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Sample records for suspected risk factors

  1. Original Article Risk Factors and Bacterial Profile of Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-11

    Aug 11, 2011 ... Neonatal septicaemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and a major health concern. ... aureus (25.0%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.1%) and Escherichia coli (15.0%). ... Keywords: Antibiotic susceptibility, Bacterial isolates, Neonatal septicaemia, Risk factors.

  2. Suspectable Risk Factors of Congenital Anomaly in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia

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    Pradistya Syifa Yudiasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomaly is a disease of structural or functional alteration since birth. The cause of congenital anomaly is genetic, environtment, and unknown. The cause of congenital anomaly is unknown, made congenital anomaly is difficult to detect. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the suspectable risk factors of congenital anomaly. Methods: This was a descriptive study. About 78 samples were taken by purposive sampling from medical records of patients with congenital anomaly in pediatric surgery ambulatory unit at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital (RSHS, Bandung from September to November 2014. From the selected medical records, an interview was carried out to the parents’ patient to identify some suspectable risk factors. The collected data were analyzed and presented in tables. Results: From 78 medical records,  hirschprung disease was the highest among all type of congenital anomaly (29%. The characteristic of congenital anomaly was mothers in the age of 20–35 years (65%, fathers’ age was  more than 20 years old, family history of congenital anomaly was 1%, there was no history of previous congenital anomaly in previous pregnancy, infection history was 3%, history of medication was 11.5%, mother’s BMI was in normal term (18.5─24.9 as much as 65%, no history of radiation, there was no history of chronic alcohol. History of smoking/passive smoking was high (65%. Conclusions: Hirschprung disease is the highest rate disease in congenital anomaly and smoking is a highest suspectable risk factor contribute to congenital anomaly.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1095

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of suspected elder abuse subtypes in people aged 75 and older.

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    Garre-Olmo, Josep; Planas-Pujol, Xènia; López-Pousa, Secundino; Juvinya, Dolors; Vilà, Antoni; Vilalta-Franch, Joan

    2009-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of suspected elder abuse subtypes and to identify related factors. Cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive study. Eight rural villages in Girona, Spain. Six hundred seventy-six inhabitants aged 75 and older. All participants were interviewed in their homes using the study protocol, which includes an abuse screen used in previous elder abuse studies and questions about demographic, social, physical, psychiatric, cognitive, and social services variables. The mean age of the participants was 81.7 +/- 4.8; 58.2% were female. Prevalence of suspected neglect abuse was 16.0% (95% confidence interval (CI)=13.2-18.9), prevalence of psychosocial abuse was 15.2% (95% CI=12.8-18.2), prevalence of financial abuse was 4.7% (95% CI=3.0-6.4) and prevalence of physical abuse was 0.1% (95% CI=0.004-0.8). Psychosocial abuse was positively associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR)=1.65, 95% CI=1.01-2.72), social isolation (OR=0.35, 95% CI=0.18-0.69), and frequent bladder incontinence (OR=2.44, 95% CI=1.23-4.86). Neglect abuse was positively associated with social isolation (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.27-0.99), use of social services (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.05-3.20), and living arrangements (OR=5.29, 95% CI=2.65-10.56). Financial abuse was associated with marital status (OR=0.15, 95% CI=0.04-0.59), age 85 and older, (OR=3.84, 95% CI=1.70-8.68), and Mini-Mental State Examination score (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.78-0.94). After adjustment for confounding factors, each subtype of suspected elder abuse was associated with different variables. The results of this study suggest that elder abuse cannot be analyzed as a unitary concept and that risk factors must be assessed for each abuse subtype.

  4. Pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury; the influence of risk factors present in the Emergency Department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, H. W (Wietske); Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, M. (Marieke) J; Leenen, L. (Luke) P H

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore the influence of risk factors present at Emergency Department admission on pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury, admitted to the hospital for evaluation and treatment of acute traumatic injuries. Design Prospective cohort study setting

  5. [Sexuality Risk Factors among People with Suspect of Sexually Transmitted Disease].

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    Pérez-Morente, María Ángeles; Cano-Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Ocón, María Teresa; Castro-López, Esperanza; Jiménez-Bautista, Francisco; Hueso-Montoro, César

    2017-01-25

    Describing determinants factors in Sexually Transmitted Diseases is necessary to evaluate and design effective measures for prevention and treatment. The aim of this research was to determine the sexual risk factors of people who are treated at Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre and to analyze differences based on gender. Cross-sectional study on 496 clinical reports, period of time 2010 to 2014, of people who come to the Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Orientation Centre of Granada, for suspected of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sociodemographic, clinical and sexual patterns data were collected. Calculation of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test to compare proportions were performed. 56% men and 44% women. The mean age was 29,01 years (SD=9,07). Most of the sample were single (85,9%). 54,2% had a higher education level. The most prevalent infections were the Human Papilloma-virus (18,8%), followed Molluscum contagiosum (5,6%) and Candidiasis (3,8%). Significant differences were found by sex with sexual behavior, there are more gay men (n=89) and bisexual (n=22) than women (n=4, n=7, respectively) (p smaller than 0,001); differences between sex and sexual life were also found, finding higher prevalence of men with 10-20 couples (n=23) and more than 20 couples (n=20) than women (n=10, n=4, respectively). The user profile is a young, single, with higher education. The most prevalent infection is the Human Papillomavirus. Men are a vulnerable population for contracting sexually transmitted diseases because of their sexual practices.

  6. Frequency and Risk Factors of Penicillin and Amoxicillin Allergy in Suspected Patients with Drug Allergy.

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    Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Bidad, Katayoon; Shokouhi, Raheleh; Dashti, Raheleh; Nabavi, Mohammad; Movahedi, Masoud; Bemanian, Mohammad Hasan; Shafiei, Ali Reza; Kalantari, Najmoddin; Farboud, Effat Sadat; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Unconfirmed beta-lactam allergy is a significant public health problem because of the limitations it imposes in drug selection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate patients referred for beta-lactam allergy to determine the frequency of confirmed beta-lactam allergy and identify some risk factors. In a prospective cohort study, all referred patients to Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (between 2007 - 2009) who suspected to have beta-lactam allergy were entered into this study based on having the inclusion criteria. Follow-up was performed 6 - 8 years after the final diagnosis. Diagnosis of beta-lactam allergy relies on thorough history and specific IgE measurements (ImmunoCAP), skin prick testing (SPT), intradermal testing (IDT), patch testing, and oral drug challenge test. Fifty-one patients with mean age of 24.5 (±18.5) years were enrolled in this study. Based on workups, beta-lactam allergy was confirmed in 16 (31.4%) patients, suspicious in 22 (43.1%) patients and ruled out in 13 (25.5%) patients.  During the follow-up, 3 patients with suspicious drug allergy consumed the culprit drug with no reaction so allergy was finally ruled out in 16 (31.4%) patients. Age, sex, atopy and family history of drug allergies were not significantly different between the patients with confirmed or ruled-out diagnosis of penicillin and amoxicillin allergy. At least up to one-third of patients with a history of beta-lactam allergy are proven to be safe using the drug. Also, a clear protocol consists of serum sIgE assay and SPT can be helpful to the physicians in the health care system.

  7. Risk factors for recurrent injuries in victims of suspected non-accidental trauma: a retrospective cohort study.

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    Deans, Katherine J; Thackeray, Jonathan; Groner, Jonathan I; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C

    2014-08-31

    Many children who are victims of non-accidental trauma (NAT) may be repeatedly evaluated for injuries related to maltreatment. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for repeated injuries in children with suspected NAT. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using claims data from a pediatric Medicaid accountable care organization. Children with birth claims and at least one non-birth related claim indicating a diagnosis of NAT or skeletal survey in 2007-2011 were included. Recurrent events were defined as independent episodes of care involving an urgent/emergent care setting that included a diagnosis code specific for child abuse, a CPT code for a skeletal survey, or a diagnosis code for an injury suspicious for abuse. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk factors for recurrent events. Of the 1,361 children with suspected NAT, a recurrent NAT event occurred in 26% within 1 year and 40% within 2 years of their initial event. Independent risk factors for a recurrent NAT event included a rural residence, age < 30 months old, having only 1 or 2 initially detected injuries, and having a dislocation, open wound, or superficial injury at the previous event (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Over 25% of children who experienced a suspected NAT event had a recurrent episode within one year. These children were younger and more likely to present with "minor" injuries at their previous event.

  8. Neisseria gonorrhoeae among suspects of sexually transmitted infection in Gambella hospital, Ethiopia: risk factors and drug resistance.

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    Ali, Seada; Sewunet, Tsegaye; Sahlemariam, Zewdineh; Kibru, Gebre

    2016-09-13

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a bacterium responsible for one of the classic sexually transmitted infection (STI) gonorrhea. Antibiotic resistant strains are emerging at alarming rate. Multiple sexual partners, unsafe sex and substance use habits are the main host related risk factors for acquiring the infection. Thus, this study aimed at determining the magnitude, its determinants and antimicrobial resistance profile of N. gonorrhoeae in a place where there is risk related cultural practices and relatively high HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 186 STI suspected patients seen in Gambella hospital from March to July 2015. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and associated risk factors was collected using pre-designed questionnaire. Urethral or endo-cervical swabs were collected aseptically by trained nurses. Then, samples were transported to laboratory and processed within 15 min following standard microbiological culture techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed by using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Data entry, transforming and analysis was done using SPSS version 20. In this study 11.3 % of the STI suspected patients were confirmed to have N. gonorrhoeae. The rate of infection in males was four times higher than in females accounting 16.0 and 5.0 % respectively (p = 0.049). It was also higher (18.9 %) in 20-24 years age group (p = 0.439). Alcohol intake (p = 0.013), less frequent condom use (p = 0.031), and multiple sex partners (p = 0.024) were associated with increased odds of infection. All N. gonorrhoeae isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefoxitin but all were resistant to penicillin and tetracycline. Alarmingly, 28.6 % of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The proportion of urogenital symptoms attributable to N. gonorrhoeae was high (11 %), with highest prevalence among males and young adults. Hence, prevention efforts should consider behavioral risk reduction. Ceftriaxone

  9. Pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury; the influence of risk factors present in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H W Wietske; Schoonhoven, L Lisette; Schuurmans, M Marieke J; Leenen, L Luke P H

    2017-01-01

    To explore the influence of risk factors present at Emergency Department admission on pressure ulcer development in trauma patients with suspected spinal injury, admitted to the hospital for evaluation and treatment of acute traumatic injuries. Prospective cohort study setting level one trauma center in the Netherlands participants adult trauma patients transported to the Emergency Department on a backboard, with extrication collar and headblocks and admitted to the hospital for treatment or evaluation of their injuries. Between January and December 2013, 254 trauma patients were included. The following dependent variables were collected: Age, Skin color and Body Mass Index, and Time in Emergency Department, Injury Severity Score, Mean Arterial Pressure, hemoglobin level, Glasgow Coma Score, and admission ward after Emergency Department. Pressure ulcer development during admission was associated with a higher age (p 0.00, OR 1.05) and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (p 0.00, OR 1.21) and higher Injury Severity Scores (p 0.03, OR 1.05). Extra nutrition decreases the probability of PU development during admission (p 0.04, OR 0.20). Pressure ulcer development within the first 48h of admission was positively associated with a higher age (p 0.01, OR 1.03) and a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score (p 0.01, OR 1.16). The proportion of patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and Medium Care Unit was higher in patients with pressure ulcers. The pressure ulcer risk during admission is high in patients with an increased age, lower Glasgow Coma Scale and higher Injury Severity Score in the Emergency Department. Pressure ulcer risk should be assessed in the Emergency Department to apply preventive interventions in time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among tuberculosis suspects attending spiritual holy water sites in Northwest Ethiopia.

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    Derseh, Dejene; Moges, Feleke; Tessema, Belay

    2017-01-26

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases. In Ethiopia, tuberculosis patients have different pattern of health care seeking behavior. They usually adopt other approaches like traditional healers and spiritual holy water sites before consulting public health facilities. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis and associated risk factors among tuberculosis suspects attending spiritual holy water sites. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01, 2015 to March 30, 2015 in seven selected holy water sites in Northwest Ethiopia. During the study period, a total of 1384 adult holy water users were screened for PTB symptoms. A total of 382 pulmonary tuberculosis suspects participated in the study. Socio-demographic data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Spot-morning-spot sputum specimens were collected and examined for acid fast bacilli using Auramine O fluorescence staining technique. Smear positive sputum samples were tested by GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for rifampicin resistance. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were employed using SPSS-16 software. The prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis was 2.9% with point prevalence of 795/100, 000 holy water users. History of contact with tuberculosis patient (AOR = 9.174, 95% C.I = 2.195-38.34) and the number of family members > 5 per household (AOR = 9.258, 95% C.I = 1.14-74.97) were significantly associated with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Rifampicin resistance was not detected from all smear positives by GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay. The prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in spiritual holy water sites was 7.4 fold higher than the general population. History of contact with active tuberculosis patients and increased family size were significantly associated with smear positive pulmonary TB. The national tuberculosis

  11. Symptoms and risk factors to identify women with suspected cancer in primary care: derivation and validation of an algorithm.

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    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of cancer could improve survival so better tools are needed. To derive an algorithm to estimate absolute risks of different types of cancer in women incorporating multiple symptoms and risk factors. Design and setting: Cohort study using data from 452 UK QResearch® general practices for development and 224 for validation. Included patients were females aged 25-89 years. The primary outcome was incident diagnosis of cancer over the next 2 years (lung, colorectal, gastro-oesophageal, pancreatic, ovarian, renal tract, breast, blood, uterine, cervix, other). Factors examined were: 'red flag' symptoms including weight loss, abdominal pain, indigestion, dysphagia, abnormal bleeding, lumps; general symptoms including tiredness, constipation; and risk factors including age, family history, smoking, alcohol intake, deprivation, body mass index (BMI), and medical conditions. Multinomial logistic regression was used to develop a risk equation to predict cancer type. Performance was tested on a separate validation cohort. There were 23 216 cancers from 1 240 864 females in the derivation cohort. The final model included risk factors (age, BMI, chronic pancreatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, family history, alcohol, smoking, deprivation); 23 symptoms, anaemia and venous thrombo-embolism. The model was well calibrated with good discrimination. The receiver operating curve statistics were lung (0.91), colorectal (0.89), gastro-oesophageal (0.90), pancreas (0.87), ovary (0.84), renal (0.90), breast (0.88), blood (0.79), uterus (0.91), cervix (0.73), other cancer (0.82). The 10% of females with the highest risks contained 54% of all cancers diagnosed over 2 years. The algorithm has good discrimination and could be used to identify those at highest risk of cancer to facilitate more timely referral and investigation.

  12. Symptoms and risk factors to identify men with suspected cancer in primary care: derivation and validation of an algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of cancer could improve survival so better tools are needed. To derive an algorithm to estimate absolute risks of different types of cancer in men incorporating multiple symptoms and risk factors. Cohort study using data from 452 UK QResearch® general practices for development and 224 for validation. Included patients were males aged 25-89 years. The primary outcome was incident diagnosis of cancer over the next 2 years (lung, colorectal, gastro-oesophageal, pancreatic, renal, blood, prostate, testicular, other cancer). Factors examined were: 'red flag' symptoms such as weight loss, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, indigestion, dysphagia, abnormal bleeding, lumps; general symptoms such as tiredness, constipation; and risk factors including age, family history, smoking, alcohol intake, deprivation score and medical conditions. Multinomial logistic regression was used to develop a risk equation to predict cancer type. Performance was tested on a separate validation cohort. There were 22 521 cancers from 1 263 071 males in the derivation cohort. The final model included risk factors (age, BMI, chronic pancreatitis, COPD, diabetes, family history, alcohol, smoking, deprivation); 22 symptoms, anaemia and venous thrombo-embolism. The model was well calibrated with good discrimination. The receiver operator curve statistics values were: lung (0.92), colorectal (0.92), gastro-oesophageal (0.93), pancreas (0.89), renal (0.94), prostate (0.90) blood (0.83, testis (0.82); other cancers (0.86). The 10% of males with the highest risks contained 59% of all cancers diagnosed over 2 years. The algorithm has good discrimination and could be used to identify those at highest risk of cancer to facilitate more timely referral and investigation.

  13. Sleep-disordered breathing: a new risk factor of suspected fatty liver disease in overweight children and adolescents?

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    S. L. Verhulst

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in childhood obesity is associated with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and inflammation and by these mechanisms, SDB could contribute to development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We, therefore, investigated if SDB was an independent predictor of suspected fatty liver disease in a clinical sample of overweight and obese children and adolescents. Retrospective case study of consecutive overweight or obese children and adolescents attending a paediatric obesity clinic. Suggestive fatty liver disease was defined as a serum alanine aminotransferase >40 U·L–1 and/or a hyperechoic liver on abdominal ultrasound. Subjects with suggestive fatty liver disease presented with higher waist circumference, more circulating peripheral leukocytes and a lower % of total sleep time with SaO2 95% than their peers with a normal liver evaluation. Multiple logistic regression (stepwise forward selected waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval = 1.00–1.10; p = 0.06 and SaO2nadir (odds ratio = 0.87; 95% confidence interval = 0.76–0.99; p = 0.03 as predictors of suggestive fatty liver disease. This study suggests an association between the severity of SDB and suspected fatty liver disease in a clinical sample of overweight and obese children and adolescents. We strongly recommend more and carefully designed research on the influence of SDB on the development of fatty liver disease and on the effect of treating sleep apnoea on liver function parameters.

  14. Body Mass Index Is Associated With Microvascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Treated Metabolic Risk Factors and Suspected Coronary Artery Disease.

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    van der Heijden, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Maarten A H; Janssens, Gladys N; Lenzen, Mattie J; van de Ven, Peter M; Eringa, Etto C; van Royen, Niels

    2017-09-14

    Obesity is key feature of the metabolic syndrome and is associated with high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity is associated with macrovascular endothelial dysfunction, a determinant of outcome in patients with coronary artery disease. Here, we compared the influence of obesity on microvascular endothelial function to that of established cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Endothelial function was assessed during postocclusive reactive hyperemia of the brachial artery and downstream microvascular beds in 108 patients who were scheduled for coronary angiography. In all patients, microvascular vasodilation was assessed using peripheral arterial tonometry; laser Doppler flowmetry and digital thermal monitoring were performed. Body mass index was significantly associated with decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilatation measured with peripheral arterial tonometry (r=0.23, P=0.02), laser Doppler flowmetry (r=0.30, Pmicrovascular vasodilatation. Especially in diabetic patients, endothelial function was not significantly reduced (control versus diabetes mellitus, mean±SEM or median [interquartile range], peripheral arterial tonometry: 1.90±0.20 versus 1.67±0.20, P=0.19, laser Doppler flowmetry: 728% [interquartile range, 427-1110] versus 589% [interquartile range, 320-1067] P=0.28, and digital thermal monitoring: 6.6±1.0% versus 2.5±1.7%, P=0.08). In multivariate linear regression analysis, body mass index was the only risk factor that significantly attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation using all 3 microvascular function tests. Higher body mass index is associated with reduced endothelial function in patients with suspected coronary artery disease, even after adjustment for treated diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association

  15. Sex Differences in Demographics, Risk Factors, Presentation, and Noninvasive Testing in Stable Outpatients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Insights from the PROMISE Trial

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    Hemal, Kshipra; Pagidipati, Neha J.; Coles, Adrian; Dolor, Rowena J.; Mark, Daniel B.; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Hoffmann, Udo; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Daubert, Melissa A.; Shah, Svati H.; Ariani, Kevin; Bullock-Palmer, Renee; Martinez, Beth; Lee, Kerry L.; Douglas, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Objectives To determine whether presentation, risk assessment, testing choices, and results differ by sex in stable symptomatic outpatients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Although established CAD presentations differ by sex, little is known about stable, suspected CAD. Methods Characteristics of 10,003 men and women in the Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain (PROMISE) trial were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Sex differences in test selection and predictors of test positivity were examined using logistic regression. Results Women were older (62.4 years vs. 59.0) and more likely to be hypertensive (66.6% vs. 63.2%), dyslipidemic (68.9% vs. 66.3%), and to have a family history of premature CAD (34.6% vs. 29.3) (all p-values<0.005). Women were less likely to smoke (45.6% vs. 57.0%; p<0.001), while diabetes prevalence was similar (21.8% vs. 21.0%; p=0.30). Chest pain was the primary symptom in 73.2% of women vs. 72.3% of men (p=0.30) and was characterized as “crushing/pressure/squeezing/tightness” in 52.5% of women vs. 46.2% of men (p<0.001). Compared to men, all risk scores characterized women as lower risk, and providers were more likely to characterize women as having low (<30%) pre-test probability for CAD (40.7% vs. 34.1%; p<0.001). Compared with men, women were more often referred to imaging tests (adjusted OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.01–1.44) than non-imaging tests. Women were less likely to have a positive test (9.7% vs. 15.1%; p<0.001). Although univariate predictors of test positivity were similar, in multivariable models, age, BMI, and Framingham risk score were predictive of a positive test in women, while Framingham and Diamond and Forrester risk scores were predictive in men. Conclusion Patient sex influences the entire diagnostic pathway for possible CAD, from baseline risk factors and presentation to noninvasive test outcomes. These differences highlight the

  16. Is prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy for primary angle closure suspects a risk factor for cataract progression? The Chennai Eye Disease Incidence Study.

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    Vijaya, Lingam; Asokan, Rashima; Panday, Manish; George, Ronnie

    2017-05-01

    To report the risk of cataract progression among primary angle closure suspects (PACS) 6 years after they underwent laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). In the Chennai Eye Disease Incidence Study, 6 years after their baseline evaluation, 4421 subjects were examined again. As part of a detailed evaluation cataract was graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System II; progression was defined as change of cataract by two or more grades or history of cataract surgery in the 6-year period. Only bilaterally phakic subjects with less than N2 or C2 or P2 cataract at baseline with no history of any form of glaucoma, primary angle closure and pseudoexfoliation were included. There were 3205 eligible subjects. Of these, 190 had undergone LPI for PACS. In comparison to the study population, they were significantly older (pcataract surgery. The cataract progression rate was significantly greater (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.4, pcataract were age (pcataract progression; LPI was a risk factor only for cortical cataract (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3, p=0.007). There was significant cataract progression in 6 years following LPI for PACS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. DESCRIPTION OF GASTRIC ULCERS AND OF THEIR SUSPECTED, ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS IN DECEASED WILD EQUIDS AT THE RÉSERVE AFRICAINE DE SIGEAN, FRANCE (2010-2016).

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    Lamglait, Benjamin; Vandenbunder-Beltrame, Marielle; Trunet, Elodie; Lemberger, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Gastric ulcers are common in domestic horses and foals, affecting at least 90% of unmedicated racehorses in active training. Despite these high prevalences in domestic horses, literature about this condition in wild equids is almost nonexistent. The presence of gastric ulcers was evaluated at necropsy in six species of wild equids that died at the Réserve Africane de Sigean, a safari park in the south of France from 2010 to 2016. Among the 55 individuals that died during that period, a description of the gastric mucosa was available in 82% (45/55) of cases. Considering the cases for which a description of the gastric mucosa was available, the prevalence of gastric ulcers was 64% (29/45). The highest prevalences were noted in Grant's zebra (Equus quagga boehmi) and Hartmann's mountain zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae) at 83% and 100%, respectively. In contrast to what is reported in domestic foals, gastric ulcerations were only diagnosed in one foal (out of 11 foals necropsied). The higher prevalence was noted in young individuals (3-36 mo old) at 93% (14/15); the lesions observed consisted mainly of single to multiple, superficial lesions, of which, only the mucosa was missing; these superficial lesions are often considered not clinically significant. The prevalence was lower for adults (74%; 14/19), but lesions were deeper or with a hyperemic or inflammatory appearance. All the lesions observed were located in the gastric, nonglandular, stratified squamous mucosa, along the margo plicatus. No statistical correlation could be found between the development of gastric ulcers and an ongoing, chronic pathologic process or a digestive tract pathology. The detection of gastric ulcers was, therefore, significantly greater in wild equids isolated in smaller enclosures. Nevertheless, additional larger-scale research is needed to point out predisposing factors in equids under human care.

  18. Evaluation of quantitative IFN-gamma response for risk stratification of active tuberculosis suspects.

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    Metcalfe, John Z; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ho, Christine; Grinsdale, Jennifer; Hopewell, Philip C; Kawamura, L Masae; Nahid, Payam

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) to appropriate risk stratification of active tuberculosis suspects has not been studied. To determine whether the addition of quantitative IGRA results to a prediction model incorporating clinical criteria improves risk stratification of smear-negative-tuberculosis suspects. Clinical data from tuberculosis suspects evaluated by the San Francisco Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control Clinic from March 2005 to February 2008 were reviewed. We excluded tuberculosis suspects who were acid fast-bacilli smear-positive, HIV-infected, or under 10 years of age. We developed a clinical prediction model for culture-positive disease and examined the benefit of adding quantitative interferon (IFN)-gamma results measured by QuantiFERON-TB Gold (Cellestis, Carnegie, Australia). Of 660 patients meeting eligibility criteria, 65 (10%) had culture-proven tuberculosis. The odds of active tuberculosis increased by 7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3-11%) for each doubling of IFN-gamma level. The addition of quantitative IFN-gamma results to objective clinical data significantly improved model performance (c-statistic 0.71 vs. 0.78; P added clinical value to a prediction model incorporating conventional risk factors. Although this benefit may be attenuated within highly experienced centers, the predictive accuracy of quantitative IFN-gamma levels should be evaluated in other settings.

  19. Study of Anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG and IgM, and risk factors in suspected cardiac ischemic,s refered to Shahid Madany angioghraphy center, Khorramabad

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    hasan Hossainzadegan

    2009-04-01

    Materials and Methods: The referred patients suspected to heart diseases were divided into the afflicted group, as well as the seemingly healthy group by angiography. The demographic and nutritional information of the studied groups were collected by a questionnaire, and the anti-Chlamydia pneumonia IgG and IgM antibodies, lipids, the rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein, and anti-Streptolysin were measured in the serums of the patients. Data were analyzed using T-test and χ2. Results: 120 cases out of 380 were excluded from the study because of confounding information. Additionally, 169 and 91 cases of the remaining 260 studied ones were diagnosed as afflicted and seemingly healthy by angiography respectively. Moreover, 101 (70.6% and 68 (58% of the 169 patients were males and females respectively. The highest number of the patients aged between 50 to 60 years old, while the highest affliction rate was among the patients in the age range of 40 to 50 (69.8%. The highest rate of affliction with the disease was among the patients with the blood type A. One hundred percent of the referred persons were employees, as well as 75.5% of the cases were stockbreeder who suffered from the disease. There were statistically significant relationships between fruit as well as very low and high meat consumption and heart diseases in the two groups. The serology results indicated that 87.5 % of the cases with anti-Chlamydia pneumonia IgM suffered from heart diseases. Conclusion: The high frequency of the coronary artery disease in the persons that had the positive titer of anti-Chlamydia pneumonia IgM suggests a possible relation of active or recurrent infection with the disease. On the other hand, it is likely that the nutritional patterns of the studied cases also had a relationship with the coronary artery disease. Therefore, the coronary artery disease possibly had a relationship with the microbial and nutritional risk factors of the studied persons in the case group. However

  20. Medical History for Prognostic Risk Assessment and Diagnosis of Stable Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James K.; Dunning, Allison; Gransar, Heidi; Achenbach, Stephan; Lin, Fay Y.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew J.; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Cademartiri, Filippo; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J. W.; D’Agostino, Ralph; DeLago, Augustin; Friedman, John; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Hayes, Sean; Kaufmann, Philipp; Raff, Gilbert L.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Thomson, Louise; Villines, Todd; Cury, Ricardo C.; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Berman, Daniel S.; Pencina, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aims To develop a clinical cardiac risk algorithm for stable patients with suspected CAD based upon angina typicality and CAD risk factors. Methods and Results Between 2004 and 2011, 14,004 adults with suspected CAD referred for cardiac imaging were followed: 1) 9,093 patients for CCTA (CCTA-1) followed for 2.0 years; 2) 2,132 patients for CCTA (CCTA-2) followed for 1·6 years, and 3) 2,779 patients for exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy followed for 5.0 years. A best-fit model from CCTA-1 for prediction of death or myocardial infarction (MI) was developed, with integer values proportional to regression coefficients. Discrimination was assessed using C-statistic. The validated model was also tested for estimation of the likelihood of obstructive CAD, defined as ≥50% stenosis, as compared to method of Diamond and Forrester (D-F). Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality and non-fatal MI. Secondary outcomes included prevalence of angiographically obstructive CAD. In CCTA-1, best-fit model discriminated individuals at risk of death or MI (C-statistic 0·76). The integer model ranged from 3-13, and corresponded to 3-year death risk or MI of 0·25% to 53·8%. When applied to the CCTA-2 and MPS, the model demonstrated C-statistics of 0·71 and 0·77. Both best-fit (C=0·76, 95% CI 0·746-0·771) and integer model (C=0·71, 95% CI 0·693-0·719) performed better than D-F (C=0·64; 95% CI, 0·628-0·659) for estimating obstructive CAD. Conclusions For stable symptomatic patients with suspected CAD, we developed a history-based method for prediction of death and obstructive CAD. PMID:25865923

  1. Sequential plasma angiogenic factors levels in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltajian, Kedak; Bajracharya, Surichhya; Salahuddin, Saira; Berg, Anders H; Geahchan, Carl; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester. Analysis of the sequential levels of plasma angiogenic factors among patients admitted for evaluation of preeclampsia. We performed an observational study among women with singleton pregnancies admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, for evaluation of preeclampsia at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Plasma samples were collected on admission and daily for the first 3 days and then weekly until delivery. Doppler ultrasound was performed on admission (within 48 hours) and then weekly (within 24 hours of blood collection) to evaluate uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows. Maternal demographics, hospital course, mode of delivery, diagnosis of hypertensive disorder, adverse maternal outcomes (elevated liver function enzymes, low platelet count, pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage, convulsion, acute renal insufficiency, or maternal death), and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler, fetal death, and neonatal death) were recorded. Circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and placental growth factor were measured on automated platform in a single batch after delivery and in a blinded fashion. Data are presented as median (25th to 75th centile), mean, or proportions as appropriate. During the study period, data from 100 women were analyzed for the study, and 43 had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had lower gestational age of delivery, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures during hospitalization, and lower birthweight and placental weight (all P preeclampsia, women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes have higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase/placental growth factor ratio on admission, which continued to rise until delivery. Women with high soluble fms-like tyrosine

  2. Risk stratification of patients suspected of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Møller; Voss, Mette; Hansen, Vibeke B

    2012-01-01

    To compare the performance of five risk models (Diamond-Forrester, the updated Diamond-Forrester, Morise, Duke, and a new model designated COronary Risk SCORE (CORSCORE) in predicting significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with chest pain suggestive of stable angina pectoris....

  3. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many things in our genes , our lifestyle, and the environment around us may increase or decrease our risk ... Being exposed to chemicals and other substances in the environment has been linked to some cancers: Links between ...

  4. Factors associated with late presentation of suspected tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... In Kenya, there are few studies which have been done to establish the factors that cause patients to delay in seeking medical care. Published data about factors causing late presentation of patients to TB management facilities in Nairobi is scanty. A study similar to this was done in a rural setting in the ...

  5. GATA family transcriptional factors: emerging suspects in hematologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Juehua; Chen, Yi-Hua; Peterson, LoAnn C

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are zinc finger DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription during development and cell differentiation. The three important GATA transcription factors GATA1, GATA2 and GATA3 play essential roles in the development and maintenance of hematopoietic systems. GATA1 is required for the erythroid and megakaryocytic commitment during hematopoiesis. GATA2 is crucial for the proliferation and survival of early hematopoietic cells, and is also involved in lineage specific transcriptional regulation as the dynamic partner of GATA1. GATA3 plays an essential role in T lymphoid cell development and immune regulation. As a result, mutations in genes encoding the GATA transcription factors or alteration in the protein expression level or their function have been linked to a variety of human hematologic disorders. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge regarding the disrupted biologic function of GATA in various hematologic disorders.

  6. Risks associated with suspected dysphagia in infants admitted to a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalence of neonatal dysphagia is increasing, as medical advances contribute to the survival of critically ill and preterm infants. Additional factors such as low birth weight (LBW), gastro-oesoephageal reflux disorder, failure-to-thrive (FTT), and HIV may increase the complexity of dysphagia symptoms.

  7. Factors associated with late presentation of suspected tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After multivariate logistic regression, gender (P=0,019, OR=1.6), level of education (p=0.029, OR=1.26) and place of first medical care (P= 0.01 OR=1.27), were found to be significantly associated with late presentation. Conclusion: This study shows that age, level of education and place of first medical care are the factors ...

  8. Factors Affecting Special Education Services for English Language Learners with Suspected Language Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Henriette W.

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on factors that impact identification of and services for English-language learners (ELLs) with suspected language-learning disabilities. These factors include (a) home and school environments, (b) the school's philosophy, (c) instructional strategies, and (d) other contextual variables that affect language use. In addition,…

  9. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  10. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  11. Suspected alcohol and addictive narcotic use were more at risk to severe head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woro Riyadina

    2012-07-01

    Support System for Injury Surveillance”. Data collected by abstraction of medical records by trained personnel using registry form in patients who had hospitalized in 3 hospitals from January to August 2010. Severe head injury classified by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score 3-9 diagnosed severe head injury, 10-12 moderate head injury and 13-15 mild head injury. Results: Out of 450 injured patients, 36 patients (8% who had severe head injuries. Patient who was suspected alcohol and addictive narcotic use had nearly 5-fold increase the risk in severe head injury [adjusted odds ratio (ORa=4.77; 95% confidence interval (CI=1.04-21.75] compared to not suspected. Patient who was referred had a 5.5-fold increase the risk in severe head injury (ORa=5.50; 95% CI=2.28-13.27 compared with not referred. Injured person due to traffic accident than other type of accident had 3-fold increase the risk of severe head injury (ORa=3.43; 95% CI=1.14-10.32. Conclusion: Suspected alcohol or addictive narcotic was the highest risk to severe head injury. Campaign against alcohol and addictive narcotic should be done to prevent head injury severity. (Health Science Indones 2011;34-40

  12. Red meat consumption and cancer: reasons to suspect involvement of bovine infectious factors in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Hausen, Harald

    2012-06-01

    An increased risk for colorectal cancer has been consistently reported for long-time consumption of cooked and processed red meat. This has frequently been attributed to chemical carcinogens arising during the cooking process of meat. Long-time fish or poultry consumption apparently does not increase the risk, although similar or higher concentrations of chemical carcinogens were recorded in their preparation for consumption. The geographic epidemiology of colorectal cancer seems to correspond to regions with a high rate of beef consumption. Countries with a virtual absence of beef in the diet (India) or where preferably lamb or goat meat is consumed (several Arabic countries) reveal low rates of colorectal cancer. In China, pork consumption has a long tradition, with an intermediate colorectal cancer rate. In Japan and Korea, large scale beef and pork imports started after World War II or after the Korean War. A steep rise in colorectal cancer incidence was noted after 1970 in Japan and 1990 in Korea. The consumption of undercooked beef (e.g., shabu-shabu, Korean yukhoe and Japanese yukke) became very popular in both countries. The available data are compatible with the interpretation that a specific beef factor, suspected to be one or more thermoresistant potentially oncogenic bovine viruses (e.g., polyoma-, papilloma- or possibly single-stranded DNA viruses) may contaminate beef preparations and lead to latent infections in the colorectal tract. Preceding, concomitant or subsequent exposure to chemical carcinogens arising during cooking procedures should result in increased risk for colorectal cancer synergistic with these infections. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  13. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  14. Relationship between hemoglobin levels and risk for suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver in Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chyi-Huey; Wu, Ming-Shun; Owaga, Eddy; Cheng, Shu-Yu; Pan, Wen-Harn; Chang, Jung-Su

    2014-10-31

    Body iron levels have recently been shown to be a strong predictor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in a general adult population, and to investigate the relationship between body iron levels, NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). 2186 adults participated in the third National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT, 2005-2008). The participants underwent anthropometry measurements and phlebotomy after an overnight fast, and those with excessive alcohol intake, iron overload of serum ferritin > 600 ng/ml, hepatitis viral infection and hepatocellular carcinoma were excluded. Suspected NAFLD was diagnosed by three alanine transaminase (ALT) cut-points: cut-point 1: serum ALT > 40 U/l; cut-point 2: ALT ≥ 25 U/l for male and ALT ≥ 17 U/l for female; and cut-point 3: ALT ≥ 35 U/l for male and ALT ≥ 26 U/l for female. The prevalence proportion of suspected NAFLD among Taiwanese adults was 6.6% (cut-point 1), 36% (cut-point 2); and 14.3% (cut-point 3). Body iron levels were significantly higher in individuals with suspected NAFLD compared with those without. Distribution of hemoglobin levels, but not serum ferritin levels, by decade of age showed strong correlation with the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in individuals with MetS. Multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) showed that the best predictors for suspected NAFLD with the MetS were hemoglobin [OR 1.43 (1.21-1.68); P hemoglobin [OR 1.25 (1.12-1.41); P hemoglobin levels (14.4 μg/dl for male and 13.2 μg/dl for female) are at the greatest risk for developing abnormal liver function. Hemoglobin test should be considered as a part of clinical evaluation for patients with NAFLD.

  15. Risks associated with suspected dysphagia in infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in a South African public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoline Schoeman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of neonatal dysphagia is increasing, as medical advances contribute to the survival of critically ill and preterm infants. Additional factors such as low birth weight (LBW, gastro-oesoephageal reflux disorder, failure-to-thrive (FTT, and HIV may increase the complexity of dysphagia symptoms. Knowledge of context-specific risk factors for dysphagia may lead to an effective pathway of diagnosis and management in vulnerable neonates. Objective. To describe the feeding characteristics and categories of underlying medical conditions in infants of gestational age 24 - 42 weeks. Methods. The study was a retrospective review of 231 purposively selected medical and speech-language therapy records. Participants had a mean stay of 28.5 days in a neonatal intensive care unit in a peri-urban public hospital and were referred for a swallowing and feeding assessment. An existing seven-category framework for the classification of suspected dysphagia was used. Results. Most participants (90.0% presented with multiple medical conditions. Underlying neurological conditions (48.5% and feeding difficulties secondary to systemic illness (65.8% contributed mostly to suspected dysphagia in the sample. It was found that 71.0% of infants presented with feeding difficulties secondary to other conditions such as LBW and prematurity, highlighting the need for an expanded dysphagia classification framework. Conclusion. The results concur with the outcomes of previous studies and confirm the need for a unique classification framework in South Africa. Dysphagia is a complex condition and frequently cannot be attributed to a single risk factor.

