux through these pathways does not occur until they are fully induced, precluding the buildup of toxic intermediates. Most metabolites that are required for growth on both carbon sources did not change significantly, even though transcripts and enzymatic activities required for their production changed radically, underscoring the concept of metabolic setpoints. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This multi-level approach has resulted in new insights into the metabolic strategies carried out to effect this shift between two dramatically different modes of growth and identified a number of potential flux control and regulatory check points as a further step toward understanding metabolic adaptation and the cellular strategies employed to maintain metabolic setpoints.

  11. Suspended Integrated Strip-line Transition Design for Highly Integrated Radar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Frequency Structural Figure 3. Internal-view of SISL thru structure. Figure 2. Suspended substrate strip- line side -view. Figure 4. Top-view of trace and...response, you can see that the measured response is shifted to Figure 2. Suspended Substrate Strip- line Side -View Figure 5. Fabricated thru line ...Suspended Integrated Strip- line Transition Design for Highly Integrated Radar Systems Jay W. McDaniel, Shahrokh Saeedi, Mark B. Yeary, and

  12. Comparison of diet, reproductive biology, and growth of the pig frog (Rana grylio) from harvested and protected areas of the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, C.A.; Rice, K.G.; Donnelly, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Distinct differences in body size exist among three Rana grylio populations in areas of the Florida Everglades that differ in frog harvest pressure and hydroperiod. Frogs from two populations are harvested regularly throughout the year, while those in the third are protected from harvest. We compared seasonal and sex differences in diet, reproduction, and growth across these populations to examine life-history patterns. By volume, crayfish and anurans were the most abundant prey items for all adults across sites. Frogs from drier sites consumed more crayfish than frogs from the wettest site. Anurans were abundant in the diet during the wet season, while crayfish and fish were abundant during the dry season. More frogs with empty stomachs were captured during the wet season than the dry season. Feeding, growth, and fat deposition were greatest during the dry season across all sites. Although females were found in all reproductive stages throughout the year, the highest percentage of females had mature ova during the late dry season and spent ovaries during the early wet season. Individual patterns of growth were similar across all sites and matched historical growth data from the 1950s. Differences in body size among sites were most likely attributable to differential mortality (i.e., harvest pressure, predation) rather than to differences in food access or growth. ?? 2007 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  13. Developing and Evaluating an Eighth Grade Curriculum Unit That Links Foundational Chemistry to Biological Growth. Paper #1: Selecting Core Ideas and Practices -- An Iterative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Jo Ellen; Herrmann-Abell, Cari; Flanagan, Jean; Kruse, Rebecca; Howes, Elaine; Carlson, Janet; Roth, Kathy; Bourdelat-Parks, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Researchers at AAAS and BSCS have developed a six-week unit that aims to help middle school students learn important chemistry ideas that can be used to explain growth and repair in animals and plants. By integrating core physical and life science ideas and engaging students in the science practices of modeling and constructing explanations, the…

  14. Multiphasic analysis of growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the mathematical analysis of growth in animals, based on the theory of multiphasic growth. Growth in biological terms is related to increase in size and shape. This increase is determined by internal (genetical) and external (environmental) factors. Well

  15. Final prototype of magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, D. K.; Kirk, J. A.; Zmood, R. B.; Pang, D.; Lashley, C.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype of a 500 Wh magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system was designed, built, and tested. The authors present the work done and include the following: (1) a final design of the magnetic bearing, control system, and motor/generator, (2) construction of a prototype system consisting of the magnetic bearing stack, flywheel, motor, container, and display module, and (3) experimental results for the magnetic bearings, motor, and the entire system. The successful completion of the prototype system has achieved: (1) manufacture of tight tolerance bearings, (2) stability and spin above the first critical frequency, (3) use of inside sensors to eliminate runout problems, and (4) integration of the motor and magnetic bearings.

  16. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Liquids by Using a Suspended Microheater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Wook

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, the traditional 3ω method is modified in order to measure the thermal conductivity of a droplet of liquid. The 3ω sensor is microfabricated using bulk silicon etching on a silicon wafer to form a microheater on a suspended bridge structure. The Si substrate of over 400 μ m thickness beneath the microheater is etched away so that the sample liquid can fill the gap created between the heater and the bottom boundary of the sensor. The frequency of the sinusoidal heating pulses that are generated from the heater is controlled such that the thermal penetration depth is much smaller than the thickness of the liquid layer. The temperature oscillation of the sample fluid is measured at the thin-film heater to calculate the thermal conductivity of the surrounding fluid. The thermal conductivity and measured values of the de-ionized water and ethanol show a good agreement with the theoretical values at room temperature.

  17. Suspended sediment in a high-Arctic river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard-Pedersen, Pernille; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Kroon, Aart

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying fluxes of water, sediment and dissolved compounds through Arctic rivers is important for linking the glacial, terrestrial and marine ecosystems and to quantify the impact of a warming climate. The quantification of fluxes is not trivial. This study uses a 8-years data set (2005......-2012) of daily measurements from the high-Artic Zackenberg River in Northeast Greenland to estimate annual suspended sediment fluxes based on four commonly used methods: M1) is the discharge weighted mean and uses direct measurements, while M2-M4) are one uncorrected and two bias corrected rating curves......-daily sampling together with a sampling frequency of 2h during extreme events. The most consistent estimation method was an uncorrected rating curve of bi-daily measurements (M2), combined with a linear interpolation of extreme event fluxes. Sampling can be reduced to every fourth day, with both method...

  18. Fluorine and sulfur simultaneously co-doped suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzzi, C.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, L.; Reckinger, N.; Colomer, J.-F.; Snyders, R.; Bittencourt, C.; Scardamaglia, M.

    2017-11-01

    Suspended graphene flakes are exposed simultaneously to fluorine and sulfur ions produced by the μ-wave plasma discharge of the SF6 precursor gas. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses, performed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectromicroscopy, show the homogeneity in functionalization yield over the graphene flakes with F and S atoms covalently bonded to the carbon lattice. This promising surface shows potential for several applications ranging from biomolecule immobilization to lithium battery and hydrogen storage devices. The present co-doping process is an optimal strategy to engineer the graphene surface with a concurrent hydrophobic character, thanks to the fluorine atoms, and a high affinity with metal nanoparticles due to the presence of sulfur atoms.

  19. Heat Transfer Correlations for Free Convection from Suspended Microheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GOSSELIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portability and autonomy for biomedical diagnostic devices are two rising requirements. It is recognized that low-energy heating of such portable devices is of utmost importance for molecular recognition. This work focuses on screen-printed microheaters based on on Joule effect, which constitute an interesting solution for low-energy heating. An experimental study of the natural convection phenomena occurring with such microheaters is conducted. When they are suspended in the air, and because of the thinness of the supporting film, it is shown that the contributions of both the upward and downward faces have to be taken into account. A total Nusselt number and a total convective heat transfer coefficient have been used to describe the natural convection around these microheaters. In addition a relation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is derived, leading to an accurate prediction of the heating temperature (MRE< 2 %.

  20. Giant magneto-photoelectric effect in suspended graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Jens; Kurzmann, Annika; Geller, Martin; Queisser, Friedemann; Lorke, Axel; Schützhold, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    We study the optical response of a suspended, monolayer graphene field-effect transistor structure in magnetic fields of up to 9 T (quantum Hall regime). With an illumination power of only 3 μW, we measure a photocurrent of up to 400 nA (without an applied bias) corresponding to a photo-responsivity of 0.13 A W-1, which we believe to be one of the highest values ever measured in single-layer graphene. We discuss possible mechanisms for generating this strong photo-response (17 electron-hole pairs per 100 incident photons). Based on our experimental findings, we believe that the most likely scenario is a ballistic two-stage process including carrier multiplication via Auger-type inelastic Coulomb scattering at the graphene edge.

  1. Enhancing growth, phytochemical constituents and aphid resistance capacity in cabbage with foliar application of eckol--a biologically active phenolic molecule from brown seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Kulkarni, Manoj G; Pendota, Srinivasa C; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-03-25

    Although foliar application of seaweed extracts on plant growth and development has and is extensively studied, reliable knowledge and understanding of the mode of action of particular compound(s) responsible for enhancing plant growth is lacking. A brown seaweed Ecklonia maxima is widely used commercially as a biostimulant to improve plant growth and crop protection. Eckol, a phenolic compound isolated from E. maxima has recently shown stimulatory effects in maize, indicating its potential use as a plant biostimulant. Cabbage is a widely cultivated vegetable crop throughout the world, which requires high input of fertilizers and is susceptible to several aphid borne diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of foliar application of eckol on the growth, phytochemical constituents and myrosinase activity (aphid resistance capacity) of commercially cultivated cabbage. Foliar application of eckol (10(-6) M) significantly enhanced shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and leaf number. This treatment also showed a significant increase in photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll 'a', chlorophyll 'b', total chlorophyll and carotenoid) compared to the untreated plants. The levels of protein, proline and iridoid glycosides were significantly higher in cabbage leaves with eckol treatment. All the control plants were severely infested with cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) but no infestation was observed on the eckol-sprayed plants, which can be attributed to an increase in myrosinase activity. This study reveals dual effects (plant growth promoting and insect repelling) of eckol on cabbage plants that need further investigations both under field conditions and in other brassicaceous species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Near bed suspended sediment flux by single turbulent events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Mohammad; Kwoll, Eva; Winter, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The role of small scale single turbulent events in the vertical mixing of near bed suspended sediments was explored in a shallow shelf sea environment. High frequency velocity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC; calibrated from the backscatter intensity) were collected using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Using quadrant analysis, the despiked velocity time series was divided into turbulent events and small background fluctuations. Reynolds stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) calculated from all velocity samples, were compared to the same turbulent statistics calculated only from velocity samples classified as turbulent events (Reevents and TKEevents). The comparison showed that Reevents and TKEevents was increased 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, when small background fluctuations were removed and that the correlation with SSC for TKE could be improved through removal of the latter. The correlation between instantaneous vertical turbulent flux (w ‧) and SSC fluctuations (SSC ‧) exhibits a tidal pattern with the maximum correlation at peak ebb and flood currents, when strong turbulent events appear. Individual turbulent events were characterized by type, strength, duration and length. Cumulative vertical turbulent sediment fluxes and average SSC associated with individual turbulent events were calculated. Over the tidal cycle, ejections and sweeps were the most dominant events, transporting 50% and 36% of the cumulative vertical turbulent event sediment flux, respectively. Although the contribution of outward interactions to the vertical turbulent event sediment flux was low (11%), single outward interaction events were capable of inducing similar SSC ‧ as sweep events. The results suggest that on time scales of tens of minutes to hours, TKE may be appropriate to quantify turbulence in sediment transport studies, but that event characteristics, particular the upward turbulent flux need to be accounted for when considering sediment transport

  3. Net transport of suspended matter due to tidal straining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. E.; Jago, C. F.; Simpson, J. H.; Rippeth, T. P.

    2003-04-01

    Net transport of suspended particulate matter (SPM) is well-known in tidal regions where there is time-velocity asymmetry due to frictional modification of the tide in shallow water. We present here observations which show a new mechanism for net flux of SPM in response to tidal straining in a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). In situ measurements of the particle size of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and turbulent energy dissipation have been made at a site in Liverpool Bay (Irish Sea) where there is significant resuspension of particles from the muddy sand substrate during spring tides. This is a ROFI where tidal straining dominates the temporal development of turbulence. On a spring tide the water column tries to stratify on the ebb and destratify on the flood, but these tendencies are masked by mixing due to tidal stirring. Nevertheless, there is a marked excess of TKE dissipation rate E on the flood, especially in the upper part of the water column. Resuspension occurs on both flood and ebb, but SPM flux is strongly asymmetric with a net shorewards component. Asymmetry is most pronounced for the larger particles which comprise most of the mass. Enhanced ? on the flood mixes large particles upwards into faster flowing water, which increases the flux. Comparable upwards mixing of large particles does not occur on the ebb where enhanced E is confined to slower bottom waters. The net flux is not seen on neap tides because, although there is more stratification due to tidal straining, there is essentially no resuspension. The net flux on springs is undoubtedly an important component of SPM transport (and any comparable particulates) in coastal regions.

