WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspected rape cases

  1. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  2. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  3. Demography and findings of reported rape cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quader, M M; Rahman, M H; Kamal, M; Ahmed, A U; Saha, S K

    2010-01-01

    Six hundred and ninety nine cases of alleged rape were studied by the authors during the period from 2007-2008 at the Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. Of these cases, 122 had positive findings of recent sexual intercourse; 250 cases had the positive findings of habituated sexual intercourse, and 327 cases had no findings of sexual intercourse but they complained of forcible sexual intercourse and found no sign of sexual intercourse. Most of the alleged victims of rape were nulliparous 87.12% and parous was only 12.87%. 430 (61.51%) cases of reported victims who were students of schools and colleges were not considered as rape cases considering their victim's history of love affairs, leaving home secretly with their lovers, living with them for many days. Gang rape was not so common (4.29% of raped cases) in our study. Age groups, their occupations, living areas, time of arrival for medico-legal examination have been studied. Most of the cases were students (61.51%). A few numbers of victims were subjected to gang rape. Examination and reporting the cases have been discussed.

  4. Rape investigation and attrition in acquaintance, domestic violence and historical rape cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hester, Marianne; Walker, Sarah-Jane

    2016-01-01

    The paper looks at the different attrition trajectories of rape cases involving acquaintance rape, rape in the context of domestic violence by intimate (ex)partners and in the context of historical child sexual abuse. Rape in the contexts of domestic violence or historical child sexual abuse have not received much separate attention in previous studies, tending to be included in categories involving alleged offender known to victim or excluded altogether as involving under-16s. The article ex...

  5. Medico-legal findings, legal case progression, and outcomes in South African rape cases: retrospective review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health services for victims of rape are recognised as a particularly neglected area of the health sector internationally. Efforts to strengthen these services need to be guided by clinical research. Expert medical evidence is widely used in rape cases, but its contribution to the progress of legal cases is unclear. Only three studies have found an association between documented bodily injuries and convictions in rape cases. This article aims to describe the processing of rape cases by South African police and courts, and the association between documented injuries and DNA and case progression through the criminal justice system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed a provincially representative sample of 2,068 attempted and completed rape cases reported to 70 randomly selected Gauteng province police stations in 2003. Data sheets were completed from the police dockets and available medical examination forms were copied. 1,547 cases of rape had medical examinations and available forms and were analysed, which was at least 85% of the proportion of the sample having a medical examination. We present logistic regression models of the association between whether a trial started and whether the accused was found guilty and the medico-legal findings for adult and child rapes. Half the suspects were arrested (n = 771, 14% (209 of cases went to trial, and in 3% (31 of adults and 7% (44 of children there was a conviction. A report on DNA was available in 1.4% (22 of cases, but the presence or absence of injuries were documented in all cases. Documented injuries were not associated with arrest, but they were associated with children's cases (but not adult's going to trial (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for having genital and nongenital injuries 5.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.87-18.13, p = 0.003. In adult cases a conviction was more likely if there were documented injuries, whether nongenital injuries alone AOR 6.25 (95% CI 1.14-34.3, p = 0

  6. Schema Effects of Rape Myth Acceptance on Judgments of Guilt and Blame in Rape Cases: The Role of Perceived Entitlement to Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments (N = 330) examined conditions that facilitate biasing effects of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on judgments of blame in rape cases. In both experiments, participants read a short vignette depicting a rape case. In Experiment 1, the amount of case-irrelevant information about defendant and plaintiff was varied. As predicted, high-RMA…

  7. A Socioecological Model of Rape Survivors' Decisions to Aid in Case Prosecution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Mary C.; Christopher, F. Scott

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify factors underlying rape survivors' post-assault prosecution decisions by testing a decision model that included the complex relations between the multiple social ecological systems within which rape survivors are embedded. We coded 440 police rape cases for characteristics of the assault and characteristics…

  8. Identification of a criminal by DNA typing in a rape case in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Carla de Souza Góes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Human DNA identification is a powerful tool for paternity cases as well as for criminal investigation, in which biological evidence is typed after collection from crime scenes and for the identification of human remains. OBJECTIVE: Identification of a criminal in a rape case with 4 suspects using STR and VNTR DNA analysis. TYPE OF STUDY: Forensic DNA analysis. SETTING: DNA Diagnostic Laboratory, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Blood from 4 suspects and the victim, and skin from the fetus. PROCEDURES: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. RESULTS: Three of the suspects were excluded and one of them was identified as the biological father of the fetus after typing with CTT and FFv Multiplexes. Complementary DNA typing at 3 VNTR loci was also carried out. CONCLUSIONS: After typing four suspects using 6 STR loci, one of them was identified as the biological father of the fetus. In order to significantly enhance the Combined Paternity Index (PI, complementary DNA typing in 3 VNTR loci was carried out. The included suspect was found to be the biological father with a PI of 412,860 (Probability of Paternity: 99.9997%.

  9. Impact of medico-legal findings on charge filing in cases of rape in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Cecilie T; Stene, Lise E; Myhre, Arne K; Ormstad, Kari; Schei, Berit

    2011-11-01

    To assess the impact of the medical documentation and biological trace evidence in rape cases on the legal process. Retrospective descriptive study. Police-reported cases of rape of women ≥16 years old in the Norwegian county of Sør-Trøndelag from January 1997 to June 2003. Police data were merged with data from the Sexual Assault Center at St Olav's Hospital. Charged and non-charged cases were compared. Medico-legal findings and legal outcome. A total of 185 police-reported cases were identified. Of the 101 cases examined at Sexual Assault Center, charges were filed in 18 cases. Extragenital injuries were documented in 49 women; five were life threatening. Anogenital injuries were documented in 14 women; eight had multiple anogenital injuries. Documentation of injuries was not associated with charge filing. In only 33% of the cases were swabs collected from women's genitals used as trace evidence by the police. When used, this increased the likelihood for charge filing. A DNA profile matching the suspect was identified in four of the 18 charged cases and in only one among the 54 non-charged cases. Half of the women had one or more documented injury. Only one-third of the trace evidence kits collected from the women's anogenital area were analyzed. The analysis of swabs was associated with charge filing, regardless of test results. Increased use of such medical evidence, especially in cases of stranger rape, may ensure women's rights and increase available information to the legal system. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Institutional Perpetuation of Rape Culture: A Case Study of the University of Colorado Football Rape and Recruiting Scandal

    OpenAIRE

    Folchert, Kristi Engle

    2008-01-01

    Heterosexual rape among university students is neither new nor uncommon. Research in rape prevention is largely limited to two areas: (1) what women can do to protect themselves from rape, which continues to place the burden of prevention on women; and (2) understanding why men rape. The studies in these fields have added to the body of knowledge surrounding rape on university campuses. The current study takes this information into consideration while using a different lens to examine the...

  11. Codeine-spiked beer in a date rape case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, Stine Marie; Wiik, Elisabeth; Karinen, Ritva; Brochmann, Gerd Wenche; Vevelstad, Merete

    2016-11-01

    A case of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, involving codeine and acetaminophen, possibly mixed in beer, was recently addressed at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. To examine the case, a small study was performed, spiking beer with preparations containing codeine and acetaminophen and observing the concentrations, appearance, and taste of the solutions. The study revealed the majority of the preparations to be quickly soluble in beer, achieving high concentrations, but at the expense of strong taste and drastic visible changes in the beer.

  12. Media Construction of Gender: Framing Analysis of Rape Cases in the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the printed media which tends to dramatize and blow up the reporting of rape cases has in fact discredited the rape victim, resulting in gender bias. This is due to the fact that media present the news content concerning on the victim and the perpetrator in imbalanced reporting, in that the victims are scrutinized from diverse facets. This paper analyze the coverage of printed media in rape cases by means of framing analysis. The result shows that printed media coverage generally goes beyond the rape case itself as the victim’s identity and images of the incident are also revealed. The using of visual image (victim’s image is probably aimed to present an overview on the fact or the truth from the media viewpoint. This presentation, however, obscures the differences between factual and fictional reality and this might lead to different interpretation on the readers’ side. Furthermore, inappropriate reporting might become the society’s reference concerning on the modus operandi, in that the society learn or imitate the aspects they once did not know of. Visual image will create a second rape by the media toward the victim, in addition to the stereotyping developed in public, which often brings out psychological impact to the victim and the family. This is called the third rape.

  13. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravating...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  14. Perceptions Matter: Case Studies of Policing Statutory Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandakai, Tina L.; Ding, Kele; Broomfield, Tyree S.; Iverson, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    The legal parameters regarding adult-child sexual intimacy varies across states. In many states, rules regarding the definition of "child" and age-of-consent laws seem to perpetuate lax and ambivalent responses to adult- child sex. To explore the criminal response to adult-child sex, particularly statutory rape, seven active male and…

  15. Page | 131 RISING CASES OF RAPE OFFENCES IN NIGERIA: NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    In South Africa, a person is guilty of the offence of rape if the person ('A') unlawfully and intentionally commits an act of sexual penetration with a complainant ('B'), without the consent of B5. At this juncture, it becomes imperative that we seek a definition of sexual penetration. Section 1 of the law contains the definition section ...

  16. Case report and management of suspected acute appendicitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murariu, Daniel; Tatsuno, Brent; Hirai, Cori-Ann M; Takamori, Ryan

    2011-02-01

    Suspected cases of acute appendicitis in pregnancy are considered surgical emergencies due to the potentially devastating outcomes for both mother and unborn child if the appendix perforates. Acute appendicitis is also the number one cause of non-traumatic acute abdomen in pregnancy, as well as the number one cause of fetal death. We present a case report with a typical presentation of suspected acute appendicitis in a pregnant woman. The work up and diagnostic tools available are discussed at length, as well as the finer points in treatment of this population. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2011.

  17. Blaming the Victim and Exonerating the Perpetrator in Cases of Rape and Robbery: Is There a Double Standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieneck, Steffen; Krahe, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research in legal decision making has demonstrated the tendency to blame the victim and exonerate the perpetrator of sexual assault. This study examined the hypothesis of a special leniency bias in rape cases by comparing them to cases of robbery. N = 288 participants received descriptions of rape and robbery of a female victim by a male…

  18. Conscientious objection, barriers, and abortion in the case of rape: a study among physicians in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora; Madeiro, Alberto; Rosas, Cristião

    2014-05-01

    In Brazil, to have a legal abortion in the case of rape, the woman's statement that rape has occurred is considered sufficient to guarantee the right to abortion. The aim of this study was to understand the practice and opinions about providing abortion in the case of rape among obstetricians-gynecologists (OBGYNs) in Brazil. A mixed-method study was conducted from April to July 2012 with 1,690 OBGYNs who responded to a structured, electronic, self-completed questionnaire. In the quantitative phase, 81.6% of the physicians required police reports or judicial authorization to guarantee the care requested. In-depth telephone interviews with 50 of these physicians showed that they frequently tested women's rape claim by making them repeat their story to several health professionals; 43.5% of these claimed conscientious objection when they were uncertain whether the woman was telling the truth. The moral environment of illegal abortion alters the purpose of listening to a patient - from providing care to passing judgement on her. The data suggest that women's access to legal abortion is being blocked by these barriers in spite of the law. We recommend that FEBRASGO and the Ministry of Health work together to clarify to physicians that a woman's statement that rape occurred should allow her to access a legal abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How Should Journal Editors Respond to Cases of Suspected Misconduct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wager

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Journals and institutions have important complementary roles to play in cases of suspected research and publication misconduct. Journals should take responsibility for everything they publish and should alert institutions to cases of possible serious misconduct but should not attempt to investigate such cases. Institutions should take responsibility for their researchers and for investigating cases of possible misconduct and for ensuring journals are informed if they have published unreliable or misleading articles so that these can be retracted or corrected. Journals and institutions should have policies in place for handling such cases and these policies should respect their different roles.

  20. MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis: case interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael M.; Brian, James M.; Methratta, Sosamma T.; Hulse, Michael A.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Eggli, Kathleen D.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    As utilization of MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis becomes more common, there will be increased focus on case interpretation. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to share our institution's case interpretation experience. MRI findings of appendicitis include appendicoliths, tip appendicitis, intraluminal fluid-debris level, pitfalls of size measurements, and complications including abscesses. The normal appendix and inguinal appendix are also discussed. (orig.)

  1. Understanding Attribution of Blame in Cases of Rape: An Analysis of Participant Gender, Type of Rape and Perceived Similarity to the Victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy Rose; Harrower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined a variety of factors that may influence attributions towards rape victims. A total of 156 participants completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of attitudes towards rape victims and a vignette depicting one of three rape scenarios (a stranger rape, date rape and seduction rape). Participants rated the extent to which…

  2. "Rape Culture" language and the news media: contested versus non-contested cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April COBOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.

  3. The Views of Women of Press Coverage of Rape Cases in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of prominence given to events, issues or phenomena by the press goes a long way in determining people's knowledge, exposure, views, opinions and/or suggestions about such events, issues and phenomena. Thus, the degree of prominence given to rape cases by the press in Nigeria determines what ...

  4. Cytogenetic dosimetry in suspected cases of ionizing radiation occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.; Silva, Francisco Cesar A. da

    2001-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is very useful in routine as well as in serious accident situations in which exposed individuals do not wear physical dosimeters. Since 1984, the technique of cytogenetic dosimetry has been used as a routine in our laboratory at IRD/CNEN to complement the data of physical dosimetry. In the period from 1984 to 2000, 138 cases of occupational overexposure of individual dosimeters were investigated by us. In total, only in 36 of the 138 cases investigated the overexposure was confirmed by cytogenetic dosimetry. The data indicates a total confirmation index of just 26% of the suspected cases.(author)

  5. The linkage between secondary victimization by law enforcement and rape case outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that almost half of rape victims are treated by law enforcement in ways that they experience as upsetting (termed secondary victimization). However, it remains unknown why some victims have negative experiences with law enforcement and others do not. The purpose of this study is to explore victims' experiences with secondary victimization by detectives, comparing how these experiences vary in cases that were ultimately prosecuted by the criminal justice system to those that were not prosecuted. A total of 20 rape victims are interviewed within one county. The study uses grounded theory qualitative analysis, which showed that participants whose cases were eventually prosecuted described the detectives' treatment toward them considerably different than participants with nonprosecuted cases. The study findings further show that victims with cases that were not prosecuted primarily described their detectives as engaging in secondary victimization behaviors and that victims with cases that were ultimately prosecuted primarily described their detectives as responding compassionately toward them.

  6. Palynology and mycology provide separate classes of probative evidence from the same forensic samples: a rape case from southern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Hawksworth, David L; Webb, Judith A; Edwards, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    A young woman claimed to have been raped at night in a wooded strip of land 120 m from her home. The suspect refuted her claim and said that they had had consensual sexual relations on an area of short turf in a local park, 130 m distant from the alleged crime scene. Comparator samples from each place, and clothing and footwear from each party, were obtained for assessment and analysis. All places that were considered to be relevant to the case were visited, and lists of plant species made. Results showed that the palynological and mycological profiles yielded by the footwear and clothing of both parties closely resembled that of the wooded area, but were dissimilar to that of the park. The profile of the wooded site reflected closely its own vegetation. Faced with the evidence, the suspect confessed. The study proves the value of a multi-proxy approach to forensic investigation using exactly the same preparations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Attrition and Rape Case Characteristics: A Profile and Comparison of Female Sex Workers and Non-Sex Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J; Callaghan, Lynne; Grafton, Iain; Falcone, M Aurora; Shaw, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The attrition of rape cases from the criminal justice system (CJS) remains high and there is a paucity of research in relation to marginalized groups. Sex workers (SWs) are vulnerable to sexual violence due to the nature of their work. They are also unlikely to report such violence to police for a range of reasons. Two stages of research sought to describe the victim, perpetrator, and offense characteristics of SW rape and to examine the attrition of these cases. All rapes and attempted rapes (N = 1,146) reported to police in a large city in the South West of England over a 21-year period were examined; 67 cases involved SWs. Data were extracted from police files in line with the variables of interest. Secondary analysis of the total number of SW rapes (n = 67) resulted in a profile of these cases. A matched pairs study revealed significant differences in victim, perpetrator, and assault characteristics between SW (n = 62) and non-sex-worker (NSW) samples (n = 62). Although no significant difference was found in terms of attrition from the CJS, SW cases were observed to secure more convictions for rape than NSW cases. The implications of the findings for practice and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A suspected case of transfusion-related acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Sherif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI is a rare but serious complication of blood transfusion. We present a suspected case of TRALI in a 39-year-old female patient who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy under uneventful general anesthesia. The patient developed acute desaturation due to noncardiogenic pulmonary edema while receiving compatible blood transfusion on the second postoperative day. As her symptoms were refractory to supportive treatment, she was mechanically ventilated for 3 days and successfully extubated on the fourth day. By exclusion, a clinical diagnosis of TRALI was made. The treatment for TRALI requires discontinuing transfusion and giving respiratory and cardiovascular support. Most cases show clinical improvement in first few hours and resolve completely within 96 h.

  9. A case of suspected 'Bickerstaff's encephalitis' and its CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moto, Atsufumi; Endo, Shunro; Ohmori, Tomoaki; Oka, Nobuo; Takaku, Akira

    1985-01-01

    A case of suspected ''Bickerstaff's encephalitis'' was presented with special reference to the CT findings. A 4-year-old girl exhibited fever and nausea after the beginning of December, 1983, followed by unsteady gait on January 1, 1984. She was admitted to another hospital and diagnosed by means of a spinalfluid examination as having aseptic meningitis. Her symptoms subsided transiently, but then she began again to suffer recurrently from unsteady gait on January 27. After that she developed dysarthria and dysphagia, a disturbance of eye movement was observed, and she became lethargic and disoriented. On February 6, she was transferred to our hospital. Plain CT scan on admission revealed a low-density area on the left cerebellar peduncle and the inferior medial part of the left temporal lobe. Moreover, the low-density area was heterogenously enhanced with the contrast medium. Angiography showed no abnormal findings. Considering these CT findings, we suspected a pontine tumor. Four days after her admission, however, her symptoms and signs began rapidly to subside, and also the abnormal findings on the CT scan diminished gradually as the symptoms were relieved. On March 2, she was discharged without any neurological abnormality. (author)

  10. Laboratory confirmation of rubella infection in suspected measles cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Raut, Chandrashekhar G; Jadhav, Santoshkumar M

    2016-10-01

    As a part of measles outbreak based surveillance undertaken by the World Health Organization India, suspected measles cases were referred for the laboratory diagnosis at National Institute of Virology (NIV) Pune and NIV Unit Bengaluru. Altogether, 4,592 serum samples were referred during 2010-2015 from the States of Karnataka (n = 1,173), Kerala (n = 559), and Maharashtra (n = 2,860). Initially, serum samples were tested in measles IgM antibody EIA and samples with measles negative and equivocal results (n = 1,954) were subjected to rubella IgM antibody detection. Overall, 62.9% (2,889/4,592) samples were laboratory confirmed measles, 27.7% (542/1,954) were laboratory confirmed rubella and remaining 25.2% (1,161/4,592) were negative for measles and rubella. The measles vaccination status was available for 1,206 cases. Among the vaccinated individuals, 50.7% (612/1,206) were laboratory confirmed measles. The contribution of laboratory confirmed measles was 493 (40.8%) from Maharashtra, 90 (7.5%) from Karnataka, and 29 (2.4%) from Kerala. Since, 1/3rd of suspected measles cases were laboratory confirmed rubella, an urgent attention needed to build rubella surveillance in India. Additional efforts are required to rule out other exanthematous disease including Dengue and Chikungunya in measles and rubella negatives. J. Med. Virol. 88:1685-1689, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Rape and homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Addad, G

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between rape and homosexuality can be best understood by studying male rape. Offender(s) may deny homosexuality and confuse an aggressive active behaviour with a masculine (even macho) behaviour. They may project their homosexual feelings onto the victim. In the aftermath of rape, the victim may be ashamed of having lost control and may question himself about his real sexual identity. An aspect of female or male rape by a group of males may be an attempt to annihilate latent homosexual tendencies existing between members of this group. Surprisingly, in the short term, post traumatic disorder related to rape and pre-existing psychiatric disorder may develop separately, without substantial interaction. In the famous case of Schreiber described by Freud, homosexuality is assumed to play an important role in the development of paranoid schizophrenia. Cases in which schizophrenic patients (of both sexes) imagine being raped by a member of the opposite sex, may possibly challenge this opinion.

  12. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  13. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seethalakshmi Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Aims: This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. Results: 24/68 (35.29% cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8% patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Conclusion: Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  14. Pathogen Identification in Suspected Cases of Pyogenic Spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ahmad Farajzadeh; Khosravi, Azar D; Goodarzi, Hamed; Nashibi, Roohangiz; Teimouri, Alireaza; Motamedfar, Azim; Ranjbar, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Sara; Cyrus, Mehrandokht; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Pyogenic spinal infection continues to represent a worldwide problem. In approximately one-third of patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, the infectious agent is never identified. Of the cases that lead to organismal identification, bacteria are more commonly isolated from the spine rather than fungi and parasites. This study applied universal prokaryotic 16S rRNA PCR as a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection of bacterial agents in specimens from patients suspected of pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Gram and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used as a preliminary screening measure for microbiologic evaluation of patient samples. PCR amplification targeting 16S rRNA gene was performed on DNA extracted from 57 cases including specimens from epidural abscesses, vertebral, and disc biopsies. Positive samples were directly sequenced. MRI findings demonstrated that disc destruction and inflammation were the major imaging features of suspected pyogenic spondylodiscitis cases, as 44 cases showed such features. The most common site of infection was the lumbar spine (66.7%), followed by thoracic spine (19%), the sacroiliac joint (9.5%), and lumbar-thoracic spine (4.8%) regions. A total of 21 samples amplified the 16S rRNA -PCR product. Sanger sequencing of the PCR products identified the following bacteriological agents: Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( n = 9; 42.9%), Staphylococcus aureus ( n = 6; 28.5%), Mycobacterium abscessus ( n = 5; 23.8%), and Mycobacterium chelonae ( n = 1; 4.8%). 36 samples displayed no visible 16S rRNA PCR signal, which suggested that non-bacterial infectious agents (e.g., fungi) or non-infectious processes (e.g., inflammatory, or neoplastic) may be responsible for some of these cases. The L3-L4 site (23.8%) was the most frequent site of infection. Single disc/vertebral infection were observed in 9 patients (42.85%), while 12 patients (57.15%) had 2 infected adjacent vertebrae. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP

  15. Pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsanam, Thambu D; Rupali, Priscilla; Tharyan, Prathap; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Thomas, Kurien

    2017-06-14

    2.15; N = 477; 18 clinical failures; moderate-quality evidence), or neurological sequelae (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63 to 2.62; N = 477; 29 with sequelae; low-quality evidence). No adverse effects of treatment were reported. Estimated treatment costs were similar. No data were available on disease burden due to sequelae. We found no reliable evidence to support the use pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of non-severe meningococcal disease. Moderate-quality evidence from one RCT indicated that single intramuscular injections of ceftriaxone and long-acting chloramphenicol were equally effective, safe, and economical in reducing serious outcomes. The choice between these antibiotics should be based on affordability, availability, and patterns of antibiotic resistance.Further RCTs comparing different pre-admission antibiotics, accompanied by intensive supportive measures, are ethically justified in people with less severe illness, and are needed to provide reliable evidence in different clinical settings.

  16. Mobilisation and Protests in the Aftermath of the New Delhi Gang Rape Case

    OpenAIRE

    Smith-Sivertsen, Rebecca; Kristensen, Pernille Bo; H. Noori, Hans Peter Jonas; Riis, Vagn

    2014-01-01

    This project examines the social mobilization that occurred in the aftermath of the gang rape and murder of a young female student in New Delhi in 2012. Violence against women is a widespread problem in India, and reports of especially violent incidences of rape against young women, children and tourists have filled the news in the last couple of years both nationally in India and Internationally. Especially the gang rape in New Delhi caused outrage both in India and abroad, resulting in p...

  17. Physicians' agreement with and willingness to provide abortion services in the case of pregnancy from rape in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Martha; Billings, Deborah L; García, Sandra G; Lara, Diana

    2009-01-01

    In Mexico, abortion is not penalized when a woman gets pregnant as a result of rape, yet access to abortion services is limited. Understanding physicians' opinions about abortion is critical to creating strategies that will broaden women's access to services. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using data collected from a sample of 1206 physicians in Mexico. The influence of independent variables on two outcomes was analyzed: physicians' agreement with abortion being legal in the case of pregnancy caused by rape and willingness to provide abortion services in such cases. Physicians who had performed legal abortions, knew about existing abortion legislation and practiced general or family medicine were significantly more likely to agree that abortion should be legal when pregnancy is caused by rape and were more likely to be willing to provide abortion in the case of rape. Physicians who held a negative attitude towards women who seek abortion and those with greater church attendance were less likely to agree with the legality of abortion. Physicians are among the most important gatekeepers to women's access to safe abortion services. A majority of Mexican physicians agree that abortion should not be legally penalized under certain circumstances. Yet, many also hold negative attitudes towards women who seek abortion. Physicians' support for women's access to safe abortion services is key to ensuring that such services will exist in Mexico.

  18. Early diagnosis of dengue virus infection in clinically suspected cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, N.K.; Ahmed, S.; Ali, N.; Khan, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of dengue virus infection in first week of illness in clinically suspected patients of dengue fever. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi from Jan 2013 to Nov 2013. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study including 68 clinically suspected patients of dengue fever according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. IgM capture ELISA and RT PCR for dengue virus ribonucleic acid (RNA) was performed on samples collected from patients having fever for 1 to 7 days. These were divided into two groups. Patients in group 1 presented with fever of 4 days or less, patients in group 2 had fever of 5 to 7 days duration. Results: In group 1, 72 percent of the patients were positive by RT PCR while 31 percent were positive by IgM capture ELISA. In group 2, 43 percent of the patients were positive by RT PCR while 97 percent were positive by ELISA. Conclusion: RT PCR can be used for early detection of dengue virus infection in the first few days of fever while IgM ELISA is diagnostic afterwards. (author)

  19. Emotional Reactions of Rape Victim Advocates: A Multiple Case Study of Anger and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasco, Sharon M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    This research explores the emotional reactions of a rarely studied group of women who work closely with survivors of sexual violence: rape victim advocates. Women who assist rape victims in obtaining medical, criminal justice, and mental health services were interviewed about their experiences, and qualitative analysis was used to delineate the…

  20. Media coverage of violence against women in India: a systematic study of a high profile rape case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mark; Mostofian, Fargol; Jetly, Rajeev; Puthukudy, Nazar; Madden, Kim; Bhandari, Mohit

    2015-01-22

    On December 16, 2012 a 23 year old female was gang-raped on a bus in Delhi. We systematically reviewed professional online media sources used to inform the timing, breadth of coverage, opinions and consistency in the depiction of events surrounding the gang-rape. We searched two news databases (LexisNexis Academic and Factivia) and individual newspapers for English-language published media reports covering the gang-rape. Two reviewers screened the media reports and extracted data regarding the time, location and content of each report. Results were summarized qualitatively. We identified 534 published media reports. Of these, 351 met our eligibility criteria. Based on a time chart, the total number of reports published increased steadily through December, but plateaued to a steady rate of articles per day by the first week of January. Content analysis revealed significant discrepancies between various media reports. From the 57 articles which discussed opinions about the victim, 56% applauded her bravery, 40% discussed outrage over the events and 11% discussed cases of victim-blaming. The global media response of the December 16th gang-rape in India resulted in highly inconsistent depiction of the events. These findings suggest that although the spread of information through media is fast, it has major limitations.

  1. The Adult Male Rape Victim: Forensic Description of a Series of 57 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Michelangelo Bruno; Palazzo, Elisa; Blandino, Alberto; Battistini, Alessio; Motta, Francesca; Kustermann, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    A retrospective analysis on 57 adult male victims of sexual violence has been performed. Age, nationality and anamnesis of the victims, location of the assault, type of violence, number and identity of the assailants, presence of physical injuries, lapse of time between the assault and the request of medical assistance, and toxicological and semen detection tests were analyzed. Victims were mostly in the 31- to 40-year age group. Ten victims referred themselves as either active homosexuals or bisexuals. Forced oral and/or anal penetration was registered in 86.8% of cases, mostly performed by a single assailant. Anogenital injuries were recorded in 61.4% of cases, whereas extragenital injuries in 35.1%: abrasions and perianal reddening were the most frequent acute anogenital marks, whereas the head and lower limbs were the body parts most commonly affected by blunt trauma. No clinically severe injuries were found. Anal and perianal swabs for semen detection tested positive in less than 20% cases, whereas oral swabs always tested negative. When performed, nearly 50% of cases tested positive in drug tests, above all for psychoactive substances. No definite forensic diagnosis in terms of confirmation of rape was possible on the basis of type and topography of injuries.

  2. What Is Rape and Date Rape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What is rape and date rape? What is rape and date rape? Get help National Sexual Assault Hotline  800- ... drinking, it is NOT your fault. What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any kind of ...

  3. Rape and the prevalence of hybrids in broadly sympatric species: a case study using albatrosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievert Rohwer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conspecific rape often increases male reproductive success. However, the haste and aggression of forced copulations suggests that males may sometimes rape heterospecific females, thus making rape a likely, but undocumented, source of hybrids between broadly sympatric species. We present evidence that heterospecific rape may be the source of hybrids between Black-footed and Laysan Albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes, and P. immutabilis, respectively. Extensive field studies have shown that paired (but not unpaired males of both of these albatross species use rape as a supplemental reproductive strategy. Between species differences in size, timing of laying, and aggressiveness suggest that Black-footed Albatrosses should be more successful than Laysan Albatrosses in heteropspecific rape attempts, and male Black-footed Albatrosses have been observed attempting to force copulations on female Laysan Albatrosses. Nuclear markers showed that the six hybrids we studied were F1s and mitochondrial markers showed that male Black-footed Albatrosses sired all six hybrids. Long-term gene exchange between these species has been from Black-footed Albatrosses into Laysan Albatrosses, suggesting that the siring asymmetry found in our hybrids has long persisted. If hybrids are sired in heterospecific rapes, they presumably would be raised and sexually imprinted on Laysan Albatrosses, and two unmated hybrids in a previous study courted only Laysan Albatrosses.

  4. [Suspected pathogenic mutation identified in two cases with oculocutaneous albinism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangmei; Zheng, Meiling; Zhang, Guilin; Hua, Ailing

    2015-08-01

    To detect potential mutations in genes related with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism I-IV and ocular albinism type I in two couples who had given births to children with albinism. All exons of the non-syndromic albinism related genes TYR, OCA2, TYRP-1, MITF, SLC45A2 and GPR143 were subjected to deep sequencing. The results were verified with Sanger sequencing. For the two female carriers, the coding region of the TYR gene was found to harbor a frameshift mutation c.925_926insC, which was also suspected to have been pathogenic. In one of the male partners, a nonsense mutations c.832C>T was found, which was also known to be pathogenic. Another male partner was found to harbor a TYR gene mutation c.346C>T, which was also known to be a pathogenic nonsense mutation. The coding region of the TYR gene c.925_926insC (p.Thr309ThrfsX9) probably underlies the OCA1 disease phenotype.

  5. Medicaid funding for abortion: providers' experiences with cases involving rape, incest and life endangerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacanek, Deborah; Dennis, Amanda; Miller, Kate; Blanchard, Kelly

    2010-06-01

    The Hyde Amendment bans federal Medicaid funding for abortion in the United States except if a pregnancy resulted from rape or incest or endangers the life of the woman. Some evidence suggests that providers do not always receive Medicaid reimbursement for abortions that should qualify for funding. From October 2007 to February 2008, semistructured in-depth interviews about experiences with Medicaid reimbursement for qualifying abortions were conducted with 25 respondents representing abortion providers in six states. A thematic analysis approach was used to explore respondents' knowledge of and experiences seeking Medicaid reimbursement for qualifying abortions, as well as individual, clinical and structural influences on reimbursement. The numbers of qualifying cases that were and were not reimbursed were assessed. More than half of Medicaid-eligible cases reported by respondents in the past year were not reimbursed. Respondents reported that filing for reimbursement takes excessive staff time and is hampered by bureaucratic claims procedures and ill-informed Medicaid staff, and that reimbursements are small. Many had stopped seeking Medicaid reimbursement and relied on nonprofit abortion funds to cover procedure costs. Respondents reporting receiving reimbursement said that streamlined forms, a statewide education intervention and a legal intervention to ensure that Medicaid reimbursed claims facilitated the process. The policy governing federal funding of abortion is inconsistently implemented. Eliminating administrative burdens, educating providers about women's rights to obtain Medicaid reimbursement for abortion in certain circumstances and holding Medicaid accountable for reimbursing qualifying cases are among the steps that may facilitate Medicaid reimbursement for qualifying abortions.

  6. Mock Juror Perceptions of Rape Victims: Impact of Case Characteristics and Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Shannon; Reynolds, Joshua J; Kehn, Andre

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine mock juror perceptions of rape victims based on the sex of the offender and victim (male offender/female victim vs. female offender/male victim), relationship to the offender (stranger vs. acquaintance vs. intimate partner), revictimization (no revictimization vs. revictimization), and individual differences in rape myth acceptance (RMA) and life history strategy (LHS). Participants (N = 332) read a vignette describing a forcible rape scenario and completed victim and perpetrator blame scales, the Mini-K, and a gender-neutral Rape Myth Acceptance Scale. Results indicated increased victim blame in revictimization conditions, as well as female offender/male victim conditions. A significant mediation effect of LHS on victim blame through the indirect effect of RMA was found, which is predicted from life history theory. Implications of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Standard Rape Cases in the Criminal Justice System in Campinas, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Domingues Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a longitudinal analysis of the records found in the Women’s Defense Division of the Public Ministry and in the Criminal Courts of the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State. The study identified both the characteristics of rape (the accused, victims and relations between them, as well as the processes of selection and filtering to which they are submit during their processing. The results found for Campinas reflect rape complaints found in international studies, which indicate that rape is a heterogeneous category, although the aggressors are invariably men and the victims young. On the other hand, when the criminal selection process is analyzed, a filtering of typologies is noticed, found in the complaint phase in three standards for the crime of rape: intrafamiliar, committed by an unknown aggressor and among youth who know each other.

  8. An Unusual Case of Suspected Microvascular Angina in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cataldo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia in pediatric population is uncommon and usually due to congenital heart disease or extracardiac conditions leading to poor coronary perfusion. A 6-day-old newborn presented with respiratory distress and signs of heart failure. ECG, echocardiography, and laboratory results were consistent with myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography was performed to exclude anomalous origin of coronary arteries, showing normal coronary artery origin and course. Thrombophilia and extra-cardiac causes were ruled out. Clinical conditions improved with mechanical ventilation and diuretics, enzyme levels lowered, repolarisation and systolic function abnormalities regressed, but ischemic electrocardiographic and echocardiographic signs still presented during intense crying. Becaues of suspicion of microvascular angina, therapy with ASA and beta-blocker was started. At 5 month followup, the baby was in good clinical condition and no more episodes were recorded. We believe it is an interesting case, as no similar cases have been recorded till now.

  9. Perception and reality in a case of suspected cervical fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolfi, Marcello; Antinolfi, Gabriele; Genova, Vincenzo; Scutellari, Pier Nuccio; Campioni, Paolo; Mannella, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 36-year-old female, who following a road accident, had a cervical whiplash, is discussed. A radiographic examination of the affected region was performed at the Emergency Department. It showed a transverse radiolucent line at the basal odontoid process of the axis. A definitive interpretation was not possible and fracture of the odontoid process of the axis was suggested as differential diagnosis. On coronal CT reconstruction the presence of this fracture was ruled out. The line seen on the film was actually the product of a psychophysiologic visual illusion known as "Mach band". The use of conventional radiography correlated with digital CT images shows that the practical application of Mach band theory allows a better differentiation between normal and pathologic anatomy.

  10. Two cases of methemoglobinaemia caused by suspected sodium nitrite poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Matteucci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the causes of acute methemo-globinaemia are the ingestion and inhalation of over 40 oxidising substances, including nitrite, nitrate, carbon monoxide, some medicines, chlorine. The authors describe a case of acute methemoglobinaemia in two people that most probably suffered from food poisoning resulting from the consumption of a preparation of a dish called turkey alla canzanese that contained significant amounts of sodium nitrite. Both subjects who were treated promptly with methylene blue and hyperbaric oxygen therapy room recovered fully. Epidemiological investigations performed to clarify the dynamics of the episode suggested that among the causes of contamination were the swapping of products at the time of sale and the non-compliance to rules for the preparation of foods for human consumption.

  11. RECENT SUSPECT CASES AND A PILOT DETECTION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOZUBÍKOVÁ E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are only very limited reports about the occurrence of the crayfish plague in Czechia. In recent years, mass mortalities of Astacus spp. with symptoms of possible crayfish plague were noticed in three streams in the country – two in Central Bohemia (1998-9 and one in Silesia (2004. Three dead individuals from the last outbreak were examined for the presence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, by observation of the presence of hyphae in their cuticle and by a PCR-based diagnostic method. In all three cases the detection was positive. Although causes of mass mortalities from two other localities lack such a direct confirmation, the indirect evidence supports the same conclusion. The main potential vector of A. astaci in Czechia is the American spiny-cheeck crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in large rivers of the western part of the country and in various isolated standing waters. Using the same molecular method, we investigated the presence of A. astaci in living O. limosus individuals from six localities (three running and three standing waters. The analysis indicated the presence of the pathogen in animals from five out of six investigated Orconectes populations. One of them is present in the stream where two European Astacus species had gone extinct in 1998-9. Our results suggest that the crayfish plague is still present in Czechia, and that populations of O. limosus represent a reservoir for the crayfish plague pathogen, which directly endangers populations of the native crayfish.

  12. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  13. Temporal artery biopsy is not required in all cases of suspected giant cell arteritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, Edel Marie

    2012-07-01

    Temporal artery biopsy (TAB) is performed during the diagnostic workup for giant cell arteritis (GCA), a vasculitis with the potential to cause irreversible blindness or stroke. However, treatment is often started on clinical grounds, and TAB result frequently does not influence patient management. The aim of this study was to assess the need for TAB in cases of suspected GCA.

  14. Rape on College Campuses: Reform through Title IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Terry Nicole

    1991-01-01

    This article first, analyzes the growing problem of campus rape; second, evaluates some college rape reduction programs; third, uses case law to demonstrate that rape should be considered sex discrimination under Title IX; and, fourth, suggests an amendment to Title IX, defining rape as sex discrimination. Appropriate implementation measures by…

  15. The Linkage between Secondary Victimization by Law Enforcement and Rape Case Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that almost half of rape victims are treated by law enforcement in ways that they experience as upsetting (termed "secondary victimization"). However, it remains unknown why some victims have negative experiences with law enforcement and others do not. The purpose of this study is to explore victims' experiences with…

  16. Blame Attributions in Multiple Perpetrator Rape Cases: The Impact of Sympathy, Consent, Force, and Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolfsson, Kerstin; Strömwall, Leif A; Landström, Sara

    2017-07-01

    Victims of multiple perpetrator rape (MPR) have been found to be an especially vulnerable group. This study examined effects of MPR and perpetrators' use of force on attributions of victim and perpetrator blame. In two large experiments (total N = 2,928), Swedish community members read scenarios depicting an MPR and subsequently made several ratings of blame, rape myth acceptance (RMA), just world beliefs, sympathy for the victim, perception of consent, and trust in the legal system. Data were analyzed with a multianalytical approach using both analyses of variance as well as exploratory analyses. In Experiment 1, more blame was attributed to a victim of MPR than a victim of a lone perpetrator rape (LPR). In Experiment 2, no effect of used force was found on levels of attributed blame. In both experiments, hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that four components, identified through principal components analyses, explained substantial shares of the variance in both victim and perpetrator blame. The best individual predictors were participants' perception of consent, sympathy for the victim, and RMA. The study shows the importance of studying participants' beliefs and attitudes about rape and that victim-blaming research needs both theory development and greater methodological awareness. Implications for victim support services are also discussed.

  17. Rising cases of rape offences in Nigeria: new measures to the rescue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before now the offence of rape in Nigeria was an isolated incident. It occurred once in a while and when it did it was greeted with incredulity and surprise. However, despite the fact that the offence carries a life term imprisonment, it has now become a daily occurrence Nigeria. It seems that the law as it is, is incapable of ...

  18. Perceptions of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Barbara J.; Remer, Rory

    Society does not view rape seriously. Few rape crimes are successfully prosecuted. Rape results in permanent alteration of the victim's life. Besides street rape there is no consensus on the definition of rape. This study attempts to gather people's perceptions of rape. Subjects (N=96) were approached randomly and accepted if they fit into desired…

  19. The "Unacknowledged" Rape Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P.; Oros, Cheryl J.

    Acknowledged rape victims are women who have experienced forced sexual intercourse and view their experience as rape. Unacknowledged rape victims have suffered the same experience but do not view it as rape. Acknowledged (N=39) and unacknowledged (N=29) rape victims completed a sexual experiences interview and a rape attitude survey to determine…

  20. MR imaging in cases of antenatal suspected appendicitis--a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Yair J; Wong, Amy E; Jafari, Anahita; Barth, Richard A; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2011-03-01

    Appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency in pregnancy. Acute appendicitis is often difficult to diagnose clinically, and concerns regarding antenatal CT imaging limit its use resulting in high false negative rates at laparotomy. MRI has recently been reported as a reasonable alternative to CT imaging in cases of suspected appendicitis. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis of recently published data regarding the utility of MR imaging in cases of antenatal suspected acute appendicitis. We searched the PubMed database using keywords 'MRI', 'appendicitis', and 'pregnancy'. Five case series describing the role of MRI in cases of antenatal appendicitis were included. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. Two hundred twenty-nine patients were included in the study. In the first analysis in which non-diagnostic scans were excluded, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of MRI for diagnosing appendicitis were 95.0%, 99.9%, 90.4%, and 99.5%, respectively. In the second analysis, which included non-diagnostic scans, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 90.5%, 98.6%, 86.3%, and 99.0%, respectively MR imaging may be useful in cases of suspected antenatal appendicitis. Data are still limited and larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm this finding.