  16. Diagnostic Performance of Placental Growth Factor in Women With Suspected Preeclampsia Attending Antenatal Facilities in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukah, U Vivian; Mbofana, Francisco; Rocha, Beatriz Manriquez; Loquiha, Osvaldo; Mudenyanga, Chishamiso; Usta, Momade; Urso, Marilena; Drebit, Sharla; Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    In well-resourced settings, reduced circulating maternal-free placental growth factor (PlGF) aids in either predicting or confirming the diagnosis of preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, stillbirth, preterm birth, and delivery within 14 days of testing when preeclampsia is suspected. This blinded, prospective cohort study of maternal plasma PlGF in women with suspected preeclampsia was conducted in antenatal clinics in Maputo, Mozambique. The primary outcome was the clinic-to-delivery interval. Other outcomes included: confirmed diagnosis of preeclampsia, transfer to higher care, mode of delivery, intrauterine fetal death, preterm birth, and low birth weight. Of 696 women, 95 (13.6%) and 601 (86.4%) women had either low (preeclampsia, higher blood pressure, transfer for higher care, earlier gestational age delivery, delivery within 7 and 14 days, preterm birth, cesarean delivery, lower birth weight, and perinatal loss. In urban Mozambican women with symptoms or signs suggestive of preeclampsia, low maternal plasma PlGF concentrations are associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, whether the diagnosis of preeclampsia is confirmed. Therefore, PlGF should improve the provision of precision medicine to individual women and improve pregnancy outcomes for those with preeclampsia or related placenta-mediated complications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Percutaneous transluminal forceps biopsy in patients suspected of having malignant biliary obstruction: factors influencing the outcomes of 271 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Gu; Jung, Gyoo-Sik; Yun, Jong Hyouk [Kosin University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seo-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Byung Chul; Lee, Sang Uk; Han, Byung Hoon [Kosin University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ji Ho [Busan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate predictive factors for false-negative diagnosis of percutaneous forceps biopsies in patients suspected of having a malignant biliary obstruction Two hundred seventy one consecutive patients with obstructive jaundice underwent percutaneous forceps biopsy. In each patient, three to five specimens (mean, 3.5 specimens) were collected from the lesion. The final diagnosis for each patient was confirmed with pathologic findings at surgery, additional histocytologic data, or clinical and radiologic follow-up. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with false-negative diagnosis. One hundred ninety four of 271 biopsies resulted in correct diagnoses of malignancy, while 20 biopsy diagnoses were proved to be true-negative. There were 57 false-negative diagnoses and no false-positive diagnoses. The diagnostic performance of transluminal forceps biopsy in malignant biliary obstructions was as follows: sensitivity, 77.2%; specificity, 100%; and accuracy, 78.9%; positive predictive value, 100%, negative predictive value; 25.9%. Periampullary segment of common bile duct, intrahepatic bile duct and metastatic disease were the significant risk factors of false-negative diagnosis. Percutaneous forceps biopsy provides relatively high accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant biliary obstructions. The predictive factors of false-negative biopsy were determined to be biopsy site and origin of primary tumour. (orig.)

  18. Value of Exercise ECG for Risk Stratification in Suspected or Known CAD in the Era of Advanced Imaging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jamieson M; Beller, George A

    2015-11-01

    Exercise stress electrocardiography (ExECG) is underutilized as the initial test modality in patients with interpretable electrocardiograms who are able to exercise. Although stress myocardial imaging techniques provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information, variables derived from ExECG can yield substantial data for risk stratification, either supplementary to imaging variables or without concurrent imaging. In addition to exercise-induced ischemic ST-segment depression, such markers as ST-segment elevation in lead aVR, abnormal heart rate recovery post-exercise, failure to achieve target heart rate, and poor exercise capacity improve risk stratification of ExECG. For example, patients achieving ≥10 metabolic equivalents on ExECG have a very low prevalence of inducible ischemia and an excellent prognosis. In contrast, cardiac imaging techniques add diagnostic and prognostic value in higher-risk populations (e.g., poor functional capacity, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease). Optimal test selection for symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease requires a patient-centered approach factoring in the risk/benefit ratio and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Meetings Order Materials Clinical Trials Support Group Leader Training Adolescent and Young Adult Guidelines For brain ... nitrites), cigarette smoking, cell phone use, and residential power line exposure, for example—are true risk factors ...

  20. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanesan Narasimhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malnutrition, and young age, emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

  1. Use of implantable loop recorders in patients with Brugada syndrome and suspected risk of ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, Maciej; Aïssou, Linda; Traullé, Sarah; Gugenheim, Anne-Lise; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain

    2012-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is recommended in patients with Brugada syndrome (BS) who experienced aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD) or syncope while the risk stratification of ventricular arrhythmias is a difficult step in patients with atypical symptoms. Implantable loop recorder (ILR) use has been proposed to study patients with unexplained recurrent syncopal events, but its usefulness remains to be defined in patients with BS. In this retrospective study we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ILR as a diagnostic tool in BS patients suspected of low or moderate risk of SCD. We gathered data from 11 ILR recipients with supposed risk of ventricular arrhythmia, issue of Amiens registry of 204 patients with BS. We reported clinical events before and after implant, electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristics, ILR findings, and its limitations as well as tried to specify ILR utility in diagnosis approach and its consequent contribution to guide the optimal therapy. Within the 11 patients (8 men, 3 women), 9 were symptomatic, and 5 had a spontaneous Type 1 ECG pattern. During mean follow-up period of 33 months, 8 patients had a recurrence of symptoms with a mean delay of 9 months after implant. Bradycardia (two atrioventricular blocks and two sinus bradycardia) was detected in four out of eight patients (50%), and there was no ventricular arrhythmia in any patient during symptomatic events which included six vasovagal syncopes and two epileptic seizures. Two initially asymptomatic patients did not experience any symptoms after ILR implant and their ILR recordings did not reveal any arrhythmias. The ILR contributed to the exclusion of a ventricular arrhythmia as a mechanism of an atypical syncope in patients with electrocardiographic BS and the suspension of the ICD implant. Episodes of transient symptomatic bradycardia were the most common findings suggesting the vagal mechanism of symptoms. The use of ILR should be considered in selected

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of placental growth factor in women with suspected preeclampsia: a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Lucy C; Duckworth, Suzy; Seed, Paul T; Griffin, Melanie; Myers, Jenny; Mackillop, Lucy; Simpson, Nigel; Waugh, Jason; Anumba, Dilly; Kenny, Louise C; Redman, Christopher W G; Shennan, Andrew H

    2013-11-05

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a major contributor to death and disability for pregnant women and their infants. The diagnosis of preeclampsia by using blood pressure and proteinuria is of limited use because they are tertiary, downstream features of the disease. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is an angiogenic factor, a secondary marker of associated placental dysfunction in preeclampsia, with known low plasma concentrations in the disease. In a prospective multicenter study, we studied the diagnostic accuracy of low plasma PlGF concentration (preeclampsia between 20 and 35 weeks' gestation (and up to 41 weeks' gestation as a secondary analysis). The outcome was delivery for confirmed preeclampsia within 14 days. Of 625 women, 346 (55%) developed confirmed preeclampsia. In 287 women enrolled before 35 weeks' gestation, PlGF preeclampsia within 14 days; specificity was lower (0.55; 0.48-0.61). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for low PlGF (0.87, standard error 0.03) for predicting preeclampsia within 14 days was greater than all other commonly used tests, singly or in combination (range, 0.58-0.76), in women presenting with suspected preeclampsia (Ppreeclampsia, low PlGF has high sensitivity and negative predictive value for preeclampsia within 14 days, is better than other currently used tests, and presents an innovative adjunct to management of such women.

  3. Risk factors associated with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, K; Silm, H; Maaroos, H-I; Oona, M

    2010-05-01

    Although rosacea is a common disease, the cause of disease is still a mystery -Helicobacter pylori infection, genetic predisposition, climatic factors, and detrimental habits are implicated as triggers of rosacea. The aim of current study is to evaluate several suspected risk factors coincidently. Patients with rosacea from a dermatology clinic and skin-healthy controls from an randomly selected employees' population enrolled the study. Skin status were evaluated by one and same dermatologist. Participants were queried for age, gender, sun-reactive skin type, and detrimental habits using a questionnaire; blood samples for detecting Helicobacter pylori serostatus were collected. Totally 145 skin-healthy controls and 172 subjects either with flushing episodes or established rosacea included the study. In multivariate analysis, rosacea patients had significantly higher chance to have photosensitive skin types (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.01-3.04; P < 0.05), positive family history to rosacea (OR 4.31; 95% CI 2.34-7.92; P < 0.0001) or previous smoking status (OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.07-3.80; P < 0.05) comparing with skin-healthy controls. There were no statistically significant differences either in gender, Helicobacter pylori serostatus, caffeine intake, alcohol consumption, occupational environment, or education level between rosacea patients and controls. Rosacea is foremost associated with familial predisposition. There is no association between Helicobacter pylori infection and rosacea in current study.

  4. Risk model for suspected acute coronary syndrome is of limited value in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Christian Backer; Christiansen, Maja; Jørgensen, Jess Bjerre; Staehr, Peter Bisgaard

    2015-10-01

    Among patients with acute chest pain, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is seen only in a minority of the patients, which raises the question, whether it is possible to separate a group with a high risk of ACS for admission to a cardiac care unit (CCU) from those with a low risk who would be treated at an emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe a risk stratification model for a Danish context. This was a historic prospective cohort study of patients with suspicion of ACS. The patient was defined as a low-risk patient and admitted to the ED if: 1) electrocardiogram (ECG) was normal, 2) the patient did not have persisting chest pain and 3) there was no history of ischaemic heart disease, heart failure or cardioverter defibrillator. Otherwise, patients were admitted to the CCU. The primary outcome was whether the ACS diagnosis was confirmed or rejected. We included a total of 488 patients with suspicion of ACS, 50% of whom were low-risk patients. 17% had a verified ACS; 10% of those in the low-risk group and 24% of those in the high-risk group (p = 0.0001). Among the verified ACS cases, 71% went primarily to the CCU. The odds ratio for an ACS if assigned to the high-risk group was 3.0. Allocation to the high-risk group, male gender and age above 60 years was associated with a higher risk of ACS. For patients fulfilling the high-risk definition, sensitivity was 71%, specificity 55%, negative predictive value 90% and positive predictive value 24% for an ACS. The model for stratification separated patients into two equal groups, allocated 71% of all ACS directly to the CCU and could not be improved by any of the additional factors examined. Further development of referral strategies for chest pain patients is required. none. not relevant.

  5. [Laryngeal cancer risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Dariusz; Dzaman, Karolina; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2006-07-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common of head and neck cancers. Neoplasm used to develop basing on DNA mutation which leads to uncontrolled growth and cells' division. It is due to spontaneous mutations or influence of chemical, biological and physical factors. Laryngeal cancer generation is conditioned by many synergic factors. Some of them certainly participate in cancer genesis and this thesis is accepted by medical environment and other of them have been discussed giving different information. Definition of the risk factors role in laryngeal cancer etiology is very difficult especially regarding their contemporary occurrence in one person. Most common risk factors are environmental factors, gastroesophageal reflux, viral infections, diet, radiation, individual predisposition. Some of them, such as cigarette smoking and abuse alcohol are significantly oftener confirmed in patients with neoplasm diagnosis and others' role in developing of illness has been still researched. Thus the purpose of the study was to present so far achievements in laryngeal cancer etiology and to emphasize controversies relating to some factors' role in cancer genesis.

  6. [Pathological gambling: risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L

    2011-09-01

    In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be

  7. Risk Factors for Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hau Chen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a complex human disease. The incidence of dementia among the elderly population is rising rapidly worldwide. In the United States, Alzheimer's disease (AD is the leading type of dementia and was the fifth and eighth leading cause of death in women and men aged ≥ 65 years, respectively, in 2003. In Taiwan and many other counties, dementia is a hidden health issue because of its underestimation in the elderly population. In Western countries, the prevalence of AD increases from 1–3% among people aged 60–64 years to 35% among those aged > 85 years. In Taiwan, the prevalence of dementia for people aged ≥ 65 years was 2–4% by 2000. Therefore, it is important to identify protective and risk factors for dementia to prevent this disease at an early stage. Several factors are related to dementia, e.g. age, ethnicity, sex, genetic factors, physical activity, smoking, drug use, education level, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidity, and environmental factors. In this review, we focus on studies that have evaluated the association between these factors and the risk of dementia, especially AD and vascular dementia. We also suggest future research directions for researchers in dementia-related fields.

  8. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  9. Factors associated with late presentation of suspected tuberculosis cases to tuberculosis management facilities: The case in Dagoretti district, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, Irene Wambui; Karanja, Simon Muturi; Wanzala, Peter; Omolo, Jared Odhiambo

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease accounting for a high number of deaths in the developing countries; its control can be effectively achieved if individuals with the disease receive adequate and timely treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with late presentation of suspects to tuberculosis management facilities in Dagoretti district in Nairobi, Kenya. Method A cross sectional study was conducted on patients aged 18 years and above attending TB clinics in Dagoretti District, Nairobi Kenya. A total of 426 TB suspects were interviewed. The study covered 8 clinics in Dagoretti district. Analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0 and Epi info version 6, this included Chi Square for Bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression for Multivariate Analysis. Results Out of the 426 tuberculosis suspects, 248 (58.2%) suspects had delayed in seeking medical care. In Bivariate analysis male gender (P = 0.039, O.R = 1.51; 95% Confidence Interval; 1.00- 2.27), level of education (Primary class 5-8) (P = 0.001, O.R= 2.06; 95% C.I 1.34-3.19) and place of first medical care (drug store) (P= 0.013, O.R = 1.63; 95% C.I 1.09-2.46) were all significantly associated with late presentation. After multivariate logistic regression, gender (P = 0,019, OR = 1.6), level of education (p = 0.029, OR = 1.26) and place of first medical care (P= 0.01 OR = 1.27), were found to be significantly associated with late presentation. Conclusion This study shows that age, level of education and place of first medical care are the factors associated with late presentation of suspects to tuberculosis management facilities. PMID:23077714

  10. Risk factors associated with cholera in Harare City, Zimbabwe, 2008 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Two suspected cholera cases at Beatrice Road Infectious Diseases Hospital were reported to Harare City Health on 14 October 2008 setting in motion investigation and control measures. We determined the extent of the epidemic and risk factors for contracting cholera. Methods: An unmatched 1:1 case-control ...

  11. Underuse of risk assessment and overuse of computed tomography pulmonary angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Michael; Aggarwal, Leena; Scott, Ian A; Cocks, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Evidence suggests the potential overuse of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in patients with suspected pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in the absence of consistent use of pre-test clinical prediction rules and D-dimer assays. To evaluate use and diagnostic utility of clinical prediction rules and D-dimer assay in patients with suspected PTE and quantify potentially avoidable overuse of CTPA in low risk patients. A total of 344 consecutive patients undergoing CTPA at a tertiary hospital was studied with regards to the use of D-dimer assays and clinical prediction rules for PTE. For each patient, a modified Wells score (mWS), revised Geneva score and PISA model were calculated retrospectively; performance characteristics for each rule for PTE were determined with reference to results of CTPA. Results for the mWS and D-dimer assays (when performed) were used to estimate the overuse of CTPA according to risk category. Use of a clinical prediction rule was documented in only 5.0% of cases. Of 269 low-risk patients who had a calculated mWS ≤4, only 64 (23.8%) had a D-dimer assay performed, with 30 (11.1%) having a PTE on CTPA. Among 75 patients with an mWS >4, 23 (30.7%) had a PTE on CTPA (P 4 had the highest positive predictive value (31.0%) for PTE; all rules demonstrated similar negative predictive values for low-risk scores (87-89%). After adjusting for an 11% false negative rate for PTE in patients with low-risk mWS, overuse of CTPA was reported in up to 190 (55.2%) patients. More than 50% of patients with suspected PTE may be subject to unwarranted use of CTPA in the absence of pre-test clinical prediction rules coupled with D-dimer assays. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Request Permissions Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Salivary Gland Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Salivary Gland Cancer ...

  13. Highly suspected cases of salmonellosis in two cats fed with a commercial raw meat-based diet: health risks to animals and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Magarotto, Jacopo; Serraino, Andrea; Piva, Silvia

    2017-07-24

    Feeding raw meat-based diets (RMBD) to companion animals raises public health concerns for both animals and humans. While considerable attention has been paid to bacterial contamination of commercial pet food, few literature studies have investigated foodborne disease in companion animals. Salmonellosis is reported to be infrequent in cats but no known data or studies estimating feline salmonellosis are available or large-scale epidemiological studies assessing Salmonella risk factors. Two highly suspected cases of salmonellosis in two cats fed with a commercial frozen poultry RMBD are presented, for the first time from the same household. The clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and follow-up are reported and the zoonotic implications are discussed. This case highlights the health risks posed to both animals and owners by feeding RMBD to pets, and suggests that these risks should be considered by veterinary practitioners.

  14. Pediatric glaucoma suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooner K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Karanjit Kooner,1 Matthew Harrison,1 Zohra Prasla,1 Mohannad Albdour,1 Beverley Adams-Huet21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: To report demographic and ocular features of pediatric glaucoma suspects in an ethnically diverse population of North Central Texas.Design: Retrospective cross-sectional chart review.Participants: Subjects included 75 (136 eyes pediatric glaucoma suspects. Patients with one or more of the following risk factors were included: cup-to disc (C/D ratio of ≥0.6; intraocular pressure (IOP ≥21 mmHg; family history of glaucoma; congenital glaucoma in the opposite eye; history of blunt trauma to either eye; and presence of either Sturge–Weber or Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome, or oculodermal melanocytosis.Methods: Data were extracted from electronic patient medical records. Patient records with incomplete data were excluded. The main outcome measures were race, sex, age, IOP, C/D, family history of glaucoma; and glaucoma treatment.Results: Subjects included 28 (37.3% Hispanics, 20 (26.6% African Americans, 20 (26.6% Caucasians, and seven (9.3% Asians. Forty (53.3% of the patients were male. Suspicious optic disc was seen in 57 (76%; elevated IOP in 25 (33.3%; presence of family history in 13 (17.3%, and Sturge–Weber syndrome in nine (12% patients. The average C/D ratio was 0.58±0.2. The C/D ratios of African American (0.65±0.2, Hispanic (0.63±0.2, and Asian (0.62±0.15 patients were significantly greater than those of Caucasians (0.43±0.18; P=0.0004, 0.0003, and 0.0139, respectively. Caucasian patients were the youngest (7.9±4.8 years. Eleven cases (14.7% required medication.Conclusion: Thirty-three point seven percent of patients seen in the glaucoma clinic were glaucoma suspects. The most common risk factors for suspected glaucoma were suspicious optic discs, elevated IOP, and family history

  15. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  16. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  17. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  18. Glaucoma history and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. McMonnies

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease.

  19. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  20. Risk factors for child abuse: quantitative correlational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Barbashov, Polina; Minasyan, Yulia; Hanukayev, Isabella; Kajdan, David; Klein-Kremer, Adi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to identify risk factors typical of different types of suspected child abuse reported at a hospital. The study was based on 114 cases of children for whom some type of abuse was reported. Physical abuse was the most frequently reported of all types of suspected child abuse. Most victims of sexual abuse were female and at least half the cases of neglect and physical abuse were attributed to parents. Most cases were identified in the emergency room by nurses. Children older than 10 were more susceptible to physical abuse and neglect. © 2014.

  1. "Young People Are No Longer at Risk--They Are the Risk": Henry Giroux's "Youth in a Suspect Society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClennen, Sophia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes Henry Giroux's recent book Youth in a Suspect Society: democracy or disposability? (Palgrave, 2009) and situates it within his post-9/11 critical interventions. Giroux has focused his recent work on theorizing, critiquing and challenging the confluence of militarization, corporatization and right-wing ideology that has…

  2. Risk factors of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khvorostukhina N.F.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: to study risk factors and options for clinical course of acute intestinal obstruction in pregnancy. Materials and methods. A detailed study of history, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment characteristics of acute intestinal obstruction in 79 pregnant women was undertaken. Results: It was determined that a combination of intestinal obstruction, and pregnancy is more common for II and III trimester of gestation (88,5%, with more likely to develop mechanical obstruction caused by the adhesive process (77,2%. Risk factors for intestinal obstruction in pregnancy are: chronic diseases of gastrointestinal tract, surgery of abdominal cavity and pelvis, burdened obstetric and gynecological history and long-term use of progestogens during pregnancy. Difficulties in diagnosis are associated with absence of classical symptoms of disease that is caused by changes in topographical relations of abdominal cavity, increasing size of uterus, as well as lack of immune response to the emergence of a pathological process. Conclusion. Formation of pregnant women at risk for development of intestinal obstruction and preventive measures to address violations of intestinal motor function can reduce the risk of disease. Algorithm of medical tactics for suspected acute intestinal obstruction in pregnancy, allowing to reduce time of diagnosis and provision of medical care.

  3. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk model for suspected acute coronary syndrome is of limited value in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Christian Backer; Christiansen, Maja; Jørgensen, Jess Bjerre

    2015-01-01

    if assigned to the high-risk group was 3.0. Allocation to the high-risk group, male gender and age above 60 years was associated with a higher risk of ACS. For patients fulfilling the high-risk definition, sensitivity was 71%, specificity 55%, negative predictive value 90% and positive predictive value 24......INTRODUCTION: Among patients with acute chest pain, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is seen only in a minority of the patients, which raises the question, whether it is possible to separate a group with a high risk of ACS for admission to a cardiac care unit (CCU) from those with a low risk who would...... be treated at an emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe a risk stratification model for a Danish context. METHODS: This was a historic prospective cohort study of patients with suspicion of ACS. The patient was defined as a low-risk patient and admitted to the ED if: 1...

  5. Ecological risk assessment of substances with suspected estrogenic activity using standard laboratory fish tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gimeno, S.; Bowmer, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of risks to the aquatic environment in the European Union is generally based on a comparison of Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) with Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) for surrogate, or `representative', organisms of the receiving waters. Such risk assessments are

  6. Managing Multiple Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lollis, Charlie

    1998-01-01

    ...) contribute to the racial differences in cardiovascular risk and events among women. High levels of socioeconomic stress, higher dietary fat intake and sedentary lifestyle are more prevalent among black than white women...

  7. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Version » [ pdf, 433 kb ] Order Materials » Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is ... and can be treated with drugs or surgery. Symptoms of a Stroke If you see or have one or more ...

  8. Some risk factors associated with acid-alcohol-fast bacilli in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some risk factors associated with acid-alcohol-fast bacilli in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Jos, central Nigeria. ... African Journal of Infectious Diseases ... This study aimed at determining some risk factors associated with the prevalence of acid-alcohol-fast-bacilli (AAFB) within the study area. Materials ...

  9. A novel sonographic scoring system for antenatal risk assessment of obstetric complications in suspected morbidly adherent placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Yinon; Spira, Maya; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Schiff, Eyal; Sivan, Eyal; Achiron, Reuven

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel sonographic scoring system for risk assessment of complications in patients suspected of having morbidly adherent placenta. This retrospective study evaluated the association between maternal complications and a grayscale sonographic scoring system for adherent placenta before surgery. Criteria for adherent placenta included uteroplacental and uterobladder demarcation lines and the presence of lacunae. Placentas were classified into 4 stages: stage 0, normal placentation; stage 1, low probability of adherence; stage 2, moderate possibility of adherence; and stage 3, high suspicion of adherence. Placental adherence as assessed by a surgical team, estimated blood loss, and postoperative hospitalization days were determined for each group, as well as the rates of the need for packed blood cells, cryoprecipitate units, and hysterectomy. One hundred nine women were included in the study. Twenty-six (23.8%) women were given a score of stage 0, 22 (20.2%) stage 1, 28 (25.7%) stage 2, and 33 (30.3%) stage 3. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the sonographic staging was the only variable significantly associated with the number of packed cells or cryoprecipitate units transfused (P< .001) and a clinical diagnosis of adherent placenta (P< .001). In addition, both sonographic staging and a history of cesarean delivery were significantly associated with hysterectomy (P = .01; P = .03, respectively), treatment with any blood products (P< .001; P= .01), and the duration of postoperative hospitalization (P< .001; P = .006). A scoring system based on simple grayscale parameters may be effective for antenatal risk assessment of maternal complications in cases of suspected morbidly adherent placenta. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Spooky Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Lara

    2011-01-01

    This activity presents an option for covering biology content while engaging students in an investigation that highlights the spirit of Halloween. Students are engaged in the story line and have fun trying to solve the mystery kidnapping by using science skills to examine the evidence and eliminate some ghoulish suspects. (Contains 1 figure.)

  11. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.

    2010-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals. PMID:24149029

  12. Comparison of the HEART and TIMI Risk Scores for Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Benjamin C; Laurie, Amber; Fu, Rongwei; Ferencik, Maros; Shapiro, Michael; Lindsell, Christopher J; Diercks, Deborah; Hoekstra, James W; Hollander, Judd E; Kirk, J Douglas; Peacock, W Frank; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Pollack, Charles V

    2016-03-01

    The emergency department evaluation for suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is common, costly, and challenging. Risk scores may help standardize clinical care and screening for research studies. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and HEART are two commonly cited risk scores. We tested the null hypothesis that the TIMI and HEART risk scores have equivalent test characteristics. We analyzed data from the Internet Tracking Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes (i*trACS) from 9 EDs on patients with suspected ACS, 1999-2001. We excluded patients with an emergency department diagnosis consistent with ACS, or without sufficient data to calculate TIMI and HEART scores. The primary outcome was 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events, including all-cause death, acute myocardial infarction, and urgent revascularization. We describe test characteristics of the TIMI and HEART risk scores. The study cohort included 8255 patients with 508 (6.2%) 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events. Receiver operating curve and reclassification analyses favored HEART [c statistic: 0.753, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.733-0.773; continuous net reclassification improvement: 0.608, 95% CI: 0.527-0.689] over TIMI (c statistic: 0.678, 95% CI: 0.655-0.702). A HEART score 0-3 [negative predictive value (NPV) 0.982, 95% CI: 0.978-0.986; positive predictive value (PPV) 0.103, 95% CI: 0.094-0.113; likelihood ratio (LR) positive 1.76; LR negative 0.28] demonstrates similar or superior NPV/PPV/LR compared with TIMI = 0 (NPV 0.978, 95% CI: 0.971-0.983; PPV 0.077, 95% CI: 0.071-0.084; LR positive 1.28; LR negative 0.35) and TIMI = 0-1 (NPV 0.963, 95% CI: 0.958-0.968; PPV 0.102, 95% CI: 0.092-0.113; LR positive 1.73; LR negative 0.58). The HEART score has better discrimination than TIMI and outperforms TIMI within previously published "low-risk" categories.

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional de......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  14. Value of Exercise Stress Electrocardiography for Risk Stratification in Patients With Suspected or Known Coronary Artery Disease in the Era of Advanced Imaging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Jamieson M.; Beller, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise stress electrocardiography (ExECG) is underutilized as the initial test modality in patients with interpretable electrocardiograms able to exercise. Although, stress myocardial imaging techniques provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information, variables derived from ExECG can yield substantial data for risk stratification, either supplementary to imaging variables, or without concurrent imaging. In addition to exercise-induced ischemic ST depression, such markers as ST segment elevation in lead AVR, abnormal heart rate recovery post-exercise, failure to achieve target heart rate, and poor exercise capacity improve risk stratification of ExECG. For example, patients achieving ≥10 METS on ExECG have a very low prevalence of inducible ischemia and an excellent prognosis. In contrast, cardiac imaging techniques add diagnostic and prognostic value in higher risk populations (e.g. poor functional capacity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease). Optimal test selection for symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease requires a patient-centered approach factoring in the risk/benefit ratio and cost-effectiveness. PMID:26563861

  15. Factors associated with number of duodenal samples obtained in suspected celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamban, Leonid; Sorser, Serge; Naydin, Stan; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Shukr, Mousa; Wiemann, Charlotte; Yevsyukov, Daniel; Piper, Michael H; Warren, Bradley; Green, Peter H R

    2017-12-01

     Many people with celiac disease are undiagnosed and there is evidence that insufficient duodenal samples may contribute to underdiagnosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether more samples leads to a greater likelihood of a diagnosis of celiac disease and to elucidate factors that influence the number of samples collected.  We identified patients from two community hospitals who were undergoing duodenal biopsy for indications (as identified by International Classification of Diseases code) compatible with possible celiac disease. Three cohorts were evaluated: no celiac disease (NCD, normal villi), celiac disease (villous atrophy, Marsh score 3), and possible celiac disease (PCD, Marsh score celiac disease had a median of 4 specimens collected. The percentage of patients diagnosed with celiac disease with one sample was 0.3 % compared with 12.8 % of those with six samples ( P  = 0.001). Patient factors that positively correlated with the number of samples collected were endoscopic features, demographic details, and indication ( P  = 0.001). Endoscopist factors that positively correlated with the number of samples collected were absence of a trainee, pediatric gastroenterologist, and outpatient setting ( P  celiac disease significantly increased with six samples. Multiple factors influenced whether adequate biopsies were taken. Adherence to guidelines may increase the diagnosis rate of celiac disease.

  16. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A.S.T. Quiz Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Nov 22,2016 Excerpted from "What Women ... Cerebral Aneurysms 7 Types of Aphasia 8 Brain Stem Stroke 9 Cognitive Challenges After Stroke 10 Personality ...

  17. Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Signs and symptoms of congenital malaria do not differ much from those of neonatal sepsis: both can co-exist, and most times very difficult to differentiate clinically. Objective: To document the prevalence, risk factors for congeni tal malar ia among neonates admitted for suspected neonatal sepsis, and ...

  18. Risk factors of placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Feizi, Awat; Mousavi, Maryam; Sohrabi, Davood; Mesghari, Leila; Hosseini, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case ? control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected co...

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  20. Risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and maternal medical diseases were obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register, maternal intake...... of medicine during pregnancy from the National Prescription Drug Register, and birth characteristics of the child from the Danish National Birth Register. Rate ratios (RR) of isolated and syndromic CHC with 95% CI were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression. RESULTS: In a cohort of 1928666 live...... increased risk of isolated CHC compared to unexposed children (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.29) (1.5/1000 born children). Risk factors also found for syndromic CHC were: Male gender, multiples and maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for isolated CHC in first-born children as well as behavioural...

  1. A review of the risk factors in primary open angle glaucoma | Omoti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aetiology of primary open-angle glaucoma is still uncertain. However certain factors are known or suspected of having an aetiologic role. These are known as the risk factors. These include higher intraocular pressures, black race, old age especially after the age of 40 years, the peculiar larger optic disc structure of ...

  2. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  3. Risk factors for undescended testis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Bruijne, L.M. de; Gier, R.P.E. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To contribute to the understanding of the etiology of undescended testis (UDT), by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were recruited at five hospitals and included 200 boys with surgically corrected UDT and

  4. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel.

  5. Risk factors of placental abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooria Seyedhosseini Ghaheh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected controls were investigated. Statistical analysis for comparing the studied risk factors between groups was performed using Pearson ′ s Chi-square test along with presenting relevant odds ratio (OR. Results: From 7301 deliveries included in the study, 78 (1% was complicated placental abruption. Women aged 35 or more likely for experiencing (OR = 3.650, 95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.57-6.83 and those who had a previous cesarean section (OR = 2.65, 95% CL = 3.91- 33.41 were in higher risk for placental abruption ([50 cases] 64% vs. [28 cases] 36% P < 0.01. Conclusion: The results indicate that among the placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during the pregnancy and one of the major obstetrical emergency.

  6. [Risk factors associated to preclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia

    2012-01-01

    preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.

  7. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk Factors Reveals Subtype Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Johanna; Eriksson, Louise; Ploner, Alexander; Eriksson, Mikael; Rantalainen, Mattias; Li, Jingmei; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2017-07-01

    Subtype heterogeneity for breast cancer risk factors has been suspected, potentially reflecting etiologic differences and implicating risk prediction. However, reports are conflicting regarding the presence of heterogeneity for many exposures. To examine subtype heterogeneity across known breast cancer risk factors, we conducted a case-control analysis of 2,632 breast cancers and 15,945 controls in Sweden. Molecular subtype was predicted from pathology record-derived IHC markers by a classifier trained on PAM50 subtyping. Multinomial logistic regression estimated separate ORs for each subtype by the exposures parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, menarche, hormone replacement therapy use, somatotype at age 18, benign breast disease, mammographic density, polygenic risk score, family history of breast cancer, and BRCA mutations. We found clear subtype heterogeneity for genetic factors and breastfeeding. Polygenic risk score was associated with all subtypes except for the basal-like (Pheterogeneity risk of basal-like subtype [OR 4.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89-9.21] compared with both nulliparity (reference) and breastfeeding. Breastfeeding was not associated with risk of HER2-overexpressing type, but protective for all other subtypes. The observed heterogeneity in risk of distinct breast cancer subtypes for germline variants supports heterogeneity in etiology and has implications for their use in risk prediction. The association between basal-like subtype and breastfeeding merits more research into potential causal mechanisms and confounders. Cancer Res; 77(13); 3708-17. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  9. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  10. Risk factors for cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvanand, S; Kapoor, S K; Reddaiah, V P; Singh, U; Sundaram, K R

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a major cause of crippling in children, but it's etiology is poorly understood. This case control study was done to assess some of the identified risk factors for cerebral palsy, 125 cerebral palsy cases selected from hospital clinic and 125 age and sex matched neighbourhood controls, all aged less than 5 years and residing in Delhi (India) were studied. Information regarding antenatal, natal and postnatal period was collected by mother's interview, and wherever available, from hospital records with the study subjects. Most common type of cerebral palsy was spastic (88%). Quadriplegia was the commonest topographical subtype (86.4%). Birth asphyxia was found to be present in only 25.6% of cases. The commonest risk factor amongst cases was low birth weight (28.8%). The multivariate odds ratios (confidence limits) for the risk factors found to be significantly associated with cerebral palsy were 36.1 (7.76-160) for birth asphyxia, 13.8 (4.95-38.3) for low birth weight, 37.4 (4.47-313) for neonatal convulsion, 23 (4.7-112) for neonatal jaundice, 14.4 (3.69-56.4) for neonatal infection, 24.9 (2.78-223) for instrument assisted delivery and 15.4 (1.57-152) for antepartum hemorrhage. Precipitate labour, caesarean section, twins, toxemia, breech delivery and head injury were not found to be significantly associated with cerebral palsy. Thus birth asphyxia, low birth weight, neonatal convulsions, neonatal jaundice, neonatal infection, instrument assisted delivery and antepartum hemorrhage are significant risk factors for cerebral palsy.

  11. Suggested Cut-Off Values for Vitamin D as a Risk Marker for Total and Cardiac Death in Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Naesgaard, Patrycja A.; Ricardo A. León de la Fuente; Nilsen, Stein Tore; Pönitz, Volker; Brügger-Andersen, Trygve; Grundt, Heidi; Staines, Harry; Nilsen, Dennis W.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut-off levels are still under debate. Objectives To assess two cut-off levels, 40 and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Methods We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of d...

  12. Predictive value of routine point-of-care cardiac troponin T measurement for prehospital diagnosis and risk-stratification in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B; Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Jacob T

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of routine prehospital point-of-care cardiac troponin T measurement for diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: All prehospital emergency medical servi...... irrespective of the final diagnosis. Routine troponin measurement in the prehospital setting has a high predictive value and can be used to identify high-risk patients even before hospital arrival so that they may be re-routed directly for advanced care at an invasive centre.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of routine prehospital point-of-care cardiac troponin T measurement for diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: All prehospital emergency medical service...... vehicles in the Central Denmark Region were equipped with a point-of-care cardiac troponin T device (Roche Cobas h232) for routine use in all patients with a suspected acute myocardial infarction. During the study period, 1 June 2012-30 November 2015, prehospital point-of-care cardiac troponin T...

  13. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...... lipids. We suggest that conflicting results of cross-sectional and intervention studies of sex hormones and lipids, in part, may be explained by interindividual differences or changes in SHBG. Thus, further studies on the potential role of SHBG in the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) should......-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM...

  14. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infections in Dermatological Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current literature on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI in dermatological surgery in the absence of antibiotic prophylaxis is limited. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate patients presenting for dermatological surgery. A total of 1,977 procedures were reviewed. SSI was clinically suspected in 79 (4.0% patients and confirmed by culture in 38 (1.9%. Using the strictest definition of SSI (clinical symptoms with positive culture significantly higher risk of SSI was found for location on the ear (odds ratio (OR 6.03, 95% confidence interval (95% CI 2.12–17.15, larger defects (OR 1.08 per cm2 increase, 95% CI 1.03–1.14, closure with flaps (OR 6.35, 95% CI 1.33–30.28 and secondary intention (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.11–8.13. These characteristics were also associated with higher risk of clinically suspected SSI regardless of culture results with slightly lower ORs. In conclusion, the risk of acquiring a SSI is increased in surgeries performed on the ear, in larger wounds and in defects closed with flaps or healed by secondary intention.

  15. Analysis of ectasia after laser in situ keratomileusis: risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Perry S

    2007-09-01

    To examine a database of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) procedures for preoperative and operative factors assumed to increase the risk for developing post-LASIK ectasia. Private clinical practice. A computer database was queried for eyes that had LASIK for myopic refractive errors with the following characteristics: preoperative corneal thickness 500 microm or less, mean keratometry greater than 47.0 diopters (D), patient age 25 years or younger, attempted correction greater than -8.0 D, refractive astigmatism not with-the-rule and greater than 2.0 D, and residual stromal bed thickness (RST) 250 microm or less. Flap thickness and RST were measured using ultrasound pachymetry. All recorded information was exported to MS Excel and analyzed for eyes that had ectasia. Of the 9700 eyes in the database, none with the above characteristics developed ectasia over mean follow-up periods exceeding 2 years. Seven eyes had multiple risk factors without ectasia. Three eyes with abnormal preoperative topography developed ectasia. Individual preoperative and operative factors did not in and of themselves increase the risk for ectasia. Unmeasured and unknown factors that affect the individual cornea's biomechanical stability, in combination with some suspected risk factors as well as the current inability to identify corneas at risk for developing ectatic disorders, probably account for most eyes that develop ectasia today.