  4. Forces, Growth and Form in Soft Condensed Matter: At the Interface between Physics and Biology NATO Advanced Study Institute, Geilo, Norway, 24 March - 3 April 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helgesen, G. ed.

    2003-05-01

    The goal of this ASI was to bring together a group of disparate sciences to discuss areas of research related to competition between interactions of different ranges, for it is this that creates local structure on which complexity depends in soft condensed matter, biological systems and their synthetic models. The starting point, and the underlying theme throughout the ASI, was thus a thorough discussion of the relative role of the various fundamental interactions in such systems (electrostatic, hydrophobic, steric, conformational, van der Waals, etc.). The next focus was on how these competing interactions influence the form and topology of soft and biological matter, like polymers and proteins, leading to hierarchical structures in self-assembling systems and folding patterns sometimes described in terms of chirality, braids and knots. Finally, focus was on how the competing interactions influence various bio processes like genetic regulation and biological evolution taking place in systems like biopolymers, macromolecules and cell membranes. The report includes the abstracts of the posters presented, two of which are given in this database: (1) Precise characterisation of nano channels in track etched membranes by SAXS and SANS, and (2) Cisplatin binding to DNA: Structure, bonding and NMR properties from CarParrinello/Classical MD simulations.

  5. Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Maud; Gallois, Mélanie; Sève, Bernard; Louveau, Isabelle; Holst, Jens J; Oswald, Isabelle P; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Guilloteau, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) provided orally favours body growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in milk-fed pigs. In weaned pigs, conflicting results have been obtained. Therefore, we hypothesised that the effects of SB (3 g/kg DM intake) depend on the period (before v. after weaning) of its oral administration. From the age of 5 d, thirty-two pigs, blocked in quadruplicates within litters, were assigned to one of four treatments: no SB (control), SB before (for 24 d), or after (for 11-12 d) weaning and SB before and after weaning (for 35-36 d). Growth performance, feed intake and various end-point indices of GIT anatomy and physiology were investigated at slaughter. The pigs supplemented with SB before weaning grew faster after weaning than the controls (P digestibility (P digestibilities (P digestibility.

  6. Population Biology of Typha latifolia L. and Typha angustifolia L.: Establishment, Growth and Reproduction in a Constructed Wetland

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the germination, establishment, growth and reproduction of the native wetland species, Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia, by performing different experiments and by observing the development of a planted stand in a constructed wetland in southern Germany. Both species expressed high germination percentages and vegetative reproduction. A model based on the data from the studies showed that T. latifolia was able to produce a ten-fold higher number of offspring under op...

  7. Reciprocal interactions between Beta1-integrin and epidermal growth factor in three-dimensional basement membrane breast cultures: A different perspective in epithelial biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Weaver, V.M.; Petersen, O.W.; Larabell, C.A.; Dedhar, S.; Briand, P.; Lupu, R.; Bissell, M.J.

    1998-09-30

    Anchorage and growth factor independence are cardinal features of the transformed phenotype. Although it is logical that the two pathways must be coregulated in normal tissues to maintain homeostasis, this has not been demonstrated directly. We showed previously that down-modulation of {beta}1-integrin signaling reverted the malignant behavior of a human breast tumor cell line (T4-2) derived from phenotypically normal cells (HMT-3522) and led to growth arrest in a threedimensional (3D) basement membrane assay in which the cells formed tissue-like acini (14). Here, we show that there is a bidirectional cross-modulation of {beta}1-integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling via the mitogenactivated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The reciprocal modulation does not occur in monolayer (2D) cultures. Antibodymediated inhibition of either of these receptors in the tumor cells, or inhibition of MAPK kinase, induced a concomitant downregulation of both receptors, followed by growth-arrest and restoration of normal breast tissue morphogenesis. Crossmodulation and tissue morphogenesis were associated with attenuation of EGF-induced transient MAPK activation. To specifically test EGFR and {beta}1-integrin interdependency, EGFR was overexpressed in nonmalignant cells, leading to disruption of morphogenesis and a compensatory up-regulation of {beta}1-integrin expression, again only in 3D. Our results indicate that when breast cells are spatially organized as a result of contact with basement membrane, the signaling pathways become coupled and bidirectional. They further explain why breast cells fail to differentiate in monolayer cultures in which these events are mostly uncoupled. Moreover, in a subset of tumor cells in which these pathways are misregulated but functional, the cells could be 'normalized' by manipulating either pathway.

  8. Evaluation of physicochemical and biological properties of chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) polymer blend membranes and their correlation for Vero cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parul; Mathur, Garima; Dhakate, Sanjay R; Chand, Subhash; Goswami, Navendu; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Mathur, Ashwani

    2016-02-10

    The blend membranes with varying weight ratios of chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) (CS/PVA) (1:0, 1:1, 1:2.5, 1.5:1, 1.5: 2.5) were prepared using solvent casting method and were evaluated for their potential application in single-use membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The physicochemical properties of the prepared membranes were investigated for chemical interactions (FTIR), surface morphology (SEM), water uptake, protein sorption (qe), ammonia sorption and growth kinetics of Vero cells. CS/PVA blend membrane having weight ratio of 1.5:1 had shown enhanced membrane flexibility, reduced water uptake, less protein sorption and no ammonium sorption compared to CS membrane. This blend membrane also showed comparatively enhanced higher specific growth rate (0.82/day) of Vero cells. Improved physicochemical properties and growth kinetics obtrude CS/PVA (1.5:1) as a potential surface for adhesion and proliferation with possible application in single use membrane bioreactors. Additionally, new insight explaining correlation between water holding (%) of CS/PVA (1.5:1) blend membrane and doubling time (td) of Vero cells is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, Maud; Gallois, Mélanie; Sève, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) provided orally favours body growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in milk-fed pigs. In weaned pigs, conflicting results have been obtained. Therefore, we hypothesised that the effects of SB (3 g/kg DM intake) depend on the period (before v. after weaning)...... efficient to stimulate body growth and feed intake after weaning, by reducing gastric emptying and intestinal mucosa weight and by increasing feed digestibility.......) of its oral administration. From the age of 5 d, thirty-two pigs, blocked in quadruplicates within litters, were assigned to one of four treatments: no SB (control), SB before (for 24 d), or after (for 11-12 d) weaning and SB before and after weaning (for 35-36 d). Growth performance, feed intake...... and various end-point indices of GIT anatomy and physiology were investigated at slaughter. The pigs supplemented with SB before weaning grew faster after weaning than the controls (P feed intake was higher in pigs supplemented with SB before or after weaning (P

  10. In vitro impact on growth, fumonisins and aflatoxins production by Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus using anti-fungal compounds and a biological control agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia FORMENTI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The temporal efficacy of three different chemical fungicides (Folicur®, Proline®, Sportak 45EW® and a biocontrol bacterium (Serenade, B. subtilis in reducing growth and toxin production by isolates of F. verticillioides and A. flavus was studied in vitro under different water activity regimes (0.99, 0.98 and 0.95. All the fungicides significantly inhibited mycelial growth compared with the control; the most effective treatment, both against F. verticillioides and A. flavus, was Sportak 45EW® (approx. 99%. The inhibitory effect of all fungicides generally improved with increasing concentration. Serenade always decreased fungal growth, with optimal results at concentrations of 104 and 106 (70‒75% reduction. All the fungicide treatments resulted in a significant reduction in both FB1+FB2 and AFB1 production when compared to the control, at the end of the incubation period and with the 2 concentrations used (approx. 99%. A threshold concentration inoculum of at least 104 CFUs of B. subtilis per g was required to achieve a significant control of mycotoxin production. Sportak 45EW® and Serenade gave the best control of mycotoxin production with a reduction of 95% compared to the controls. Use of Serenade in the field should include due consideration to its sensitivity to low water activities, when compared to the target pathogens.

  11. The method for detecting biological parameter of rice growth and early planting of paddy crop by using multi temporal remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiri, D. D.

    2017-01-01

    Rice crop is the most important food crop for the Asian population, especially in Indonesia. During the growth of rice plants have four main phases, namely the early planting or inundation phase, the vegetative phase, the generative phase, and bare land phase. Monitoring the condition of the rice plant needs to be conducted in order to know whether the rice plants have problems or not in its growth. Application of remote sensing technology, which uses satellite data such as Landsat 8 and others which has a spatial and temporal resolution is high enough for monitoring the condition of crops such as paddy crop in a large area. In this study has been made an algorithm for monitoring rapidly of rice growth condition using Maximum of Vegetation Index (EVI Max). The results showed that the time of early planting can be estimated if known when EVI Max occurred. The value of EVI Max and when it occured can be known by trough spatial analysis of multitemporal EVI Landsat 8 or other medium spatial resolution satellites.

  12. 76 FR 6462 - Notice of Intent To Suspend Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... hearing is made by a person adversely affected by the Notice of Intent to Suspend or the registrant has... this notice (i.e., how to request a hearing or how to comply fully with the requirements that served as... name notice of intent No. to suspend The Fountainhead Group, Inc.... Resmethrin 53853-1 Burgess Insect...

  13. 19 CFR 351.222 - Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of orders; termination of suspended investigations. 351.222 Section 351.222 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... orders; termination of suspended investigations. (a) Introduction. “Revocation” is a term of art that...

  14. Satellite estimates of wide-range suspended sediment concentrations in Changjiang (Yangtze) estuary using MERIS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, F.; Verhoef, W.; Zhou, Y.; Salama, M.S.; Liu, X.

    2010-01-01

    The Changjiang (Yangtze) estuarine and coastal waters are characterized by suspended sediments over a wide range of concentrations from 20 to 2,500 mg l-1. Suspended sediment plays important roles in the estuarine and coastal system and environment. Previous algorithms for satellite estimates of

  15. 75 FR 60720 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Goldberger, (202) 482-4136. from South Korea (A-580-836) (2rd Review). Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin... South Korea (C-580-837) (2rd Review). Suspended Investigations No Sunset Review of suspended...; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration...

  16. Mechanical properties of freely suspended semiconducting graphene-like layers based on MoS2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Poot, M.; Steele, G.A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Agrait, N.; Rubio-Bollinger, G.

    2012-01-01

    We fabricate freely suspended nanosheets of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) which are characterized by quantitative optical microscopy and high-resolution friction force microscopy. We study the elastic deformation of freely suspended nanosheets of MoS2 using an atomic force microscope. The Young’s

  17. 40 CFR 227.32 - Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MATERIALS Definitions § 227.32 Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. (a) For the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquid, suspended particulate, and solid phases of a material. 227.32 Section 227.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  18. Cricket inspired sensory hairs on suspended membranes with capacitive displacement detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of artificial hairs of siliconnitride and SU-8 on suspended membranes for flow sensing applications. The suspended membranes contain electrodes for capacitive sensing of the rotation of the hairs. For the siliconnitride hairs a silicon wafer is used as mould and

  19. 76 FR 28730 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of suspension of... Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to suspend a currently approved information collection, the Agricultural...