  1. [Rape by 2 assaillants and gang rape in Montreal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Y; Boyer, R; Lamontagne, C; Giroux, J

    1984-11-01

    A survey was conducted in 230 cases of rape and rape attempts heard in the Judicial District of Montreal between January 1975 and May 1978. Data were compiled from the 30 assaults including two or more assaillants. Results show that in cases of rape committed by two men the aggressors are older than gang rapists, meet the victim mainly in her flat or in a bar, and rape her in her own home, in a car or a hotel. In these cases, voyeurism seems to be an important factor since, most of the time, rape is committed by only one of the two aggressors. On the other hand, gang rapists are younger, meet the victim in public places, on the street or when she is hitch-hiking and attack her in one of the aggressors' house, in public places or on the street. Exhibitionism seems more present in this group of rapists. For both groups the victims are mainly single, younger than the aggressors and have diverse occupations. Finally, regarding the legal outcome half of the subjects were liberated or acquitted in both groups. Rape committed by two men had never been studied or compared with gang rape up until now. Results of this survey show dynamic and demographic differences between these two groups of sexual delinquents.

  2. Conversion disorder as psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in suspected cancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Xavier F; Sharma, Jennifer S; Dar, Syma A

    2014-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), a form of conversion disorder, are paroxysmal episodes resembling epilepsy while lacking electrographic correlation. The phenomenon has rarely been reported in elderly patients and has not been associated with a new-onset medical diagnosis. We present the case of an 81-year-old female with no past psychiatric or traumatic history who developed PNES within the context of a new, suspected cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first such reported case of a suspected cancer (or otherwise medical) diagnosis contributing directly and temporally to the development of PNES. Discussion of involved psychosocial variables follows the vignette, and a brief review of relevant literature is offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A case of hypopharyngeal fistula suspected of late complication due to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchigami, Teruhiko; Karaho, Takehiro; Hyodo, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Tetsuya; Kitahara, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of hypopharyngeal fistula which was suspected of being a late complication due to radiotherapy. The patient was 54-year-old female who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma in 1967, receiving a total of 75 Gy postoperative irradiation. In 2001 she came to our hospital complaining of neck pain and difficulty in swallowing. On pharyngoesophagogram we found a hypopharyngeal fistula. The fistula was located under the posterior wall of the hypopharynx between C4 and C7. It was undetectable with flexible fiberscope but was detected with rigid endoscope under the general anesthesia. We suspected it was a late complication of the irradiation. We performed endoscopic laser surgery (KTP), resected the tissue between the upper and lower openings of the fistula, and vertically exposed the fistula in the hypopharyngeal space. Her dysphagia improved. We discuss the mechanism of fistula formation in this case. (author)

  4. A case of hypopharyngeal fistula suspected of late complication due to irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Teruhiko; Karaho, Takehiro; Hyodo, Yoshihiro; Tanabe, Tetsuya; Kitahara, Satoshi [National Defense Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    We report a case of hypopharyngeal fistula which was suspected of being a late complication due to radiotherapy. The patient was 54-year-old female who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma in 1967, receiving a total of 75 Gy postoperative irradiation. In 2001 she came to our hospital complaining of neck pain and difficulty in swallowing. On pharyngoesophagogram we found a hypopharyngeal fistula. The fistula was located under the posterior wall of the hypopharynx between C4 and C7. It was undetectable with flexible fiberscope but was detected with rigid endoscope under the general anesthesia. We suspected it was a late complication of the irradiation. We performed endoscopic laser surgery (KTP), resected the tissue between the upper and lower openings of the fistula, and vertically exposed the fistula in the hypopharyngeal space. Her dysphagia improved. We discuss the mechanism of fistula formation in this case. (author)

  5. Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome presenting initially as suspected meningococcal disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamurthy Siddharthan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children and is usually linked with Escherichia coli O157 infection. With a fatality rate of around 5%, some reports have associated antibiotic treatment with a worsening prognosis. Case Presentation We describe a female infant patient, initially treated for suspected meningococcal septicaemia, who went on to develop renal complications and thrombocytopenia characteristic of HUS. A subsequent positive stool sample for E. coli O157 confirmed HUS as an appropriate diagnosis, although there was no evidence of diarrhoea or vomiting throughout the course of her management. Conclusion The urgency of early recognition and treatment for suspected meningococcal disease in very young children while entirely appropriate can initially divert attention from other serious conditions. Evidence of infection with E. coli O157 infection in this case also highlights what can be a blurred distinction between atypical (non-diarrhoeal HUS from classical HUS of infective origin.

  6. Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome presenting initially as suspected meningococcal disease: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivamurthy, Siddharthan; Mooney, John D; Kenny, Tom D

    2007-01-01

    Background Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is the most common cause of acute renal failure in children and is usually linked with Escherichia coli O157 infection. With a fatality rate of around 5%, some reports have associated antibiotic treatment with a worsening prognosis. Case Presentation We describe a female infant patient, initially treated for suspected meningococcal septicaemia, who went on to develop renal complications and thrombocytopenia characteristic of HUS. A subsequent positive stool sample for E. coli O157 confirmed HUS as an appropriate diagnosis, although there was no evidence of diarrhoea or vomiting throughout the course of her management. Conclusion The urgency of early recognition and treatment for suspected meningococcal disease in very young children while entirely appropriate can initially divert attention from other serious conditions. Evidence of infection with E. coli O157 infection in this case also highlights what can be a blurred distinction between atypical (non-diarrhoeal) HUS from classical HUS of infective origin. PMID:17971197

  7. Child rape: facets of a heinous crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangrade, K D; Sooryamoorthy, R; Renjini, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of child rape in India, case studies of girl children in legal procedures, rape settings and perpetrators, public morality, and the nature of rape laws in India. It is concluded that there is no safe place for children. Currently, rapists are allowed to go free or are acquitted. Prevention and control of child rape must involve punishment of rapists. It is not appropriate that society ostracize the victim and her family. Victims should not remain silent. National Crime Records Bureau statistics reveal increases in rape during 1986-91. State figures are given for 1986-88. Madhya Pradesh had the highest reported incidence of rape in 1988. In 1993, Madhya Pradesh had a total of 2459 rapes. Nationally, 10,425 women were reported as raped in 1991. 51.7% were 16-30 years old. There were 1099 cases of pedophilia in 1991, which was an increase over 1990. Over 50% of the pedophilia cases were reported in Uttar Pradesh. The record of convictions shows very low figures. 1992 trial results of 276 rape cases indicated that only 46 persons were convicted. Victims suffer from psychological effects of embarrassment, disgust, depression, guilt, and even suicidal tendencies. There is police and prosecution indifference as well as social stigma and social ostracism of the victim and her family. Many cases go unreported. The case studies illustrate the difficulties for the victim of experiencing the rape and the social responses: police harassment, shame and fear, and occasionally public outrage. The case studies illustrate rape in familiar settings, such as schools, family homes, and neighbors and friends' homes; rape by policemen; and rape by political influentials. Most offenders are young, married, and socioeconomically poor. Mass media portrayals fuel the frustrations of poor and lonely men in cities. Rapists exhibit anti-social behavior or psychopathology. Sexual offenses are related to society's moral values.

  8. Health seeking behaviour among suspected cases of cholera in Cameroonian health districts in Lake Chad basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakum, Martin Ndinakie; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Walter, Ebile Akoh; Ram, Malathi; Debes, Amanda K; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Nafack, Sonia Sonkeng; Sack, David A

    2017-08-30

    Cholera outbreaks are recurrent in Cameroon and despite the efforts put together during epidemics, they are always associated with a high case fatality. Inadequate demand for health care is one of the major factors that might be responsible for the high case fatality. This study was conducted to describe the health seeking behaviour of suspected cases of cholera in four health districts of the Far North Cameroon. We conducted a health facility based descriptive study involving suspected cases of cholera received in health facilities. Data was collected from August 2013 to October 2015 with the help of a questionnaire and analysis done by running frequency and calculating confidence interval at 95% with Epi Info version 3.5.4. A total of 1849 cases were enrolled, with 997 (53.9%) being males. 534 (28.9%) were children under the age of 5 and 942 (50.9%) were above the age of 14. About 373 (20%) of diarrhoeal patients arrived in the health facility more than 2 days following the onset of diarrhoea, with 916 (50%) of them being seriously dehydrated. Also, about 624 (34%) of these patients had sought treatment elsewhere before coming to the health facility where they were enrolled, and about 86% of them did not received ORS. Taking 2 or more days after diarrhoea onset or taking more than 1 h to travel from home to health facility was associated with severe dehydration in patients. The delay between the onset of diarrhoea and seeking treatment from a health provider determines the seriousness of suspected cases of cholera in the Far North Cameroon. While conducting an anthropological study to understand reasons why a health provider is not the first option during diarrhoeal episodes, we recommend that a system of community case detection and reference to health facilities should be put in place during cholera outbreaks to minimize its case fatality rate.

  9. Evaluation of the use of fluoroscopy guided needle biopsies for diagnosing cases of suspected pathological fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dianwen; Hu, Tongyu; Zhang, Guochuan

    2016-09-01

    Establishing an early and accurate diagnosis in cases of suspected pathological fractures is crucial to initiate optimal treatment without delay. The use of percutaneous biopsy has become popular over the past few years. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the efficacy and safety of percutaneous biopsy procedures guided by fluoroscopy. A total of 137 percutaneous C-arm fluoroscopy-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) procedures were performed in 135 patients with suspected pathological fractures. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and overall prognostic value of these procedures were evaluated. Complications, if any, were documented for all cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 82.0%, 100%, and 83.2%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive value was 100% and 28.1%, respectively. There were 23 "false negative" cases in our study, of which 15 were benign lesions and eight were malignant tumors. No "false-positives" were found. Major procedure-related complications occurred in three patients (2.2%). These complications, however, did not alter the prognosis of these patients. Percutaneous C-arm fluoroscopy-guided biopsy procedures are both effective and safe for diagnosis of suspected pathological fractures in the appendicular skeleton. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Patterned genital injury in cases of rape - A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Ravn, Pernille; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange

    2013-01-01

    A pattern of genital injury that separates trauma seen in sexual assault cases from trauma seen following consensual sexual intercourse has been a matter of debate. This study aimed at clarifying the question by eliminating as many confounders as possible in a prospective, case-control setup...... for detection of genital lesions using the three most commonly used techniques is provided. These results will aid in the interpretation of findings seen when examining sexual assault victims....

  11. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    In species where chloroplast inheritance is exclusively or predominantly maternal, pollen-mediated flow of transgenes is reduced if transgenes are inserted in chloroplast DNA instead of nuclear DNA. However, transmission of chloroplast-encoded transgeneswill still occur if transgenic individuals...... affected the thousand-kernel weight significantly. It was concluded that further introgression of transgenes from transplastomic oilseed rape to B. rapa is mostlikely at current field densities of B. napus and when B. rapa is an abundant weed....

  12. Rape: How is church challenged by the rising issues of rape in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kiaira, Felicity Kabirithu

    2016-01-01

    Rape is a global challenge that confronts women in all context and from all race. There has been an increase in rape cases and rape prevalence in Kenya, especially in major urban centres. This research was influenced and inspired by the increased cases of rape in Kenya, especially Nairobi. It was hereby where as a researcher I wanted to explore how church is challenged by the rising issues of rape in Kenya. The research has shown that certain behaviours, and certain situational factors are...

  13. Sensitivity and Specificity of Suspected Case Definition Used during West Africa Ebola Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Christopher H; Champaloux, Steven W; Keïta, Sakoba; Martel, Lise; Bilivogui, Pepe; Knust, Barbara; McCollum, Andrea M

    2018-01-01

    Rapid early detection and control of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is contingent on accurate case definitions. Using an epidemic surveillance dataset from Guinea, we analyzed an EVD case definition developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and used in Guinea. We used the surveillance dataset (March-October 2014; n = 2,847 persons) to identify patients who satisfied or did not satisfy case definition criteria. Laboratory confirmation determined cases from noncases, and we calculated sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. The sensitivity of the defintion was 68.9%, and the specificity of the definition was 49.6%. The presence of epidemiologic risk factors (i.e., recent contact with a known or suspected EVD case-patient) had the highest sensitivity (74.7%), and unexplained deaths had the highest specificity (92.8%). Results for case definition analyses were statistically significant (pdefinition used in Guinea contributed to improved overall sensitivity and specificity.

  14. Rape Crimes: Are Victims' Acute Psychological Distress and Perceived Social Support Associated With Police Case Decision and Victim Willingness to Participate in the Investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Nina B; Hansen, Maj; Nielsen, Louise H; Bramsen, Rikke H; Elklit, Ask; Campbell, Rebecca

    2017-06-01

    This study examined level of acute psychological distress and perceived social support in 64 victims of rape and the association with police case decisions and victims' willingness to participate in the investigation. The results of independent-sample t tests revealed that victims' unwillingness to participate in the investigation was significantly associated with a higher level of psychological distress in the acute phase following the assault. The results suggest that victims of rape who disengage with the police investigation may do so because of a high level of acute psychological distress. Clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Assessment Of Rape Victims The Case Of Secondary Preparatory TVET Adwa College Of Teachers And Educational Leadership Education And Axum University Central Zone Of Tigray Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workneh Gebreselassie

    2015-08-01

    university 19.1 then by TVET 6.4 then by elementary 4.3 and CTE 2.1. Majority of the rape incidents revealed when the victims made trip to and from school 46.8 followed by in residence area of the victim or perpetrator 40.4. Lastly when the victim was on the way to perform duty of her parents 12.8. Among the 47 female students revealed with rape danger 80.9 38 60.6 them faced with psychological problem of anxiety 29 of them faced with unwanted pregnancy then 5.2 of them faced with HIVAIDS and 5.2 of them faced with physical harm like crack in the sexual part including the womb. Among the 47 victims of rape 27.7 13 of them have claimed that they have faced with rape incident in their present institution. This is mainly university 46.2 next secondary school and TVET 23 each lastly CTE 7.6 1. Among the university perpetrators 66.7 6 of them are instructors whereas 16.7 1 unknown while 16.7 1 is class mate. Among the secondary perpetrators 66.7 2 are teachers while 33.3 1 is unknown to the victim. In case of CTE Perpetrators 100 2 of them are boyfriend of the victim. Likewise in case of the TVET perpetrators 50 1 is boyfriend whereas 50 1 is unknown. Here the major perpetrators in the present institutions are instructors teachers 46 which comprise 66.7 4 are university instructors and 33.3 2 are secondary teachers. Conclusion and Recommendation- This research has investigated rape incident is series problem of our female student. It is affecting their life and education process. Almost half 49 of the sexually active female students revealed rape accident. Even 44 of the rape victims encountered more than one rape incident which extend up to six time per one victim. The very alarming condition is 36.5 of the sexually active students at initial enforced to be involved to sex by rape. Therefore in order to make free our female students from this series danger the MOE as well as the regional bureau of education should include in primary and secondary curriculum focusing on

  16. Eos and the Youth: A Case of Inverted Roles in Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipla, Anthi

    This article examines scenes of Eos pursuing/abducting youths on 5th-century Athenian vases. Eos, the personification of Dawn, is the only woman assuming the role of a pursuer in rape. The theme strangely becomes very popular with vase painters to a degree comparable to ephebes pursuing a woman. The iconography of the scenes is systematically analysed and evaluated. All theories explaining the popularity of the theme from its presumable use as a parable for death are considered. Eos is moreover compared to other winged figures in pursuit that are popular in the same period, especially Sphinx and Eros. Conversely, it is illustrated how Eos' pursuits of youths are thoroughly coined on the same model as ephebe rape scenes. These may have been so popular because they expressed prevalent social notions about how women, like animals,would need subduing/taming by the ephebe, future citizen hunters, before they could assume their appropriate place in society. With Eos the hunter becomes the prey of a wild woman, who has transgressed the control limits set by the social system. Eos is promoted as the ultimate model of what a woman should not be.

  17. Utility of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in suspected cases of tuberculosis lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a need for a rapid and cost-effective technique for reliable diagnosis of tubercular lymphadenopathy, particularly in low-resource setting. In this study, we have used various diagnostic techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR to diagnose clinically suspected cases of tubercular lymphadenopathy and compared the results to see which of the techniques are more sensitive, specific, and cost-effective. Materials and Methods: All patients having swelling in the neck, axillary, and inguinal regions were recruited for the study. Sputum for acid-fast Bacillus (AFB, fine-needle aspiration cytology, excision biopsy, DNA-PCR, AFB smear of the same material was done as per standard protocol. Results: 32% patients have granulomas with necrosis, whereas 30% have acute suppurative lesions and 24% and 14% patients were having only granulomas and only necrosis, respectively. A significant difference was observed between the PCR-negative and positive cases with respect to their cytomorphologic features. Positive AFB and tuberculosis-PCR (TB-PCR results were significantly more common in the cases with chronic granulomatous inflammation in comparison to the cases showing chronic inflammation only. Sensitivity and specificity of TB-PCR were found to be 71.4% and 28.4%, respectively. Conclusion: PCR is a sensitive and rapid technique in the demonstration of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It should be done in clinically suspected patients of tuberculous lymphadenopathy when their AFB stain is even negative.

  18. A Typology of Sex Offending Against Minors: An Empirical Study of Rape and Molestation Cases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bin; Hu, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Efforts to classify sexual offending and offenders continued to evolve over the years based on criteria such as offender and victim characteristics, offender-victim relationships, the nature of sexual offenses, and other situational factors. This current study draws up a typology of sexual offending against minors based on 436 adjudicated rape and child molestation cases in China. Specifically, sexual offending against minors is classified into six major categories, including opportunistic offenses, serial offenses, dating couple offenses, educator abuses, gang/party offenses, and incest offenses. Based on this empirical typology, a number of crime prevention measures are suggested. These suggestions aim at involving multiple players and institutions to focus on education, target hardening, and crime investigation. This study makes a significant contribution to comparative studies in this field, and the results could be potentially applied in other cultures.

  19. Sporotrichosis in Iran: A mini review of reported cases in patients suspected to cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram mahmoudi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic subcutaneous fungal infection with global distribution. It is a rare fungal infection with nine reported cases in Iran, including eight humans and one animal, within the past 30 years. Among the human cases, seven were of the fixed cutaneous type of sporotrichosis and one had sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous. The reported patients were within the age range of 23-60 years, and six of them were female. The most frequent sites of infection were forearms and hands, as well as the face and legs. In addition, the majority of the cases had previously been suspected of leishmaniasis and received treatment. Sporotrichosis is not a well-known condition in Iran and is often misdiagnosed and erroneously treated for other cutaneous parasitic or bacterial infections with similar clinical manifestations. Therefore, sporotrichosis should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of nodular-ulcerative skin lesions.

  20. [Clinical forensic examination findings and legal outcome in cases of suspected physical child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Meyer, Yvonne; Schroeder, Günter; Günther, Detlef; Debertin, Anette Solveig

    2011-01-01

    Clinical forensic examinations performed at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School between 1999 and 2008 in cases of suspected physical abuse of children were analyzed retrospectively with special emphasis on the legal consequences. Altogether, 192 children (85 girls, 107 boys) with a median age of 4.4 years were examined. In 47 cases (24.5 %), the clinical forensic examination findings were interpreted as accidental injuries, birth traumas or unspecific findings. 29 victims (20.0 %) had suffered a shaken baby syndrome. Only part of the presented cases ended with conviction, which was more likely if the victims were aged between 7 and 11 years. Prison terms of 2 years and more were imposed only if the child suffered potentially or acute life-threatening injuries or if additional anogenital lesions were diagnosed indicating sexual child abuse.

  1. Suspected resistance of MDT-MB in Multibacillary Leprosy of Hansen's disease: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudo Irawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to multidrug therapy (MDT is one of the complications in the treatment of Hansen’s disease/Morbus Hansen (MH. There are two types of resistancy, which are primary and secondary. MDT-multibacillary (MB resistance must be suspected when no clinical improvement and the acid-fast bacilli (AFB index is not reduced after 12 months of therapy. A 28-year-old woman with paresthesia on her face, arms and legs since 2.5 years ago, accompanied by thickening of the right posterior tibial nerve. The AFB examination showed a bacteriological index (BI of 15/6 and morphological index (MI of 0.50%. The second case, a 42-year-old man came with paresthetic lesions on his face, chest, back, both arms and legs since 2 years ago, accompanied by thickening of ulnar and lateral peroneal nerve. The BI was 12/5 and the MI was 0.40%. Both patients were diagnosed with borderline lepromatous type of MH and received MDT-MB for 12 months. Diagnosis of suspected resistance was established because no clinical improvement or any significant decrease of AFB index after completing the MDT treatment. The patients had secondary resistance after polymerase chain reaction evaluation showed that they were still rifampicin-sensitive. There was clinical improvement and significant decrease in FAB index after the patients continued the MDT-MB treatment with 600 mg additional rifampicin. The diagnosis of bacterial resistance should be made based on clinical evaluation before completion of treatment. Based on the two case reports, the resistance suspected may be secondary. Treatment using additional regimen can be initiated once the resistance has been proven.

  2. Suspected idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation presenting as immunoglobulin G4-related disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Noriko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation is a rare and ill-defined heterogeneous entity, and a distinct subset of orbital inflammation. Recently, attention has been focused on immunoglobulin G4-related disease complicated with fibrotic changes in some other organs with high serum immunoglobulin G4 levels. This report presents a case of suspected idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation complicated with high serum immunoglobulin G4 levels. Case presentation An 82-year-old Japanese woman had a 30-year history of chronic thyroiditis. She experienced right ptosis and eyelid swelling. These symptoms gradually developed over five years. The clinical and radiographic findings suggested that our patient had idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation. We were unable to obtain our patient's consent to perform a biopsy. While the serum immunoglobulin G level was within the normal limits, the serum immunoglobulin G4 level was significantly elevated. The serum immunoglobulin G4 levels decreased after the administration of oral prednisolone at a daily dose of 20 mg. In addition, the swelling and ptosis of the right upper eyelid disappeared gradually after four weeks. Our patient was then suspected to have idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation complicated with immunoglobulin G4-related disease and chronic thyroiditis. Conclusion An orbital pseudotumor of this type is indicative of idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation immunoglobulin G4-related disease. Immunoglobulin G4 may thus be considered a subclass of immunoglobulin G when the serum immunoglobulin G level is within normal limits.

  3. Relevance of medical reports in criminal investigations of cases of suspected child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, Katharina; Greif, Dominik; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2017-07-01

    If a case of physical child abuse is suspected in Germany, the general feeling is often that "it does not matter whether you make a report or not" because, generally, no conviction is made anyway. This study investigates the juridical analysis of complaint cases of physical child abuse [criminal complaint parag. 225 StGB (German penal code) with filial victim]. It focuses on the doctor's role and the impact of their practice in relation to a later conviction. It is based on the analysis of 302 files of the enquiry from 2004-2009 from the department of public prosecution in Cologne, Germany. Besides general epidemiological data on the reporting person, the affected child and the presumed offender, the documents were reassessed for the relevance of medical reports for successful convictions. Only 7% (n = 21) of 302 complaints led to a conviction. In 38.1% (n = 8) of those cases, a medical report was mentioned as a piece of evidence, and just in two cases a (legal) medical report was quoted and mentioned as relevant for the conviction. 50% of the complaint cases with legal medical expertise led to a trial. In contrast, only 30.2% with a common medical report and 7.3% without a report led to a trial. The results show how a medical report existed in only a few cases. In those cases, the rate of performed trials was higher than for those without a medical report, but the report played a minor part when reasoning a verdict.

  4. Retrospective case series of suspected intentional paraquat poisonings: diagnostic findings and risk factors for death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Carrie M; DeBess, Emilio E; Scott, Marilyn; Stone, David

    2004-12-01

    We investigated a cluster of canine poisonings around the 4th of July weekend in 2003 in dogs that visited a local park. Medical records review and personal interviews were performed on 17 suspect cases; 14 dogs met the case definition criteria. The 13/14 dogs were allowed off-leash at some point during their visit to the park; 7 owners noted their dog had either eaten something at the park or vomited up meat-like material within 1 h after their walk. Eleven of the 14 dogs died or were euthanized. Urine samples from 4 dogs were positive for trace amounts of paraquat and 1 vomitus sample tested positive. Tachypnea was a significant risk factor for death of the dogs. Oral or gastrointestinal ulcers were significantly correlated with recovery.

  5. The prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases in Washington state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper, Fiona J; Peterson, Brianna L

    2014-10-01

    In December 2012, the possession and private use of limited quantities of marijuana and marijuana products became legal in the state of Washington. At the same time, the state's driving under the influence statutes were amended to include a per se level of 5 ng/mL delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood for drivers aged 21 years and older. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of marijuana legalization on the prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases. The prevalence of both active THC and its metabolite carboxy-THC detected in such cases pre-legalization was compared with the prevalence post-legalization. In 2009-2012, the average yearly percentage of cases positive for THC and carboxy-THC was 19.1% (range: 18.2-20.2%) and 27.9% (range: 26.3-28.6%), respectively. In 2013, the percentages had significantly increased to 24.9 and 40.0%, respectively (P 5 ng/mL over the 5-year period. The prevalence of alcohol and the majority of other drugs in this same population of suspected impaired drivers submitted for testing did not change during this same 5-year period-marijuana was the only drug to show such an increase in frequency. Further, this observed increase remained after the data had been normalized to account for changes in laboratory testing procedures that occurred during this time period. Future studies need be conducted to ascertain whether the observed increase has had any effect on the incidence of crashes, serious injuries and/or traffic fatalities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Clinical and laboratory profile of Zika virus infection in dengue suspected patients: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernanda Estofolete, Cássia; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Parreira, Ricardo; Esteves, Aida; Hardman, Lucas; Greque, Gilmar Valdir; Rahal, Paula; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda

    2016-08-01

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arthropod-borne virus related to the dengue virus (DENV), and shows a similar clinical profile as other arboviral diseases, such as dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Historically, ZIKV has been associated with sporadic cases of human infection, but is now responsible for outbreaks worldwide. In Brazil, cases have been reported since 2015, with some cases causing severe disease. To identify clinical symptoms of Zika in patients in Dengue suspected patients. Description of a series of cases, wherein we analyzed 100 clinical samples collected from patients who exhibited acute febrile disease for ≤5days, from January to February 2016. In this study, we report 13 cases of ZIKV infection in adults presenting dengue-like symptoms in a DENV endemic area. All patients presented with fever, with myalgia being the second most frequently observed symptom. Two patients had rashes, but none of them had conjunctivitis. Other less frequent manifestations included headache, arthralgia, diarrhea, and nausea. The co-circulation of ZIKV and DENV is a serious public health concern, since it represents both a clinical and diagnostic challenge in endemic areas, as well as in the field of travel medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Single and multiple perpetrator rape in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article offers an analysis of 1 886 rape dockets opened at 70 police stations in Gauteng Province in 2003. Multiple perpetrator rape ('gang rape') constituted 16% of all cases. Most of these incidents started when the victim was outdoors, either alone or accompanied, and occurred in the open or in a public space.

  8. MR findings in cases of suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiris, M.G.; Lilleaas, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging of the hip in patients with a clinically suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck in cases where conventional plain films show negative or equivocal findings. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven such patients were prospectively examined by MR imaging with a 1.0 T unit, within 24 hours of admittance to hospital. A coronal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence (n=27), and a coronal STIR sequence (n=25) or a coronal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo fast saturation sequence (n=2) were used. The evaluations were made by 2 radiologists with experience in musculoskeletal radiology. Results: There were 6 patients with a petrochanteric fracture, 2 without and 4 with slight displacement. Five patients had an impacted fracture of the femoral neck, and 3 had a fracture of the superior pubic bone. Of 2 patients with advanced arthrosis, i had an impacted femoral neck fracture and the other a nondisplaced intertrochanteric fracture. There was 1 patient who had sustained a nondisplaced acetabular fracture with increased joint fluid and muscle contusions. Three patients had muscle contusions only. Two patients had bone marrow contusions only, while 2 others with advanced coxarthrosis had increased joint fluid only. Three patients showed normal findings. Our findings led to emergency surgery in 13 cases, and conservative measures directed to the specific MR findings in 14 patients. Conclusion: MR imaging should be the first modality of choice in examining patients with a clinically suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck where conventional films show negative or equivocal findings. (orig.)

  9. MR findings in cases of suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiris, M.G.; Lilleaas, F.G. [Aker Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR imaging of the hip in patients with a clinically suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck in cases where conventional plain films show negative or equivocal findings. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven such patients were prospectively examined by MR imaging with a 1.0 T unit, within 24 hours of admittance to hospital. A coronal T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence (n=27), and a coronal STIR sequence (n=25) or a coronal T2-weighted turbo spin-echo fast saturation sequence (n=2) were used. The evaluations were made by 2 radiologists with experience in musculoskeletal radiology. Results: There were 6 patients with a petrochanteric fracture, 2 without and 4 with slight displacement. Five patients had an impacted fracture of the femoral neck, and 3 had a fracture of the superior pubic bone. Of 2 patients with advanced arthrosis, i had an impacted femoral neck fracture and the other a nondisplaced intertrochanteric fracture. There was 1 patient who had sustained a nondisplaced acetabular fracture with increased joint fluid and muscle contusions. Three patients had muscle contusions only. Two patients had bone marrow contusions only, while 2 others with advanced coxarthrosis had increased joint fluid only. Three patients showed normal findings. Our findings led to emergency surgery in 13 cases, and conservative measures directed to the specific MR findings in 14 patients. Conclusion: MR imaging should be the first modality of choice in examining patients with a clinically suspected impacted fracture of the femoral neck where conventional films show negative or equivocal findings. (orig.).

  10. [A case of Asperger's disorder with catatonia originally suspected of being catatonic schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shinnosuke; Yamaga, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of an adolescent male who presented with mutism, immobility, catalepsy, and mannerisms. The patient was admitted to our hospital with suspected catatonic schizophrenia; however, he was subsequently diagnosed with catatonia due to Asperger's disorder. The patient was a 16-year-old male. More than six months before presentation, his grandfather displayed bizarre and violent behavior. Subsequently, he began to experience catatonia, which eventually led to hospitalization. Treatment with diazepam improved his condition and, as no causal disorders other than Asperger's disorder were identified, he was diagnosed with catatonia. The patient had experienced persistent abuse by his mother during childhood; therefore, it is important to consider reactive attachment disorder (DSM-IV-TR) as a differential diagnosis. Among child and adolescent psychiatrists, catatonia is considered to occur at a high frequency among patients with autistic spectrum disorders. In contrast, general psychiatrists tend to consider catatonia as related to schizophrenia, which may be the reason why the diagnosis of our patient was difficult. We assume that the pathogenesis of catatonia in this case was death mimicry due to the subjective perception of a life-threatening situation. For the treatment of catatonia with autistic spectrum disorders, the efficacy of benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy has been established. When a patient with an autistic spectrum disorder presents with motor functional disturbances, it is important to consider these disturbances as catatonia. Furthermore, it is also important to begin the treatment mentioned above even in the presence of definite psychogenic or situational factors.

  11. A suspected case of rocuronium-sugammadex complex-induced anaphylactic shock after cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Masakazu; Deguchi, Miki; Ninomiya, Kiichiro; Kurasako, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Mutsuko

    2017-02-01

    An anaphylactic reaction during a cesarean section occurs rarely, and rocuronium is thought to be one of the common agents causing perioperative anaphylaxis. Here we report an anaphylactic shock after cesarean section that is suggested to be induced by the rocuronium-sugammadex complex. A 36-year-old primigravida underwent an elective cesarean section under general anesthesia due to placenta previa. While the operation was completed uneventfully, she developed anaphylactic shock following sugammadex administration. She was successfully managed with rapid treatments. Serum tryptase level was significantly elevated. Although sugammadex was first suspected to be the causative agent, the result of intradermal skin tests with sugammadex were negative. Surprisingly, a subsequent intradermal test with undiluted rocuronium caused the patient to fall into a state of shock. Furthermore, a later skin-prick test with pre-mixed rocuronium-sugammadex complex also revealed a strong positive reaction, and a test with only rocuronium showed negative. We finally concluded that the rocuronium-sugammadex complex is the causative agent in this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting anaphylaxis caused by the rocuronium-sugammadex complex. This case highlights the importance of appropriate examinations to determinate the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis in order to establish risk reduction strategies.

  12. Outcome of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in 100 suspected cases of infectious uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel Sitaula, Ranju; Janani, M K; Madhavan, H N; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2018-01-10

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is an important tool in the diagnosis of infectious uveitis. A retrospective, interventional study of PCR analysis of ocular fluid in suspected infectious uveitis cases between January 2014 to July 2016 was done. Nested, real-time and broad range PCR was performed for detection of the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes virus family, Chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, fungus, eubacterium and propionibacterium acne. Total of 100 cases included, mean age was 39.2 ± 15.4 years. Uveitis was unilateral in 82% and granulomatous in 40%. Mean visual acuity at the initial visit and final visit was 0.73 logMar and 0.63 logMar respectively. PCR analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis in 70.1% patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PCR analysis was 90.2%, 93.9%, 93.9% and 90.2% respectively. The quantitative value of real-time M. tb. Positive PCR ranged from 32c/ml to 2722 c/ml. PCR assay is an accurate technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose the DNA genome in infectious uveitis.

  13. Management of suspected ectopic pregnancy. Impact of new diagnostic tools in 686 consecutive cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankum, W. M.; Hajenius, P. J.; Schrevel, L. S.; van der Veen, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of new diagnostic tools on the use of laparoscopy on patients with suspected ectopic pregnancy (EP). STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of 686 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopy or laparotomy for suspected EP from 1983 to 1995 at the Academic Medical Center,

  14. Suspected cases of intracontinental Burkholderia pseudomallei sequence type homoplasy resolved using whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ammar; Sarovich, Derek S; Harris, Tegan M; Kaestli, Mirjam; McRobb, Evan; Mayo, Mark; Currie, Bart J; Price, Erin P

    2017-11-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative environmental bacterium that causes melioidosis, a disease of high mortality in humans and animals. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is a popular and portable genotyping method that has been used extensively to characterise the genetic diversity of B. pseudomallei populations. MLST has been central to our understanding of the underlying phylogeographical signal present in the B. pseudomallei genome, revealing distinct populations on both the intra- and the inter-continental level. However, due to its high recombination rate, it is possible for B. pseudomallei isolates to share the same multilocus sequence type (ST) despite being genetically and geographically distinct, with two cases of 'ST homoplasy' recently reported between Cambodian and Australian B. pseudomallei isolates. This phenomenon can dramatically confound conclusions about melioidosis transmission patterns and source attribution, a critical issue for bacteria such as B. pseudomallei that are of concern due to their potential for use as bioweapons. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing to identify the first reported instances of intracontinental ST homoplasy, which involved ST-722 and ST-804 B. pseudomallei isolates separated by large geographical distances. In contrast, a third suspected homoplasy case was shown to be a true long-range (460 km) dispersal event between a remote Australian island and the Australian mainland. Our results show that, whilst a highly useful and portable method, MLST can occasionally lead to erroneous conclusions about isolate origin and disease attribution. In cases where a shared ST is identified between geographically distant locales, whole-genome sequencing should be used to resolve strain origin.

  15. Rape Myths, Rape Scripts, and Common Rape Experiences of College Women: Differences in Perceptions of Women Who Have Been Raped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Badke, Caitlyn

    2016-03-01

    Rape is prevalent at colleges. Although research suggests commonalities across many college women's rape experiences (e.g., perpetrators using multiple coercive strategies), vignettes used to assess rape perceptions often reflect false beliefs. Two studies varying a perpetrator's coercive tactics examine rape perceptions using vignettes reflecting rape myths, rape scripts, or many college women's common rape experiences. Participants perceive a woman who was raped more positively in vignettes reflecting common rape experiences versus those reflecting rape myths or scripts. Theoretical, educational, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia--a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Dohn, Birthe

    2002-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To investigate the clinical importance of a positive P...... Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted....

  17. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia – a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, JS; Dohn, G

    2002-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To investigate the clinical importance of a positive P...... Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted....

  18. Rape and Seduction Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kathryn M.

    1988-01-01

    College students (N=18) wrote scripts about "typical" rape and "typical" seduction. Scripts were coded on 20 dimensions. Results showed that rape and seduction scripts were very different. Most subjects described blitz rape in which woman outdoors was attacked by male stranger. Seductions described were usually indoors and…

  19. Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Rape KidsHealth / For Teens / Rape What's in this article? What Should I Do? ... Dealing With Feelings Print en español Las violaciones Rape, sometimes also called sexual assault, can happen to ...

  20. Forensic application of phylogenetic analyses - Exploration of suspected HIV-1 transmission case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siljic, Marina; Salemovic, Dubravka; Cirkovic, Valentina; Pesic-Pavlovic, Ivana; Ranin, Jovan; Todorovic, Marija; Nikolic, Slobodan; Jevtovic, Djordje; Stanojevic, Maja

    2017-03-01

    inherent limitations of the applied methods, we cannot unambiguously prove that HIV-1 transmission occurred directly between two individuals. Further exploration of the known and suspected transmission cases is needed in order to define methodologies and establish their reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anesthetic management in patients suspected of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease -A case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Chi Bum; Choi, Young Sil; Park, Eun Young; Chang, Dong Jin; Lee, Soo Kyung; Choi, Hyun; Moon, Hyun Soo

    2011-09-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in which accumulation of the pathogenic prion protein induces neuronal damage and results in distinct pathologic features. This abnormal prion is an infectious protein and resistant to methods of sterilization currently being used. Therefore, management of definite, or suspected CJD patients requires additional precautions. We report our experience of a patient who had undergone brain biopsy for suspected of CJD. The patient was confirmed to have sporadic CJD.

  2. Detailed Analysis of Rabies Suspect Contact Cases After Emergency Service Application: Dumlupinar University Faculty of Medicine Evliya Celebi Hospital Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Kadioglu

    2017-12-01

    Results: The mean age of the cases was 29.5 ± 0.65 years, 566 males, 296 females, 772 males and 90 females from rural areas. It was determined that 350 animals were owned, and 512 animals were not owned. Of the animal bites, 492 were dogs, 340 were cats, 10 were mice, 9 were cows and 4 were horse bites. 399 cases were bite, 273 cases were scratching, 166 cases were biting and scratching, 16 cases were open wound contact and 9 cases were taken for prophylactic vaccination program for other reasons. Conclusion: We have shown that rape suspicious contacts are a part of our work and in this context we remain a serious public health problem for our country. After the prophylaxis done, there was no rabies infection at the time when we were studying in our region. This shows that the follow-up and prophyllines are appropriate. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(4.000: 323-328

  3. 25-gauge transconjunctival diagnostic vitrectomy in suspected cases of intraocular lymphoma: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Soheilian, Masoud; Hosseini, Sayed Bagher; Azari, Amir A

    2014-01-01

    To report the cytology results of 25-gauge transconjunctival (25G-TSV) diagnostic vitrectomy in cases suspicious for intraocular lymphoma (IOL), and compare the results to those reported in the literature. Clinical and cytopathological records of 18 vitreous biopsy specimens obtained via 25G-TSV diagnostic vitrectomy in 12 patients suspicious for IOL were reviewed retrospectively. A review of the literature in regards to the diagnostic yields of vitreous specimens obtained via 25-gauge and 20-gauge diagnostic vitrectomy in suspected cases of IOL was performed. Eighteen eyes from 12 patients with clinical suspicion of IOL underwent diagnostic 25G-TSV. The cytopathological investigations demonstrated IOL in 15 eyes (83.3%). Vitreous analysis was non-diagnostic in 3 eyes (16.7%). Twenty-five-gauge diagnostic vitrectomy yields adequate sample for cytological evaluation of the vitreous in cases suspicious for IOL. The diagnostic results of the 25G-TSV in the current study are superior to those reported for 20-gauge vitrectomy but equivalent to those reported for 25G-TSV in the published literature.

  4. Multiple perpetrator rape among girls evaluated at a hospital-based child advocacy center: seven years of reviewed cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinburgh, Laurel; Pape-Blabolil, Julie; Harpin, Scott B; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe contextual events, abuse experiences, and disclosure processes of adolescents who presented to a hospital-based Child Advocacy Center for medical evaluation and evidentiary collection as indicated after experiencing multiple perpetrator rape during a single event (n=32) and to compare these findings to a group of single perpetrator sexual assaults (n=534). This study used a retrospective mixed-methods design with in-depth, forensic interviews and complete physical examinations of gang-raped adolescents. Patients ranged from 12 to 17 years (M=14 years). Girls who experienced multiple perpetrator rape during a single event were more likely to have run away, to have drunk alcohol in the past month, and to have participated in binge drinking in the past 2 weeks. Acute presentation of these victims were rare but 30% had hymenal transections and 38% had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Forensic interviews revealed alcohol was a common weapon used by offenders, and its use resulted in victims experiencing difficulty in remembering and reporting details for police investigation or physical and mental health care. Most victims were raped at parties they attended with people they thought they could trust, and they felt let down by witnesses who could have helped but did not intervene. Although relatively rare, multiple perpetrator rape during a single event is a type of severe sexual assault experience and has significant risks for deleterious health outcomes. These victims require health care by trained providers to diagnose physical findings, treat STIs, screen for trauma, and support victims. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Real norms, virtual cases: a rationalist, casuistic account of virtual rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soraker, Johnny; Hinman, L.; Brey, Philip A.E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose and consider a rationalist account of the effects of virtual experiences, such as engaging in simulated acts of violence in video games. This descriptive account will be based on sound principles for case-based reasoning, or what I will refer to as

  6. Frequency of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by computed skull tomography in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Edson Paz da [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas; Diefenthaeler, Ana Paula [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia e Bioquimica; Palma, Jose Knoll [Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2000-02-01

    Due to the lack of studies about neurocysticercosis in the South of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to determine the percentage cases of neurocysticercosis in computed tomography diagnoses in Santa Maria, RS, from January 1997 to December 1998. Of 6300 computed tomographs (CT) of the skull performed at the private Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, 80, i.e. 1.27% were suspected of neurocysticercosis. Fifty were women (62.5%) and 30 were men (37.5). The most frequent radiological manifestation indicating neurocysticercosis was the presence of calcifications (isolated or associated), with a 95% rate (76 cases), while the presence of hypodense lesions reached a 5% rate (4 cases). After routine analysis, each CT was evaluated again and the suspected cases were confirmed. The percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by CT in the present study carried out in santa Maria was considered low (1.27%). This can be explained by the fact that tomography is not accessible to the economically underprivileged population of Santa Maria. We hope that the present study can alert the population and the professionals to the fact neurocysticercosis is a more frequent disease than indicated by the few diagnoses made. (author)

  7. Dealing with rape in a new political landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Baroness Vivien

    2012-01-01

    Rape is controversial and constructing rape policy is complicated. Most victims, men and women, are raped by someone they know. The court case usually hangs on whether or not the complainant consented to the act. The defence feels free to portray the complainant in a negative light making the trial an ordeal. Some complainants decide it is one ordeal too many and withdraw from the process. Sustained criticism of the handling of rape cases over many years led to substantial improvements, with specially trained police officers, prosecutors and judges, and more defendants being convicted. Yet providing justice to rape victims requires more than an effective criminal justice response. It also requires recognition that victims are entitled to the support of the state. They should be treated with respect regardless of whether the case goes to trial or not. The rate of convictions for rape is not the only, or even the most important measure of a good policy.