  16. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C compared to the estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict risk in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Jeinsen, Beatrice; Kraus, Daniel; Palapies, Lars; Tzikas, Stergios; Zeller, Tanja; Schauer, Anne; Drechsler, Christiane; Bickel, Christoph; Baldus, Stephan; Lackner, Karl J; Münzel, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeiher, Andreas M; Keller, Till

    2017-10-15

    Impaired renal function, reflected by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or cystatin C, is a strong risk predictor in the presence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is an early marker of acute kidney injury. uNGAL might also be a good predictor of outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of uNGAL compared to eGFR and cystatin C in patients with suspected AMI. 1818 patients were enrolled with suspected AMI. Follow-up information on the combined endpoint of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction was obtained 6months after enrolment and was available in 1804 patients. 63 events (3.5%) were registered. While cystatin C and eGFR were strong risk predictors for the primary endpoint even adjusted for several variables, uNGAL was not independently associated with outcome: When applied continuously uNGAL was associated with outcome but did not remain a statistically significant predictor after several adjustments (i.e. eGFR). By adding cystatin C or uNGAL to GRACE risk score variables, only cystatin C could improve the predictive value while uNGAL showed no improvement. We could show that cystatin C is an independent risk predictor in patients with suspected AMI and cystatin C can add improvement to the commonly used GRACE risk score. In contrast uNGAL is not independently associated with outcome and seems not to add further prognostic information to GRACE risk score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Etiology and risk factors of meningitis in patients admitted at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine etiology and risk factors of meningitis in patients admitted a tertiary referral Hospital in Harare. Design: Cross-Sectional Study. Setting: Urban Referral Health Facility. Subjects: Patients suspected of having Meningitis admitted at Parirenyatwa Hospital were consecutively consented and recruited into ...

  18. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  19. Injury risk factors for runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodal Abal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine those risk factors that may cause running injuries in general, and particularly damage to the muscle mass, and the tendon. Twenty six male and female Galician runners were evaluated about their lower limb flexibility and length, knee Q angle, explosive power and training features such as kilometers and sessions per week, level of competition, shoes, surface, injuries last year, use of insoles, athletic specially, age, weight and height. During next 12 weeks runners continued training as they had been doing regularly and we recorded all injuries that appeared in this period. After that and from the liner regression we obtained different models that explained the variability of general injuries, tendon injuries and damages to the muscle mass. We also find positive correlations between previous injuries and training volume, and these with the dependent variable «injuries in 12 weeks». In regard to tendinopathy and muscle mass injuries, we observed that the synthetic material present in the track is a risk factor for these muscle injuries. Meanwhile, the increasing age and the Q angle, increments the occurrence of tendon injuries.

  20. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalewayker Tegegne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6% among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256. Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0% of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%, and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%. Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  1. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  2. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  3. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insomnia. Sleep Problems as a Risk Factor for Suicide As noted above, sleep problems are associated with ... disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide (Wong & Brower, 2012). Overarousal, marked by agitation and ...

  4. Risk factors for serious morbidity in term nonanomalous neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Janine E; Tuuli, Methodius G; Macones, George A; Roehl, Kimberly A; Odibo, Anthony O; Cahill, Alison G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify ante- and intrapartum risk factors for serious morbidity in term nonanomalous neonates. We analyzed the first 5000 subjects within an ongoing prospective cohort study of consecutive term births from 2010-2012. The primary outcome was a composite of serious neonatal morbidity defined as ≥1 cases of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meconium aspiration with pulmonary hypertension, requirement of hypothermia therapy, respiratory distress syndrome, seizures, sepsis or suspected sepsis, or death. We calculated odds ratios for the composite morbidity that is associated with ante- and intrapartum factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios. Of 5000 term nonanomalous births, 393 had the composite morbidity. Significant risk factors for morbidity were nulliparity, presence of meconium, first stage of labor >95th percentile, second stage of labor >95th percentile, pregestational diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, obesity, maternal intrapartum fever, and cesarean delivery. In contrast, induction of labor and gestational age ≥41 weeks were not associated with significant morbidity. We identified several significant risk factors for serious morbidity in term nonanomalous neonates. Clinicians may use these risk factors to help anticipate the potential need for additional neonatal support at delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  6. Abnormal uterine artery Doppler in pregnancies suspected of a SGA fetus is related to increased risk of recurrence during next pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Ymir; Svantesson, Henrik; Gudmundsson, Saemundur

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if placental Doppler velocimetry can predict the recurrence of a small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetus in subsequent pregnancies. Retrospective study. City cohort over 15 years attending a university hospital. A total of 196 pregnancies suspected of a SGA fetus (SGA newborn during the succeeding pregnancy by Doppler results from the previous pregnancy. In the group of 196 pregnancies suspected for SGA, 27 (13.8%) delivered a SGA newborn in the following pregnancy. Thirty-seven (18.9%) of the 196 had an abnormally high PI in the uterine arteries in their first pregnancy, 12 (32.4%) of these delivered a SGA child in the next pregnancy (relative risk 3.44, pSGA (p=0.051). Uterine artery notching was not related to a SGA newborn during next pregnancy. The results suggest that abnormal uterine artery Doppler is related to increased risk of recurrence of SGA during the next pregnancy. This knowledge might provide the clinician with an opportunity to initiate preventive treatment and increase surveillance to women at risk during succeeding pregnancy.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment strategies of thrombophilic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Albayrak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilia is defined as the general name for a group of genetic and acquired situations, arising from defects of hemostasis mechanism and generating tendency to thrombosis. Examples of the acquired risk factors that increase the tendency to thrombosis are venous catheters, sepsis, surgery, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart disease, increased lipoprotein a, old age, antiphospholipid syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, hyperviscosity, chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, heparin induced thrombocytopenia, vasculitis, immobility, obesity, major surgery, trauma, burns, malignancy, pregnancy and oral contraceptive usage. Genetic tendency to venous thromboembolism in early ages, even without any known cause, is named as thrombophilia. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations, factor VIII elevation, protein C, protein S and antithrombin deficiency parameters are suggested for evaluation, in patient groups suspected of inherited thrombophilia. Detection of inherited thrombophilic factors in selected patient groups is a guide in developing treatment strategies and in establishing prognosis. Due to the genetic heterogeneities, each society should determine their thrombophilic risk pool. Thus, with the determination of the risk factors, unnecessary assessments will be prevented and a cost-effective approach can be developed.

  8. Anaphylaxis: risk factors for recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, R J

    2003-08-01

    There are few studies on the incidence or recurrence of anaphylaxis. To examine the incidence of anaphylaxis and risk factors for recurrence. A prospective study of 432 patients referred to a community-based specialist practice in the Australian Capital Territory with anaphylaxis, followed by a survey to obtain information on recurrence. Of 432 patients (48% male, 73% atopic, mean 27.4 years, SD 19.5, median 26) with anaphylaxis, 260 patients were seen after their first episode; 172 experienced 584 previous reactions. fifty-four percent of index episodes were treated in hospital. Aetiology was identified in 91.6% patients: food (61%), stinging insects (20.4%) or medication (8.3%). The minimum occurrence and incidence of new cases of anaphylaxis was estimated at 12.6 and 9.9 episodes/100,000 patient-years, respectively. Follow-up data were obtained from 304 patients (674 patient-years). One hundred and thirty experienced further symptoms (45 serious), 35 required hospitalization and 19 administered adrenaline. Accidental ingestion of peanut/tree nut caused the largest number of relapses, but the highest risk of recurrence was associated with sensitivity to wheat and/or exercise. Rates of overall and serious recurrence were 57 and 10 episodes/100 patient-years, respectively. Of those prescribed adrenaline, 3/4 carried it, 2/3 were in date, and only 1/2 patients faced with serious symptoms administered adrenaline. Five patients each developed new triggers for anaphylaxis, or re-presented with significant psychiatric symptoms. In any 1 year, 1/12 patients who have suffered anaphylaxis will experience recurrence, and 1/50 will require hospital treatment or use adrenaline. Compliance with carrying and using adrenaline is poor. Occasional patients develop new triggers or suffer psychiatric morbidity.

  9. Placental Growth Factor (PlGF in Women with Suspected Pre-Eclampsia Prior to 35 Weeks' Gestation: A Budget Impact Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Duckworth

    Full Text Available To model the resource implications of placental growth factor (PlGF testing in women with suspected pre-eclampsia prior to 35 weeks' gestation as part of a management algorithm, compared with current practice.Data on resource use from 132 women with suspected pre-eclampsia prior to 35 weeks' gestation, enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study evaluating PlGF measurement within antenatal assessment units within two UK consultant-led maternity units was extracted by case note review. A decision analytic model was developed using these data to establish the budget impact of managing women with suspected pre-eclampsia for two weeks from the date of PlGF testing, using a clinical management algorithm and reference cost tariffs. The main outcome measures of resource use (numbers of outpatient appointments, ultrasound investigations and hospital admissions were correlated to final diagnosis and used to calculate comparative management regimes.The mean cost saving associated with the PlGF test (in the PlGF plus management arm was £35,087 (95% CI -£33,181 to -£36,992 per 1,000 women. This equated to a saving of £582 (95% CI -552 to -£613 per woman tested. In 94% of iterations, PlGF testing was associated with cost saving compared to current practice.This analysis suggests PlGF used as part of a clinical management algorithm in women presenting with suspected pre-eclampsia prior to 35 weeks' gestation could provide cost savings by reducing unnecessary resource use. Introduction of PlGF testing could be used to direct appropriate resource allocation and overall would be cost saving.

  10. Association of intraoperative tissue oxygenation with suspected risk factors for tissue hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R. J.; Schwarte, L. A.; Hakenberg, O. W.; Scheeren, T. W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia may cause organ dysfunction, but not much is known about tissue oxygenation in the intraoperative setting. We studied microcirculatory tissue oxygen saturation (StO(2)) to determine representative values for anesthetized patients undergoing urological surgery and to test the

  11. Polyhydramnios. Risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Mariam; Saquib, Shabnam; Rizvi, Syed G

    2008-02-01

    To determine the risk factors associated with polyhydramnios, and assess the maternal and perinatal outcome in these patients. A prospective study of all deliveries complicated with polyhydramnios in Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Sultanate of Oman between January 2005 and April 2006. Polyhydramnios was divided into mild and moderate to severe based on the amniotic fluid index values. The demographic data, antenatal complications, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, postpartum complications, and perinatal outcome were studied. A total of 2648 singleton deliveries occurred during the study period. Two hundred and eight (7.8%) women with polyhydramnios formed the study group, and 2440 women with normal amniotic fluid formed the control. Polyhydramnios was mild in 179 (86.1%) and moderate to severe in 29 (13.9%) cases. Sixty-eight (32.7%) of these pregnancies were complicated with diabetes as compared with 12.4% of the controls. Preterm delivery occurred in 16 (7.7%) cases. Cesarean delivery rate was 27.9% in the study group compared with 17.3% in the control. Major congenital anomalies were found in 2.8% of newborns compared with 1% among the controls. Eighteen babies were admitted to the special care baby unit. These data demonstrates a significant positive relation with maternal age, diabetes in pregnancy, and fetal macrosomia with polyhydramnios. Anemia during pregnancy, cesarean delivery rate, and congenital anomalies were significantly higher in the study group.

  12. Biomechanical properties of keratoconus suspect eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Alain; Lteif, Yara; Azan, Elodie; Gatinel, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Measuring corneal biomechanical properties may help detect keratoconus suspect corneas and eliminate the risk of ectasia after LASIK. Data of 504 eyes separated into three groups were retrospectively reviewed: normal (n = 252), keratoconus suspect (n = 80), and keratoconus (n = 172). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with an ocular biomechanics analyzer. Mean corneal hysteresis was 10.6 +/- 1.4 (SD) mm Hg in the normal group, compared with 10.0 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the keratoconus suspect group and 8.1 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in the keratoconus group. The mean CRF was 10.6 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the normal group compared with 9.7 +/- 1.7 in the keratoconus suspect group and 7.1 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the keratoconus group. Mean CH and CRF were significantly different between the three groups (P corneas. Analyzing signal curves obtained with the biomechanics analyzer may provide additional valuable information for selecting qualified patients for refractive surgery.

  13. Negative predictive value and potential cost savings of acute nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging in low risk patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: A prospective single blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björk Jonas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies from the USA have shown that acute nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI in low risk emergency department (ED patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS can be of clinical value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility and hospital economics of acute MPI in Swedish ED patients with suspected ACS. Methods We included 40 patients (mean age 55 ± 2 years, 50% women who were admitted from the ED at Lund University Hospital for chest pain suspicious of ACS, and who had a normal or non-ischemic ECG and no previous myocardial infarction. All patients underwent MPI from the ED, and the results were analyzed only after patient discharge. The current diagnostic practice of admitting the included patients for observation and further evaluation was compared to a theoretical "MPI strategy", where patients with a normal MPI test would have been discharged home from the ED. Results Twenty-seven patients had normal MPI results, and none of them had ACS. MPI thus had a negative predictive value for ACS of 100%. With the MPI strategy, 2/3 of the patients would thus have been discharged from the ED, resulting in a reduction of total hospital cost by some 270 EUR and of bed occupancy by 0.8 days per investigated patient. Conclusion Our findings in a Swedish ED support the results of larger American trials that acute MPI has the potential to safely reduce the number of admissions and decrease overall costs for low-risk ED patients with suspected ACS.

  14. Identification of Behavioral Risk Factors During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruţa Florina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.

  15. Risk factors for glucose intolerance in active acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreze A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present retrospective study we determined the frequency of glucose intolerance in active untreated acromegaly, and searched for risk factors possibly supporting the emergence of the diabetic condition. Among 43 patients, 8 (19%; 95% CI: 8-33% had diabetes mellitus and 2 (5%; 1-16% impaired glucose tolerance. No impaired fasting glycemia was demonstrable. The frequency of diabetes was on average 4.5 times higher than in the general Slovak population. Ten factors suspected to support progression to glucose intolerance were studied by comparing the frequency of glucose intolerance between patients with present and absent risk factors. A family history of diabetes and arterial hypertension proved to have a significant promoting effect (P<0.05, chi-square test. A significant association with female gender was demonstrated only after pooling our data with literature data. Concomitant prolactin hypersecretion had a nonsignificant promoting effect. In conclusion, the association of active untreated acromegaly with each of the three categories of glucose intolerance (including impaired fasting glycemia, not yet studied in this connection was defined as a confidence interval, thus permitting a sound comparison with the findings of future studies. Besides a family history of diabetes, female gender and arterial hypertension were defined as additional, not yet described risk factors.

  16. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  17. Factor Analysis Influencing Postoperative Hospital Stay and Medical Costs for Patients with Definite, Suspected, or Unmatched Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoi Hayasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify significant independent preoperative factors influencing postoperative hospital stay (PHS and medical costs (MC in 171 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases and had definite, suspected, or unmatched acute cholecystitis (AC diagnosis according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13. Methods. The 171 patients were classified according to the combination of diagnostic criteria including local signs of inflammation (A, systemic signs of inflammation (B, and imaging findings (C: A+ B+ C (definite diagnosis, n=84, A+ B (suspected diagnosis, n=25, (A or B + C (n=10, A (n=41, and B (n=11. Results. The A+ B + C and (A or B + C groups had equivalent PHS and MC, suggesting that imaging findings were essential for AC diagnosis. PHS and MC were significantly increased in the order of severity grades based on TG13. Performance status (PS, white blood cell count, and severity grade were identified as preoperative factors influencing PHS by multivariate analysis, and significant independent preoperative factors influencing MC were age, PS, preoperative biliary drainage, hospital stay before surgery, albumin, and severity grade. Conclusion. PS and severity grade significantly influenced prolonged PHS and increased MC.

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraporti, Marisete Inês; Scherer Adami, Fernanda; Dutra Rosolen, Michele

    2017-10-01

    Systemic hypertension is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Early diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in childhood can potentially have a significant impact on future adverse outcomes. To investigate the relationship of diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) with anthropometric data and area of residence of children in municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study of 709 children between six and nine years of age. Blood pressure, weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Statistical tests had a maximum significance level of 5% (p≤0.05) and the software used was SPSS version 13.0. Obesity was significantly associated with pre-hypertension, and stage 1 and 2 hypertension as assessed by DBP and SBP (≤0.05); high WC was significantly associated with a classification of pre-hypertension and stage 1 hypertension based on DBP and a classification of stage 1 and 2 hypertension based on SBP (≤0.01). Children living in urban areas had significantly higher mean SBP than those living in rural areas. Those with high WC presented higher SBP and DBP compared to children with normal WC. Obese children showed higher mean SBP and DBP compared to those who were overweight or normal weight and mean SBP and DBP also increased with older age and higher mean body mass index and WC. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. prevalence and obstetric risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk of developing pelvic floor disorders 5 - 10 years after their first delivery. Our finding of a non-significant association between AI and instrumental delivery at 6 weeks after delivery differs from that of. Donnelly et al.,[6] who showed that instrumentation, mainly forceps delivery, carried the greatest risk for sphincter disruption ...

  20. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.

  1. Clinical Assessment and Management of Toddlers With Suspected Autism Spectrum Disorder: Insights From Studies of High-Risk Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Lord, Catherine; Rogers, Sally; Carter, Alice; Carver, Leslie; Chawarska, Kasia; Constantino, John; Dawson, Geraldine; Dobkins, Karen; Fein, Deborah; Iverson, Jana; Klin, Ami; Landa, Rebecca; Messinger, Daniel; Ozonoff, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Stone, Wendy; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2010-01-01

    With increased public awareness of the early signs and recent American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations that all 18- and 24-month-olds be screened for autism spectrum disorders, there is an increasing need for diagnostic assessment of very young children. However, unique challenges exist in applying current diagnostic guidelines for autism spectrum disorders to children under the age of 2 years. In this article, we address challenges related to early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders in this age group. We provide a comprehensive review of findings from recent studies on the early development of children with autism spectrum disorders, summarizing current knowledge on early signs of autism spectrum disorders, the screening properties of early detection tools, and current best practice for diagnostic assessment of autism spectrum disorders before 2 years of age. We also outline principles of effective intervention for children under the age of 2 with suspected/confirmed autism spectrum disorders. It is hoped that ongoing studies will provide an even stronger foundation for evidence-based diagnostic and intervention approaches for this critically important age group. PMID:19403506

  2. Validation of Spot screening device for amblyopia risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, Glynnis A; Donahue, Sean P

    2014-10-01

    To validate the Spot Vision Screener, a handheld digital screening device that evaluates children for amblyopia risk factors as defined by 2013 criteria of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS), in the setting of a controlled pediatric ophthalmology clinic. During a 3-month period, children 2-9 years of age were screened using Spot in a pediatric ophthalmology clinic before receiving a gold standard eye examination. Gold standard examinations were evaluated using the 2013 AAPOS Vision Screening Committee guidelines and compared with results from Spot, which were evaluated using two different manufacturer referral criteria: v1.0.3 and v1.1.51. The specificity and sensitivity for each set of referral criteria to detect both amblyopia risk factors and amblyopia were calculated. A total of 233 children were included. Of these, 155 were successfully screened and analyzed according to two different referral criteria. Spot screeing revealed ambyopia risk factors in 109 patients; examination confirmed amblyopia in 64. Using the original manufacturer's criteria (v1.0.3), Spot was 89% sensitive and 71% specific in detecting amblyopia risk factors. The updated referral criteria (v1.1.51) were applied to the same 155 patients, and specificity improved to 88% (P amblyopia, whereas Spot-v1.1.51 was 89% sensitive and 53% specific for detecting amblyopia. The Spot-v1.0.3 had high sensitivity but overreferred for suspected myopia and strabismus; Spot-v1.1.51 maintained high sensitivity and improved specificity. The original referral criteria has a high sensitivity to detect amblyopia risk factors but low specificty; v1.1.51 criteria increases specificity with minimal impact on sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors and risk reduction of breast and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurpose of review: Breast and ovarian cancer remain a significant burden for women living in the Western world. This paper reviews the risk factors and current strategies to prevent these diseases. Recent findings: Established factors associated with the risk of breast cancer include

  4. Measurement of coronary calcium scores by electron beam computed tomography or exercise testing as initial diagnostic tool in low-risk patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geluk, Christiane A.; Perik, Patrick J.; Tio, Rene A.; Goette, Marco J.W.; Hillege, Hans L.; Zijlstra, Felix [University Medical Center Groningen, Thoraxcenter, Department of Cardiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Dikkers, Riksta; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Houwers, Janneke B.; Willems, Tineke P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-02-15

    We determined the efficiency of a screening protocol based on coronary calcium scores (CCS) compared with exercise testing in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), a normal ECG and troponin levels. Three-hundred-and-four patients were enrolled in a screening protocol including CCS by electron beam computed tomography (Agatston score), and exercise testing. Decision-making was based on CCS. When CCS{>=}400, coronary angiography (CAG) was recommended. When CCS<10, patients were discharged. Exercise tests were graded as positive, negative or nondiagnostic. The combined endpoint was defined as coronary event or obstructive CAD at CAG. During 12{+-}4 months, CCS{>=}400, 10-399 and <10 were found in 42, 103 and 159 patients and the combined endpoint occurred in 24 (57%), 14 (14%) and 0 patients (0%), respectively. In 22 patients (7%), myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was performed instead of exercise testing due to the inability to perform an exercise test. A positive, nondiagnostic and negative exercise test result was found in 37, 76 and 191 patients, and the combined endpoint occurred in 11 (30%), 15 (20%) and 12 patients (6%), respectively. Receiver-operator characteristics analysis showed that the area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93) for CCS was superior to 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61-0.78) for exercise testing (P<0.0001). In conclusion, measurement of CCS is an appropriate initial screening test in a well-defined low-risk population with suspected CAD. (orig.)

  5. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  6. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  7. Is postoperative cognitive dysfunction a risk factor for dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kessing, L V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication in elderly patients after major surgery. An association between POCD and the development of dementia has been suspected. In this study, we assessed if POCD was a risk factor for the occurrence of dementia. METHODS......: /st>Danish patients enrolled between November 1994 and October 2000 in the two International Studies of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (ISPOCD 1 and 2) were followed until July 1, 2011. Cognitive performance was assessed at three time points: before operation, at 1 week, and 3 months after...... developed dementia during follow-up. The hazard ratio (95% CI) for any dementia diagnoses in patients with POCD at 1 week (n=118) and POCD at 3 months (n=57) after surgery compared with those without POCD was 1.16 (0.48-2.78), P=0.74, and 1.50 (0.51-4.44); P=0.47, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: /st...

  8. [Resistant gram-negative bacteria. Therapeutic approach and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, P; Gilsanz, F; Maseda, E

    2016-09-01

    The rapid spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria has become a serious threat, especially in critical care units, thereby prolonging the hospital stay. Enterobacteriaceae have a high capacity to adapt to any environment. Plasmids are the reason behind their expansion. The choice of empiric therapy for intra-abdominal or urinary infections requires knowledge of the intrinsic microbiological variability of each hospital or critical care unit, as well as the source of infection, safety or antibiotic toxicity, interaction with other drugs, the dosage regimen and the presence of risk factors. Carbapenems are the drug of choice in the case of suspected infection by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. The new ceftazidime/avibactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam drugs are opening up promising new horizons in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

  9. Epidemiology of conventional cardiovascular risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impaired fasting or glucose tolerance and/or diabetes can occur with hypertension, which theoretically predicts a worse cardiovascular risk profile, and consequently requires intensive cardiovasular risk management. Objectives. To characterise the frequency of the occurence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors ...

  10. Lifestyle and other risk factors for diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Stephan K; Kruis, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Diverticulosis is a very common condition. Around 20% of the carriers of diverticula are believed to suffer from diverticular disease during their lifetime. This makes diverticular disease one of the clinically and economically most significant diseases in gastroenterology. The etiopathogenesis of diverticulosis and diverticular disease is not well understood. Epidemiological studies allow defining risk factors for the development of diverticulitis and its complications. A comprehensive literature search was performed and the current knowledge about risk factors for diverticulitis and associated conditions reviewed. Besides non-controllable risk factors like age and sex, lifestyle factors like food, drinks and physical activity, drugs are described to increase or decrease the risk to develop diverticulitis or to suffer from complications. The recognition of risk factors for the development of diverticular disease or even complicated disease like lifestyle habits or medication is crucial for patient management.

  11. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning in Jerusalem: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Shaden; Amitai, Yona; Antopolsky, Meir; Rott, David; Stalnicowicz, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Jerusalem and identify risk factors for such poisoning. A retrospective descriptive analysis of patients with CO poisoning who presented to the Hadassah hospitals in Jerusalem from 1994 to 2006. All patients with suspected CO poisoning were examined and those with confirmed cases [carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level >5%] were included. Sources of exposure, seasonal variation, and demographic characteristics were analyzed. There were 292 patients (49% males) with 40 family clusters that accounted for 149 patients (51%); 230 patients (79%) presented during the winter months. All but one had unintentional CO intoxication. The main sources of exposure were faulty gas heaters (n = 135), fire (n = 102), and other residential heating systems (n = 40). The estimated annual incidence of CO poisoning decreased from 6.45 per 100,000 in 1994-2000 to 3.53 per 100,000 in 2001-2006. High-risk intoxication (COHb level >25%) occurred in 84 patients (29%). Factors associated with severe intoxication were male gender, individual patients (compared with those in clusters), and faulty gas heaters (compared with other sources). Males exposed to CO may have a more severe intoxication. The lower risk in patients presenting in clusters could be explained by the assumption that severe presentation in one patient alerts the others who are less severely affected. The implementation of safer standards for residential heating systems and CO detectors together with the public education may explain the decline in the incidence of CO poisoning.

  13. Posttraumatic cerebral infarction: incidence, outcome, and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawil, Isaac; Stein, Deborah M; Mirvis, Stuart E; Scalea, Thomas M

    2008-04-01

    Outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often affected by secondary insults including posttraumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI). The incidence of PTCI after TBI was previously reported to be 2% with no mortality impact. We suspected that recent advances in imaging modalities and treatment might affect incidence and outcome. We sought to define the incidence and mortality impact of PTCI. We also identified risk factors associated with PTCI. We retrospectively reviewed all patients admitted between 2004 and 2006 with severe TBI (brain Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score >2, Glasgow Coma Scale score [GCS] men. Mortality was 21%, and 48% had a brain AIS score of 5. Mean age was 36 years (11-90 years), admission GCS score was 5 (3-8), and Injury Severity Score was 32 (9-75). Thirty-one (8%) had a confirmed PTCI. The PTCI group had a significantly increased mortality (45% vs. 19%, p insult and the associated risk factors may help identify the group at risk and tailor management of patients with severe TBI.

  14. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464 pa...... to a standardized heat stimulus may preferably be treated using an operative technique with lowest risk for nerve damage.......BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...

  15. Can oral infection be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingar Olsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a scourge of longevity that will drain enormous resources from public health budgets in the future. Currently, there is no diagnostic biomarker and/or treatment for this most common form of dementia in humans. AD can be of early familial-onset or sporadic with a late-onset. Apart from the two main hallmarks, amyloid-beta and neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation is a characteristic feature of AD neuropathology. Inflammation may be caused by a local central nervous system insult and/or by peripheral infections. Numerous microorganisms are suspected in AD brains ranging from bacteria (mainly oral and non-oral Treponema species, viruses (herpes simplex type I, and yeasts (Candida species. A causal relationship between periodontal pathogens and non-oral Treponema species of bacteria has been proposed via the amyloid-beta and inflammatory links. Periodontitis constitutes a peripheral oral infection that can provide the brain with intact bacteria and virulence factors and inflammatory mediators due to daily, transient bacteremias. If and when genetic risk factors meet environmental risk factors in the brain, disease is expressed, in which neurocognition may be impacted, leading to the development of dementia. To achieve the goal of finding a diagnostic biomarker and possible prophylactic treatment for AD, there is an initial need to solve the etiological puzzle contributing to its pathogenesis. This review therefore addresses oral infection as the plausible etiology of late-onset AD (LOAD.

  16. Can oral infection be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ingar; Singhrao, Sim K

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a scourge of longevity that will drain enormous resources from public health budgets in the future. Currently, there is no diagnostic biomarker and/or treatment for this most common form of dementia in humans. AD can be of early familial-onset or sporadic with a late-onset. Apart from the two main hallmarks, amyloid-beta and neurofibrillary tangles, inflammation is a characteristic feature of AD neuropathology. Inflammation may be caused by a local central nervous system insult and/or by peripheral infections. Numerous microorganisms are suspected in AD brains ranging from bacteria (mainly oral and non-oral Treponema species), viruses (herpes simplex type I), and yeasts (Candida species). A causal relationship between periodontal pathogens and non-oral Treponema species of bacteria has been proposed via the amyloid-beta and inflammatory links. Periodontitis constitutes a peripheral oral infection that can provide the brain with intact bacteria and virulence factors and inflammatory mediators due to daily, transient bacteremias. If and when genetic risk factors meet environmental risk factors in the brain, disease is expressed, in which neurocognition may be impacted, leading to the development of dementia. To achieve the goal of finding a diagnostic biomarker and possible prophylactic treatment for AD, there is an initial need to solve the etiological puzzle contributing to its pathogenesis. This review therefore addresses oral infection as the plausible etiology of late-onset AD (LOAD).

  17. Relationship Satisfaction and Risk Factors for Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that troubled romantic relationships are associated with higher risk factors for mental health. However, studies examining the role of relationship satisfaction in suicide risk factors are scarce. We investigated differences in risk factors for suicide between individuals with high relationship satisfaction, individuals with low relationship satisfaction, and singles. Furthermore, we explored patterns of experiencing, and dealing with, conflicts in the relationship and examined associations with suicide risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed relationship status, relationship satisfaction, specific types of relationship conflicts, and suicide risk factors (i.e., suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression) with questionnaires among 382 individuals in Austria. Risk factors for suicide were higher among singles than among individuals in happy relationships, but lower among those with low relationship satisfaction. Participants reporting a high number of unsolved conflicts in their relationship had higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression than individuals who tend to solve issues with their partner amicably or report no conflicts. Relationship satisfaction and relationship conflicts reflect risk factors for suicide, with higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression reported by individuals who mentioned unsolved conflicts with their partner and experienced low satisfaction with their relationship.

  18. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  19. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  20. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali; Deepak; Dinesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic...

  1. Risk Factors for Complications of Traumatic Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar Júnior, Wagner; Saleh, Carmen Mohamad Rida; Whitaker, Iveth Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hospitalized trauma patients are major causes of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to identify the in-hospital trauma patients' complications and identify the risk factors for complications in this population. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a sample from a Brazilian hospital. The sample consisted of 407 patients, 194 (47.66%) of whom had records of complications. The most common complications were infections (41.80%). The risk factors related to the complications were age, length of hospital stay, external causes, and injury severity. The complications were frequent in this sample, and the risk for complications was characterized by multiple factors.

  2. The Marriage Protective Factors in Married People With Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    شیدا خالدی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the marriage protective factors in married people with risk factors. The method of this study is qualityative. In this study the researcher-made risk factor check list and Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire (115-item test were used. to select the sample group, Risk Factor Check List and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire were distributed among 100 men and 100 women who had been married for at least 3 years. Among these 200 individuals, 22 people with high risk factors and marital satisfaction were screened. Data reached saturation through Interviewing 18 people. Protective factors based on their frequencies include: relationship, personality traits, skills, adjustment, out-side factors, religion, and beliefs. Each of these protective factors includes several primary components. Some of the components such as respect, desirable sexual relation and commitment have important role in protecting marriage. In addition, some other factors, such as contentment, not being jealous of otherpeople’s lives, accepting the current life situation, were mentioned that seem to be specific to Iranian culture. There was no significant difference between men and women choosing protective factors. There was however a significant difference between men and women in some of the mentioned components.

  3. Omega-3 Status and the Relationship between Plasma Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Borgeraas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. A previous rat study revealed an ADMA lowering effect following treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs. We sought to examine if an association between plasma ADMA and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI was modified by serum n-3 PUFA status. Methods. The cohort included 1364 patients who underwent coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease in 2000-2001. Fatal and nonfatal AMI events were registered until December 31, 2006. Risk associations with AMI were estimated across ADMA quartiles (linear trend and the upper decile. Results. No association between concentration of any n-3 PUFA and ADMA was observed. Only ADMA levels in upper decile were significantly associated with AMI with a multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR (95% confidence interval versus the rest of the population of 2.11 (1.34, 3.32. The association was strengthened among patients with below median levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA (HR 3.12 (1.64, 5.93, but was only influenced by longer chain n-3 PUFA after additional adjustments for HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions. The association of ADMA with risk of AMI is influenced by serum n-3 PUFA and particularly ALA.

  4. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Sandra; Bakker, Mirjam I; Hatta, Mochammad; Scheelbeek, Pauline F D; Dwiyanti, Ressy; Usman, Romi; Sultan, Andi R; Sabir, Muhammad; Tandirogang, Nataniel; Amir, Masyhudi; Yasir, Yadi; Pastoor, Rob; van Beers, Stella; Smits, Henk L

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua) in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas. We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of age in a health facility-based case-control study between June 2010 and June 2011. Individuals suspected of typhoid were tested using the typhoid IgM lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever followed by blood culture testing. Cases and controls were defined post-recruitment: cases were individuals with a culture or serology positive result (n = 449); controls were individuals negative to both serology and culture, with or without a diagnosis other than typhoid (n = 484). Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of household level and individual level behavioural risk factors and we calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of removing each risk significant independent behavioural risk factor. Washing hands at critical moments of the day and washing hands with soap were strong independent protective factors for typhoid (OR = 0.38 95% CI 0.25 to 0.58 for each unit increase in hand washing frequency score with values between 0 = Never and 3 = Always; OR = 3.16 95% CI = 2.09 to 4.79 comparing washing hands with soap sometimes/never vs. often). These effects were independent of levels of access to water and sanitation. Up to two thirds of cases could be prevented by compliance to these practices (hand washing PAF = 66.8 95% CI 61.4 to 71.5; use of soap PAF = 61.9 95%CI 56.7 to 66.5). Eating food out in food stalls or restaurant was an important risk factor (OR = 6.9 95%CI 4.41 to 10.8 for every unit increase in frequency score). Major gains could potentially be

  5. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alba

    Full Text Available Knowledge of risk factors and their relative importance in different settings is essential to develop effective health education material for the prevention of typhoid. In this study, we examine the effect of household level and individual behavioural risk factors on the risk of typhoid in three Indonesian islands (Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua in the Eastern Indonesian archipelago encompassing rural, peri-urban and urban areas.We enrolled 933 patients above 10 years of age in a health facility-based case-control study between June 2010 and June 2011. Individuals suspected of typhoid were tested using the typhoid IgM lateral flow assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever followed by blood culture testing. Cases and controls were defined post-recruitment: cases were individuals with a culture or serology positive result (n = 449; controls were individuals negative to both serology and culture, with or without a diagnosis other than typhoid (n = 484. Logistic regression was used to examine the effect of household level and individual level behavioural risk factors and we calculated the population attributable fraction (PAF of removing each risk significant independent behavioural risk factor.Washing hands at critical moments of the day and washing hands with soap were strong independent protective factors for typhoid (OR = 0.38 95% CI 0.25 to 0.58 for each unit increase in hand washing frequency score with values between 0 = Never and 3 = Always; OR = 3.16 95% CI = 2.09 to 4.79 comparing washing hands with soap sometimes/never vs. often. These effects were independent of levels of access to water and sanitation. Up to two thirds of cases could be prevented by compliance to these practices (hand washing PAF = 66.8 95% CI 61.4 to 71.5; use of soap PAF = 61.9 95%CI 56.7 to 66.5. Eating food out in food stalls or restaurant was an important risk factor (OR = 6.9 95%CI 4.41 to 10.8 for every unit increase in frequency score.Major gains could

  6. Epidemiology and risk factors of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoutová, Jana; Janácková, Petra; Serý, Omar; Zeman, Tomás; Ambroz, Petr; Kovalová, Martina; Varechová, Katerina; Hosák, Ladislav; Jirík, Vitezslav; Janout, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects approximately one percent of the general population. The pathogenesis of schizophrenia is influenced by many risk factors, both environmental and genetic. The environmental factors include the date of birth, place of birth and seasonal effects, infectious diseases, complications during pregnancy and delivery, substance abuse and stress. At the present time, in addition to environmental factors, genetic factors are assumed to play a role in the development of the schizophrenia. The heritability of schizo- phrenia is up to 80%. If one parent suffers from the condition, the probability that it will be passed down to the offspring is 13%. If it is present in both parents, the risk is more than 20%. The opinions are varied as to the risk factors affecting the development of schizophrenia. Knowing these factors may greatly contribute to prevention of the condition.

  7. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhiago MR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcony R Santhiago,1 Natalia T Giacomin,1 David Smadja,2 Samir J Bechara1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Ophthalmology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age, as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue. Corneal topo­graphy patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a

  8. Resting heart rate and cardiovascular events: risk factor or risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Resting heart rate and cardiovascular events: risk factor or risk marker? 128. Vol 52 No 2. SA Fam Pract 2010. SA Fam Pract 2010;52(2): 128-129. Heart rate in epidemiological studies. Over the last 25 years numerous reports demonstrated a significant association between resting heart rate and all- cause mortality ...

  9. Glaucoma suspect & Humphrey Field Analyzer a correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma originally meant "clouded", in Greek.The term glaucoma refers to a group of diseases that have in common characteristic optic neuropathy with associated visual field loss for which elevated intraocular pressure is one of the primary risk factor. The purpose of the study is to correlate the clinically diagnosed cases of glaucoma suspect with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA. Fifty cases of glaucoma suspect who attended the glaucoma clinic of Nepal Eye Hospital Tripureswor, Kathmandu, Nepal and who meets at least two criteria, among the four types of glaucoma suspects were advised for the HFA for the study. In this study out of 50 patient, 36 (72% patients had normal visual field. 14 (28% patients had thinning of the neural retinal rim (NRR in both eyes. The significant relation with thinning of neural retina rim and glaucomatous hemifield test was found in the study. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-1, 23-28 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i1.6822

  10. RISK FACTORS FOR STROKE AND USE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kateee

    2003-04-04

    Apr 4, 2003 ... Objective: To review risk factors for stroke and the use of echocardiography in ... echocardiography may enhance the diagnosis but not necessarily change management. ..... Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on.

  11. Atherogenic risk factors and hearing thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models...

  12. Epilepsy Risk Factors Following Neonatal Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and polysomnographic risk factors as early predictors for the development of postnatal epilepsy were determined in 158 infants presenting with two or more seizures, in a study at Hospital Sao Lucas, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

  13. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  14. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changing, depending on your age and other factors unique to you. High Blood Pressure —Blood pressure is ... cholesterol raise your LDL cholesterol level. A high-sodium (salt) diet can raise your risk for high ...

  15. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have been proposed; however, all have been developed using single-center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to multiple myeloma (MM) for SMM, we analyzed a nationwide...... population-based cohort of 321 patients with newly diagnosed SMM registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis...... as having ultra high-risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥30 g/L, we created a scoring system to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk SMM. This first population-based study of patients with SMM confirms that an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis remain important risk...

  16. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    de Santhiago, MR; Giacomin NT; Smadja D; Bechara SJ

    2016-01-01

    Marcony R Santhiago,1 Natalia T Giacomin,1 David Smadja,2 Samir J Bechara1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Ophthalmology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refracti...