  20. Applicability of suspended-core fibres for attenuation-based label-free biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pniewski, Jacek; Ramaniuk, Aleksandr; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Śmietana, Mateusz; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2017-11-01

    In this work we present a numerical study on attenuation of the fundamental mode in a suspended-core photonic crystal fibre (SC-PCF) made of fused silica, when a biological layer with various thickness and complex refractive index is present on the struts supporting the core and the photonic cladding (channels) is filled with water. In such a fibre structure both the effective refractive index and the mode area increase nonlinearly with the refractive index and with the thickness of the bio-layer, that in turn causes the increase of the attenuation of the fundamental (highest-neff) mode. For the calculation wavelength of 1 μm the increase is intensified when the refractive index of the bio-layer exceeds 1.42, what is usually the case when even thin bio-layer is concerned. It is shown that it is possible to use such a fibre as a label-free sensor of a certain bio-layer deposited on a functionalised inner surface of the fibre.

  1. Quantitative suspended sediment mapping using aircraft remotely sensed multispectral data. [in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Suspended sediment is an important environmental parameter for monitoring water quality, water movement, and land use. Quantitative suspended sediment determinations were made from analysis of aircraft remotely sensed multispectral digital data. A statistical analysis and derived regression equation were used to determine and plot quantitative suspended sediment concentration contours in the tidal James River, Virginia, on May 28, 1974. From the analysis, a single band, Band 8 (0.70-0.74 microns), was adequate for determining suspended sediment concentrations. A correlation coefficient of 0.89 was obtained with a mean inaccuracy of 23.5 percent for suspended sediment concentrations up to about 50 mg/l. Other water quality parameters - secchi disc depth and chlorophyll - also had high correlations with the remotely sensed data. Particle size distribution had only a fair correlation with the remotely sensed data.

  2. Wafer-scale fabrication and growth dynamics of suspended graphene nanoribbon arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suzuki, Hiroo; Kaneko, Toshiro; Shibuta, Yasushi; Ohno, Munekazu; Maekawa, Yuki; Kato, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Adding a mechanical degree of freedom to the electrical and optical properties of atomically thin materials can provide an excellent platform to investigate various optoelectrical physics and devices...

  3. Tracing suspended sediment sources in the Upper Sangamon River Basin using fingerprinting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Neal, C.; Anders, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    As the awareness of water pollution, eutrophication and other water related environmental concerns grows, the significance of sediment in the transport of nutrients and contaminants from agricultural areas to streams has received increasing attention. Both the physical and geochemical properties of suspended sediment are strongly controlled by sediment sources. Thus, tracing sources of suspended sediment in watersheds is important for the design of management practices to reduce sediment loads and contributions of sediment-adsorbed nutrients from agricultural areas to streams. However, the contributions of different sediment sources to suspended sediment loads within intensively managed watersheds in the Midwest still remain insufficiently explored. This study aims to assess the provenance of suspended sediment and the relation between channel morphology and production of suspended sediment in the Upper Sangamon River Basin, Illinois. The 3,690-km2 Upper Sangamon River Basin is characterized by low-relief, agricultural lands dominated by row-crop agriculture. Sediment source samples were collected in the Saybrook and Wildcat Slough sub-watersheds from six potential sources: row-crop agriculture, forest, floodplains, river banks, pastures, and grasslands. Event-based suspended sediment samples were collected by in situ suspended sediment samplers and ISCO automatic pump samplers from the streams. A quantitative geochemical fingerprinting technique, combining statistically verified multicomponent signatures and an unmixing model, was employed to estimate the relative contributions of sediment from six potential sources to the suspended sediment loads. Our preliminary results indicate that the majority of suspended sediment is derived from channel banks and forest adjacent to meandering reaches in the downstream portions of the watersheds, while only minor amounts of suspended sediment are derived from upland areas adjacent to channelized rivers in the low

  4. Quantification of suspended sediment transfers in a lowland agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Blanes, Sebastien; Manière, Louis; Grangeon, Thomas; Cerdan, Olivier; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Vandromme, Rosalie

    2017-04-01

    Lowland agricultural landscapes underwent important changes since the second half of the XXth century such as hedges removal, implementation of drainage systems, stream redesign and land reallocation. It resulted in changes in sediment transfer processes, and in widespread morphological alterations of water bodies. However, little is known about the sediment dynamics in these environments. The Louroux catchment (25 km2) is located in central France. It is a typical intensively cultivated and tile drained lowland catchment. The Xth century pond located at its outlet (52 ha) is undergoing large siltation, with a current sedimentation rate 60 fold higher than the pre-1950 period. Five monitoring stations, measuring water levels and turbidity at high frequency (15 mn and 1 mn respectively), combined with automatic samplers, were implemented in 2013. Three stations are located at the main tributaries outlets of the pond, one in a sub-catchment, and one at a tile drain outlet. 45 floods were observed during the three studied hydrological years. They occurred mostly between December and March (33 floods) and in May-June (8 floods). Specific sediment yields ranged from 0.02 to 0.38 t.ha-1.yr-1 depending on the monitoring site and the considered year. The vast majority of suspended sediment transfers occur during the winter floods. While large water volumes were also measured during spring floods, the sediment yields remained low. Suspended sediment yields present large inter-annual (ratio ranging between 2 and 6 depending on the monitoring station) and spatial variations, due to significant differences in total rainfall amounts during the winter season and variations in land use, respectively. The processes related to sediment transfers are most likely linked to soil saturation during winter despite the presence of a tile drainage network, with transfers occurring both at the soil surface and through the drainage system. While sediment transfer rates can be considered as

  5. Biological activity and colonization pattern of the bioluminescence-labeled plant growth-promoting bacterium Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165/26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Zalec, K; Glick, B R.

    2001-04-01

    Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165/26 is a spontaneous siderophore-overproducing mutant of K. ascorbata SUD165, which was previously isolated from nickel-contaminated soil and shown to significantly enhance plant growth in soil contaminated with high levels of heavy metals. To develop a better understanding of the functioning of K. ascorbata SUD165/26 in the environment, and to trace its distribution in the rhizosphere, isolates of this bacterium were labeled with either green fluorescent protein or luciferase. When the plant growth-promoting activities of the labeled strains were assayed and compared with the activities of the unlabeled strain, none of the monitored parameters had changed to any significant extent. When the spatial colonization patterns of the labeled bacteria on canola roots were determined after seed application, it was observed that the bacterium was tightly attached to the surface of both roots and seeds, and formed aggregates. The majority of the bacterial population inhabited the upper two thirds of the roots, with no bacteria detected around the root tips.

  6. Density and composition of microorganisms during long-term (418 day) growth of potato using biologically reclaimed nutrients from inedible plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, J. L.; Cook, K. L.; Johnson, M.; Sumner, R.; Fields, N.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluating alternative methods for long term operation of biomass production systems was recently completed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The 418-day study evaluated repeated batch versus mixed-aged production of potato grown on either standard 1/2-strength Hoagland's nutrient solution or solutions including nutrients recycled from inedible plant material. The long term effects of closure and recycling on microbial dynamics were evaluated by monitoring the microbial communities associated with various habitats within the plant growth system (i.e., plant roots, nutrient solution, biofilms within the hydroponic systems, atmosphere, and atmospheric condensate). Plate count methods were used to enumerate and characterize microorganisms. Microscopic staining methods were used to estunate total cell densities. The primary finding was that the density and composition of microbial communities associated with controlled environmental plant growth systems are stable during long term operation. Continuous production resulted in slightly greater stability. Nutrient recycling, despite the addition of soluble organic material from the waste processing system, did not significantly increase microbial density in any of the habitats.

  7. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} matrix-induced in situ growth of plasmonic Au nanoparticles for biological sensor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzer, C., E-mail: christian.katzer@uni-jena.de; Grosse, V.; Schmidl, F.; Michalowski, P. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Schmidl, G.; Mueller, R.; Dellith, J.; Schmidt, C.; Jatschka, J.; Fritzsche, W. [Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The authors present a novel method of fabricating crystalline gold nanoparticles used in plasmonic application. The preparation and characterization of monocrystalline Au nanoparticles with diameters between 10 and 100 nm embedded in an YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} matrix is presented as well as a future vision of structured particle arrangements by photolithographic procedures. To use these particles for biological applications, the matrix may has to be dissolved to obtain extracted nanoparticles on a dielectric substrate. Whether the nanoparticles change their position during the extraction process is investigated and the realized dissolving procedure by citric acid solution is shown. The dissolution of the matrix thereby is investigated by X-ray diffraction experiments and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Furthermore, the spectral characterization by particle selection is illustrated based on microspectroscopy.

  8. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  9. Biological system interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomian, G; Adomian, G E; Bellman, R E

    1984-05-01

    Mathematical modeling of cellular population growth, interconnected subsystems of the body, blood flow, and numerous other complex biological systems problems involves nonlinearities and generally randomness as well. Such problems have been dealt with by mathematical methods often changing the actual model to make it tractable. The method presented in this paper (and referenced works) allows much more physically realistic solutions.

  10. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Kleiber scaling in the previous paragraph has the growth in Q kept smaller in spite of the high power dependence on R in eq. (1). 4. Conclusions. The arguments that have been advanced so far by pre- vious authors swing to extremes at either end. Thus, the rich variety and diversity in biology, including of scaling exponents ...

  11. Suspended animation, diapause and quiescence: arresting the cell cycle in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Pamela A; Ladage, Mary L

    2012-05-01

    Developing organisms require nutrients to support cell division vital for growth and development. An adaptation to stress, used by many organisms, is to reversibly enter an arrested state by reducing energy-requiring processes, such as development and cell division. This "wait it out" approach to survive stress until the environment is conductive for growth and development is used by many metazoans. Much is known about the molecular regulation of cell division, metazoan development and responses to environmental stress. However, how these biological processes intersect is less understood. Here, we review studies conducted in Caenorhabditis elegans that investigate how stresses such as oxygen deprivation (hypoxia and anoxia), exogenous chemicals or starvation affect cellular processes in the embryo, larvae or adult germline. Using C. elegans to identify how stress signals biological arrest can help in our understanding of evolutionary pressures as well as human health-related issues.

  12. Tidal influence on suspended sediment distribution and dispersal in the northern Andaman Sea and Gulf of Martaban

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.; Rao, K.H.; Thwin, S.; Rao, N.S.; Raiker, V.

    Surface and water column profiles of suspended matter collected during April-May 2002, and satellite images were used to study factors influencing suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) and dispersal in the northern Andaman Sea and Gulf...

  13. INTERACTION BETWEEN DIETARY MINERAL AND PHYTASE ON BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES OF JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus. PART I. GROWTH, FEED INTAKE, AND WHOLE BODY MINERAL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of dietary calcium (Ca, inorganic phosphorus (IP, and phytase (P supplementation in marine fish, a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was arranged to observe the interrelationship between dietary Ca and IP with the presence of dietary phytase. Two levels of dietary Ca at 0% and 0.2% combined with either 0% or 0.25% of dietary IP and either with 0 and 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet, respectively to formulate eight experimental diets. SPI-based diet was used as basal diet and the sources of Ca, IP, and phytase were similar to those used in the previous experiment. Juvenile Japanese flounder with initial body weight around 0.6 g was fed the test diets. After 30 days of feeding trial, the results showed that both dietary IP and phytase, but not dietary Ca significantly enhanced the growth and feed intake. The highest growth was achieved in fish fed a diet containing the Ca, IP, and phytase supplement among groups. Fish fed diet without the three dietary supplements had the lowest SGR and did not significantly improve by supplementing dietary Ca. Feed intake (FI and was significantly influenced by dietary IP and phytase, not dietary Ca while feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly affected by all dietary treatments. Interaction effect was detected between dietary Ca and IP, between dietary IP and P on FCR. Total phosphorus content in whole body was significantly increased by supplementing all dietary treatments which was highest in fish fed 0.25 IP/0.2 Ca/P. Significant interaction was observed between dietary IP and P on this parameter. Whole body Ca content was significantly improved by either dietary IP or Ca and not dietary P. As conclusion even without inorganic Ca supplement, dietary IP at level of 0.25% or 2,000 FTU phytase/kg diet could enhance growth and FI of fish as well as whole body phosphorus content of juvenile Japanese flounder when diet basal contained organic Ca around 1.2%.