  8. Police officers' collaboration with rape victim advocates: barriers and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Secondary victimization may occur when rape victims make police reports. This can compromise the quality of official statements and jeopardize criminal cases. Rape reporters receive better treatment by police officers when advocates are involved and best practice police work includes such collaboration. Studies of advocates have described tension, role confusion, and poor communication with police officers. Many variables, including rape myth acceptance (RMA) and training on sexual assault dynamics, may affect officers' collaboration with advocates. There were 429 police officers who responded to a survey measuring their victim interviewing skill, formal training about rape, years on the job, number of victims known personally, number of recent rape cases, RMA, and collaboration with advocates. Results suggest that officers' interviewing skill, years on the job, and specific training are related to collaboration with victim advocates on rape cases. Professional, rather than personal, variables were most predictive of collaboration. Implications for officer selection and training are explored.

  9. Hypocholesterolemia and nonregenerative, suspected immune-mediated, anemia: Report of 3 canine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rachel; Viviano, Katrina R

    2017-10-01

    This report describes hypocholesterolemia in 3 dogs with nonregenerative, suspected immune-mediated anemias. Common causes of hypocholesterolemia were ruled out, raising suspicion for a mechanistic link between anemia and hypocholesterolemia in dogs. As observed in humans with concurrent anemia and hypocholesterolemia, cholesterol concentrations increased to within the reference interval once the dogs' anemia resolved.

  10. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims...... shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD diagnosis based solely on the three core symptom clusters was best identified by a subclinical ASD diagnosis based on all ASD criteria except dissociation. However, a full PTSD diagnosis including the A2 and F criteria was best identified by classifying...... victims according to a full ASD diagnosis. Regardless of whether cases were classified according to full PTSD status or according to meeting the criteria for the three PTSD core symptom clusters, the classification was correct only in approximately two thirds of the cases. A regression analysis based...

  11. Autochthonous Chagas disease in the southern United States: A case report of suspected residential and military exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N; Woc-Colburn, L; Gunter, S M; Gorchakov, R; Murray, K O; Rossmann, S; Garcia, M N

    2017-09-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic infection that can result in a progressive dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we present the epidemiologic details of a suspected locally acquired transmission case originating from the southern United States. This is the first published report of Chagas disease in a young, healthy United States veteran with repeat triatomine exposures in Arizona. Military personnel and Arizona residents should be aware of their Chagas disease transmission risks. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Altered intrauterine ultrasound, fetal head circumference growth and neonatal outcomes among suspected cases of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Alex Sandro Rolland; Souza,Ariani Impieri de; Faquin,Silvia de Lourdes Loreto; Santos Neto,Orlando Gomes dos; Honorato,Emanuele; Mattos,Alice Góes Liberato; Holanda,Simone Cristina; Figueiroa,José Natal; Schettini,Juliana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to describe altered intrauterine ultrasound, analyze fetal head circumference (HC) growth and neonates' outcomes among presumed cases of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil. Methods: 30 women were included in the study with suspected history of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal's brain altered on ultrasound diagnosis. Sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics, prenatal altered ultrasounds, HC and other perinatal outcomes have been described. The...

  13. Factors associated with multidisciplinary case conference outcomes in children admitted to a regional hospital in Hong Kong with suspected child abuse: a retrospective case series with internal comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, W C; Fung, G Pg; Cheung, P Ch

    2017-10-01

    In all cases of suspected child abuse, accurate risk assessment is vital to guide further management. This study examined the relationship between risk factors in a risk assessment matrix and child abuse case conference outcomes. Records of all children hospitalised at United Christian Hospital in Hong Kong for suspected child abuse from January 2012 to December 2014 were reviewed. Outcomes of the hospital abuse work-up as concluded in the Multi-Disciplinary Case Conference were categorised as 'established', 'high risk', or 'not established'. All cases of 'established' and 'high risk' were included in the positive case conference outcome group and all cases of 'not established' formed the comparison group. On the other hand, using the Risk Assessment Matrix developed by the California State University, Fresno in 1990, each case was allotted a matrix score of low, intermediate, or high risk in each of 15 matrix domains, and an aggregate matrix score was derived. The effect of individual matrix domain on case conference outcome was analysed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to examine the relationship between case conference outcome and aggregate matrix score. In this study, 265 children suspected of being abused were included, with 198 in the positive case conference outcome group and 67 in the comparison group. Three matrix domains (severity and frequency of abuse, location of injuries, and strength of family support systems) were significantly associated with case conference outcome. An aggregate cut-off score of 23 yielded a sensitivity of 91.4% and specificity of 38.2% in relation to outcome of abuse categorisation. Risk assessment should be performed when handling suspected child abuse cases. A high aggregate score should arouse suspicion in all disciplines managing child abuse cases.

  14. Clinical problems of colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer cases with unknown cause of tumor mismatch repair deficiency (suspected Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchanan DD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel D Buchanan,1,2 Christophe Rosty,1,3,4 Mark Clendenning,1 Amanda B Spurdle,5 Aung Ko Win2 1Oncogenomics Group, Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 2Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 3Envoi Specialist Pathologists, Herston, QLD, Australia; 4School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, Australia; 5Molecular Cancer Epidemiology Laboratory, Genetics and Computational Biology Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: Carriers of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes have a high risk of developing numerous different cancers, predominantly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (known as Lynch syndrome. MMR gene mutation carriers develop tumors with MMR deficiency identified by tumor microsatellite instability or immunohistochemical loss of MMR protein expression. Tumor MMR deficiency is used to identify individuals most likely to carry an MMR gene mutation. However, MMR deficiency can also result from somatic inactivation, most commonly methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. As tumor MMR testing of all incident colorectal and endometrial cancers (universal screening is becoming increasingly adopted, a growing clinical problem is emerging for individuals who have tumors that show MMR deficiency who are subsequently found not to carry an MMR gene mutation after genetic testing using the current diagnostic approaches (Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and who also show no evidence of MLH1 methylation. The inability to determine the underlying cause of tumor MMR deficiency in these "Lynch-like" or "suspected Lynch syndrome" cases has significant implications on the clinical management of these individuals and their relatives. When the

  15. One-year prospective study of cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction managed by urban and rural general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A W; McCafferty, D; Dowling, J; Bury, G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of the general practitioner in the management of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction is important and specific. It has been recommended that eligible patients should receive thrombolysis within 90 minutes of alerting medical or ambulance services. The administration of prehospital thrombolysis by general practitioners is controversial. Most research into the management of acute myocardial infarction has been hospital based and has not explored differences between urban and rural general practice. AIM: In 1993-94 a one-year prospective survey was undertaken of samples of urban and rural general practitioners to examine their management of cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction and to determine whether differences in management existed between the two settings. METHOD: General practitioners were recruited through the continuing medical education faculty network of the Irish College of General Practitioners. Participating general practitioners completed a report form for cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction. Six-week follow-up forms were also completed. RESULTS: A total of 113 general practitioners (54 urban and 59 rural) participated in the study. A total of 57 general practitioners contributed 195 cases, 49 from urban and 146 from rural areas. The mean number of cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction per participant for urban and rural doctors was 0.9 and 2.5, respectively. Median delay time from onset of symptoms to contacting the general practitioner was 90 minutes for both urban and rural patients. Median general practitioner response times for urban and rural doctors were 10 and 15 minutes, respectively. Median estimated journey times from location of the patient to hospital for urban and rural patients were 10 and 40 minutes, respectively (P<0.001). Rural doctors were more likely, in comparison with their urban counterparts, to administer aspirin (given to 40% of patients versus 16%, P<0.01) but

  16. Should there be a standardised approach to the diagnostic workup of suspected adult encephalitis? a case series from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams David

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical diagnosis of encephalitis is often difficult and identification of a causative organism is infrequent. The encephalitis syndrome may herald the emergence of novel pathogens with outbreak potential. Individual treatment and an effective public health response rely on identifying a specific pathogen. In Australia there have been no studies to try to improve the identification rate of encephalitis pathogens. This study aims to review the diagnostic assessment of adult suspected encephalitis cases. Methods A retrospective clinical audit was performed, of all adult encephalitis presentations between July 1998 and December 2007 to the three hospitals with adult neurological services in the Hunter New England area, northern New South Wales, Australia. Case notes were examined for evidence of relevant history taking, clinical features, physical examination, laboratory and neuroradiology investigations, and outcomes. Results A total of 74 cases were included in the case series. Amongst suspected encephalitis cases, presenting symptoms and signs included fever (77.0%, headache (62.1%, altered consciousness (63.5%, lethargy (32.4%, seizures (25.7%, focal neurological deficits (31.1% and photophobia (17.6%. The most common diagnostic laboratory test performed was cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis (n = 67, 91%. Herpes virus polymerase chain reaction (n = 53, 71.6% and cryptococcal antigen (n = 46, 62.2% were the antigenic tests most regularly performed on CSF. Neuroradiological procedures employed were computerized tomographic brain scanning (n = 68, 91.9% and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (n = 35, 47.3%. Thirty-five patients (47.3% had electroencephalograms. The treating clinicians suspected a specific causative organism in 14/74 cases (18.9%, of which nine (12.1% were confirmed by laboratory testing. Conclusions The diagnostic assessment of patients with suspected encephalitis was not standardised. Appropriate

  17. Rape on Campus: Postsecondary Institutions as Third Party Defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauserman, Nancy; Lansing, Paul

    1981-01-01

    The implications and impact of immunity doctrines and the burden of proof upon the issues of postsecondary institutions' liability for sexual assaults occurring on campus are examined. The legal history of rape and rape cases, notably those civil cases involving third party defendants, are considered. (MLW)

  18. Abdominal and pelvic CT in cases of suspected abuse: can clinical and laboratory findings guide its use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mohr, Bethany A. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Khalatbari, S.; Myles, Jamie D. [University of Michigan, Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Incomplete history and concern for occult injury in suspected child abuse occasionally results in CT screenings of the abdomen and pelvis. At our institution, we noted that these exams were infrequently positive. To identify clinical or laboratory criteria that may predict intra-abdominal injury and guide the use of abdominal and pelvic CT in this population. This retrospective review involved 68 children older than 36 months who had a CT of the abdomen/pelvis for suspected abuse. CT results and patient charts were reviewed for physical exam and historical and laboratory variables. CTs were positive in 16% of patients (11/68). Hypoactive/absent bowel sounds (P = 0.01, specificity = 94.7%) and AST and ALT values greater than twice normal (P = 0.004 and P = 0.003 respectively, NPV = 93.6%) were significantly associated with positive CTs. Multiple abnormal physical exam or laboratory findings were also significantly associated with positive CTs (P = 0.03 and P = 0.002 respectively, specificity = 91.3% and NPV = 93.6% respectively). CTs of the abdomen and pelvis are infrequently positive in cases of suspected abuse. To reduce radiation exposure, CTs should only be ordered if there are findings indicating that they may be positive. In our population, these findings include absent/hypoactive bowel sounds, LFTs greater than twice normal and {>=}2 abnormal labs or physical exam findings. (orig.)

  19. Abdominal and pelvic CT in cases of suspected abuse: can clinical and laboratory findings guide its use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Strouse, Peter J.; Mohr, Bethany A.; Khalatbari, S.; Myles, Jamie D.

    2011-01-01

    Incomplete history and concern for occult injury in suspected child abuse occasionally results in CT screenings of the abdomen and pelvis. At our institution, we noted that these exams were infrequently positive. To identify clinical or laboratory criteria that may predict intra-abdominal injury and guide the use of abdominal and pelvic CT in this population. This retrospective review involved 68 children older than 36 months who had a CT of the abdomen/pelvis for suspected abuse. CT results and patient charts were reviewed for physical exam and historical and laboratory variables. CTs were positive in 16% of patients (11/68). Hypoactive/absent bowel sounds (P = 0.01, specificity = 94.7%) and AST and ALT values greater than twice normal (P = 0.004 and P = 0.003 respectively, NPV = 93.6%) were significantly associated with positive CTs. Multiple abnormal physical exam or laboratory findings were also significantly associated with positive CTs (P = 0.03 and P = 0.002 respectively, specificity = 91.3% and NPV = 93.6% respectively). CTs of the abdomen and pelvis are infrequently positive in cases of suspected abuse. To reduce radiation exposure, CTs should only be ordered if there are findings indicating that they may be positive. In our population, these findings include absent/hypoactive bowel sounds, LFTs greater than twice normal and ≥2 abnormal labs or physical exam findings. (orig.)

  20. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Educators Search English Español Date Rape KidsHealth / For Teens / Date Rape What's in this article? What Is ...

  1. Explaining wartime rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan

    2004-05-01

    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  2. Geographical Clusters of Rape in the United States: 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raid; Nabors, Nicole S.; Nelson, Arlene M.; Saqlain, Murshid; Kulldorff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background While rape is a very serious crime and public health problem, no spatial mapping has been attempted for rape on the national scale. This paper addresses the three research questions: (1) Are reported rape cases randomly distributed across the USA, after being adjusted for population density and age, or are there geographical clusters of reported rape cases? (2) Are the geographical clusters of reported rapes still present after adjusting for differences in poverty levels? (3) Are there geographical clusters where the proportion of reported rape cases that lead to an arrest is exceptionally low or exceptionally high? Methods We studied the geographical variation of reported rape events (2003-2012) and rape arrests (2000-2012) in the 48 contiguous states of the USA. The disease Surveillance software SaTScan™ with its spatial scan statistic is used to evaluate the spatial variation in rapes. The spatial scan statistic has been widely used as a geographical surveillance tool for diseases, and we used it to identify geographical areas with clusters of reported rape and clusters of arrest rates for rape. Results The spatial scan statistic was used to identify geographical areas with exceptionally high rates of reported rape. The analyses were adjusted for age, and in secondary analyses, for both age and poverty level. We also identified geographical areas with either a low or a high proportion of reported rapes leading to an arrest. Conclusions We have identified geographical areas with exceptionally high (low) rates of reported rape. The geographical problem areas identified are prime candidates for more intensive preventive counseling and criminal prosecution efforts by public health, social service, and law enforcement agencies Geographical clusters of high rates of reported rape are prime areas in need of expanded implementation of preventive measures, such as changing attitudes in our society toward rape crimes, in addition to having the criminal

  3. Examination and treatment of a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo-Summers, Lynnette; Bloom, Nancy J

    2015-08-01

    Dancers are at risk for developing groin pain that is due to acetabular labral tears. Although surgical management of labral tears has been reported extensively, conservative management has been poorly described. This case report describes the examination, diagnosis, and treatment of groin pain in a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear. Treatment focused on decreasing anterior hip joint stresses and improving the precision of hip motion through correction of alignment and movement impairments noted during functional activities and dance. Successful outcomes included a reduction in pain and return to professional ballet dancing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors associated with late presentation of suspected tuberculosis cases to tuberculosis management facilities: The case in Dagoretti district, Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, Irene Wambui; Karanja, Simon Muturi; Wanzala, Peter; Omolo, Jared Odhiambo

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease accounting for a high number of deaths in the developing countries; its control can be effectively achieved if individuals with the disease receive adequate and timely treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with late presentation of suspects to tuberculosis management facilities in Dagoretti district in Nairobi, Kenya. Method A cross sectional study was conducted on patients aged 18 years and above attending TB clinics in Dagoretti District, Nairobi Kenya. A total of 426 TB suspects were interviewed. The study covered 8 clinics in Dagoretti district. Analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0 and Epi info version 6, this included Chi Square for Bivariate analysis and Binary Logistic Regression for Multivariate Analysis. Results Out of the 426 tuberculosis suspects, 248 (58.2%) suspects had delayed in seeking medical care. In Bivariate analysis male gender (P = 0.039, O.R = 1.51; 95% Confidence Interval; 1.00- 2.27), level of education (Primary class 5-8) (P = 0.001, O.R= 2.06; 95% C.I 1.34-3.19) and place of first medical care (drug store) (P= 0.013, O.R = 1.63; 95% C.I 1.09-2.46) were all significantly associated with late presentation. After multivariate logistic regression, gender (P = 0,019, OR = 1.6), level of education (p = 0.029, OR = 1.26) and place of first medical care (P= 0.01 OR = 1.27), were found to be significantly associated with late presentation. Conclusion This study shows that age, level of education and place of first medical care are the factors associated with late presentation of suspects to tuberculosis management facilities. PMID:23077714

  5. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  6. Completeness of published case reports on suspected adverse drug reactions: evaluation of 100 reports from a company safety database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impicciatore, Piero; Mucci, Massimiliano

    2010-09-01

    Case reports of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are common in the biomedical literature. Standards for authors and editors for writing, submitting and publishing ADR case reports have been empirically established since the 1980s; however, these recommendations have not been widely disseminated or incorporated into practice. Comprehensive and standardized guidelines on good publication practice have recently been proposed. No study has been performed so far to assess the adherence of published ADR case reports to these guidelines. To describe the current situation with regards to the reliability and completeness of published ADR case reports. A random sample of 100 single ADR case reports published between 2005 and 2008 (25 for each year) was retrieved from Pfizer's pharmacovigilance database. Reliability and completeness were assessed by comparing the relevant information contained in the retrieved ADR case reports against the recommendations prescribed by the guidelines. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) were undertaken. The patient's medical history relevant to the ADR was reported in 92% of the case reports. Concerning the suspected drug, 11% of the reports included the proprietary name; duration, dosage, route and formulation were reported in 87%, 85%, 37% and 21% of the reports, respectively. Information on concomitant therapies was included in 71% of the reports. The description of the ADR contained details on management (99%), time-course (97%) and diagnostic tests (95%), while final outcome and seriousness were reported in 73% and 52% of the reports, respectively. A discussion on the possible mechanism for the ADR was present in 70% of the case reports. The possible implications for clinical practice of the reported drug-event association were described in 75% of the cases. Causality assessment was reported in 81%, and rating scales to support the causal link were used in 20% of

  7. Evaluation of continuing education of family health strategy teams for the early identification of suspected cases of cancer in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Maria Aranha Magalhaes; Magluta, Cynthia; Gomes Junior, Saint Clair

    2017-09-07

    This study evaluated the influence of continuing education of family health strategy teams by the Ronald McDonald Institute program on the early diagnosis of cancer in children and adolescents. The study applied Habicht's model to evaluate the adequacy and plausibility of continuing education by using as outcome the number of children with suspected cancer who were referred to the hospital of references in the 1 year before and 1 year after intervention and the number of patients referred by intervention group and control group family health strategy teams. Medical records from each hospital of reference were used to collect information of suspect cases of cancer. Descriptive analyses were performed using frequencies and mean values. Chi-square tests were used to assess statistically significant differences between the groups and periods by using p-values strategy teams that underwent the intervention referred 3.6 times more number of children to hospital of references than did the control group. Only the intervention group showed an increase in the number of confirmed cases. This evaluation of a continuing education program for early identification of pediatric cancer showed that the program was adequate in achieving the established goals and that the results could be attributed to the program.

  8. Atypical case of Wolfram syndrome revealed through targeted exome sequencing in a patient with suspected mitochondrial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieber Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial diseases comprise a diverse set of clinical disorders that affect multiple organ systems with varying severity and age of onset. Due to their clinical and genetic heterogeneity, these diseases are difficult to diagnose. We have developed a targeted exome sequencing approach to improve our ability to properly diagnose mitochondrial diseases and apply it here to an individual patient. Our method targets mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and the exons of 1,600 nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biology or Mendelian disorders with multi-system phenotypes, thereby allowing for simultaneous evaluation of multiple disease loci. Case Presentation Targeted exome sequencing was performed on a patient initially suspected to have a mitochondrial disorder. The patient presented with diabetes mellitus, diffuse brain atrophy, autonomic neuropathy, optic nerve atrophy, and a severe amnestic syndrome. Further work-up revealed multiple heteroplasmic mtDNA deletions as well as profound thiamine deficiency without a clear nutritional cause. Targeted exome sequencing revealed a homozygous c.1672C > T (p.R558C missense mutation in exon 8 of WFS1 that has previously been reported in a patient with Wolfram syndrome. Conclusion This case demonstrates how clinical application of next-generation sequencing technology can enhance the diagnosis of patients suspected to have rare genetic disorders. Furthermore, the finding of unexplained thiamine deficiency in a patient with Wolfram syndrome suggests a potential link between WFS1 biology and thiamine metabolism that has implications for the clinical management of Wolfram syndrome patients.

  9. Evaluating the prevalence of DNA mixtures found in fingernail samples from victims and suspects in homicide cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurit, Bublil; Anat, Gast; Michal, Shenfeld; Lilach, Front; Maya, Freund

    2011-11-01

    An important aspect of homicide investigations is the identification of the persons that had the last contact with the victim prior to death. Violent crimes are frequently characterized by a struggle between the victim and the perpetrator where biological material can be expected to be exchanged between them. Forensic DNA typing enables the generation of genetic profiles by extraction and amplification of cellular material found under fingernails. The evidential value of these samples may be critical if the secondary contributor found in a DNA mixture, can be matched with a potential suspect, or through a DNA database search. The amount of biological material transferred under the fingernails during "casual" activities is not sufficient to genotype reportable mixtures. This may not be the case with homicide victims that may have struggled and died under violent circumstances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of DNA mixtures found under the fingernails of both victims and suspected perpetrators of violent deaths. We present a retrospective study of 137 DNA profiles genotyped from fingernail samples of homicide victims and suspects, collected at the Israeli National Center of Forensic Medicine. The majority of the samples produced single source profiles (n=107, 78%) that matched those of the donor's. DNA mixtures (n=30, 22%) were found in increased frequency among victims (n=25/100, 25%) compared to suspects (n=5/37, 13.5%). Mixtures were sub-divided into high level (n=15, 50%), low level (n=9, 30%) and residual (n=6, 20%), according to the number of the foreign contributors' alleles. Thus, this distinctive group of homicide victims was found to express both elevated frequency of DNA mixtures together with highly informative value of the secondary foreign profiles, as compared to other studied populations. These findings support an important aspect for the criminal investigation in murder cases, where a struggle may have ensued and the

  10. Acute Intravenous Calcium Antagonist for Suspected Hemiplegic Migraine – A Case Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lützhøft Rath

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke mimics, like attacks of hemiplegic migraine, are challenging in acute stroke evaluation. We present a 28-year-old woman with a suspected hemiplegic migraine attack with left-sided hemiparalysis. Brain CT with perfusion imaging 1 h 54 min after symptom onset revealed hypoperfusion in the right hemisphere. The patient was treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA with no effect. After a subsequent intravenous verapamil infusion, the patient gained full motor function within 10 min. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI performed 5 h 46 min after symptom onset revealed diffusion restriction in the same area as the hypoperfusion on CT. There were no notable changes on T2 images. The patient stayed clinically in remission, except for reduced sensation for all modalities on the extremities on the left side. Although brain CT 24 h after symptom onset revealed an edema in the same area, an MRI performed 17 days later showed no new infarctions. Young patients with a history of migraine with aura admitted with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke are at risk of insufficient treatment. Calcium antagonists might be considered if there is no effect of first-line treatment with rtPA.

  11. Acute Intravenous Calcium Antagonist for Suspected Hemiplegic Migraine - A Case Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Charlotte Lützhøft; He, Jun; Nordling, Mette Maria; Wienecke, Troels

    2017-01-01

    Stroke mimics, like attacks of hemiplegic migraine, are challenging in acute stroke evaluation. We present a 28-year-old woman with a suspected hemiplegic migraine attack with left-sided hemiparalysis. Brain CT with perfusion imaging 1 h 54 min after symptom onset revealed hypoperfusion in the right hemisphere. The patient was treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) with no effect. After a subsequent intravenous verapamil infusion, the patient gained full motor function within 10 min. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 5 h 46 min after symptom onset revealed diffusion restriction in the same area as the hypoperfusion on CT. There were no notable changes on T2 images. The patient stayed clinically in remission, except for reduced sensation for all modalities on the extremities on the left side. Although brain CT 24 h after symptom onset revealed an edema in the same area, an MRI performed 17 days later showed no new infarctions. Young patients with a history of migraine with aura admitted with symptoms of acute ischemic stroke are at risk of insufficient treatment. Calcium antagonists might be considered if there is no effect of first-line treatment with rtPA.

  12. [Investigation of the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lymph node aspirates of the suspected tularemia lymphadenitis cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Nurhan; Celebi, Bekir; Kavas, Semra; Simşek, Hülya; Kılıç, Selçuk; Sezen, Figen; Arslantürk, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently reports of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and oropharyngeal tularemia which are the most common infectious causes of granulomatous lymphadenitis, have been significantly increased in Turkey. The differentiation of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and oropharyngeal tularemia is usually confusing on the basis of clinical and histopathological findings. Thus, in tularemia endemic areas, the patients are more commonly evaluated in terms of tularemia lymphadenitis leaving tuberculosis out. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cervical lymph node aspirates, obtained from tularemia suspected cases. A total of 105 oropharyngeal tularemia-suspected cases which were found negative for Francisella tularensis by bacteriological (culture), molecular (PCR) and serological (microagglutination) methods, were included in the study. The samples had been previously studied at National Tularemia Reference Laboratory, Turkish Public Health Institution, between 2009-2011. The study samples were evaluated in terms of M.tuberculosis by culture and real-time PCR (rtPCR) methods in the National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory. Both Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium and liquid-based MGIT (BD, USA) automated culture system were used for mycobacterial culture. Samples that yielded mycobacterial growth were identified as M.tuberculosis by immunochromotographic test (BD, USA). The lymph node aspirates of 65 patients who were F.tularensis PCR negative but antibody positive, were used as the control group. As a result, M.tuberculosis was found to be positive in 9 (8.6%) of 105 tularemia-negative lymph node aspirates, sent to our laboratory from different geographic regions for the investigation of tularemia. Six of the M.tuberculosis positive cases were male and the age range of the patients was 26-85 years. The presence of M.tuberculosis was detected only by culture in two samples, only by rtPCR in five samples and both by culture and

  13. Secondary victims of rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels...... of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim...

  14. Atypical case of Wolfram syndrome revealed through targeted exome sequencing in a patient with suspected mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Daniel S; Vafai, Scott B; Horton, Laura C; Slate, Nancy G; Liu, Shangtao; Borowsky, Mark L; Calvo, Sarah E; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2012-01-06

    Mitochondrial diseases comprise a diverse set of clinical disorders that affect multiple organ systems with varying severity and age of onset. Due to their clinical and genetic heterogeneity, these diseases are difficult to diagnose. We have developed a targeted exome sequencing approach to improve our ability to properly diagnose mitochondrial diseases and apply it here to an individual patient. Our method targets mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the exons of 1,600 nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial biology or Mendelian disorders with multi-system phenotypes, thereby allowing for simultaneous evaluation of multiple disease loci. Targeted exome sequencing was performed on a patient initially suspected to have a mitochondrial disorder. The patient presented with diabetes mellitus, diffuse brain atrophy, autonomic neuropathy, optic nerve atrophy, and a severe amnestic syndrome. Further work-up revealed multiple heteroplasmic mtDNA deletions as well as profound thiamine deficiency without a clear nutritional cause. Targeted exome sequencing revealed a homozygous c.1672C > T (p.R558C) missense mutation in exon 8 of WFS1 that has previously been reported in a patient with Wolfram syndrome. This case demonstrates how clinical application of next-generation sequencing technology can enhance the diagnosis of patients suspected to have rare genetic disorders. Furthermore, the finding of unexplained thiamine deficiency in a patient with Wolfram syndrome suggests a potential link between WFS1 biology and thiamine metabolism that has implications for the clinical management of Wolfram syndrome patients.

  15. Surgical protocol for confirmed or suspected cases of Ebola and other highly transmissible diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, Josep M; Rubio-Pérez, Inés; Arias Díaz, Javier; Guirao Garriga, Xavier; Serrablo, Alejandro; Jover Navalón, José M

    2016-01-01

    Outbreaks of viral haemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola can lead to imported cases in Europe and America. The eventuality of surgery in the setting of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is low, but the Spanish Association of Surgeons elaborated a surgical protocol for EVD. Elective surgical procedures are not indicated. Emergency cases can be considered in: persons under investigation, possible cases and early confirmed cases. In some conditions usually treated by surgery a medical treatment can be tested. All cases must be treated in high technology hospitals. These hospitals must be equipped with adequate means for healthcare provider's protection. All members of the healthcare team should practice thorough simulation prior to caring for a possible Ebola patient. This protocol is based on international guidelines on use of Personal Protective Equipment, protocols of other scientific societies, and specific recommendations for the operating room environment. Copyright © 2015 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Case of Acute Graft Failure during Suspected Humoral Rejection with Preserved Ejection Fraction, but Severely Reduced Longitudinal Deformation Detected by 2D-Speckle Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Tor Skibsted; Eiskjær, Hans; Kofoed-Nielsen, Pernille B

    2014-01-01

    This case displays limited utility of left ventricular ejection fraction to detect acute graft failure due to microvascular vasculopathy and suspected humoral rejection. Despite severe and progressive graft failure, clinically and by right heart catheterizations, left ventricular ejection fraction...... remained unchanged, indicating need of more reliable noninvasive methods for graft function surveillance. Global longitudinal strain relates to clinical heart failure, filling pressure, and cardiac index during suspected humoral rejection and microvascular dysfunction in this HTX patient. We suggest...

  17. Spooky Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Lara

    2011-01-01

    This activity presents an option for covering biology content while engaging students in an investigation that highlights the spirit of Halloween. Students are engaged in the story line and have fun trying to solve the mystery kidnapping by using science skills to examine the evidence and eliminate some ghoulish suspects. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Secondary victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Dorte; Bak, Rikke; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Rape is often a very traumatic experience, which affects not only the primary victim (PV) but also his/her significant others. Studies on secondary victims of rape are few and have almost exclusively studied male partners of female rape victims. This study examined the impact of rape on 107 secondary victims, including family members, partners, and friends of male and female rape victims. We found that many respondents found it difficult to support the PV and that their relationship with the PV was often affected by the assault. Furthermore, the sample showed significant levels of traumatization, and it was estimated that approximately one quarter of the respondents suffered from posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). Degree of traumatization was associated with a more recent assault, higher efforts to support the PV, recurrent thoughts about having been able to prevent the assault, a lack of social support for the respondent, and feeling let down by others. The respondents were generally interested in friend-, family-, and partner-focused interventions, particularly in receiving education about how best to support a rape victim.

  19. Chronic cough and an atypical pattern of peripheral pulmonary opacities: A case report secondary to suspected drug onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Ronnie; Williams, Mark Tony; Yamin, Ghiam; Rofoogaran, Mohsen

    2018-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is an idiopathic interstitial lung disease with nonspecific symptoms that involves a complex inflammatory cascade. A 36-year-old prisoner with a history of psoriasis presented with progressive worsening dyspnea, chest pain, and cough. His symptoms started 2-months after starting adalimumab, a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-inhibitor, for psoriasis treatment. Initial workup revealed 27% eosinophils on complete blood count, elevated IgE levels on bronchoalveolar lavage, and bilateral peripheral lung opacities on imaging. The patient's symptoms and eosinophilia improved markedly after starting corticosteroids. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with CEP. To our knowledge, this is the first case of asthma and CEP in a patient taking adalimumab. We suspect adalimumab unmasked the Th2 cell pathway response that was otherwise suppressed by psoriasis, a primarily Th1 cell pathway disease. The patient's pulmonary changes can be attributed to an eosinophilic asthma phenotype with adalimumab putatively indirectly causing CEP.

  20. The Relationship between Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Report of 2 Cases with Suspected Osteonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Horikawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knee specimens of two osteoporotic patients who underwent unilateral knee arthroplasty for suspected osteonecrosis of the knee were examined histologically. Preoperative findings of magnetic resonance images in both patients were consistent with the diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the medial femoral condyles, although plain X-rays showed minimal degenerative changes. In both patients, preoperative bone mineral densities of the femoral condyle and proximal tibia of the affected side were lower than those of the unaffected side. Pathological examination of the resected femoral condyle and proximal tibia showed almost intact joint cartilage, healing of the collapsed subchondral bone, and significant trabecular bone loss. Histologically, no evidence of osteonecrosis, including empty lacunae of the trabecular bone, was observed. These findings indicated that subchondral bone collapse caused by osteoporosis, but not osteonecrosis, initiated the osteoarthritic change of the affected knee. This report emphasizes that there may be cases of progressive local osteoarthritis caused by fracture of subchondral bone because of osteoporosis.

  1. Pyoderma Vegetans: A Case Report in a Child Suspected to Primary Immunodeficiency and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Mansouri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma vegetans (PV is a rare inflammatory disorder characterized by vegetating pustules and plaques affecting the skin and mucosal membranes. It is believed that this entity is mostly associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, chronic malnutrition, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malignancies, and other immunocompromised states. Pyoderma vegetans occurs more commonly in young and middle-aged adults. There is no sex predilection for this entity. The lesions could heal spontaneously, but usually recur and become chronic. Our patient was an 11-year-old girl suspected to have primary combined immunodeficiency complicated by chronic recurrent vegetating pustular lesions on the face and postauricular area since one year of age. The histological features of the lesions were consistent with pyoderma vegetans. This is the first case of PV beginning from early infancy in the setting of primary immunodeficiency and in an unusual location.

  2. Multidisciplinary approach to the management of children with female genital mutilation (FGM) or suspected FGM: service description and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Sarah M; Dear, Joanna; de Campos, Claudia; Williams, Louise; Hodes, Deborah

    2016-02-29

    To describe the first dedicated clinic in the UK for children with suspected or confirmed female genital mutilation (FGM) including referral patterns, clinical findings and subsequent management. A prospective study of all children seen in a dedicated multidisciplinary FGM clinic for children over a 1-year period. Patients aged under 18 years referred for clinical assessment or for a second opinion on Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) images. Data were collected on reasons for referral, demography, genital examination findings including FGM type, and clinical recommendations. 38 children were referred of whom 18 (47%) had confirmed FGM; most frequently type 4 (61%). Social care and police referred 78% of cases. According to UK law FGM had been performed illegally in three cases. Anonymous information given to the police led to the referral of six children, none of whom had had FGM. Mandatory reporting and increased media attention may increase the numbers of referrals of children with suspected FGM. This patient group have complex needs and management in a dedicated multidisciplinary service is essential. Paediatricians and gynaecologists should have the skills to carry out the consultation and detect all types of FGM including type 4 which was the most common type seen in this series. This is the first dedicated FGM service for children in the UK and similar clinics in high-prevalence areas should be established. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Unusual Suspects: The Case of Insider Theft in Research Libraries and Special Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Todd; Sare, Laura; Coker, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The widespread theft of collection materials, including rare and unique items, continues to be an issue of great concern to libraries of all types. The potential loss of such items threatens not only an institution's operations but, in many cases, global cultural heritage. Despite an increasingly open attitude among institutions regarding sharing…

  4. Occupational asbestos exposure: how to deal with suspected mesothelioma cases--the Dutch approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; van 't Hullenaar, N.; Wagenaar, J.; Kaajan, J. P. G.; Koolen, M.; Schrijver, M.; Schlösser, N.; Burgers, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Patients with asbestos-related diseases, such as malignant mesothelioma (MM), are not uniformly treated in Europe when they apply for compensation. In The Netherlands, the Institute of Asbestos Victims (IAV) acts on behalf of patients with a malignant mesothelioma. In the majority of cases, the

  5. Rape Beyond Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Margo

    2017-02-01

    Public health experts agree that sexual violence constitutes a significant public health issue. Yet criminal law dominates rape law almost completely, with public health law playing at best a small supporting role. Recent civil law developments, such as university disciplinary proceedings, similarly fixate on how best to find and penalize perpetrators. As a result, rape law continues to spin its wheels in the same arguments and obstacles. This Article argues that, without broader cultural changes, criminal law faces a double bind: rape laws will either be ineffective or neglect the importance of individual culpability. Public health law provides more promising terrain for rape prevention because it is a strong legal framework that can engage the complex causes of rape, including the social norms that promote sexual aggression. While criminal law can only punish bad behavior, public health interventions can use the more effective prevention strategy of promoting positive behaviors and relationships. They can also address the myriad sexual behaviors and social determinants that increase the risk of rape but are outside the scope of criminal law. Perhaps most importantly, public health law relies on evidence-based interventions and the expertise of public health authorities to ensure that laws and policies are effective. Transforming rape law in this way provides a framework for legal feminism to undertake the unmet challenge of "theorizing yes," that is, moving beyond how to protect women’s right to refuse sex and toward promoting and exploring positive models of sex. Criminal law is simply incapable of meeting this challenge because it concerns only what sex should not be. A public health framework can give the law a richer role in addressing the full spectrum of sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  6. Rape-related psychotraumatic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darves-Bornoz, J M

    1997-01-01

    This study took place in a forensic center for rape victims. Our aims were: first, to explore the longitudinal course of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and prevalence of disorders over the 6-month period following rape, then second, to group these disorders into syndromes related to chronic PTSD whilst remaining distinct from it, and third, to establish some predictive factors for chronic PTSD. 92 rape victims consecutively admitted to the center were regularly interviewed over a 6-month period by a psychiatrist. The paper confirms that rape leads to a high proportion of PTSD. Generally speaking, the psychopathology following rape is severe. PTSD at 6 months is associated with phobic and dissociative disorders. It is further associated with a cluster of symptoms arising after rape that we term borderline-like. Incestuous rape is a predictive factor for PTSD at 6 months. In the aftermath of rape several semiologically distinct psychotraumatic syndromes exist.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Melanoma Cases in Denmark Suspected of Genetic Predisposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A. W.; Aoude, Lauren G.; Krogh, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Both environmental and host factors influence risk of cutaneousmelanoma (CM), and worldwide, the incidence varies depending on constitutional determinants of skin type and pigmentation, latitude, and patterns of sun exposure. We performed genetic analysis of CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, MC1R, and MITFp.E3...... cases of CM. In addition, we recommend that testing of BAP1 should not be conducted routinely in CM families but should be reserved for families with CM and uveal melanoma, or mesothelioma....

  8. Molecular characterization of melanoma cases in Denmark suspected of genetic predisposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin A W Wadt

    Full Text Available Both environmental and host factors influence risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM, and worldwide, the incidence varies depending on constitutional determinants of skin type and pigmentation, latitude, and patterns of sun exposure. We performed genetic analysis of CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, MC1R, and MITFp.E318K in Danish high-risk melanoma cases and found CDKN2A germline mutations in 11.3% of CM families with three or more affected individuals, including four previously undescribed mutations. Rare mutations were also seen in CDK4 and BAP1, while MC1R variants were common, occurring at more than twice the frequency compared to Danish controls. The MITF p.E318K variant similarly occurred at an approximately three-fold higher frequency in melanoma cases than controls. To conclude, we propose that mutation screening of CDKN2A and CDK4 in Denmark should predominantly be performed in families with at least 3 cases of CM. In addition, we recommend that testing of BAP1 should not be conducted routinely in CM families but should be reserved for families with CM and uveal melanoma, or mesothelioma.

  9. Canine Cyanotoxin Poisonings in the United States (1920s–2012): Review of Suspected and Confirmed Cases from Three Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Lorraine C.; Landsberg, Jan H.; Miller, Melissa; Keel, Kevin; Taylor, Tegwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) are ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Some species produce potent toxins that can sicken or kill people, domestic animals, and wildlife. Dogs are particularly vulnerable to cyanotoxin poisoning because of their tendency to swim in and drink contaminated water during algal blooms or to ingestalgal mats.. Here, we summarize reports of suspected or confirmed canine cyanotoxin poisonings in the U.S. from three sources: (1) The Harmful Algal Bloom-related Illness Surveillance System (HABISS) of the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); (2) Retrospective case files from a large, regional veterinary hospital in California; and (3) Publicly available scientific and medical manuscripts; written media; and web-based reports from pet owners, veterinarians, and other individuals. We identified 231 discreet cyanobacteria harmful algal bloom (cyanoHAB) events and 368 cases of cyanotoxinpoisoning associated with dogs throughout the U.S. between the late 1920s and 2012. The canine cyanotoxin poisoning events reviewed here likely represent a small fraction of cases that occur throughout the U.S. each year. PMID:24064718

  10. When should adenoviral non-gonococcal urethritis be suspected? Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avolio, Manuela; De Rosa, Rita; Modolo, Maria Luisa; Stano, Paola; Camporese, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Adenovirus as agent of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is still poorly documented in the literature. We describe two cases showing that adenoviral infection should be reasonably hypothesized in men with dysuria and scant urethral discharge in addition to meatus inflammation and/or edema (meatitis) or conjunctivitis. Case 1: a 55-year-old man came to our observation in July 2012 referring a 5-day-history of intense dysuria and scant mucoid urethral discharge. Physical examination revealed the urethral discharge referred, but also modest meatitis and an intense conjunctival hyperemia on his right eye. Adenoviral infection was investigated and Adenovirus DNA (type 37) was detected in both the urethral and conjunctival swabs. Case 2: a 43-year-old man with intense dysuria, started 4-5 days earlier, came to our attention with his wife in August 2012. Scant urethral mucoid secretions, severe meatal inflammation of the male patient were revealed during physical examination. His wife instead complained of a 2-day history of intense burning eyes. Adenoviral infection was investigated and Adenovirus DNA (type 37) was positive both in the male urethral swab and in his wife's conjunctival swab. Adenovirus seems to cause a distinct and recognisable clinical syndrome in men presenting with urethritis. Studies on the prevalence and role of Adenovirus as a causative agent of urethritis are limited. Moreover, as rapid advanced molecular microbiology is now available, we believe that extending the search to Adenovirus in sexually active men with dysuria, scant discharge in addition to meatitis or conjunctivitis, should be a useful approach improving our understanding about adenoviral NGU, and especially avoiding or stopping unnecessary empirical antibiotic therapy.