  17. Risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey, J L

    1989-01-01

    Established risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures are increasing age, female sex, white race, removal of the ovaries at an early age, prolonged immobility, and prolonged use of corticosteroids. Obesity and use of estrogen replacement therapy are protective. Factors that probably or possibly increase risk in postmenopausal white women include a low calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and, at least for hip fractures, use of long half-life psychotrophic drugs and heavy alcohol co...

  18. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing vascular risk factors in patients with established vascular diseases. Patients with different manifestations of vascular diseases appeared to have high levels of self-efficacy concerning the self-ma...

  19. Modifiable risk factors for surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Calin S; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risk factors for orthopaedic surgical site infection have been identified. Some of these factors directly affect the wound-healing process, whereas others can lead to blood-borne sepsis or relative immunosuppression. Modifying a patient's medications; screening for comorbidities, such as HIV or diabetes mellitus; and advising the patient on options to diminish or eliminate adverse behaviors, such as smoking, should lower the risk for surgical site infections.

  20. Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focused on the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors, through aerobic exercises. The central argument here is that through exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a reduction in body weight and ultimately less risk on the ...

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk

  2. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to

  3. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is high mainly because the body doesn't use its insulin properly. Over time, a high blood sugar level can lead to ... plaque buildup in their heart arteries by the time they’re in their 70s. ... of CHD. Gender Some risk factors may affect CHD risk differently ...

  4. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  5. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  6. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Risk factors for homelessness among women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Yano, Elizabeth M; McGuire, James; Hines, Vivian; Lee, Martin; Gelberg, Lillian

    2010-02-01

    Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate exact standard errors of the model coefficients and p-values. Characteristics associated with homelessness were sexual assault during military service, being unemployed, being disabled, having worse overall health, and screening positive for an anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective factors were being a college graduate or married. Efforts to assess housed women veterans' risk factors for homelessness should be integrated into clinical care programs within and outside the Veterans Administration. Programs that work to ameliorate risk factors may prevent these women's living situations from deteriorating over time.

  8. Suspected and incidental pulmonary embolism on multidetector-row CT: Analysis of technical and morphological factors influencing the diagnosis in a cross-sectional cancer centre patient cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelke, C. [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: cengelke@roe.med.tum.de; Manstein, P. [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Rummeny, E.J. [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Marten, K. [Institut fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum Rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    AIM: To assess technical and computed tomography (CT) predictors of true-positive (TP) and false-negative (FN) radiological diagnoses in a retrospective patient cohort with pulmonary embolism (PE) in the setting of a cancer centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two thousand, four hundred and twelve consecutive chest multidetector-row CT images from 1869 patients were reviewed for presence of PE. CT protocols and TP and FN radiological reports were determined and the clinical files reviewed for suspicion of PE. The severity of PE was assessed by an arterial obstruction index. Ancillary pulmonary findings were scored qualitatively and on a lobar basis. Statistical tests included analysis of variance and univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: Ninety-one out of a total of 111 PE-positive images were included. Thirty-five patients had clinically suspected PE; 56 were not suspected of having PE. Forty-eight patients had TP diagnoses; 43 (39 of whom were not suspected of having PE) had FN radiological diagnoses. FN diagnoses were most frequent in oesophageal (17/19; 89.5%) and standard chest CT (19/35; 54.3%). Pulmonary CT angiography was associated with TP diagnosis (p<0.0001), whereas oesophageal CT was associated with FN diagnosis (p=0.001). Artefacts and arterial attenuation did not influence PE detection (p=0.017 and 0.066 for artefacts and arterial attenuation, respectively). However, the arterial obstruction index strongly predicted PE diagnosis (p=0.001). This was confirmed on multivariate analysis (p=0.041, 0.027 and 0.020 for pulmonary CT angiography, oesophageal protocols and arterial obstruction index, respectively). When stratified for clinically unsuspected cases, the arterial obstruction index remained the only predictor of PE diagnosis (p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Predictors of PE diagnosis were PE severity and technical factors; the latter were linked to clinical suspicion of PE. Arterial enhancement appears unlikely to contribute to missed

  9. Risk Factors Incident Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liva Maita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labor or parturition Prematurus is labor that occurs at age less than 37 weeks of pregnancy is calculated from the first day of last period. Data in hospitals Arifin Achmad Pekanbaru data obtained in 2010 obtained data on the number of labor as much as 2400 cases, with 190 cases of preterm labor (7.91%, in 2011 the number of births as 2287 cases with 279 cases of preterm labor (12% and in the period January-April 2012 Number 780 cases of preterm labor (11.5%. The purpose of research is knowing the relationship of the complications of pregnancy, a history of preterm labor, anemia, age and parity with preterm labor. Type of research is a case-control study. The population in this study were all mothers giving birth at hospitals Arifin achmad Pekanbaru. Size of the sample consisted of 245 cases and 245 controls. Data analysis was performed by univariate, bivariate and multivariate Logistic Regression method Ganda. The results is a complication of pregnancy (95% CI: 4.09 to 9.21, age (95% CI: 1.58 to 3.69, and parity (95% CI: 1.05 to 2.36 associated with preterm labor. The conclusion that the dominant variables associated with the incidence of preterm birth is a complication of pregnancy and no variable counfounding. Advice to pregnant women who experience pregnancy complications during their pregnancy on a regular basis at least four times during pregnancy and high parity mothers are advised to use contraception; To health professionals to classify the status of patients at risk to facilitate the provision of IEC.

  10. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  11. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient's age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy.

  12. Risk factors for esophageal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chocarro Martínez, A; Galindo Tobal, F; Ruiz-Irastorza, G; González López, A; Alvarez Navia, F; Ochoa Sangrador, C; Martín Arribas, M I

    2000-02-01

    The role of gastric acid inhibitors as predisposing factors for Candida esophagitis is unknown. A retrospective case-control study of esophageal candidiasis was conducted in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients diagnosed from January 1991 to December 1997. The diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis was always made on the basis of endoscopic and histological criteria. Fifty-one patients were diagnosed with esophageal candidiasis, 15 of whom had esophageal complaints and 48 of whom suffered from another previous chronic disease (17 had cancer). In addition, 20 patients had previously been treated with antibiotics, 13 with steroids and 14 with omeprazole. In the multivariate analysis, neoplasm (odds ratio, 5.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.94-15.56) and therapy with antibiotics (odds ratio, 11.97; 95% confidence interval, 3.82-37.45), steroids (odds ratio, 35.52; 95% confidence interval, 3.90-324.01) or omeprazole (odds ratio, 18.23; 95% confidence interval, 4.67-71.03) were all associated with esophageal candidiasis. These data suggest that Candida esophagitis tends to occur in patients with chronic diseases, most of whom have been previously treated with antibiotics, steroids or omeprazole. The findings support the hypothesis that treatment with omeprazole favors the development of esophageal candidiasis.

  13. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  14. Tuberculosis: distribution, risk factors, mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochi, A

    1994-10-01

    About a century after Koch's discovery of the TB bacilli the tuberculosis epidemic which had appeared to be under control was again recognized as a major global health threat. The decline in the epidemic in this century had been largely through the improved living standards and, eventually, the availability and use of effective antibiotics. While tuberculosis gradually disappeared from the health agenda in the western world it remained a big killer throughout the century and in 1992 an estimated 2.7 million TB deaths occurred; 30 million will die from TB during the 1990s if current trends are not reversed. The annual number of new cases will increase from 7.5 million estimated in 1990 to more than 10 million in the year 2000. The main factors for this increase are demographic forces, population movements, the HIV epidemic and increasing drug resistance. The impact of the HIV epidemic is already felt in many sub-Saharan African countries and now threatens Asia where almost two-thirds of the world's TB infected population live and where HIV is spreading. Tuberculosis has also reemerged as a major public health problem in industrialized countries due to international migration, the breakdown of health services, including TB services etc. The control of the epidemic can only be through a concerted action to reinstate TB as priority among health concerns, reflected in national and international resources. A coalition of public and private supporters must be mobilized to support the effort to fight the disease. Governments, non-governmental organizations, the business community, refugee organizations, medical institutions, and other UN agencies are invited to join with WHO in this effort.

  15. Occupational risk factors for Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors probably play an important role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). However, not many environmental factors have been identified for which unequivocal evidence is available for a relation with PD risk. The main focus of the research described in this thesis was on

  16. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    occupational injuries seen in 2013 at two emergency departments in Denmark. Effect estimates were calculated using the matched-pair interval approach. Results Increased risk for an occupational injury was found for time pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-2.0], feeling sick (OR......Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...

  17. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  18. Risk factors for post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Ryo; Sakane, Sayaka; Niwa, Kazutomo; Kanetaka, Sayaka; Kawano, Toshiro; Oridate, Nobuhiko

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) in a single institution and to evaluate the clinical risk factors for PTH. We reviewed the records of 692 patients who underwent tonsillectomy (TE) at Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital in Japan. PTH grades were grouped into three categories according to the severity of the hemorrhagic episode: (I) minimal hemorrhage that stopped after noninvasive treatment, (II) hemorrhage requiring treatment with local anesthesia, and (III) hemorrhage requiring reoperation under general anesthesia in the operating room. Clinical risk factors such as sex, age (adults vs. children), TE indication, surgeon's skill level, operative time, ligature type, and duration of antibiotic administration for PTH were investigated. Among the 692 patients, 80 (11.6%) showed PTH, with primary and secondary hemorrhage accounting for 1.6% and 10.0%, respectively. A category III PTH was observed in 18 patients; thus, the overall risk of reoperation was 2.6%. The PTH episode most frequently occurred on postoperative days 5 and 6. The frequency of PTH was significantly higher in male patients and in adults (Pskill was also associated with PTH rate. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression revealed that adult age (odds ratio [OR]=18.9) and male gender (OR=3.78) were the clinical risk factors for PTH. It also revealed that male gender (OR=82065335), adult age (OR=10.6), and surgeon's skill level (OR=7.50) were the clinical risk factors for the category III PTH. The risk of PTH was higher in this report compared with previous reports, which may be associated with the definition of PTH. Clinical risk factors for PTH were adult age and male gender. The surgeon's skill level was an additional risk factor for category III PTH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.

  20. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  1. A case report of lameness in two dairy goat herds; a suspected combination of nutritional factors concurrent with treponeme infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenevelt, Margit; Anzuino, Katharine; Smith, Sue; Lee, Michael R F; Grogono-Thomas, Rosemary

    2015-12-16

    Two dairy goat farms with high level of lameness in lactating animals were presented for further investigation. Farm 1 and Farm 2 presented with 37 and 67% morbidity, respectively. Both farms had an all year round indoor system, feeding ad libitum concentrate with forage available at all times. The lameness was found to be based in the foot. Previous treatments consisting of biweekly footbathing with zinc sulphate, spraying lesions with oxytetracycline spray and packing lesions with copper crystals on a single occasion and single injections with long acting oxytetracycline had not been successful. Mild cases had signs of haemorrhaging in the white line or on the sole of the foot. Moderate cases showed under running of the wall horn or small areas of exposed sole corium. Severe cases would consist of horn or wall separation with the corium exposed and infected. In extreme cases only the wall horn of the claw remained, with a large area of necrotic tissue in the centre and no healthy corium visible. Only one animal was seen to have interdigital lesions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture of swabs taken from exposed corium and the interdigital space were negative for Dichelobacter nodosus but PCR for treponemes were positive in both the adults and the youngstock tested. Due to the high level of concentrate in the diet of these goats, nutrition was thought to contribute to the problem. Transcutaneous rumen fluid samples were taken and pH was measured on both farms, with 35% of the samples below pH value 5.5. No definite diagnosis could be made. However, the results suggest both treponemes and nutrition play a role in the aetiology of the lameness. The initial sole or wall horn lesions were thought to be secondarily infected by treponemes. Further investigation is needed to definitively diagnose the cause and contributing factors for this lameness.

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Head Louse (Pediculus humanus capitis in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedin Saghafipour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background  Recognition of head lice prevalence and related risk factors contributing in spreading the disease is a step forward to the control of this important health problem. This survey was done to determine prevalence and risk factors associated with head louse (Pediculus Humanus Capitis in Central Iran. Materials and Methods In this descriptive–analytic study, a total of 38,237 suspected cases of head lice infestation that were referred to public health centers in Qom province during 2016 were studied. Data collection was done using standard check list that was conducted and approved by the Health Ministry of the Islamic Republic of Iran and physical examination of the hairsby visual inspections of scalp and hair for the presence of adult lice, nymphs, and eggs (nits in all of suspected cases. For data analysis, Chi-square and Multiple Logistic Regression Tests were utilized. Results A total of 11,223 (29.35% out of 38,237 suspected cases of all ages were found to have pediculosis. According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, a significant relationship was observed between Pediculus capitis infestation and each of these factors: educational grade, family size, family income, having previous history of P. capitis infestation, number of combing per day(P

  3. Risk Factors and Risk-Based Protective Factors for Violent Offending: A Study of Young Victorians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to examine risk factors and risk-based and interactive protective factors for violent offending in a group of 437 young Australians. Participants were recruited into the study when they were in Grade 5 (10-11 years) and followed up almost annually until young adulthood (18-19 years). Measures of violent offending, risk and protective factors, and demographics were obtained through a modification of the Communities That Care youth survey. The data collected enabled identification of groups of students at-risk of violent offending according to drug use, low family socioeconomic status, and antisocial behavior. Results showed that there were very few associations between the risk factors and risk-based protective factors measured in this study (e.g., belief in the moral order, religiosity, peer recognition for prosocial involvement, attachment to parents, low commitment to school, and poor academic performance) and later self-reported violent offending. There were no statistically significant interactive protective factors. Further longitudinal analyses with large sample sizes are needed to examine risk factors and risk-based protective factors and interactive protective factors in at-risk groups. The findings support the need for multi-faceted prevention and early intervention approaches that target multiple aspects of youth's lives.

  4. Suspected de novo Hepatitis B in a Patient Receiving Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Therapy for the Treatment of Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 45-year-old female patient who developed acute hepatic disorder during anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. She was diagnosed as colonic CD and placed on infliximab (IFX. She was negative for hepatitis B surface antigen at the initiation of IFX therapy, but developed acute hepatitis after the 30th administration of IFX 4 years and 1 month after the first administration. She was suspected to have had occult hepatitis B virus infection before IFX therapy, and de novo hepatitis B was considered the most likely diagnosis. Hepatitis subsided after discontinuation of anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy and initiation of treatment with entecavir. She started to receive adalimumab to prevent relapse of CD. She has continued maintenance therapy with entecavir and adalimumab and has since been asymptomatic. As de novo hepatitis B may be fatal, virological testing for hepatitis B is essential for patients who are being considered for treatment that may weaken the immune system.

  5. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

  6. Environmental Risk Factors for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodecky, Natalie A.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  7. Risk factors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

  8. [Risk factors for development of cerebrovascular stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, G

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays stroke has a dominant place in the structure of neurological morbidity. According to data of the World Health Organization, stroke is the third highest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries of the world, immediately following ischemic heart disease and malignant diseases. The appearance of the disease is influenced by many etiological factors, that is risk factors. Natural risk factors are: heredity, sex, age, geographical and climatic factors. Other diseases being risk factors include: hypertension, heart disease and diabetes. Bad habits as risk factors are: eating habits, obesity, smoking, alcoholism and physical and mental inactivity. The paper presents a review of risk factors, their categorization and the influence of each individual risk factor on the development of stroke. Hereditary factors have a significant role in development of stroke and they may serve as a basis for determining the person's susceptibility to stroke in a certain period of life. SEX: It has been proved that persons of female sex in the period prior to menopause are less susceptible to atherosclerosis risk and its side effects--ischemic heart disease and stroke. It is due to the fact that in this period of life women have a higher concentration of high-density lipoproteins, which are known to protect blood vessels against atherosclerosis. AGE: The incidence of stroke is higher at an older age, although nowadays there is evidence that younger people may develop the disease as well. It has been noticed that the frequency and intensity of insult are connected with abrupt changes of the front (weather conditions with certain values of atmospheric factors). A high correlation between the frequency of cerebrovascular insult and abrupt change of the front is evident during spells of warm front in cold months and during spells of cold front in warm months. Moreover, changes during the circadian cycle are of utmost importance. Hypertension is one of the factors

  9. Cancer Risk Factor Knowledge Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Julie Williams; Parker, Alexander; Williams, Adrienne; King, Jessica L; Largo-Wight, Erin; Osmani, Morsal

    2017-12-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA. Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have risen steadily and cost the healthcare system over $264 billion annually. Cancer risk can be reduced by restricting alcohol consumption, avoiding tobacco, eating a balanced diet, limiting sun exposure, exercising, and seeking routine cancer screenings. The purpose of this study is to examine cancer risk factor knowledge among college students. Researchers surveyed undergraduate and graduate students (n = 758) at a mid-sized public university in the Southeast about their knowledge regarding cancer risk factors including smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, obesity, hypertension, and human papillomavirus (HPV). Participants were mostly able to identify the association between cancers and health risk behaviors that have received widespread media coverage, are somewhat intuitive, or are salient to their life stage such as drinking, tanning, and smoking. Nearly all participants correctly reported exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, and smoking increased risk of developing skin and lung cancer, respectively. Most students correctly identified an increased risk of liver cancer associated with alcohol use but missed head/neck and breast cancer. However, knowledge of less publicized relationships was insufficient. The findings offer encouragement to public health professionals that campaigns have increased awareness of cancer risk. However, there were many relationships that revealed a lack of knowledge, and future campaigns can target lesser-known cancer risk relationships to reduce the personal tragedy and societal burden of cancer.

  10. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD.......016). In addition, there was a significant effect of duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.043), as the relative risk of AD was increased in proportion to increased duration of breastfeeding. The risk associated with exclusive breastfeeding was not explained by the fatty acid composition of mother's milk, though...

  11. Metabolite Signatures of Metabolic Risk Factors and their Longitudinal Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Subramanian, S.; Willinger, C.M.; Chen, G.; Juhasz, P.; Courchesne, P.; Chen, B.H.; Li, X.; Hwang, S.J.; Fox, C.S.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Muntendam, P.; Fuster, V.; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, I.; Sookoian, S.C.; Pirola, C.J.; Gordon, N.; Adourian, A.; Larson, M.G.; Levy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Metabolic dysregulation underlies key metabolic risk factors—obesity, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Objective: To uncover mechanistic links between metabolomic dysregulation and metabolic risk by testing metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor

  12. Suggested cut-off values for vitamin D as a risk marker for total and cardiac death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Naesgaard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut off levels are still under debate. Objectives: To assess two cut-off levels, 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of data. 2-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in the total patient population were analyzed, applying univariate and multivariable analysis. Results: 255 patients with known vitamin D concentrations died. In the multivariable analysis, there was a decrease in total mortality above a cut-off level of 40 nmol/L and a decrease in cardiac death above a cut-off level of 70 nmol/L, [HRs of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50 – 0.88, p = 0.004 and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22 – 0.94, p = 0.034, respectively].Conclusion: Vitamin D cut-off levels of 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, were related to total mortality and cardiac death, respectively.

  13. Suggested Cut-Off Values for Vitamin D as a Risk Marker for Total and Cardiac Death in Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesgaard, Patrycja A; León de la Fuente, Ricardo A; Nilsen, Stein Tore; Pönitz, Volker; Brügger-Andersen, Trygve; Grundt, Heidi; Staines, Harry; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut-off levels are still under debate. To assess two cut-off levels, 40 and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of data. Two-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death, and sudden cardiac death in the total patient population were analyzed, applying univariate and multivariable analysis. Two hundred fifty-five patients with known vitamin D concentrations died. In the multivariable analysis, there was a decrease in total mortality above a cut-off level of 40 nmol/L and a decrease in cardiac death above a cut-off level of 70 nmol/L [HRs of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50-0.88), p = 0.004 and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22-0.94), p = 0.034, respectively]. Vitamin D cut-off levels of 40 and 70 nmol/L were related to total mortality and cardiac death, respectively.

  14. Time trends in osteoporosis risk factor profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to identify prevalent osteoporosis risk factors, medications and comorbidities associated with bone mineral density (BMD). Furthermore to evaluate changes in risk factor profiles over 12 years. 6285 women consecutively referred to an osteoporosis specialist clinic were...... included. Information of potential risk factors was obtained by questionnaire and clinical examination. Additional information on medication use, comorbidities and fractures were obtained from national registries. An association (bone health.......7), hyperthyroidism (OR = 1.5), previous major osteoporotic fracture (OR = 1.7), former osteoporosis treatment (OR = 3.5), higher BMI (OR = 0.87), use of calcium supplementation (OR = 1.2), high exercise level (OR = 0.7), and use of thiazide diuretics (OR = 0.7) were identified as predictors of osteoporosis by DXA...

  15. Vitamin D, Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested a possible protective role of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. The available evidence does not support either cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation. This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the current knowledge of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  16. Vitamin D, cardiovascular disease and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  17. Vitamin D, Cardiovascular Disease and Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism......, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Meta-analyses of observational studies have largely found vitamin D levels to be inversely associated with cardiovascular risk and disease. However, Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials...... (RCTs) have not been able to consistently replicate the observational findings. Several RCTs are ongoing, and the results from these are needed to clarify whether vitamin D deficiency is a causal and reversible factor to prevent cardiovascular disease....

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  19. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  20. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  1. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee are immediately debilitating and can cause long-term consequences, including the early onset of osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 1 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known an...

  2. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unkn...

  3. Survey of risk factors urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women are very susceptible to urinary tract infections and pregnancy raises the risk of urinary tract infection. In general, little information on the risk factors of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is underway. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy is an important risk factor for pregnancy dire consequences. The purpose of this study is to find risk factors associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Methods: The study was observational and retrospective analysis was carried on in the winter of which 310 pregnant women participated in 11 health centers in Shahrekord. Of these 155 cases (patients and 155 controls (healthy that were matched for age Information required from the health records of pregnant women and complete Czech list of researcher whose validity was confirmed by experts were gathered. Information needed by pregnant women health records and complete list researcher was collected. Czech list contains a number of possible risk factors for illness and demographic characteristics of the study participants was Statistical analysis software spss version 16 by using chi square tests and logistic regression and t analysis was performed. Results: Among the variables vomiting (p = 0/00 a history of urinary tract infection in a previous pregnancy (P =.001, CI = 1.508-4.408, OR = 2.578 abortion own history (P =.014, CI = 1.165 -3.847, OR = 2.117, respectively, the most important risk factors for urinary tract infection in pregnant women were determined. Conclusion: Prevention and treatment of vomiting in pregnancy prevention of urinary tract infections during pregnancy. Prevention of abortion can play an important role in the prevention of urinary tract infection and its complications in pregnancy. The study also revealed a number of factors can have an impact on urinary tract infection in pregnancy that has not been enough attention and it is necessary that more attention be placed on health programs and

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  5. Preoperative modifiable risk factors in colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rooijen, Stefanus; Carli, Francesco; Dalton, Susanne O

    2017-01-01

    complications (CCI ≥20). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to explore the combined effect of individual risk factors. RESULTS: In this 139 patient cohort, smoking, malnutrition, alcohol consumption, neoadjuvant therapy, higher age, and male sex, were seen more frequently in the severe...... in higher mortality rates and greater hospital costs. The number and severity of complications is closely related to patients' preoperative performance status. The aim of this study was to identify the most important preoperative modifiable risk factors that could be part of a multimodal prehabilitation...

  6. Risk factors for gambling and substance use among recent college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Kimberly M; Arria, Amelia M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vincent, Kathryn B; Robertson, Carl; Welsh, Christopher J

    2017-10-01

    While it is well known that substance use and gambling overlap, the degree to which this overlap can be explained by shared risk factors has not been fully explored. This study aimed to identify common and unique risk factors for gambling and substance use among young adults. Young adults (n=1,019) in a longitudinal study since college entry were interviewed annually. Past-year frequency of seven gambling activities was assessed once (Year 5). Structural equation models evaluated suspected risk factors in two models, one for gambling with substance use as an intermediary variable, and one for substance use with gambling as the intermediary variable. Sixty percent gambled; 6% gambled weekly or more. Examination of the two structural models supported the existence of significant paths (a) from two of the five substance use variables (alcohol, drugs) to gambling frequency, and (b) from gambling frequency to all five substance use variables. Every risk factor associated with gambling was also associated with one or more substance use variables. Risk factors common to gambling and substance use were sex, race/ethnicity, extracurricular involvement (fraternity/sorority, athletics), impulsive sensation-seeking, and behavioral dysregulation. Risk factors unique to substance use were conduct problems, anxiety, and parent's history of alcohol and mental health problems. Gambling and substance use are interrelated, but with incomplete overlap in their respective risk factors. Results underscore the need for longitudinal research to elucidate their distinct etiologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, L A; Vessey, M P; Flavel, R; Yeates, D

    1981-03-01

    The importance of various risk factors for benign breast disorders has been assessed an analysis of data obtained from a multicenter cohort study of contraceptive use among women in the United Kingdom (the Oxford Family Planning Association Contraceptive Study). Cases comprised all women diagnosed as having any type of benign breast lesion; 74 had fibroadenoma, 211 had histologically confirmed chronic cystic disease, 331 had breast lumps not subjected to biopsy and 70 had other disease. Each case was individually matched with another study participant who was free from recognized breast disease. Matching factors were center of recruitment, date of recruitment, age at entry, and continuation in the study. An inverse association was found between use of oral contraceptives and the risk of the first three conditions. Current users of the pill had the lowest risk, particularly when the use was for an extended period. In contrast, past users demonstrated no reduction in risk. The reduction in risk for chronic cystic disease appeared to relate to the amount of progestogen contained in the pill. No significant association was observed between the risk of any of the conditions and either parity or age at first livebirth. Women of low social class and obese women were at low risk, perhaps reflecting diagnostic biases.

  8. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of High Risk Human Papillomavirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in northern Nigeria, yet the pattern of infection with human papillomavirus, the principal aetiologic agent is unknown. This was a preliminary study conducted in two referral hospitals in order to establish base-line data on the prevalence and risk factors for the infection in ...

  10. Early risk factors for pubertal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, V; Riiser, A; Mowinckel, P; Carlsen, K-H; Lødrup Carlsen, K C

    2015-01-01

    Early life risk factors are previously described for childhood asthma, but less is known related to asthma in adolescence. We aimed to investigate early risk factors (before 2 years) for pubertal asthma and secondarily for pubertal asthma phenotypes based upon allergic comorbidities. Based on data from 550 adolescents in the prospective birth cohort 'Environment and Childhood Asthma' study, subjects were categorized by recurrent bronchial obstruction (rBO) 0-2 years, asthma 2-10 years, and pubertal asthma from 10 to 16 years including incident asthma in puberty and asthma in remission from 10 to 16 years or as never rBO/asthma 0-16 years. Asthma in puberty was further classified based on the comorbidities atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis (AR) from 10 to 16 years. Twenty-three common asthma risk factors identified by 2 years of age, including frequency and persistence of bronchial obstruction (severity score), were analysed by weighted logistic regression for each phenotype. In adjusted models, the risk of pubertal asthma increased significantly with higher severity score, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and familial stress around birth. Pubertal asthma in remission was significantly associated with severity score and number of lower respiratory tract infections and inversely associated with breastfeeding beyond 4 months. Pubertal incident asthma was more common among firstborn children. All asthma phenotypes with allergic diseases were significantly associated with severity score, whereas familial perinatal stress increased the risk of asthma only. Asthma combined with AR was associated with parental asthma and being firstborn, whereas the risk of asthma with both atopic dermatitis and AR increased with higher paternal education, atopic dermatitis, being firstborn, and familial perinatal stress. Important early risk factors for pubertal asthma were early airways obstruction, parental rhinitis, being the firstborn child, and perinatal familial

  11. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panegyres, Peter K; Gray, Victoria

    2010-06-21

    Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010) were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i) active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii) the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise) as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  12. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  13. Adolescent sexual aggression: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, I W; Hogan, M; Ireland, M

    1997-12-01

    Little research addresses the correlates of sexual aggression in nonclinical populations of adolescents. The purpose of this study was to identify risk and protective factors associated with sexual violence among male and female adolescents. We analyzed data on 71,594 students in the 9th and 12th grades responding to the 1992 Minnesota Student Survey, an anonymous, self-report survey examining an array of risk environments, health-compromising behaviors, and protective factors. The responses of students reporting a history of forcing someone into a sexual act were compared with those who reported that they had never forced someone into a sexual act. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females. A history of sexual violence perpetration was reported by 4.8% of male and 1.3% of female adolescents. Using a logistic regression model, sexual aggression was associated with experiencing intrafamilial or extrafamilial sexual abuse, witnessing family violence, frequent use of illegal drugs, anabolic steroid use, daily alcohol use, gang membership, high levels of suicide risk behavior, and excessive time spent "hanging out." Emotional health and connectedness with friends and adults in the community were protective factors for male adolescents against sexually aggressive behavior, and academic achievement was a protective factor for female adolescents. A history of forcing someone into a sexual act was associated with several risk and protective factors. Efforts to prevent adolescent sexual violence should target individuals at increased risk. Through their psychosocial assessment of young people, health care professionals can play a role in identifying, counseling, and making appropriate referrals for adolescents at risk for sexually aggressive behavior.

  14. Risk factors for mortality in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, H; Chandran, S; Potluri, R

    2015-09-01

    Down syndrome is a genetic condition that contributes to a significantly shorter life expectancy compared with the general population. We investigated the most common comorbidities in a population of acute hospital patients with Down syndrome and further explored what the most common risk factors for mortality are within this population. From our database of one million patients admitted to National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in northern England, we identified 558 people who had Down syndrome. We compared this group with an age- and gender-matched control group of 5580 people. The most prevalent comorbid diseases within the Down's population were hypothyroidism (22.9%) and epilepsy (20.3%). However, the conditions that had the highest relative risks (RRs) in the Down's population were septal defects and dementia. Respiratory failure, dementia and pneumonia were the most significantly related comorbidities to mortality in the Down syndrome population. In the control population, respiratory failure, dementia and renal failure were the most significant disease contributors. When these contributors were analysed using multivariate analysis, heart failure, respiratory failure, pneumonia and epilepsy were the identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality in the Down syndrome population. Respiratory failure was the sole risk factor for mortality in the Down syndrome population [RR = 9.791 (1.6-59.9) P ≤ 0.05], when compared with the risk factors for mortality in the control population. There is significant medical morbidity in Down syndrome. This morbidity contributes to the lower life expectancy. Respiratory failure is a risk factor for mortality in Down syndrome. We need to thoroughly investigate people with Down syndrome to ensure any treatable illnesses are well managed. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjonbrataj, Endri; Kim, Ji Na; Gjonbrataj, Juarda; Jung, Hye In; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Won-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with provoked pulmonary embolism (PE). This retrospective cohort study included 237 patients with PE. Patients that had transient risk factors at diagnosis were classified as having provoked PE, with the remaining patients being classified as having unprovoked PE. The baseline clinical characteristics and factors associated with coagulation were compared. We evaluated the risk factors associated with provoked PE. Of the 237 PE patients, 73 (30.8%) had provoked PE. The rate of respiratory failure and infection, as well as the disseminated intravascular coagulation score and ratio of right ventricular diameter to left ventricular diameter were significantly higher in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. The protein and activity levels associated with coagulation, including protein C antigen, protein S antigen, protein S activity, anti-thrombin III antigen, and factor VIII, were significantly lower in patients with provoked PE than in those with unprovoked PE. Multivariate analysis showed that infection (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and protein S activity (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 to 0.99) were significantly associated with provoked PE. Protein S activity and presence of infection were important factors associated with provoked PE. We should pay attention to the presence of infection in patients with provoked PE.

  16. Risk factors for death in children with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Jaqueline Alves de Queiroz Sampaio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the major public health importance of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Latin America, well-designed studies to inform diagnosis, treatment and control interventions are scarce. Few observational studies address prognostic assessment in patients with VL. This study aimed to identify risk factors for death in children aged less than 15 years admitted for VL treatment in a referral center in northeast Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a retrospective cohort, we reviewed 546 records of patients younger than 15 years admitted with the diagnosis of VL at the Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira between May 1996 and June 2006. Age ranged from 4 months to 13.7 years, and 275 (50% were male. There were 57 deaths, with a case-fatality rate of 10%. In multivariate logistic regression, the independent predictors of risk of dying from VL were (adjusted OR, 95% CI: mucosal bleeding (4.1, 1.3-13.4, jaundice (4.4, 1.7-11.2, dyspnea (2.8, 1.2-6.1, suspected or confirmed bacterial infections (2.7, 1.2-6.1, neutrophil count <500/mm³ (3.1, 1.4-6.9 and platelet count <50,000/mm³ (11.7, 5.4-25.1. A prognostic score was proposed and had satisfactory sensitivity (88.7% and specificity (78.5%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prognostic and severity markers can be useful to inform clinical decisions such as whether a child with VL can be safely treated in the local healthcare facility or would potentially benefit from transfer to referral centers where advanced life support facilities are available. High risk patients may benefit from interventions such as early use of extended-spectrum antibiotics or transfusion of blood products. These baseline risk-based supportive interventions should be assessed in clinical trials.

  17. Seizure After Cranioplasty: Incidence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Kewei; Cao, Hongshi; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Ye; Wei, Qiang; Zhang, Dezhi; Jia, Qian; Bie, Li

    2017-09-01

    To investigate clinical characteristics of postcranioplasty seizures (PCS) first observed after cranioplasty after decompressive craniectomy (DC) to treat traumatic brain injury and to define factors that increase PCS risk. This retrospective study, covering the period between January 2008 and July 2015, compared PCS in postcranioplasty patients. Postcranioplasty seizures risk factors included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, time between DC and cranioplasty, duraplasty material, cranioplasty contusion location, electrocautery method, PCS type, and infection. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated (95% CI). Of 270 patients, 32 exhibited initial PCS onset postcranioplasty with 11.9% incidence (32/270). Patients fell into immediate (within 24 hours), early (from 1 to 7 days), and late (after 7 days) PCS groups with frequencies of 12, 5, and 15 patients, respectively. Generalized, partial, and mixed seizure types were observed in 13, 13, and 6 patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed increased risk with increasing age (>50 years). Cranioplasty contusion location, precranioplasty deficits, duraplasty material, and monopolar electrocautery were predictive of PCS onset (P < 0.05). Increased DC to cranioplasty interval increased risk but was not statistically significant (P = 0.062). Understanding risk factors for PCS will benefit the management of cranioplasty patients.

  18. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  19. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  20. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen

    2012-01-01

    augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  1. Risk factors for permanent hypernasality after adenoidectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for permanent hypernasality after adenoidectomy. ... Design. Retrospective and descriptive design. ... speech; and (iv) the hypernasality was rated as severe by a speech therapist, could not be remedied by speech therapy alone and required further management by a plastic surgeon through pharyngosplasty.

  2. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing

  3. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines as prescribed. Ask your doctor about taking aspirin. Ask others to help you manage your diabetes. "I wasn't aware of my risk factors, such as being diabetic and having a family history of heart problems." — Ann Preventing Diabetes If you ...

  4. Hypospadias: risk factor patterns and different phenotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Zanden, L.F.M. van der; Gier, R.P.E. de; Barten, E.J.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Roeleveld, N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To obtain more insight into the origin of hypospadias by exploring a wide range of potential risk factors in a case-referent study in which a distinction was made between different phenotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cases and referents were 305 boys with hypospadias and 629 boys with

  5. Risk factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Kirsten; de Vries, Elisabeth M G; van Geloven, Nan; van Erpecum, Karel J.; Spanier, Marcel; Poen, Alexander C; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M; Witteman, Ben J; Tuynman, Hans A; Naber, Anton H; Kingma, Paul J; Beuers, Ulrich; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause, but strongly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Potential risk factors triggering PSC have never been studied on a population level. The aim of this study was to

  6. Chronic Renal Allograft Dysfunction: Risk Factors, Immunology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with an increased risk of graft loss, but less is known regarding the severity of rejection [18]. Factors contributing to ongoing alloimmune responses include breakdown in immunosuppression as a result of patient non compliance, therapeutic decisions to minimize exposure to complications of immunosuppressive ...

  7. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the high perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, as well as maternal morbidity, are discussed. S Afr Med J 1995; 85: 43-46. Little attention has been paid to fetal macrosomia in black. African populations, despite the fact that as a high-risk factor in pregnancy and delivery macrosomia probably deserves as much attention as ...

  8. Depression: risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehl, L.K.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Otte, C.

    2012-01-01

    Major depression is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. In patients with existing cardiovascular disease, major depression has a large impact on the quality of life and is associated with a poor course and prognosis. Potential mechanisms responsible for this

  9. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis | Berriche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is a bone disease that combines both a decrease in bone density and its internal architecture changes. Nutrition is one of the major determinants of osteoporosis. Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two groups of osteoporotic women and ...

  10. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the 1994 discovery of the first breast ... gene by researchers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and their collaborators, was a ...

  11. Atherogenic risk factors and hearing thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann; Brødsgaard Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Søren Peter; Medom Vestergaard, Jesper; Kristiansen, Jesper; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  13. Adolescent Suicide Risk: Four Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…

  14. Exogenous risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.H.B.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to determine the epidemiology of ALS in the Netherlands, to determine the familial aggregation of ALS with Parkinson disease (PD), dementia, and vascular diseases, and to determine the association between several environmental and lifestyle factors and risk for sporadic

  15. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  16. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, N.Ph.L.; de Bruijn, J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence

  17. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  18. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... exercise there is the tendency for increased strength of the heart muscles. When this is the case, what follows is a ... Key words: Cardiovascular disease, Risk factor, Aerobic Exercise. Introduction. There has always ... Oftentimes, problems appear to be more prevalent among the elderly. This may not be far.

  19. Risk Factors of γ-Hydroxybutyrate Overdosing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.; Nabben, T.; Benschop, A.; Ribbink, K.; van Amsterdam, J.G.C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat

  20. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  1. Is malnutrition a risk factor of stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M A; Dey, S K; Alam, M R; Bhuiyan, M; Bhuiyan, S I; Khatun, M H; Rizvi, A N; Haque, A

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor of stroke. Malnutrition in post-stroke period is common and can influence outcome. But malnutrition, though predicted, has not yet been established as a risk factor of stroke. This descriptive study was carried out in the Department of Neurology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka and Department of Neurology, Dhaka Medical College (DMC), from January 2009 to December 2010 to explore whether malnutrition is an independent risk factor of stroke. Nutritional status of 100 stroke patients and 100 healthy controls were assessed in this study. Anthropometric measurements including Body Mass Index (BMI), Triceps skin fold (TSF), Mid-arm circumference (MAC) and Arm-muscle circumference (AMC) were measured within 7 days of stroke. Haemoglobin and haematocrit percentage, serum iron and serum albumin were measured at the same time. No significant difference was observed regarding TSF thickness, MAC, AMC, mean Hb and mean albumin level between the stroke patients and the control group, although iron level was significantly lower in stroke group. Multiple logistic regressions analysis showed that increase in age, smoking and decreased serum iron level has a positive association with stroke. Malnutrition is, according to this study, not a significant risk factor of stroke and triceps skin fold (TSF) thickness, mid-arm circumference (MAC), arm-muscle circumference (AMC), hemoglobin and serum albumin are not appropriate predictor of stroke.