  14. Salinity and suspended matter variations in the Tay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John

    2005-03-01

    The concept of salinity-induced density layering in estuaries was first demonstrated from the upper reaches of the Tay. In this study the nature of the layering and its variation through the tidal cycle is demonstrated from time series of observations taken at many locations within this estuary. Thorough mixing of the waters on the rising tide, as defined by depth profiles of salinity, is commonly replaced by salinity layering during the high water slack period. This condition continues into the falling tide. Frequently the mixed waters are abruptly replaced by stratified waters within the half-hourly sampling interval. This is attributed to the activity of longitudinal fronts, manifest as surficial foam bands, along which water masses shear past each other on both the flood and ebb tides. Offsetting of transverse salinity coutours along the fronts is introduced to explain apparent complexities in surface water salinity distributions measured at high water slack. Suspended particulate matter concentrations increase towards the limit of the saline water intrusion before decreasing headwards into the freshwater zone of the estuary. The suspensions in the water column may also be displaced by the lateral offsetting of the waters along the fronts. The recognition of the presence of fronts, and a knowledge of their impact on the estuarine waters may provide an alternative means of understanding the flow characteristics of these challenging water bodies. The techniques of spatial and temporal averaging normally widely used today may not be the most realistic approach to analysis of the flows.

  15. Surface tension of Nanofluid-type fuels containing suspended nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Saad; Qiao, Li

    2012-04-18

    The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and boron (B) nanoparticles as well as dispersible multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured using the pendant drop method by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, size and the presence of a dispersing agent (surfactant) on surface tension were determined. The results show that surface tension increases both with particle concentration (above a critical concentration) and particle size for all cases. This is because the Van der Waals force between particles at the liquid/gas interface increases surface free energy and thus increases surface tension. At low particle concentrations, however, addition of particles has little influence on surface tension because of the large distance between particles. An exception is when a surfactant was used or when (MWCNTs) was involved. For such cases, the surface tension decreases compared to the pure base fluid. The hypothesis is the polymer groups attached to (MWCNTs) and the surfactant layer between a particle and the surround fluid increases the electrostatic force between particles and thus reduce surface energy and surface tension.

  16. Surface tension of Nanofluid-type fuels containing suspended nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), and boron (B) nanoparticles as well as dispersible multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were measured using the pendant drop method by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The effects of nanoparticle concentration, size and the presence of a dispersing agent (surfactant) on surface tension were determined. The results show that surface tension increases both with particle concentration (above a critical concentration) and particle size for all cases. This is because the Van der Waals force between particles at the liquid/gas interface increases surface free energy and thus increases surface tension. At low particle concentrations, however, addition of particles has little influence on surface tension because of the large distance between particles. An exception is when a surfactant was used or when (MWCNTs) was involved. For such cases, the surface tension decreases compared to the pure base fluid. The hypothesis is the polymer groups attached to (MWCNTs) and the surfactant layer between a particle and the surround fluid increases the electrostatic force between particles and thus reduce surface energy and surface tension. PMID:22513039

  17. High-field electrical and thermal transport in suspended graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Vincent E; Behnam, Ashkan; Conley, Hiram J; Bolotin, Kirill I; Pop, Eric

    2013-10-09

    We study the intrinsic transport properties of suspended graphene devices at high fields (≥1 V/μm) and high temperatures (≥1000 K). Across 15 samples, we find peak (average) saturation velocity of 3.6 × 10(7) cm/s (1.7 × 10(7) cm/s) and peak (average) thermal conductivity of 530 W m(-1) K(-1) (310 W m(-1) K(-1)) at 1000 K. The saturation velocity is 2-4 times and the thermal conductivity 10-17 times greater than in silicon at such elevated temperatures. However, the thermal conductivity shows a steeper decrease at high temperature than in graphite, consistent with stronger effects of second-order three-phonon scattering. Our analysis of sample-to-sample variation suggests the behavior of "cleaner" devices most closely approaches the intrinsic high-field properties of graphene. This study reveals key features of charge and heat flow in graphene up to device breakdown at ~2230 K in vacuum, highlighting remaining unknowns under extreme operating conditions.

  18. Elemental Spatiotemporal Variations of Total Suspended Particles in Jeddah City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad W. Kadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elements associated with total suspended particulate matter (TSP in Jeddah city were determined. Using high-volume samplers, TSP samples were simultaneously collected over a one-year period from seven sampling sites. Samples were analyzed for Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Sr. Results revealed great dependence of element contents on spatial and temporal variations. Two sites characterized by busy roads, workshops, heavy population, and heavy trucking have high levels of all measured elements. Concentrations of most elements at the two sites exhibit strong spatial gradients and concentrations of elements at these sites are higher than other locations. The highest concentrations of elements were observed during June–August because of dust storms, significant increase in energy consumption, and active surface winds. Enrichment factors of elements at the high-level sites have values in the range >10~60 while for Cu and Zn the enrichment factors are much higher (~0–>700 indicating that greater percentage of TSP composition for these three elements in air comes from anthropogenic activities.

  19. Deterministic separation of suspended particles in a reconfigurable obstacle array

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Siqi

    2015-01-01

    We use a macromodel of a flow-driven deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) microfluidic system to investigate conditions leading to size-separation of suspended particles. This model system can be easily reconfigured to establish an arbitrary orientation between the average flow field and the array of obstacles comprising the stationary phase (forcing angle). We also investigate the effect of obstacle size using two arrays with different obstacles but same surface-to-surface distance between them. In all cases, we observe the presence of a locked mode at small forcing angles, in which particles move along a principal direction in the lattice until a locked-to-zigzag transition takes place when the driving force reaches a critical angle. We show that the transition occurs at increasing angles for larger particles, thus enabling particle separation at specific forcing angles. Moreover, we observe a linear correlation between the critical angle and the size of the particles that could be used in the design of...

  20. Remote Sensing of Suspended Sediment Over Gulf of Martaban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matamin Abd Rahman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gulf of Martaban is located at the north of Andaman, and is one of the world most turbid areas. The presence of suspended sediment concentration (SSC in the water body could reduce the underwater transmittance. This study has been conducted to investigate the variation of SSC over the Gulf of Martaban. Remote sensing reflectance (Rrs of 667 nm is used as a proxy to represent the sediment SSC variation over the study area. The data for the period of July 2002 to March 2014 acquired from MODIS Aqua 4 km resolution are used in this study. As a result, there is no obvious yearly variation in the SSC cover area. The SSC variation over this study area is found to be seasonal. High homogenous SSC covers area observably during the northeast (NE monsoon season that occurs from December to January. The sediment cover area could reach the latitude of 15°N that located at the south of the gulf. During southwest (SW monsoon season that occurs from May to September, low and sparse SSC cover area is observed. As a consequence, the area covered by the SSC is higher during the NE monsoon season as compared to the SW monsoon season. Hence, the SSC cover area during the NE monsoon season is greater than the yearly averaged SSC cover area. Meanwhile the SSC cover area during the rainy SW monsoon season is less than the yearly and NE monsoon season.

  1. Ensemble Modeling of Suspended Sediment in Steep Mountain Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.; Raseman, W. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Livneh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Climatic and land cover changes present important uncertainties into the rates of soil erosion and sedimentation in watersheds. Soil erosion adds constituents to streams, altering water chemistry and streambed morphology, which can adversely affect aquatic life and poses a critical challenge for water treatment and reservoir management. The goal of this research is to establish estimates of sediment transport within large-scale mountainous catchments (>1000 km2). As sedimentation rates are impacted by numerous physical processes including soil, land cover, slope and climate; the results from seven models will be presented to quantify uncertainty and improve predictability. A broader inquiry made here is into the efficacy of model structure under different conditions. We present the results from empirical, stochastic, conceptual and physical models. These include empirical models: monovariate rating curve, multivariate regression and the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE), to models with conceptual components: Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to more physically based models: Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP), Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). Key uncertainties will be characterized resulting from forcing inputs, parameter selection, scale discretization, and model structure. Calibration results from a multi-objective optimization routine will be presented that optimize parameters and identify performance trade-offs that will be used to develop uncertainty estimates in both streamflow and sediment projections. The outcomes of this research will highlight critical issues relevant to large-scale hydrologic and suspended sediment prediction initiatives.

  2. Event-based total suspended sediment particle size distribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer; Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Warner, Richard C.

    2016-05-01

    One of the most challenging modelling tasks in hydrology is prediction of the total suspended sediment particle size distribution (TSS-PSD) in stormwater runoff generated from exposed soil surfaces at active construction sites and surface mining operations. The main objective of this study is to employ gene expression programming (GEP) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to develop a new model with the ability to more accurately predict the TSS-PSD by taking advantage of both event-specific and site-specific factors in the model. To compile the data for this study, laboratory scale experiments using rainfall simulators were conducted on fourteen different soils to obtain TSS-PSD. This data is supplemented with field data from three construction sites in Ontario over a period of two years to capture the effect of transport and deposition within the site. The combined data sets provide a wide range of key overlooked site-specific and storm event-specific factors. Both parent soil and TSS-PSD in runoff are quantified by fitting each to a lognormal distribution. Compared to existing regression models, the developed model more accurately predicted the TSS-PSD using a more comprehensive list of key model input parameters. Employment of the new model will increase the efficiency of deployment of required best management practices, designed based on TSS-PSD, to minimize potential adverse effects of construction site runoff on aquatic life in the receiving watercourses.

  3. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  4. Suspended sediment dynamics in the Amazon River of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos, Elisa; Crave, Alain; Vauchel, Philippe; Fraizy, Pascal; Santini, William; Moquet, Jean-Sèbastien; Arevalo, Nore; Carranza, Jorge; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-07-01

    The erosion and transport of sediments allow us to understand many activities of significance, such as crust evolution, climate change, uplift rates, continental processes, the biogeochemical cycling of pollutants and nutrients. The Amazon basin of Peru has contrasting physiographic and climatic characteristics between the Andean piedmont and the plains and between the north and south of the basin which is why there are 8 gauging stations located along the principal rivers of the Andean piedmont (Marañón, Huallaga, Ucayali) and the plain (Marañón, Tigre, Napo, Ucayali and Amazon rivers). Since 2003, the ORE-Hybam (IRD-SENAMHI-UNALM) observatory has performed out regular measurements at strategic points of the Amazon basin to understand and model the systems, behavior and long-term dynamics. On the Andean piedmont, the suspended yields are governed by a simple model with a relationship between the river discharge and the sediment concentration. In the plain, the dilution effect of the concentrations can create hysteresis in this relationship on a monthly basis. The Amazon basin of Peru has a sediment yield of 541 *106 t year-1, 70% comes from the southern basin.