  11. Sonographic biophysical profile in detection of foetal hypoxia in 100 cases of suspected high risk pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, N.; Khan, A.R.; Usman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The foetus has become increasingly accessible and visible as a patient over the last two decades. Ultrasound imaging has broadened the scope of foetal assessment. Dynamic real time B-Mode ultrasound is used to monitor cluster of biophysical variables, both dynamic and static collectively termed as biophysical profile. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sonographic biophysical profile score on perinatal outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity. Methods: This descriptive study was carried on 100 randomly select ed high risk pregnant patients in Radiology Department PGMI, Government Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar from December 2007 to June 2008. Manning biophysical profile including non-stress was employed for foetal screening, using Toshiba ultrasound machine model Nemio SSA-550A and 7.5 MHZ probe. Results: Out of 100 cases 79 (79%) had a normal biophysical profile in the last scan of 10/10 and had a normal perinatal outcome with 5 minutes Apgar score >7/10. In 13 (13%) cases Apgar score at 5 minute was < 7/10 and babies were shifted to nursery. There were 2 (2%) false positive cases that showed abnormal biophysical profile scores of 6/10 but babies were born with an Apgar score of 8/10 at 5 minutes. There were 2 (2%) neonatal deaths in this study group. The sensitivity of biophysical profile was 79.1%, specificity 92.9%. Predictive value for a positive test was 98.55%; predictive value for a negative test was 41.93%. Conclusion: Biophysical profile is highly accurate and reliable test of diagnosing foetal hypoxia. (author)

  12. Molecular diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis: evaluation in rat model and application in suspected human cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Adriana Oliveira; Furst, Cinthia; Rocha, Lucas Oliveira; Cirelli, Cecília; Cardoso, Carolina Neris; Neiva, Fagner Salmazo; Possamai, Cynara Oliveira; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2017-04-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a progressive corneal infection that demands rapid and sensitive techniques for diagnosis to avoid risk of visual impairment. We evaluated two DNA extraction techniques and a semi-nested-PCR (snPCR) targeting the 18S rRNA gene to detect Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites. The most effective protocol was evaluated in samples of corneal scrapings and biopsies from an AK rat model and applied to diagnosis of human cases of AK. DNA extraction performed with a commercial kit based on DNA binding to magnetic beads was more efficient than a method based on alkaline lysis, allowing the detection of one trophozoite and one cyst of Acanthamoeba in samples prepared from cultures. This technique and sn-PCR were applied in corneal scrapings of rats experimentally infected with Acanthamoeba (n = 6), resulting in 100% of positivity, against 16.7% (n = 6) of positive identification in culture method using non-nutrient agar (NNA) with Escherichia coli. Corneal biopsies from rats were also tested (n = 6) and resulted in positivity in all samples in both molecular and culture methods. Eight out of ten presumptive human cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis were also confirmed by sn-PCR of scrapping samples, while the culture method was positive in only four cases. We discuss that animal model of AK can be an efficient tool to validate diagnostic methods and conclude that DNA extraction with the kit and snPCR protocol described here is an effective alternative for diagnosis of AK.

  13. Cecal diverticulitis or appendicitis. When should I suspect? A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pastore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to report a case of cecal diverticulitis and point out the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The clinical manifestations of these pathological conditions are similar, and the accurate diagnosis of cecal diverticulitis before the surgery is difficult. Therefore, most diagnoses are made during the surgery. Moreover, cecal diverticulum is uncommon in western countries, but it is prevalent in Asian people and their descendants. We report a case of a 55-year-old female patient, whose imaging exams (ultrasonography and computed tomography and blood tests were not enough to diagnose the affection, requiring laparotomy and pathological exams for the final diagnosis. Some studies suggesting the best practice in case of diverticulum of the cecum were revised, as the diagnosis usually occurs during the surgery.O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar um caso de diverticulite no ceco e chamar a atenção para o diagnóstico diferencial com apendicite aguda. As manifestações clínicas das duas afecções são semelhantes, dificultando o diagnóstico exato de diverticulite cecal, além de ser incomum, em nosso meio, o aparecimento de divertículo em cólon direito, sendo essa entidade mais comum em asiáticos e em seus descendentes. Relata-se atendimento a uma paciente de 55 anos, cujos exames de imagem (ultrassonografia e tomografia computadorizada e de sangue não foram suficientes para o diagnóstico. Houve necessidade de realizar-se laparotomia exploradora e exames anatomopatológicos para a confirmação. Também foram revisados alguns trabalhos que sugerem qual a melhor conduta a ser tomada quando se encontra divertículo cecal no perioperatório, já que, na maioria das vezes, o diagnóstico é feito neste momento.

  14. Teenager male with burning pain in extremities--suspect Fabry disease, 2 case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajesh B; Joglekar, V K

    2014-01-01

    We present 2 cases of teenager males presented with burning pain in extremities and turned out to be cases of Fabry disease.The purpose of presenting this case is to highlight the fact that suspicion of Fabry disease in patients presenting with these symptoms will lead to early diagnosis and treatment of this condition before occurrences of complications. A 14-year-old male presented with severe burning pain in both hands and feet since last 4 yrs which persisted despite consumption of painkillers and becoming more disabling and without having any family history for such condition. On general examination patient had small reddish coloured lesions around the umbilicus, appearing like angiokeratomas. Skin biopsy confirmed the lesion. On enzyme assay his alpha galactosidase activity found to be '0' nmol/hr/mg of protein, confirming his diagnosis. Patient's creatinine and 2 D ECHO were normal and urine had 1+ proteinuria. Patient started on carbamazepine tablets for pain and referred to higher centre for genetic diagnosis and enzyme replacement therapy. CASE REPORT 2: An 18-year-old male referred to our hospital by general practitioner for fatigue and pedal oedema with deranged renal function tests. On history taking patient gave history of severe burning pain in both hands and feet since age of 9 yrs. Patient's general examination revealed hypertension with pallor, pedal oedema along with angiokeratomas in bathing suit distribution. Patient's ultrasonography of kidney revealed bilaterally normal sized kidneys with altered echotexture and urine examination showed fine granular foamy cells with sub nephrotic range proteinuria. 2 D ECHO revealed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Skin biopsy report supported the diagnosis of Fabry disease. Patient advised to undergo renal biopsy to confirm Fabry nephropathy but patient denied any further diagnostic workup for nephropathy or Fabry disease. Patient started on conservative treatment and carbamazepine in renal dose

  15. Campus Gang Rape: Party Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Julie K.; Sandler, Bernice R.

    The phenomenon of gang rape as it sometimes occurs on college campuses is described, with attention to causes, impacts on the victim and other students, responses the college should take, and prevention. Consideration is given to the role of alcohol, drugs, and pornography in fraternity gang rape; successful model programs for rape prevention…

  16. Computed Tomographic Features in a case of Bilateral Neoplastic Cryptorchidism with Suspected Torsion in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott eStokowski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male German Shepherd dog presented for inappetence and weight loss. Physical examination and initial bloodwork revealed palpable abdominal masses, mild non-regenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia. Survey radiography and abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of bilateral abdominal masses and lymphadenopathy. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT was performed in order to further investigate the origin of the intraabdominal masses, confirming two enlarged cryptorchid testes, one of which had an associated CT whirl sign. Histopathology of the testes and lymph nodes revealed bilateral malignant Sertoli cell tumors and seminomas with lymph node metastasis of both neoplasms. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the benefits of CT in the diagnosis of cryptorchid testes and describe an additional organ that may display CT whirl sign.

  17. Suspected anemia caused by maternal anti-Jra antibodies: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yasufumi; Ito, Shoichi; Ogiyama, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn associated with anti-Jra are mild. However, rare cases of hydrops fetalis and severe anemia have been reported. We treated a neonate with anemia who was born with maternal anti-Jra, which were detected in the umbilical cord plasma. The Jra antigens in the neonate core blood red blood cells (RBCs) exhibited extremely weak reactivity to PEG-IAT, an anti-Jra reagent. However, upon re-examination of Jra antigen using PEG-IAT at 3 months postpartum, positivity was observed. Thereafter, upon performing PCR-SSP analysis of blood relatives targeting ABCG2 at positions 376 and 421, we found that the mother was Jr(a-) with 376 T homozygosity, whereas the father was Jr(a+) with 376 C homozygosity and a carrier of a 421 C > A mutation. The first sibling, like the propositus, was Jr(a+), exhibiting 376 CT heterozygosity. However, the first sibling carried a 421 C > A mutation, whereas the propositus had no mutation at position 421. Setting the normal Jra (a+) type (376 C, 421 C) to 100 %, we identified the amount of Jra in RBC using FCM to be 82 % in the father, 31 % in the first sibling, and 69 % in the propositus. Furthermore, upon comparing peripheral blood and myelograms of the neonate at the time of birth, we found a low myeloid cells/erythroid cells ratio, undifferentiated erythroblasts, and reduced megakaryocytes. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that cell surface antigen is involved in the HDN caused by anti-Jra, and that a cytodifferentiation abnormality is present in the hematopoietic system.

  18. Microcephaly in Pernambuco State, Brazil: epidemiological characteristics and evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of cutoff points for reporting suspected cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Araújo, Thalia Velho Barreto de; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima P Militão; Braga, Maria Cynthia; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito de Barros; Bezerra, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque; Dimech, George Santiago; Carvalho, Patrícia Ismael de; Assunção, Romildo Siqueira de; Santos, Roselene Hans; Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber de; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly in Pernambuco State, and Northeast Brazil, characterized an epidemic that led the Brazilian Ministry of Health to declare a national public health emergency. The Brazilian Ministry of Health initially defined suspected cases as newborns with gestational age (GA) ≥ 37 weeks and head circumference (HC) ≤ 33cm, but in December 2015 this cutoff was lowered to 32cm. The current study aimed to estimate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of different cutoff points for HC, using ROC curves, with the Fenton and Intergrowth (2014) curves as the gold standard. The study described cases reported in Pernambuco from August 8 to November 28, 2015, according to sex and GA categories. The Fenton and Intergrowth methods provide HC growth curves according to GA and sex, and microcephaly is defined as a newborn with HC below the 3rd percentile in these distributions. Of the 684 reported cases, 599 were term or post-term neonates. For these, the analyses with ROC curves show that according to the Fenton criterion the cutoff point with the largest area under the ROC curve, with sensitivity greater than specificity, is 32cm for both sexes. Using the Intergrowth method and following the same criteria, the cutoff points are 32cm and 31.5cm for males and females, respectively. The cutoff point identified by the Fenton method (32cm) coincided with the Brazilian Ministry of Health recommendation. Adopting Intergrowth as the standard, the choice would be 32cm for males and 31.5cm for females. The study identified the need to conduct critical and on-going analyses to evaluate cutoff points, including other characteristics for microcephaly case definition.

  19. Unacknowledged Rape in the Community: Rape Characteristics and Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Layh, Marlee; Rudolph, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    Unacknowledged rape, labeling a rape as a nonvictimizing event, remains largely unstudied among non-college women. This study therefore sought to examine differences in assault characteristics, adjustment, and disclosure by rape acknowledgment status among a sample of lower income rape victims (n = 104) recruited from a reproductive health clinic (mean age = 28.8 years). Although unacknowledged rape was infrequent (17.1% of victims), unacknowledged victims reported that the perpetrator used less force and were less likely to have assertively resisted, as compared to acknowledged victims. There were no significant differences in disclosure, depression, and somatic complaints between unacknowledged and acknowledged rape victims. Implications of the findings for understanding rape acknowledgment and postrape adjustment among community women are discussed.

  20. Application of the Virtual Bronchoscopy in Children with Suspected Aspiration of the Foreign Body - Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostic Gordana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In diagnosing the aspiration of the foreign body (AFB in children most important are: medical history, clinical signs and positive radiography of the lungs. Common dilemmas in the diff erential diagnosis are life-threatening asthma attacks or difficult pneumonia. Conventional rigid bronchoscopy (RB is not recommended as a routine method. Virtual bronchoscopy (VB can be a diagnostic tool for solving dilemmas. Fiber-optic bronchoscopy (FOB has a therapeutic stake in severe cases. Herein, we describe a girl, at the age of 6, who was hospitalized due to rapid bronchoconstriction and based on the anamnesis, clinical symptoms and physical fi ndings the suspicion was that she aspirated the foreign body. Due to the poor general condition and possible sequel, the idea of RB was dropped out. Multidetector computed tomography of the chest and VB was performed and AFB was not found. Due to positive epidemiological situation, virus H1N1 was excluded. FOB established that the foreign body does not exist in the airways. During bronchoscopy numerous castings are aspirated from the peripheral airways which lead to faster final recovery. With additional procedures, the diagnosis of asthma was confirmed and for girl that was the first attack. Along with inhaled corticosteroids as prevention she feels well.

  1. What every clinical geneticist should know about testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in suspected child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Melanie G; Byers, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Non-accidental injury (NAI) is a major medical concern in the United States. One of the challenges in evaluation of children with unexplained fractures is that genetic forms of bone fragility are one of the differential diagnoses. Infants who present with fractures with mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (OI type I or OI type IV), the most common genetic form of bone disease leading to fractures might be missed if clinical evaluation alone is used to make the diagnosis. Diagnostic clinical features (blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, Wormian bones on X-rays or positive family history) may not be present or apparent at the age of evaluation. The evaluating clinician faces the decision about whether genetic testing is necessary in certain NAI cases. In this review, we outline clinical presentations of mild OI and review the history of genetic testing for OI in the NAI versus OI setting. We summarize our data of molecular testing in the Collagen Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) from 2008 to 2014 where NAI was noted on the request for DNA sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2. We provide recommendations for molecular testing in the NAI versus OI setting. First, DNA sequencing of COL1A1, COL1A2, and IFITM5 simultaneously and duplication/deletion testing is recommended. If a causative variant is not identified, in the absence of a pathologic clinical phenotype, no additional gene testing is indicated. If a VUS is found, parental segregation studies are recommended. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A case of leukodystrophy, suspected of Alexander's diseases, and its magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Hozumi, Isao; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Miyatake, Tadashi

    1987-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of macrocephaly and developmental delay of motor function. He was the first son of non-consanguineous healthy parents. All other family members were normal. The increase of head circumference was first noted at 6 months of age. He could not walk until 1 1/2 years old. He had febrile convulsions at 1 1/2 and 2 years old. On admission (3 y 10 mo), his head circumference was 55.8 cm (more than 98th percentile). Intelligence was normal for his age. Neurological examination revealed ataxic-spastic gait and generalized hyperreflexia with bilateral ankle clonus. He could not run, or stand on one foot. Sensation was normal. CT scan showed diffuse low density areas in cerebral white matter, especially in frontal lobes. Ventricular systems were of normal size. Leukocyte lysosomal enzyme activities, blood and urinary amino acid analysis, the amount of very long chain fatty acids in plasma sphingomyelin, blood gas analysis, and organic acid levels in urine were all within normal range. Electroencephalogram, auditory-evoked response, nerve conduction velocities, and cerebrospinal fluid examination were also normal. The diagnosis of Alexander's disease was most likely. However, this case was atypical, in that his mental development was quite normal, and that regression of his motor activities was not noted so far. Magnetic resonance imaging (spin-echo image) revealed widespread abnormal signal intensity areas corresponding to the low densities shown by CT, where both T 1 and T 2 relaxation times were prolonged, suggesting the increase of free water content in the affected white matter. These changes were localized in cerebral white matter and more prominent in frontal lobes. On the other hand, the white matter of cerebellum and brain stem, internal capsule, and anterior commisure looked normal. (J.P.N.)

  3. The right to protection from sexual assault: the Indian anti-rape campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, G

    1996-11-01

    This article reveals a viewpoint that emphasizes some dilemmas among Indian feminist practice, women's sexuality in legal terms, and case law in India. The Indian Women's Movement (IWM) was successful in 1983 in adding a legal amendment on rape and child abuse. The case that mobilized women to change the law occurred in 1980 when a court acquitted two policemen who were charged with raping and molesting a 16-year-old tribal girl. The Bombay High Court overturned the judgement and convicted both policemen. The case was appealed, and the policemen successfully argued that rape did not occur because the girl did not protest and was sexually experienced anyway. In 1980 the Forum Against Rape was formed to mobilize public support and to lobby the State for reform of the law on rape. The campaign focused on custodial rape and political repression, rape as civil rights issue, and rape as a women's issue. There was a distancing between the victim, who occupied a lower caste and class position, and her defenders in the women's groups. The campaign appealed to both the appropriate judgement of the State and the denial that the State was an effective vehicle for change. The campaign did not directly address incest and marital rape or domestic violence within families. The legislature debated the issue of legal change during 1982. The debate revealed deep divisions about sexuality and women's status. It was argued that chaste women were not rape victims, and unchaste women were of a socially inferior caste and class. It was argued that there should be a ban on child marriage rather than spousal rape laws. Child rape is a legal issue only when the perpetrator is outside the family. Rape was discussed as an act of lust and not violence. In 1992, a woman promoting an end to child marriage was raped and the men were acquitted. It was argued that the law was out-of-date and in need of revision.

  4. An Acquaintance Rape Prevention Program: Effects on Attitudes Toward Women, Rape-Related Attitudes, and Perceptions of Rape Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzone-Glover, Holly A.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Jacobs, Cecilia Dine

    1998-01-01

    Studied the effects of an acquaintance-rape prevention program on college students' attitudes (n=152) toward rape and attitudes toward women, perceptions of acquaintance rape scenarios, and rape empathy. Positive attitude change was stronger among men, who became more certain of rape definitions. Contains 53 references. (SLD)

  5. Rape: A Family Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Leslie

    1982-01-01

    Suggests that, although a young woman who has been sexually assaulted may experience pain and alienation as an individual, family members also experience trauma, often left unresolved while retaining an impact on the family's ability to function. Introduces family therapy as a desirable approach to treatment of the rape victim. (Author/JAC)

  6. Altered intrauterine ultrasound, fetal head circumference growth and neonatal outcomes among suspected cases of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Rolland Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to describe altered intrauterine ultrasound, analyze fetal head circumference (HC growth and neonates' outcomes among presumed cases of congenital Zika syndrome in Brazil. Methods: 30 women were included in the study with suspected history of Zika virus (ZIKV infection during pregnancy and fetal's brain altered on ultrasound diagnosis. Sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics, prenatal altered ultrasounds, HC and other perinatal outcomes have been described. The relation between HC and gestational age was analyzed by using random regression effects based on polynomials fractions. The Z test was calculated to determine an instant variant mean rate of the HC for each gestational age. Results: the mean gestational age of the ultrasound diagnosis was 33.3 + 4.7 weeks and HC at birth was 28.9 + 1.6 cm. The main altered brain ultrasound was microcephaly (96.7%. The analysis of the fetal head circumference showed an estimated increase of the average HC, as to gestational age, it did not occur in a linear form. The instant HC variation rate increased according to gestational age (p<0,001. Conclusions: Fetal's main morphological alteration was microcephaly, observing an increase in the head circumference according to gestational age in a non-linear form and the variation decreased with gestational age.

  7. Medico-legal aspects of alleged rape victims in Lahore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Iram; Hashmi, Noreen Rahat; Mukhtar, Fatima

    2010-12-01

    To describe the socio-demographic along with the medico-legal characteristics of rape victims reporting to a female police station of Lahore. Observational study. Female Police Station in Shadman, Lahore, from, June 1995 to January 2009. A total of 74 cases of alleged rape victims were identified while reviewing all available police files concerning reported rapes and attempted rapes from 1995 to 2008. The data was gathered on preformed questionnaires after conducting the pilot study. All information about victims and alleged offenders were extracted from the police files including socio-demographic profile of the accused and victim both. Use of weapon, evidence of physical and genital trauma, assailant identification and his relationship with the victim, number of accused persons and location of rape was noted in each case. Examination by doctor and obtaining the specimens were also identified and was related to the outcome of the court case. Chi-square test was applied to determine the association of rape with age and educational status of the victim and the accused. A total of 74 cases of alleged rape were reported in the study period at Shadman Female Police Station. Maximum number of victims was reported in the age group 10-19 years (n=46, 62.2%). Majority of the accused belonged to 20-39 years' age group constituting 64.8% of the total. Regarding educational status 45 (60.8%) of the victims and 51 (68.9%) of the accused were illiterate. Significant association was found between the educational status of rape victims and accused (p = 0.016) but not between their ages (p = 0.862). The maximum incidence of rape was reported in unmarried (n = 55, 74.3%) and unemployed (n =61, 82.4%) women. In 14 cases (19%) use of weapon was reported. Physical trauma was reported in 29 (39%) and genital trauma in 14 (19%) cases. The accused were identified as family friends (25%) and neighbours (23%) respectively. Only 21% of the victims were examined by doctor and specimens were

  8. Precursors to rape: pressuring behaviors and rape proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Megan L; Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    We developed measures assessing personal and normative attitudes toward two types of behaviors that are symptomatic of rape culture. We conceptualize sexual violence as existing on a continuum and argue that two types of behaviors may be potential antecedents to (and consequences of) sexual violence: attempts to pressure, which mimic the power dynamics of rape in a less aggressive fashion, and benevolent dating behaviors, which are accepted dating scripts in which men initiate action. We examined individuals' acceptance of these behaviors in relation to their attitudes toward rape victims and among men to rape proclivity. This initial work suggests that these constructs and measures may be useful to investigate in future research.

  9. Treatment of adult victims of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, B J

    1994-01-01

    Literature regarding the aftermath of rape, the process of recovery from rape, and treatment is reviewed. Suggestions for conceptualizing a rape experience within the broader context of women's lives are given and specific intervention techniques are also reviewed.

  10. High Prevalence and Diversity of Hepatitis Viruses in Suspected Cases of Yellow Fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiala-Mandanda, Sheila; Le Gal, Frédéric; Ngwaka-Matsung, Nadine; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Onanga, Richard; Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthold; Pukuta-Simbu, Elisabeth; Gerber, Athenaïs; Abbate, Jessica L; Mwamba, Dieudonné; Berthet, Nicolas; Leroy, Eric Maurice; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Becquart, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    The majority of patients with acute febrile jaundice (>95%) identified through a yellow fever surveillance program in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) test negative for antibodies against yellow fever virus. However, no etiological investigation has ever been carried out on these patients. Here, we tested for hepatitis A (HAV), hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis D (HDV), and hepatitis E (HEV) viruses, all of which can cause acute febrile jaundice, in patients included in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. On a total of 498 serum samples collected from suspected cases of yellow fever from January 2003 to January 2012, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques were used to screen for antibodies against HAV (IgM) and HEV (IgM) and for antigens and antibodies against HBV (HBsAg and anti-hepatitis B core protein [HBc] IgM, respectively), HCV, and HDV. Viral loads and genotypes were determined for HBV and HVD. Viral hepatitis serological markers were diagnosed in 218 (43.7%) patients. The seroprevalences were 16.7% for HAV, 24.6% for HBV, 2.3% for HCV, and 10.4% for HEV, and 26.1% of HBV-positive patients were also infected with HDV. Median viral loads were 4.19 × 10 5 IU/ml for HBV (range, 769 to 9.82 × 10 9 IU/ml) and 1.4 × 10 6 IU/ml for HDV (range, 3.1 × 10 2 to 2.9 × 10 8 IU/ml). Genotypes A, E, and D of HBV and genotype 1 of HDV were detected. These high hepatitis prevalence rates highlight the necessity to include screening for hepatitis viruses in the yellow fever surveillance program in the DRC. Copyright © 2017 Makiala-Mandanda et al.

  11. Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case-control study in a clinical cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P

    2013-03-01

    To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Case-control study in a clinical cohort. University Hospital of North Norway. In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4-29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4-33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  12. The costs of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilloux, Carin; Duntley, Joshua D; Buss, David M

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined costs experienced by victims of completed rape (n=49) and attempted sexual assault (n=91) using quantitative analyses of 13 domains: health, self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, self-perceived mate value, family relationships,work life, social life, social reputation, sexual reputation, desire to have sex, frequency of sex, enjoyment of sex, and long-term, committed relationships. Women also provided descriptive accounts of their experiences, and we used these to illustrate the costs in the victims' own words.Compared to victims of an attempted sexual assault, victims of a completed rape reported significantly more negative outcomes in 11 of the 13 domains. The most negatively affected domains were self-esteem, sexual reputation, frequency of sex, desire to have sex, and self-perceived mate value. Although victims of rape experienced more negative effects than victims of attempted sexual assault,both groups of victims reported negative effects in every domain.Discussion focuses on the implications of the differing degrees and patterns of the costs of attempted and completed sexual victimization.

  13. Hostile Sexism, Type of Rape and Self Reported Rape Proclivity Within a Sample of Zimbabwean Males

    OpenAIRE

    Viki, G. Tendayi; Chiroro, Patrick; Abrams, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    The role of hostile sexism in accounting for rape proclivity among men was investigated using a sample of Zimbabwean students. Participants were presented with either an acquaintance rape or a stranger rape scenario and asked to respond to five questions about the scenario designed to assess rape proclivity. As expected, a significant relationship between hostile sexism and rape proclivity was obtained in the acquaintance rape but not the stranger rape condition. These results replicate previ...

  14. Profile of rape victims attending the Karl Bremer Hospital Rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after sexual assault. There is a paucity of research conducted in this field particularly at rape centres in the Cape Metropolitan area of the Western Cape. Methods: Aim: To obtain a profile of sexual assault victims and the treatment received at the Karl Bremer Hospital Rape Centre over a period of one year. Study design: ...

  15. How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How Rape Offenders View Their Crimes: A Study of Offenders in Selected Police Cells and the Central Prison in Kumasi, Ghana. ... Regarding punishment, some respondents expressed a preference for the handling of rape cases within the community, suggesting that the sanctions for those cases were less severe than ...

  16. Relationships between suspects and victims of sex trafficking. Exploitation of prostitutes and domestic violence parallels in Dutch trafficking cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, M.; van Gestel, B.; de Jong, D.; Kleemans, E.R.

    2014-01-01

    This article centres on the hypothesis that human trafficking for sexual exploitation is not only an organised crime activity, but a crime of relational nature as well. Therefore this study explores the relationships that exist between suspects and victims of sex trafficking, and examines to what

  17. Rape Myth Consistency and Gender Differences in Perceiving Rape Victims: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Smith, Sara J; Klausing, Cathleen D; Saucier, Donald A

    2016-02-01

    An overview discusses feminist analyses of oppression, attitudes toward rape victims, and previously studied predictors of individuals' attitudes toward rape victims. To better understand such attitudes, this meta-analysis examines the moderating influences of various rape victim, perpetrator, and crime characteristics' rape myth consistency on gender differences in individuals' perceptions of rape victims (i.e., victim responsibility and blame attributions and rape minimizing attitudes). Consistent with feminist theoretical predictions, results indicated that, overall, men perceived rape victims more negatively than women did. However, this sex difference was moderated by the rape myth consistency within the rape vignettes. Implications for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Sexual homicide: Brief review of the literature and case report involving rape, genital mutilation and human arson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakasi, Maria-Valeria; Vasilikos, Epameinondas; Voultsos, Polichronis; Vlachaki, Aikaterini; Pavlidis, Pavlos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the current paper is to report a new case of sexual murder involving human arson and summarize the literature on the phenomenon of sexual homicide. The present case study is unprecedented in Greece and a rarity in international literature due to the fact that the victim suffered genital mutilation and incineration while still alive. The evaluation consisted of 176 articles; 53 were reviewed by the authors. The results revealed sparse, but significant, research findings. The authors discuss the limitations regarding research, incidence of the phenomenon, crime-scene patterns, offender characteristics (killing methods, motive inferences, sociodemographic data, classifications, psychopathology, modus operandi), and victim selection. The incidence of the phenomenon is unclear (1-4%) due to non-standardized criteria. It is an expression of displaced anger or sexual sadism and/or a way to elude detection (ancillary benefit). Most offenders (in their first kill) and victims were in their late 20s to early 30s and belong to Caucasian populations. Personal weapons were commonly used against women, strangulation is the prevalent killing method against children, and firearms against men. Most of the sexual homicide perpetrators are non-psychotic at the time of the attack, but experience personality pathology, primitive defenses, pathological object relations, and withdrawal into fantasy in order to deal with social isolation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Attitudes toward Rape and Victims of Rape: A Test of the Feminist Theory in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Kofi E.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the usefulness of the feminist theory in explaining attitudes toward rape and victims of rape in Ghana. The feminist theory of rape posits, inter alia, that patriarchy and gender inequality are major factors in the aetiology of rape and attitudes toward rape and that underlying patriarchy and gender inequality are gender…

  20. [Infection by Bordetella pertussis and bordetella parapertussis in cases of suspected whooping cough (2011-2015) in Mar del Plata, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavayén, Silvina; Zotta, Claudia; Cepeda, Marcela; Lara, Claudia; Rearte, Analia; Regueira, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    . To classify the study population in the Argentinian National Health Surveillance System framework, determine the proportion of infection by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, and identify factors associated with the cases of suspected whooping cough attended to in the city of Mar del Plata and its outskirts during the period 2011- 2015. An observational and descriptive study was carried out. Clinical cases with suspicion of whooping cough were diagnosed by laboratory. The laboratory studies consisted of culture, PCR, and serology using the ELISA technique. A total of 572 cases were evaluated. The female sex was the most frequent (51.9%). The most frequent age range was 2 to 17 moths (51.1%; 290/568), which was also the group with the most confirmed cases. Only 47.8% (155/324) of the population studied had complete vaccination for their age. Whooping cough due to B. pertussis was confirmed in 15.5% (89/572) of cases and one case with B. parapertussis. Those cases that had contact with a coughing relative were significantly associated with the confirmation of Bordetella spp. by the laboratory (odds ratio: 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.9-5.4). The results show the need to suspect whooping cough and diagnose it early in children, adolescents, and adults in order to better control the disease. Likewise, continuing prevention and containment measures are fundamental in decreasing the circulation of the causal agent.

  1. Outcomes of CSF spectrophotometry in cases of suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage with negative CT: two years retrospective review in a Birmingham hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A; Silva, D; Cramb, R; Flint, G; Foroughi, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence to current guidelines for the investigation of suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage and the prevalence and outcome of computed tomography (CT)-negative aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A retrospective review in a single large tertiary referral centre. A total of 796 patients, aged 16-90 years, who underwent lumbar puncture (LP) for suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) following a negative or equivocal CT scan between January 2012 and November 2013 (23 months). Xanthochromia reports were obtained using the hospital's department of biochemistry database and clinical data for these patients were reviewed using patient notes. Of 796 CSF reports reviewed, 728 (91%) were negative for xanthochromia, 31 (4%) were positive and 37 (5%) were equivocal. Only 2 out of the 31 patients with positive spectrophotometry results were subsequently found to have an underlying aneurysm on CT angiography. A further 9 out of these 31 patients underwent digital subtraction angiography, with no cerebral aneurysms being detected. Amongst the 37 patients with equivocal xanthochromia reports, 13 underwent CT angiography and only 1 cerebral aneurysm was detected. In patients with clinically suspected SAH but who have negative or questionable CT findings, CSF analysis is likely to be negative in the vast majority of cases, which was 91% in our series. In patients yielding positive or equivocal CSF results the likelihood of an aneurysm being detected is low, amounting to three out of 68 or approximately one in 23 (approximately 4%). Overall in suspected SAH cases where CT scan has been negative, the rate for the detection of cerebral aneurysm is three out of 796 cases (0.4%).

  2. Rape on Campus: Facts and Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Literature on rape on college campuses is reviewed, beginning with definitions of rape and controversy over date or rape, analysis of the risk of rape on campus, and the actions college administrators can take to reduce the risk of sexual assault. Prevention, legal issues, and campus security safeguards are discussed. (MSE)

  3. Reactions to Stranger and Acquaintance Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Patricia A.; Barnett, Mark A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated reactions to a woman who presumably had been raped by a stranger or an acquaintance. Undergraduates read one of two rape descriptions prior to watching a videotape of the woman who (they were led to believe) had been the victim of the rape. Females and males showed markedly different reactions to stranger and acquaintance rape and…

  4. ASD and PTSD in Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). The predictive power of ASD on PTSD was examined in a population of 148 female rape victims who visited a center for rape victims shortly after the rape or attempted rape. The PTSD…

  5. Therapeutic effect of epidural steroid injection in patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption: a prospective case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Na Ra; Lee, Joon Woo; Chung, Sang Gi [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-09-15

    To assess the effect of the epidural steroid injection for patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption. Thirteen patients at the pain intervention clinic that received a lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection and were suspected of having an internal disc disruption were prospectively enrolled in this study. The treatment outcome was assessed using a 5-point patient satisfaction scale (no pain, much improved, slightly improved, no effects, aggravated) two weeks after injection. A successful outcome required a patient satisfaction scale of 'much improved' or 'no pain'. All patients received follow-up for two months. Two radiologists evaluated the presence of HIZ (high intensity zone), a dark disc by MR (n 10) and a diffuse bulging disc by CT (n = 3). Nine (69%) of the 13 patients achieved a successful outcome two weeks after injection. These nine patients showed no recurrence during the two months months follow-up. Of the 22 abnormal discs demonstrated by MRI and CT, MRI showed a dark disc in six patients and HIZ in 13 patients. CT showed diffuse bulging in three discs. Nine of 10 patients showed at least one HIZ. An lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection might be an effective tool for managing patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption.

  6. Therapeutic effect of epidural steroid injection in patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption: a prospective case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Na Ra; Lee, Joon Woo; Chung, Sang Gi

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of the epidural steroid injection for patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption. Thirteen patients at the pain intervention clinic that received a lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection and were suspected of having an internal disc disruption were prospectively enrolled in this study. The treatment outcome was assessed using a 5-point patient satisfaction scale (no pain, much improved, slightly improved, no effects, aggravated) two weeks after injection. A successful outcome required a patient satisfaction scale of 'much improved' or 'no pain'. All patients received follow-up for two months. Two radiologists evaluated the presence of HIZ (high intensity zone), a dark disc by MR (n 10) and a diffuse bulging disc by CT (n = 3). Nine (69%) of the 13 patients achieved a successful outcome two weeks after injection. These nine patients showed no recurrence during the two months months follow-up. Of the 22 abnormal discs demonstrated by MRI and CT, MRI showed a dark disc in six patients and HIZ in 13 patients. CT showed diffuse bulging in three discs. Nine of 10 patients showed at least one HIZ. An lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection might be an effective tool for managing patients suspected of having an internal disc disruption

  7. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ‘rape laws’ began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ‘rape and inclusion of ‘marital rape’ in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed. PMID:24082245

  8. The radiographic and MRI features of gout referred as suspected soft tissue sarcoma: a review of the literature and findings from 27 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Neil [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Imaging Department, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-24

    Gout has been termed the ''great mimicker'', for its ability to resemble other pathological conditions. Whilst the typical imaging features of gout are well described, there is a relative paucity of literature describing more challenging cases of gout, where a malignant tumour has been considered in the differential diagnosis. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the radiographic and MRI features of 27 cases of gout that were initially referred to our centre as suspected soft tissue sarcoma, alongside a review of the literature. (orig.)

  9. Metacognitive aspects of rape myths: subjective strength of rape myth acceptance moderates its effects on information processing and behavioral intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a metacognitive approach to influences of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the processing of rape-related information and rape proclivity. In Study 1, participants (N = 264) completed an RMA scale and subsequently reported the subjective strength (e.g., importance, certainty) of their RMA. Then they read about a rape case, viewed a photograph of the alleged crime scene, and rated the defendant's guilt on several items. Depending on condition, the photograph contained either RMA-applicable stimuli (e.g., alcoholic beverages) or neutral stimuli. Higher RMA predicted lower ratings of defendant guilt especially when applicable stimuli were present and RMA was strong. Study 2 (N = 85) showed that RMA-related attitude strength also moderated the effect of RMA on self-reported rape proclivity. Results of both studies indicate that the subjective strength of rape-related beliefs may be reliably assessed and serves as an important moderator of effects of RMA. The implications of these findings for prevention programs as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  10. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Evaluation of Suspect Testimony: Palynological Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Hawksworth, David L; Edwards, Kevin J

    2015-11-01

    A rapid method for evaluating suspect testimony is valuable at any stage in an inquiry and can result in a change of direction in an investigation. Rape cases, in particular, can present problems where a defendant renders DNA analysis redundant by claiming that the claimant consented to have sexual relations. Forensic palynology is valuable in confirming or eliminating locations as being crime scenes, thus checking the testimony of both parties. In contrast to some forensic disciplines, forensic palynology can provide critical information without time-consuming full analysis. Two cases are described where the palynological assemblages from comparator samples of pertinent places were compared with those obtained from clothing of claimants and defendants. The results of rapid microscopical scanning of relevant preparations led to early confessions, thus obviating the need for costly analyses and protracted court proceedings. A third case demonstrates the unbiased nature of this technique where a man, although innocent of any offense, lied about having visited the crime scene for fear of prosecution. This highlights the need for sensitive policing in claims of rape. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. When is it rape? The role of rape and seduction scripts

    OpenAIRE

    Littleton, Heather Leigh

    2001-01-01

    Accompanying the high prevalence of rape among college women is a high prevalence of unacknowledged rape, or women who have been raped who do not label it as such. The current studies explore one theory which may help account for unacknowledged rape, script theory. Specifically, it may be that individuals have scripts for rape and seduction which overlap on a number dimensions, which may lead certain incidents of rape to be labeled seduction. Three studies were conducted to test the possibl...

  12. Rape and Its Representation : "Male Myths of Rape" and English Literature, Part Two

    OpenAIRE

    坂田,薫子

    2007-01-01

    "Rape and Its Representation: 'Male Myths of Rape' and English Literature" will explore how English literature has contributed to the formation and development of what Susan Brownmiller calls "male myths of rape". This essay, "Rape and Its Representation: 'Male Myths of Rape' and English Literature, Part Two", will mainly examine Tess of the d'Urbervilles (1891) and "The Company of Wolves" in The Bloody Chamber (1979). When Thomas Hardy represented rape as relations between the sexes wherein ...

  13. Epidemiology of rapes in Costa Rica: characterization of victims, perpetrators and circumstances surrounding forced intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdas, Loreley; Arroyo, Cynthia; Gómez, Aarón; Holst, Ileana; Angulo, Yamileth; Vargas, Marianela; Espinoza, Marta; León, Guillermo

    2014-09-01

    Since the year 2000, the number of rapes in Costa Rica has increased at a rate of 42 cases per year. In 2011, 1786 rape cases were reported to the prosecution offices throughout the country, but only 1081 reports continued through the investigation process by the Judicial Investigation Agency. A randomly collected sample of 272 reports received by Judicial Investigation Agency, between July 2012 and June 2013, were prospectively studied. The analysis was limited to cases reported within 30 days following the rape. Results indicate that most of the provinces in the country show an incidence of about 38 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Ninety-six percent of the victims were women, 50% of which were between 10 and 19 years old. More than 99.5% of violators were men. The rape was perpetrated by a single aggressor in 85% of the cases. It was found that 48% of the victims were within the first 11 days of their menstrual cycle at the time of the attack. Twenty-nine percent of rapes occurred in "high rape-risk" circumstances--e.g., victims attacked by strangers in public outdoors or indoors. Twenty-five percent of rapes occur in "moderate rape-risk" circumstances--e.g., victims attacked indoors at public locations or at the home other than the victim's by relatives, sentimental partners or acquaintances. Fifteen percent of rapes occurred in "low rape-risk" circumstances--e.g., victims attacked in their homes by relatives or sentimental partners. In 67% of the cases the perpetrator was an acquaintance of the victim. Eleven percent of the cases corresponded to rapes in which the perpetrator was a partner or ex-partner of the victim. Fourteen percent and 25% of rapes could be classified as "proactive drug-facilitated rapes" or "opportunistic drug-facilitated rapes", respectively. Semen in the vaginal fluid of victims and the genetic profile of the alleged perpetrator were detected in 55% and 33% of the cases, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reflections on the society’s reaction towards rape victims in Delhi City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetu Vibha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, most people display stronger beliefs in ‘aggravated rape‘ or ‘real rape‘; including victims of such rape cases who often identify themselves as ‘rape victims’ than the victims of ‘simple rape’, where none of the aggravating circumstances are present. Despite myths to the contrary these ‘simple rape’ cases in fact make up the majority of cases. This article considers the implications of ‘real rape‘ and demonstrates how notions about what a ‘typical rape‘ should be, in the form of rape myths, directly impact on societal attitudes towards rape victims and how the media continue to reinforce and perpetuate the notion of real rape through their selective reporting of ‘serial rape’, ‘stranger rape’ or especially ‘violent rapes’.