  2. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  3. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-Fan; Liang, Chao-Zhao; Lipianskaya, Julia; Chen, Xian-Guo; Fan, Song; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Jun; Tai, Sheng; Jiang, Chang-Qin

    2014-01-01

    This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%). Ten patients (5.1%) were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6%) with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47) and hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68) and fathers (OR = 1.74) were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias. PMID:24875823

  4. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.

  5. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used

  6. Postpartum venous thromboembolism: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Boulet, Sheree L; Whiteman, Maura K; Monsour, Michael; Marchbanks, Polly A; Hooper, W Craig; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2014-05-01

    To calculate incidence of postpartum venous thromboembolism by week after delivery and to examine potential risk factors for venous thromboembolism overall and at different times during the postpartum period. A deidentified health care claims information database from employers, health plans, hospitals, and Medicaid programs across the United States was used to identify delivery hospitalizations among women aged 15-44 years during the years 2005-2011. International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis and procedure codes were used to identify instances of venous thromboembolism and associated characteristics and conditions among women with recent delivery. Incidence proportions of venous thromboembolism by week postpartum through week 12 were calculated per 10,000 deliveries. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for selected risk factors among women with postpartum venous thromboembolism and among women with venous thromboembolism during the early or later postpartum periods. The incidence proportion of postpartum venous thromboembolism was highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery, dropping from nine per 10,000 during the first week to one per 10,000 at 4 weeks after delivery and decreasing steadily through the 12th week. Certain obstetric procedures and complications such as cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, hemorrhage, and postpartum infection conferred an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 6.4), which persisted over the 12-week period compared with women without these risk factors. Risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism is highest during the first 3 weeks after delivery. Women with obstetric complications are at highest risk for postpartum venous thromboembolism, and this risk remains elevated throughout the first 12 weeks after delivery. II.

  7. Is consanguinity a risk factor for keratoconus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Shaag, Ariela; Millodot, Michel; Essa, Maron; Garth, Jeanne; Ghara, Mohammed; Shneor, Einat

    2013-05-01

    To determine whether consanguinity is a risk factor for keratoconus (KC). A questionnaire was distributed to all patients presenting to St. John Eye Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. Questionnaire included data on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors. Patients were divided into two groups: cases with KC, in at least one eye, who were diagnosed by the attending ophthalmologist on the basis of abnormal corneal topography and at least one of the common signs of the disease; and controls presenting for problems other than KC and free of systemic and ocular conditions associated with KC. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed to identify risk factors for KC. Seventy cases and 140 controls participated in the study. Groups were similar with respect to sex and age. Univariate analyses found a significant association between KC and parental first-cousin consanguinity, eye rubbing, allergy, positive family history, education (>12 years), and sunglass wear, whereas asthma, eczema, smoking, and second-cousin consanguinity were not. Multivariate analyses showed that total consanguinity (first-cousin and second-cousin) (adjusted odds ratio, 3.96; p = 0.001), eye rubbing and absence of sunglass wear were significant risk factors. Education was also associated with KC, but family history was not so in the multivariate analysis. This study supports the hypothesis that consanguinity is a significant risk factor for KC and provides strong support for a genetic contribution to the disease. Wearing sunglasses in this environment is beneficial, and the study confirmed that eye rubbing, allergy, and education are also significantly associated with KC after adjusting for other predictors.

  8. Risk factors of preseptal and orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Tariq Farooq; Zaman, Mir; Khan, Mohammad Naeem; Khan, Mohammad Daud

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the frequency and major risk factors of preseptal and orbital cellulitis. A cross-sectional analytical study. The Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from July 2003 to December 2006. All consecutive patients between ages 6 and 40 years, admitted to the institute with the diagnosis of preseptal and orbital cellulitis were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I included patients with ages 6-16 years and group II with ages 17-40 years. The clinical features, diagnosis and risk factors were entered on a specially-designed proforma. The risk factors included were trauma, insect bite, localized or systemic infection and postsurgical. Odd ratio and p-values were calculated for potential risk factors. The frequency of orbital cellulitis was 0.1% of total admission. Out of 26 patients, 42.30% patients were in group I and 57 in group II. In group I, insect bite was the most common risk factor identified in 40% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and trauma as a common cause in 50% with orbital cellulitis. In group II, trauma was the leading cause in 50% of patients with preseptal cellulitis and sinusitis as a common cause in 18.1% with those of orbital cellulitis. In both groups the p-values were found insignificant (p>0.5). Complications included cicatricial ectropion in 44.4% and orbital abscess in 41.1%. For preseptal cellulitis, insect bite was the most common cause in group I and trauma was the leading cause in group II. For orbital cellulitis, trauma was important cause in group I and sinusitis in group II.

  9. Risk factors for voice problems in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, P G C; de Jong, F I C R S; Thomas, G; Huinck, W; Donders, R; Graamans, K; Schutte, H K

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify factors that are associated with voice problems and voice-related absenteeism in teachers, 1,878 questionnaires were analysed. The questionnaires inquired about personal data, voice complaints, voice-related absenteeism from work and conditions that may lead to voice complaints and absenteeism. Different factors play a role in the development and consolidation of voice problems. Physical and psycho-emotional factors appear to be the most important risk factors. Remarkably, voice load and environment seem to be less important as risk factors in the development and consolidation of voice complaints. Teachers who experienced voice problems during their training reported more voice problems during their career. The results of this study stress the importance of a multifactorial approach in the diagnosis and treatment of voice problems, whereby physical and psycho-emotional aspects should be considered as sensitive to the risk of developing voice problems. Moreover, this study shows the crucial importance of adequate voice training during the teacher training programme.

  10. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...... with the number of admissions (all p income countries (all p 

  11. Risk factors and their identification. First Part: What is a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-02-01

    This series of three articles reviews the designs of studies which can be used to identify risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the present issue of Diabete & Metabolisme, the first article of the series, we give the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force--relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors are further discussed and we complete the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. The three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-cohort studies will be described in the second of the series in the next issue of the journal. Examples will be provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In a third issue, the final paper will provide some examples of the study types and the identification of risk factors. The first examples involve diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, then we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor and if so and whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease.

  12. Risk factors and their identification second part: study designs for identification of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-06-01

    This is the second a series of three articles which reviews the identification of risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the first of the series [1], we gave the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force-relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors were further discussed and we completed the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. In this second article we define the three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and casecohort studies. Examples are provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The final paper will provide some examples of the identification of risk factors from the literature. The first example involves diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor, and if so whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease.

  13. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper was to rev......Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper...... the Scottish, the Greek and the Turkish fishermen respectively. For the diet, 23% of the Scottish fishermen reported eating fruit and vegetables more than once a day at sea and only 29% at home. The Spanish study reported “excessive calorie consumption while on shore, notably high in animal fats....... Of the Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality...

  14. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  15. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Connell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  16. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes.

  17. Obesity, diabetes, and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Petersen, John L

    2006-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 10 years. Recent studies have associated obesity with other cardiovascular risk factors, and an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular death. Patients with obesity should undergo a global evaluation cardiovascular risk, including measurement of abdominal waist circumference, assessment of standard cardiovascular risk factors, screening for dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, and hypertension. Recommendations for dietary modification should be tailored to the patient's associated medical conditions, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and all patients should be instructed on the importance of monitoring caloric intake. For patients who can engage in regular physical activity, we recommend a minimum regimen of 150 min/wk of moderate intensity exercise, such as brisk walking. Use of pharmacotherapy for obesity can be considered when efforts at therapeutic lifestyle modification have been ineffective, but patients must be carefully screened because many agents have potential side effects. Surgical approaches for obesity have also been demonstrated to be effective in achieving and sustaining weight loss and improving markers of cardiovascular risk and should be considered in patients who are refractory to therapeutic lifestyle modification. All diabetic patients should be treated comprehensively to reduce other comorbid conditions, including hypertension and dyslipidemia. Hypoglycemic therapy should be initiated when efforts to reduce hyperglycemia to target thresholds fail.

  18. Lifestyle risk factors and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vupputuri, Suma; Sandler, Dale P

    2003-11-01

    To examine the effects of lifestyle risk factors such as alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and body mass index (BMI) on the development of chronic kidney disease. We used a case-control study of 554 hospital cases and 516 age, race, and gender-matched community controls. The main outcome measure was newly-diagnosed chronic kidney disease, assessed by chart review. Self-reported history of alcohol consumption, smoking, and BMI as well as other co-variables were obtained during telephone interviews. Logistic regression models assessed the association between lifestyle risk factors and chronic kidney disease and were adjusted for important co-variables. We found no significant associations between alcohol consumption and chronic kidney disease, with the exception of moonshine, which resulted in an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (including all subtypes). The effects of smoking on chronic kidney disease were inconsistent, but pointed to no appreciable excess risk among smokers. Increasing quartiles of BMI were positively and significantly associated with nephrosclerosis (ORs [95% CI]: 2.5 [1.0-6.0], 2.8 [1.2-6.8] and 4.6 [1.8-11.6], for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of BMI, respectively). Our study revealed a significant positive association between BMI and nephrosclerosis. We did not find an increased risk of chronic kidney disease associated with alcohol or cigarette smoking.

  19. Risk factors for statin-associated rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schech, Stephanie; Graham, David; Staffa, Judy; Andrade, Susan E; La Grenade, Lois; Burgess, Margaret; Blough, David; Stergachis, Andy; Chan, K Arnold; Platt, Richard; Shatin, Deborah

    2007-03-01

    To identify and characterize risk factors for rhabdomyolysis in patients prescribed statin monotherapy or statin plus fibrate therapy. A nested case-control study was conducted within a cohort of 252,460 new users of lipid-lowering medications across 11 geographically dispersed U.S. health plans. Twenty-one cases of rhabdomyolysis confirmed by medical record review were compared to 200 individually matched controls without rhabdomyolysis. A conditional logistic regression model was applied to evaluate the effects of age, gender, comorbidities, concurrent medication use, dosage, and duration of statin use on the development of rhabdomyolysis. Statin users 65 years of age and older have four times the risk of hospitalization for rhabdomyolysis than those under age 65 (odds ratio (OR) = 4.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5,14.1). We also observed a joint effect of high statin dosage and renal disease (p = 0.022). When these two variables were added to the model with age, we obtained an OR of 5.73 for dosage (95%CI: 0.63, 52.6) and 6.26 for renal disease (95%CI: 0.46, 63.38). Although not statistically significant, we did observe a greater than twofold increase in risk for rhabdomyolysis among females (OR = 2.53, 95%CI: 0.91, 7.32). Findings of this study indicate that older age is a risk factor for rhabdomyolysis among statin users. Although the evidence is not as strong, high statin dosage, renal disease, and female gender may be additional risk factors. Patients at higher risk of developing rhabdomyolysis should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of the disease. (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Psychosocial risk factors for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G

    2013-08-05

    In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response

  1. Early life factors and risk of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu eShrestha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although little is known about etiology of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, early life factors are suspected in the etiology. We explored this hypothesis using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and the California birth rolls. Incident cases were 359 children < 6 year old (218 embryonal, 81 alveolar, 60 others diagnosed in 1988-2008. Controls (205,173, frequency matched on birth year (1986-2007, were randomly selected from the birth rolls. We examined association of birth characteristics such as birth weight, size for gestational age, and timing of prenatal care with all-type rhabdomyosarcoma, embryonal and alveolar subtypes. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were estimated using logistic regression. In contrast to a previous study, we observed statistically non-significant association for embryonal subtype among high birth weight (4000-5250 grams children for term births [OR (95%CI: 1.28 (0.85, 1.92] and all births adjusted for gestational age [OR (95%CI: 1.21 (0.81, 1.81]. On the other hand, statistically significant 1.7-fold increased risk of alveolar subtype (95%CI: 1.02, 2.87 was observed among children with late or no prenatal care and a 1.3-fold increased risk of all rhabdomyosarcoma subtypes among children of fathers ≥ 35 years old at child birth (95%CI: 1.00, 1.75, independent of all covariates. Our finding positive association on male sex for all rhabdomyosarcoma types is consistent with previous studies. While we did not find a convincingly positive association between high birth weight and RMS, our findings on paternal age at childbirth and prenatal care supports the hypothesis that prenatal environment modifies risk for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  2. Risk factors in child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Eryl A; Jones, Alyson C

    2013-04-01

    To quantify the incidence of child sexual abuse allegations referred to a forensic examination centre; to identify possible risk factors predisposing children to sexual abuse by measuring their prevalence among the complainant population. The records of children involved in sexual abuse allegations presenting over a 12 month period were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data such as nature of case, sex, ethnicity, number of previous allegations, assailant relationship, month of presentation, and age were compiled. Potential risk factors such as alcohol or drug use, being 'looked after', physical disability, learning disability, previous consensual sexual intercourse, past psychiatric history, and history of psychiatric support were compiled. Descriptive statistics were calculated. 138 cases were recorded, of which the majority were acute. Epidemiological data demonstrated a higher incidence in females and most complainants were of White British origin. Most of the cases were of first allegations and the assailant relationship was most frequently an acquaintance. The incidence was highest in January. The modal age was 15 years and age distribution was positively skewed. Of the potential risk factors studied, alcohol and drug use was the most prevalent. Prevalence increased with age for the majority of factors studied. Alcohol and drug use may be an area in which preventative strategies would be beneficial. Ethnic minorities may hold a large amount of unreported cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology

    1997-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.

  4. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size.

  5. Risk factors for sporadic ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Vysotsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of the literature on the problems of sporadic ovarian cancer details the present views of its disputable risk factors, such as dietary habits, body weight, contraception, and labor, and age of commencing a sexual activity. It discusses the dietary and sexual behavior model that has changed since the Neolithic, as well as the number of menses and ovulations throughout the reproductive peri- od. The works by authors dealing with the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of ovarian cancer are analyzed.

  6. Socioeconomic factors and the risk for sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampras, Shalaka S; Moysich, Kirsten B; Marimuthu, Sathiya P; Ravi, Vinod; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel

    2014-11-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies arising from mesenchymal tissue. Although several occupational exposures have been evaluated in association with sarcoma, little is known about the role of socioeconomic indicators such as education. Socioeconomic status has been found to be associated with risk of development of several types of cancers, primarily lung, gastric, and cervical cancers. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association of socioeconomic level with the risk for sarcoma. A total of 371 incident cases of sarcoma were matched in terms of age, sex, and year of enrollment in the study with 742 cancer-free controls. Education and income levels were evaluated as the indicators of socioeconomic status. Higher education (college level) was associated with a significantly lower risk for sarcoma [odds ratio (OR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.80], even after adjusting for important confounders. After stratifying by sex, significantly lower risk for sarcoma was observed among men who had college level education compared with men with a level of education of eighth grade or lower (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.19-0.74). A significant association between education and the risk for sarcoma remained after stratifying by income (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.28-0.86, among the low income group). When analyzed as a composite exposure, individuals with high education and high income status had significantly lower risk for sarcoma compared with those with low income and low education status (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.23-0.71). Thus, socioeconomic factors may play a significant role in determining the risk for sarcoma and should be explored further to elucidate the underlying factors that may explain these sociodemographic inequalities related to sarcoma.

  7. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease ... can do something about. The higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk for developing heart ...

  8. [Elevated blood pressure as cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Wiesław; Hebel, Kazimiera

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases for decades have been and still are the main and current health problem of the Polish society and there are many reasons for these diseases. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease. The factors significantly increasing risk the of cardiovascular disease are in addition to high blood pressure, smoking (also passive), high blood fats (cholesterol and its HDL, LDL fractions as well as triglyceride levels, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes and hereditary features. Other important factors which play an important role are external factors such as e.g. environmental pollution, lifestyle, stress. Prediction of cardiovascular disease should start from the evaluation of the fetal period because low birth weight may be a risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity or diabetes in adulthood. The authors of the referred tests showed that the level of blood pressure observed during childhood is closely associated with the level of blood pressure in adults and is also dependent on the body weight. Since the issue of the effects of high pressure on the cardiovascular system is inherent in the issue of the metabolic syndrome, it should be mentioned also that another causative factor may be an irregularity in the removal of urine from the body and the amount of insulin. The control of hypertension is a complex problem, at least in view of the wide range of adverse factors affecting the human body: hypertension is often either a constituent of other lesions. Therefore, it is difficult to treat high blood pressure in the strict sense; more often it is a combination therapy based on pharmacology caused for other reasons.

  9. Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopolou, Eleni; Katsaris, Georgios; Katostaras, Theophanis

    A retrospective study of 205 patients was performed to identify the risk factors associated with nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI). The study occurred during a 5-month period in four medical-surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in Athens, Greece. Risk factors were determined using single and multivariate analyses. Thirty-five patients developed nosocomial BSI (17.1%). The incidence density (defined as the number of new cases of BSI divided by the total of patient-days in the population studied; Jarvis, 1997) of BSI was 14.3 per 1000 patient-days (total number of days that patients are in the ICU during the selected time period). A multivariate model showed that only three factors were significantly and independently responsible for nosocomial BSI: the length of ICU stay (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) 1.052, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.018-1.087, P = 0.002); the presence of trauma at admission (AOR 2.622, 95% CI 1.074-6.404, P = 0.034); and nosocomial ventilator-associated pneumonia (AOR 6.153, 95% CI 2.305-16.422, P = 0.000). These results show that the factors that had most influence on the development of nosocomial BSI were those factors associated with the treatment received by patients during ICU stay.

  10. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  11. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  12. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.

  13. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion...

  14. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Metabolic deregulations and development of metabolic syndrome may be an important pathway underlying the relationship between stress and cardiovascular disease. We aim to estimate the effect of a comprehensive range of psychosocial factors on the risk of developing metabolic...... syndrome in men and women. Methods: The study population consisted of 3621 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline and reexamined after 10 years. The data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, income.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and...

  15. Risk Factor Analysis In Oral Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti A.R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study involving 54 cases and 108 matched controls was conducted to find out the association of risk factors like smoking, chewing paan and tobacco and the occurrence of cancers of the oral cavity. More than 80% of the cases were over 40 years of age, with a male: female ratio of 2:1, paan and tobacco chewing were significantly related to the oral cancers (Odds Ratio of 9.3 and 7.8 respectively. Smoking showed a statistically significant relationship with oral cancers among male patients. In addition, the study also established dose-response and time-response relationship these risk factors and oral cancer.

  16. [Secondary cancers: Incidence, risk factors and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Fayech, Chiraz; Girard, Pauline; Plantaz, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Cure rates for most childhood cancers and adolescents have made remarkable progress over the last thirty to forty years. The development of secondary malignancies has become an important question for these patients. The frequency is low, but the risk is significantly higher (between 3 and 10 times) and it is the leading cause of long-term mortality off relapse. In this literature review, we discuss the epidemiological aspect and the risk factors contributing to this increased risk, and conclude with a summary of current recommendations for screening and surveillance. We also discuss briefly the constitutional predisposing genetic contributions to other cancers. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Oromia Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulisa, Girma; Workneh, Tilaye; Hordofa, Niguse; Suaudi, Mohamed; Abebe, Gemeda; Jarso, Godana

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) caused by multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Oromia Region, Ethiopia. A 6-month case-control study was performed in 2013-14. Sputum samples and standardized questionnaire data (demographics, treatment, TB contact history, underlying disease, history of imprisonment) were collected from cases with suspected MDR-TB aged ≥ 18 years. Sputum was processed locally in the Oromia Public Health Laboratory using standard techniques. Data from MDR-TB cases and TB-positive controls were compared using logistic regression analysis. For each factor, the association with outcome variables was estimated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) together with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Of 439 suspected MDR-TB cases, 265 had a confirmed M. tuberculosis infection, of whom 88 (33%) had laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Over two-thirds (65%) were between 18 and 39 years of age. On multivariate analysis, an occupation of farming, known TB contact history, alcohol use, HIV infection, previous known TB history, and previous TB treatment outcome were predictors of MDR-TB. The rate of MDR-TB was high among suspected cases in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Local MDR-TB detection capacity and local epidemiology studies are essential to detect MDR-TB and guide the use of the sparse resources to optimize MDR-TB control. If TB is suspected, the presence of any of the above factors should alert Oromia Region clinicians and public health professionals to screen for MDR-TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular nondepolarizing agents, sex factors, Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Additional studies were identified from article reference lists. Relevant, peer-reviewed original research articles, case series and reviews were considered for review. Current epidemiological studies on adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have used different definitions for ADR-related terminology, often do not differentiate immunologically and non-immunologically mediated drug hypersensitivity, study different study populations (different ethnicities, inpatients or outpatients, adults or children), utilize different methodologies (spontaneous vs. non-spontaneous reporting, cohort vs. case-control studies), different methods of assessing drug imputability and different methods of data analyses. Potentially life-threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) are associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. HLA associations for SCAR associated with allopurinol, carbamazepine and abacavir have been reported with the potential for clinical use in screening prior to prescription. Identification of risk factors for drug allergy and appropriate genetic screening of at-risk ethnic groups may improve the outcomes of drug-specific SCAR. Research and collaboration are necessary for the generation of clinically-relevant, translational pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacogenomic knowledge, and success of health outcomes research and policies on drug allergies. PMID:21480948

  19. Longitudinal Risk Factors for Cyberbullying in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Sticca, Fabio; Ruggieri, Sabrina; Alsaker, Françoise; Perren, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying has emerged as a new form of antisocial behaviour in the context of online communication over the last decade. The present study investigates potential longitudinal risk factors for cyberbullying. A total of 835 Swiss seventh graders participated in a short-term longitudinal study (two assessments 6 months apart). Students reported on the frequency of cyberbullying, traditional bullying, rule-breaking behaviour, cybervictimisation, traditional victimisation, and frequency of onl...

  20. Risk Factors of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Gontar Alamsyah; Laksmi, Lidya Imelda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic atrophic gastritis is a well-established precursor of gastric cancer. The development of atrophic chronic gastritis is multifactorial, involving the environment as well as host responses to the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence and risk factors of chronic atrophic gastritis.Method: The study was a cross sectional study on gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and P...

  1. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  2. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Fan Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%. Ten patients (5.1% were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6% with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47 and < 18 (OR = 2.95 years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67, used drugs (OR = 1.53 and had an infection (OR = 1.87 during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68 and fathers (OR = 1.74 were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.

  3. Risk factors and management of diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Akheel Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic patients and to study the management of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we conducted a hospital-based prospective study in the Internal Medicine department of our hospital on 60 patients with DN and 60 diabetic patients without DN. An odds ratio (OR disclosed the following risk factors: Hypertension (OR = 2.06, family history of diabetes (OR = 1.23, family history of DN (OR = 2.86, uncontrolled hyperglycemia (OR = 11.80, obesity (OR = 1.07, duration of diabetes between 11 and 20 years (OR = 4.69, smoking (OR = 2.79, alcohol consumption (OR = 3.75, other complications (OR = 2.03, lack of physical activity (OR = 1.51 and anemia (OR = 2.29. According to these risk factors, we suggest that improving patient′s knowledge on diabetes and its treatment, life style modifications and aggressive management of the disease may delay the progression of disease to advanced stages.

  4. Social risk factors in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are social risk factors that can rebound negatively in the functional capacity of elder people thus they associate to an enchancement of the vulnerability to have them develop a state of fragility and necessity. A descriptive investigation was done with the objective of determinig the social risk factors of elder people in the dispensaries 28 of policlinic ll from Jatibonico municipality from january 1 st to december 31 st, 2009 .The sample was conformed by 103 older people. Different variables were used like: age, sex, marital status, associated desease and basic components of the family functions disminished or null. It prevailed the 60-64 and 70-74 year old group (24.3%, female sex (60.2%, the elder widow women (20,3 %, the hypertension (60,2% and family comprehension about conduct and elderly points of view (50,4%. There was a high incidence of the social risk factors associated to the presence of old women, alone and widows, the lessen of economic resources, the retirement, the incomprehension of elder people by their families and the presence of non transmisible chronic desease.

  5. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  6. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  7. Associations and Risk Factors of Diabetic Maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Ali, M; Naher, Z U; Akhanda, A H; Motaleb, M A; Uddin, M S; Islam, M R

    2016-04-01

    Diabetic maculopathy is characterised by increased capillary leakage in the main retinal vessels and by alterations in the microcirculation of the macula. Maculopathy occurs frequently in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. Prevalence is higher in type 2 than in type 1 diabetic patients. Factors associated with the development of maculopathy are mostly unknown. As maculopathy is the main cause of vision deprivation in diabetic patients it is essential to know the associations and risk factors of diabetic maculopathy so that appropriate measures can be taken to prevent as well as treat diabetic maculopathy. We started the research work to find out the relation between diabetic maculopathy and various associated factors and risk factors for patients with diabetic retinopathy with maculopathy. This cross-sectional observational study done at the Department of Ophthalmology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka & National Institute of Ophthalmology & Hospital (NIO & H), Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2006 to June 2006. In this study out of 50 patients, diabetes was controlled in 20(40%) patients and uncontrolled in 30(60%). A significant percentage of patients (40%) had elevated blood pressure. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy was observed in 24% cases and polyneuropathy was observed in 36% cases. It is evident that diabetic maculopathy has association with dyslipidaemia, abnormal renal function due to nephropathy. This study lighted on the association of diabetic maculopathy with diabetic nephropathy, cardiac abnormalities and diabetic neuropathy.

  8. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: a summary review of meta-analytical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2015-02-01

    The aetiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) has been extensively studied and is the subject of numerous meta-analyses and pooled analyses. We have summarized results from these pooled and meta-analytical studies to estimate the fraction of PCs attributable to each of the identified risk factors. Using a comprehensive strategy, we retrieved 117 meta-analytical or pooled reports dealing with the association between specific risk factors and PC risk. We combined estimates of relative risk and estimates of exposure to calculate the fraction of PCs caused or prevented by a particular exposure. Tobacco smoking ('strong' evidence) and Helicobacter pylori infection ('moderate' evidence) are the major risk factors associated with PC, with respective estimated population attributable fractions of 11-32% and 4-25%. The major protective factors are history of allergy ('strong' evidence) and increasing fruit or folate intake ('moderate' evidence), with respective population preventable fractions of 3-7% and 0-12%. We summarized results of 117 meta-analytical or pooled data reports dealing with 37 aetiological exposures, to obtain robust information about the suspected causes of PC. By combining these estimates with their prevalences in the population, we calculated population attributable or population preventable fractions. About two-thirds of the major risk factors associated with PC are potentially modifiable, affording a unique opportunity for preventing one of our deadliest cancers. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  9. Relationships between Global DNA Methylation in Circulating White Blood Cells and Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayha Chopra-Tandon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not yet clear whether white blood cell DNA global methylation is associated with breast cancer risk. In this review we examine the relationships between multiple breast cancer risk factors and three markers of global DNA methylation: LINE-1, 5-mdC, and Alu. A literature search was conducted using Pubmed up to April 1, 2016, using combinations of relevant outcomes such as “WBC methylation,” “blood methylation,” “blood LINE-1 methylation,” and a comprehensive list of known and suspected breast cancer risk factors. Overall, the vast majority of reports in the literature have focused on LINE-1. There was reasonably consistent evidence across the studies examined that males have higher levels of LINE-1 methylation in WBC DNA than females. None of the other demographic, lifestyle, dietary, or health condition risk factors were consistently associated with LINE-1 DNA methylation across studies. With the possible exception of sex, there was also little evidence that the wide range of breast cancer risk factors we examined were associated with either of the other two global DNA methylation markers: 5-mdC and Alu. One possible implication of the observed lack of association between global WBC DNA methylation and known breast cancer risk factors is that the association between global WBC DNA methylation and breast cancer, if it exists, is due to a disease effect.

  10. Maternal and Gestational Risk Factors for Hypospadias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Olof; Boyd, Heather A.; Ahlgren, Martin; Wilbrand, Kerstin; Westergaard, Tine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Ekbom, Anders; Melbye, Mads

    2008-01-01

    Background An increase in the prevalence of hypospadias has been reported, but the environmental causes remain virtually unknown. Objectives Our goal was to assess the association between risk of hypospadias and indicators of placental function and endogenous hormone levels, exposure to exogenous hormones, maternal diet during pregnancy, and other environmental factors. Methods We conducted a case–control study in Sweden and Denmark from 2000 through 2005 using self-administered questionnaires completed by mothers of hypospadias cases and matched controls. The response rate was 88% and 81% among mothers of cases and controls, respectively. The analyses included 292 cases and 427 controls. Results A diet during pregnancy lacking both fish and meat was associated with a more than 4-fold increased risk of hypospadias [odds ratio (OR) = 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.6–13.3]. Boys born to obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30] women had a more than 2-fold increased risk of hypospadias (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2–5.7) compared with boys born to mothers with a normal weight (BMI = 20–24). Maternal hypertension during pregnancy and absence of maternal nausea increased a boy’s risk of hypospadias 2.0-fold (95% CI, 1.1–3.7) and 1.8-fold (95% CI, 1.2–2.8), respectively. Nausea in late pregnancy also appeared to be positively associated with hypospadias risk (OR = 7.6; 95% CI, 1.1–53). Conclusions A pregnancy diet lacking meat and fish appears to increase the risk of hypospadias in the offspring. Other risk associations were compatible with a role for placental insufficiency in the etiology of hypospadias. PMID:18709149

  11. Identification of caries risk factors in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M; Jackson, R; Eckert, G; Swigonski, N; Chin, J; Zandona, A Ferreira; Ando, M; Stookey, G K; Downs, S; Zero, D T

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors to predict caries progression in toddlers in primary-healthcare settings for the cost-effective targeting of preventive and referral strategies. We examined 329 children (26 ± 6 mos old) twice, one year apart, in Indiana, USA. A 107-item structured interview was used to collect information from the primary caregiver and child on factors/beliefs/perceptions/behaviors that could affect caries development, transmission of bacteria, medical-dental health, and access to care. Bacterial levels, gingivitis, dental plaque, and caries experience were assessed. Multiple-variable logistic regression models of caries progression toward cavitation included family caries experience, transmission-related behaviors, dietary factors, health beliefs, and lower income, but differed in selected predictors/predictive power by race/ethnicity. Addition of clinical variables did not significantly improve the prediction.

  12. Risk Factors for Hepatic Steatosis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has become the most common cause of liver disease in children worldwide. Purpose: to identify risk factors (RF for hepatic steatosis in children. Methods. Thirty two children with gastrointestinal disorders were examined by us. The presence and severity of hepatic steatosis was determined using FibroScan® 502 touch with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP. According to the results of CAP the children were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (basic — 13 children with steatosis (40.6 %, group 2 (control — 19 children without steatosis (59.4 %. To determine the risk factors we analyzed a history of life and disease, objective clinical and laboratory examination of patients. Results. Analysis of the age distribution showed that children older than 10 years old dominated in the basic group (RR 3.3; OR 4.0; p = 0.1. Obesity was found in 12 (92.3 % children in the group with steatosis and in 9 (47 % children without steatosis. Increased waist circumference values above 95 percentile according to age and sex of a child was observed in 12 (92.3 % children in the basic group and in 8 (42.1 % children in the control group (RR 7.2; OR 16.5; p < 0.05. It was found that the presence of pubertal hypothalamic syndrome is associated with risk of hepatic steatosis in children (RR 30.6; OR 4.8; p < 0.05. Discussion. Abdominal type of obesity in combination with diseases of the endocrine system, namely, hypothalamic syndrome should be considered as the leading risk factors for hepatic steatosis in children.

  13. Risk factors for idiopathic optic neuritis recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Du

    Full Text Available Approximately 30-50% of idiopathic optic neuritis (ION patients experience one or multiple episodes of recurrence. The aim of this study was to search for risk factors for ION recurrence.Clinical data on hospitalized patients diagnosed with ION between January 2003 and January 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on factors that might cause ION recurrence. In total, 115 ION cases (32 recurrent and 83 non-recurrent cases with complete data were analyzed. The length of the follow-up period ranged from 12 to 108 months (median: 42 months.The univariate analysis showed that the recurrence rate for unilateral ION was higher than that for bilateral ION (40% vs. 12%, p=0.001. Underlying diseases had a significant impact on recurrence (p<0.001: the recurrence rates due to neuromyelitis optica (NMO, multiple sclerosis (MS, demyelinating lesions alone of the central nervous system, and unknown causes were 89%, 70%, 41%, and 8.7%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the factors causing relatively high recurrence rates included NMO (odds ratio [OR], 73.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3 to 740.9, MS (OR, 33.9; 95% CI, 5.2 to 222.2, and demyelinating lesions alone (OR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 34.4, unilateral involvement (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 21.3, relatively low initial glucocorticoid dosage (equivalent to ≤ 100 mg prednisone/day (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 17.9.Underlying diseases, laterality (unilateral or bilateral, and initial glucocorticoid dosage are important risk factors of ION recurrence. Clinical physicians are advised to treat ION patients with a sufficient dose of glucocorticoid in the initial treatment stage to reduce the recurrence risk.

  14. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    , commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...

  15. Risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile R L; Hlobil, Hynek; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine risk factors for fatigue among airline pilots, taking into account person-, work-, health-, sleep-, and lifestyle-related characteristics. The study population consisted of 502 pilots who participated in the MORE Energy study. Included risk factors were either measured through an online questionnaire or provided by the company. The outcome of this study, fatigue, was assessed using the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS), and was defined as scoring more than 76 points on this questionnaire. The association of the risk factors with fatigue was determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the participating pilots, 29.5 % scored more than 76 points on the CIS and were classified as being fatigued. The fully adjusted regression model showed that person-, work-, health-, and lifestyle-related characteristics were associated with fatigue. Pilots who were aged 31 to 40 (OR 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32-8.53) or 41 to 50 (OR 4.19, 95 % CI 1.40-12.47), an evening type (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.38-4.16), scored higher on work-life balance disturbance (OR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.10-1.36), scored higher on need for recovery (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.04), scored lower on general health perception (OR 0.31, 95 % CI 0.20-0.47), were less physically active (OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.89), and had a moderate alcohol consumption (OR 3.88, 95 % CI 1.21-12.43), were at higher risk for fatigue. Higher age, being an evening type, disturbance of the work-life balance, more need for recovery, a lower perceived health, less physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption were shown to be risk factors for fatigue. Further longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the direction of the associations found and to evaluate the effects of possible countermeasures in airline pilots.

  16. Risk factors for depression after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, T; Yamashita, R; Kojima, Y; Takahara, S

    2010-06-01

    Kidney transplantation is recognized as the only potentially curative treatment for end-stage renal failure. But many psychiatric problems are associated with the procedure. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of a risk for depression after kidney transplantation. This retrospective cohort study recruited 116 first kidney-only Japanese recipients whose mean age was 50.2 +/- 11.87 years include a male/female ratio of 63/53. They underwent transplantation between 1990 and 2008. At enrollment, we used the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale score as well as characterized demographic and clinical features of recipients and donors. Comparisons between depressed and non-depressed patients concerning sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were used chi(2) tests for categorical variables and Student's t-tests for continuous variables. Risk factors with significant correlation coefficients (P depression after kidney transplantation. The prevalence of depression in this study was 41.4%. Depressed patients were significantly more likely to not have regular incomes, nor to have desired kidney transplantation, to have experienced a rejection episode, and to live alone (P depression was living alone; subjects living alone were 2.51 times more likely to be depressed as those living with others (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-5.22; P depression after kidney transplantation is driven by multiple, complex, and often overlapping risk factors, we observed characteristic features of recipients including their social environment and follow-up treatment.

  17. Risk factors for asthma exacerbation in patients presenting to an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asthma exacerbations are caused by a variety of risk factors. Reducing exposure to these risk factors improves the control of asthma and reduces medication needs. Knowledge of the particular risk factors is essential in formulating controlling and treatment protocols. This study set out to determine the risk ...

  18. Risk Factors for Placenta Praevia in Jos, North Central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About half (44.8%) of the cases had no known risk factor. Conclusion: Uterine scaring following abortion management is an important risk factor for placenta praevia. However, majority of patients with placenta praevia in this work have no identifiable risk factor. Key Words: placenta praevia, antepartum haemorrhage, risk ...

  19. Clinical risk factors for bipolar disorders: a systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faedda, Gianni L; Serra, Giulia; Marangoni, Ciro; Salvatore, Paola; Sani, Gabriele; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Tondo, Leonardo; Girardi, Paolo; Baldessarini, Ross J; Koukopoulos, Athanasios

    2014-10-01

    Early phases and suspected precursor states of bipolar disorder are not well characterized. We evaluate the prevalence, duration, clinical features and predictive value of non-affective psychopathology as clinical risk factors for bipolar disorder in prospective studies. We screened PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Embase, SCOPUS, and ISI-Web of Science databases from inception up to January 31, 2014, following PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and searched: bipolar disorder AND [antecedent⁎ OR predict⁎ OR prodrom⁎ OR prospect⁎ OR risk⁎] AND [diagnosis OR development]. We included only English language reports on prospective, longitudinal studies with two structured clinical assessments (intake and follow-up); no DSM intake diagnosis of bipolar-I or -II; diagnostic outcome was bipolar-I or -II. Details of study design, risk factors, and predictive value were tabulated. We found 16 published reports meeting selection criteria, with varying study design. Despite heterogeneity in methods, findings across studies were consistent. Clinical risk factors of bipolar disorder were early-onset panic attacks and disorder, separation anxiety and generalized anxiety disorders, conduct symptoms and disorder, ADHD, impulsivity and criminal behavior. Since risk factors identified in some prospective studies are predictive of other conditions besides bipolar disorder, these preliminary findings require replication, and their sensitivity, specificity and predictive value need to be assessed. Clinical risk factors for bipolar disorder typically arise years prior to syndromal onset, include anxiety and behavioral disorders with unclear sensitivity and specificity. Prospectively identified clinical risk factors for bipolar disorder are consistent with retrospective and family-risk studies. Combining clinical risk factors with precursors and family-risk may improve early identification and timely and appropriate treatment of

  20. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  1. Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL≥4mm/≥25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

  2. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2006-01-01

    Acute postoperative pain is followed by persistent pain in 10-50% of individuals after common operations, such as groin hernia repair, breast and thoracic surgery, leg amputation, and coronary artery bypass surgery. Since chronic pain can be severe in about 2-10% of these patients, persistent...... therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...... chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk...