  5. Freely suspended nanocomposite membranes as highly sensitive sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoyang; Markutsya, Sergiy; Pikus, Yuri; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2004-10-01

    Highly sensitive sensor arrays are in high demand for prospective applications in remote sensing and imaging. Measuring microscopic deflections of compliant micromembranes and cantilevers is developing into one of the most versatile approaches for thermal, acoustic and chemical sensing. Here, we report on an innovative fabrication of compliant nanocomposite membranes with nanoscale thickness showing extraordinary sensitivity and dynamic range, which makes them candidates for a new generation of membrane-based sensor arrays. These nanomembranes with a thickness of 25-70 nm, which can be freely suspended over large (hundred micrometres) openings are fabricated with molecular precision by time-efficient, spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly. They are designed as multilayered molecular composites made of a combination of polymeric monolayers and a metal nanoparticle intralayer. We demonstrate that these nanocomposite membranes possess unparalleled sensitivity and a unique autorecovering ability. The membrane nanostructure that is responsible for these outstanding properties combines multilayered polymer/nanoparticle organization, high polymer-chain orientation, and a pre-stretched state.

  6. EBP2R – An innovative enhanced biological nutrient recovery activated sludge system to produce growth medium for green microalgae cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Ramin, Elham; Smets, Barth F.

    2015-01-01

    Current research considers wastewater as a source of energy, nutrients and water and not just a source of pollution. So far, mainly energy intensive physical and chemical unit processes have been developed to recover some of these resources, and less energy and resource demanding alternatives...... the upstream anaerobic reactor. By operating the process at comparably low solids retention times (SRT), the nitrogen content of wastewater is retained as free and saline ammonia, the preferred form of nitrogen for most micro-algae. Scenario simulations were carried out to assess the capacity of the EBP2R...... system to produce nutrient rich organic-carbon depleted algal cultivation media of target composition. Via SRT control, the quality of the constructed cultivation media can be optimized to support a wide range of green micro-algal growth requirements. Up to 75% of the influent phosphorus can be recovered...

  7. Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiations. Evidence of effect of pre-irradiation of culture medium on subsequent growth in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus lividus in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conter, A.; Planel, H.

    1986-06-28

    In order to distinguish the direct effects of low dose of ionizing radiations at the cellular level from those indirect through the culture medium, we have compared proliferation of Synechococcus lividus grown in pre-irradiated medium to proliferation of cultures grown in non-irradiated medium. A stimulation of growth was observed at the 7th day in cultures inoculated with cells selected in deceleration phase, while an inhibition occured in cultures inoculated with exponential growing cells. Addition of catalase (100 U/ml) counteracted the stimulating effect but did not change the inhibiting effect induced by pre-irradiated medium. Results demonstrated the indirect effect of low dose of irradiation, implying hydrogen peroxide, but let us to think that other radioproduced products could be also involved in the mechanism.

  8. Proteomics provides insights into biological pathways altered by plant growth promoting bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhiza in sorghum grown in marginal soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawi, Faten; Datta, Rupali; Ramakrishna, Wusirika

    2017-02-01

    Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both. Proteins upregulated only in B group include asparagine synthetase which showed negative correlation with biomass and uptake of elements. Phosphoribosyl amino imidazole succinocarboxamide protein with more than 50-fold change in My and My+B groups correlated positively with Ca, Cu, S and sucrose levels in roots. The B group showed the highest number of upregulated proteins among the three groups with negative correlation with sorghum biomass and element uptake. KEGG pathway analysis identified carbon fixation as the unique pathway associated with common upregulated proteins while biosynthesis of amino acids and fatty acid degradation were associated with common downregulated proteins. Protein-protein interaction analysis using STRING identified a major network with thirteen downregulated proteins. These findings suggest that plant-growth-promoting-bacteria alone or in combination with mycorrhiza enhanced radical scavenging system and increased levels of specific proteins thereby shifting the metabolism towards synthesis of carbohydrates resulting in sorghum biomass increase and uptake of nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Integrated Chemical and Biological Fertilizers on Growth Indices and Mucilage Yield of Isabgol (plantagoovata Forssk across Different Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Isabgol (plantagoovata Forssk is an important annual medicinal plant which is under cultivation in Iran. Isabgol has been used in medicine since ancient times, however, it has only been cultivated as a medicinal plant in recent decades. It is a diuretic, alleviates kidney and bladder complaints, gonorrhea, arthritis and hemorrhoids. In general, plants known as medicinal are rich in secondary metabolites and have potential as drugs. The biosynthesis of the secondary metabolites is controlled genetically and affected strongly by environmental factors especially chemical fertilizers. The environmental and economic impacts of chemical fertilizer application such as water pollution, low quality of agricultural production and decreasing soil productivity have encouraged farmers to use alternative nutrient sources. Sustainable farming on the basis of natural fertilizer application with the aim of omitting or decreasing chemical elements is a desirable approach to prevent these problems. Biofertilizers are some non-symbiotic and symbiotic microbes in the soil that stimulate plant growth and contribute the improvement of ecosystem. Many genera of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria such as Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas are used as biofertilizers for economically important crops. Several studies have shown that beneficial microbes, such as Azotobacter and Azospirillum, not only affect nitrogen fixation but also exhibit other favorable properties such as production of growth hormones. Nitrogen and phosphate chemical fertilizers could be replaced by biofertilizers containing Azotobacter, Azospirilium, Bacillus and Pseudomonas. In this study, we evaluated the effects of integrated application of chemical fertilizers and bio-fertilizers under different plant densities on growth indices, grain and mucilage yield of Isabgol. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with

  10. Investigating suspended sediment dynamics in contrasting agricultural catchments using ex situ turbidity-based suspended sediment monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, S. C.; Rowan, J. S.; Melland, A. R.; Jordan, P.; Fenton, O.; hUallachain, D. O.

    2015-08-01

    Soil erosion and suspended sediment (SS) pose risks to chemical and ecological water quality. Agricultural activities may accelerate erosional fluxes from bare, poached or compacted soils, and enhance connectivity through modified channels and artificial drainage networks. Storm-event fluxes dominate SS transport in agricultural catchments; therefore, high temporal-resolution monitoring approaches are required, but can be expensive and technically challenging. Here, the performance of in situ turbidity sensors, conventionally installed submerged at the river bankside, is compared with installations where river water is delivered to sensors ex situ, i.e. within instrument kiosks on the riverbank, at two experimental catchments (Grassland B and Arable B). The in situ and ex situ installations gave comparable results when calibrated against storm-period, depth-integrated SS data, with total loads at Grassland B estimated at 12 800 and 15 400 t, and 22 600 and 24 900 t at Arable B, respectively. The absence of spurious turbidity readings relating to bankside debris around the in situ sensor and its greater security make the ex situ sensor more robust. The ex situ approach was then used to characterise SS dynamics and fluxes in five intensively managed agricultural catchments in Ireland which feature a range of landscape characteristics and land use pressures. Average annual suspended sediment concentration (SSC) was below the Freshwater Fish Directive (78/659/EEC) guideline of 25 mg L-1, and the continuous hourly record demonstrated that exceedance occurred less than 12 % of the observation year. Soil drainage class and proportion of arable land were key controls determining flux rates, but all catchments reported a high degree of inter-annual variability associated with variable precipitation patterns compared to the long-term average. Poorly drained soils had greater sensitivity to runoff and soil erosion, particularly in catchments with periods of bare soils. Well

  11. Aerial Photo Utilization in Estimating Suspended Sediment in the Wuryantoro Watershed, Wonogiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto Budi Santoso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspended sediment load flowing out from a watershed is normally predicated by analysis os suspended sediment of water sample, and the volume of suspended sediment be calculated based on sediment concentration and river discharge. Such field measurements need a lot of field data and they are time consuming. Another method for prediction of suspended sediment by using remote sensing imagery data and recorded rainfall data. The objective of this research is to 1 examine the capability of remote sensing technique to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land in the prediction of suspended sediment; 2 examine the accuracy of the model for prediction suspended sediment. This research is carried out in Wuryantoro watershed, Wonogiri. The main data to obtain the parameters of the physical data of land is infrared aerial photograph on scale 1 : 10.000. the method that used in this research is interpretation of remote sensing imagery data, combined with rainfall data. The result show that the accuracy of landuse is 88.5%, the accuracy of slope is 87.67%. the accuracy of the prediction of suspended sediment by model A3 87.07%, model C1 86.63%, model C2 90.57%, model A8 84.13%, model A9 80.1%, and model C4 78.6%.

  12. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  13. Suspended-sediment loads and reservoir sediment trap efficiency for Clinton Lake, Kansas, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2012, at a site upstream and downstream from Clinton Lake, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from the reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is inhibiting the ability of Clinton Lake to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. The inflow suspended-sediment load was substantially larger than the outflow load and most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. Respectively, the total 2-year inflow and outflow suspended-sediment loads were computed to be 44.4 and 1.49 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 97 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 60,500 pounds per square mile. Because this study was completed during a drought, the estimated inflow suspended-sediment load and suspended-sediment yield likely are substantially less than what would occur during a period of average or above average precipitation and runoff.

  14. Biological drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrán Suárez, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Póster Biological drugs include a wide range of medicinal products created by biological instead of chemical processes. Biological drugs can consist of proteins, nucleic acids or complex combinations of substances, or may be living entities such as cells and tissues. They are isolated from natural sources or are produced by biotechnology methods.

  15. Mucous Secretion and Cilia Beating Defend Developing Coral Larvae from Suspended Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard F Ricardo

    Full Text Available Suspended sediments produced from dredging activities, or added to the sediment budget via river runoff, are a concern for marine resource managers. Understanding the impact of suspended sediments on critical life history stages of keystone species like corals is fundamental to effective management of coastlines and reefs. Coral embryos (Acropora tenuis and A. millepora and larvae (A. tenuis, A. millepora and Pocillopora acuta were subjected to a range of suspended sediment concentrations of different sediment types (siliciclastic and carbonate to assess concentration-response relationships on ecologically relevant endpoints, including survivorship and ability to metamorphose. Embryos were subjected to short (12 h suspended sediment exposures from ages of 3-12 hours old or a long (30 h exposure at 6 hours old. Neither the survivorship nor metamorphosis function of embryos were significantly affected by realistic sediment exposures to ~1000 mg L-1. However, some embryos exhibited a previously undescribed response to dynamically suspended sediments, which saw 10% of the embryos form negatively buoyant cocoons at siliciclastic suspended sediment concentrations ≥35 mg L-1. Scanning electron and optical microscopy confirmed the presence of a coating on these embryos, possibly mucus with incorporated sediment particles. Cocoon formation was common in embryos but not in larvae, and occurred more often after exposure to siliciclastic rather than carbonate sediments. Once transferred into sediment-free seawater, functional ~36-h-old embryos began emerging from the cocoons, coinciding with cilia development. Ciliated (> 36-h-old larvae exposed to suspended sediments for 60 h were also observed to secrete mucus and were similarly unaffected by suspended sediment concentrations to ~800 mg L-1. This study provides evidence that mucous secretion and cilia beating effectively protect coral embryos and larvae from suspended sediment and that these mechanisms

  16. Effect of biological soil crusts on seed germination and growth of an exotic and two native plant species in an arid ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guang; Li, Xinrong; Hui, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) can improve the stability and health of native plant communities in arid ecosystems. However, it is unknown whether BSCs can also inhibit invasions of exotic vascular plants on stabilized reclaimed sand dunes. To answer this question, we conducted a greenhouse experiment to test the effects of cyanobacteria-dominated BSCs on 1) seed germination and biomass of an exotic grass (Stipa glareosa P. Smirn.), and 2) individual biomass of the exotic S. glareosa growing with two native plants, Eragrostis poaeoides Beauv. and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. Our experiment included three BSC treatments (intact crust, disturbed crust, and bare soil) and five species trials (native E. poaeoides alone, E. poaeoides mixed with exotic S. glareosa, native A. capillaris alone, A. capillaris mixed with exotic S. glareosa, and S. glareosa alone). The results showed that cyanobacteria-dominated crusts can significantly reduce the cumulative percent germination of the exotic grass (Pstabilized sand dunes may reduce the germination of the exotic and two native plants. The effect of reducing exotic and native plant seeds germination would maintain more diverse plant communities and contribute to the formation of clumped vegetation patterns. We conclude that BSCs act as a natural regulator for vegetation patterns and thus promote ecosystem stability and sustainability.