  15. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  16. Raccoon eyes and the MIBG super scan: scintigraphic signs of neuroblastoma in a case of suspected child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohdiewicz, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Gallegos, E. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Fink-Bennett, D. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The authors report on an infant suspected of having been abused, who presented with periorbital edema and ecchymoses (clinial `raccoon eyes`). The pattern of the nuclear medicine bone scan suggested neuroblastoma rather than trauma. Both the bone scan and the subsequent MIBG scan revealed multiple abnormalities, including markedly increased activity around the orbits, that we termed the `scintigraphic raccoon eyes` sign. In addition, the grossly abnormal MIBG scan demonstrated avid uptake of MIBG throughout the entire skeleton with essentially complete absence of visualization of the liver and heart (the `MIBG super scan`). These signs have not previously been described in an infant or a child with neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  17. Raccoon eyes and the MIBG super scan: scintigraphic signs of neuroblastoma in a case of suspected child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohdiewicz, P.J.; Gallegos, E.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on an infant suspected of having been abused, who presented with periorbital edema and ecchymoses (clinial 'raccoon eyes'). The pattern of the nuclear medicine bone scan suggested neuroblastoma rather than trauma. Both the bone scan and the subsequent MIBG scan revealed multiple abnormalities, including markedly increased activity around the orbits, that we termed the 'scintigraphic raccoon eyes' sign. In addition, the grossly abnormal MIBG scan demonstrated avid uptake of MIBG throughout the entire skeleton with essentially complete absence of visualization of the liver and heart (the 'MIBG super scan'). These signs have not previously been described in an infant or a child with neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  18. Predicting Rape Victim Empathy Based on Rape Victimization and Acknowledgment Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Suzanne L

    2016-06-01

    Two studies examined rape victim empathy based on personal rape victimization and acknowledgment labeling. Female undergraduates (Study 1, n = 267; Study 2, n = 381) from a Northeast U.S. midsize public university completed the Rape-Victim Empathy Scale and Sexual Experiences Survey. As predicted, both studies found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than unacknowledged victims and nonvictims. Unexpectedly, these latter two groups did not differ. Study 1 also found that acknowledged "rape" victims reported greater empathy than victims who acknowledged being "sexually victimized." Findings suggest that being raped and acknowledging "rape" together may facilitate rape victim empathy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Comparison of clinical and microbiological profiles in smear-positive and smear-negative cases of suspected microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that initial smear examination results have a significant bearing on the management and outcome of suspected microbial keratitis. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients with suspected microbial keratitis were included in a prospective nonrandomized comparative study and their detailed clinical and microbiological data (smears and cultures of corneal scrapings were captured on a predesigned corneal ulcer database. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 68 patients with corneal scrapings negative in smears while Group 2 included 102 patients with corneal scrapings positive in smears. The two groups were compared for their clinico-microbiological profile, management and clinical outcome. The outcome was noted at three months. Fisher′s exact test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Cultures were sterile in 57.3% of patients in Group 1 compared to 17.6% in Group 2. Scrapings that grew S. pneumoniae , gram-negative organisms, fungi and Acanthamoeba were more often positive in smears (18.6%, 11.8%, 19.6% and 2.9% respectively. While data on duration of prior treatment was not available, prior medication made no significant difference to smear results. More (79.3% patients of Group 1 had small infiltrate size (< 25 mm[[2

  20. Recognizing and responding to cases of suspected animal cruelty, abuse, and neglect: what the veterinarian needs to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkow P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phil Arkow National Link Coalition – The National Resource Center on The Link Between Animal Abuse and Human Violence, Stratford, NJ, USA Abstract: The identification of a “battered pets” syndrome, which put the veterinary profession on a parallel footing with its counterparts in human medicine who respond to battered children, women, and elders, expanded the veterinarian’s role as an advocate for animals’ welfare to include the recognition of, response to, and prevention of animal abuse. Professional policies and legislation in several nations have been amended to define these responsibilities and delineate appropriate responses when animal maltreatment or other forms of family violence are suspected. This article reviews these changes, discusses abuse as a matter of animal welfare and public health, and summarizes research describing animal abuse as a possible indicator and predictor of interpersonal violence. Five steps that helped build human health care’s response to child abuse, domestic violence, and elder abuse, and that are analogous to forces in contemporary veterinary practice, are described. It familiarizes practitioners with terminology used in animal cruelty investigations. It describes clinical presentations, client profiles and behaviors, and environmental conditions that may raise a practitioner’s index of suspicion of possible animal maltreatment. It reviews protocols that practitioners may employ to respond compassionately and effectively to suspected animal abuse and enhance successful law enforcement investigations and prosecutions. Such responses can unite human and veterinary medicine in a common concern for vulnerable, victimized, and at-risk populations and position veterinarians as an essential part of public health approaches to break the cycles of violence affecting animals and human members of the family and community. Keywords: animal cruelty, animal abuse, neglect, reporting, animal welfare, domestic

  1. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiloha, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India ?rape laws? began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of ?rape and inclusion of ?marital rape? in the ambit of rape. Law Commis...

  2. Wartime Women Rape: A Means of Moral Attack and Emasculation in Lynn Nottage’s Ruined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaff Ganim Salih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women rape at warfare was considered a consequence of war in the social, literary and political world for a long period of time. Some criminals of rape escaped justice and others were persecuted on the basis that they were involved in mass rape because it was a natural consequence of war. But, women are targeted with rape in time of war because they are the symbolic representation of a culture, ethnicity, and the unifying fabric of their people and nation. The objective of this paper is to show that war rape is not a result of war; instead it is a means of human destruction through moral attack and emasculation. It aims to show that women rape in warfare is neither a misogynist act nor a sexual violence but it is a pre-planned weapon used strategically and systematically to fulfill certain political and military agenda. The study focuses on the sexual abuse of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo in time of war in Lynn Nottage’s Pulitzer Prize play, Ruined (2007. The study applies Jonathan Gottschall’s Strategic Rape theory, which highlights war rape as a pre-planned military strategy. The enemy emasculates men and attacks them morally by raping their women. Consequently, men’s failure to protect their women causes them to give up resistance, leave their lands and families because of shame and humiliation. The study concludes that women rape in time of war is a tactic followed by conquerors intentionally to facilitate and guarantee the achievement of certain pre-planned goals as was the case of mass rape in the DRC.

  3. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON MARITAL RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Endriyo Susila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  4. Beyond Rape Myths: A More Complex View of Perceptions of Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddie, Amy M.; Miller, Arthur G.

    2001-01-01

    Examined personal beliefs and perceptions of cultural stereotypes surrounding rape victims. Primarily white college students listed their beliefs and perceptions and rated a specific rape victim accordingly. Students' personal beliefs tended to focus more on perceptions of victim reactions to the rape rather than rape myths. However, their…

  5. Rape reporting: "Classic Rape" and the behavior of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay-Warner, Jody; McMahon-Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Two theories of rape reporting, the Classic Rape perspective and Black's Theory of the Behavior of Law, are tested in this article. We offer the first comprehensive multivariate test of Classic Rape predictions among a nationally representative sample of victims, as well as the first test of Black's predictions for rape reporting. Through the construction of multinomial regression models, we are able to examine reporting patterns for both victims and third parties. Weapon use and physical injury consistently predicted reporting. The likelihood of victim reporting significantly increased when assaults occurred either in public or through a "home blitz," whereas place of assault did not affect the likelihood of third-party reporting. On the other hand, victim-offender relationship significantly affected the likelihood of third-party reporting but was not significant in the victim-reporting models. There were mixed findings regarding Black's stratification and morphology predictions, and we found no significant effects for culture, organization, or social control. Overall, these findings lend greater support to the Classic Rape perspective than to Black's model.

  6. Oppression through acceptance?: predicting rape myth acceptance and attitudes toward rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, Jericho M; Saucier, Donald A; Hoffman, Bethany H; Smith, Sara J; Craig, Adam W

    2009-08-01

    Feminist theories of rape motivation are based on research suggesting a relationship between dominance and sexual aggression. However, the relationship between dominance and rape myth acceptance (RMA), a predictor of rape proclivity and sexual aggression and a key component in feminist theory, is understudied. The current study tests the hypotheses that individuals' scores on sex-based oppression and intergroup dominance measures will improve the predictive models for RMA and attitudes toward rape and rape victims. The hypotheses are supported. Individuals' general intergroup dominance and sex-based oppression attitudes provide significant unique prediction beyond previously studied predictors of attitudes about rape and rape victims.

  7. Rape myth acceptance impacts the reporting of rape to the police: a study of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M; Lynch, Shannon M; Fritch, April M; Wong, Maria M

    2013-09-01

    We examined the association between rape myth acceptance (RMA) and reporting rapes to the police. Situational characteristics of the rape (e.g., stranger attack, injury) are known predictors of reporting, but no existing studies have examined the association between beliefs about rape and reporting. In addition, most studies of RMA do not assess victimization history. Incarcerated women experience high rates of sexual assaults prior to incarceration. We recruited 74 rape survivors from a northwestern state prison. Results suggest that women who endorsed higher levels of RMA were less likely to report their rapes to police; however, participants endorsed few rape myths.

  8. Law enforcement officers' perception of rape and rape victims: a multimethod study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennicke, Annelise; Anderson, Delaney; Oehme, Karen; Kennedy, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In a study to assess law enforcement officers' perceptions of rape and rape victims, researchers asked 149 law enforcement officers to respond to surveys which included a definition of rape measure, an unfounded rape claims measure, and the Rape Myth Acceptance Scale-Revised (RMA-R) measure. Although most officers scored low on the RMA-R--indicating that they did not adhere to myths about rape--most officers also responded with incomplete definitions of rape and inaccurate estimates of the number of false rape claims. Multivariate analyses indicated that officers' open-ended responses did not predict their scores on the RMA-R scale. It is argued that the RMA-R alone does not accurately measure officers' understanding of rape. Officers need ongoing training on the legal elements of the crime, the necessity of sensitivity with victims, and research-based statistics on the prevalence of rape.

  9. The aftermath of rape: recent empirical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Dean G; Veronen, Lois J; Resick, Patricia A

    1979-10-01

    In a longitudinal study of the effects of rape on a woman's subsequent psychological functioning, objective measures of mood state and psychological distress were obtained at four intervals from 46 recent rape victims and 35 nonvictims. Initial response to rape was characterized by intense generalized distress. Three months and six months later, this distress had diminished, leaving a residual of fear and anxiety problems that were clearly rape-related. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  10. Scheduling delay in suspected cases of oral cancer Atraso de agendamento em casos suspeitos de câncer bucal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Meneses Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate scheduling delay of dental exams in the city of São Paulo of patients suspected of having oral cancer. A cross-sectional study was performed in which telephone conversations simulated clinical situations that represented two types of patients: one presenting symptoms suggestive of oral cancer (CA, and another one suggesting the need for prostheses (PR. The scheduling delay was evaluated by the days until an appointment for care; and among public offices, by type of schedule (emergency or routine. Negative binomial regression was used (95% statistical significance. Five hundred and seventy-five public and private dental offices participated in the study. The mean scheduling delay for the CA group was 2.88 days, and for the PR group, 4.34 days (p = 0.01. The mean scheduling delay was shorter in private dental offices (2.59 days than in offices that accepted health insurance (2.74 days (p = 0.01; the delay was shorter when performed by the dentist rather than by the dental assistant, 2.45 versus 4.21 days (p = 0.01. In public services, 69% of patients in the cancer group were sent to the emergency service. Dental services were accessible for scheduling clinical examinations among patients suspected of having oral cancer.O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o atraso de agendamento de pacientes com suspeita de câncer bucal aos exames odontológicos na cidade de São Paulo. Realizou-se estudo transversal, em que conversações telefônicas simularam situações clínicas, representando dois tipos de pacientes-padrão: um com sintomas sugestivos de câncer bucal e outro com necessidade de prótese. O atraso do agendamento foi avaliado pelo tempo de agendamento para a consulta e, no caso de estabelecimentos públicos, pelo tipo de agendamento (rotina ou urgência. Utilizou-se regressão binomial negativa (95% de nível de significância. Participaram do estudo 575 estabelecimentos públicos e privados. O tempo m

  11. An Institutional Response to Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajacich, Dale; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for date rape prevention on college campuses is presented. Based on current literature, the model offers systematic prevention strategies at the institutional level and includes a date rape assessment guide and an outline of a sample date rape prevention program to assist institutions in program development. (MSE)

  12. Rape Crisis Centers: Progress and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H. Elizabeth; Webb, Carol

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the crisis and aftermath, particularly the psychological effects of rape. Discusses findings from a national survey of rape crisis centers. Data was gathered in order to identify the nature and extent of services provided, determine number of rape victims treated, and understand problems confronted by service providers.…

  13. SUPPORTING RAPE SURVIVORS IN ADHERING TO POST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-14

    Oct 14, 2008 ... affecting adherence to PEP in the aftermath of rape. A number of different approaches were attempted to recruit rape survivors. Letters explaining the study purpose and requesting assistance with recruiting victims were sent to organisations that provide counselling to rape survivors. One PEP site in the ...

  14. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  15. Rape myth acceptance and rape acknowledgment: The mediating role of sexual refusal assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newins, Amie R; Wilson, Laura C; White, Susan W

    2018-02-16

    Unacknowledged rape, defined as when an individual experiences an event that meets a legal or empirical definition of rape but the individual does not label it as such, is prevalent. Research examining predictors of rape acknowledgment is needed. Sexual assertiveness may be an important variable to consider, as an individual's typical behavior during sexual situations may influence rape acknowledgment. To assess the indirect effect of rape myth acceptance on rape acknowledgment through sexual refusal assertiveness, an online survey of 181 female rape survivors was conducted. The indirect effects of two types of rape myths (He didn't mean to and Rape is a deviant event) were significant and positive. Specifically, acceptance of these two rape myths was negatively related to sexual refusal assertiveness, which was negatively associated with likelihood of rape acknowledgment. The results of this study indicate that sexual refusal assertiveness is associated with lower likelihood of rape acknowledgment among rape survivors. As a result, it appears that, under certain circumstances, women high in rape myth acceptance may be more likely to acknowledge rape when it results in decreased sexual refusal assertiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Middle Ear Exploration Results in Suspected Otosclerosis Cases Referred to Amir-Almomenin and Golsar Hospitals, Rasht, 2001-2011: Are Ossicular and Footplate Area Anomalies Rare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Otosclerosis is a disease of bony labyrinth. Structural changes in the labyrinth often cause ossicular fixation, and thus conductive hearing loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate middle ear exploration findings and frequency of ossicular and footplate area anomalies in patients with suspected otosclerosis referred to Amiralmomenin and Golsar Hospitals in Rasht, Iran.   Materials and Methods: In 47 patients undergone middle ear exploration in Amiralmomenin and Golsar hospitals from April 2001 to March 2011, the intraoperative findings, and other data were extracted from the medical records of the patients. The data was analyzed using SPSS 17 software.   Results: Frequency of fixation of stapes, malleus, and incus by age and sex in patients undergoing middle ear exploration showed that stapes had been fixed in 39 patients, malleus in 6 patients, and incus in 21 patients. Analysis of data showed that there was no significant association between sex and age with fixation of any of ossicles (P>0/05. Middle ear anomalies were seen in 16 cases (34.0%. Overhanging of facial nerve in 4 cases, thick stapedial crura in 5 cases, and perilymph gusher in 2 cases were the most frequent anomalies.   Conclusion:  This study show that the results of middle ear explorations in our patients in the north of Iran is somehow different from the typical otosclerotic cases, although the frequency of ossicular anomalies is better to be evaluated and compared in different areas of Iran, and other countries. 

  17. Women's attitudes toward forcible rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolor, A

    1978-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes of women with diverse backgrounds toward possible responses to an attempted sexual assault and also ascertained their beliefs about how society should handle a convicted rapist. Additionally, the role which the personality dimensions of assertiveness and internal-external expectamcy play in shaping attitudes toward rape was investigated. Seventy-seven women and 25 men were administered the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, the Rotter I-E Scale, and a Rape Inventory. Women relied on a narrow range of options to deal with a rapist's attack, depending mostly on less active modes. They advocated humane approaches be taken with convicted rapists. Personality played only a minor role.

  18. The Role of the Military in Securing Suspects and Evidence in the Prosecution of Terrorism Cases before Civilian Courts: Legal and Practical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the fact that civil authorities are usually involved in the investigation and prosecution of terrorist crimes, reality on the ground often leads to a different situation. Indeed, the military may be called upon to carry out law enforcement activities when embedded in situations characterised by conflict, high risk level of threat and/or a lack of local civil capacity. In this Research Paper, the role of the military when performing law enforcement activities in terms of collecting evidence and/or securing suspected terrorists is analysed. Dr. Bibi van Ginkel and Dr. Christophe Paulussen point out that past experiences, for instance from counter-piracy operations and evidence-based operations, may provide some guidance for future cases.

  19. Early treatment failure in concurrent dengue and mixed malaria species infection with suspected resistance to artemisinin combination therapy from a tertiary care center in Delhi: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksena, Rushika; Matlani, Monika; Singh, Vineeta; Kumar, Amit; Anveshi, Anupam; Kumar, Dilip; Gaind, Rajni

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent dengue and mixed malaria infections in a single patient present with overlapping clinical manifestations which pose a diagnostic challenge and management dilemma in areas of common endemicities. We report a case of a young male who tested positive for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum along with dengue infection. He showed signs of early treatment failure to artemisinin combination therapy (artesunate with sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine). Molecular analysis for the drug resistance genes viz: chloroquine resistance ( pfcrt ), multidrug resistance ( pfmdr-1 ), sulfadoxine ( pfdhps ), pyrimethamine ( pfdhfr ), and artemisinin resistance ( keltch 13 ) was performed. A rise in parasitemia from treatment. Mutations in pfcrt , pfmdr-1 , pfdhfr , and pfdhps genes were detected as a possible cause of treatment failure. Increased severity, overlapping symptoms, and suspected resistance to treatment warrants a multidimensional diagnostic approach and diligent therapeutic monitoring.

  20. Marital rape: history, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennice, Jennifer A; Resick, Patricia A

    2003-07-01

    Despite the increased recognition that the topic of marital rape has generated in the past 2 decades, the literature in this area remains sparse. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the marital rape literature. First, the lengthy history of legal, cultural, and professional invalidation of marital rape victims, and the resulting negative treatment implications, is discussed. Second, marital rape research is reviewed, including prevalence, descriptive, and comparison studies. This review highlights the seriousness of marital rape, in terms of prevalence and posttrauma distress, as well as the limitations of extant research. Finally, barriers to treatment and recommendations for professionals are discussed.

  1. Cultural and legal accounts of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Villanueva, Concepción

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to show how rape is represented in a variety of historical and contemporary discourses. Examples of rapes in Greek mythology, in the Bible, in medieval iconography, in literature, and in scientific theories, are compared and contrasted. Analysis suggests that such discourses tend to make sexual aggression (and specifically the rape of women legitimate, be it by minimizing the harm done; by normalizing and naturalizing sexual violence; or by aesthetisizing rape as art. Finally, the paper argues that putting modern legal accounts of rape into their historical perspective brings into sharper focus the persistence of ancient myths and discourses

  2. Rape against Brazilian Women: Characteristics of Victims and Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Rafaella Q; Araújo, Francisco K C D; Xavier, Alidianne F C; Cavalcanti, Alessandro L

    2015-12-01

    Violence against women is a serious social problem and affects mainly young women. This study aimed to evaluate sexual violence against women in Campina Grande, Brazil. A retrospective study with analysis of 886 forensic medical reports of sexual violence from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Campina Grande, Brazil, was conducted between January 2005 and December 2009. Sociodemographic variables related to victims, offenders and aggressions were analyzed. Significance level of 5% was adopted. Two hundred and ninety-one cases of rape (32.8%) were confirmed, the majority of victims aged between 0 and 19 years (89.9%), were single (98.8%) and had low educational level (86.9%), with association with marital status (P = 0.02). The sex offender was known to the victim in 84.2% of cases and in 93.8% of cases, he acted alone. There was an association between rape and the relationship with the offenders (P = 0.01) and the age of the offenders (P = 0.03). The rape occurred in most cases at the home of victims (49.3%), with the use of violence in 72.3% of cases, but only 5.7% of the victims exhibited physical injuries. There was an association between rape and variables date of occurrence (P = 0.001), previous virginity (P = 0.001) and violence during practice (P = 0.001). Over one third of women were victims of rape, predominantly adolescents, unmarried and with low educational level. The offenders were known to the victims, and acted alone in most situations, making use of physical violence.

  3. Intratypic differentiation of polioviruses isolated from suspected cases of poliomyelitis in Brazil during the period of 1990 to 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. B. de Filippis

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed 3129 fecal samples derived from 1626 patients with sudden onset acute flaccid paralysis clinically compatible with poliomyelitis. The samples were collected in the period ranging from January 1990 to September 1993 in all regions of Brazil. Among the 1626 cases studied, 196 had isolation of poliovirus. Nevertheless, it was observed that some factors influenced the isolation rate and the intratypic characterization of these polioviruses. No cases of acute flaccid paralysis has been found to be etiologically related with wild polioviruses.

  4. Diagnostic Tools to Use When We Suspect an Allergic Reaction to a Tattoo: A Proposal Based on Cases at Our Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villanueva, I; Silvestre Salvador, J F

    2018-03-01

    Tattooing has become a popular practice in western countries, particularly among younger populations. Tattoos, however, can cause complications, such as infections, allergic or foreign-body reactions, and even systemic inflammatory responses. We conducted a retrospective study of all patients seen for tattoo-related complications at our skin allergy unit between January 2002 and December 2016. We studied 23 patients. Nine of these experienced early complications, all related to infection. The other 14 patients developed late reactions. Ten were diagnosed with probable allergic contact dermatitis to ink, but the suspect allergen was identified in just 3 cases and confirmed in just 1 of these. There were 2 cases of cutaneous sarcoidosis, 1 case of foreign body granuloma, and 1 case of neuropathy. Complications resulting from tattoos are relatively common dermatology complaints. Drawing from our experience, we propose a diagnostic algorithm designed to guide dermatologists in evaluating different reactions to tattoos and prescribing appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Poor quality data challenges conclusion and decision making: timely analysis of measles confirmed and suspected cases line list in Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endriyas, Misganu; Solomon, Tarekegn; Belayhun, Bekele; Mekonnen, Emebet

    2018-02-12

    Measles is one of the leading causes of death among young children even though a safe and cost-effective vaccine is available. Timely analysis of measles surveillance data is crucial for epidemic control and can show disease control program status. Therefore, this study aimed to show vaccination status and delay in seeking health care using surveillance data. A retrospective study was carried out in Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia. We reviewed 2132 records from measles surveillance line list data from July 2013 to January 2014. Descriptive statistics were performed using SPSS 20 for Windows. From a total of 2132 confirmed and suspected measles cases, 1319 (61.9%), had at least one dose of measles containing vaccine; the rest 398 (18.7%) and 415 (19.5%) were unvaccinated and had unknown status respectively. About two fifth, 846 (39.7%), cases visited health facilities within 48 h of onset of clinical signs/symptoms with a median of 2.0 days, IQR (1.0, 3.0). Majority of the measles cases were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles containing vaccine and vaccination data or vaccine potency at lower level was unclear. Delay in seeking healthcare was noted as only about two fifth of cases visited health facilities within 48 h of clinical manifestation. Vaccination and surveillance data quality and factors associated with delay in seeking health care should be investigated.

  6. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-01-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualise a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents’ gender; (3) to examine the ‘cultural lag’ theory of male rape where it was hypothesised that if the public perception of male rape l...

  7. Social perception of rape: how rape myth acceptance modulates the influence of situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Bettina; Moya, Miguel; Megías, Jesús L

    2004-02-01

    This study assessed the role of rape myth acceptance (RMA) and situational factors in the perception of three different rape scenarios (date rape, marital rape, and stranger rape). One hundred and eighty-two psychology undergraduates were asked to emit four judgements about each rape situation: victim responsibility, perpetrator responsibility, intensity of trauma, and likelihood to report the crime to the police. It was hypothesized that neither RMA nor situational factors alone can explain how rape is perceived; it is the interaction between these two factors that best account for social reactions to sexual aggression. The results generally supported the authors' hypothesis: Victim blame, estimation of trauma, and the likelihood of reporting the crime to the police were best explained by the interaction between observer characteristics, such as RMA, and situational clues. That is, the less stereotypic the rape situation was, the greater was the influence of attitudes toward rape on attributions.

  8. Patterns of rape and approaches to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiton-Rockwell, F

    1978-03-01

    The family physician is likely to be involved in the care of the rape victim. This paper focuses on the social and legal definitions of rape as well as the incidence of rape. The Rape Trauma Syndrome is explained and normative responses of victims are discussed. Eight common myths about rape are identified which the victim and the physician may share. In discussing the myths, guidelines for counseling the rape victim are delineated: encourage the victim to talk about her feelings; as the physician, remain nonjudgmental; provide information or resources to the victim; view the aftermath of rape as a response to a life-threatening event; and enlist the support of the victim's significant others. Finally, the importance of understanding the available community resources is stressed.

  9. Myths and legends: The reality of rape offences reported to a UK police force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve F. Waterhouse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rape myths affect many aspects of the investigative and criminal justice systems. One such myth, the ‘real rape’ myth, states that most rapes involve a stranger using a weapon attacking a woman violently at night in an isolated, outdoor area, and that women sustain serious injuries from these attacks. The present study examined how often actual offences reported to a central UK police force over a two year period matched the ‘real rape’ myth. Out of 400 cases of rape reported, not a single incident was found with all the characteristics of the ‘real rape’ myth. The few stranger rapes that occurred had a strong link to night-time economy activities, such as the victim and offender both having visited pubs, bars, and clubs. By contrast, the majority of reported rape offences (280 cases, 70.7% were committed by people known to the victim (e.g., domestic and acquaintance rapes, occurred inside a residence, with most victims sustaining no physical injuries from the attack. The benefits of these naturalistic findings from the field for educating people about the inaccuracy of rape myths are discussed.

  10. L-DOPA therapy interferes with urine catecholamine analysis in children with suspected neuroblastoma: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Alison U; Srivastava, Rajeev; Dow, Ellie; Davidson, D Fraser

    2017-09-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid extracranial malignancy diagnosed in childhood. Clinical presentation is variable, and metastatic disease is common at diagnosis. Analyses of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites are commonly requested as a first-line investigation when clinical suspicion exists. Levodopa (L-Dopa) therapy is utilized as a treatment for a number of disorders in childhood, including Dopa-responsive dystonia. Neuroblastoma may mimic some of the clinical features of this disorder. L-Dopa can interfere with analysis of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites and complicate the interpretation of results. We present the cases of three children who were prescribed L-dopa at the time of analysis of urinary catecholamines and metabolites as a screen for neuroblastoma, but who did not have the disease. Comparison of their results with those from cases with true neuroblastoma reveal that it is impossible to reliably distinguish true neuroblastoma from L-Dopa therapy using these tests. We recommend that patients should be off L-dopa therapy, if possible when these tests are performed. These cases illustrate the importance of providing clinical details and drug history to the laboratory in order to avoid diagnostic confusion.

  11. Negligent Rape and Reasonable Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2008-01-01

    ; and as a matter of fact such rules are accepted and followed by far the most. Yet, the approach taken by Danish Criminal Law to rape does not pay heed to these rules, but is rather based on a most narrow conception of male responsibility and obligation that stands in clear opposition with practice and policy...

  12. Can facial proportions taken from images be of use for ageing in cases of suspected child pornography? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Obertová, Zuzana; Ratnayake, Melanie; Marasciuolo, Laura; Tutkuviene, J; Poppa, Pasquale; Gibelli, Daniele; Gabriel, Peter; Ritz-Timme, S

    2012-01-01

    The age of the victim plays a crucial role for the legal implications concerning pornography. Judges therefore often call on forensic experts to verify the age of individuals depicted on photographs or videos. However, there is no scientifically established protocol available for forensic practice in such cases. The conventional methods such as the evaluation of secondary sexual characteristics provide unsatisfactory results particularly when the legally relevant ages for child pornography (i.e. 14 and 18 years) are concerned. To overcome these limits, a European research group has explored the applicability of facial proportions as an age indicator on images. In this pilot study, standardized facial images of 353 females and 20 males from four age groups (6, 10, 14 and 18 years) were randomly selected for the metric analysis from a large data set including German, Italian and Lithuanian subjects. In this sample, several indices extracted from the frontal and lateral photographs were closely correlated to their respective indices taken from the living individuals. Furthermore, age-related changes were identified for indices taken from the photographs. The discriminant analysis showed that for the pooled sample, 60.3% of the cases were correctly classified into the respective age group. The percentage of correctly classified cases increased in the respective country samples as follows: 69.9% for Germany, 69.4% for Lithuania and 80.5% for Italy. The present study suggests that the metric assessment of the face may be used for age estimation on images. Nonetheless, more work needs to be done in order to verify the reliability of these findings on a large sample.

  13. A review of literature: rape and communication media strategies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is within this context that this article reviews the concept of rape, evolutionary history of rape, rape and the law, effects of rape on victims and society, with a view to raising societal awareness and providing informational templates for an effective management of rape and gender violence and related issues in contemporary ...

  14. The impact of detectives' manner of questioning on rape victims' disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra

    2011-11-01

    Research has documented that few reported rapes are prosecuted by the legal system. The purpose of this study is to explain how the interactions between victims and detectives can strengthen or weaken the investigation itself. Twenty rape victims were interviewed to examine how law enforcement detectives' manner of questioning affects rape victims' level of disclosure. Using qualitative methodology, the results show that the detectives' manner of questioning can play a role in victims' disclosure. Detectives using a gentle manner of questioning with victims can help produce stronger victim statements and thus build stronger cases for prosecution.

  15. The diagnostic use of MRT in cases of suspected spondylitis; MRT-Differentialdiagnose bei Verdacht auf Spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehner, K. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    In cases where MRT fails to reveal abscess formation or typical vertebral changes to confirm the preliminary diagnosis, further examinations are necessary to exclude diseases other than spondylitis. More remote possibilities like insufficiency fracture, rheumatic disorders and neoplasm can mostly be ruled out on the basis of conventional X-ray pictures. Conventional tomography and computed tomography should also be carried out in addition to MRT in the rare case of unconfirmed activated arthrosis or disc removal syndrome. In order to distinguish between infective and non-infective/reactive changes, contrast-enhanced repeat MRT following antibiotic treatment may be very helpful. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wenn bei einer Spondylitis ein dafuer beweisender Abszess oder eine typische Destruktion des Wirbelkoerpers nicht vorliegt, ist auch nach Durchfuehrung einer MRT oft eine differentialdiagnostische Abgrenzung gegenueber anderen Ursachen erforderlich. Ferner stehende Differentialdiagnosen wie Insuffizienzfraktur, rheumatische Erkrankungen und eine Neoplasie koennen mit den Moeglichkeiten des konventionellen Roentgenbildes meist ausgeschlossen werden. An die konventionelle- und Computertomographie sollte - auch nach Durchfuehrung der MRT - noch in unklaren Einzelfaellen von aktivierter Arthrose oder Postdisketomie-Syndrom gedacht werden. Eine gute differentialdiagnostische Moeglichkeit zur Unterscheidung zwischen einem Infekt und einem nicht infektioesen/reaktivem Geschehen ist die Wiederholungs-MRT mit KM-Applikation nach durchgefuehrter antibiotischer Behandlung. (orig.)

  16. First human cases of Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi infection in Ecuador and identification of its suspected vector species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Calvopiña, Manuel; Criollo, Hipatia; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis was conducted in a northern Amazonian region of Ecuador, in which cutaneous leishmaniasis cases were recently reported. Sand flies were captured in the military training camp, and the natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania species was examined. Out of 334 female sand flies dissected, the natural infection by flagellates was microscopically detected in 3.9% of Lutzomyia yuilli yuilli and 3.7% of Lutzomyia tortura, and the parasite species were identified as Endotrypanum and Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, respectively. After the sand fly surveillance, specimens from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients considered to have acquired the infection in the training camp area were obtained, and the infected parasite species were identified as L. (V.) naiffi. The present study reported first cases of CL caused by L. (V.) naiffi infection in Ecuador. In addition, a high ratio of infection of Lu. tortura by L. (V.) naiffi in the same area strongly suggested that Lu. tortura is responsible for the transmission of L. (V.) naiffi in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CSF Tau proteins reduce misdiagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease suspected cases with inconclusive 14-3-3 result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, M J; Baldeiras, I; Almeida, M R; Ribeiro, M H; Santos, A C; Ribeiro, M; Tomás, J; Rocha, S; Santana, I; Oliveira, C R

    2016-09-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 protein supports sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob (sCJD) diagnosis, but often leads to weak-positive results and lacks standardization. In this study, we explored the added diagnostic value of Total Tau (t-Tau) and phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) in sCJD diagnosis, particularly in the cases with inconclusive 14-3-3 result. 95 definite sCJD and 287 patients without prion disease (non-CJD) were included in this study. CSF samples were collected in routine clinical diagnosis and analysed for 14-3-3 detection by Western blot (WB). CSF t-Tau and p-Tau were quantified by commercial ELISA kits and PRNP and APOE genotyping assessed by PCR-RFLP. In a regression analysis of the whole cohort, 14-3-3 protein revealed an overall accuracy of 82 % (sensitivity = 96.7 %; specificity = 75.6 %) for sCJD. Regarding 14-3-3 clear positive results, we observed no added value either of t-Tau alone or p-Tau/t-Tau ratio in the model. On the other hand, considering 14-3-3 weak-positive cases, t-Tau protein increased the overall accuracy of 14-3-3 alone from 91 to 94 % and specificity from 74 to 93 % (p < 0.05), with no sensitivity improvement. However, inclusion of p-Tau/t-Tau ratio did not significantly improve the first model (p = 0.0595). Globally, t-Tau protein allowed a further discrimination of 65 % within 14-3-3 inconclusive results. Furthermore, PRNP MV genotype showed a trend to decrease 14-3-3 sensitivity (p = 0.051), but such effect was not seen on t-Tau protein. In light of these results, we suggest that t-Tau protein assay is of significant importance as a second marker in identifying 14-3-3 false-positive results among sCJD probable cases.

  18. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  19. Not the usual suspect: a case of erythema induration of Bazin in an urban primary care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Frontline clinicians in the United States, especially those working in safety net hospitals or with immigrant populations, will likely see cutaneous tuberculosis given the tremendous burden of tuberculosis infection worldwide. The tuberculid is a subtype of cutaneous tuberculosis that poses a diagnostic challenge because organisms are not found in smears or cultures taken from the lesions. Tuberculid lesions can mimic erythema nodosum, thrombophlebitis, and cellulitis. We describe the case of a 57-year-old woman immigrant from China who presented with tender, subcutaneous nodules on her ankle and thigh in the setting of prior exposure to tuberculosis. We describe the clinical, pathophysiologic, and histopathologic features of tuberculids in order to raise awareness among primary care clinicians about this difficult to diagnose but readily treatable manifestation of tuberculosis.

  20. Calling It Rape: Differences in Experiences of Women Who Do or Do Not Label Their Sexual Assault as Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Arnold S.; Jackson, Jennifer; Kully, Christine; Badger, Kelly; Halvorsen, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    Past research had found that one-half or more of all women who have had an experience that might meet the definition of rape do not label themselves rape victims. The present study examined the actual rape experiences of 33 women who labeled their assault experience as rape and 56 women who did not label their assault experience as rape through…

  1. Retrospective assessment of the most common mitochondrial DNA mutations in a large Hungarian cohort of suspect mitochondrial cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenyi, Viktoria; Inczedy-Farkas, Gabriella; Komlosi, Katalin; Horvath, Rita; Maasz, Anita; Janicsek, Ingrid; Pentelenyi, Klara; Gal, Aniko; Karcagi, Veronika; Melegh, Bela; Molnar, Maria Judit

    2015-08-01

    Prevalence estimations for mitochondrial disorders still vary widely and only few epidemiologic studies have been carried out so far. With the present work we aim to give a comprehensive overview about frequencies of the most common mitochondrial mutations in Hungarian patients. A total of 1328 patients were tested between 1999 and 2012. Among them, 882 were screened for the m.3243A > G, m.8344A > G, m.8993T > C/G mutations and deletions, 446 for LHON primary mutations. The mutation frequency in our cohort was 2.61% for the m.3243A > G, 1.47% for the m.8344A > G, 17.94% for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (m.3460G > A, m.11778G > A, m.14484T > C) and 0.45% for the m.8993T > C/G substitutions. Single mtDNA deletions were detected in 14.97%, while multiple deletions in 6.01% of the cases. The mutation frequency in Hungarian patients suggestive of mitochondrial disease was similar to other Caucasian populations. Further retrospective studies of different populations are needed in order to accurately assess the importance of mitochondrial diseases and manage these patients.

  2. Molecular screening of 980 cases of suspected hereditary optic neuropathy with a report on 77 novel OPA1 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferré, Marc; Bonneau, Dominique; Milea, Dan

    2009-01-01

    primary LHON-causing mtDNA mutations and examining the entire coding sequences of the OPA1 and OPA3 genes, the two genes currently identified in ADOA. Molecular defects were identified in 440 patients (45% of screened patients). Among these, 295 patients (67%) had an OPA1 mutation, 131 patients (30%) had...... an mtDNA mutation, and 14 patients (3%), belonging to three unrelated families, had an OPA3 mutation. Interestingly, OPA1 mutations were found in 157 (40%) of the 392 apparently sporadic cases of optic atrophy. The eOPA1 locus-specific database now contains a total of 204 OPA1 mutations, including 77...... novel OPA1 mutations reported here. The statistical analysis of this large set of mutations has led us to propose a diagnostic strategy that should help with the molecular work-up of optic neuropathies. Our results highlight the importance of investigating LHON-causing mtDNA mutations as well as OPA1...

  3. Comparing routes of reporting in elder sexual abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Ramsey-Klawsnik, Holly; Gregorian, Sarah B

    2008-01-01

    An exploratory study of 284 cases of alleged elder sexual abuse revealed fairly equal numbers of reports to the criminal justice system (CJS) and to Adult Protective Services (APS). Comparison of these two routes of reporting indicated the following: Suspected victims reported to APS were more likely to reside in their own homes, not receive rape exams, and have cognitive disabilities. Their alleged offenders were typically spouse/partners or family members age 40 or older. Victims reported to CJS were more frequently abused in institutions, received rape exams, and were victimized by offenders under age 40 who also committed nonsexual crimes. In cases reported to the CJS, alleged offenders were less likely than those in the APS cases to be identified, but once identified, were more likely to be arrested, referred for prosecution, and convicted, or to plea bargain their case.

  4. The (in)credible words of women: false allegations in European rape research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Liz

    2010-12-01

    The issue of false allegations in rape cases cannot be understood without reference to the ways in which rape law and its interpretation has historically problematized "the words of a woman" when what they were speaking about was sexual violation. Whilst the letter of the law has been reformed in many countries, legacies remain sedimented into institutional cultures and practices, creating a risk of over-identification of false allegations by police and prosecutors. Findings from two European studies on attrition in reported rape cases are drawn on to highlight both the mechanisms and processes which create the category of false allegations, especially the opaque "no crime/unfounded" designations and that CJS personnel believe the rates to be considerably higher than their own data. The article concludes by raising the possibility of internationally agreed standards for designating a rape report "false."

  5. The capsule endoscopy "suspected blood indicator" (SBI) for detection of active small bowel bleeding: no active bleeding in case of negative SBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Andrea Oliver; Filmann, Natalie; Makhlin, Konstantin; Hausmann, Johannes; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Albert, Jörg G

    2014-09-01

    Capsule endoscopy (CE) is the gold standard to diagnose small bowel bleeding. The "suspected blood indicator" (SBI) offers an automated detection of active small bowel bleeding but validity of this technique is unknown. The objective was to analyze specificity and sensitivity of the SBI using the second small bowel capsule generation for the detection of active bleeding. This is a retrospective analysis of all patients (199) who attended our clinic for CE from June 2008 through March 2013. The second-generation PillCam SB 2 capsule was used for detection of (1) luminal blood content and (2) potentially responsible small bowel lesions. The findings of an independent investigator were correlated to SBI findings and a number of SBI markings were analyzed by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC). In 157/199 cases, no sign of active bleeding or altered blood was detected. One hundred and thirty-seven of these 157 cases provided at least one SBI marking and a mean of 18.4 positive SBI markings per record were found. In 20 cases, neither SBI nor the human investigator detected abnormalities. Thirteen patients showed investigator-detected minor bleeding with mean SBI findings of 36 positive screenshots per record. When major bleeding was diagnosed by the investigator (n = 29), SBI detected a mean of 46.6 SBI-positive markings. SBI turned positive in 179 patients, whereas the investigator detected active bleeding in 42 cases. All patients with active bleeding were detected by SBI (sensitivity 100%, specificity 13%). ROC analysis revealed 51.0 SBI markings being the optimal cutoff for active versus no bleeding (sensitivity 79.1%, specificity 90.4%, misclassification of 15.3%). The new SBI software is a reliable tool to exclude active bleeding and/or major lesions but analysis of the CE video by a trained investigator is still important for the detection of lesions responsible for past bleeding.

  6. Determinants of nectar production in oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Kryger, Per; Boelt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    with significantly reduced quality of the nectar in terms of both volume and sugar concentration, and our results suggest that the oilseed rape in this year did not contribute notably to bee colony development. In years in which the oilseed rape flowered around the normal time (beginning of May), the amount......With the aim of contributing to the development of models forecasting the melliferous characteristics and the potential honey yield of oilseed rape, we analyzed data on the temporal pattern of number of oilseed rape flowers, nectar secretion, sugar concentration, and weight of bee hives in relation...... of secreted sugar decreased over the flowering period, being governed by inherent oilseed rape characteristics modified by climatic factors preceding the onset of flowering, as well as climatic conditions during flowering. The exploitation of oilseed rape nectar by bee colonies was found to be influenced...

  7. Reactions to Rape Victims: Effects of Rape Circumstances, Victim's Emotional Response, and Sex of Helper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulewitz, Judith E.

    1982-01-01

    Female and male undergraduates judged impact of the rape experience on victims' psychological adjustment and indicated their likely counseling goals. Results are discussed in terms of popular assumptions about rape victims and sex differences in identification with and empathy for female rape victims. Implications for training are noted. (Author)

  8. Victim Blaming in Rape: Effects of Victim and Perpetrator Race, Type of Rape, and Participant Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William H.; Martinez, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    Stereotypes about Black sexuality fostered hypotheses that racial factors and racism influence rape victim blaming. Predominantly White and Asian college students (170 men, 162 women) completed the Modern Racism Scale and evaluated a rape vignette varying victim race, perpetrator race, and rape type. As predicted, racial factors determined victim…

  9. The Geography of Rape: Rape Victims in Urban and Rural Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Hjort

    Little is known from research about barriers to seeking and receiving help following domestic violence, rape, attempted rape, and sexual assault in Denmark. This study examined possible regional differences in reporting rape and sexual assault in urban and rural communities in a large region...

  10. College Women's Fears and Precautionary Behaviors Relating to Acquaintance Rape and Stranger Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Susan E.; Muehlenhard, Charlene L.