  3. OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Osteoarthritis (OA, also often called “osteoarthrosis” or “degenerative joint disease” is the most common form of arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present retrospective statistical study was conducted at the Department of orthopaedics in a tertiary care hospital (Catering to a largely agricultural population over a period of 2 years from January 2012 to December 2014. RESULTS Prevalence of osteoarthritis common in farmers accounting to 70%. Other occupations at risk of OA of knee were, Teachers 12%, Housewives 08%, Athletes 04%, Policemen 04% and Drivers 02%. It is in conformity with most previous studies reviewed. CONCLUSION Osteoarthritis of Knee is a major health issue and important cause of disability in elderly population. Occupational risk factors are important in development of osteoarthritis.

  4. Adolescent self-harm and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixiang; Song, Jianwei; Wang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to define the characteristics of adolescents who have engaged in self-harm behavior and ascertain the risk factors. From January 2013 to January 2014, 4,176 adolescents from senior middle schools in Linyi, China, were administered four questionnaire surveys to ascertain the following: incidence of self-harm behavior regarding the frequency of different self-harm behaviors by group (never/one to five times/greater than five times in the last 6 months) and then comparing the self-harm behavior of the different subgroups; symptom self-check, comparing the differences between the adolescents with self-harm behavior and without in nine subscales (somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, fear, paranoid, and psychosis); Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List scores; and Egna Minnenav Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) scores. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors of self-harm in adolescents. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was 27.60%; the occurrence of adolescent self-harm was closely related to their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU. Being female, an urban student, or an only child; having poor school performance or experiences of stressful life events, harsh parenting styles, or excessive interference; and poor mental health were the risk factors for adolescent self-harm. The incidence of adolescent self-harm was high, and their mental health status, stressful life events, and EMBU affected the occurrence of adolescent self-harm, which is an issue that needs greater attention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Are low wages risk factors for hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Du, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages-the largest category within income-are risk factors. We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25-65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25-44 and 45-65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25-44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables-obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities-were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25-30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25-44 years. The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25-44 years.

  6. Are low wages risk factors for hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages—the largest category within income—are risk factors. Methods: We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25–65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25–44 and 45–65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Results: Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25–44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables—obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities—were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25–30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25–44 years. Conclusions: The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25–44 years. PMID:22262559

  7. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  8. Resistant hypertension: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Deneka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possibilities of contemporary pharmacotherapy, more than 80% of hypertensive patients do not achieve target blood pressure levels. Besides the obvious reasons – poor adherence of patients to treatment and non-rational therapy, there are other objective risk factors of resistance. Three main modifiable causes of resistant hypertension, that are often underestimated, are considered: obesity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and primary hyperaldosteronism. Understanding these mechanisms of resistance and their diagnostic criteria can improve the results of resistant hypertension treatment.

  9. [Environmental risk factors and epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, C; Limina, R M

    2002-01-01

    The problems regarding communication of risks in the environmental sector and the analysis of certain causes of pollution, together with their effects on human health are the subjects of this article. In an illustrative and concise manner results of the most important epidemiological studies concerning the effects of non-ionizing radiations, of radon and of air pollution have been analyzed. Throughout this analysis emphasis has been placed on the difficulty of obtaining clear and scientifically based results. Such results are needed in order to provide the population with satisfying information and thus meet the increasing demand for unambiguous answers. Among the risk factors for human health are the high frequency electromagnetic fields used for mobile phones (radiofrequency--RF) nd extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) of power-lines. Even though these risk factors may be minimal the high number of persons exposed could make them an important impact on public health. Regarding the topic of air pollution, effects on particular segments of the population (children, elderly people and subjects with chronic diseases) have been found in various studies; for example, for an increase of PM(10) of 10 microg/m(3) an increase in daily mortality of 0.69% (CI 0.40-0.98) due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes has been estimated as well as an increase in general daily mortality of 0.54% (CI 0.33-0.76). Due to the populations' low risk perception (caused by unawareness of the problem) radon is undoubtedly the environmental pollutant which has the most impact on public health. This is true even in Italy where 4,000 cases of lung cancer attributable to radon (about 11% of total lung cancer) have been estimated per year; this risk is heightened by the combined effect with smoking. When dealing with health risks the tools of communication must be simple and correct; the mass-media are the most important mediators between the scientific community and the

  10. [Risk factors of children overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi Koubaa, Afifa; Younes, Kawthar; Gabsi, Zvinemira; Bouslah, Amel; Maalel, Issam; Maatouk El May, Wahiba; Dahmen, Hayet; Bel Abed, Najet; Bchir, Nedra; Gabsi, Abdallah; Tekaya, Mohamed Salah; Jebara, Hassen

    2012-05-01

    The increase of the prevalence of children obesity in some countries as Tunisia, necessitate to welling known risk factors for obesity, to prevent and early management. To determine the prevalence of overweight and of obesity in a group of 4-6 year-old school children in Monastir and to investigate the association with possible risk factors. A descriptive transversal study including 121 children aged 4-6 years old (637 males, 698 females), was conducted in 10 Kindergartens in Monastir, in 2011. Personal data such as age, sex, birth weight, breastfeeding history and parental data including parental weights and heights, parental education level and occupation were collected by questionnaires completed by parents. Height and weight were measured with a weighing-scale and body mass index (BMI; kg/m²) was calculated. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was defined based according to the curves of the french reference of Rolland Cachera. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 9.1% and 11.6% respectively. Parental factors associated with overweight were: parental obesity: 44% vs 17% (p=0.005) (OR = 3.65: 1.27-10.57), artificial feeding: 68% vs 33% (p=0.0016) (OR= 4.25: 1.51-12.27), and the early diversification of food before the age of 6 months: 88% vs 65% (p=0.029) (OR= 3.84: 0.98 - 17.66). Exclusive breast feeding duration ≥ 6mois is probably protector factor against obesity: 0% vs 21% (p=0. 01) (OR=0: 0.00 overweight and non-overweight schoolchildren in frequency of high degree educated mother and father, birth weight, breakfast intake, eating habits and exercise. However overweight children intake high-caloric food, low in fiber, with troubles of nutritional comportment, and a sedentary lifestyle. Risk factors for obesity, well known in most industrialized countries, necessitate to be more understood in Tunisia, to place a preventive strategy included supervision of children weight, nutritional education and promote physical activity and reducing the time

  11. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Their Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahangiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims :Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs is high among office workers. Long time seated posture, working with computer, repetitive movements and inappropriate environmental conditions may have causal effects in these disorders. High prevalence rate of MSDs makes ergonomics assessment and working conditions improvement necessary. Designing an assessment checklist and calculating ergonomics indices can be useful in this evaluation. This study was conducted with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate, ergonomics assessment of working conditions and determination of factors associated with MSDs among office workers. Methods:In this study 400 randomly selected office workers participated. Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire was applied to determine prevalence rate of MSDs. Working conditions were assessed by the designed ergonomics checklist and ergonomic risk factors were identified. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including t-test, Chi-square and test of proportion by SPSS software (Version 12.0. Results:The highest prevalence rates of MSDs were reported in lower back and neck regions (49% and 47%, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant association between occurrence of MSDs and calculated ergonomics indices (P<0.05. The mean of ergonomics index among those suffered from MSDs were less than other healthy workers indicating inappropriate ergonomics conditions. Calculation of OR also revealed that ergonomics conditions was associated with MSDs occurrence among workers (P<0.05. Totally, 53.3% of the office workers studied had poor working conditions. Awkward working posture and inappropriate workstation design were recognized as the main risk factors in the office workplace.  Conclusion:Most ergonomics problems were originated from bad postures and inappropriate design of workstation. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should

  12. Risk factors for suicide in individuals with depression: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawton, Keith; Casañas I Comabella, Carolina; Haw, Camilla; Saunders, Kate

    2013-05-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in people who die by suicide. Awareness of risk factors for suicide in depression is important for clinicians. In a systematic review of the international literature we identified cohort and case-control studies of people with depression in which suicide was an outcome, and conducted meta-analyses of potential risk factors. Nineteen studies (28 publications) were included. Factors significantly associated with suicide were: male gender (OR=1.76, 95% CI=1.08-2.86), family history of psychiatric disorder (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.00-1.97), previous attempted suicide (OR=4.84, 95% CI=3.26-7.20), more severe depression (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.05-4.60), hopelessness (OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.49-3.23) and comorbid disorders, including anxiety (OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.03-2.45) and misuse of alcohol and drugs (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.77-2.66). There were fewer studies than suspected. Interdependence between risk factors could not be examined. The factors identified should be included in clinical assessment of risk in depressed patients. Further large-scale studies are required to identify other relevant factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortical capillary dysfunction in patients suspected of Alzheimer’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Gyldensted, Louise; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban

    Vascular risk factors are suspected to play a role in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Recently, a model that relates capillary dysfunction to the development of AD was proposed[1]. The model predicts that capillary dysfunction in form of increased capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH...

  14. Risk Factors of Erythrocytosis Post Renal Transplantation

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    Razeghi Effat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE is characterized by persistently ele-vated hematocrit level 0 51%. This complication is reported to develop in 10-20% of renal allografts recipients, mostly 2 years after kidney transplantation. PTE is self-limited in 25% of the patients; however it may persist in patients with an increased susceptibility for thrombosis and potential fatal outcome. To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of PTE in our center, we reviewed the records of 235 patients who received renal allografts from 1999 to 2004. Polycythemia was found in 45 (19% patients. There was no significant correlation of polycythemia and age, history of hypertension, diabetes, pre-transplant hematocrit level, pre-transplant history of transfusion, graft′s function, and source of kidney. A significantly higher proportion of PTE patients were males, patients with history of polycystic kidney disease, and patients with glomerulonephritis. We conclude that PTE is an important complication of kidney transplantation. There are several risk factors that should be addressed to prevent this complication.

  15. Risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Shyam; Neupane, Shailes

    2013-01-01

    To examine the incidence of and risk factors for repeat abortion in Nepal. Data were analyzed from a survey of 1172 women who had surgical abortions between December 2009 and March 2010 in 2 clinics in Kathmandu, Nepal. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors. Among the respondents, 32.3% (95% confidence interval, 29.6-34.9) had repeat abortions. This incidence rose sharply with age and parity, and was higher among those with no intention of having a future child, those attaining primary or secondary level education, and those attending the non-governmental sector clinic. Women with repeat abortion were similar to those with 1 abortion in terms of contraceptive practice. Among women not using contraceptives at the time of the unintended pregnancy, the 3 most commonly cited reasons were ill health, non-compliance with the method intended for use, and dislike of the method. Women with repeat abortion showed a pattern of contraceptive acceptance immediately after the procedure similar to that of women who had 1 abortion. Repeat abortion is emerging as a major public health issue in Nepal, with implications for counseling and provision of abortion, and for family planning services. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CLIMATE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁKOS NÉMETH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices. Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on the biota (e.g. drought, or inundation for plain-area eco-tourism. Last, but not least the urban (cultural- and shopping- tourism is presented, since the large towns exhibit their special climate and different risks. The paper intends to specify these meteorological factors and effects also in terms of the different types of touristic activities. The general statements on the effect of weather and climate on tourism are illustrated by a few individual parameters and also by the so called Physiologically Equivalent Temperature. Annual and diurnal course of this parameter are presented, together with various trends in this variable at different sites and in different (hot and cold extremities of the occurring values. Other examples, helping the tourism industry are presented in various climate conditions of the country. They include high precipitation and high relative humidity information. The paper also lists the possible adaptation measures to extreme events and also their likely changes in time.

  17. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Duron

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome

  18. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías López, Ma del C; Tárraga López, P J; Rodríguez Montes, J A; Solera Albero, J; Celada Rodríguez, A; López Cara, M A; Gálvez, A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the general population of an urban health center and describe the clinical characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. An observational study, retrospective, reviewing the medical histories of patients sampled from June 2005 until July 2007. We analyzed the following variables; facts: age and sex. Family history thyroid disease and other diseases. Personal History: cardiovascular pulmonary autoimmune, alterations gynecology obstetric diabetes, hypertension (HT) dislipemia, obesity, psychiatric alterations and haematological. Laboratory data: novel TSH, free T4, antiperoxidase antibodies, total cholesterol and its fractions. The prevalence of the sample of 100 patients collected over 8 months was 3.8% in the general population over 14 years, of which 79 were women and 21 were men. 13% were type 2 diabetics, 23% had HT and 40% had dyslipidemia. Overweight and obesity were present in 26%. The average level of TSH was 6.92 ± 2.29 μU/ml and the average level of free T4 was 1.16 ± 0.16 ng/ml. Prevalence subclinical hypothyroidism was 3.8%. especially in women with a mean age of 46. The incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in the subjects studied is higher in DM (13%), similar to general population in terms of dyslipidemia (40%) and obesity (23%) and lowest in hypertension (23%). In our study we observed a common pattern in the management of subclinical hypothyroidism, requiring the implementation and promotion of practice guidelines in primary care.

  19. Adolescent fatherhood: Risk factor or resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Benatuil

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the adolescent pregnancy has been historically centered in the mother, the preponderant focus has been considers the maternity in this stage of the vital cycle as a factor of risk. Nowadays, have begun some studies that focus the problem of the adolescent pregnancy being centered in the father’s figure to appear and proposing a healthy focus, starting from the introduction of such concepts like Resilience. The present article, is a theoretical work, it is carried out to leave of secondary data. The objective is the compilation of studies and information on the subject of adolescent fatherhood from a less explored focus, considering the factors of risk and resilience. Different studies are raised with Latin American youths. Also are analyzed the access possibilities to the sanitary system from the youths, the knowledge of birth-control methods and the participation in programs of reproductive health. It outlines the importance of including the males in the whole process of procreation and the boy’s upbringing. 

  20. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Naira Lígia de Araújo; Lima, Luisa Helena de Oliveira; Carvalho, Elaine de Sousa; Vera, Paula Valentina de Sousa; Frota, Karoline de Macêdo Gonçalves; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Oliveira, Edina Araújo Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Identify risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. Descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from May to September 2012, in the public schools of the city of Picos (Piaui State, Brazil). The sample consisted of 320 adolescents 10-19 years. As to gender, 60% were female. With regard to blood pressure values, 15.3% of participants had altered blood pressure values (6.9% with hypertension) and, in relation to nutritional status, 15.6% were overweight and 5.3% obese. None of the variables showed statistically significant differences according to sex. Correlation were found between the variables: family history of hypertension with arm circumference and triceps skinfold; maternal education with triceps skinfold thickness and diastolic blood pressure; uptime with body mass index, arm circumference, waist-hip ratio and heart rate; birth weight with body mass index and arm circumference. A significant proportion of adolescent respondents had risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Nursing should lead the adoption of interventions that promote the improvement of healthy lifestyle in adolescence, thus avoiding not only cardiovascular disease, but also other chronic diseases that can develop.

  1. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.

  2. Sexting; your definition, risk factors and consecuences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Tomasa Mercado Contreras

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The advance of the technology in communications has led to social networking sites fulfill an important role in society. Among the most used and known is Facebook, that social network allows to make public certain information and provides the opportunity to hold private conversations. This new trend of talks, and the natural desire to explore sexuality has led young people interested at phenomenon known as sexting. This phenomenon, from some of the negative consequences became public, has attracted the interest from parents, teachers, researchers and health workers, however, have not been universally well defined. This lack of unanimous conceptualization has led to confusion within the psychological, social and legal area. That is why in the present article presents results of a systematic review of articles that speak about sexting. The select articles were those that were published from 2009 to 2014, in which work was focused to adolescents and speak about risk factors and consequences of the phenomenon. The articles were analyzed by looking at the similarities and differences in their definition of sexting and their results, identifying risk factors and consequences related considered. With the analysis was possible to categorize their limitations and finally offer a possible definition of sexting.

  3. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

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    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  4. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates cognitive, behavioral, and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programing can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress-associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention, and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.

  5. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Joachim Raabe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.

  6. Income and heart disease: Neglected risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla; Moraros, John

    2015-08-01

    To determine the unadjusted and adjusted effects of income on heart disease; its main disease intermediary, high blood pressure; and its main behavioural risk factors, smoking and physical inactivity. Random-digit dialing telephone survey collected through the Canadian Community Health Survey by Statistics Canada. Saskatchewan. A total of 27 090 residents aged 20 years and older; each health region in Saskatchewan was represented. Overall, 178 variables related to demographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, behaviour, life stress, disease intermediaries, health outcomes, and access to health care were analyzed to determine their unadjusted and adjusted effects on heart disease. The mean age of the sample was 52.6 years. Women represented 55.9% of the sample. Most respondents were married (52.3%) and had some postsecondary or graduate education (52.5%). The mean personal income was $23 931 and the mean household income was $37 533. All models statistically controlled for age. Five covariates independently associated with heart disease included high blood pressure, household income of $29 999 or less per year, being a daily smoker, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure included being overweight or obese, being a daily smoker, household income of $29 999 or less per year, male sex, and being physically inactive. Five covariates independently associated with daily smoking included being a visible minority, household income of $29 999 or less per year, not being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, and male sex. Six covariates independently associated with physical inactivity included being a visible minority, being overweight or obese, education level of less than secondary school, male sex, household income of $29 999 or less per year, and being a daily smoker. Household income was strongly and independently associated with heart disease; its main disease

  7. Health Seeking Behaviour and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in Lay Armachiho District, Northwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in the northern part of Ethiopia showed high prevalence of undiagnosed cluster of tuberculosis cases within the community which demanded an investigation of the health care seeking behaviour of tuberculosis suspects. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Lay Armachiho district, Northwest Ethiopia. Individuals who had cough for at least two weeks and aged greater than or equal to 15 years were included in the study. Data were collected by interview using pretested and structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was computed and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated. Out of the total population surveyed (29, 735, 663 (2.2% individuals were found to be pulmonary tuberculosis suspects. Majority of the suspects reported that they had visited a modern health care facility. Those aged 15 to 34 and aged 35–54 had secondary educational level and above; those who were civil servants, those who were farmers, those who had previous history of tuberculosis treatment, and those who perceived that they were sick were more likely to visit a modern health care facility. The proportion of respondents who had taken traditional measures was found to be higher than some other districts. Improving the socioeconomic status of the community is recommended.

  8. Risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence

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    Lígia da Silva Leroy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for postpartum urinary incontinence (UI and its characteristics. METHOD: This was a case-control study with 344 puerperal women (77 cases and 267 controls with up to 90 days postpartum. In a single session, participants were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and two others that assessed urine leakage, leakage situations, and type of UI. RESULTS: Stress UI was present in 45.5% of the women, incidents of urine leakage several times a day in 44.2%, of which 71.4% were in small amounts and 57.1% when coughing or sneezing. In 70.1% of cases, UI began during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. After running a binary logistic regression model, the following factors remained in the final model: UI during pregnancy (OR 12.82, CI 95% 6.94 - 23.81, p<0.0001, multiparity (OR 2.26, CI 95% 1.22 - 4.19, p=0.009, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks (OR 2.52, CI 95% 1.16 - 5.46, p=0.02 and constipation (OR 1.94, CI 95% 1.05 - 5.46, p=0.035. CONCLUSION: Most often, UI first appeared during pregnancy and remained through the postpartum period. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy, multiparity, gestational age at birth greater or equal to 37 weeks, and constipation were presented as risk factors. In the studied group, stress UI was more frequent.

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity: perinatal risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Caroline da Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To investigate the main risk factors for the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit of Santa Casa de Misericordia de Ponta Grossa. Methods: Retrospective study, case-control, through the review of medical records from January / 2010 to December / 2014. Infants weighing ?1,500 grams at birth, ?37 weeks gestational age were included in this study and infants with congenital malformation, not submitted to funduscopy and with incomplete records were excluded. The risk factors were compared with univariate and multivariate analyzes. For the quantitative variables, the t test was used for the qualitative Fisher's exact test and, after univariate analysis we used logistic regression. Results: 172 neonates were selected and divided into two groups: controls 154 (89.5% and 18 cases (10.5%. The factors studied were: gestational age, birth weight, Apgar at 1 and 5 minutes, use of surfactant, oxygen therapy time, FiO2 used, jaundice, need for phototherapy, development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolits, intracranial hemorrhage and surgeries. Before the univariate analysis gestational age, birth weight, APGAR at 1 and 5 minutes after birth, oxygen therapy time, maximum fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2, need for surfactant, start time of jaundice and level of indirect bilirubin statistically significant (p Conclusion: The frequency of ROP was lower than that found in the literature, stage III predominated, 38.9% of premature infants with severe ROP benefited from photocoagulation, confirming that identification, screening and early treatment of premature are essential in preventing blindness.

  10. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

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    Sakshi Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus, history of abortions, previous history of GDM. Objective: To assess the risk of developing GDM in pregnant women consuming food items with high glycemic index. Material and Methods: A hospital based case control study was conducted in Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated hospital with a sample size of 104 (52 cases & 52 controls. For dietary history a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used. The usual pattern of eating during days, weeks and months were asked. The data was compiled and analysed in SPSS version 12. Results: Total 30.8% cases and 13.5% controls gave history of consuming food items having high glycaemic index more frequently (at least once daily. The odds ratio of developing GDM was 2.86(CI -1.06-7.70 among the cases who were taking high glycaemic foods more frequently in comparison to those who were taking occasionally. Conclusions: Risk of developing GDM in high glycemic foods consumers is high. Simple measures like changing dietary patterns, consuming food items with low glycaemic load can contribute significantly in prevention of GDM. 

  11. From Risk factors to health resources in medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Hanne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2000-01-01

    autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis......autonomy, communication, empowerment, epidemiology, general practice, healing, health resources, informed consent, preventive medicine, risk factors, salutogenesis...

  12. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for arterial hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mental stress. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of risk factors among respondents and to compare ... banking are a significant risk factor for hypertension.3 ..... ternational Archive of Occupation and Environment.DOI:.

  13. Association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors

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    Gita Shafiee

    2013-11-01

    Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors.

  14. Patient risk factors for pressure ulcer development: Systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, S.; Gorecki, C.; Nelson, E.A.; Closs, S.J.; Defloor, T.; Halfens, R.; Farrin, A.; Brown, J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Nixon, J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors independently predictive of pressure ulcer development in adult patient populations? DESIGN: A systematic review of primary research was undertaken, based upon methods recommended for effectiveness questions but adapted to identify observational risk factor

  15. Clinical Symptoms and Risk Factors in Cerebral Microangiopathy Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okroglic, S.; Widmann, C.N.; Urbach, H.; Scheltens, P.; Heneka, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM) remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated

  16. The risk and timing of tuberculosis diagnosed in smear-negative TB suspects: a 12 month cohort study in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyaradzi Dimairo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cases of smear-negative TB have increased dramatically in high prevalence HIV settings and pose considerable diagnostic and management challenges. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between February 2006 and July 2007, a cohort study nested within a cluster-randomised trial of community-based case finding strategies for TB in Harare, Zimbabwe was undertaken. Participants who had negative sputum smears and remained symptomatic of TB were follow-up for one year with standardised investigations including HIV testing, repeat sputum smears, TB culture and chest radiography. Defaulters were actively traced to the community. The objectives were to investigate the incidence and risk factors for TB. TB was diagnosed in 218 (18.2% participants, of which 39.4% was bacteriologically confirmed. Most cases (84.2% were diagnosed within 3 months, but TB incidence remained high thereafter (111.3 per 1000 person-years, 95% CI: 86.6 to 146.3. HIV prevalence was 63.3%, and HIV-infected individuals had a 3.5-fold higher risk of tuberculosis than HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSION: We found that diagnosis of TB was insensitive and slow, even with early radiography and culture. Until more sensitive and rapid diagnostic tests become widely available, a much more proactive and integrated approach towards prompt initiation of ART, ideally from within TB clinics and without waiting for TB to be excluded, is needed to minimise the risk and consequences of diagnostic delay.

  17. FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT – INFLUENCE FACTORS AND NEW TRENDS

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Vasilescu

    2014-01-01

    Financial or corporate risk management is a part of the firm risk management with which deal with the financial risks, such as market risk, liquidity risk and credit risk. In the context of international financial crisis, a variety of factors are influencing the development of corporate risk management: the increased volatility and deregulation of financial markets; developments in information and communications technology; the complexity of financial products and so on. The objective of risk...

  18. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy weight is important ... a woman is, the higher her risk for heart disease. Overweight also increases the risks for stroke, congestive ...

  19. Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented

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    Andrzej Partyka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

  20. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0...

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors among college students: Knowledge, perception, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Shurmur, Scott W; Pullen, Carol H; Yates, Bernice C

    2017-04-01

    To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience sampling. College students were knowledgeable about cardiovascular risk factors but did not perceive themselves at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors was correlated with the lifetime risk estimates (ρ = .17, p = .048), and perception of cardiovascular risk was positively associated with 30-year CVD risk estimates (ρ = .16, p = .048). More than 50% of the participants had 1 or more cardiovascular risk factors. High knowledge level of cardiovascular risk factors was not sufficient to lower cardiovascular risks within this study population, but changing perception of cardiovascular risk factors may play a bigger role in reducing long-term cardiovascular risks.

  2. RISK FACTOR DIAGNOSTIC SCORE IN DIABETIC FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shameem P. M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diabetic foot ulcers vary in their clinical presentation and nature of severity and therefore create a challenging problem to the treating surgeon regarding the prediction of the clinical course and the end result of the treatment. Clinical studies have shown that there are certain risk factors for the progression of foot ulcers in diabetics and it may therefore be possible to predict the course of an ulcer foot at presentation itself, thus instituting proper therapy without delay. Spoken otherwise clinical scoring may tell that this particular ulcer is having highest chance of amputation, then one may be able to take an early decision for the same and avoid the septic complications, inconvenience to the patient, long hospital stay and cost of treatments. AIM OF THE STUDY Aim of the study is to evaluate the above-mentioned scoring system in predicting the course the diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients with Diabetic Foot attending the OPD of Department of Surgery of Government Hospital attached to Calicut Medical College are included in the present study. After thorough history taking and clinical examination, six risk factors like Age, pedal vessels, renal function, neuropathy, radiological findings and ulcers were observed in the patients by giving certain scoring points to each of them. The total number of points scored by the patients at the time of admission or OPD treatment was correlated with the final outcome in these patients, whether leading to amputation or conservative management. All the data was analysed using standard statistical methods. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There were 12 females and 38 males with a female to male ratio 1:3.1. All were aged above 30 years. Twenty-four (48% of them were between 30-60 years and twenty six (52% were above 60 years. 10 patients were treated conservatively with risk score range: 10 to 35. Six had single toe loss with risk score: 25 to 35. Six had multiple toe loss

  3. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  4. Risk factors and assessment for cardiovascular disease among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: cardiovascular risk factors are prevalent in HIV-positive patients which places them at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to determine the risk factors and risk assessment for CVD in HIV-positive patients with and without antiretroviral therapy. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study of ...

  5. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

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    Budi Santoso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy with extrauterine implantation. This situation is gynecologic emergency that contributes to maternal mortality. Therefore, early recognition, based on identification of the causes of ectopic pregnancy risk factors, is needed. Methods: The design descriptive observational. The samples were pregnant women who had ectopic pregnancy at Maternity Room, Emergency Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, from 1 July 2008 to 1 July 2010. Sampling technique was total sampling using medical records. Result: Patients with ectopic pregnancy were 99 individuals out of 2090 pregnant women who searched for treatment in Dr. Soetomo Hospital. However, only 29 patients were accompanied with traceable risk factors. Discussion:. Most ectopic pregnancies were in the age group of 26-30 years, comprising 32 patients (32.32%, then in age groups of 31–35 years as many as 25 patients (25.25%, 18 patients in age group 21–25 years (18.18%, 17 patients in age group 36–40 years (17.17%, 4 patients in age group 41 years and more (4.04%, and the least was in age group of 16–20 years with 3 patients (3.03%. A total of 12 patients with ectopic pregnancy (41.38% had experience of abortion and 6 patients (20.69% each in groups of patients with ectopic pregnancy who used family planning, in those who used family planning as well as ectopic pregnancy patients with history of surgery. There were 2 patients (6.90% of the group of patients ectopic pregnancy who had history of surgery and history of abortion. The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 4.73%, mostly in the second gravidity (34.34%, whereas the nulliparous have the highest prevalence of 39.39%. Acquired risk factors, i.e. history of operations was 10.34%, patients with family planning 20.69%, patients with history of abortion 41.38%, patients with history of abortion and operation 6.90% patients with family and history of abortion was 20.69%.

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael C Kew Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron

  7. RISK FACTORS FOR VERY PRETERM DELIVERY

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    Наталья Витальевна Батырева

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research – assess risk factors for very preterm delivery in the Omsk region. Materials and methods. The main group comprised women with very preterm delivery (n = 64; сomparison group – pregnant women with a threat of interruption in terms of 22-27 weeks and successful preserving therapy (n = 63; control group – pregnant women in whom this pregnancy was taking place without the threat of interruption (n = 62. Results. Risk factors for very preterm delivery were bacterial vaginosis, specific vaginitis, kidney disease and the threat of interruption. There was a significant lead in streptococci (32.3 ± 5.8 %, especially group B (19.0 ± 4.9 % in the main group. The risk factor for very preterm delivery was infectious viral diseases transferred during pregnancy, observed in 12.7 ± 4.2 % of women in the main group, in 7.8 ± 3.3 % in the comparison group (p < 0.01 and in 4.8 ± 2,7 % – control (p < 0,001. In the main group, placental insufficiency was 2 times more common than in the comparison group and 13 times than in the control group. Every sixth pregnant of the main group had manifestations of gestosis. Such complications of gestation as the premature detachment of the normally inserted placenta (7.8 ± 3.3 % and inborn malformations of a fruit (1.6 ± 1.6 % were observed only in the main group. Conclusion. The results of the research and literature data showed that the significant influence on the level of very early premature births is due to: the age of the parents, the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, drugs, abortion, preterm birth, urinary tract and genital tract infections, severe somatic diseases, multiple pregnancies. In the structure of complications of gestation during miscarriages, placental insufficiency predominates, the threat of abortion, fetal growth retardation, and polyhydramnios.

  8. The incidence and risk factors for retained placenta after vaginal delivery - a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Eran; Melamed, Nir; Hiersch, Liran; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv; Peled, Yoav

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors for retained placenta immediately after vaginal delivery in a single, university-affiliated tertiary center. A case-control study. Women who delivered vaginally and diagnosed with suspected retained placenta were compared to control group of women with spontaneous vaginal delivery with spontaneous non-complicated placental separation between the years 2007 and 2012. Eligibility was limited to singleton fetuses in vertex presentation with no history of more than one cesarean section, stillbirth or major fetal anomaly. Overall, 33,925 women delivered vaginally, of them, 491 (1.4%) underwent revision of uterine cavity due to suspected retained placenta. Women with retained placenta were characterized by a higher rate of previous cesarean section (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.23-2.36), previous abortions, lower parity (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.91), lower gestational age at delivery. Hypertensive disorders, oligohydramnios and labor and delivery interventions as induction of labor (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59), neuro-axial analgesia (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.27-2.00) and vacuum delivery (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.48-2.41) were independently associated with uterine revision for retained placenta. Risk factors for manual revision due to retained placenta can be recognized. This data should be taken into consideration in the assessment of women immediately after delivery.

  9. Etiology and risk factors of meningitis in patients admitted at a Central Hospital in Harare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matubu, A; Rusakaniko, S; Robertson, V; Gwanzura, L

    2015-01-01

    To determine etiology and risk factors of meningitis in patients admitted a tertiary referral Hospital in Harare. Cross-Sectional Study. Urban Referral Health Facility. Patients suspected of having Meningitis admitted at Parirenyatwa Hospital were consecutively consented and recruited into the study until sample size accrual. Prevalence of pathogens associated with Meningitis. Risk factors of meningitis. Two Hundred and Ninety Six (296) clinically suspected meningitis patients were recruited into the study, 51.7 %( n=115) were male. Meningitis was confirmed in 20.6% (n=61) cases with the following pathogen proportions, C. neoformans - 45.9 %( n=28), S. pneumoniae – 27.9 % (n=17), TBM – 4.9 %( n=3), probable viral meningitis – 6.6% (n=4 and other bacteria- 14.8% (n=9). Patients from crowded households were also more likely to suffer from meningitis than those from sparsely populated households (pstain and culture. Cryptococcus neoformans and S. pneumoniae are the leading causes of meningitis in patients admitted at Parirenyatwa Hospital.

  10. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adolescents secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a statistically significant association between presence of hypertension and impaired fasting glucose and risk factor for type 2 DM. Conclusion: The significant risk factors identified in this study were prehypertension/hypertension and impaired fasting blood glucose. Key words: Adolescence, Risk factors, Type 2 ...

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency : Universal Risk Factor for Multifactorial Diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Navis, Gerjan

    In the Western world, the majority of morbidity and mortality are caused by multifactorial diseases. Some risk factors are related to more than one type of disease. These so-called universal risk factors are highly relevant to the population, as reduction of universal risk factors may reduce the

  12. Clinical presentation and risk factors of osteoradionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chronopoulos, Aristeidis

    2015-03-26

    Introduction: Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is defined as exposed irradiated bone that fails to heal over a period of 3 months without the evidence of a persisting or recurrent tumor. In the previous decades, numerous factors were associated with the risk of ORN development and severity. Aims: The purposes of this study were to present the data of the patients that were treated for ORN in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU), to detect factors that contributed to the onset of ORN, to identify risk factors associated with the severity of ORN and finally, to delineate and correlate these factors with the personal, health and treatment characteristics of the patients. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted during the period from January 2003 until December 2012 that included all ORN cases having been treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Munich (LMU). The total sample was categorized in three groups according to stage and several variables were evaluated in an attempt to identify possible correlations between them and the necrosis severity. Results: One hundred and fifty three cases of ORN were documented. Among them, 23 (15.1%) cases were stage I, 31 (20.2%) were stage II and 99 (64.7%) were stage III and all localised in the mandible. There was a predominance of the disease in the posterior region when compared to the anterior region. The majority of cases was addicted to alcohol and tobacco abuse and was suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM). All cases were treated with RT and 80.4% of them with concomitant chemotherapy. The initial tumor was predominantly located in the floor of the mouth, the tongue and the pharynx. Approximately two thirds of the cases occured either after dental treatment or due to a local pathological condition. Logistic regression analysis identified Diabetes Mellitus (OR: 4.955, 95% Cl: 1.965-12.495), active smoking (OR: 13.542, 95% Cl: 2.085-87.947), excessive

  13. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  14. Risk Factors of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Risk Factors for Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, Igor A.

    2011-01-01

    Relationship between major risk factors of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sleep disorders in the infants is the subject of review and discussion. Improper micro-environmental characteristics (especially poor environmental organisation and lack of developmental stimulation), pre-term delivery and/or infant low birth weight, prone sleep…

  15. Dysbiosis a risk factor for celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbovan, Anamaria; Sur, Genel; Samasca, Gabriel; Lupan, Iulia

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease remains one of the most challenging pathologies of the small intestine. It involves multiple pathogenic pathways and there are no disease-changing pharmacological agents available against it yet. The term microbiota refers to the community of microorganisms that inhabit a particular region of the body. Normal gut microbiota has a vital role in maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and promoting health. Celiac disease is associated with microbiota alteration, especially with an increase in the number of Gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in the number of Gram-positive bacteria. There is a strong relationship between intestinal dysbiosis and celiac disease, and recent studies are aimed at determining whether the celiac disease is a risk factor for dysbiosis or dysbiosis is for celiac disease. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the latest findings regarding the gut microbiota and its impact on the celiac disease, including therapeutic aspects.

  16. [Burnout syndrome: a "true" cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cursoux, Pauline; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Marchetti, Hélène; Chaumet, Guillaume; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2012-11-01

    The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment in individuals professionally involved with others. The burnout syndrome is poorly recognized, particularly in France, as a distinct nosology from adaptation troubles, stress, depression, or anxiety. Several tools quantifying burnout and emotional exhaustion exist, the most spread is the questionnaire called Maslach Burnout Inventory. The burnout syndrome alters cardiovascular function and its neuroregulation by autonomic nervous system and is associated with: increased sympathetic tone to heart and vessels after mental stress, lowered physiological post-stress vagal rebound to heart, and lowered arterial baroreflex sensitivity. Job strain as burnout syndrome seems to be a real independent cardiovascular risk factor. Oppositely, training to manage emotions could increase vagal tone to heart and should be cardio-protective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Autoimmune Hepatitis: A Risk Factor for Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Garg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is a very aggressive and lethal tumor, which arises from the epithelial cells of bile ducts. CCA comprises about 3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies and its incidence is on the rise in the recent years. Anatomically, it is classified into intrahepatic, perihilar, or extrahepatic (distal CCA. There are a number of risk factors associated with CCA including primary sclerosing cholangitis, fibropolycystic liver disease, parasitic infection, viral hepatitis, chronic liver disease, and genetic disorders like Lynch syndrome. Autoimmune hepatitis is also recently reported to have an association with development of CCA. We report an interesting case of perihilar CCA in the setting of autoimmune hepatitis along with a literature review. This case highlights the importance of early treatment and close clinical follow-up of patients with autoimmune hepatitis for development of CCA.

  18. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... made for male and female suicides and for various groups of MS suicides according to disability status. RESULTS: The male suicide patients were characterized by a tendency to commit suicide in the age interval 40-49 years, by the use of a violent suicide method, by previous suicidal behaviour...