  17. Human procollagen type I surface-modified PHB-based non-woven textile scaffolds for cell growth: preparation and short-term biological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawalec, Michał; Sitkowska, Anna; Sobota, Michał; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Komar, Patrycja; Kurcok, Piotr

    2014-10-30

    3D fine porous structures obtained by electrospinning a poly[(R,S)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (aPHB)/ poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) (85/15 w/w) blend were successfully modified with human procollagen type I by simple immersion of the polyester scaffold in an aqueous solution of the protein. Effective modification of the scaffold with human procollagen I was confirmed by an immunodetection test, which revealed the presence of the procollagen type I as an outer layer even on inner structures of the porous matrixes. Biological tests of 3D fabrics made of the PHB blend provide support for the adhesion and proliferation of human fibroblasts, while their modification with procollagen type I increased the biocompatibility of the final scaffolds significantly, as shown by the notable increase in the number of attached cells during the early hours of their incubation. Based on these findings, human procollagen type I surface-modified aPHB/PHB scaffolds should be considered a promising material in regenerative medicine.

  18. On complexity and homogeneity measures in predicting biological aggressiveness of prostate cancer; Implication of the cellular automata model of tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanase, Mihai; Waliszewski, Przemyslaw

    2015-12-01

    We propose a novel approach for the quantitative evaluation of aggressiveness in prostate carcinomas. The spatial distribution of cancer cell nuclei was characterized by the global spatial fractal dimensions D0, D1, and D2. Two hundred eighteen prostate carcinomas were stratified into the classes of equivalence using results of ROC analysis. A simulation of the cellular automata mix defined a theoretical frame for a specific geometric representation of the cell nuclei distribution called a local structure correlation diagram (LSCD). The LSCD and dispersion Hd were computed for each carcinoma. Data mining generated some quantitative criteria describing tumor aggressiveness. Alterations in tumor architecture along progression were associated with some changes in both shape and the quantitative characteristics of the LSCD consistent with those in the automata mix model. Low-grade prostate carcinomas with low complexity and very low biological aggressiveness are defined by the condition D0 1.764 and Hd < 38. The novel homogeneity measure Hd identifies carcinomas with very low aggressiveness within the class of complexity C1 or carcinomas with very high aggressiveness in the class C7. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 40 CFR 1042.330 - Selling engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with a suspended certificate of conformity. 1042.330 Section 1042.330 Protection of Environment... engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity. You may sell engines that you produce after we suspend the engine family's certificate of conformity under § 1042.315 only if one of the...

  20. 5 CFR 1620.45 - Suspending TSP loans, restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending TSP loans, restoring post... Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA)-Covered Military Service § 1620.45 Suspending TSP loans, restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions. (a) Suspending TSP loans during...

  1. Vertical distribution, transport, and exchange of carbon in the northeast Pacific Ocean: evidence for multiple zones of biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, David M.; Knauer, George A.

    1984-03-01

    A sediment trap experiment was conducted to investigate the production, decomposition, and transport of organic matter from 0 to 2000 m at a station 100 km northeast of Point Sur, California. Parameters measured included (1) rates of autotrophic production of carbon, (2) vertical depth distributions of total carbon, nitrogen, and living biomass, and (3) downward flux of organic carbon, nitrogen, ATP, RNA, and fecal pellets. Metabolic activity and microbial growth rates (RNA and DNA synthesis) were also estimated in situ, for both the 'suspended' (i.e., samples captured in standard water bottles) and 'sinking' (i.e., samples captured in sediment traps) particles. Daily depth-integrated rates of primary production averaged 564 mg C m -2, of which 10 to 15% was removed from the euphotic zone by sinking, assuming steady-state conditions. The profiles of suspended carbon, nitrogen, C:N ratios, and ATP conformed to previously published concentration-depth profiles from the region. The vertical flux profiles of organic matter, however, revealed two important features that were not evident in the suspended particulate matter profiles. First, there was an obvious mid-water depth increase (i.e., an increase in organic carbon and nitrogen flux with increasing depth) between 700 and 900 m, suggesting horizontal advection or in situ production. Similar flux profiles were also observed for ATP, RNA, and total fecal pellets. Second, the C:N ratios for the sediment trap materials collected at mid-ocean depths (600 to 1200 m) were low compared to values measured for 'suspended' particulate organic materials collected from comparable depths, supporting the in situ production hypothesis. An observed maximum in the rate of RNA and DNA synthesis for microorganisms associated with particles collected at 700 m confirmed that the flux anomalies were the result of in situ microbiological processes rather than horizontal advection. We hypothesize that the in situ activity measured at 700 m

  2. Municipal wastewater biological nutrient removal driven by the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Yinguang; Wu, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Carbon substrate is required by biological nutrient removal (BNR) microorganism, but it is usually insufficient in the influent of many municipal wastewater treatment plants. In this study the use of ethanol-enriched fermentation liquid, which was derived from dairy wastewater, as the preferred carbon substrate of BNR was reported. First, the application of dairy wastewater and food processing wastewater and their fermentation liquid as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared in the short-term tests. The fermented wastewater showed higher BNR performance than the unfermented one, and the fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater (FL-DW), which was obtained under pH 8 and fermentation time of 6 day, exhibited the highest phosphorus (95.5%) and total nitrogen (97.6%) removal efficiencies due to its high ethanol content (57.9%). Then, the long-term performance of FL-DW acting as the carbon substrate of BNR was compared with that of acetate and ethanol, and the FL-DW showed the greatest phosphorus and total nitrogen removal. Further investigation showed that the use of FL-DW caused the highest polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) synthesis in BNR microbial cells, and more PHAs were used for phosphorus uptake and denitrification rather than glycogen synthesis and microbial growth. The FL-DW can be used as a preferred carbon substrate for BNR microbes. AB: aerobic end sludge active biomass; BNR: biological nutrient removal; DW: dairy wastewater; FL-DW: fermentation liquid of dairy wastewater; FPW: food processing wastewater; FL-FPW: fermentation liquid of food processing wastewater; PHAs: polyhydroxyalkanoates; PHB: poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHV: poly-3-hydroxyvalerate; PH2MV: poly-3-hydroxy-2- methylvalerate; PAOs: phosphorus accumulating organisms; SBR: sequencing batch reactor; SOP: soluble ortho-phosphorus; TN: total nitrogen; TSS: total suspended solids; VSS: volatile suspended solids; VFAs: volatile fatty acids; WWTPs: wastewater treatment plants.

  3. The p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K mediates cAMP-PKA and retinoic acid biological effects on MCF7 cell growth and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, Caterina F; Di Zazzo, Erika; Zuchegna, Candida; Di Domenico, Marina; D'Inzeo, Sonia; Nicolussi, Arianna; Avvedimento, Enrico V; Coppa, Anna; Porcellini, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K) signalling regulates various cellular processes, including cell survival, growth, proliferation and motility, and is among the most frequently mutated pathways in cancer. Although the involvement of p85αPI3K SH2 domain in signal transduction has been extensively studied, the function of the SH3 domain at the N-terminus remains elusive. A serine (at codon 83) adjacent to the N-terminal SH3 domain in the PI3K regulatory subunit p85αPI3K that is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) in vivo and in vitro has been identified. Virtually all receptors binding p85αPI3K can cooperate with cAMP-PKA signals via phosphorylation of p85αPI3KSer83. To analyse the role of p85αPI3KSer83 in retinoic acid (RA) and cAMP signalling, in MCF7 cells, we used p85αPI3K mutated forms, in which Ser83 has been substituted with alanine (p85A) to prevent phosphorylation or with aspartic acid (p85D) to mimic the phosphorylated residue. We demonstrated that p85αPI3KSer83 is crucial for the synergistic enhancement of RARα/p85αPI3K binding induced by cAMP/RA co-treatment in MCF7 cells. Growth curves, colorimetric MTT assay and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that phosphorylation of p85αPI3KSer83 plays an important role in the control of MCF7 cell proliferation and in RA-induced inhibition of proliferation. Wound healing and transwell experiments demonstrated that p85αPI3KSer83 was also essential both for the control of migratory behaviour and for the reduction of motility induced by RA. This study points to p85αPI3KSer83 as the physical link between different pathways (cAMP-PKA, RA and FAK), and as an important regulator of MCF7 cell proliferation and migration.

  4. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Andreas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  5. Efecto del sustrato sobre las propiedades biológicas en la planta de fresa Effect of growth media on biological properties in strawberry plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Martínez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto que diferentes sustratos ejercen sobre las características microbiológicas en la rizosfera de la planta de fresa en un sistema de cultivo sin suelo cerrado. Se ensayaron 3 sustratos: compost de corcho más cascarilla de arroz 1:1 v:v (CC, turba (T y fibra de coco (FC. Se evaluó la comunidad microbiana y las propiedades químicas de los sustratos. El CC presentó valores de pH significativamente superiores a la FC y a la T y una densidad de bacterias copiotrofas, Bacillus sp. y actinomycetes oligotrofos superior a la de la T, tanto al inicio del ensayo como a los 2.5 meses de cultivo. La T mostró una densidad de hongos superior al CC, tanto al inicio del ensayo como a los 2.5 meses de cultivo. El sustrato de FC mostró a los 2.5 meses de cultivo mayor densidad de bacterias copiotrofas, Pseudomonas fluorescentes y hongos en la rizosfera que en la no rizosfera.The aim of this research was to study the effect of different growth media on the microbiologic characteristics in rhizosphere of strawberry plants in closed soilless growing systems. We used 3 substrates: composted cork and rice hulls (CC (1:1 v:v, peat (P and coir fiber (CF. Chemical variables and microbial community profile of the growth media were evaluated. The CC showed a higher pH than CF and P. At the beginning and at two and a half months after transplantation, copiotrophic bacteria, Bacillus sp. and oligotrophic actinomycetes were higher in CC than in P. At the beginning and at two and a half months after transplantation fungi were higher in P than in CC. At two and a half months after transplantation, in CF copiotrophic bacteria, fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. and fungi were higher in rhizosphere than in non-rhizosphere substrate.

  6. H2S induces a suspended animation-like state in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Morrison, Mike; Roth, Mark B

    2005-04-22

    Mammals normally maintain their core body temperature (CBT) despite changes in environmental temperature. Exceptions to this norm include suspended animation-like states such as hibernation, torpor, and estivation. These states are all characterized by marked decreases in metabolic rate, followed by a loss of homeothermic control in which the animal's CBT approaches that of the environment. We report that hydrogen sulfide can induce a suspended animation-like state in a nonhibernating species, the house mouse (Mus musculus). This state is readily reversible and does not appear to harm the animal. This suggests the possibility of inducing suspended animation-like states for medical applications.

  7. Electromechanical coupling in suspended nanomechanical resonators with a two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevyrin, A. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    A physical model describing the piezoelectric-effect-mediated influence of bending of a thin suspended cantilever with a two-dimensional electron gas on the conductivity is proposed. The model shows that the conductivity change is almost entirely caused by the rapid change in mechanical stress near the boundary of suspended and non-suspended areas, rather than by the stress itself. An experiment confirming that the electromechanical coupling is associated with the piezoelectric effect is performed. The experimentally measured conductance sensitivity to the cantilever’s vibrations agree with the developed physical model.