    1997-01-01

    Studied the fears, beliefs, and behaviors of 139 college women about acquaintance and stranger rape. Women were more afraid of stranger rape and took more precautions against it but paradoxically believed that acquaintance rape was more common. Precautionary behaviors were best predicted by level of fear. Theoretical and educational implications…

  11. Prevalence and pattern of rape among girls and women attending Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayi, Robsam S; Ezugwu, Euzebus C; Chigbu, Chibuike O; Arinze-Onyia, Susan U; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and pattern of rape in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. A prospective descriptive study was conducted among female survivors of rape who presented at the emergency gynecologic and/or forensic unit of Enugu State University Teaching Hospital between February 2012 and July 2013. Data were collected via a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Among 1374 gynecologic emergencies, there were 121 (8.8%) rape cases. The mean age of the rape survivors was 13.1±8.1 years. Ninety (74.4%) survivors were younger than 18 years. At least 72 hours had passed since the rape for 74 (61.2%) cases. The perpetrator was known to 74 (82.2%) patients younger than 18 years and 18 (58.1%) aged at least 18 years (P=0.013). The location of the rape was the bush or an uncompleted building for 36 (29.8%) and the perpetrator's residence for another 36 (29.8%). Four (3.3%) individuals became pregnant after the rape. A considerable proportion of patients with gynecologic emergencies had been raped. Individuals should be encouraged to report to the hospital quickly to prevent unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MARITAL RAPE: ASSAULT ON WOMEN'S DIGNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Madhu Shastri

    2018-01-01

    A marriage, generally, is a bond of trust and affection.Dependency of women on men, the relationship entails coercive potential. Marital rape is undesirable intercourse by a husband with his wife by force, physical violence or without her consent. Marital rape is a non-consensual act of violence unconventional by a husband against the wife where she is physically, emotionally and sexually abused. It questions the very essence of human relationship, wife is continuously raped by whom she beli...

  13. War rape, natality and genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  14. Rape and Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tool (CSAT) - Probation Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Statistics Data Tool Federal Criminal Case Processing Statistics (FCCPS) NCVS Victimization Analysis Tool (NVAT) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) API ...

  15. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family.

  16. Investigating the Self-Protective Potential of Immobility in Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke A; Jones, Lynn C

    2017-04-01

    Using a nationwide sample of reported rape cases collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI; 389 victims; 89% stranger rapes), this study investigates assumptions about self-protective behaviors for rape victims. Past research on victim resistance strategies often specifies active resistance as self-protective, inadvertently underestimating the potential for biologically based reactions, such as tonic immobility, to be self-protective as well. Results confirm that rape victims who were verbally and physically immobile during the attack were less likely to be injured and have force used against them. In addition, victims who were verbally immobile suffered a less severe attack. The results indicate that immobility may protect the victim from increased injury, force, and severity of the attack. Implications for the legal and public definition of consent are discussed.

  17. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2018-04-01

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory.

  18. Psychobiological correlates of rape in female adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, I.A.E.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of youth in the Netherlands has been victimized by rape during adolescence. The present research shows that adolescence rape is correlated with high levels of psychological distress, neurobiological dysregulations and increased risk for problems with sexual and pelvic floor

  19. Japanese International Students' Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoike, Janice; Stockdale, Margaret

    This study looked at the influence of an Asian sociocultural variable, loss of face or social integrity, as a predictor of perceptions of acquaintance rape among Japanese students. In addition to the expected associations between gender, sexism, and perceptions of rape, loss of face was predicted to interact with the perpetrator's reference group…

  20. College Students' Attitudes toward Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitu, Carol Logan

    1998-01-01

    Explores gender, class, and ethnicity differences of 400 undergraduate students to assess their attitudes toward rape victims. Although no significant differences were found by class or ethnicity, a significant difference was found by gender. Men reported a higher score than women, denoting more unfavorable attitudes toward rape victims. (MKA)

  1. Medical Students' Attitudes about Female Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Connie L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined influence of assault and participant characteristics on medical students' attitudes toward rape and nonsexual-assault victims. First- and third-year students read narratives of three types of assault patients. Female students revealed more favorable attitudes toward victims than did males. Implications for service delivery to rape victims…

  2. The Psychological Impact of Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This review article examines rape victims' experiences seeking postassault assistance from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and how those interactions impact their psychological well-being. This literature suggests that although some rape victims have positive, helpful experiences with social system personnel, for many victims,…

  3. Rape: The Husband's and Boyfriend's Intital Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrom, Lynda Lytle; Burgess, Wolbert

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the reaction of husbands and boyfriends to the rape of a wife or girlfriend. The man's reaction has two components: his own response and his interaction with the victim. The issues are whether the couple can discuss the rape, deal with the woman's new phobias, and resume sexual relations. (Author)

  4. Fear of rape from behind prison walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Sudo, Heather

    2017-06-12

    Purpose The Prison Rape Elimination Act has brought significant attention to the issue of sexual victimization within correctional institutions. While the actual risk of sexual victimization remains low, the perception of rape among inmates is high. Given how one's fear can translate into behavior, understanding how institutions impact the culture surrounding prison rape highlights areas for reducing violence within prisons. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This study includes secondary analysis of a quantitative database created from semi-structured interviews with 564 high security, general population inmates. Using fear of rape as the outcome of interest, bivariate and logistic regression analyses are used to comment on the impact of individual and facility level characteristics on this outcome. Findings In general, the results from this study suggest that the greatest risk factors for fearing rape while in prison are being male, having a mental health issue, and hearing about rape within the institution. From these specific findings a few general lessons can be learned with the hope that practitioners can translate these lessons into policy initiatives in order to combat fear of rape among our inmate population. Originality/value This paper aims to fill a gap in the research on how the facility contributes to the fear of rape within prison. The end goal is to inform policy makers so that suggestions can be made to combat this problem and prevent further misconduct within these facilities.

  5. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  6. Individual differences in women's rape avoidance behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, William F; Shackelford, Todd K; Miner, Emily J; Bates, Vincent M; Liddle, James R

    2011-04-01

    Rape can exact severe psychological, physical, and reproductive costs on women, and likely was a recurrent adaptive problem over human evolutionary history. Therefore, women may have evolved psychological mechanisms that motivate rape avoidance behaviors. Guided heuristically by an evolutionary perspective, we tested the hypothesis that women's rape avoidance behaviors would vary with several individual difference variables. Specifically, we predicted that rape avoidance behaviors would covary positively with (1) women's attractiveness, (2) women's involvement in a committed romantic relationship, and (3) the number of family members living nearby. We also predicted that women's rape avoidance behaviors would covary negatively with age. We administered the Rape Avoidance Inventory (McKibbin et al., Pers Indiv Differ 39:336-340, 2009) and a demographic survey to a sample of women (n = 144). The results of correlational and regression analyses were consistent with the predictions, with the exception that women's rape avoidance behaviors did not covary with women's age. Discussion highlighted limitations of the current research and directions for future research on women's rape avoidance psychology and behaviors.

  7. Suspected outbreak of riboflavin deficiency among populations reliant on food assistance: a case study of drought-stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Erin K; Talley, Leisel E; Birungi, Nelly; McClelland, Amanda; Madraa, Elizabeth; Chandia, Agnes B; Nivet, Jacqueline; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Serdula, Mary K

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS) and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals), and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration). Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2%) of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions.

  8. Suspected outbreak of riboflavin deficiency among populations reliant on food assistance: a case study of drought-stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Nichols

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. DESIGN: An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2 deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals, and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration. RESULTS: Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2% of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. CONCLUSION: Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions.

  9. Suspected Outbreak of Riboflavin Deficiency among Populations Reliant on Food Assistance: A Case Study of Drought-Stricken Karamoja, Uganda, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Erin K.; Talley, Leisel E.; Birungi, Nelly; McClelland, Amanda; Madraa, Elizabeth; Chandia, Agnes B.; Nivet, Jacqueline; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Serdula, Mary K.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, a humanitarian response was launched to address a food security and livelihoods crisis in Karamoja, Uganda. During a polio immunization campaign in mid-August 2009, health workers in Nakapiripit District reported a concern about an increase in mouth sores, or angular stomatitis (AS) and gum ulcerations, among children in one village, and an investigation was launched. Objective This article describes the investigation, lessons learned, and provides guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among populations receiving food assistance. Design An investigation into a suspected outbreak of riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency was initiated, including a rapid assessment, mass screening, a convenience sample collection of blood specimens (n = 58 symptomatic cases and n = 18 asymptomatic individuals), and analysis of the general food ration (70% ration). Results Findings showed signs of AS in only 399 (0.2%) of 179,172 screened individuals, including adults and children. Biochemical analysis confirmed riboflavin deficiency in 84.5% of specimens from symptomatic individuals and 94.4% of specimens from asymptomatic individuals. Ration distribution data showed that 55% of distributions provided less than half the riboflavin RDA. Conclusion Evidence was insufficient to confirm an actual outbreak of riboflavin deficiency, though the present investigation adds further documentation that micronutrient deficiencies continue to persist among populations in emergency settings. This article describes challenges, lessons learned, and guidance for monitoring micronutrient deficiencies among food assistance recipients, including: ongoing nutrition monitoring and surveillance; training and sensitization about micronutrient deficiencies, sensitization of the population about locally-available food, and identifying ways to improve micronutrient interventions. PMID:23658790

  10. Attributions of Victim Blame in Stranger and Acquaintance Rape: A Quantitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Sofia; Dhingra, Katie; Grogan, Sarah

    2018-03-08

    are to, on a sample of nurses and the general public, examine whether victim blame varies according to level of familiarly between victim and perpetrator. It also examines how Ambivalent Sexism (AS) and Rape Myth Acceptance (RMA) impacts on this. Around one in five women will be victims of sexual assault during their lifetime. The majority are acquaintance rapes, and these victims are generally attributed more blame than victims of stranger rape. Research indicates that nurses hold similar attitudes on gender roles and victim blame as do the general public. Eighty-one participants read a story depicting a sexual assault of a woman by either a stranger or an acquaintance, and completed scales measuring victim blame, AS and RMA. indicated that victim-perpetrator relationship, benevolent sexism (BS), hostile sexism (HS) and whether he participant was a nurse contributed to the variance in attributed victim blame. Hierarchical regressions revealed that whether or not the participant was a nurse contributed to the variance in victim blame in the acquaintance rape condition, and HS and BS contributed to the variance in victim blame in the stranger rape condition. This paper gives a novel insight into attitudes involved in victim blame in rape cases, and makes a unique comparison between nurses and the general public. Findings suggests that victim blame correlates primarily with aggressively sexist attitudes, and that nurses generally attribute more blame to the victim of acquaintance rape. This study has practical implications for the provision of medical services for victims of sexual assault, as it highlights problems in identifying and accessing rape victims, as well as recommending the sexual assault training of all practicing nurses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva A. E. Bicanic

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods: Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years, who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results: In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR 2.05, confidence intervals (CI 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46, and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60 contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion: The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services.

  12. Predictors of delayed disclosure of rape in female adolescents and young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad

    2015-01-01

    Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381

  13. Social Context Variables in the Social Perception of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Arnie; And Others

    The physical and interpersonal contexts within which rapes occur were investigated. The physical context, defined in terms of observers' perceptions of the likelihood of rapes occurring in a particular setting, produce variations in the degree of responsibility assigned to the victim. Women raped in high probability of rape settings were held as…

  14. The Rape Myth and Blame-Based Beliefs of Counselors-in-Training toward Male Victims of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Leslee R.; Prieto, Loreto R.

    2003-01-01

    Surveyed counselors-in-training regarding their acceptance of rape myths and their willingness to make blame-based attributions toward a male victim of rape. Results suggested male counselor trainees tended to endorse the greatest degree of acceptance of rape myths. Trainees of both sexes thought that a male rape victim who showed no resistance to…

  15. Present and future instances of virtual rape in light of three categories of legal philosophical theories on rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strikwerda, Litska

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the question of whether or not virtual rape should be considered a crime under current law. A virtual rape is the rape of an avatar (a person’s virtual representation) in a virtual world. In the future, possibilities for virtual rape of a person him- or herself will arise in

  16. If Your Child is Raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exam, what it involves, and ask for parental consent. Each state or jurisdiction may have different requirements, ... investigations. Medical centers and hospitals often report a sexual assault (or suspected sexual assault) to the police. ...

  17. Characterizing Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault Subtypes and Treatment Engagement of Victims at a Hospital-Based Rape Treatment Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Laurie A; Fields, Laurie; Bell, Shannon; Heppner, Jennifer; Dodge, Jessica; Boccellari, Alicia; Shumway, Martha

    2015-06-10

    Variation among existing studies in labeling, defining, identifying, and subtyping cases of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) poses challenges to integrating research findings for public health purposes. This descriptive study addressed methodological issues of nomenclature and DFSA operational definitions to improve case identification and was designed to distinguish assault subtypes. We studied a 2-year ethnically diverse cohort of 390 patients who presented acutely to an urban rape treatment center (RTC). We abstracted data from RTC medical and mental health records via chart review. Assault incidence rates; engagement into medical, forensic, and mental health services; injury sustained; and weapon use were calculated separately for assault subtypes and compared. DFSA accounted for over half of the total sexual assault (SA) cases. Involuntary DFSA (in which an incapacitating substance was administered to victims without their knowledge or against their will) increased from 25% to 33% of cases over the 2-year period. DFSA victims presented sooner, and more often attended medical follow-up and psychotherapy than non-DFSA victims. Incidence rates indicated increasing risk for young males. These findings indicate that DFSA continues to be a growing and complex phenomenon and suggest that DFSA victims have greater service needs. The field would benefit from innovations to address symptomatology arising from this novel type of trauma and the unique risks and needs of male victims, as well as underscoring the ongoing need for DFSA-specific prevention efforts for both victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  19. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  20. Elevated Urinary Glyphosate and Clostridia Metabolites With Altered Dopamine Metabolism in Triplets With Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Suspected Seizure Disorder: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William

    2017-02-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder for which a number of genetic, environmental, and nutritional causes have been proposed. Glyphosate is used widely as a crop desiccant and as an herbicide in fields of genetically modified foods that are glyphosate resistant. Several researchers have proposed that it may be a cause of autism, based on epidemiological data that correlates increased usage of glyphosate with an increased autism rate. The current study was intended to determine if excessive glyphosate was present in the triplets and their parents and to evaluate biochemical findings for the family to determine the potential effects of its presence. The author performed a case study with the cooperation of the parents and the attending physician. The study took place at The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc (Lenexa, KS, USA). Participants were triplets, 2 male children and 1 female, and their parents. The 2 male children had autism, whereas the female had a possible seizure disorder. All 3 had elevated urinary glyphosate, and all of the triplets and their mother had elevated values of succinic acid or tiglylglycine, which are indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction. The participants received a diet of organic food only. The study performed organic acids, glyphosate, toxic chemicals and tiglylglycine, and creatinine testing of the participants' urine. The 2 male triplets with autism had abnormalities on at least 1 organic acids test, including elevated phenolic compounds such as 4-cresol, 3-[3-hydroxyphenyl]-3-hydroxypropionic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, which have been previously associated with Clostridia bacteria and autism. The female, who was suspected of having a seizure disorder but not autism, did not have elevated phenolic compounds but did have a significantly elevated value of the metabolite tiglylglycine, a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction and/or mutations. One male triplet was retested postintervention and was found to have a markedly lower

  1. Electrophoretic studies on rape seed proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Starr, A.; Bibi, N.

    1992-07-01

    Electrophoresis is a technique which separates biological molecules on the basis of charge and mass properties. The technique is used for separation, purification, characterization and identification of molecules/ compounds. Two major objectives for applications of electrophoresis have been studied in this report i.e. characterization of rape seed proteins and enzymes and identification of rape seed cultivars by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Gamma irradiation is being successfully used to create genetic variability and germination which brought about definite changes in the rape seed proteins reflected in different bands. These differences could be used to study variability in crop plants. (A.B.)

  2. Interaction between emergency medical dispatcher and caller in suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest calls with focus on agonal breathing. A review of 100 tape recordings of true cardiac arrest cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bång, Angela; Herlitz, Johan; Martinell, Sven

    2003-01-01

    One of the objectives of this study was to assess the emergency medical dispatchers (EMDs) ability for the identification and prioritisation of cardiac arrest (CA) cases, and offering and achievements of dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The other objective was to give an account of the frequency of agonal respiration in cardiac arrest calls and the caller's descriptions of breathing. Prospective study evaluating 100 tape recordings of the EMD calls of emergency medical service (EMS)-provided advanced life support- (ALS) cases, of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The quality of EMD-performed interviews was highly commended in 63% of cases, but insufficient or unapproved in the remaining 37%. The caller's state of mind was not a major problem for co-operation. Among the 100 cases, 24 were suspected to be unconscious and in respiratory arrest. A further 38 cases were presented as unconscious with abnormal breathing. In only 14 cases dispatcher-assisted bystander CPR was offered by the EMD, and in 11 of these it was attempted, and completed in eight. Only four of the cases were unconscious patients with abnormal breathing. The incidence of suspected agonal breathing was estimated to be approximately 30% and the descriptions were; difficulty, poorly, gasping, wheezing, impaired, occasional breathing. Among suspected cardiac arrest cases, EMDs offer CPR instruction to only a small fraction of callers. A major obstacle was the presentation of agonal breathing. Patients with a combination of unconsciousness and agonal breathing should be offered dispatcher-assisted CPR instruction. This might improve survival in out-of hospital cardiac arrest.

  3. From arrest to sentencing: A comparative analysis of the criminal justice system processing for rape crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Domingues Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current article is intended to demonstrate the advantages of prioritizing an analysis of court caseload processing for a given type of crime and proceeding to a comparison of the results obtained from empirical studies in different countries. The article draws on a study I performed on rape cases tried by the court system in Campinas, São Paulo State, and the study by Gary LaFree on rape cases in the United States, based on data in Indianapolis, Indiana. The comparative analysis of determinants of victims' and law enforcement agencies' decisions concerning the pursuit of legal action proved to be productive, even when comparing two different systems of justice. This allowed greater knowledge of how the Brazilian criminal justice system operates, both in its capacity to identify, try, and punish sex offenders, and in terms of the importance it ascribes to formal legal rules in trying rape cases, in comparison to the American criminal justice system.

  4. Radiocaesium activity in rape oil and in rape cake after a wet deposition event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, Y.; Rappe-George, M.; Bengtsson, S. [Department of Soil and Environment (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    After a release of radionuclides in agricultural areas there can be concerns on the levels of radionuclides in food products produced. The uptake of radionuclides via the above ground plant parts is a very important transport route into the food chain for humans as caesium is relatively mobile inside plants. In the production of rape oil the use of a processing factor (Pf) is used to estimate the activity concentration of radioactivity in the final oil product based on the activity concentration in rape seeds. The processing factor has been estimated to be 0.004 for caesium in rape oil by IAEA, and is based on a limited numbers of studies (1). In this project we analysed the activity concentration of radiocaesium ({sup 134}Cs) in rape oil and in rape cake from rape seeds contaminated after a wet deposition event with {sup 134}Cs. With the information of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake, we calculated the Pf-value and confirm or suggest new enhanced Pf-value. We analysed the activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake from spring oilseed rape seeds (Brassica napus L.) that had been contaminated experimentally by wet deposited {sup 134}Cs in an earlier experiment by Bengtsson et al. (2013). The estimation of activity concentration of {sup 134}Cs in rape oil and in rape cake was achieved by performing extraction of the oil (and other extractable compounds) from the seeds based on the Randall extraction method (Randall, 1974) using petroleum ether as extraction chemical. The extracted oil and the rape cake samples were weighed and the activity concentration was measured with High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. Pf-values were calculated by dividing the measured activity concentration in rape oil after extraction by the activity concentration in oilseed rape seeds before extraction. Results from the present study will be presented at the international conference on radioecology and environmental radioactivity

  5. What is a typical rape? Effects of victim and participant gender in female and male rape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irina

    2007-03-01

    The study had three research aims: (1) to examine the current perception of female rape. Given recent changes in public awareness of female rape, it was predicted that respondents would conceptualize a typical female rape as an acquaintance rape rather than as the stranger rape stereotype; (2) to examine whether these perceptions differ according to respondents' gender; (3) to examine the 'cultural lag' theory of male rape, where it was hypothesized that if the public perception of male rape lags behind female rape, then a typical male rape will be conceptualized as the classic stranger rape stereotype. Findings showed that contrary to predictions, a typical female rape was conceptualized according to the stranger rape stereotype. It was also found that instead of lagging behind female rape along the stranger-acquaintance rape dimension, male rape was viewed predominantly in terms of 'other' factors (factors not found on the stranger-acquaintance dimension, e.g. victim/rapist sexual orientation, rapist calls victim names), which were erroneous, sexualizing and homophobic.

  6. Don't tell: Military culture and male rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Carol; Keith, Jessica; Shoemaker, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The issue of sexual assault that occurs during military service has been a focus of attention over the past several years. Although approximately 50% of survivors of military sexual assault are men, virtually all of the literature focuses on the assault of female service members. Research has demonstrated that cultural variables are robust correlates of the sexual assault of women. This paper proposes that cultural variables are equally important when examining the rape of men, especially when this assault occurs in military contexts. We discuss male rape myths and related constructs as they are expressed within military culture. The results of data analysis from a treatment sample of veterans with military sexual trauma (MST)-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and clinical case examples are presented to further explore the concepts. We conclude that male rape myths and related beliefs that arise from cultural norms and are further amplified and modified by military culture impact male MST survivors and delay or obstruct their recovery. Suggestions for clinical application and future research are offered to encourage further efforts in this important area of practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Rape in the metropolis: the geography of crime in Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Vikram Dwivedi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study of rape in the national capital of India, and the focus is on the amendments of rape law aftermath 12 December 2012 crime. It questions at the safety and security issues of women in the metropolis of India, and it also discusses critically how laws amendments have been made aftermath this barbaric crime. Though this paper doesn’t set an inquiry yet it provides common criticism against the new amendments and it remains observational in nature, and sets a study. The temporal aspect revolves around the gang rape case of December 2012, but it also peeks in the past for the reference purpose only. The insensitive reactions from the political party leaders and religious leaders also find a space in the paper to show the general reaction of the society. The urban middle-class carefree attitude is reflected by an example of a popular reality show. But finally this paper advocates for lengthy prison sentences that have some behavior-altering deterrent value.

  8. Rape revisited: sexual violence against women in the former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentich, M

    1994-01-01

    This article presents information on the rape of women in the former Yugoslavia, focusing more on Muslim women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and examines the evolutionary, sociological, psychological, and feminist theories of this form of sexual violence. Using a case study approach, through documentation from newspapers and other media accounts, this paper investigated the sexual violence that featured strongly in the campaign of ethnic cleansing or genocide of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It was noted that the variables of power, sex, and aggression in the context of war seem to be linked. This is particularly evident when authority legitimates sexual aggression. Without the backing of authority, some rape is expected, but not of such proportion or brutality. In terms of the theories, the evolutionary perspective appears to have limited applicability in explaining rape as an act of war. However, the feminist and macrosociological multivariate theories that focus on heterogeneity of the population, a cultural foundation of very traditional gender roles, and a historical tradition that legitimates sexual violence by armies in war-time, provide more persuasive insights.

  9. Trends of rape in the Mthatha area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reported cases represent the tip of the iceberg; with an estimated eight out of every nine cases remaining unreported.6 A community- based survey of rape estimated the rate of such incidents at 1 300 per. 100 000 women a year, which is likely to be more accurate.7 Reports of sexual abuse of children as young as three ...

  10. Increased incidence of gang rape in Benin-City, Nigeria: Is this a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: All cases of sexual assault reported to the police in Edo state and its environs are usually referred to either Central Hospital, Benin City or the Police clinic for medical examination and issuing of medical reports. This study is a descriptive retrospective audit of all cases of gang-rape victims, attended ...

  11. Rape--victiminological and psychiatric aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, G C

    1985-03-01

    Rape is a violent crime in which sexuality is used to express power, anger, and aggression. The nature of the victim's reactions, which resembles those of other violent crimes, is discussed in relation to its origin in the doctrine of victimology. The distress experienced by victims of rape should entitle them to the same standards of care and sympathy as victims of other life crises.

  12. Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Michelle E; Covan, Eleanor Krassen; Swan, Suzanne C; Billings, Deborah L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the negotiation strategies of college women as they interpret ambiguous rape scenarios. In focus groups, 1st- and 4th-year college women were presented with a series of three vignettes depicting incidents that meet the legal criteria for rape yet are ambiguous due to the presence of cultural rape myths, contexts involving alcohol consumption, varying degrees of consent, and a known perpetrator. These contexts are critical in understanding how college women define rape. Key findings indicated many of these college women utilized rape myths and norms within their peer groups to interpret rape scenarios.

  13. Seasonal variation among tuberculosis suspects in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabaera, Biggie; Naranbat, Nymadawa; Katamba, Achilles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze monthly trends across a calendar year in tuberculosis suspects and sputum smear-positive cases based on nationally representative samples of tuberculosis laboratory registers from Moldova, Mongolia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Out of the 47 140 suspects registered...... in the tuberculosis laboratory registers, 13.4% (6312) were cases. The proportion varied from country to country, Moldova having the lowest (9%) and Uganda the highest (21%). From the monthly proportion of suspects and cases among total suspects and cases, seasonal variations were most marked in Mongolia which, among...... attendance to diagnostic laboratory services, evidenced by the contrasting findings of Mongolia (extreme continental northern climate) compared to Uganda (equatorial climate). A combination of external and possibly endogenous factors seems to determine whether tuberculosis suspects and cases present...

  14. A Counselor's Guide to Community Services for Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Bruce D.; Shachar, Sandra A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the typical chronology and basic functions of health, legal, and social services encountered by rape victims. Suggests ways in which counselors can effectively participate in the delivery of rape-related services. (Author)

  15. The Hidden Rape Victim: Personality, Attitudinal, and Situational Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes victimization experienced by rape victims and determines whether any psychological variables were related to victimization status. Psychological variables examined included personality, attitudinal, and situational characteristics relevant to the three major models of rape victimization: social control, victim precipitation, and…

  16. La Violacion Sexual--The Reality of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Chris; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The Hispanic rape victim often finds herself in a situation where discussing a rape may jeopardize not only her self esteem but her residency status, job and familial relations. Small wonder she prefers to remain silent. (Author/NQ)

  17. Interdisciplinary team communication among forensic nurses and rape victim advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Victim advocates and forensic nurses provide integrated care to address the complex legal, medical, and mental health needs of rape survivors. Research suggests that conflict exists between nurses and advocates, but it remains unknown how their communication patterns contribute to or resolve these conflicts. Utilizing a qualitative case study approach, the current study interviewed 24 nurses and advocates from a Midwest organization to better understand team communication patterns when addressing conflicts. The findings suggest that most nurses communicate concerns directly while advocates avoid direct communication. Factors that influenced direct and indirect communication and their implications for practice will be discussed.

  18. A Snapshot of Serial Rape: An Investigation of Criminal Sophistication and Use of Force on Victim Injury and Severity of the Assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Prior research on rapes reported to law enforcement has identified criminal sophistication and the use of force against the victim as possible unique identifiers to serial rape versus one-time rape. This study sought to contribute to the current literature on reported serial rape by investigating how the level of criminal sophistication of the rapist and use of force used were associated with two important outcomes of rape: victim injury and overall severity of the assault. In addition, it was evaluated whether rapist and victim ethnicity affected these relationships. A nation-wide sample of serial rape cases reported to law enforcement collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was analyzed (108 rapists, 543 victims). Results indicated that serial rapists typically used a limited amount of force against the victim and displayed a high degree of criminal sophistication. In addition, the more criminally sophisticated the perpetrator was, the more sexual acts he performed on his victim. Finally, rapes between a White rapist and White victim were found to exhibit higher levels of criminal sophistication and were more severe in terms of number and types of sexual acts committed. These findings provide a more in-depth understanding of serial rape that can inform both academics and practitioners in the field about contributors to victim injury and severity of the assault. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  20. Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Julie M.; And Others

    This publication is a collection of 20 supporting documents for a conference program, "Working Together To Change the Rape and Violence Culture." Contents include: (1) "Presenter Contact Information"; (2) "Characteristics of Rape-Prone versus Rape-Free Cultures"; (3) "Dater's Bill of Rights"; (4)…

  1. A Men's Support Group for Significant Others of Rape Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, Lawrence I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the trauma experienced by women rape victims and focuses on a men's support group for male-significant-others of women who have been raped. Describes the developmental phases through which the male significant others of rape victims achieve resolution and the impact of the male's response upon the relationship. (Author)

  2. Sex Differences in University Students' Attitudes toward Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nona J.; Feild, Hubert S.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of sex differences among university students' attitudes toward rape. Results showed males were quite different from females in their attitudes and tended to support many myths regarding rape. Implications of the results concerning the nature and prevention of rape on college campuses are discussed. (Author)

  3. An Empirical Investigation of Campus Demographics and Reported Rapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D.; Jozkowski, Kristen N.; Martinez, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Rape on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately 11% of women experiencing rape while in college. As such, it is important to examine factors unique to college campuses that influence the occurrences of rape. Methods: Using data from 1,423 four-year universities (public and private with at…

  4. Race and Rape: The Black Woman as Legitimate Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…

  5. Theoretical Consideration of Forcible Rape: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Arthur F.

    1988-01-01

    Examined differences in hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of committing forcible rape, which are held by male subjects, as compared with the hypothetical apperceptive fantasies of being forcibly raped, held by the female subjects. Developed a critical analysis of social and cross-cultural variables affecting rape. (Author/ABL)

  6. Rape Myth Acceptance, Sexual Trauma History, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Shannon N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Monroe, James R.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of false rape-related beliefs (rape myth acceptance [RMA]) was examined using the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (Payne, Lonsway, & Fitzgerald, 1999) among a nonclinical sample of 258 male and female college students. Predictor variables included measures of attitudes toward women, gender role identity (GRI), sexual trauma…

  7. 42 CFR 50.306 - Rape and incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rape and incest. 50.306 Section 50.306 Public... § 50.306 Rape and incest. Federal financial participation is available in expenditures for medical procedures performed upon a victim of rape or incest if the program or project has received signed...

  8. An Updated Measure for Assessing Subtle Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Farmer, G. Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Social workers responsible for developing rape prevention programs on college campuses must have valid evaluation instruments. This article presents the challenges encountered by the authors when they attempted to keep rape myth measures relevant to student populations by updating the language to reflect the subtleties involved with rape myths.…

  9. Reporting Rape in a National Sample of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Studies indicate that a small percentage of rapes are reported to law enforcement officials. Research also suggests that rapes perpetrated by a stranger are more likely to be reported and that rapes involving drugs and/or alcohol are less likely to be reported. College women represent a unique and understudied population with regard to…

  10. Date rape among undergraduates in southwestern Nigeria federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing number of date rapes occurring on University campuses and the need to decrease rape supportive attitudes point to the need for continued research on this field. Correlational survey design was adopted to examine the extent to which attitude towards date rape is associated with the respondents' emotional ...

  11. Management and Profile of Rape Victims attending the Karl Bremer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: The study was conducted at the rape centre at the Karl Bremer Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. To describe the frequency of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in rape victims, all consecutive patients who presented to the rape centre over the one-year period from 1 April 2006 to 31 March 2007 were included ...

  12. The Influence of Rape Myth Acceptance and Situational Factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing literature have posited that the problem of rape aggravates if it is unacknowledged as a result of the influence of rape myth acceptance. Being an understudied phenomenon, the present study sought to explore rape myths and examine situational factors that appear to differentiate women who experience various ...

  13. Counting the countless – rape victimisation during the Rwandan Genocide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; Morssinkhof, A.; Smeulers, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Rape is regularly committed during a period of collective violence such as war. The article discusses the Rwandan genocide during which rape was used with the deliberate intent to destroy in whole or in part the Tutsi community. Rape is not often studied in such particular contexts, so little is

  14. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  15. Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma with suspected cholesterol granuloma of the maxillary sinus in a patient treated with combined modality therapy: A case report and the review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, You; Lu, Yanwei; Zheng, Liduan; Liu, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma (GCOC) is a rare malignant odontogenic tumor with aggressive growth characteristics. A 41-year-old Chinese male visited our hospital in 2013, with a 4-month history of bloody purulent rhinorrhea with a peculiar smell in the right nasal cavity. The patient suffered from recurrent GCOC with suspected cholesterol granuloma of the maxillary sinus. The patient was incorrectly diagnosed with a calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor at his first recurrence. Physical examination, radiological examination, and histopathology were used to identify GCOC. Considering the recurrence of GCOC and poor effects of single surgery, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy were performed after radical surgical excision. So far, no significant evidence has suggested recurrence or metastasis after a long-term follow-up. We advocate wide surgery with clean margins at the first accurate diagnosis. Combined modality therapy could be taken for the recurrent GCOC. We expect to provide a new treatment strategy to prevent the growth of this neoplasm.

  16. Rape Myth Acceptance at the US Air Force Academy: A Preliminary Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    consequently, with the highest use of sexual assault reporting services, the USAFA is an important case study on the embeddedness of rape...hold employment outside of their military jobs , or keep a home or apartment in the local area. For cadets, their transition to adulthood is anything but

  17. Profile of rape victims referred by the court to the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only two of the victims were able to give legal consent to sexual intercourse. Only one participant was able to testify in a court of law. A noteworthy finding was that in only 25 (18.2%) cases, a clinical psychologist was subpoenaed to testify in court. Conclusion. The vast majority of mentally retarded rape victims in our cohort, ...

  18. Psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in a young rape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, the case narrative shows how the treatment of PTSD is of necessity a slow, complex process which takes into account the individual's unique history, idiosyncratic vulnerabilities and socio-cultural context. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, psychodynamic psychotherapy, rape, South Africa Journal of ...

  19. The Psychology of the Politics of Rape: Political Ideology, Moral Foundations, and Attitudes Toward Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.

  20. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Efthalia

    The aim of this study was 1) present an oilseed rape whole crop biorefinery; 2) to investigate the best available experimental conditions for production of cellulosic ethanol from rape straw, and included the processes of thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and C6 fermentation......, and 3) to couple cellulosic ethanol production to production of cellulolytic enzymes that are needed for cellulosic ethanol production, inside a rape straw biorefinery. For the first is based less on available experiments, and more on literature review. The second and third study conclusions were drawn...

  1. Resisting rape: the effects of victim self-protection on rape completion and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Jongyeon; Kleck, Gary

    2014-03-01

    The impact of victim resistance on rape completion and injury was examined utilizing a large probability sample of sexual assault incidents, derived from the National Crime Victimization Survey (1992-2002), and taking into account whether harm to the victim followed or preceded self-protection (SP) actions. Additional injuries besides rape, particularly serious injuries, following victim resistance are rare. Results indicate that most SP actions, both forceful and nonforceful, reduce the risk of rape completion, and do not significantly affect the risk of additional injury.

  2. "Nobody Told Me It Was Rape": A Parent's Guide for Talking with Teenagers about Acquaintance Rape and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Caren; Fay, Jennifer

    This book was written to help parents talk to their adolescent children about acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation. It may also be useful to family life educators presenting units on rape and sexual exploitation. Acquaintance rape and sexual exploitation are explained in the first section. The second section discusses talking with teenagers…

  3. Rape, War, and the Socialization of Masculinity: Why Our Refusal to Give up War Ensures that Rape Cannot Be Eradicated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Rape is endemic during war, suggesting that there may be important conceptual links between the two. A theoretical model is presented positing that rape and war are correlated because traditional (hegemonic) masculinity underlies, and is a cause of, both. An analysis of the literatures on masculinity, rape perpetration, and military socialization…

  4. Perceptions of, and Assistance Provided to, a Hypothetical Rape Victim: Differences between Rape Disclosure Recipients and Nonrecipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A.; Kehn, Andre; Gray, Matt J.; Salapska-Gelleri, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Undergraduate rape disclosure recipients' and nonrecipients' sociodemographic and life experience variables, attitudes towards rape, and responses to a hypothetical rape disclosure were compared to determine differences between them. Participants: One hundred ninety-two undergraduates at 3 universities participated in this online survey…

  5. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  6. Proposed Recruit Training Topic: Rape Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    asks for a date and is taught that women say no when they mean yes. Movies are full of scenes in which the woman resists and is subdued by the man...and in the movie world, a world which reflects and reinforces our views, it’s never rape, it’s love. It’s no wonder, then, in view of all this, that...IS USED TO HURT AND HUMILIATE. IMPULSIVE ACT BY EXCITED MOST RAPES ARE MALE PLANNED. VICTIM IS IN WRONG PLACE AT WRONG TIME. SEXY DRESS/CLOTHING DRIVES

  7. Suspected appendicitis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexer, S M; Tabib, N; Peter, M B

    2014-04-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute surgical presentations. However investigation and management is sometimes confounded in a pregnant patient. Appendicitis in pregnancy is often managed jointly by both the surgical and obstetric teams, which can lead to discrepant pathways, which may be detrimental to the patient. This review sets out to identify the normal physiological changes of pregnancy that pose diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties to the clinician, assess the more common differential diagnoses and review the current evidence to assist achieving a swift diagnosis and appropriate treatment. A literature review of the investigation and management of suspected appendicitis in pregnancy was undertaken. Guidelines by the relevant surgical, obstetric and radiological societies were also reviewed. There remains no consensus on the best diagnostic pathway for appendicitis in pregnancy; which is unsurprising given that appendicitis in non-pregnant patients can yield diagnostic conundrums. However this review identifies a role for MRI scanning as a useful adjunct in these patients. The increasing role of laparoscopy in these patients is also becoming more apparent. Appendicitis in pregnancy remains a complex problem necessitating a close working relationship between various specialties to achieve the best outcome for mother and fetus. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NMR metabolomics of ripened and developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Vuorinen, Anssi L; Sinkkonen, Jari; Yang, Baoru; Rajala, Ari; Kallio, Heikki

    2015-04-01

    The oilseeds of the commercially important oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa) were investigated with (1)H NMR metabolomics. The compositions of ripened (cultivated in field trials) and developing seeds (cultivated in controlled conditions) were compared in multivariate models using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Differences in the major lipids and the minor metabolites between the two species were found. A higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and sucrose were observed in turnip rape, while the overall oil content and sinapine levels were higher in oilseed rape. The genotype traits were negligible compared to the effect of the growing site and concomitant conditions on the oilseed metabolome. This study demonstrates the applicability of NMR-based analysis in determining the species, geographical origin, developmental stage, and quality of oilseed Brassicas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Man to Man about Rape: A Rape Prevention Program for Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Timothy E.; Kilmartin, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Describes "Man to Man about Rape," project offered at one university that uses both didactic and small group experiential formats to educate male college students about male socialization, intimacy, violent behavior, objectification, father-son relationships, and sexual behavior. (NB)

  10. Using Internet Artifacts to Profile a Child Pornography Suspect

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus K. Rogers; Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar

    2014-01-01

    Digital evidence plays a crucial role in child pornography investigations. However, in the following case study, the authors argue that the behavioral analysis or “profiling” of digital evidence can also play a vital role in child pornography investigations. The following case study assessed the Internet Browsing History (Internet Explorer Bookmarks, Mozilla Bookmarks, and Mozilla History) from a suspected child pornography user’s computer. The suspect in this case claimed to be conducting an...

  11. Incapacitated rape and alcohol use: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Neighbors, Clayton; Martell, Joel; Fossos, Nicole; Larimer, Mary E

    2006-10-01

    This study examined timing of alcohol-related sexual assaults (incapacitated rape) in relation to both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. The sample was drawn from a randomly selected pool of college students across three campuses (n=1238) followed over a three year time period. 91% of students never experienced an incapacitated rape, 2% reported an incapacitated rape prior to the first assessment point (n=30), and 6% reported one over the course of the study (n=76). Results indicated that incapacitated rape was associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences in the years prior to the assault. Incapacitated rape was also associated with higher alcohol use and more negative consequences during the year in which the rape took place and subsequent years, with highest rates measured for the year of the rape. These results suggest alcohol use can function as both risk factor and consequence of sexual victimization.

  12. Women's rape fantasies: an empirical evaluation of the major explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivona, Jenny M; Critelli, Joseph W; Clark, Michael J

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated explanations of rape fantasy in a sample of female undergraduates (N = 355) using a sexual fantasy checklist which included eight types of rape fantasy, participants' detailed descriptions of a rape fantasy they have had, a rape fantasy scenario audio presentation, and measures of personality. Three explanations of rape fantasy were tested: openness to sexual experience, sexual desirability, and sexual blame avoidance. Women who were higher in erotophilia and self-esteem and who had more frequent consensual sexual fantasies and more frequent desirability fantasies, particularly of performing as a stripper, had more frequent rape fantasies. Women who were higher in erotophilia, openness to fantasy, desirability fantasies, and self-esteem reported greater sexual arousal to rape fantasies. Sexual blame avoidance theory was not supported; sexual desirability theory was moderately supported; openness to sexual experience theory received the strongest support.