  19. Hypospadias in Istanbul: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yasemin; Ercan, Oya; Telatar, Berrin; Tarhan, Fatih; Comert, Serdar

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present prospective study was to determine the incidence of hypospadias in newborns in one of the busiest teaching hospitals of Istanbul, and to investigate the risk factors. All live-born boys delivered between September 2007 and December 2008 were screened for hypospadias. A questionnaire was given to the parents of the hypospadias and control subjects for investigation. Out of 1750 boys examined, 34 had hypospadias, that is, the frequency was 19.4 per 1000 male live-births and 93.7 per 10,000 total live-born deliveries. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 29.4%, predominantly urogenital (17.6%), the majority of which were cryptorchidism (14.7%). Twelve (35.3%) of the 34 hypospadiac boys had a second family member with a genital anomaly, nine (26.5%) of whom had hypospadias, three (8.8%) being the fathers. Mean birthweight, length and head circumference were significantly lower in the hypospadiac infants than the control group (P= 0.003, P= 0.025, P= 0.002). Although parity, parental consanguinity, hypospadias in family members, and low birthweight also varied significantly among the groups, logistic regression analysis indicated that maternal age, prematurity, coexistence of cryptorchidism and presence of genital anomaly among family members were independent risk factors for hypospadias (P= 0.016, P= 0.0001, P= 0.041, P= 0.0001, respectively). Genetic predisposition and placental insufficiency in early gestation might play a role in the etiology of hypospadias. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. Bedroom media: One risk factor for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A; Berch, Olivia N; Choo, Hyekyung; Khoo, Angeline; Walsh, David A

    2017-12-01

    Mass media have numerous effects on children, ranging from influencing school performance to increased or reduced aggression. What we do not know, however, is how media availability in the bedroom moderates these effects. Although several researchers have suggested that bedroom media may influence outcomes by displacing other activities (the displacement hypothesis) or by changing the content of media consumed (the content hypothesis), these have rarely been tested directly. This study tested both hypotheses using several outcomes that are associated with bedroom media and some of the underlying mediating mechanisms. The hypotheses were tested using 3 longitudinal samples of varying methods, age, duration, and country. The results indicate that children who have bedroom media are likely to watch larger amounts of screen time which displaced important activities, such as reading and sleeping, which mediated later negative outcomes such as poor school performance. Bedroom media also influence risk for obesity and video game addiction. Children with bedroom media are also likely to be exposed to more media violence. The violent content increased normative beliefs about aggression, which increased physical aggression, providing support for the content hypothesis. This study demonstrates that media can have effects not just from what they show, but also because of what children are not exposed to. Bedroom media are therefore a robust risk factor for several aspects of child development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener Dik, Pablo H; Niño Gualdron, Yeimy M; Galletti, María F; Cribioli, Carolina M; Mariani, Gonzalo L

    2017-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common chronic pulmonary sequela among very low birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to estimate its incidence in our Neonatal Unit over the past 5 years and analyze associated risk factors. An observational and analytical study was conducted in a retrospective cohort, using data obtained from a prospective database of infants born at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires with a birth weight of less than 1500 grams between January 2010 and December 2014. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and its association with several secondary outcome measures were studied. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included. The incidence of moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 22%, and it was associated with a younger gestational age and lower birth weight. A significant association was observed with surfactant use, mechanical ventilation requirement, and length of mechanical ventilation. Patients with moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia had a higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus and late-onset sepsis. A lower birth weight (adjusted odds ratio |-#91;aOR|-#93;: 0.99, 95% confidence interval |-#91;CI|-#93;: 0.991-0.997, pdysplasia in our unit was associated with a lower birth weight and the length of mechanical ventilation. Among infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth restriction accounted for an additional risk.

  2. Risk factors in iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalva-Iborra, A; Alcanyis-Alberola, M; Grao-Castellote, C; Torralba-Collados, F; Giner-Pascual, M

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, there has been a change in the aetiology of spinal cord injury. There has been an increase in the number of elderly patients with spinal cord injuries caused by diseases or medical procedures. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of the occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury in our unit. The secondary aim is to study what variables can be associated with a higher risk of iatrogenesis. A retrospective, descriptive, observational study of patients with acute spinal cord injury admitted from June 2009 to May 2014 was conducted. The information collected included the patient age, aetiology, neurological level and grade of injury when admitted and when discharged, cardiovascular risk factors, a previous history of depression and any prior treatment with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. We applied a logistic regression. The grade of statistical significance was established as Pinjury was the thoracic level (48%). The main aetiology of spinal cord injury caused by iatrogenesis was surgery for degenerative spine disease, in patients under the age of 30 were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury is a frequent complication. A statistically significant association between a patient history of depression and iatrogenic spinal cord injury was found as well as with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug use prior to iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

  3. Free insulin-like growth factor I serum levels in 1430 healthy children and adults, and its diagnostic value in patients suspected of growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Holm, K; Kastrup, K W

    1997-01-01

    of 29 patients with a normal GH response (specificity, 83%). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that free IGF-I was significantly dependent on peak GH levels, duration of the disease, and number of other pituitary axes affected. We conclude that free IGF-I serum levels increase during......, commercially available immunoradiometric assay (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories) to establish valid normative data for this analysis. We studied the diagnostic value of free IGF-I in relation to total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 determinations in adults who were suspected of GHD. A GH provocative test, using oral...

  4. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  5. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  6. [Risk factors for preeclampsia. Multivariate analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A L; Ulloa Galván, G; Alpuche, G; Romero Arauz, J F

    2000-08-01

    To determine in multivariate analysis the clinical, social, and demographic factors for preeclampsia. A case-control study was designed. Three hundred patients were included, divided in two groups. 150 cases with criteria diagnosis for preeclampsia. 150 patients with normal pregnancy and deliveries. The main variables analyzed were age, schooling, marital status, employment, socioeconomic status, smoking and alcohol consumption, body mass index, familiar history of preeclampsia, history of preeclampsia in previous pregnancy, parity and type of pregnancy (single or multiple). For comparison of cases and controls on categorical variables, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and multiple logistic regression analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that history of preeclampsia in previous pregnancy has OR 23.7, 95% p < 0.001, familiar history of preeclampsia OR 1.62, p < 0.08, high body mass has OR 1.60. The knowledge of the most important risk factors in our population could be useful for the clinical to pre-detect the patient who will develop preeclampsia.

  7. Local bladder cancer clusters in southeastern Michigan accounting for risk factors, covariates and residential mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Jacquez

    Full Text Available In case control studies disease risk not explained by the significant risk factors is the unexplained risk. Considering unexplained risk for specific populations, places and times can reveal the signature of unidentified risk factors and risk factors not fully accounted for in the case-control study. This potentially can lead to new hypotheses regarding disease causation.Global, local and focused Q-statistics are applied to data from a population-based case-control study of 11 southeast Michigan counties. Analyses were conducted using both year- and age-based measures of time. The analyses were adjusted for arsenic exposure, education, smoking, family history of bladder cancer, occupational exposure to bladder cancer carcinogens, age, gender, and race.Significant global clustering of cases was not found. Such a finding would indicate large-scale clustering of cases relative to controls through time. However, highly significant local clusters were found in Ingham County near Lansing, in Oakland County, and in the City of Jackson, Michigan. The Jackson City cluster was observed in working-ages and is thus consistent with occupational causes. The Ingham County cluster persists over time, suggesting a broad-based geographically defined exposure. Focused clusters were found for 20 industrial sites engaged in manufacturing activities associated with known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens. Set-based tests that adjusted for multiple testing were not significant, although local clusters persisted through time and temporal trends in probability of local tests were observed.Q analyses provide a powerful tool for unpacking unexplained disease risk from case-control studies. This is particularly useful when the effect of risk factors varies spatially, through time, or through both space and time. For bladder cancer in Michigan, the next step is to investigate causal hypotheses that may explain the excess bladder cancer risk localized to areas of

  8. Hoarseness and Risk Factors in University Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Gustavo Polacow; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Antonio; Abranches, Denise; Augusto de Lima Pontes, Paulo

    2015-07-01

    To characterize the presence of hoarseness and the risk factors in male and female university teachers in private institutions in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional survey. Voice self-evaluation forms prepared by the Brazilian Ministry of Labor were administered to 846 university teachers in a private institution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence of hoarseness in the sample is 39.6%. Percentage of hoarseness is higher in females (51.8%) than in males (32.6%). Comparing hoarseness and time of teaching, it was observed that the percentage of hoarseness is lower in a time shorter or equal to 1 year, and it is higher in a time between 10 and 20 years. Percentage of hoarseness is lower in the maximum workload of one to three class hours per day compared with the other workloads. Percentage of hoarseness is lower when the maximum number of students per classroom is less than 30 than when it is between 101 and 150 students. Other factors like in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life are related to the presence of hoarseness. University teachers show high percentage of hoarseness. Factors, such as time of teaching, females, work organization, workplace, in terms of noise and sound competition, air pollution, and in terms of causing stress and anxiety, besides habits and style/quality of life, are related to the presence of hoarseness in this group. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China: An observational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weifeng; Zhang, Suzhen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Fude; Wang, Yong; Li, Tao; Mei, Qiyi; He, Hongbo; Chen, Zhiyu; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Tiebang; Xie, Shiping; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Congpei; Sang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Shi, Le; Li, Lingzhi; Shi, Ying; Guo, Lihua; Zhang, Hongyan; Lu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    This multi-center observational study investigated the prevalence of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China and its potential risk factors. It was performed in 2014 and covered 14 hospitals. Newly hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or suspected schizophrenia who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, were recruited. Agitation and related risk factors were evaluated by a questionnaire designed for the survey. General demographic data, disease characteristics, scores on schizophrenia rating scales and agitation rating scales (e.g., Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component [PANSS-EC] and Behavioral Activity Rating Scale [BARS]) were collected. Among the 1512 patients screened in the study, 1400 (92.59%) were eligible. According to the PANSS-EC and BARS, the prevalence of agitation was 60.92% (853 of 1400) and 59.00% (826 of 1400), respectively. The overall prevalence of agitation was 47.50% (665 of 1400). The most important risk factor of agitation was being aggressive at baseline (Modified Overt Aggression Scale score ≥4, odds ratio=6.54; 95% confidence interval=4.93-8.69). Other risk factors included a history of aggressive behavior, northern region of residence, involuntary hospitalization, disease severity, low level of education, living alone, being unemployed or retired. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Urbanization and noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors: WHO STEPwise Iranian NCD risk factors surveillance in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Zahra; Etemad, Koorosh; Yarahmadi, Shahin; Khodakarim, Soheila; Kameli, Mohammadesmail; Hezaveh, Alireza Mahdavi; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-27

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) according to the World Health Organization stepwise approach to surveillance of NCDs. This study is part of a NCD risk factor surveillance of 10 069 individuals in all provinces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, aged over 20 years, during 2011. By utilizing 2011 census data, urbanization levels were determined in all provinces and logistics regression was used to examine the relationship between urbanization and risk factors. Among males, urbanization had a positive correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.7; 95% CI: 1.42-2.09), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.8; 95% CI: 1.09-2.96), and high BMI (OR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.20-1.70). Among females there was a positive and significant correlation with low physical activity (OR=1.2; 95% CI: 1.08-1.49), low fruit and vegetable consumption (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 0.78-1.91) and high BMI (OR=1.3; 95% CI: 1.14-1.53). Thus, urbanization has a significant correlation with increases in NCD factors in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

  11. Nutritional status and eating disorders: neglected risks factor for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Karina; Morera, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD) in immunocompetent patients is an increasingly important epidemiologic concern. However, risk factors associated with susceptibility to NTMLD are not completely known. A prevalence of NTMLD appears to be rising, mainly in some populations such as middle-aged or elderly thin women, (a group including those with Lady Windermere syndrome) with neither remarkable history of respiratory disease nor smoking habit. Right middle lobe (RML) and lingula are often involved. Various predisposing factors and genetic defects have been described as possible causes of development of NTMLD, namely: voluntary suppression of cough, RML anatomical factors, menopause and mutations in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Malnutrition is also an important and common risk factor associated with other mycobacterial disease like tuberculosis (TB) and its probable association with NTMLD as have been pointed out for some authors. However, a real description of all nutritional aspects and eating habits of patients prior to NTMLD diagnosis is lacking. We hypothesized that malnutrition and eating disorders like anorexia nervosa could be risk factors that may promoting NTMLD. From a clinical viewpoint, if this hypothesis proves to be correct, eating habits and nutritional aspects should be taken into account in the diagnosis process of suspected NTMLD, since they are easily identifiable and treatable conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Etiological risk factors for brachial plexus palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudić, Igor; Fatusić, Zlatan; Sinanović, Osman; Skokić, Fahrija

    2006-10-01

    To investigate risk factors for brachial plexus palsy in newborns. We analyzed 45 544 live-born children, born over a nine-year period from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2004. The analysis was retrospective and based on the medical documentation of the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinic for Neurology, and Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of the University Clinical Center Tuzla. We compared study and control groups of newborns. Rates among groups were compared using Chi-square, with significance at p labor pattern itself, it was found that the highest factors of risk for brachial plexus injury were birth weight of over 4000 g, a precipitous second stage of labor (labor. Brachial plexus palsy was more frequent when the mothers were overweight, with a body mass index >or=29 kg/m2. None of the parturient women, whose newborns were diagnosed with brachial plexus palsy, had external conjugate diameter <18 cm. Newborns delivered vaginally were not diagnosed with a higher frequency of brachial plexus palsy when compared to newborns who were delivered by cesarean section, but newborns who were vaginal breech-delivered were diagnosed to have a higher incidence of brachial plexus palsy. Newborns whose mothers were older than 35 years were diagnosed to have brachial plexus palsy more frequently, but a statistically significant difference between primiparas and multiparas was not found. A total of 39 newborns (45.2%) were diagnosed with a fracture of the clavicle, which was the most frequently combined damage with brachial plexus injury. Forty-two newborns (48.8%) had an Apgar score of

  13. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood

  14. Bilateral Tubal Pregnancy without Known Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyacinthe Zamané

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bilateral ectopic gestation is very rare. The authors report a case diagnosed and taken care of at Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital, Ouagadougou. It was a 30-year-old patient with no known pathological history. She had presented at the obstetric emergencies with a state of hypovolemic shock by haemoperitoneum with digestive disorders, pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, and a mention of delayed menstruation. The ultrasound coupled with the urinary immunological pregnancy test confirmed the diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy and a bilateral form was suspected. A laparotomy in emergency confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral ectopic gestation with a right ampullary unruptured pregnancy and a left isthmic ruptured gestation. A bilateral salpingectomy was performed and counseling was made for the use of medical help of procreation in case of future need of pregnancy.

  15. [Risk factors of coronary heart disease in various occupational groups. I. Analysis of risk factor incidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałuszka, Z; Grzelec, T; Hudzik, A; Jodłowski, J; Pokorska, M; Kolarzyk, E

    1990-01-01

    The subjects of investigation in a standard clinical conditions were 4 groups of workers: blast furnace workers (n = 121), operators (n = 131), persons from managic staff (n = 73) and monks (n = 81). In all subjects 8 factors enhancing ischemic heart disease were estimated: treating family history, habit of smoking, male sex, blood hypertension, obesity, increased cholesterol concentration in blood serum and small physical activity. It was found that investigated groups were significantly different as to frequency of occurrence of ischemic heart disease risk factors.

  16. Association of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K; Cushman, Mary; Næss, Inger Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Much controversy surrounds the association of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods: We performed an individual level random-effect meta-analysis including 9 prospective studies with measured baseline cardiovascular disease risk...... factors and validated VTE events. Definitions were harmonized across studies. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors were modeled categorically and continuously using restricted cubic splines. Estimates were obtained for overall VTE, provoked VTE (ie, VTE occurring in the presence of 1 or more...... is potentially mediated through comorbid conditions such as cancer, the modifiable traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors are not associated with increased VTE risk. Higher systolic blood pressure showed an inverse association with VTE....

  17. Suspicion of respiratory tract infection with multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: epidemiology and risk factors from a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Hanna; Stoll, Lenja; Neunhoeffer, Felix; Hölzl, Florian; Kumpf, Matthias; Hofbeck, Michael; Hartl, Dominik

    2017-02-21

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections are a serious concern for children admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Tracheal colonization with MDR Enterobacteriaceae predisposes to respiratory infection, but underlying risk factors are poorly understood. This study aims to determine the incidence of children with suspected infection during mechanical ventilation and analyses risk factors for the finding of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in tracheal aspirates. A retrospective single-centre analysis of Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated PICU patients from 2005 to 2014 was performed. Resistance status was determined and clinical records were reviewed for potential risk factors. A classification and regression tree (CRT) to predict risk factors for infection with MDR Enterobacteriaceae was employed. The model was validated by simple and multivariable logistic regression. One hundred sixty-seven Enterobacteriaceae isolates in 123 children were identified. The most frequent isolates were Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and E.coli. Among these, 116 (69%) isolates were susceptible and 51 (31%) were MDR. In the CRT analysis, antibiotic exposure for ≥ 7 days and presence of gastrointestinal comorbidity were the most relevant predictors for an MDR isolate. Antibiotic exposure for ≥ 7 days was confirmed as a significant risk factor for infection with MDR Enterobacteriaceae by a multivariable logistic regression model. This study shows that critically-ill children with tracheal Enterobacteriaceae infection are at risk of carrying MDR isolates. Prior use of antibiotics for ≥ 7 days significantly increased the risk of finding MDR organisms in ventilated PICU patients with suspected infection. Our results imply that early identification of patients at risk, rapid microbiological diagnostics and tailored antibiotic therapy are essential to improve management of critically ill children infected with

  18. Systematic assessment of environmental risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Köhler, Cristiano A; Evangelou, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is likely to involve both genetic and environmental risk factors. In our study, we aimed to perform a systematic search of environmental risk factors for BD. In addition, we assessed possible hints of bias in this literature, and identified risk...

  19. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  20. [Oral cancer: Risk factors and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Arnaud; Joly, Aline

    2017-03-01

    Oral cavity is the most frequent anatomical subsite of upper aero-digestive tract malignancies. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histological type and totalizes more than 95% of oral cancer. Main risk factors are tobacco and alcohol exposure and also potentially malignant lesions. These precancerous lesions are a chronic disease of oral mucosa and are responsible for about 20% of oral cancer. The treatment of oral cancer depends on clinical, radiological and endoscopic staging and according to the multidisciplinary tumor board decision. Indeed, tumor staging gives information about loco-regional and metastatic spread. Treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, the prognostic mainly depends on tumor resectability and patient comorbidities. Tumor removal is often associated with reconstruction procedures in order to restore phonation, swallowing and breathing functions with acceptable aesthetic outcomes. The usual delayed diagnosis explains the poor prognostic of oral cancer in spite of prevention attempt and therapeutic improvement. Indeed, the profile of tobacco and alcoholic patients outside of medical system, the high rate of recurrence and the frequency of second primary malignancies explain the stable incidence for years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Amblyopia. Epidemiology, causes and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elflein, H M

    2016-04-01

    Amblyopia is the main cause for mostly monocular, impaired vision in childhood. Treatment and prevention of amblyopia is only effective during childhood. Ophthalmological screening of children does not yet exist in Germany. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany is 5.6%, which is higher than in reports from studies in Australia; however, the prevalence of amblyopia is not comparable in these studies due to different definitions of amblyopia and the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study cohorts. At present it is unknown at what age ophthalmological screening should be carried out to prevent amblyopia and the appropriate frequency of screening examinations. Amblyopia is a disorder of the visual cortex that is due to suppression and deprivation of one eye leading to unilateral visual impairment. Approximately 50% of cases of amblyopia are caused by anisometropia, 25% by strabismus and in every sixth person by a combination of both. Other causes, such as unilateral congenital cataracts are relatively rare. A variety of factors, such as ocular pathologies, premature birth, familial disposition and general diseases are associated with an increased risk for amblyopia.

  2. Atopic dermatitis: global epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutten, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease posing a significant burden on health-care resources and patients' quality of life. It is a complex disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and combinations of symptoms. AD affects up to 20% of children and up to 3% of adults; recent data show that its prevalence is still increasing, especially in low-income countries. First manifestations of AD usually appear early in life and often precede other allergic diseases such as asthma or allergic rhinitis. Individuals affected by AD usually have genetically determined risk factors affecting the skin barrier function or the immune system. However, genetic mutations alone might not be enough to cause clinical manifestations of AD, and it is merely the interaction of a dysfunctional epidermal barrier in genetically predisposed individuals with harmful effects of environmental agents which leads to the development of the disease. AD has been described as an allergic skin disease, but today, the contribution of allergic reactions to the initiation of AD is challenged, and it is proposed that allergy is rather a consequence of AD in subjects with a concomitant underlying atopic constitution. Treatment at best achieves symptom control rather than cure; there is thus a strong need to identify alternatives for disease prevention. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. [Atopic dermatitis - risk factors and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleska, Martyna; Trojacka, Ewelina; Savitskyi, Stepan; Terlikowska-Brzósko, Agnieszka; Galus, Ryszard

    2017-08-21

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe itching and eczematic skin lesions. In Poland from 1.5 to 2.5 million people suffer from AD. The pathophysiologic complexity and the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes cause diagnostic and therapeutic problems and this is the basis for the division of the disease into subtypes. Heterogeneity of the disease is also confirmed in the study of the genotype of the disease. In relation with AZS more than 1000 loci in chromosomes were demonstrated. The roles of certain genes and the pathophysiology of lesions caused by their polymorphism were described. Wide spectrums of AD risk factors are: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption during pregnancy, obesity and high and low birth weight. The quality of life in patients with AD is impaired, the disease disrupts family and professional relationships. Biological medical products are an example of an individual approach to the treatment of AD. It seems, individual approach to disease and treatment can be a successive solution to the problem.

  4. Modifiable risk factors and colorectal adenomas among those at high risk of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several modifiable risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in the general population. However, associations between modifiable risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and dietary patterns, and colorectal neoplasms in two

  5. Cardiovascular Risk Factors and 10-year Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjoo Boo, RN, PhD

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in Korean women, and the combination of risk factors is common. Development and implementation of multifaceted nursing interventions are required to confront the current epidemic rise of CHD in Korean women.

  6. Chronic disease risk factors in rural Australia: results from the Greater Green Triangle risk factor surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Tiina; Janus, Edward; Kilkkinen, Annamari; Heistaro, Sami; Tideman, Philip; Baird, Andrew; Tirimacco, Rosy; Whiting, Malcolm; Franklin, Lucinola; Chapman, Anna; Kao-Philpot, Anna; Dunbar, James

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the level and prevalence of major chronic disease risk factors among rural adults. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in 2004 and 2005 in the southeast of South Australia and the southwest of Victoria. Altogether 891 randomly selected persons aged 25 to 74 years participated in the studies. Surveys included a self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements, and a venous blood specimen for lipid analyses. Two thirds of participants had cholesterol levels>or=5.0 mmol/L. The prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (>or=90 mm Hg) was 22% for men and 10% for women in southeast of South Australia, and less than 10% for both sexes in southwest of Victoria. Two thirds of participants were overweight or obese (body mass index>or=25 kg/m2). About 15% of men and slightly less women were daily smokers. The abnormal risk factor levels underline the need for targeted prevention activities in the Greater Green Triangle region. Continuing surveillance of levels and patterns of risk factors is fundamentally important for planning and evaluating preventive activities.

  7. Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J; Appleby, P N; Reeves, G K; Roddam, A W; Helzlsouer, K J; Alberg, A J; Rollison, D E; Dorgan, J F; Brinton, L A; Overvad, K; Kaaks, R; Trichopoulou, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Panico, S; Duell, E J; Peeters, P H M; Rinaldi, S; Fentiman, I S; Dowsett, M; Manjer, J; Lenner, P; Hallmans, G; Baglietto, L; English, D R; Giles, G G; Hopper, J L; Severi, G; Morris, H A; Hankinson, S E; Tworoger, S S; Koenig, K; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Arslan, A A; Toniolo, P; Shore, R E; Krogh, V; Micheli, A; Berrino, F; Barrett-Connor, E; Laughlin, G A; Kabuto, M; Akiba, S; Stevens, R G; Neriishi, K; Land, C E; Cauley, J A; Lui, Li Yung; Cummings, Steven R; Gunter, M J; Rohan, T E; Strickler, H D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women is positively associated with circulating concentrations of oestrogens and androgens, but the determinants of these hormones are not well understood. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of breast cancer risk factors and circulating hormone concentrations in more than 6000 postmenopausal women controls in 13 prospective studies. Results: Concentrations of all hormones were lower in older than younger women, with the largest difference for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was higher in the older women. Androgens were lower in women with bilateral ovariectomy than in naturally postmenopausal women, with the largest difference for free testosterone. All hormones were higher in obese than lean women, with the largest difference for free oestradiol, whereas SHBG was lower in obese women. Smokers of 15+ cigarettes per day had higher levels of all hormones than non-smokers, with the largest difference for testosterone. Drinkers of 20+ g alcohol per day had higher levels of all hormones, but lower SHBG, than non-drinkers, with the largest difference for DHEAS. Hormone concentrations were not strongly related to age at menarche, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy or family history of breast cancer. Conclusion: Sex hormone concentrations were strongly associated with several established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer, and may mediate the effects of these factors on breast cancer risk. PMID:21772329

  8. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  9. Comparison of Some Risk Factors for Diabetes Across Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and market forces. Lifestyle changes have been implicated as risk factors for most of the noncommunicable disease (NCD) including diabetes. Some of the lifestyle factors, which have been identified as risk factors for diabetes are physical inactivity, obesity, alcohol, and tobacco use.[1-4] Prevalence and association of these ...

  10. Modifiable risk factors of hypertension and socio demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Factors associated with the development of hypertension can be categorized into modifiable and non‑modifiable risk factors. The modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, smoking alcohol consumption and others. Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of ...

  11. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Lifestyle, environment and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seelen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the results of studies aiming to identify risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are described. A population-based case-control design was used to perform (1) epidemiological risk factor studies, examining lifestyle factors and environmental exposures, and (2) genetic

  12. Suicide risk and protective factors among youth experiencing school difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Elaine; Eggert, Leona L

    2007-10-01

    Youth who experience difficulty in school are at risk for suicide, yet there is little published information specific to risk and protective factors among this group. The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour among youth who were experiencing problems in school and to compare these factors between suicide risk and non-suicide risk subgroups. Participants were 730 high school students in the Northwest and Southwest regions of the United States, aged 14-21 years. All participants were known to be experiencing difficulty with grades and/or attendance. Students completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and a one-on-one interview, which assessed suicidal behaviours as well as risk factors (e.g. drug involvement, emotional distress, stress), and protective factors (e.g. self-esteem, coping, support). Analysis of covariance tests, controlling for age and sex, were conducted to examine differences between the suicide risk and non-suicide risk groups on each risk and protective factor. The suicide risk subgroup reported higher levels of all risk factors, except alcohol and marijuana use, and lower levels of protective factors. While the groups did not differ on frequency of alcohol or marijuana use, they did differ on other illicit drug use and consequences of alcohol and other illicit drug use. Recommendations for nurses practising in school settings are discussed.

  13. The Prioritization of Clinical Risk Factors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranate, Thaya; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Ruttanaumpawan, Pimon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG) queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%).

  14. The Prioritization of Clinical Risk Factors of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaya Maranate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a problem of shortage of sleep laboratories that can accommodate the patients in a timely manner. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to worse outcomes particularly in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. For this reason, the prioritization in polysomnography (PSG queueing should be endorsed based on disease severity. To date, there have been conflicting data whether clinical information can predict OSA severity. The 1,042 suspected OSA patients underwent diagnostic PSG study at Siriraj Sleep Center during 2010-2011. A total of 113 variables were obtained from sleep questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The 19 groups of clinical risk factors consisting of 42 variables were categorized into each OSA severity. This study aimed to array these factors by employing Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process approach based on normalized weight vector. The results revealed that the first rank of clinical risk factors in Severe, Moderate, Mild, and No OSA was nighttime symptoms. The overall sensitivity/specificity of the approach to these groups was 92.32%/91.76%, 89.52%/88.18%, 91.08%/84.58%, and 96.49%/81.23%, respectively. We propose that the urgent PSG appointment should include clinical risk factors of Severe OSA group. In addition, the screening for Mild from No OSA patients in sleep center setting using symptoms during sleep is also recommended (sensitivity = 87.12% and specificity = 72.22%.

  15. Diabetes and other vascular risk factors for dementia : Which factor matters most? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenborg, Raoul P.; van den Berg, Esther; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2008-01-01

    Vascular risk factors, such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidaemia often co-occur. Each of these factors has been associated with an increased risk of dementia, but it is uncertain which factor imposes the greatest risk. Moreover, the effect of age at time of exposure may differ

  16. Patient selection for later delivery timing with suspected previa-accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Nicola C; Little, Sarah E; Thomas, Ann; Cantonwine, David E; Carusi, Daniela A

    2017-08-01

    We identified patients with previa and suspected accreta who are at lowest risk of unscheduled delivery or major morbidity with planned delivery beyond 34 weeks' gestation. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who had reached 34.0 weeks' gestational age with a suspected previa-accreta. We evaluated rates of unscheduled and emergent delivery based on known risk factors for premature birth. In a second analysis, we stratified patients based on level of preoperative morbidity concern and evaluated rates of major transfusion and Intensive Care Unit admission by delivery week (34 weeks, 35 weeks or 36 weeks and beyond). Of 84 available patients, we classified 31 patients as low risk for unscheduled delivery and 52 as high risk. The low risk group was scheduled later (36.6 vs. 36.0 weeks; p delivery prior to 36 weeks (3% vs. 19%, p = 0.05). Of the patients with no prior cesarean section, only one (7%) experienced massive blood loss even though 36% had unscheduled deliveries. We observed no significant increase in major transfusion or massive blood loss with advancing gestational age, likely due to selection of the most concerning patients for early, scheduled delivery. Patients with suspected previa-accreta and no risk factors for preterm birth are at low risk for an unscheduled delivery prior to 36 weeks. Those with no concern for percreta or increta or no prior cesarean section may also be candidates for later delivery. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factor for heart attack? I've read that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. ... D. Some doctors think it's possible that taking calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart ...

  18. Non-dietary environmental risk factors in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrís-i-Tortajada, J; Berbel-Tornero, O; Garcia-i-Castell, J; López-Andreu, J.A.; Sobrino-Najul, E; Ortega-García, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim is to update and disclose the main environmental risk factors, excluding dietary factors, involved in the etiopathology of prostate cancer. Materials and methods Bibliographic review of the last 25 years of non-dietary environmental risk factors associated with prostate cancer between 1985 and 2010, obtained from MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index and Embase. The search profiles were Environmental Risk Factors/Tobacco/Infectious-Inflammatory Factors/Pesticides/Vasectomy/Occupational Exposures/ Chemoprevention Agents/Radiation and Prostate Cancer. Results While some non-dietary environmental risk factors increase the risk of acquiring the disease, others decrease it. Of the former, it is worth mentioning exposal to tobacco smoke, chronic infectious-inflammatory prostatic processes and occupational exposure to cadmium, herbicides and pesticides. The first factors that reduce the risk are the use of chemopreventive drugs (Finasterida, Dutasteride) and exposure to ultraviolet solar radiation. With the current data, a vasectomy does not influence the risk of developing the disease. Conclusions The slow process of prostate carcinogenesis is the final result of the interaction of constitutional risk and environmental factors. Non-dietary environmental factors play an important role in the etiopathology of this disease. To appropriately assess the risk factors, extensive case studies that include all the possible variables must be analyzed. PMID:21439685

  19. Fraud Risk Factors and Audit Programme Modifications: Evidence from Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modar Abdullatif

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how audit firms in Jordan deal with the presence of fraud risk factors in audit clients. In doing so, the study seeks to explore which fraud risk factors are more important to Jordanianauditors, and how Jordanian auditors consider modifying their audit programmes when fraud risk factors are present in clients. The study uses a structured questionnaire that was administered to seniorlevel auditors in the largest Jordanian audit firms. The findings show that almost all of the 20 fraud risk factors included in the questionnaire were only slightly important (if not unimportant, a finding that is arguably alarming. The perceived importance of modifying the audit programme in the presence of each fraud risk factor was related to the perceived importance of the fraud risk factor itself. However, changes in the nature and extent of audit procedures were more important than changes in the timing of the procedures or the members of the audit team. The most important fraud risk factors were related to the characteristics of management and its attitude towards the audit, while the least important fraud risk factors were related to the difficulties in the client’s financial performance. Factor analysis found that the fraud risk factors could be classified into four separate groups. Possible interpretations of the findings were discussed, such as considering the Jordanian business environment characteristics, and the findings were compared to those of extant international studies.

  20. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil

    2016-01-01

    . Methodology: Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors......Introduction: Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP....... Objective: The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized and once when they were discharged. Almost 48 h after admission, when patients were discharged, social and medical histories were acquired. Acquired samples were examined. Results: During the present study of 475 patients, 108 patients (22.8% had S. aureus. About frequency of antibiotic resistance among collected S. aureus colonies, erythromycin resistance, was the most frequent antibiotic resistance, also resistance to vancomycin was 0.4% that was the least. Only hospitalization duration had statistically significant correlation with antibiotic resistance, also resistance to erythromycin had statistically significant relation with history of surgery and alcohol consumption. Of all 34 MRSA species, 22 (64.7% samples were resistant to erythromycin, 17 (50.0% resistant to cefoxitin, 5 (14.7% resistant to mupirocin, 1 (2.9% resistant to vancomycin and 1 (2.9% resistant to linezolid. Conclusion: The results of the current study show that among hospitalized patients, there is resistance against methicillin. Since based on results of the study there is resistance against oxacillin and erythromycin in most cases, administering appropriate antibiotics have an important role in minimizing the resistance burden among bacterial species.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in scholars (RIVACANGAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera-Gallego, Rocío; García-Rodríguez, Patricia; Fernández-Cordeiro, Marta; Rodríguez-Reneda, Ángeles; Vérez-Cotelo, Natalia; Andrés-Rodríguez, N Floro; Fornos-Pérez, J Antonio; Rica-Echevarría, Itxaso

    2016-12-01

    The current guidelines for treatment of high blood pressure do not include any section dedicated to hypertension in children and adolescents or to cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention strategies in that age group. Our study was aimed at identifying cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in an adolescent sample. A cross-sectional study of a sample of adolescents aged 12 to 17years (n=630), conducted from October 2014 to February 2015 in four schools in Cangas do Morrazo (Pontevedra). Sociodemographic variables: age, sex, personal and family history of hypertension and diabetes (DM). Anthropometric variables: body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference (WC, cm), waist/height index (WHI), blood pressure (mmHg). The study sample consisted of 295 female and 335 male adolescents (mean age: 13.8±1.4). CVR-related conditions: hypercholesterolemia (7.1%), CVD (1.7%), hypertension (0.8%) and diabetes (0.3%). BMI (22.0±3,8) was higher in males (22.4±3.8 vs. 21.0±3.2; PP90 and 23.7% had diastolic BP >P90. Waist circumference positively correlated with age (r=0.1669; PP75, and 7.5% >P90. Eighty-four (13.3%) adolescents had two CVRFs (overweight+another). Despite their young age, more than 10% of school children had two CVRFs. Abnormal SBP levels were seen in more than 50%, 20% were overweight, and only 75% had normal waist circumference values. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, José Francisco; Álvarez-Díaz, Hortensia; Lorenzo-García, María Virginia; Mariño-Callejo, Ana; Fernández-Rial, Álvaro; Sesma-Sánchez, Pascual

    2011-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology and risk factors associated with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Cases of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed from 1991 to 2008 in a Caucasian population were classified as EPTB or pulmonary TB (PTB). Of all cases, 63.7% were followed up in a specialist TB unit. A standardised protocol for data collection was used, including: gender, age, BCG vaccination, contact with PTB patient, smoking habit, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressive drugs/steroids and HIV-status. These variables were compared between EPTB and PTB groups. Statistical analysis was based on logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Among the 2,161 cases diagnosed, 1,186 were PTB and 705 EPTB. The overall TB incidence had fallen from 79.9/100,000 in 1992 to 27.1/100,000 in 2008, PEPTB cases decreased more slowly than PTB. EPTB increased from 30.6% of cases in 1991-1996 to 37.6% in 2003-2008 (lymphatic site increased 27%), by trend test PEPTB, while alcohol abuse (OR 0.33; 95% CI: 0.20-0.52), smoking habit (OR 0.45; 95%CI: 0.34-0.59), contact with PTB patients (OR 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44-0.76) and BCG vaccination (OR 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.92) had a protective effect. The proportion of female gender and age of patients increased over time, whilst there was a decrease in BCG vaccinated patients. Whilst there has been a reduction in the overall incidence of TB, the proportion of EPTB increased. The proportional increase in EPTB could be explained by an increase in life expectancy and the predominance of women in the population, and by a decline in BCG vaccinated patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. HIV and dementia: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gurgel Fernandes Távora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of patients at risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND and identify factors possibly associated with its occurence. Methods: Quantitative cross-sectional study conducted at the Specialized Care Service (Serviço de Atendimento Especializado - SAE for HIV/Aids of the Integrated Medical Care Center (Núcleo de Atendimento Médico Integrado - NAMI of the University of Fortaleza (Universidade de Fortaleza - UNIFOR, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. We reviewed medical records of all 249 patients that started medical follow-up at SAE/NAMI since its foundation (August/2010 until January/2014, including in the analysis those who completed the international HIV dementia scale - IHDS during routine medical visits. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory variables were collected in addition to IHDS score and the sample was classified in two groups: patients with IHDS≥10 (Group 1 and IHDS<10 (Group 2. Chisquared test was used for categorical variables and student t test, mann whitney test and linear regression were used for numerical variables. Results: The study population consisted of 178 patients with mean IHDS score of 9.5 (+/- 1.6. HAND prevalence was 41.6% (74/178 (IHDS<10. These patients presented older mean age (37.4 years and longer mean time from HIV diagnosis to medical follow-up than the others (10.1 months when compared to Group 2 (31 years old and 4.6 months, respectively, suggesting that these two variables were possibly associated with HAND occurrence. Conclusion: The IHDS application showed a high prevalence of HAND in the study population. More advanced age and longer time from HIV diagnosis to medical follow-up are possibly associated with its occurence.

  5. Driving habits and risk factors for traffic accidents among sleep apnea patients--a European multi-centre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahssa; Hedner, Jan; Lombardi, Carolina; Mcnicholas, Walter T; Penzel, Thomas; Riha, Renata L; Rodenstein, Daniel; Grote, Ludger

    2014-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased motor vehicle accident risk, and improved detection of patients at risk is of importance. The present study addresses potential risk factors in the European Sleep Apnea Database and includes patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea [n = 8476, age 51.5 (12.5) years, body mass index 31.0 (6.6) kg m(-2) , 82.4% driver's licence holders]. Driving distance (km year(-1) ), driver's licence type, sleep apnea severity, sleepiness and comorbidities were assessed. Previously validated risk factors for accident history: Epworth Sleepiness Scale ≥16; habitual sleep time ≤5 h; use of hypnotics; and driving ≥15 000 km year(-1) were analysed across European regions. At least one risk factor was identified in male and female drivers, 68.75 and 51.3%, respectively. The occurrence of the risk factors was similar across Europe, with only a lower rate in the eastern region (P = 0.001). The mean number of risk factors increased across classes of sleep apnea severity. Frequent driving was prevalent [14.0 (interquartile range 8.0-20.0) × 10(3)  km year(-1) ] and 32.7% of drivers had severe obstructive sleep apnea [apnea-hypopnea index 50.3 (38.8-66.0) n h(-1) ]. Obesity, shorter sleep time and younger age were associated with increased traffic exposure (P ≤ 0.03). In conclusion, the risk factors associated with accident history were common among European patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea, but varied between geographical regions. There was a weak covariation between occurrence of risk factors and clinically determined apnea severity but frequent driving, a strong risk factor for accidents, was over-represented. Systematic evaluation of accident-related risk factors is important to detect sleep apnea patients at risk for motor vehicle accidents. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Joint effects of nulliparity and other breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Opdahl, S.; Alsaker, M D K; Janszky, I; Romundstad, P R; Vatten, L J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy may reduce breast cancer risk through induction of persistent changes of the mammary gland that make the breast less susceptible to carcinogenic factors. It is not known to what extent the effects of parity are independent of other breast cancer risk factors. Methods: In a Norwegian cohort of 58 191 women (2890 breast cancers), we assessed whether the effects of parity on postmenopausal breast cancer risk may be modified by menstrual and anthropometric factors. We calcul...