  8. Basic hydraulic experiment on the saturated concentration of suspended load due to tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Somekawa, Shiho

    2016-04-01

    When tsunamis arrive in the shallow sea, a huge amount of suspended load is generated by large velocity and strong turbulence. The suspended load causes the geomorphic processes of erosion and deposition. Because the suspended load cannot be increased endlessly, it should have the saturated concentration. Many numerical models of sediment transport due to tsunamis have assumed a constant value of 1% for the saturated concentration empirically. However, it is supposed as a function of velocity. In this study, a hydraulic experiment was carried out to investigate a relationship between velocity and the saturated concentration of suspended load when tsunamis attack. A water circulation pipe used in the experiment was 10 cm in a diameter, 260 cm in length and 50 cm in width. A velocity of water flow in the pipe had been controlled by two pumps and two valves. It was changed from 0.24 to 1.22 m/s. Various amounts of sand was spread on the bottom of pipe. The amount of sand was changed from 0.1 to 10% as converted in the concentration of suspended load if all sand suspended. A diameter and a density of the sand were 0.267 mm and 2.64 x 103 kg/m^3. A condition of sediment transport in the pipe was recorded by video camera from a transparent window at the side of pipe. The condition was judged as all sand particles were suspended or not. The former condition indicates that the concentration of suspended load is saturated and the latter does it is not saturated. When velocity was smaller than 0.47 m/s, there was no suspended load because of a weak tractive force. When velocity became larger, the suspended load was generated and the concentration also became higher. However, the concentration had the upper limit and surplus sand appeared on the bed of pipe when velocity became much larger. The condition gave the saturated concentration of suspended load. When velocity was 0.665 m/s, the saturated concentration was smaller than 1% which is used in many numerical simulations

  9. Response of reef corals on a fringing reef flat to elevated suspended-sediment concentrations: Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Field, Michael E.; Lager, Claire V.; Lager, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A long-term (10 month exposure) experiment on effects of suspended sediment on the mortality, growth, and recruitment of the reef corals Montipora capitata and Porites compressa was conducted on the shallow reef flat off south Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi. Corals were grown on wire platforms with attached coral recruitment tiles along a suspended solid concentration (SSC) gradient that ranged from 37 mg l−1 (inshore) to 3 mg l−1(offshore). Natural coral reef development on the reef flat is limited to areas with SSCs less than 10 mg l−1 as previously suggested in the scientific literature. However, the experimental corals held at much higher levels of turbidity showed surprisingly good survivorship and growth. High SSCs encountered on the reef flat reduced coral recruitment by one to three orders of magnitude compared to other sites throughout Hawaiʻi. There was a significant correlation between the biomass of macroalgae attached to the wire growth platforms at the end of the experiment and percentage of the corals showing mortality. We conclude that lack of suitable hard substrate, macroalgal competition, and blockage of recruitment on available substratum are major factors accounting for the low natural coral coverage in areas of high turbidity. The direct impact of high turbidity on growth and mortality is of lesser importance.

  10. Use of Antimicrobial Films and Edible Coatings Incorporating Chemical and Biological Preservatives to Control Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Cold Smoked Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudaa Neetoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively high incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in cold smoked salmon (CSS is of concern as it is a refrigerated processed food of extended durability (REPFED. The objectives of this study were to compare and optimize the antimicrobial effectiveness of films and coatings incorporating nisin (Nis and sodium lactate (SL, sodium diacetate (SD, potassium sorbate (PS, and/or sodium benzoate (SB in binary or ternary combinations on CSS. Surface treatments incorporating Nis (25000 IU/mL in combination with PS (0.3% and SB (0.1% had the highest inhibitory activity, reducing the population of L. monocytogenes by a maximum of 3.3 log CFU/cm2 (films and 2.9 log CFU/cm2 (coatings relative to control samples after 10 days of storage at 21°C. During refrigerated storage, coatings were more effective in inhibiting growth of L. monocytogenes than their film counterparts. Cellulose-based coatings incorporating Nis, PS, and SB reduced the population of L. monocytogenes, and anaerobic and aerobic spoilage flora by a maximum of 4.2, 4.8, and 4.9 log CFU/cm2, respectively, after 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. This study highlights the effectiveness of cellulose-based edible coatings incorporating generally regarded as safe (GRAS natural and chemical antimicrobials to inhibit the development of L. monocytogenes and spoilage microflora thus enhancing the safety and quality of CSS.

  11. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  12. Seasonal nutrient and plankton dynamics in a physical-biological model of Crater Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, K.; Collier, R.; Larson, G.; Crawford, G.; Boss, E.

    2007-01-01

    A coupled 1D physical-biological model of Crater Lake is presented. The model simulates the seasonal evolution of two functional phytoplankton groups, total chlorophyll, and zooplankton in good quantitative agreement with observations from a 10-year monitoring study. During the stratified period in summer and early fall the model displays a marked vertical structure: the phytoplankton biomass of the functional group 1, which represents diatoms and dinoflagellates, has its highest concentration in the upper 40 m; the phytoplankton biomass of group 2, which represents chlorophyta, chrysophyta, cryptomonads and cyanobacteria, has its highest concentrations between 50 and 80 m, and phytoplankton chlorophyll has its maximum at 120 m depth. A similar vertical structure is a reoccurring feature in the available data. In the model the key process allowing a vertical separation between biomass and chlorophyll is photoacclimation. Vertical light attenuation (i.e., water clarity) and the physiological ability of phytoplankton to increase their cellular chlorophyll-to-biomass ratio are ultimately determining the location of the chlorophyll maximum. The location of the particle maxima on the other hand is determined by the balance between growth and losses and occurs where growth and losses equal. The vertical particle flux simulated by our model agrees well with flux measurements from a sediment trap. This motivated us to revisit a previously published study by Dymond et al. (1996). Dymond et al. used a box model to estimate the vertical particle flux and found a discrepancy by a factor 2.5-10 between their model-derived flux and measured fluxes from a sediment trap. Their box model neglected the exchange flux of dissolved and suspended organic matter, which, as our model and available data suggests is significant for the vertical exchange of nitrogen. Adjustment of Dymond et al.'s assumptions to account for dissolved and suspended nitrogen yields a flux estimate that is

  13. Monitoring suspended sediments and turbidity in Sahelian basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Elodie; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Pinet, Sylvain; Nogmana, Soumaguel

    2017-04-01

    Suspended matter can carry viruses and bacteria that are pathogenic to humans and can foster their development. Therefore, turbidity can be considered a vector of microbiological contaminants, which cause diarrheal diseases, and it can be used as a proxy for fecal bacteria. Few studies have focused on water turbidity in rural Africa, where many cases of intestinal parasitic infections are due to the consumption of unsafe water from ponds, reservoirs, lakes and rivers. Diarrheal diseases are indeed the second cause of infant mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, in this region, environment survey is minimal or inexistent. Monitoring water turbidity therefore represents a challenge for health improvement. Turbidity refers to the optical properties of water and it is well suited to monitoring by remote sensing. Because it varies in space and time and because the small water bodies (remote sensing and questions the methods developed for less turbid waters. In addition, high aerosol loadings (mineral dust and biomass burning) may be detrimental to turbidity retrieval in this region because of inaccurate atmospheric corrections. We propose a method to monitor water quality of Sahelian ponds, lakes and rivers using in-situ and remote sensing data, which is tested at different sites for which in-situ water turbidity and suspended sediments concentration (SSSC) measurements are acquired. Water sample are routinely collected at two sites within the AMMA-CATCH observatory part of the Réseau de Bassin Versants (RBV) French network: the Agoufou pond in northern Mali (starting September 2014), and the Niger River at Niamey in Niger (starting June 2015). These data are used to evaluate different indexes to derive water turbidity from the reflectance in the visible and infrared bands of high resolution optical sensors (LANDSAT, SENTINEL2). The temporal evolution of the turbidity of ponds, lakes and rivers is well captured at the seasonal and interannual scales with the

  14. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  15. Storage filters upland suspended sediment signals delivered from watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, James E.; Keeler, Jeremy; Skalak, Katherine; Karwan, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, tectonics, and humans create long- and short-term temporal variations in the supply of suspended sediment to rivers. These signals, generated in upland erosional areas, are filtered by alluvial storage before reaching the basin outlet. We quantified this filter using a random walk model driven by sediment budget data, a power-law distributed probability density function (PDF) to determine how long sediment remains stored, and a constant downstream drift velocity during transport of 157 km/yr. For 25 km of transport, few particles are stored, and the median travel time is 0.2 yr. For 1000 km of transport, nearly all particles are stored, and the median travel time is 2.5 m.y. Both travel-time distributions are power laws. The 1000 km travel-time distribution was then used to filter sinusoidal input signals with periods of 10 yr and 104 yr. The 10 yr signal is delayed by 12.5 times its input period, damped by a factor of 380, and is output as a power law. The 104 yr signal is delayed by 0.15 times its input period, damped by a factor of 3, and the output signal retains its sinusoidal input form (but with a power-law “tail”). Delivery time scales for these two signals are controlled by storage; in-channel transport time is insignificant, and low-frequency signals are transmitted with greater fidelity than high-frequency signals. These signal modifications are essential to consider when evaluating watershed restoration schemes designed to control sediment loading, and where source-area geomorphic processes are inferred from the geologic record.

  16. The p85 Regulatory Subunit of PI3K Mediates cAMP-PKA and Insulin Biological Effects on MCF-7 Cell Growth and Motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Di Zazzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia may increase the cancer risk. Moreover, many tumors demonstrate an increased activation of IR signaling pathways. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K is necessary for insulin action. In epithelial cells, which do not express GLUT4 and gluconeogenic enzymes, insulin-mediated PI3K activation regulates cell survival, growth, and motility. Although the involvement of the regulatory subunit of PI3K (p85αPI3K in insulin signal transduction has been extensively studied, the function of its N-terminus remains elusive. It has been identified as a serine (S83 in the p85αPI3K that is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA. To determine the molecular mechanism linking PKA to insulin-mediated PI3K activation, we used p85αPI3K mutated forms to prevent phosphorylation (p85A or to mimic the phosphorylated residue (p85D. We demonstrated that phosphorylation of p85αPI3KS83 modulates the formation of the p85αPI3K/IRS-1 complex and its subcellular localization influencing the kinetics of the insulin signaling both on MAPK-ERK and AKT pathways. Furthermore, the p85αPI3KS83 phosphorylation plays a central role in the control of insulin-mediated cell proliferation, cell migration, and adhesion. This study highlights the p85αPI3KS83 role as a key regulator of cell proliferation and motility induced by insulin in MCF-7 cells breast cancer model.

  17. Particle size distribution of suspended solids in the Chesapeake Bay entrance and adjacent shelf waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, M. R.; Oertel, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics of suspended solids, including total suspended matter, total suspended inorganics, total suspended organics, particle size distribution, and the presence of the ten most prominent particle types were determined. Four research vessels simultaneously collected samples along four transects. Samples were collected within a 2-hour period that coincided with the maximum ebb penetration of Chesapeake Bay outwelling. The distribution of primary and secondary particle size modes indicate the presence of a surface or near-surface plume, possibly associated with three sources: (1) runoff, (2) resuspension of material within the Bay, and/or (3) resuspension of material in the area of shoals at the Bay mouth. Additional supportive evidence for this conclusion is illustrated with ocean color scanner data.