  13. Successful single-session endosonography-based endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography without fluoroscopy in pregnant patients with suspected choledocholithiasis: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Sheba; Holt, Edward W; Bhat, Yasser M; Kane, Steve; Shah, Janak N; Binmoeller, Kenneth F

    2014-02-01

    Same session endosonography (EUS) immediately prior to scheduled endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may eliminate the need for ERCP and its associated risks in pregnant patients with no evidence of choledocholithiasis on EUS. In patients with choledocholithiasis, EUS provides information regarding the location, size and number of stones present, which helps guide biliary interventions and confirm stone clearance without the use of fluoroscopy. We retrospectively identified 10 pregnant patients referred to our tertiary endoscopy center for suspected choledocholithiasis between June 2008 and January 2012. All patients underwent same-session EUS-based ERCP. Of 10 pregnant patients managed with EUS-guided ERCP, six were found to have common bile duct stones and went on to ERCP. Four patients with no evidence of choledocholithiasis on EUS did not undergo ERCP. Patients with confirmed choledocholithiasis underwent ERCP without the use of fluoroscopy using the additional information provided by EUS. Same-session EUS immediately prior to scheduled ERCP may eliminate the need for ERCP and its risks in pregnant patients with no evidence of choledocholithiasis on EUS. In patients with confirmed choledocholithiasis, EUS provided additional information regarding the location, number and size of bile duct stones, which enabled the successful clearance of the bile duct without the use of fluoroscopy. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Quality of durable cookies enriched with rape bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to enrich durable cookies with different additions of rape (Brassica napus var. napus bee pollen to increase nutritional properties of cookie samples and to improve technological and sensorial properties as well. Bee pollen is an important raw material due to its nutritional and functional properties. Cookie samples were prepared by substituting wheat flour with rape bee pollen in the amount of 16 % (1 g of bee pollen per cookie and 32 % (2 g of bee pollen per cookie using bee pollen from two localities Lenártovce and Nové Zámky. In baked samples beside sensory properties also chemical parameters and technological parameters of cookies were evaluated. It was found out that with the gradual addition of rape bee pollen the amount of ash content increased and the highest ash content was analysed in variants II and IV (0.71 and 0.77 % using 32 % addition of rape bee pollen. In terms of reducing sugars, addition of bee pollen caused that the content of reducing sugars in the products increased slightly. The highest reducing sugar content was determined in variant II. (24.59 %. On the other hand amount of crude protein the most considerably raised by addition of 2 g of pollen per cookie. The highest content of crude protein was analysed in variants II and IV (8.72 and 9.00 %. From the results of a linear models in which the dependent variables were the ash, crude protein and moisture it was determined the significant effect (p <0.05 only of the pollen addition. In the case of the model with the dependent variable reducing sugars it was found out significant effect (p<0.0001 of pollen addition and locality and their interactions. With the gradual addition of bee pollen values of technological parameters such as diameter and weight of cookies increased and thickness of products decreased. Based on sensory scores using a 9-point Hedonic scale the best sensorial acceptability (7.4 was found in variant I (1 g of bee

  15. Rape shield laws and sexual behavior evidence: effects of consent level and women's sexual history on rape allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowe, Heather D; Ebbesen, Ebbe B; Putcha-Bhagavatula, Anila

    2007-04-01

    Rape shield laws, which limit the introduction of sexual history evidence in rape trials, challenge the view that women with extensive sexual histories more frequently fabricate charges of rape than other women. The present study examined the relationship between women's actual sexual history and their reporting rape in hypothetical scenarios. Female participants (college students and a community sample, which included women working as prostitutes and topless dancers, and women living in a drug and alcohol rehabilitation center) imagined themselves in dating scenarios that described either a legally definable act of rape or consensual sexual intercourse. Additionally, within the rape scenarios, level of consensual intimate contact (i.e., foreplay) preceding rape was examined to determine its influence on rape reporting. Women were less likely to say that they would take legal action in response to the rape scenarios if they had extensive sexual histories, or if they had consented to an extensive amount of intimate contact before the rape. In response to the consensual sexual intercourse scenarios, women with more extensive sexual histories were not more likely to say that they would report rape, even when the scenario provided them with a motive for seeking revenge against their dating partner.

  16. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  17. Ethical challenges when reading aesthetic rape scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBoth the issue of the ethics of representation and the issue of the ethics of reading are particularly important when it comes to representations of suffering and violence. This chapter addresses the ethics of representing and the ethics of reading rape, with a focus on the latter.

  18. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting

  19. Acquaintance Rape on College and University Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    2004-01-01

    While a university experience offers young women many rewards, unfortunately, there are also significant dangers, and one of these dangers is men who are sexual predators. Acquaintance rape is a sexual assault perpetrated by someone who is known to the victim. It is a violent and serious crime that is far too common an occurrence at our…

  20. Forcible Rape: An Analysis of Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    Traditionally, rape has been defined as "carnal knowledge of a woman by force and against her will." The test of force has been crucial, and consent deduced. Victims were assumed to be consenting parties unless criminal circumstances could be proved. Victims were oftened questioned about past sexual behavior. Current reform efforts have attempted…

  1. Rape Within the Hispanic Family Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Sierra, Sylvia

    Because problems such as rape are often viewed as personal concerns of "la familia" there is great tendency on the part of Hispanics to accept this crime as something that must be resolved without intervention from the police, the hospitals or the courts. Seldom will much needed therapy and auxillary type services be sought due to the extreme…

  2. Targeted exome sequencing integrated with clinicopathological information reveals novel and rare mutations in atypical, suspected and unknown cases of Alport syndrome or proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshekhar Chatterjee

    Full Text Available We applied customized targeted next-generation exome sequencing (NGS to determine if mutations in genes associated with renal malformations, Alport syndrome (AS or nephrotic syndrome are a potential cause of renal abnormalities in patients with equivocal or atypical presentation. We first sequenced 4,041 exons representing 292 kidney disease genes in a Caucasian woman with a history of congenital vesicoureteral reflux (VUR, recurrent urinary tract infections and hydronephrosis who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria at the age of 45. Her biopsy was remarkable for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, a potential complication of longstanding VUR. She had no family history of renal disease. Her proteinuria improved initially, however, several years later she presented with worsening proteinuria and microhematuria. NGS analysis revealed two deleterious COL4A3 mutations, one novel and the other previously reported in AS, and a novel deleterious SALL2 mutation, a gene linked to renal malformations. Pedigree analysis confirmed that COL4A3 mutations were nonallelic and compound heterozygous. The genomic results in conjunction with subsequent abnormal electron microscopy, Collagen IV minor chain immunohistochemistry and progressive sensorineural hearing loss confirmed AS. We then modified our NGS approach to enable more efficient discovery of variants associated with AS or a subset of FSGS by multiplexing targeted exome sequencing of 19 genes associated with AS or FSGS in 14 patients. Using this approach, we found novel or known COL4A3 or COL4A5 mutations in a subset of patients with clinically diagnosed or suspected AS, APOL1 variants associated with FSGS in African Americans and novel mutations in genes associated with nephrotic syndrome. These studies demonstrate the successful application of targeted capture-based exome sequencing to simultaneously evaluate genetic variations in many genes in patients with complex renal phenotypes and

  3. Stop Blaming the Victim: A Meta-Analysis on Rape Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eliana; Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2010-01-01

    Although male rape is being reported more often than before, the majority of rape victims continue to be women. Rape myths--false beliefs used mainly to shift the blame of rape from perpetrators to victims--are also prevalent in today's society and in many ways contribute toward the pervasiveness of rape. Despite this, there has been limited…

  4. Criminalizing rape within marriage: perspectives of Ghanaian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2011-09-01

    Forcing sexual intercourse on an unwilling marital partner, or marital rape, is not a crime in many societies around the world, because of a marital exemption rule that prohibits the prosecution of husbands who rape their wives. Concurrently, marital rape is one of the least studied phenomena in sexual violence research. This is particularly true for societies in the non-Western world. The current study examined the general attitudes of a sample of university students in Ghana, a West African country, toward marital rape. Respondents were also asked whether an ongoing legislative effort to criminalize marital rape in the country was warranted. The results indicated strong opposition toward criminalization. The results also indicated no marked differences between male and female respondents in attitudes toward marital rape and the need for a legislative response to the phenomenon. Patriarchal ideologies such as wifely submission to the husband and an implicit duty to provide sex in marriage provided some of the justifications furnished for why marital rape should remain noncriminalized. Advocates of criminalization mentioned the social, physical, and psychological effects of rape and how the enactment of marital rape legislation and the imposition of severe criminal sanctions would help prevent the incidence of marital rape and other forms of violence against women in the society.

  5. Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Unacknowledged Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E

    2016-04-01

    Many sexual violence survivors do not label their experiences as rape but instead use more benign labels, such as "bad sex" or "miscommunication." A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the mean prevalence of unacknowledged rape and to inform our understanding of methodological factors that influence the detection of this phenomenon. Studies were identified using PsycINFO, PubMED, and PILOTS and were required to report the percentage of unacknowledged rape that had occurred since the age of 14 among female survivors. Moderator variables included mean participant age, recruitment source, rape definition, and unacknowledged rape definition. Twenty-eight studies (30 independent samples) containing 5,917 female rape survivors met the inclusion criteria. Based on a random effects model, the overall weighted mean percentage of unacknowledged rape was 60.4% (95% confidence interval [55.0%, 65.6%]). There was a large amount of heterogeneity, Q(29) = 445.11, p rape survivors do not acknowledge that they have been raped. The results suggest that screening tools should use behaviorally descriptive items about sexual contact, rather than using terms such as "rape." © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. No detectable nephrotoxic side effect using a dimer, non-ionic contrast media in cerebral perfusion computed tomography in case of suspected brain ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrik, M.; Weigel, C.; Kirsch, M.; Hosten, N.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In suspected brain ischemia, the perfusion cerebral computed tomography (cCT) should be performed with the lowest amount of contrast media to avoid a contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN) even if the patient already is in renal failure. We were interested to find the best parameters for this examination. Material and methods: From February 2000 to March 2003, 138 patients (58 females, 80 males, mean age 66.8 years) underwent cCT-perfusion immediately after the admission to our stroke unit. Of these patients, 62% (n=86) had normal renal function and 38% (n=52) renal failure (up to 381 μmol/l basic serum creatinine). We varied volume (20-80 ml), flow (5 vs. 7.2. ml/s) and concentration (270 vs. 320 ml/mg iodine) of a dimer, non-ionic contrast media (Visipaque registered ) to establish 5 groups. So we got patients receiving 6 g, 12 g, 16 g, 19 g and 25 g of iodine. After generating the perfusion maps, two radiologists reviewed the quality of the maps and scored it (1-5). We measured the serum creatinine before contrast application and at follow up cCt (days 3 and 7). Results: The quality of the maps increases with increasing amount of iodine. However, the diagnostic result was not significantly better using more than about 16 g of iodine (e.g., 60 ml-7.2 ml/s - 270 mg/ml) in cCT-perfusion studies. Only one patient had a pathologic increase in serum creatinine (day 1: 93; day 4: 146 μmol/l) but died at day 5 because of massive co-morbidity and septic pneumonia. No CIN occurred even in the patient group with pre-existent renal failure. Conclusions: About 60 ml contrast media and a moderate flow rate of about 7 ml/s ensure good results in perfusion-cCT, even if the patients have poor blood circulation or arteriosclerosis. The use of a dimer, non-ionic contrast media (range of 6-25 g iodine) seems to minimize the risk of CIN in the daily routine. (orig.)

  7. Stopping and Questioning Suspected Shoplifters Without Creating Civil Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jack R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)

  8. Fetal MRI for characterising a variety of posterior fossa anomalies suspected on 3rd trimester ultrasound examination – a short series of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaresh Indravadan Ranchod

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fetal MRI is increasingly being used to more accurately assess abnormalities detected on screening ultrasound. This procedure is more pertinent when the initial ultrasound is done late in the third trimester and when the abnormality involves the posterior fossa of the brain. Four cases with a variety of unusual posterior fossa anomalies are presented.

  9. Molecular Screening of "MECP2" Gene in a Cohort of Lebanese Patients Suspected with Rett Syndrome: Report on a Mild Case with a Novel Indel Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbani, S.; Chouery, E.; Fayyad, J.; Fawaz, A.; El Tourjuman, O.; Badens, C.; Lacoste, C.; Delague, V.; Megarbane, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked, dominant, neurodevelopment disorder represents 10% of female subjects with profound intellectual disability. Mutations in the "MECP2" gene are responsible for up to 95% of the classical RTT cases, and nearly 500 different mutations distributed throughout the gene have been reported. Methods:…

  10. Health complaints in acknowledged and unacknowledged rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conoscenti, Lauren M; McNally, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Rape may have physical as well as mental health consequences. Previous studies on health complaints in sexual assault survivors have focused on women who acknowledged their assault as rape. Unacknowledged rape victims do not define their assault as "rape" despite meeting legal definitions. In this study, acknowledged victims, unacknowledged victims, and a control group reported the number of health complaints, the intensity of complaints, and how often they reported these complaints to health professionals. Rape alone, without acknowledgment, was associated with in an increase in the reported number and intensity of health complaints and the frequency at which these complaints are addressed to health professionals. Acknowledgment of rape was associated with an even greater increase in the number and intensity of health complaints.

  11. Predicting PTSD in women with a history of childhood rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, J N; Saunders, B E; Kilpatrick, D G

    1997-10-01

    The impact of factors that predispose childhood rape victims to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important in understanding both the impact of childhood rape and the development of PTSD as a psychological disorder. The present study attempted to determine which crime, perpetrator, victim, and aftermath characteristics are related to PTSD status. A national representative sample of women (N = 3,220) were interviewed about their history of rape, trauma-related variables, and PTSD status. Consistent with research on crime victims, life threat and physical injury discriminated PTSD status in a sample of childhood rape victims. In addition, two other domains were related to PTSD development: (1) testification about rape and (2) rape types. The present findings are discussed in relation to previous research.

  12. Is Reporting of Rape on the Rise? A Comparison of Women with Reported versus Unreported Rape Experiences in the National Women's Study-Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Resnick, Heidi S.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Rape affects one in seven women nationwide. Historically, most rape victims do not report rape to law enforcement. Research is needed to identify barriers to reporting and correlates of reporting to guide policy recommendations that address such barriers. We investigated the prevalence of reporting rape among a national sample of women (N = 3,001)…

  13. Communicating/Muting Date Rape: A Co-Cultural Theoretical Analysis of Communication Factors Related to Rape Culture on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Ann; Mattern, Jody L.; Herakova, Liliana L.; Kahl, David H., Jr.; Tobola, Cloy; Bornsen, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that college campuses foster a rape culture in which date rape (most commonly, rape of women) is an accepted part of campus activity (Buchwald, Fletcher, & Roth, 1993; Sanday, 2007). In focus groups at a Midwestern university, researchers asked students about rape as they experienced it or knew about it on campus. The…

  14. Understanding Disparities in Service Seeking Following Forcible Versus Drug-or Alcohol-Facilitated/ Incapacitated Rape

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Kate; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Badour, Christal L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2015-01-01

    Victims of drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR) are substantially less likely to seek medical, rape crisis, or police services compared with victims of forcible rape (FR); however, reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. The current study examined explanatory mechanisms in the pathway from rape type (FR vs. DAFR/IR) to disparities in post-rape service seeking (medical, rape crisis, criminal justice). Participants were 445 adult women from a nationally represe...

  15. Exploring different explanatory psychological models of perpetrators of rape

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    M.A. Without prejudice to race or culture, rape is the hurt of both males and females of all ages. Rape can be one of the most devastating emotional events in a person’s life, the effects of which are entrenched for life (Rozee & Koss, 2001). Motives underscoring the need to commit rape have received much attention in the literature. Evolutionary theorists such as Thornhill and Palmer (2000) report that sexual needs and reproduction are the primary motivational factors. Feminist theorists ...

  16. Incapacitated rape and alcohol use: A prospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaysen, Debra; Neighbors, Clayton; Martell, Joel; Fossos, Nicole; Larimer, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined timing of alcohol-related sexual assaults (incapacitated rape) in relation to both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences. The sample was drawn from a randomly selected pool of college students across three campuses (n =1238) followed over a three year time period. 91% of students never experienced an incapacitated rape, 2% reported an incapacitated rape prior to the first assessment point (n =30), and 6% reported one over the course of the study (n ...

  17. Rape: Is it a lifestyle or behavioral problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Zeel N.; Kosambiya, Jayendrakumar K.; Chawada, Bansari L.; Verma, Mamtarani; Kadia, Abhinav

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In India, girl is raped every 20 min. The majority of reports reveals youth is vulnerable group for rape victimization. A set of prejudicial, stereotyped, or false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapist exist in the community. Aims/Objectives: To study the attitude and myths toward rape among college going students of Surat City. Materials and Methods: College students of various streams were participated in the study based on attitude toward rape scale (21 items) and updated Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale (22 items). A total of 332 participants from three different colleges of the city took part in the survey. Data analysis was done with the SPSS version 19. Results: Among the responders, 61.75% were female. Mean age of participants was 20.22 ± 1.27 years. Almost two-third (73%) of female participants and 42% of the male participants disagreed with the myth that “When a woman says ‘no’ she really means ‘yes’.” Around 30% of the participants were uncertain about the myth that “A woman cannot be raped by someone she previously knew or had sex with.” While almost 35% of participants believed that “Most rapes are carried out by strangers.” Strong sexual desire of guys, drunkenness, and girl's clothes were reported to be factors that provoke rape by 50%, 40%, and 33% of respondents, respectively, around 95% of female and 92% of male participants think that 7-year imprisonment for rape is not enough. Conclusions: Rape myths are found to be highly prevalent among youth and higher among males. PMID:28529364

  18. Divine rape as funeral motif: Example of stela from Viminacium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipović Sanja M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of rape in the decorative program of the stela of M. Valerius Speratus from Viminacium and his wife Lucia Aphrodisia is expressed in the composition of the Rape of Kore and the Rape of Europa. This paper attempts to understand the said myths and their pictorial representations as funeral symbols of the after-death journey of the soul. Possible geopolitical meaning of the myth of the Rape of Europa has also been taken into consideration. The stela from Viminacium have also been viewed in relation to the monuments with the similar representations in the neighboring Danubian provinces.

  19. Ending Rape in War: How Far Have We Come?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Fiske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The rape of women has for centuries been an endemic feature of war, yet perpetrators largely go unpunished. Women were sanctioned as the spoils of war in biblical times and more recently it has been claimed that it is more dangerous to be a woman than a soldier in modern conflict. Nevertheless, until the establishment of the ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia – there was very little concern regarding the need to address the rape of women in conflict. This paper briefly maps historical attitudes towards rape in war, outlines some analyses and explanations of why rape in war occurs and finally turns more substantively to recent efforts by the international community to prosecute rape as a war crime and a crime against humanity. We argue, that while commendable in some ways, contemporary approaches to rape in war risk reinforcing aspects of women’s status which contribute to the targeting of women for rape and continue to displace women from the centre to the margins in debates and practices surrounding rape in both war and peace time.  We conclude by arguing that criminal prosecutions alone are insufficient and that, if we are to end the rape of women and girls in war (and peace we need a radical restructuring of gender relations across every sphere of social and political life.

  20. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  1. Ethanol production from rape straw: Part of an oilseed rape biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvaniti, E.

    2010-12-15

    Agricultural residues from rapeseed biodiesel industry (rapeseed cake, rape straw, crude glycerol), which represent the 82%wt. of the oilseed rape, currently have only low-grade applications in the market. For this, a scenario was built on exploiting qualities of rapeseed biodiesel residues for forming added-value products, and expanding and upgrading an existing biodiesel plant, to an oilseed rape biorefinery by 2020 in European ground. Selection of products was based on a technological feasibility study given the time frame, while priority was given to Low-Value-High-Volume readily marketed products, like production of energy and feed. Products selected except rapeseed biodiesel, were ethanol, biogas, enzymes energy, chemical building blocks, and superior quality animal fodder. The production lines were analyzed and prospects for 2020 were projected on a critical basis. Particular merit was given to two products, ethanol from cellulose, and cellulolytic enzymes from rape straw. Cellulosic ethanol from rape straw was optimized for all production steps, i.e. for thermo-chemical pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and fermentation of C6 sugars. Thermo-chemical pretreatment was studied with Wet oxidation technique at different conditions of temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure, but also factors like pre-soaking straw in warm water, or recycling liquid were also studied. Wet oxidation has been extensively tested in the past for different substrates, and gives promising results with indicators that are important for cellulosic ethanol production; C6 sugars recovery, high digestibility for enzymes, and limited formed degradation products. Here, optimal pretreatment conditions for rape straw were first presoaking rape straw at 80 deg. C for 20 minutes, and then wet-oxidize with 12 bar of oxygen at 205 deg. C for 3 minutes. Recovery of cellulose and hemicellulose under these conditions was 105% and 106% respectively, while recovery of lignin was 86%. When this

  2. Rape: Past and present legal regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapović Lasta S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC. In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapists. Laws following the Second Serbian Uprising, also provide severe punishment for sexual violence, especially towards women but also male minors. Legal and court practice, following the Second World War, indicate that the protection of women from sexual violence is completely inadequate and this at a time when women had achieved equal rights with men in many spheres of life. World events at the end of the 20th century: collapse of the Soviet Union: as well as the happenings in this region,: war, ethnic and religious conflicts resulted in massive rape of women, opening of brothels, trading women and family violence. Non state organizations, mainly women in expert associations, invest great effort to rectify this very unsatisfactory situation. They exert pressure for change in the law and in court practice, by which women would have more effective defense against sexual violence, as well as organized assistance for women victims of traffic, and warning of the possible danger.

  3. The Crime of Rape and Sexual Violence against Women in Nigeria: A Comparison with Other Common Law Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Alili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This discourse is a comprehensive look at the offence of “rape” as a legal concept, taking into consideration, the premodial, mythical and legal beliefs and meanings associated therewith. It analysed recent statutory changes and developments in this area of the law, particularly under the English common law in contradistinction from the almost static provisions of some African penal statutes relating to the offence of rape. The propelling aim was to appreciate the difficulties associated with efforts to convict persons accused of committing the offence of rape and the legality of calling in aid corroboration in amelioration of these difficulties. It was observed that, the statutory ingredients of the offence do not accommodate such a practice. It became significant that the myths and traditional beliefs surrounding the claim of an alleged victim of rape imported the burden of a rebuttal on the accused. It was observed that sympathy on the part of the courts for alleged rape victims sway their decisions in favour of such victims. This emotional consideration by the courts may have informed he demand for corroborative evidence to seal all escape routes for the accused even when not statutorily provided for. Absence of corroborative evidence may on the reverse, favour the accused though the prosecutrix may concoct one to secure conviction. It was concluded that rape cases should be determined on the basis of the dry provisions of the relevant penal statutes devoid of extraneous considerations, such as corroboration.

  4. Rape in Armed Conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Systematic Review of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabengele Mpinga, Emmanuel; Koya, Mapendo; Hasselgard-Rowe, Jennifer; Jeannot, Emilien; Rehani, Sylvie B; Chastonay, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature between 1996 and 2013 on rape in war-ridden Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in order to better understand the interest of the scientific community in describing the magnitude and characteristics of the problem. The literature search was conducted in French and English using several databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, Sapphire, BDSP, Embase, Rero, and Web of Science) with the key words "rape and DRC" combined with several Medical Subject Headings concepts. Our systematic review yielded 2,087 references, among which only 27 are original studies, that is 20 are based on population surveys and the remaining 7 are original data based on case studies and reviews. Ten studies provided prevalence rates of rape victims, 18 provided specific information on the profile of the victims, 10 reported that most of the perpetrators of rape were military personnel, 14 referred to the negligence of the government in protecting victims, and 10 reported a lack of competent health-care facilities. The awareness of rape in conflict-ridden DRC is still limited as reported in the scientific literature: Published scientific papers are scarce. Yet more research would probably help mobilize local authorities and the international community against this basic human rights violation.

  5. Naturally occurring cerebral nematodiasis due to Baylisascaris larval migration in two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) and suspected cases in three emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, G A; Hoover, J P; Russell, W C; Breazile, J E

    1997-06-01

    During September and October 1992, two black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata variegata) were housed in an outdoor wire enclosure at the Tulsa Zoological Park. The following February and April, both lemurs developed head tilt and ataxia, and they were euthanized. Necropsy revealed multifocal malacia of the white matter of the pons, cerebellum, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar peduncles. Nematode larvae consistent with Baylisascaris spp. were observed in the brain of one lemur. A retrospective study revealed three cases of ataxia in emus (Dromaius novaeholloandiae) that were previously housed in the same enclosure. Archival paraffin-embedded tissue from one emu revealed tractlike foci of malacia within the white matter of the cerebellum. Circumstantial evidence, including the observation of numerous raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the vicinity, and the presence of numerous Baylisascaris. procyonis in the intestine of a single trapped raccoon implicate this roundworm as the pathologic agent in the lemurs.

  6. Experiences of Response Measures against the 4 Suspected Cases of Ebola Virus Disease from West Africa in the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsuna, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Kei; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Sugiki, Yuko; Ohmagari, Norio

    2018-01-23

    In Japan, infectious diseases are classified into 4 types based on how contagious and severe the pathogens are, and Ebola virus disease (EVD) is categorized as a category 1 infectious disease. The National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo, Japan, is designated as a specified hospital for category 1 infectious disease patients and has experienced 4 probable cases of EVD from West Africa. Even after the outbreak in West Africa is ended, we should continue to pay attention for new EVD outbreaks. Increasing the number of infectious disease specialists with the proper knowledge of viral hemorrhagic fever, including EVD, is a common problem for infectious disease physicians working in Japan, the academic society, and the government.

  7. Suspected ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Beata E; Barnhart, Kurt T

    2006-02-01

    Women who present with pain and bleeding in the first trimester are at risk for ectopic pregnancy, a life-threatening condition. Conditions that predispose a woman to ectopic pregnancy are damaged fallopian tubes from prior tubal surgery or previous pelvic infection, smoking, and conception using assisted reproduction. Many women without risk factors can develop an ectopic pregnancy. A diagnostic algorithm that includes the use of transvaginal ultrasonography, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations, and, sometimes, uterine curettage can definitively diagnose women at risk in a timely manner. The absence of an intrauterine pregnancy above an established cut point of hCG is consistent with an abnormal pregnancy but does not distinguish a miscarriage from an ectopic pregnancy. When the initial hCG value is low, serial hCG values can be used to determine whether a gestation is potentially viable or spontaneously resolving. The minimal rise in hCG for a viable pregnancy is 53% in 2 days. The minimal decline of a spontaneous abortion is 21-35% in 2 days, depending on the initial level. A rise or fall in serial hCG values that is slower than this is suggestive of an ectopic pregnancy. Women diagnosed with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy are potential candidates for medical management with methotrexate. Intramuscular injection with methotrexate can be used to safely treat an ectopic pregnancy with success rates, tubal patency rates, and future fertility that are similar to those obtained with conservative surgery. Success rates using methotrexate are inversely rated to baseline hCG values and are higher using "multidose" compared with "single-dose" regimens. Surgical treatment may be conservative or definitive and should be attempted in most cases via laparoscopy.

  8. Why, when and how men rape: Understanding rape perpetration in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A third of men had experienced no consequences from their acts, not even feelings of guilt. More commonly there was remorse and worry about consequences, and in a third of cases there had been action against them from their family, that of the victims, or respected community members, and about one in five had been ...

  9. Rape Survivors' Experiences of the Silent Protest: Implications for Promoting Healing and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhanunni, Anita; Edwards, David

    2016-05-01

    This article examines the experiences of nine rape survivors who participated in the Silent Protest, an annual protest march at Rhodes University that aims to highlight the sexual abuse of women, validate the harm done, and foster solidarity among survivors. Participants responded to a semi-structured interview focusing on the context of their rape and its impact, and their experiences of participation in the Protest In the first phase of data analysis, synoptic case narratives were written. In the second, themes from participants' experience were identified using interpretative phenomenological analysis. In the third, the data were examined in light of questions around the extent to which participation contributed to healing. Participants reported experiences of validation and empowerment but the majority were suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. In some cases, participation had exacerbated self-blame and avoidant coping. Recommendations are made about the provision of psychoeducation and counseling at such events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Nuclear Pedigree Criteria of Suspected HNPCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kładny Józef

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The criteria for the diagnosis of HNPCC established by the ICG-HNPCC are very restrictive as they do not allow for the diagnosis of a large number of "suspected HNPCC" cases - these are families which do no fulfill the strict diagnostic "Amsterdam criteria", but do present with several pedigree and clinical features characteristic for HNPCC. Several series of families suspected of harboring germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes have been studied for germline changes in DNA mismatch repair genes and a mutation rate of somewhere between 8-60% was found. Therefore a subgroup of members of the ICG-HNPCC has been working on pedigree/clinical diagnostic criteria for suspected HNPCC. Materials and methods Part I The study was based on two series of colorectal cancer (CRC cases: 1 HNPCC - this group comprised 190 patients affected by CRC from randomly selected families which fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria registered in Düsseldorf, Germany (102 cases of CRC, Denmark (18 CRCs, Leiden, Holland (23 CRCs and Szczecin, Poland (47 CRCs. 2 Consecutive CRCs - this group comprised 629 (78.0% of 806 individuals with CRC diagnosed in 1991-1997 in the city of Szczecin (ca. 400,000 of inhabitants, Poland. Nuclear pedigrees in both groups were compared for frequency of occurrence of clinical features, that have been shown to be associated with HNPCC. Part II 52 consecutive CRC cases from Szczecin, matching the criteria recognized in part I as appropriate for diagnosis of cases "suspected of HNPCC" were studied for the occurrence of germline hMSH2/hMLH1 constitutional mutations using "exon by exon" sequencing. Results The combination of features - i.e. the occurrence of an HNPCC associated cancer (CRC or cancer of the endometrium, small bowel or urinary tract in a 1st degree relative of a CRC patient; at least one of the patients being diagnosed under age of 50 - appeared to be strongly associated to HNPCC with an OR - 161. Constitutional

  11. Revisiting keratoconus diagnosis and progression classification based on evaluation of corneal asymmetry indices, derived from Scheimpflug imaging in keratoconic and suspect cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis1 1Laservision.gr Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To survey the standard keratoconus grading scale (Pentacam®-derived Amsler–Krumeich stages compared to corneal irregularity indices and best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA. Patients and methods: Two-hundred and twelve keratoconus cases were evaluated for keratoconus grading, anterior surface irregularity indices (measured by Pentacam imaging, and subjective refraction (measured by CDVA. The correlations between CDVA, keratometry, and the Scheimpflug keratoconus grading and the seven anterior surface Pentacam-derived topometric indices – index of surface variance, index of vertical asymmetry, keratoconus index, central keratoconus index, index of height asymmetry, index of height decentration, and index of minimum radius of curvature – were analyzed using paired two-tailed t-tests, coefficient of determination (r2, and trendline linearity. Results: The average ± standard deviation CDVA (expressed decimally was 0.626 ± 0.244 for all eyes (range 0.10–1.00. The average flat meridian keratometry was (K1 46.7 ± 5.89 D; the average steep keratometry (K2 was 51.05 ± 6.59 D. The index of surface variance and the index of height decentration had the strongest correlation with topographic keratoconus grading (P< 0.001. CDVA and keratometry correlated poorly with keratoconus severity. Conclusion: It is reported here for the first time that the index of surface variance and the index of height decentration may be the most sensitive and specific criteria in the diagnosis, progression, and surgical follow-up of keratoconus. The classification proposed herein may present a novel benchmark in clinical work and future studies. Keywords: diagnosis and classification, Pentacam topometric indices, Amsler–Krumeich keratoconus grading, surface variance, vertical asymmetry

  12. Mutilating granuloma inguinale after rape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-15

    Jul 15, 1989 ... Destructive and deforming lesions involving the external geni- talia may be caused by carcinoma, tuberculosis, lymphogranu- loma venereum, amoebiasis and granuloma inguinale. Such cases have become increasingly rare in the antibiotic era. Granuloma inguinale has been recognised in South Africa at.

  13. Attitudes toward Rape Victims: Effects of Gender and Professional Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradley H.; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson

    1999-01-01

    Upper-class undergraduates (n=740) beginning graduate students in counseling (n=78) and mental health professionals (n=45) were surveyed regarding attitudes toward rape victims. Results show that male undergraduates had the most negative attitudes toward rape victims, and female professionals the most favorable. Male participants held more…

  14. Acquaintance Rape on College Campuses: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Frederick J.

    Although research on acquaintance, or date rape, dates back to the late 1950's, only recently has the literature in this area focused on prevention. In addition, although research has shown that, conservatively, 1 out of 10 women on university campuses has been raped by someone with whom she is familiar, little appears to have been done about the…

  15. Perception of Raped Source and Use of Fact in Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampley, Linda Lee; Shaw, Donald L.

    1977-01-01

    Finds that student journalists reacted differently to--and wrote different stories about--a woman news source who spoke about a rape crisis center, depending on whether they had been told that the woman was herself a rape victim. (GW)

  16. Rape Counseling: A Model for Sensitizing and Training Helpers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Steven M.; Stonestreet, Susan D.

    1978-01-01

    A woman who is raped needs factual information concerning hospital and legal procedures and an emotional support system to help her focus her feelings into productive channels. This article describes a training and outreach program combining rape simulation, film, lecture, and experiential discussion to stimulate thought, action, and increased…

  17. Treatment for Survivors of Rape: Issues and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Laura G.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews treatment issues in counseling survivors of rape, including sociocultural influences on a woman's response to rape, a survivor's history of victimization, the specific nature of the assault, and a survivor's experiences with victim-blame. A multimodal treatment approach for women who experience chronic symptoms of posttraumatic stress…

  18. Effect of chronic radiation on rape genotype formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Hannich, K.; Cerny, J.; Vyvadilova, M.

    1975-01-01

    The F 1 generation of hybrid plants of the Canadian erucic acid-free rape cross-bred with some European winter rape varieties with a high content of erucic acid were chronically irradiated in a gamma-field with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R er vegetation. In segregating F 2 generations, the irradiation significantly increased the proportion of winter genotypes; a matroclinous influence on the developmental characteristics of plants occurred in irradiated segregating F 2 hybrid populations. As against spring rape, winter rape varieties used as the maternal form during hybridization caused a statistically significant increase in the frequency of winter genotypes. The segregation of half-winter forms in irradiated segregating hybrid populations of the F 2 generation proved the incomplete dominance of the spring habit of oil rape. Chronic irradiation significantly increased erucic-free (0 - 10% of erucic acid) and low-erucic (10 - 20% of erucic acid) genotype frequencies in segregating F 2 generations. Chronic irradiation of the hybrid plants of erucic-free spring rapes and erucic winter rapes with doses ranging from 5978 to 329 R per vegetation, together with the temperature screening of winter forms and with the determination of the fatty acid content, may be considered as an effective method of creating non-erucic and low-erucic winter forms of oil rape. (author)

  19. Rape, sexual politics and the construction of manhood among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pascah Mungwini

    problems of political and social life must in the end be sought in the kind of reflective consideration characteristic of an outward facing philosophy (Almond and Hill, 1991, 6). For quite some time public media have carried unsettling stories of rape, ranging from the rape of minors, the elderly, people with mental disabilities, ...

  20. Rape Prevention with College Men: Evaluating Risk Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kari A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a theoretically based rape prevention intervention with college men who were at high or low risk to perpetrate sexually coercive behavior. Participants (N = 146) are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Outcomes include rape myth acceptance, victim empathy, attraction to sexual…

  1. 77 FR 30871 - Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...--Implementing the Prison Rape Elimination Act Proclamation 8823--Armed Forces Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Prison Rape Elimination Act Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Sexual violence, against any victim, is an assault on human dignity and an affront to American values. The Prison...

  2. 161 ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF RAPE AS A SOCIAL CANKERWORM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel C. Okafor-Udah. Abstract. Rape is a worrisome epidemic that is becoming problematic in contemporary Nigeria due to many factors that are already inherent in the Nigerian society such as myths, culture of silence associated with rape, modernizing influences and peer group pressure among several others. This.

  3. Barriers to Services for Rural and Urban Survivors of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, TK; Evans, Lucy; Stevenson, Erin; Jordan, Carol E.

    2005-01-01

    A significant proportion of survivors of rape do not utilize formal services to cope with the aftermath of rape. Understanding victimization experiences in environments that differ on resources, such as rural versus urban areas, may be an important dimension to consider in understanding barriers. Thirty women (18 rural and 12 urban) were recruited…

  4. "Spreading the Love" and Using Performances to Prevent Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aurora

    2013-01-01

    While rape is ordinarily considered an invariable reality, Sharon Marcus argues that it is instead a cultural script, which casts women as victims and men as perpetrators. In imagining rape as a script, it may seem pertinent to suggest that the arts and performance have a role in its prevention. Performances can provide a forum to publicly reflect…

  5. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  6. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  7. Attitudes toward rape among Nigerian young adults: the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hypotheses were tested with the independent group t-test. Attitudes of young adults toward rape was found to be different based on gender and parental family structure; male young adults had more positive attitudes toward rape than their female counterparts (t = 2.02, df = 318, p < .05); youth from polygamous family ...

  8. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Hidden, Unacknowledged, Acquaintance, and Date Rape: Looking Back, Looking Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P.

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on two articles that have been among the most highly cited publications in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" ("PWQ") over its first 35 years, "The Hidden Rape Victim: Personality, Attitudinal, and Situational Characteristics" (Koss, 1985) and "Stranger and Acquaintance Rape: Are There Differences in the…

  10. Silent Survivors: Rape Myth Acceptance in Incarcerated Women's Narratives of Disclosure and Reporting of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Nicole M.; Lynch, Shannon M.; Fritch, April M.; McArthur, Lyn N.; Smith, Shilo L.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests that rape victims who do not disclose or report to the police give reasons including self-blame and fear of judgment; however, this research has not been conducted with incarcerated women. Female offenders are a unique population because they experience high rates of sexual assault prior to incarceration. This study…

  11. Prime Suspect, Second Row Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    His father had been hacked to death in his own bed with an ax the previous November. His mother was similarly brutalized and left for dead with her husband but survived. On the last Monday of that August, after several months and many investigative twists, turns, and fumbles, there sat the son--the prime suspect--in Ellen Laird's literature class,…

  12. Vascular factors in suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerskov, Simon; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Silke; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined clinical and imaging findings of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in relation to vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs), using a nested case-control design in a representative, population-based sample. Methods: From a population-based sample, 1,235 persons aged 70 years or older were examined with CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000. We identified 55 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., radiologic findings consistent with iNPH. Among these, 26 had clinical signs that fulfilled international guideline criteria for probable iNPH. These cases were labeled suspected iNPH. Each case was matched to 5 controls from the same sample, based on age, sex, and study cohort. Data on risk factors were obtained from clinical examinations and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, overweight, history of coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, and WMLs on CT were examined. Risk factors associated with iNPH with a p value <0.1 in χ2 tests were included in conditional logistic regression models. Results: In the regression analyses, suspected iNPH was related to moderate to severe WMLs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–17.6), while hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was related to hypertension (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.8), moderate to severe WMLs (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 2.1–20.3), and DM (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1–16.3). Conclusions: Hypertension, WMLs, and DM were related to clinical and imaging features of iNPH, suggesting that vascular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology. These findings might have implications for understanding disease mechanisms in iNPH and possibly prevention. PMID:26773072

  13. EXPLORING ATTITUDINAL VARIABLES PREDICTIVE OF HOW MEN PERCEIVE RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R. Edwards

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 86 male university students completed an assessment battery regarding their attitudes towards women and beliefs about sexual violence, as well as their own intentions to be sexually violent. They read five vignettes depicting different situations in which women were raped, and answered questions about what they thought happened in the vignettes, i.e. whether the actions depicted were rape. Results showed only one of the constructs, acceptance of sexual violence, predicted men’s ability to recognize rape scenarios, whereas hostility towards women, adversarial sexual beliefs, rape myth acceptance and sex role stereotyping were not significant after acceptance of sexual violence was accounted for. Furthermore, men’s acceptance of sexual violence mediated the relationship of their perceptions of rape vignettes and their self-reported intentions to be sexually violent. Implications for further research in sexual violence and interventions to prevent acts of aggression towards women are discussed.

  14. "Passive victim - strong survivor"? Perceived meaning of labels applied to women who were raped.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Papendick

    Full Text Available Three experiments (total N = 464 were conducted in parallel with English- and German-speaking participants to examine the perceived meanings and effects of the labels "victim" versus "survivor" (and their German equivalents when applied to a woman who was raped. In Study 1 (N = 179, participants read a rape vignette and then rated the meaning of the label it contained (either "victim" or "survivor" on a 15-item semantic differential. Independent of language and participant gender, "survivor" was perceived more positively overall (e.g., as strong, brave, active than was "victim" (weak, passive, but also innocent. In Study 2 (N = 95, labels were varied within items assessing judgments of an acquaintance-rape case (e.g., "Does the victim [survivor] … carry a certain responsibility for what happened?", focusing on short-term outcomes. Significant interaction effects of label and participants' gender emerged on case-related judgments. Participants in both language samples judged "survivor" to be a less appropriate term than "victim". In Study 3 (N = 190, participants read a text in which a woman who had been raped labeled herself as either "victim" or "survivor", focusing on the coping with sexual violence. As in Study 2, German-language participants showed no significant effects of the label on their case judgments but rejected the term "survivor" as inappropriate; English-language participants, by contrast, perceived the woman describing herself as "survivor" to be more psychologically stable and regarded the use of both labels as appropriate. Results are discussed in terms of their applied relevance for communicating about sexual violence.

  15. "Passive victim – strong survivor"? Perceived meaning of labels applied to women who were raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papendick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments (total N = 464) were conducted in parallel with English- and German-speaking participants to examine the perceived meanings and effects of the labels "victim" versus "survivor" (and their German equivalents) when applied to a woman who was raped. In Study 1 (N = 179), participants read a rape vignette and then rated the meaning of the label it contained (either "victim" or "survivor") on a 15-item semantic differential. Independent of language and participant gender, "survivor" was perceived more positively overall (e.g., as strong, brave, active) than was "victim" (weak, passive, but also innocent). In Study 2 (N = 95), labels were varied within items assessing judgments of an acquaintance-rape case (e.g., "Does the victim [survivor] … carry a certain responsibility for what happened?"), focusing on short-term outcomes. Significant interaction effects of label and participants’ gender emerged on case-related judgments. Participants in both language samples judged "survivor" to be a less appropriate term than "victim". In Study 3 (N = 190), participants read a text in which a woman who had been raped labeled herself as either "victim" or "survivor", focusing on the coping with sexual violence. As in Study 2, German-language participants showed no significant effects of the label on their case judgments but rejected the term "survivor" as inappropriate; English-language participants, by contrast, perceived the woman describing herself as "survivor" to be more psychologically stable and regarded the use of both labels as appropriate. Results are discussed in terms of their applied relevance for communicating about sexual violence. PMID:28493976

  16. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore

    2013-09-01

    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. "You Owe Me": Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported…

  18. The Effect of Knowing a Rape Victim on Reactions to Other Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mark A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether having had a friend or family member experience rape heightens empathy for rape victims. Subjects who knew a rape victim reported experiencing more empathy for a patient presented on videotape than did subjects not knowing a rape victim. This empathy extended to all victims of trauma. (RJM)

  19. 77 FR 37105 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No..., Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Final rule; request for comment... national standards to prevent, detect, and respond to prison rape, as required by the Prison Rape...

  20. Date Rape: Its Relationship to Trauma Symptoms and Sexual Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Brenda L.; Schwarz, J. Conrad

    1997-01-01

    Extends previous research on date rape by assessing trauma symptoms and sexual self-esteem among college women who had, or who had not, been raped. Results indicate that rape victims had significantly more trauma symptoms and lower sexual self-esteem compared to other women, thus suggesting date rape's significant consequences. (RJM)

  1. Rape and Child Sexual Abuse: What Beliefs Persist about Motives, Perpetrators, and Survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronan

    2011-01-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and…

  2. Suspected Rhinolithiasis Associated With Endodontic Disease in a Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kevin; Fiani, Nadine; Peralta, Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Rhinoliths are rare, intranasal, mineralized masses formed via the precipitation of mineral salts around an intranasal nidus. Clinical signs are typically consistent with inflammatory rhinitis and nasal obstruction, but asymptomatic cases are possible. Rhinoliths may be classified as exogenous or endogenous depending on the origin of the nidus, with endogenous rhinoliths reportedly being less common. This case report describes a suspected case of endogenous rhinolithiasis in a cat which was detected as an incidental finding during radiographic assessment of a maxillary canine tooth with endodontic disease. Treatment consisted of removal of the suspected rhinolith via a transalveolar approach after surgical extraction of the maxillary canine tooth.