  7. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Morris; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, even after controlling for traditional risk factors. Shift workers frequently undergo circadian misalignment (i.e., misalignment between the endogenous circadian system and 24-h environmental/behavioral cycles). This misalignment has been proposed to explain, in part, why shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of circadian misalignment pe...

  8. Relationship between Sleep Duration and Risk Factors for Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Phua, Chun Seng; Jayaram, Lata; Wijeratne, Tissa

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. While various risk factors have been identified, sleep has only been considered a risk factor more recently. Various epidemiologic studies have associated stroke with sleep such as sleep duration, and laboratory and clinical studies have proposed various underlying mechanisms. The pathophysiology is multifactorial, especially considering sleep affects many common risk factors for stroke. This review aims to provide an outline of the...

  9. Emerging risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient′s life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a, apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context.

  10. Emerging risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sushil; Gudapati, Ramesh; Gaurav, Kumar; Bhise, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is globally considered as the leading cause of death with 80% of CVD related deaths being reported from low and middle income countries like India. The relatively early onset age of CVD in India in comparison to Western countries also implies that most productive ages of the patient's life are lost fighting the disease. Conventional cardiovascular risk is attributed to lifestyle changes and altered metabolic activity. This forms the basis of a 10-year risk prediction score inspired by the Framingham study. Since South Asians display considerable heterogeneity in risk factors as compared to developed countries, there is a need to identify risk factors which would not only help in primary prevention but also prevent their recurrence. We reviewed published data on novel risk factors and their potential to identify cardiovascular risk at an early stage, with special emphasis on the Indian population. Emerging risk factors were reviewed to identify their potential to prevent CVD progression independently as well as in association with other cardiovascular risk factors. The most commonly studied emerging cardiovascular risk factors included coronary artery calcium score, lipoprotein (a), apolipoproteins, homocysteine, thrombosis markers like fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, carotid intima-media thickness, genotypic variations, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, C-reactive protein, platelets, and birth weight levels. Nonetheless, more studies on large sample size can ascertain the utility of these risk factors in estimation and analysis of cardiovascular risk especially in the Indian context.

  11. [Socioeconomic factors in high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas Domínguez, J; Shor Pinsker, V; Mac Gregor, C; Karchmer, S

    1977-05-01

    The study of high risk during pregnancy was undertaken to show the most viable ways for solving those problems affecting maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. The authors are hopeful that in the future, the 2 branches of medicine, perinatology and obstetrics, will no longer differentiate between high risk for mother and fetus or neonate but will direct attention to what is high risk for 1 society in particular. These professionals will undertake an interdisciplinary approach of the problem to benefit society. (author's)

  12. Epigenetic Risk Factors in PTSD and Depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raabe, Florian Joachim; Spengler, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD...

  13. Cybergrooming: risk factors, coping strategies and associations with cyberbullying

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wachs, Sebastian; Wolf, Karsten D; Pan, Ching-Ching

    2012-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors of being cybergroomed, to identify various coping strategies and to explore the associations between being cyberbullied and cybergroomed...

  14. Male breast cancer: risk factors, biology, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruddy, K J; Winer, E P

    2013-01-01

    ...'. Relevant published data regarding risk factors, biological characteristics, presentation and prognosis, appropriate evaluation and treatment, and survivorship issues in male breast cancer patients are presented...

  15. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.

  16. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  17. Technology and the Glaucoma Suspect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumberg, Dana M; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Garg, Reena; Chen, Cynthia; Theventhiran, Alex; Hood, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    ...), stereoscopic disc photographs, and automated perimetry as assessed by a group of glaucoma specialists in differentiating individuals with early glaucoma from suspects. Forty-six eyes (46 patients...

  18. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Factors for HIV—1 Seroprevalenoe Arnong

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk of HIV was also significantly higher arnong hotel workers (age-adjusted OR = 4.3; 95% CI. = 1.4—12.9} Women With laboratory evidence of sexually transmitted diseases were at increased risk of HIV. This study shows that HIV is a major public health problem among FP clients in Tanzania. Innovative HIV in-.

  20. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can't Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease and Stroke email updates Enter email Submit Heart disease risk factors you can't control Some factors ... 2013). Hypertension in Pregnancy. Previous Page Next Page Heart disease resources Related information Heart-healthy eating Stress and ...

  1. Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Lysý, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Diploma thesis "Video game playing as a risk factor in adolescence?" deals with actuality of risks for children and youth linked to video games. This topic is currently intensively disscused because of cases of high school shootings. There are concerns that violence in video games is connected to rising of children and youth violence. Another risks refered to video games are addiction and obesity. This diploma thesis deals with these risk too. Goal of this thesis is find out if these risks ar...

  2. Cytokines and clustered cardiovascular risk factors in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Müller, Klaus; Eiberg, Stig

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the possible role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), low fitness, and fatness in the early development of clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and insulin resistance. Subjects for this cross......-sectional study were obtained from 18 schools near Copenhagen, Denmark. Two hundred ten 9-year-old children were selected for cytokine analysis from 434 third-grade children with complete CVD risk profiles. The subgroup was selected according to the CVD risk factor profile (upper and lower quartile of a composite...... CVD risk score). All the CVD risk factors and CRP differed between the high- and low-risk groups; but plasma glucose, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 had small and inconsistent differences. Strong associations were found between CVD risk scores and fitness (VO(2peak)) or fatness. No associations were found...

  3. Are There Modifiable Risk Factors to Improve AKI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common critical syndrome, with high morbidity and mortality. Patients with AKI typically have an adverse prognosis, from incident chronic kidney disease (CKD, progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD, subsequent cardiovascular disease, and ultimately death. However, there is currently no effective therapy for AKI. Early detection of risk factors for AKI may offer a good approach to prevention or early intervention. Traditional risk factors include extreme age, many common comorbid diseases, such as preexisting CKD, some specific exposures, such as sepsis, and exposure to some nephrotoxic agents. Recently, several novel risk factors for AKI, such as hyperuricemia, hypoalbuminemia, obesity, anemia, and hyperglycemia, have been identified. The underlying mechanisms between these nontraditional risk factors and AKI and whether their correction can reduce AKI occurrence remain to be clarified. This review describes the current epidemiology of AKI, summarizes its outcome, outlines the traditional risk profile, and finally highlights some recently identified novel risk factors.

  4. Media Violence and Other Aggression Risk Factors in Seven Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Suzuki, Kanae; Swing, Edward L; Groves, Christopher L; Gentile, Douglas A; Prot, Sara; Lam, Chun Pan; Sakamoto, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukiko; Krahé, Barbara; Jelic, Margareta; Liuqing, Wei; Toma, Roxana; Warburton, Wayne A; Zhang, Xue-Min; Tajima, Sachi; Qing, Feng; Petrescu, Poesis

    2017-07-01

    Cultural generality versus specificity of media violence effects on aggression was examined in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania, the United States). Participants reported aggressive behaviors, media use habits, and several other known risk and protective factors for aggression. Across nations, exposure to violent screen media was positively associated with aggression. This effect was partially mediated by aggressive cognitions and empathy. The media violence effect on aggression remained significant even after statistically controlling a number of relevant risk and protective factors (e.g., abusive parenting, peer delinquency), and was similar in magnitude to effects of other risk factors. In support of the cumulative risk model, joint effects of different risk factors on aggressive behavior in each culture were larger than effects of any individual risk factor.

  5. Family history and environmental risk factors for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Esteve; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Talamini, Renato; Negri, Eva; Franceschi, Silvia

    2004-04-01

    We analyzed the joint effect of environmental risk factors and family history of colorectal cancer on colon cancer. We used data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy between 1992 and 1996 including 1225 cases with colon cancer and 4154 controls. We created a weighed risk factor score for the main environmental risk factors in this population (positive family history, high education, low occupational physical activity, high daily meal frequency, low intake of fiber, low intake of calcium, and low intake of beta-carotene). Compared with the reference category (subjects with no family history of colorectal cancer and in the lowest tertile of the risk factor score), the odds ratios of colon cancer were 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.89-2.73] for subjects without family history and in the highest environmental risk factor score, 3.20 (95% CI = 2.05-5.01) for those with family history and low risk factor score, and 7.08 (95% CI = 4.68-10.71) for those with family history and high risk factor score. The pattern of risk was similar for men and women and no meaningful differences emerged according to subsite within the colon. Family history of colorectal cancer interacts with environmental risk factors of colon cancer.

  6. Korean immigrants' knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seon Y; Ryan, Catherine J; Zerwic, Julie Johnson

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed the knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors in a convenience sample of Korean immigrants. A total of 116 Korean immigrants in a Midwestern metropolitan area were recruited through Korean churches and markets. Knowledge was assessed using both open-ended questions and a structured questionnaire. Latent class cluster analysis and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. About 76% of the sample had at least one self-reported risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Using an open-ended question, the majority of subjects could only identify one symptom. In the structured questionnaire, subjects identified a mean of 5 out of 10 heart attack symptoms and a mean of 5 out of 9 heart attack risk factors. Latent class cluster analysis showed that subjects clustered into two groups for both risk factors and symptoms: a high knowledge group and a low knowledge group. Subjects who clustered into the risk factor low knowledge group (48%) were more likely than the risk factor high knowledge group to be older than 65 years, to have lower education, to not know to use 911 when a heart attack occurred, and to not have a family history of heart attack. Korean immigrants' knowledge of heart attack symptoms and risk factors was variable, ranging from high to very low. Education should be focused on those at highest risk for a heart attack, which includes the elderly and those with risk factors.

  7. Comparison of women's breast cancer risk factors in Geneva, Switzerland and Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRoo, Lisa A; Vlastos, Anne Thérèse; Mock, Pascal; Vlastos, Georges; Morabia, Alfredo

    2010-12-01

    We compared the prevalence of known and suspected breast cancer risk factors among women in Geneva, Switzerland, where the annual incidence of breast cancer is high, to women in Shanghai, China, where incidence is lower. Different translations of the same woman's health questionnaire were administered to women aged 35 to 74 years in Shanghai (n=631) and Geneva (n=1,212) during 1996-1997 and reproductive and lifestyle factors compared. Shanghai women reported older age at menarche (median 15 vs. 13 years), fewer nulliparity (7.3 vs. 21.6%), younger age at first live birth (median 25.7 vs. 28.4 years), and shorter duration of reproductive life (median 35.7 vs. 38.4 years). Geneva women had a greater prevalence of current cigarette smoking (22.4 vs. 1.8%), oral contraceptive use (61.1 vs. 10.0%), hormone replacement therapy use (23.4 vs. 0.8%), and family history of breast cancer (8.6 vs. 1.4%). Among women who breastfed, Shanghai women had more than twice the duration of breastfeeding than Geneva women (median 48 vs. 21 weeks). Differences in the prevalence of breast cancer risk factors, in particular reproductive characteristics, may contribute to the large contrast in cumulative risk between women living in Geneva and Shanghai. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlJehani, Yousef A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This paper aims to review the evidence on the potential roles of modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors associated with periodontal disease. Data. Original articles that reported on the risk factors for periodontal disease were included. Sources. MEDLINE (1980 to Jan 2014), PubMed (using medical subject headings), and Google Scholar were searched using the following terms in different combinations: “periodontal disease,” “periodontitis,” “risk factors,” and “causal.” This was supplemented by hand-searching in peer-reviewed journals and cross-referenced with the articles accessed. Conclusions. It is important to understand the etiological factors and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to recognize and appreciate the associated risk factors. As periodontal disease is multifactorial, effective disease management requires a clear understanding of all the associated risk factors. PMID:24963294

  9. Organization of accounting for factoring companies: risk-oriented approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vygivska I.M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of rational organization of accounting factoring activity the current research identifies the types of factoring operations typical for the accounting system of factoring company, and their place in this system. The recommended provisions, which must be fixed in the accounting policy of the enterprise-factor, are presented. Based on the identification of the most significant provisions of the factoring agreement, it is proposed to limit the amount of funding depending on the type of factoring. The risk factor matrix for factoring business is developed to improve the efficiency of their management and the accounting of operations due to risk management methods. The accounting of the factoring company is proposed taking into account the following components: 1 the moment of acceptance of the sold (deferred receivable to the accounting; 2 the features of factoring depending on its type; 3 the peculiarities of accounting registration of charges in factoring operations; 4 the procedure for inventorying factoring transactions.

  10. Large-scale malaria survey in Cambodia: Novel insights on species distribution and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doung Socheat

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, estimates of the malaria burden rely on a public health information system that does not record cases occurring among remote populations, neither malaria cases treated in the private sector nor asymptomatic carriers. A global estimate of the current malaria situation and associated risk factors is, therefore, still lacking. Methods A large cross-sectional survey was carried out in three areas of multidrug resistant malaria in Cambodia, enrolling 11,652 individuals. Fever and splenomegaly were recorded. Malaria prevalence, parasite densities and spatial distribution of infection were determined to identify parasitological profiles and the associated risk factors useful for improving malaria control programmes in the country. Results Malaria prevalence was 3.0%, 7.0% and 12.3% in Sampovloun, Koh Kong and Preah Vihear areas. Prevalences and Plasmodium species were heterogeneously distributed, with higher Plasmodium vivax rates in areas of low transmission. Malaria-attributable fevers accounted only for 10–33% of malaria cases, and 23–33% of parasite carriers were febrile. Multivariate multilevel regression analysis identified adults and males, mostly involved in forest activities, as high risk groups in Sampovloun, with additional risks for children in forest-fringe villages in the other areas along with an increased risk with distance from health facilities. Conclusion These observations point to a more complex malaria situation than suspected from official reports. A large asymptomatic reservoir was observed. The rates of P. vivax infections were higher than recorded in several areas. In remote areas, malaria prevalence was high. This indicates that additional health facilities should be implemented in areas at higher risk, such as remote rural and forested parts of the country, which are not adequately served by health services. Precise malaria risk mapping all over the country is needed to assess the

  11. Risk factors, management and outcomes of adverse drug reactions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antiretrovirals have been associated with serious adverse drug reactions. Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their development. Identification of these factors may help in prevention and management of the adverse drug reactions. Objective: To describe the factors associated ...

  12. OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V, Muralidhara

    2015-01-01

    .... RESULTS Prevalence of osteoarthritis common in farmers accounting to 70%. Other occupations at risk of OA of knee were, Teachers 12%, Housewives 08%, Athletes 04%, Policemen 04% and Drivers 02...

  13. Melanoma risk factors and atypical moles.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, M. L.; Sagebiel, R W

    1994-01-01

    Despite important advances in the treatment of melanoma, the prognosis for advanced disease remains discouraging. This fact, in combination with a worldwide epidemic of melanoma among persons of white skin type, has focused attention on identifying melanoma in its early, surgically curable stages. Attention has also been directed toward pinpointing which persons are at increased risk for melanoma to reduce risk where possible and to aid early diagnosis. Essentially all epidemiologic studies h...

  14. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  15. Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors and prevalence of diabetic foot ulcers at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ... Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya ... Therefore, specific attention should be paid to the management of these risk factors in patients with or without diabetes foot ulcers in this clinic. (East African ...

  16. Awareness of risk factors for loneliness among third agers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.C.; van Tilburg, T.G.; Fokkema, T.

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of risk factors for loneliness is a prerequisite for preventive action. Many risk factors for loneliness have been identified. This paper focuses on two: poor health and widowhood. Preventive action by developing a satisfying social network requires time and effort and thus seems

  17. Prevalence and Risk factors of Bovine Tuberculosis in smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 to determine the prevalence and risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in smallholder dairy farms in Babati town council. Sixty three smallholder dairy farmers were administered with questionnaires to collect information on risk factors for ...

  18. Is There a Risk Factor More Responsible for Disaster?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Carasca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Risk factors for peripheral arterial disease are generally the same as those responsible for the ischemic heart disease and in both cases are overlapping risk factors involved in the etiology of atherosclerosis, such as smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension.

  19. Stroke Risk Factors among Patients in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Purpose: Epidemiological studies have identified modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for stroke. The aim of this study was to describe the risk factors in stroke patients admitted in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Methods: This is a prospective study carried out in the Jos University Teaching Hospital in ...

  20. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unadjusted odds ratios of possible risk factors were calculated by univariate analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to eliminate the effect of possible confounders on the risk factors to get the adjusted odds ratios. Results: The general prevalence of ED in this study was 58.9%. Sixty-seven (47.2%), 16 ...

  1. Causes and Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Salud. Publica de Mexico 2006;48(3):183-92. 28. Mbonye A. Risk factors associated with maternal deaths in health units in Uganda. African Journal of. Reproductive Health 2001;5(3). 29. Evjen-Olsen B, Hinderaker SG, Lie RT, Bergsjo P,. Gasheka P, Kvale G. Risk factors for maternal death in the highlands of rural northern ...

  2. Stroke risk factors among participants of a world stroke day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-20

    Apr 20, 2015 ... Conclusion: Stroke risk factors such as hypertension and obesity were common among the participants of the world stroke day awareness program in an urban area of Nigeria. Community screening and modification of these risk factors should be intensified in order to reduce stroke morbidity and mortality.

  3. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  4. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma | Tageldin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood asthma is a major public health problem in Egypt and worldwide. Epidemiologic, physiologic, and social factors appear to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the most frequent risk factors of childhood asthma exacerbation and severity in ...

  5. Clinical Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis in Maiduguri - Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... associated risk factors in the affected patients. There is therefore the need to consider prophylactic anticoagulation for puerperal and post-operative patients especially in those who are obese or older than 45 years. KEY WORDS: Deep Vein Thrombosis, Risk Factors Highland Medical Research Journal Vol.1(4) 2003: 9- ...

  6. Incidence and risk factors of neonatal thrombocytopenia: a pr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Kusumasari

    2010-03-01

    Conclusions The incidence of neonatal thrombocytopenia was 12.2%. Significant risk factor of mother that caused thrombocytopenia was pre-eclampsia, while risk factors of neonates were asphyxia, sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis.[Paediatr Indones. 2010;50:31-7].

  7. Comparison of modifiable coronary artery disease risk factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of the following coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in urban (westernised) Black and White females: physical inactivity, hypertension, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity and multiple risk factors. Subjects: Subjects for this study were ...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of arternal hypertension among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT Background: Studies on the prevalence of hypertension among Africans in workplace did not deal with risk factors of hypertension. Thus there is a need to screen urban central Africans at workplace for environmental risk factors of hypertension. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Kinshasa ...

  9. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cervical cancer and identified other risk factors. Molecular epidemiologic evidence clearly indicates that certain types of. HPV are the principal cause of invasive cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.[3]. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus. Infection in Cervical Smears. Ojiyi EC, Dike IE, Okeudo C, ...

  10. Risk factors of epithelial ovarian carcinomas among women with endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line H.; Schnack, Tine H.; Buchardi, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the published literature on epidemiologic risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer among women with a diagnosis of endometriosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and Scopus. Studies comparing epidemiologic risk factors...

  11. Risk factors for postoperative delirium after colorectal operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Frederik J.; Buisman, Pieter L.; Meerdink, Mark; aan de Stegge, Wouter B.; van Etten, Boudewijn; de Bock, Geertruida H.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Pol, Robert A.

    Background. A clear understanding of risk factors for postoperative delirium helps in the selection of individuals who might benefit from targeted perioperative intervention. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for postoperative delirium after colorectal operation for malignancy.

  12. Global prevalence and major risk factors of diabetic retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yau, Joanne W Y; Rogers, Sophie L; Kawasaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes.......To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes....

  13. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denma...

  14. The association between preoperative clinical risk factors and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yoshan Moodley

    of cerebrovascular accident, a history of congestive heart failure and a ... medical records relating to clinical risk factors in patients, preinduction BP measurements, and in-hospital strokes and death, following ... An association between a history of hypertension or other clinical risk factors and an in-hospital stroke and death ...

  15. Prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among staff of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-19

    May 19, 2014 ... Aim: The aim was to describe the frequency of occurrence of traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among selected ... 24 (11.7%), elevated low density lipoprotein-cholesterol 99 (48.1%). ... Conclusion: This study suggests a very high prevalence of CV risk factors among University Staff in LAUTECH,.

  16. Obstetric Risk Factors and Subsequent Mental Health Problems in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies suggest that obstetric complications are associated with several child psychiatric conditions. In planning for child psychiatric services it is important to monitor patterns of morbidity and associated risk factors. Identifying obstetric risk factors in a newly opened child psychiatric clinic population with ...

  17. Prevalence of some risk factors associated with hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is fast becoming a public health problem and has been associated with certain risk factors that have been found to contribute to the increasing rates of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Sub Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of some risk factors associated with ...

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is limited population based data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and non-communicable diseases in Nigeria, and Abia state in particular. Aims: The purpose of this survey was to determine the burden of non-communicable diseases as well as associated cardiovascular risk factors in the ...

  19. Pattern of some risk factors for cardiovascular disease in untreated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Coronary heart disease risk factors tend to cluster in patients with hypertension. In works done in Nigeria, the hypertensive subjects studied were those receiving treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the pattern of these risk factors in untreated hypertensive patients. Study design: Fifty untreated hypertensives and ...

  20. Low prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Identification of obesity and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in childhood is strongly recommended for prevention of the diseases in adulthood. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors among primary school children aged 6-15 years in Urban Dar es ...

  1. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among Diabetic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, dyslipidemia and smoking) among diabetic patients at the diabetic clinic of Jimma ...

  2. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors are increasing at an unprecedented rate in developing countries. However, fewer studies have evaluated the role of physical activity in preventing CVD in these countries. We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among young and ...

  3. Risk Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases at Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Among the behavioral risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is 9.3%, alcohol consumption 7.3%, consumption of fruits ... The prevalence of physical risk factors is 9.3% for hypertension, 2.6% for overweight and 33.3% central obesity. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Incidence and risk factors for thrombocytopenia in the intensive care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. In Western countries, incidence of thrombocytopenia in intensive care units (ICUs) has been found to be 13 - 44%. We chose to study the incidence, risk factors and transfusion requirements of thrombocytopenia in tertiary care ICUs in northern India. Objective. To study the incidence and risk factors of ...

  5. Risk factors of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia | Wakgari | Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An understanding of risk factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to reduce neonatal deaths. Objective: This study aimed to identify risk factors of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods: The data source for the study was the ...

  6. Risk Factor Profile of Motorcycle Crash Victims in Rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aggressive road safety campaigns. Injury prevention and safety promotion campaigns should focus more on the risk factors for motorcycle accidents. Key Words: Motorcycles, Crash, Risk factors, Rural. Background. It is estimated that every day, about 3000 people die and 30,000 are seriously injured in road crashes,.

  7. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  8. Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship of snacking patterns on nutrient intake and cardiovascular risk factors in adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of snacking patterns with nutrient intake, diet quality, and a selection of cardiovascular risk factors in adults participating in the ...

  9. Neonatal risk factors of atopic dermatitis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Andersen, Yuki M F; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Studies have suggested that several perinatal factors may influence the risk of AD in early childhood. We investigated possible neonatal risk factors such as jaundice, blue light...

  10. Risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus in Sudanese pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant ...

  11. Midlife Cardiovascular Risk Factors May Increase Chances of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This study supports the importance of controlling vascular risk factors like high blood pressure early in life in an effort to prevent ... agreement with previous studies, an analysis of vascular risk factors showed ... or high blood pressure, also called hypertension, had a higher chance of ...

  12. Risk factors and antibiogram of organisms causing puerperal sepsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Puerperal sepsis is a common pregnancy related complication and is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Sub Saharan Africa. There is paucity of regional data on the antibiogram and risk factors associated with this condition, Aim: To determine the risk factors, aetiological organisms ...

  13. Risk factors for road traffic accidents among drivers of public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the rate of road traffic accident (RTA). Identifying the risk factors for this problem may provide a clue to possible effective intervention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for self reported RTA among drivers of educational institutions and make suggestions ...

  14. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially fatal form of heart failure and the recognition of its risk factors is important for prevention and treatment. Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and the risk factors for PPCM. Methods: Echocardiographic was used to examine the left ventricular ...

  15. Macrosomia - maternal and fetal risk factors | Essel | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors associated with fetal macrosomia were studied in 348 pregnancies resulting in the delivery of an infant weighing 4 000 g or more in a black population. Identifiable maternal risk factors included a mother in her 3rd decade of life, multiparity, maternal weight of 70 kg or more at the end of pregnancy, prolonged or ...

  16. Suicide Clusters: A Review of Risk Factors and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Niedzwiedz, Claire; Platt, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Suicide clusters, although uncommon, cause great concern in the communities in which they occur. We searched the world literature on suicide clusters and describe the risk factors and proposed psychological mechanisms underlying the spatio-temporal clustering of suicides (point clusters). Potential risk factors include male gender, being an…

  17. INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study aims to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with delivery of low birth weight singletons at term at UBTH, Benin City. ... mortality. All isolated risk factors but nulliparity are amenable to antenatal management. Key words: .... data was fed into the computer and analyzed using the Epi info statistical ...

  18. Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation | Washington ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. ... Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation. L Washington, T Makumbi, OJ Fualal, M Galukande. Abstract. Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95%

  19. Stroke Risk Factors among Participants of a World Stroke Day ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is the most common stroke risk factor globally as well as in the Nigerian population, however other modifiable risk factors such as obesity are becoming increasingly prevalent due to unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyle. Materials and Methods: We screened 224 volunteers from Ile‑Ife during the 2011 and ...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for these diseases have been well studied in high income countries but less studied in developing countries. Objective: The study was to document the prevalence and risk factors of Obesity and high blood pressure among healthy adults in a military settlement in Ibagwa, Southern Nigeria. The study also sought ...

  1. Risk factors of poor anthropometric status in children under five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-25

    Jun 25, 2010 ... c Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South Africa. Correspondence to: CM Smuts, e-mail: marius.smuts@nwu.ac.za. Keywords: child malnutrition; risk factors; stunting; underweight; overweight; rural; South Africa. Risk factors of poor anthropometric status in ...

  2. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors...

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Chicken Anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The governate, locality, type of production, breeds, age, poultry population, husbandry system, body condition, source of poultry, floor type and vaccinations were the risk factors that significantly associated with CAV antibodies. These factors were analysed using logistic regression. It is found that, the increased risk of odds ...

  4. Traders' Perception of Cooking Smoke as a Risk Factor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childhood pneumonia is the foremost killer of under-fives. Indoor air pollution by smoke from cooking fuel is a major risk factor for childhood pneumonia. The knowledge of caregivers about risk factors can facilitate the practice of appropriate preventive measures. This study set out to evaluate the perception of ...

  5. Risk factors and prognostic indicators for medial tibial stress syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, M. H.; Bongers, T.; Bakker, E. W.; Zimmermann, W. O.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.; Backx, F. J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the risk factors and prognostic indicators for medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). In total, 35 subjects were included in the study. For the risk factor analysis, the following parameters were investigated: hip internal and external ranges of motion, knee

  6. [Obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents. Association with cardiovascular risk factors in first degree relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albañil Ballesteros, María Rosa; Rogero Blanco, María Eloisa; Olivas Domínguez, Antonio; Sánchez Martín, Magdalena; Rabanal Basalo, Alejandro; Sanz Bayona, María Teresa

    2012-03-24

    Obesity is a major concern in public health. The fact that most teenagers stop contacting the health system during this period of life prevents detection of this problem and its associated morbidity. The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of obesity at 18. We also aimed to detect overweight, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and association with CVRF in parents and siblings. The research includes 153 children followed up to 18 years old in a community health center. Measures of body mass index (BMI), waist perimeter, CVRF, and familiar history were taken. The prevalence of obesity in our study group was 7.18%, (IC: 3.0-11.0), (6.25% male and 7.86% female). The prevalence of overweight was 18.3% (IC: 11.9-24.0), (26.56% male and 12.35% female). A familiy history of CVRF was found in 53.9% (IC: 46.1-61.9) of cases, including high blood pressure (25%), obesity (23.6%), dyslipemia (21.7%), and diabetes (7.2%). This finding was more prevalent in the obesity group (72.72%) than in those with overweight only (64.2%), or with normal weight (49.59%). A family history of obesity and diabetes in first-degree relatives was associated to obesity in the study group. Also, a family history of high blood pressure was associated to the presence of high blood pressure in this group. In order to detect obesity, overweight, and associated complications in young adults, specific attention to children and siblings of persons who present risk factors is recommended. Those with high blood pressure, diabetes or obesity have the higher risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of a structured checklist of risk factors in identifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity for pregnant women and newborns. Identifying pregnant women with risk factors for GDM based on the clinical suspicion is a popular approach. However, the effectiveness of the use of a structured checklist of risk ...

  8. Abnormally invasive placenta—prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurn, L.; Lindqvist, P. G.; Jakobsson, M.

    2016-01-01

    most important risk factor, which was reported in 49% of all cases of AIP, was placenta praevia. The risk of AIP increased seven-fold after one prior caesarean section (CS) to 56-fold after three or more CS. Prior postpartum haemorrhage was associated with six-fold increased risk of AIP (95% confidence...

  9. Counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Floortje; Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Teunissen, Pim W.; Franx, Arie; van Pampus, Maria G.; Mol, Ben W.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Gynaecologists have an important role in the counselling and management of cardiovascular risk factors after preeclampsia. We aimed to assess the role of gynaecologists in informing women on interventions and risk

  10. Risk Factors for Social Isolation in Older Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A.; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Ko, Jisook; Lee, Juyoung; Kim, Miyong T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Given the importance of social ties and connectedness in the lives of older ethnic immigrants, the present study examined the prevalence of social isolation and its risk factors in older Korean Americans. Method Using survey data from 1,301 participants (Mage = 70.5, SD = 7.24), risk groups for marginal social ties with family and friends were identified and predictors of each type of social isolation explored. Results Male gender and poorer rating of health were identified as common risk factors for marginal ties to both family and friends. Findings also present specific risk factors for each type of social isolation. For example, an increased risk of having marginal ties with friends was observed among individuals with perceived financial strain, greater functional impairment, and a shorter stay in the United States. Discussion The common and specific risk factors should be incorporated in programs to reduce social isolation in older immigrant populations. PMID:25953812

  11. Risk factors for recurrence after acute colonic diverticulitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hupfeld, Line; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several factors may influence the risk of recurrence after an episode of acute colonic diverticulitis. Until now, a comprehensive systematic overview and evaluation of relevant risk factors have not been presented. This review aimed at assembling and evaluating current evidence on risk...... factors for recurrence after conservatively treated acute colonic diverticulitis. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies evaluating risk factors for recurrence after acute diverticulitis treated non-surgically defined as antibiotic treatment, percutaneous abscess....../low, medium, high). RESULTS: Of 1153 screened records, 35 studies were included, enrolling 396,676 patients with acute diverticulitis. A total of 50,555 patients experienced recurrences. Primary diverticulitis with abscess formation and young age increased the risk of recurrence. Readmission risk was higher...

  12. [Risk factors associated with drug abuse among adolescent students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Ever Agustín Osorio; Medina, Neris Marina Ortega de; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to identify risk factors associated with licit and illicit drug abuse among adolescent students in various public institutions. A descriptive study was carried out in Naguanagua, Carabobo, Venezuela and applied the Test Drug Use Screening Inventory questionnaire to an age-stratified sample, involving students between 12 and 17 years old. High-risk areas associated with drugs abuse were family and mental health, while recreation, behavior and school are considered moderate risks. Peers, social abilities and drug use were identified as low-risk factors. The Total Severity Score is high, which may indicate that Venezuelan adolescents present higher risks for licit and illicit drugs abuse. At the same time, they present lower drug use rates, that is, the presence of protective factors interact with and modify the risk factors.

  13. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...

  14. A predictive model to identify patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes at high risk of cardiac arrest or in-hospital mortality: An IMMEDIATE Trial sub-study,,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Madhab; Ruthazer, Robin; Beshansky, Joni R; Kent, David M; Mukherjee, Jayanta T; Alkofide, Hadeel; Selker, Harry P

    2015-12-01

    The IMMEDIATE Trial of emergency medical service use of intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) very early in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) showed benefit for the composite outcome of cardiac arrest or in-hospital mortality. This analysis of IMMEDIATE Trial data sought to develop a predictive model to help clinicians identify patients at highest risk for this outcome and most likely to benefit from GIK. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop a predictive model for the composite endpoint cardiac arrest or in-hospital mortality using the 460 participants in the placebo arm of the IMMEDIATE Trial. The final model had four variables: advanced age, low systolic blood pressure, ST elevation in the presenting electrocardiogram, and duration of time since ischemic symptom onset. Predictive performance was good, with a C statistic of 0.75, as was its calibration. Stratifying patients into three risk categories based on the model's predictions, there was an absolute risk reduction of 8.6% with GIK in the high-risk tertile, corresponding to 12 patients needed to treat to prevent one bad outcome. The corresponding values for the low-risk tertile were 0.8% and 125, respectively. The multivariable predictive model developed identified patients with very early ACS at high risk of cardiac arrest or death. Using this model could assist treating those with greatest potential benefit from GIK.

  15. Genetic risk factors for autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feltkamp, T.E.W.; Aarden, L.A.; Lucas, C.J.; Verweij, C.L.; Vries, R.R.P. de

    1999-01-01

    In most autoimmune diseases multigenic factors play a significant role in pathogenesis. Progress in identifying these genetic factors, many of which are located outside the major histocompatibility complex, was the subject of a recent meeting. Chemicals/CAS: Interleukin-10, 130068-27-8; Transforming

  16. Yoga, Anxiety, and Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim CENGIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of a yoga program on anxiety, and some cardiovascular risk factors. Forty - six elderly participants aged 40 – 51 years women. The yoga program was based on 3 times/week for 10 weeks a set of yoga techniques, in the form of asana (postures and deep relaxation technique, pranayama (breathing techniques and meditation three for 60 minutes three times a week. The level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD. The yoga program reduced the level of anxiety and decreased the risk factors for cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVD in the experimental group. After 8 weeks of the yoga program. SBP, DBP, B MI, HR and WC values were improved. It is likely that the yoga practices of controlling body, mind, and spirit combine to provide useful physiological effects for healthy people and for people compromised by cardiovascular disease.

  17. [Hyperlipidemias as a coronary risk factor in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A; De Tejada, A L; Espinoza, M; Karchmer, S

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the risk factors of the coronariopathy in the newborn. The authors state that the early diagnosis of the risk factors is an important step in the prevention of ateromatous plaques. Some people are now in the investigation of the normal levels of cholesterol and triglicerides in the blood of the umbilical cord. This values seems similar in different places all over the world and have served to establish the possible interrelation between the newborn hiperlipidemia and the coronary risk.

  18. COMPLIANCE AS FACTORING BUSINESS RISK MANAGEMENT: CONTROL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Makarovych

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indetermination of modern economy conditions and the lack of theoretical knowledge gained by domestic scientists about risk in factoring business actualize the research concerning the methodology and technique of factoring companies’ risk management. The article examines compliance which is the technology innovative for Ukrainian market of factoring risk management technologies. It is determined that the compliance is the risk management process directed to free will correspondence to state, international legislation as well as to the ethics standards accepted in the field of regulated legal relations and to the traditions of business circulation to sustain the necessary regulations and standards of market behaviour, and to consolidate the image of a factoring company. Compliance risks should be understood as the risks of missed profit or losses caused by the conflicts of interests and the discrepancy of employees’ actions to internal and external standard documents. The attention is paid to the control over the compliance. The author singles out 3 kinds of the compliance control such as institutional, operational and the compliance control over the observance of conducting business professional ethics regulations which are necessary for providing of efficient management of factoring business risks. The paper shows the organizing process of factoring business compliance control (by the development of internal standard documents, a compliance program, the foundation of compliance control subdivision, monitoring of the risks cause the choice, made by management entities of a factoring company, of the management methods of risks for their business. The development of new and improvement of existed forms of compliance control organizing process help satisfy users’ information needs and requests of the risk management factoring company department. The suggestions proposed create the grounds for the transformation and improvement of factoring

  19. Risk factors for child abuse: levels of knowledge and difficulties in family medicine. A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnaut, Océane; Jeu-Steenhouwer, Marie; Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime

    2015-10-30

    Family physicians (FPs) have a central role in the detection and management of child abuse. According to the literature, only 2-5% of initial reports of child abuse come from the medical profession. The objective of this study was to assess levels of knowledge of risk factors for child abuse by Family Physicians (FPs) and the attention that the physicians pay to these risk factors. We conducted a mixed-method survey based on semi-structured interviews. 50 FPs practicing in the Somme County (northern France) were interviewed with closed and open questions. The FPs' level of knowledge of risk factors for child abuse and obstacles in the detection of child abuse were assessed. The FPs' level of knowledge of risk factors for child abuse was similar to that reported in the literature. However, FPs knew little about the significant role of prematurity. Likewise, the FP's training did not seem to influence their knowledge of risk factors. Fear of an incorrect diagnosis was the main obstacle to reporting a suspected case. The FPs considered that they were often alone in dealing with a difficult situation and considered that the judicial system and the social services were not sufficiently active. Few FPs had actually received specific training in the detection and management of child abuse but many stated their need for this type of training. FPs encounter many obstacles in the detection of child abuse, which sometimes make the FP reluctant to report a suspected or potential case. Medical education need to be improved in this field.

  20. Future directions in Alzheimer's disease from risk factors to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka

    2014-04-15

    The increase in life expectancy has resulted in a high occurrence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Research on AD has undergone a paradigm shift from viewing it as a disease of old age to taking a life course perspective. Several vascular, lifestyle, psychological and genetic risk factors influencing this latent period have been recognized and they may act both independently and by potentiating each other. These risk factors have consequently been used to derive risk scores for predicting the likelihood of dementia. Despite population differences, age, low education and vascular risk factors were identified as key factors in all scoring systems. Risk scores can help to identify high-risk individuals who might benefit from different interventions. The European Dementia Prevention Initiative (EDPI), an international collaboration, encourages data sharing between different randomized controlled trials. At the moment, it includes three large ongoing European trials: Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA), and Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention study (MAPT). Recently EDPI has developed a "Healthy Aging through Internet Counseling in Elderly" (HATICE) program, which intends to manage modifiable risk factors in an aged population through an easily accessible Internet platform. Thus, the focus of dementia research has shifted from identification of potential risk factors to using this information for developing interventions to prevent or delay the onset of dementia as well as identifying special high-risk populations who could be targeted in intervention trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.