  18. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  19. Suspended sediment fluxes in a tropical estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    Annual transport processes of suspended sediments in Beypore estuary - a tropical estuary along the south west coast of India - were investigated based on time series measurements within the system. It's observed that the sediment transport...

  20. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  1. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Amit Kumar; Pal, Dilipkumar; Pany, Dipti Ranjan; Mohanty, Biswaranjan

    2010-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae) as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v) were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  2. Evaluation of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves mucilage as an innovative suspending agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mucilage isolated from Spinacia oleracea L. leaves, commonly named spinach (family: Amaranthaceae as an innovative suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions (20% w/v were prepared using the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves as a suspending agent, and it was evaluated for its stability by using parameters like, sedimentation profile, degree of flocculation, and redispersibility. The effect of the tested mucilage on the suspension was compared with various commonly used suspending agents, such as, tragacanth, bentonite, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% w/v. The results obtained indicated that the mucilage of S. oleracea L. leaves could be used as a suspending agent, and the performance was found to be superior to both tragacanth and bentonite.

  3. 76 FR 80982 - International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...-0292] International Cyclotron, Inc., Hato Rey, Puerto Rico; Order Suspending Licensed Activities I International Cyclotron, Inc. (International Cyclotron; Licensee) is the holder of Byproduct Materials License... International Cyclotron submitted its NRC license application related to the cyclotron, it requested...

  4. Substantial export of suspended sediment to the global oceans from glacial erosion in Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, I.; Hudson, Brian D; Syvitski, James P. M.; Mikkelsen, Andreas B.; Hasholt, B.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Noel, B. P. Y.; Morlighem, M.

    2017-01-01

    Limited measurements along Greenland’s remote coastline hamper quantification of the sediment and associated nutrients draining the Greenland ice sheet, despite the potential influence of river-transported suspended sediment on phytoplankton blooms and carbon sequestration. Here we calibrate

  5. Seasonal variations of total suspended matter (TSM) in the Gulf of Khambhat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Misra, A.; ManiMurali, R.; Sukumaran, S.; Vethamony, P.

    Total Suspended Matter (TSM)is an important parameter for determining the water quality in coastal regions as it is responsible for the reduction in the light available to the aquatic vegetation which subsequently alters the health and quality...

  6. Natural isotopic composition of nitrogen in suspended particulate matter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Bhosle, N.B.; Sardessai, S.; Sheshshayee, M.S.

    The first measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition (delta sup(15) N) in suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the surface Bay of Bengal (BOB) at 24 different locations during pre- (April-May 2003) and post- (September-October 2002) monsoon...

  7. Experimental realization of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettini, Jefferson; Ugarte, Daniel [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Sato, Fernando; Galvao, Douglas Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Coura, Pablo Zimmerman; Dantas, Socrates de Oliveira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Fisica

    2006-07-01

    We report high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and molecular dynamics results of the first experimental test of suspended atomic chains composed of different atomic species formed from spontaneous stretching of metallic nanowires. (author)

  8. Continuous-flow centrifugation to collect suspended sediment for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Black, Robert W.; Cox, Stephen E.; Sheibley, Richard W.; Foreman, James R.; Senter, Craig A.; Peterson, Norman T.

    2016-12-22

    Recent advances in suspended-sediment monitoring tools and surrogate technologies have greatly improved the ability to quantify suspended-sediment concentrations and to estimate daily, seasonal, and annual suspended-sediment fluxes from rivers to coastal waters. However, little is known about the chemical composition of suspended sediment, and how it may vary spatially between water bodies and temporally within a single system owing to climate, seasonality, land use, and other natural and anthropogenic drivers. Many water-quality contaminants, such as organic and inorganic chemicals, nutrients, and pathogens, preferentially partition in sediment rather than water. Suspended sediment-bound chemical concentrations may be undetected during analysis of unfiltered water samples, owing to small water sample volumes and analytical limitations. Quantification of suspended sediment‑bound chemical concentrations is needed to improve estimates of total chemical concentrations, chemical fluxes, and exposure levels of aquatic organisms and humans in receiving environments. Despite these needs, few studies or monitoring programs measure the chemical composition of suspended sediment, largely owing to the difficulty in consistently obtaining samples of sufficient quality and quantity for laboratory analysis.A field protocol is described here utilizing continuous‑flow centrifugation for the collection of suspended sediment for chemical analysis. The centrifuge used for development of this method is small, lightweight, and portable for the field applications described in this protocol. Project scoping considerations, deployment of equipment and system layout options, and results from various field and laboratory quality control experiments are described. The testing confirmed the applicability of the protocol for the determination of many inorganic and organic chemicals sorbed on suspended sediment, including metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and

  9. Evaluation of the Suspending Properties of the Co- precipitate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceutical Ltd, Benin City, Nigeria. Irvingia gabonensis seeds were collected in the month of. May and identified by Mr. Sunday Nweke of the. Department of Pharmacognosy, University of. Benin, Nigeria. A voucher specimen. (UBH_I0153) of the seed has been kept in the herbarium of the Department of Plant Biology.

  10. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  11. A study of metal ion adsorption at low suspended-solid concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Davis, J.A.; Kuwabara, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure for conducting adsorption studies at low suspended solid concentrations in natural waters (NaCl) concentration (0??1-0??002 m) and particle concentration (2-50 mg l-1). The lack of success of the Davis Leckie site bonding model in describing Zn(II) adsorption emphasizes the need for further studies of adsorption at low suspended-solid concentrations. ?? 1987.

  12. Wavelength-Tunable IR Detector based on Suspended Bilayer Graphene Micro Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    high purity copper foil using a low pressure CVD furnace at 1000 oC in a hydrogen, argon and methane environment. Raman spectrum of the graphene ...characterized in Year One a device with suspended graphene microribbons, and found that fully suspended CVD -grown graphene devices are dominated by the...photoelectric effect, which is promising towards CVD -grown graphene photodetectors approaching THz cut-off frequencies. chemical vapor deposition, strain

  13. Measurement of Suspended Sediment Transport Processes off the Holderness Coast - Southern North Sea, England

    OpenAIRE

    Blewett, Joanna Catherine

    1998-01-01

    A field campaign was set up as part of the LOIS-RACS coastal program (1994-1996), to identify the near-bed physical processes responsible for suspended sediment movement in shallow water (10-20m depth) off the Holdemess coast, NE England. A new benthic tripod system Boundary Layer Intelligent Sensor System (BLISS) has been developed and deployed along a transect at three sites, normal to the coastline at Tunstall. Measurements of current velocity, suspended sediment concentrati...

  14. Thermal instability of Walters B' viscoelastic fluid permeated with suspended particles in hydromagnetics in porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pardeep

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of suspended particles on the thermal instability of Walters B' viscoelastic fluid in hydromantic in porous medium is considered. For stationary convection, Walters B' viscoelastic fluid behaves like a Newtonian fluid. The medium permeability and suspended particles has ten the onset of convection whereas the magnetic field postpones the onset of convection, for the case of stationary convection. The magnetic field and viscoelasticity intro duce oscillatory modes in the system which was non-existent in their absence.

  15. Information Complexity and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  16. Biological post

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; N S Mohan Kumar; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as ?biological restoration.? This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of ?biological post? in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extra...

  17. A Generalized Mathematical Model for the Fracture Problem of the Suspended Highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to answer dangling fracture problems of highway, the suspended pavement equivalent for non - suspended pavement, through the special boundary conditions has been suspended highway stress field of expression, in accordance with the 3D fracture model of crack formation, and establish a vacant, a general mathematics model for fracture problems of highway and analysis in highway suspended segment weight and vehicle load limit of highway capacity of Pu For overturning road inPu is less than the force of carrying more than compared to the work and fruit Bridge Hydropower Station Road engineering examples to verify suspended highway should force field expressions for the correctness and applicability. The results show that: when the hanging ratio R 0. 243177 limits of Pu design axle load 100kN. When the vertical crack in the vacant in the direction of length greater than 0. 1, the ultimate bearing capacity is less than the design axle load 100kN; when the hanging ratio R is less than 0. 5, the road to local fracture, the ultimate bearing capacity of suspended stress field expressions in solution; when the hanging ratio is greater than or equal to 0. 5, the road does not reach the limit bearing capacity of the whole body; torque shear surface of the effect is far less than the bending moments on shear planes.

  18. Spatial and temporal variability of suspended-sediment concentrations in a shallow estuarine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Ruhl

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Shallow subembayments respond differently than deep channels to physical forces acting in estuaries. The U.S. Geological Survey measured suspended-sediment concentrations at five locations in Honker Bay, a shallow subembayment of San Francisco Bay, and the adjacent channel to investigate the spatial and temporal differences between deep and shallow estuarine environments. During the first freshwater pulse of the wet season, the channel tended to transport suspended sediments through the system, whereas the shallow area acted as off-channel storage where deposition would likely occur. Following the freshwater pulse, suspended-sediment concentrations were greater in Honker Bay than in the adjacent deep channel, due to the larger supply of erodible sediment on the bed. However, the tidal variability of suspended-sediment concentrations in both Honker Bay and in the adjacent channel was greater after the freshwater pulse than before. During wind events, suspended-sediment concentrations in the channel were not affected; however, wind played a crucial role in the resuspension of sediments in the shallows. Despite wind-wave sediment resuspension in Honker Bay, tidally averaged suspended-sediment flux was controlled by the flood-dominated currents.

  19. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  20. SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL SUSPENDED MATTER IN SUMBAWA SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGAG SWANDANA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Distribusi Musiman Total Suspended Matter (TSM di Laut Surnbawa (117" - us· Edan s· - 9· S telah dilakukan. Data TSM tersebut diperoleh dari 75 stasiun pengukuran pada bulan September 2005 dan 98 stasiun pengukuran pada bulan November 2005 dan April 2006. Besaran sebaran TSM diperoleh dari hasil perhitungan besaran turbidity yang diperoleh dari pengukuran dengan menggunakan alat CTD ( Conductivity, Temperature and Depth Sensors. Besaran TSM yang diperoleh dari besaran turbidity menggunakan rurnus TSM = 0,65 Tur+ 1,17 (r = 0,85 (Hoshika dan Tanimoto, 1997.  Distribusi sebaran TSM pada saat musim hujan menunjukkan bahwa besarnya bervariasi dari L060 sam­pai 2.951 mg/1 dengan rata-rata sebesar 1.152 mg/1 (n=98, di lain pihak pada saat musim kemarau distribusi sebaran TSM menunjukkan bahwa besarnya bervariasi dari 1.060 sampai 2.899 mg/1 dengan rata-rata sebesar 1.111 mg/I (n=75. Distribusi sebaran TSM secara vertical dari permukaan laut sampai dengan kedalaman 20 meter menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan yang signifikan antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Pada saat musim kemarau distribusi sebaran TSM pada permukaan laut sampai dengan kedalaman 20 meter mem­punyai variasi yang kecil (dari 1.079 sampai 1.599 mg/1; Pada saat musim hujan distribusi sebaran TSM pada permukaan laut sampai dengan kedalaman 20 meter mempunyai variasi yang sangat besar (dari 1.079 sampai 2.698 mg/1. Distribusi sebaran TSM dari kedalaman 20 meter sampai dengan 100 meter menunjukkan pola yang sama antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan.  Distribusi sebaran TSM pada permukaan laut (dekat sungai/muara menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan sebaran antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Demikian juga dengan distribusi sebaran TSM yang diper­oleh dari data satelit menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perbedaan sebaran antara musim kemarau dan musim hujan. Perbandingan antara data in situ dengan data satelit menunjukkan bahwa koefisen korelasinya sebesar -0-753 untuk periode penelitian