  3. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women)

    OpenAIRE

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2016-01-01

    Intergroup contact?(positive) interactions with people from different social groups?is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptanc...

  4. Rape Crime, Law and Victim’s Right an Analysis from Indian Penal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu VIJAYA KUMAR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available God endowed man and women with same sense of emotion, passion, pain and pleasure, yet both differ from each other. Her gentle tenderness and tolerance make her different from her fellow partner. Indeed women are given place of pride in almost all the religion. Her importance, rights and privileges are recognized by almost all religious scripture. Even then she is subjected to several socialprejudices. Causing carnal catastrophe is one of the most demeaning devices adopted to subjugate women. Today the greater challenging before her is to protect her dignity chastity and virginity.Women are sexually exploited in almost all sphere of life. This crime has neither face of its own nor any territorial boundary but with the fact that women are to greater extent its victim, the degree of thiscrime and the victims’ status aftermath the crime differ. In India the incident of rape seems to be less when compared with the foreign country. Numerically, among all crime rape is relatively in frequentphenomenon (0.3 % of total crime in India but among the crime against the women the rape constitute the highest percentage. Case study reveals that there has been a strong increase in offenceof rape in past decade. There has been almost 2,487 rape cases reported between 1971 to 1978, which had increased to 4,621 cases in the same year. According to the official statistic produce by theNational Human right commission Delhi in the year 1991, one woman is molested every 26 minute. These are statistic reported cases, which if include unreported cases the matter would have been ofevery second rather than minute. In response to this government of India approached Law commission with a request to suggest substantive and procedural reformation of criminal law. In spite of amendment made to the criminal law in 1983, the legal system could hardy control the crime, perhaps there is a necessity of awaking calls from the victims’ side on one hand and rapid

  5. Receipt of Post-Rape Medical Care in a National Sample of Female Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Barr, Simone C.; Danielson, Carla K.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking are poorly understood. Purpose The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care–seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. Methods A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care–seeking among 445 female rape victims. Results A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Conclusions Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. PMID:22813683

  6. Receipt of post-rape medical care in a national sample of female victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Barr, Simone C; Danielson, Carla K; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2012-08-01

    It is important for rape victims to receive medical care to prevent and treat rape-related diseases and injuries, access forensic exams, and connect to needed resources. Few victims seek care, and factors associated with post-rape medical care-seeking are poorly understood. The current study examined prevalence and factors associated with post-rape medical care-seeking in a national sample of women who reported a most-recent or only incident of forcible rape, and drug- or alcohol-facilitated/incapacitated rape when they were aged ≥14 years. A national sample of U.S. adult women (N=3001) completed structured telephone interviews in 2006, and data for this study were analyzed in 2011. Logistic regression analyses examined demographic variables, health, rape characteristics, and post-rape concerns in relation to post-rape medical care-seeking among 445 female rape victims. A minority of rape victims (21%) sought post-rape medical attention following the incident. In the final multivariate model, correlates of medical care included black race, rape-related injury, concerns about sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy concerns, and reporting the incident to police. Women who experience rapes consistent with stereotypic scenarios, acknowledge the rape, report the rape, and harbor health concerns appear to be more likely to seek post-rape medical services. Education is needed to increase rape acknowledgment, awareness of post-rape services that do not require formal reporting, and recognition of the need to treat rape-related health problems. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genocide Rape Trauma Management: An Integrated Framework for Supporting Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamana, Donatilla; Brysiewicz, Petra; Collins, Anthony; Rosa, William

    During the 1994 Rwandan genocide, rape was widely used as a strategic weapon against Tutsi women. More than 20 years later, many of these women are still suffering devastating psychological, social, and physical effects of these experiences and remain in need of effective interventions that address their complex trauma. This article develops the theory of genocide rape trauma management as a conceptual framework for promoting the holistic health and recovery of female genocide rape survivors. A qualitative study using grounded theory explored the lived experiences of genocide rape survivors and led to the development of this model. The need for a contextually appropriate model is highlighted, with historical and current data regarding the Rwandan context and the experiences of genocide rape survivors. The research details the complex dynamics of emotional, physical, existential, and psychosocial sequelae related to genocide rape trauma, and how these interact with both local community and broader political attitudes toward survivors, as well as the serious interrelated economic challenges and limitations in current public health and welfare services. The research demonstrates the necessary elements of a holistic approach encompassing a synergistic combination of skilled psychological care, self-help strategies, collaborative support groups, community education, social reintegration, advocacy, accessible medical care, and economic empowerment. These interacting elements form the basis of the theory of genocide rape trauma management, offering an encompassing integrated framework that can be adapted to, and evaluated in, other similar contexts.

  8. Rape-accepting attitudes of university undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Kimberly K; Neill, Karen S; Rankin, Linda L

    2010-01-01

    The College Date Rape Attitudes Survey and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale were used in a cross-sectional study to assess rape-accepting attitudes of a convenience sample of 1602 university undergraduate students using a survey distributed online. The findings evidenced that males and individuals with more traditional gender role beliefs had attitudes more accepting of rape than the females and individuals who had more egalitarian gender role beliefs. Respondents who personally knew a rape survivor had attitudes less accepting of rape than those respondents who did not know a survivor. These findings support a continuing need to address rape myths in sexual violence prevention programming. The sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE-A) has an important role in prevention services to educate and build awareness of rape myths both on campus and through community-based efforts to reach this high risk population. Further, the SANE can build important linkages between the college campus and the healthcare setting to support the provision of effective intervention services and improved outcomes in victims of sexual violence. © 2010 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  9. The emotional challenges faced by Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners: "ER nursing is stressful on a good day without rape victims".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L

    2011-12-01

    Although research has indicated that counselors, advocates and social workers who assist rape victims experience vicarious trauma or psychological consequences as a result of their exposure to victims' traumatic experiences, little is known about Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' (SANEs') experiences. This qualitative research explores SANEs' experiences of vicarious trauma and burnout as a result of treating rape victims, and the coping strategies they implement to reduce both. Data from interviews with 39 SANEs reveal that when asked about their difficulties as a SANE and the hardest part of their job, the majority (67%) discussed vicarious trauma, the emotional demands associated with the job, worrying about victims after they leave the hospital, and burnout. More than half (51%) of SANEs interviewed specifically indicated that they have experienced vicarious trauma as a result of treating rape victims, and 46% indicated they have experienced burnout at least to some degree. All SANEs, regardless of whether they believe they have experienced vicarious trauma or burnout, have ways to cope after hard cases. These coping mechanisms include talking to family members, calling or reaching out to other SANEs, program coordinators or rape victim advocates and detectives, participating in meetings with other SANEs where the focus is on problems after difficult cases, and finding relaxing activities. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  10. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The effects of receiving a rape disclosure: college friends' stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Kathryn A; Richards, Tara N

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that college women are at greater risk for rape and sexual assault than women in the general population or in a comparable age group. College women, away from home and family, may turn to friends for support. Friends may experience emotional reactions that affect their own functioning and may not feel they have anywhere to turn. In this study, we interviewed male and female college students who had received a rape disclosure from a friend. Their unique stories provide insight into the secondary effects of rape disclosure on friends. Implications of these findings for college campuses are discussed.

  12. College women's experiences with rape disclosure: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lisa A; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-04-01

    Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a rape disclosure, and more than two thirds of these recipients encouraged victims to formally report their rapes to the police or other authorities. Correlates of disclosure receipt and encouragement of reporting, including personal assault history, mental health history, and substance use, are presented and discussed.

  13. ["Biastophilia"--rape as a form of paraphilia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rape is primarily regarded as a crime against sexual integrity. If rape is the only way for an individual to get sexual satisfaction, it meets the criteria of paraphilia, i.e. a disorder of sexual preference. The correct technical term is "biastophilia". The author investigates the evolutionary origins of this deviant form of copulation behavior, whose crucial characteristic is breaking the will of the sexual object. He shows that in a primeval environment this type of mating behavior may have been a promising strategy to pass on one's genes to the next generation. Thus, the behavioral pattern of raping had the chance to become widely spread in spite of its social undesirability.

  14. More Than a Magazine: Exploring the Links Between Lads' Mags, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Rape Proclivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sánchez, Mónica; Toro-García, Virginia; Horvath, Miranda A H; Megías, Jesús L

    2015-06-03

    Exposure to some magazines aimed at young male readers-lads' mags-has recently been associated with behaviors and attitudes that are derogatory toward women, including sexual violence. In the present study, a group of Spanish adult men was exposed to the covers of a lads' mag while a second group was exposed to the covers of a neutral magazine. Results showed that, compared with participants in the second group, participants who were exposed to covers of lads' mags who also showed high rape myth acceptance and legitimized the consumption of such magazines reported higher rape proclivity in a hypothetical situation. These findings suggest the need to further explore the possible detrimental effects of some sexualized media that are widely accepted in many Western countries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  16. Changing attitudes and perceptions of Hispanic men ages 18 to 25 about rape and rape prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Sarah Lynn; Munoz-Rojas, Derby; Gutman, Lauren Samantha; Siman, Matilde Nathalia

    2012-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to test the effectiveness of Foubert's intervention, The Men's Program, on a sample of 18- to 25-year-old Hispanic men who are not enrolled at a University or College. We explored participants' perceptions of, reactions to, and experience of the program. The information collected will be used to adapt the program to this specific population in order to increase cultural relevancy and specificity and create lasting attitudinal change. Three groups of six-eight Hispanic males (n = 22) were exposed to the intervention program. The Bystander Attitude Scale and the Rape Attitude and Beliefs Scale were administered as pre- and post-test measures. A short focus group was conducted to ask the men about their experience of the intervention. Analysis showed a significant increase in participants' willingness to intervene (p = 0.005) along with a decrease in rape myth acceptance in four of the five subscales (Justice p = 0.03; Status p = 0.004; Tactics p = 0.04; and Gender p = 0.002) after exposure to the intervention. Analysis of focus group material yielded several interesting themes about knowledge of rape, family and culture, perceptions of women, and the program material. This study showed promising change in attitudes about rape beliefs and bystander behaviors in Hispanic males exposed to an educational intervention. Through the information obtained, a cultural adaption from the analysis of the focus group data will be implemented during Phase 2 of the study. The adapted intervention will be tested before, after, and 1- and 3-months post-intervention to test whether the change in attitudes and behaviors are sustainable over time.

  17. Evolution of Rape Myths and Sexual Assaults in Newspaper Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen Tsai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of the coverage of three newspapers of rape in the daily Press in Taiwan. The idea that rape is a sexual rather than an aggressive act encourages people not to take it seriously as a crime-an attitude frequently revealed in comments by defense attorneys and newspaper. The authors’ investigated that the female victim who did not know most of her attackers will be portrayed as helpless and not responsible for her victimization. The newspapers sustained and reinforced the myths that a woman who is having consensual sex cannot be raped, and if so, she is held culpable and perceived as “asking for it.” A content analysis of newspapers’ headlines and coverage between 2002 and 2013 showed that more than 50% endorsed a rape myth.

  18. Rape on Campus: Community Education and Services for Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Barbara; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A rape task force at the University of Massachusetts (Amherst) is described with priorities including interagency coordination, a multiple entry system for victims, support for the development of a counselor-advocate program, and community education. (JMF)

  19. An Intervention Model for Rape and Unwanted Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Patricia; Bridwell, Margaret W.

    1976-01-01

    From the analytic grief framework one can formulate a philosophy related to counseling the rape victim or the woman facing unwanted pregnancy. This article describes such a philosophical orientation and the counseling interventions which emerge from it. (Author)

  20. An empirical investigation of campus demographics and reported rapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma-Mosley, Jacquelyn D; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Martinez, Taylor

    2017-10-01

    Rape on college campuses continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately 11% of women experiencing rape while in college. As such, it is important to examine factors unique to college campuses that influence the occurrences of rape. Using data from 1,423 four-year universities (public and private with at least 1,000 students) from the Office of Education and the Clery Act (2014), we examined institutional risk factors, such as tuition, liquor violations, Greek-life, athletic programs, institution type (public vs. private), and geographical location. Public institutions with higher tuition, more liquor violations, and greater numbers of fraternity men and athletes were more likely to report rape on their campuses. Findings suggest that there are university-level characteristics which may increase certain campuses propensity toward violence against women.

  1. Rape embryogenesis I. The proembryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the proembryo of rape Brassica napus L. from the zygote to the young embryo proper is described. A number of regularities were found in the direction, succession, and distribution of segmental and differentiating divisions of the proembryo. The direction of the divisions seems to foe determined by the direction of growth and the shape of the cells. The termyoung embryo proper is proposed to denote the globular embryo which already possesses separate plerome and periblem mother-cells and mother-cells of the iec layer and of clumella. The body of the embryo proper is derived from the apical cell ca which arose from the first division of the zygote and from the hypophysis - the only suspensor cell which closes the spheroid of the embryo. The development of the Brassica napus L. proembryo follows the sub-archetype Capsella bursa-pastoris in the IV megarchetype of Soueges.

  2. Rape embryogenesis. III. Embryo development in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was found that the growth curve of the rape embryo axis is of triple sigmoid type. Embryo growth occurs in 3 phases corresponding to 3 different periods of development. Phase I includes growth of the apical cell up to it's division into two layers of octants. Phase II comprises the increase of the spherical proembryo to the change of its symmetry from radial to bilateral. Phase III includes, growth of the embryo from the heart stage up to the end of embryogenesis. In each phase the relative growth rate increases drastically and then diminishes. The differences in growth intensity during the same phase are several-fold. The growth intensity maximum of the embryo axis occurs in phase II. The phasic growth intensity maxima occur: in phase I during apical cell elongation, :before its division, and in phases II and III in the periods of cell division ;growth in globular and torpedo-shaped -shaped embryos.

  3. An Empirical Exploration Into the Measurement of Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole L; Johnson, Dawn M

    2017-09-01

    Feminist scholars have long argued the presence of a "rape culture" within the United States; however, limited efforts have been made to quantify this construct. A model of rape culture was first proposed in 1980 and expanded in the 1990s in an effort to quantify rape myth acceptance. This model posits that five underlying components make up a rape culture: traditional gender roles, sexism, adversarial sexual beliefs, hostility toward women, and acceptance of violence. Although these components are proposed as cultural phenomenon and thus distinct from individually held beliefs, they have been exclusively explored on an individual level. Thus, to promote exploration of this phenomenon beyond individually held beliefs, the authors adapted a series of well-established measures to assess the perceived peer support of the constructs proposed to underlie rape culture and assess initial reliability and validity in a sample of 314 college students. Following determination of reliability and validity of these adapted measures, a hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis was run to examine the proposed model of rape culture. Results of this study highlight the uniqueness between individual and cultural factors as several items did not translate from an individual (i.e., personal endorsement) to a cultural level (i.e., perceived peer support) and were subsequently removed from the proposed final measurements. Furthermore, initial support for the aforementioned model of rape culture was identified. These findings are crucial given that limited conclusions may be drawn about the existence and in turn eradication of rape culture without an agreed upon definition and source of measurement.

  4. PTSD of rape after IS ("Islamic State") captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilhan, Jan Ilhan

    2018-03-10

    Research into the psychological consequences of rape on women in war and warlike situations is limited. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence and the nature of PTSD symptoms among Yazidi women reporting rape during IS captivity, (b) to describe comorbidity of other psychological disorders, and (c) to examine the risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder.The study included 296 Yazidi women survivors of rape and has been conducted in Germany since January 2016 as part of a special-quota project in the German region of Baden-Wuerttemberg, designed to support the women and children who have escaped after being held hostage by IS.The survivors were recruited into a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Interviews in Germany were done through trained personnel to evaluate the mental health status of raped women.All the investigated women had been raped many times during IS captivity. About 82% of the women were also physically tortured. Of the sample, 67% suffered from somatoform disorder, 53% suffered from depression, 39% from anxiety, and 28% from dissociation. The prevalence of PTSD in those with rape events of more than 20 times was 57% (95% CI = 35.1-65.9%), less than 20 times was 41% (95%, CI = 28.7-4.8% and less than 10 times 39% [95% CI = 28.2-41.8%], respectively.The IS captivity and wartime rapes had deep immediate and long-term consequences on the mental health of women survivors. The high prevalence of PTSD emphasizes the need for culturally sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic services to address the intermediate and long-term consequences of wartime rape.

  5. Women's erotic rape fantasies: an evaluation of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critelli, Joseph W; Bivona, Jenny M

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first systematic review of the research literature on women's rape fantasies. Current research indicates that between 31% and 57% of women have fantasies in which they are forced into sex against their will, and for 9% to 17% of women these are a frequent or favorite fantasy experience. Erotic rape fantasies are paradoxical: they do not appear to make sense. Why would a person have an erotic and pleasurable fantasy about an event that, in real life, would be abhorrent and traumatic? In this article, the major theories of women's rape fantasies are evaluated both rationally and empirically. These theories explain rape fantasies in terms of masochism, sexual blame avoidance, openness to sexuality, sexual desirability, male rape culture, biological predisposition to surrender, sympathetic physiological activation, and adversary transformation. This article evaluates theory and research, makes provisional judgments as to which theories appear to be most viable, and begins the task of theoretical integration to arrive at a more complete and internally consistent explanation for why many women engage in erotic rape fantasies. Methodological critiques and programs for future research are presented throughout.

  6. "You owe me": effects of date cost, who pays, participant gender, and rape myth beliefs on perceptions of rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-02-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported predictions: When the man paid for an expensive date, men agreed more than did women that both characters should have expected sexual intercourse. Conversely, when the costs of an inexpensive date were split, the perpetrator was assigned the most blame, and women agreed more than men that no sexual expectations were warranted. Participant gender affected some responses, although level of rape myth acceptance was the main predictor of rape perceptions.

  7. Rape and child sexual abuse: what beliefs persist about motives, perpetrators, and survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronán

    2011-11-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and local rape myths is necessary if they are to be successfully challenged through public campaigns and other means. This study sought to assess the prevalence of myths concerning rape and sexual abuse in a national population survey.

  8. "I have heard horrible stories . . .": rape victim advocates' perceptions of the revictimization of rape victims by the police and medical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L

    2008-07-01

    This study explores rape victim advocates' perceptions of the revictimization of rape victims by the police and medical system. Most of the previous research on revictimization focuses on either victims or members of the criminal justice, legal, medical, or mental health systems. The current study provides a more complete picture of victims' possible revictimization by the police and medical system through in-depth interviews with 47 rape victim advocates in four states who had direct experience with police or medical professionals. Rape victim advocates describe the power wielded by the police and medical system to revictimize rape victims and their own role in attempting to mitigate this revictimization.

  9. Candida meningitis in a suspected immunosuppressive patient - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida meningitis in a suspected immunosuppressive patient - A case report. EO Sanya, NB Ameen, BA Onile. Abstract. No Abstract. West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 25 (1) 2006: pp.79-81. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Potency test of a rape accused in India – Rationale, problems and suggestions in light of the Criminal Law (Amendment Act, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shadab Raheel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indian legal system makes it mandatory to medically examine any accused of rape as well as other forms of sexual assault. Accused is brought in the police custody for conducting medical examination which includes general physical examination, potency test and evidence collection. The medical examination report of the accused is labeled as the “POTENCY TEST REPORT”. As per the changed definition of rape after Criminal Law (Amendment Act, 2013, potency test stands irrelevant in rape cases because the changed law does not require peno-vaginal intercourse to call it as rape. However, even after the change in definition of rape and laws related to it, potency test is still a mandatory part of medical examination of accused. Displeasure about the same has also been raised by a fast track court of Delhi. In this paper, we have discussed the rationale of potency test of sexual assault in light of Criminal Law Amendment Act (2013, court judgment and other available literature.

  11. Kunarac, Kovac, and Vukovic case (Foca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brouwer, A.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    The annotation discusses the prosecution of sexual violence crimes against women before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in the Kunarac, Kovac, and Vukovic case (Foca). It is specifically focussed on the definition of rape, the prosecution of rape as a crime

  12. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  13. Date rape among Cypriot female college students: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L; Pavlou, Susana Elisa

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence and reporting of date rape among female college students (aged 18-24) in Cyprus and assessed the students' attitudes and awareness regarding date rape. In addition, the study examined how date rape is perceived among representatives of related private and governmental organizations in Cyprus. This is part of a larger multi-country study. This paper will focus only on the results pertaining to Cyprus. The study was coordinated by the Mediterranean Institute of Gender Studies. This study used quantitative and qualitative methods. In total, 476 female college students responded to an anonymous questionnaire, two focus group discussions were carried out, and five key-informant interviews with relevant institutional representatives were conducted. The results of the study indicated that unwanted sexual experiences and sexual violence, including date rape, do exist among young Cypriot women. Specifically, 1.3% of the research participants reported experiencing an attempted rape by their date, and 1.9 % of the study participants reported being raped on a date. Often this was caused by their boyfriend, friend or sexual partner (54.2%). The results of the qualitative study showed that young female Cypriots agreed that many women give in to psychological pressure because they feel guilty about letting the other person down or because they 'didn't satisfy him' or fear they might lose him. Despite the explorative nature of the study, it is significant as research on date rape in Cyprus is almost non-existent. The authors anticipate that the results of the study will be useful to other researchers and policy-makers involved in this area of research.

  14. Atlantoaxial subluxation and nasopharyngeal necrosis complicating suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Anand; Holekamp, Terrence F; Diaz, Jason A; Zebala, Lukas; Brasington, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Granulomatosis polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener granulomatosis) is a vasculitis that typically involves the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and kidneys. The 2 established methods to confirm a suspicion of GPA are the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) test and biopsy. However, ANCA-negative cases have been known to occur, and it can be difficult to find biopsy evidence of granulomatous disease.We report a case of suspected granulomatosis with polyangiitis limited to the nasopharynx. With a negative ANCA and no histological evidence, our diagnosis was founded on the exclusion of other diagnoses and the response to cyclophosphamide therapy. This case is unique because the patient's lesion resulted in atlantoaxial instability, which required a posterior spinal fusion at C1-C2. This is the first reported case of suspected GPA producing damage to the cervical spine and threatening the spinal cord.

  15. Perceptions of rape and attitudes toward women in a sample of Lebanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeiz, Maria J; Harb, Charles

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape myths, confirming some of the premises in the literature. Type of rape (date, marital, acquaintance, and stranger rape) and victim's characteristics (widowed, married, devout, promiscuous, and chaste) were also investigated. Results revealed that no matter what the relationship between the victim and her perpetrator was, and regardless of the victim's characteristics, forcible sexual contact was always considered as rape. However, differences did emerge as to the degree to which these variations were perceived as rape. Implication of findings for research and the Lebanese culture are discussed.

  16. “You Have to Confess”: Rape and the Politics of Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Roeder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the discourse of rape in contemporary culture, paying special attention to the courtroom setting, where rape victims are often required to tell cohesive, linear narratives that underscore their blamelessness if they hope to be believed. Because of deeply entrenched cultural myths about rape, the type of story often required for the successful prosecution of perpetrators may require rape victims to construct narratives that do not accurately reflect their lived experience. Writers such as Susan Brison, Patricia Weaver Francisco, and Alice Sebold engage with the complex politics of rape and its telling in their memoirs. While constructing stories that will suffice in the courtroom setting remains an important task for many rape victims, such stories may ultimately have to be relinquished and rewritten in order to revise prevailing cultural perceptions of rape, its perpetrators, and its victims. The memoirs of rape survivors thus come to function as a different—and necessary—type of public testimony.

  17. Suspected spinocellular carcinoma of the inferior eyelid resulted multiple chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onesti, Maria Giuseppina; Troccola, Antonietta; Maruccia, Michele; Conversi, Andrea; Scuderi, Gianluca

    2013-01-01

    Chalazion is a subacute granulomatous inflammation of the eyelid caused by retention of tarsal gland secretions and it's the most common inflammatory lesion of the eyelid. In cases of doubtful clinical presentation the diagnosis with a biopsy and a histopathological examination is important because it can orientate an appropriate surgical treatment. We report a case of a 64-years-old diabetic man, suspected for a spinocellular lesion of the inferior eyelid of the left eye, it resulted unexpectedly a chalazion.

  18. Book Review: Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nash

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shavers, B. (2013. Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Waltham, MA: Elsevier, 290 pages, ISBN-978-1-59749-985-9, US$51.56. Includes bibliographical references and index.Reviewed by Detective Corporal Thomas Nash (tnash@bpdvt.org, Burlington Vermont Police Department, Internet Crime against Children Task Force. Adjunct Instructor, Champlain College, Burlington VT.In this must read for any aspiring novice cybercrime investigator as well as the seasoned professional computer guru alike, Brett Shaver takes the reader into the ever changing and dynamic world of Cybercrime investigation.  Shaver, an experienced criminal investigator, lays out the details and intricacies of a computer related crime investigation in a clear and concise manner in his new easy to read publication, Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard. Using Digital Forensics and Investigative techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Shaver takes the reader from start to finish through each step of the investigative process in well organized and easy to follow sections, with real case file examples to reach the ultimate goal of any investigation: identifying the suspect and proving their guilt in the crime. Do not be fooled by the title. This excellent, easily accessible reference is beneficial to both criminal as well as civil investigations and should be in every investigator’s library regardless of their respective criminal or civil investigative responsibilities.(see PDF for full review

  19. Issues in balancing teenage clients' confidentiality and reporting statutory rape among Kansas Title X clinic staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C; Miller, H L; Kenney, L; Tasheff, J

    1999-10-01

    Through Federal welfare reform, Congress directed states to aggressively enforce statutory rape laws. Family planning professionals deal with many adolescent clients, and their support for such enforcement or willingness to report is unclear. The authors of this study examined current attitudes and practices of family planning program managers (FPPMs) about statutory rape law enforcement, including current reporting practices. In 1997, all 77 local Kansas Title X FPPMs were surveyed. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with 10 FPPMs to add detail to quantitative responses. Sixty-eight FPPMs responded to the written survey (88%). Of these, 79% supported aggressive enforcement, and 43% thought enforcement would reduce adolescent pregnancy rates. With increased enforcement, 38% believed teenagers would be discouraged from seeking reproductive health care, compared to 41% who believed they would not. Among key informants, all of whom were FPPMs, willingness to report cases was mixed, with those who would report wanting the flexibility to judge on a case-by-case basis. For those not reporting cases, confidentiality concerns overrode beliefs in any positive outcome of enforcement. Kansas Title X FPPMs strongly supported aggressive enforcement, but had mixed beliefs about negative consequences. Among those interviewed, there were also mixed beliefs and practices about reporting. Reporting from FPPMs will be sporadic and arbitrary unless protocols are developed and laws are clarified.

  20. “You Have to Confess”: Rape and the Politics of Storytelling

    OpenAIRE

    Tara Roeder

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the discourse of rape in contemporary culture, paying special attention to the courtroom setting, where rape victims are often required to tell cohesive, linear narratives that underscore their blamelessness if they hope to be believed. Because of deeply entrenched cultural myths about rape, the type of story often required for the successful prosecution of perpetrators may require rape victims to construct narratives that do not accurately reflect their lived experience...

  1. Heat-resistant mechanism of transgenic rape by 45Ca isotope tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Falun; Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Liao Jiali; Yang Jijun; Tang Jun; Liu Zhibin; Yang Yi

    2012-01-01

    The Ca 2+ uptake differences of the rape with heat-resistant gene and the general rape were investigated by 45 Ca isotope tracer. The results showed that the rape with heat-resistant gene can strengthen the regulation of calcium absorption. The calcium regulation ability of the heat-resistant genes may be able to play in the rape aspect of the mechanism of resistance. (authors)

  2. "Corrective Rape" Of Lesbians In The Era Of Transformative Constitutionalism In South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Koraan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous incidents of “corrective” rape of lesbians in recent years. This article examines the adequacy of the existing South African legal framework to deal with incidents of “corrective” rape against the background of transformative constitutionalism. The various definitions of transformative constitutionalism and an understanding of heteronormativity are explored. The article proceeds to examine “corrective” rape and concludes with suggestions as to how legislation should make provision for “corrective” rape.

  3. Rape embryogenesis VI. Formation of protein bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The storage protein synthesis starts in Brassica napus var. Górczański embryo at the final embryogenesis stage, i.e. in green seeds. Storage protein accumulate in selected zones adjacent to big vacuoles. These vacuoles, as well as surrounding protein zones, are subject to fragmentation. Young aleuron grains originate. They grow occupying sites of declining vacuoles. In mature rape embryo two kinds of protein bodies occur: aleuron grains, well-stainable with protein-specific dyes, and myrosin grains weakly-stainable with them but PAS-positive. Myrosin grains occur earlier than aleuron grains in special cortex and cytoledon cells. Although the first aleuron grains form in outer cells of lateral cap parts and in cortex cells at the hypocotyl-root boundary, they originate most rapidly in endodermis. In the embryo axis aleuron grains form so rapidly that at the beginning of browning of the seed coat most of them are already formed. Aleuron grains developed in all embryo cells accept in those of the youngest columella layers and differentiated procambial strands. The accumulation of storage protein lasts till the end of seed maturation.

  4. The Lawyer in the Dutch Interrogation Room: Influence on Police and Suspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.J.; Stevens, L.

    2012-01-01

    In many European countries, providing a suspect in custody with legal aid before the first police interrogation is a heavily debated issue. In this paper, we report on an exploratory study on the use of coercion by the police and the use of the right to silence by suspects in 70 Dutch homicide cases

  5. Occurrence of antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in patients with suspected tick-borne encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kalinová

    2015-09-01

    None of the examined patients with suspected TBE had the disease confirmed. Hoever, as shown by the results, the relative risk of occurrence of anaplasmosis is higher in people examined for some another vector-borne disease (in this case TBE. Therefore, the performance of screening examinations in patients suspected of having any tick-borne disease is very important.

  6. Effects of Victim Gaze Behavior and Prior Relationship on Rape Culpability Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Cynthia E.; Wrightsman, Lawrence S.

    1995-01-01

    Rape victims' gaze behavior when identifying a defendant and the prior relationship between victim and defendant were examined for effects on rape culpability attributions. In comparison with victims who used gaze maintenance or natural gaze behavior, rape victims' gaze avoidance was perceived as indicative of less truthfulness rather than…

  7. Rape Prevention Education for Men: The Effectiveness of Empathy-Induction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Dianne R.; Lonsway, Kimberly A.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-four male undergraduates participated in a rape prevention education program in which the experimental group listened to an audiotape of a man versus a woman describing the experience of being raped. Two weeks later, the students who heard the female tape reported more likelihood to engage in rape-supportive behaviors but no difference in…

  8. 75 FR 27000 - Hearings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Review Panel on Prison Rape AGENCY: Office of Justice Programs, Justice. ACTION: Notice of hearing. SUMMARY: The Office of Justice Programs (OJP) announces that the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel) will...-free number.] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Panel, which was established pursuant to the Prison Rape...

  9. 75 FR 11077 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION... settings that were prepared by the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission (Commission) pursuant to the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003 (PREA) and recommended by the Commission to the Attorney General. The...

  10. 76 FR 6247 - National Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Standards To Prevent, Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No..., Detect, and Respond to Prison Rape AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... abuse in confinement settings that were prepared by the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission...

  11. From Survivor to Thriver: A Pilot Study of an Online Program for Rape Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Buck, Katherine; Rosman, Lindsey; Grills-Taquechel, Amie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 15% to 20% of women have been victims of rape and close to a third report current rape-related PTSD or clinically significant depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, very few distressed rape victims seek formal help. This suggests a need to develop alternative ways to assist the many distressed victims of sexual violence. Online…

  12. Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners' Perceptions of Their Relationship with Doctors, Rape Victim Advocates, Police, and Prosecutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Shana L.

    2012-01-01

    In response to the negative and inefficient treatment of rape victims by emergency room personnel, the first Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) programs began in the late 1970s. While SANEs, doctors, rape victim advocates, police officers and prosecutors work together to ensure the most comprehensive and sensitive care of rape victims, they all…

  13. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  14. Perceptions of Rape and Attitudes toward Women in a Sample of Lebanese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebeiz, Maria J.; Harb, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated values, ambivalent sexism, religiosity, religious differences, gender, and attitudes toward rape victims as predictors of rape myths in a sample of Lebanese students (N = 300). Values of self-transcendence and conservation, gender, hostile sexism, and attitudes toward rape victims emerged as significant predictors of rape…

  15. [Rape-related pregnancy in Brazil: the experience of women seeking legal abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Carolina Leme; Fernandes, Arlete Maria Dos Santos; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Makuch, Maria Yolanda

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, abortion is permitted by law in cases of rape-related pregnancy. This study reports on various aspects in the experience of women that have been sexually assaulted: diagnosis of the pregnancy, seeking legal abortion, and hospitalization in a university hospital. This was a qualitative study that interviewed ten women 18 to 38 years of age, with at least eight years of schooling, one to five years after legal abortion. The women had been previously unaware of their right to a legal abortion, were ashamed about the sexual assault, kept it secret, and had not sought immediate care. The diagnosis of pregnancy provoked anxiety and the wish to undergo an abortion. Women treated through private health plans received either insufficient orientation or none at all. Respectful treatment by the healthcare staff proved relevant for the women to cope with the abortion. The study highlights the need to publicize the right to abortion in cases of rape-related pregnancy and the healthcare services that perform legal abortion, in addition to training healthcare and law enforcement teams to handle such cases.

  16. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  17. Effect of cadmium on plants of oilseed rape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesko, M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of some production parameters of hydroponically grown plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent by cadmium and determine the amount of cadmium accumulated in plant organs. Studying the effect of cadmium on plants of new Czech species of oilseed rape Opponent confirmed that application of metal reduced the length and also fresh and dry weight of plant organs, while the inhibitory effect of Cd with increasing concentration of metal in solution increased. Plant roots responded to toxic effect of Cd more responsive. As a result of Cd applications occurred a significant decrease of content of assimilation pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) in plant leaves. Species of rape Opponent is a significant Cd battery, and for these plants is characterized by a high rate of translocation of this metal into the shoots.

  18. Fear of rape among college women: a social psychological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Douglas W; Hughes, Marion R

    2013-01-01

    This article examines social psychological underpinnings of fear of rape among college women. We analyze data from a survey of 1,905 female undergraduates to test the influence of 5 subjective perceptions about vulnerability and harm: unique invulnerability, gender risk, defensibility, anticipatory shame, and attribution of injury. We include 3 sources of crime exposure in our models: past sexual victimization, past noncontact violent victimization, and structural risk measured by age, parent's income, and race. Separate measures of fear of stranger and acquaintance rape are modeled, including variables tapping current versus anticipatory fear, fear on campus versus everywhere, and fear anytime versus at night. The data show that fear of rape among college women appears more grounded in constructed perceptions of harm and danger than in past violent experiences.

  19. Lifetime Economic Burden of Rape Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Cora; DeGue, Sarah; Florence, Curtis; Lokey, Colby N

    2017-06-01

    This study estimated the per-victim U.S. lifetime cost of rape. Data from previous studies was combined with current administrative data and 2011 U.S. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey data in a mathematical model. Rape was defined as any lifetime completed or attempted forced penetration or alcohol- or drug-facilitated penetration, measured among adults not currently institutionalized. Costs included attributable impaired health, lost productivity, and criminal justice costs from the societal perspective. Average age at first rape was assumed to be 18 years. Future costs were discounted by 3%. The main outcome measures were the average per-victim (female and male) and total population discounted lifetime cost of rape. Secondary outcome measures were marginal outcome probabilities among victims (e.g., suicide attempt) and perpetrators (e.g., incarceration) and associated costs. Analysis was conducted in 2016. The estimated lifetime cost of rape was $122,461 per victim, or a population economic burden of nearly $3.1 trillion (2014 U.S. dollars) over victims' lifetimes, based on data indicating >25 million U.S. adults have been raped. This estimate included $1.2 trillion (39% of total) in medical costs; $1.6 trillion (52%) in lost work productivity among victims and perpetrators; $234 billion (8%) in criminal justice activities; and $36 billion (1%) in other costs, including victim property loss or damage. Government sources pay an estimated $1 trillion (32%) of the lifetime economic burden. Preventing sexual violence could avoid substantial costs for victims, perpetrators, healthcare payers, employers, and government payers. These findings can inform evaluations of interventions to reduce sexual violence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Guidelines for identifying suspect/counterfeit material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist users of products in identifying: substandard, misrepresented, or fraudulently marked items. The guidelines provide information about such topics as: precautions, inspection and testing, dispositioning identified items, installed inspection and reporting suspect/counterfeit materials. These guidelines apply to users who are developing procurement documents, product acceptance/verification methods, company procedures, work instructions, etc. The intent of these SM guidelines in relation to the Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and implementing company Management Control Procedures is not to substitute or replace existing requirements, as defined in either the QAPD or company implementing instructions (Management Control Procedures). Instead, the guidelines are intended to provide a consolidated source of information addressing the issue of Suspect/Counterfeit materials. These guidelines provide an extensive suspect component listing and suspect indications listing. Users can quickly check their suspect items against the list of manufacturers products (i.e., type, LD. number, and nameplate information) by consulting either of these listings.

  1. The Phenomenology of Specialization of Criminal Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumminello, Michele; Edling, Christofer; Liljeros, Fredrik; Mantegna, Rosario N.; Sarnecki, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    A criminal career can be either general, with the criminal committing different types of crimes, or specialized, with the criminal committing a specific type of crime. A central problem in the study of crime specialization is to determine, from the perspective of the criminal, which crimes should be considered similar and which crimes should be considered distinct. We study a large set of Swedish suspects to empirically investigate generalist and specialist behavior in crime. We show that there is a large group of suspects who can be described as generalists. At the same time, we observe a non-trivial pattern of specialization across age and gender of suspects. Women are less prone to commit crimes of certain types, and, for instance, are more prone to specialize in crimes related to fraud. We also find evidence of temporal specialization of suspects. Older persons are more specialized than younger ones, and some crime types are preferentially committed by suspects of different ages. PMID:23691257

  2. Suspected clinical-radiological discord

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    him to the hospital. The purpose of this case presentation is to share some challenges of a clinical-radiological discord in a teaching hospital in Zimbabwe. It shows a flow of teamwork from. House Officers to the Consultants as well as radiological back up. Case presentation. A seventeen-year old male student was seen in ...

  3. Attitude May Be Everything, But Is Everything an Attitude? Cognitive Distortions May Not Be Evaluations of Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kevin L; Hermann, Chantal A; White, Kristen; Pettersen, Cathrine; Bumby, Kurt

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive distortions are often referred to as attitudes toward rape in theory, research, and clinical practice pertaining to sexual aggression. In the social-psychological literature, however, attitudes are typically defined as evaluations; thus, in this context, attitudes toward rape are considered evaluations of rape (e.g., rape is negative vs. positive). The purpose of the current study was to explore whether a widely used measure of cognitive distortions (RAPE Scale; Bumby, 1996) assesses evaluation of rape, and, if not, whether evaluation of rape and the cognitions assessed by the RAPE Scale are independently associated with sexually aggressive behavior. Participants (660 male undergraduate students) completed the RAPE Scale as well as measures of evaluation of rape and sexually aggressive behavior. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that the RAPE Scale items formed a correlated but distinct factor from the Evaluation of Rape Scale items. Regression analyses indicated that the Evaluation of Rape Scale and the RAPE Scale had small to moderate independent associations with self-report measures of sexually aggressive behavior. Our results suggest that evaluation of rape may be distinct from cognitive distortions regarding rape, and both evaluation and cognitive distortions may be relevant for understanding sexual violence.

  4. EXPRESSION OF CHITINASE GENE IN TRANSGENIC RAPE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Longdou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypocotyl and cotyledon of Brassica napus L. H165 and Brassica juncea DB3 were transformed with chitinase gene and herbicide-resistance gene by co-culture with Agrobacterium tumefacients LBA4404, and rape plants were obtained which could grow on the medium containing herbicide. The PCR result showed that exotic genes were integrated in the genome of the rape. Further study was performed to determine the impact of temperature on the transgenic rate and the differentiation of explants.

  5. Sexual rape in children and adolescents: a medical emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Piña Corina Araceli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexual rape is defined as vaginal, anal or oral sex with violent and forceful penetration of the penis or of any other object. Patients who have been raped are a medical emergency which requires immediate attention, if possible, within 24 to 72 hours, since there is the risk of sustaining external and internal injuries and of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Detection and Centers for Disease Control (CDC have reported that the maximum effective- ness of HIV prophylaxis is obtained when given within the first 24 to 72 hours post exposure.

  6. Rape in the metropolis: the geography of crime in Delhi.

    OpenAIRE

    Amitabh Vikram Dwivedi

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a study of rape in the national capital of India, and the focus is on the amendments of rape law aftermath 12 December 2012 crime. It questions at the safety and security issues of women in the metropolis of India, and it also discusses critically how laws amendments have been made aftermath this barbaric crime. Though this paper doesn’t set an inquiry yet it provides common criticism against the new amendments and it remains observational in nature, and sets a study. The tempor...

  7. It's Her Fault: Student Acceptance of Rape Myths On Two College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Rebecca M; Abbott, Rebecca L; Cook, Savannah

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined factors that are associated with an individual's adherence to rape myths at two colleges located in the same town. Particularly, we examined sex, race, and participants' drinking behavior in relation to rape myth acceptance. We found that males and heavy drinkers are more likely than females and non/low drinkers to adhere to rape myths. An interaction between males and drinking was also found indicating a moderated effect of gender on rape myth acceptance. In addition, the college with sexual assault programming did not experience a lowered acceptance of rape myths compared with the college with no programming. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Unacknowledged Rape: The Influences of Child Sexual Abuse and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supports that the majority of young women who experience sexual victimization that meets the legal definition of rape do not label their experiences as rape--this has been termed unacknowledged rape. In a sample of 77 young adult women, the odds of unacknowledged rape significantly increased as a function of less severe child sexual abuse histories and greater levels of dysfunctional personality traits. Potential explanations for these findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. Because of the potential psychological and societal consequences of unacknowledged rape, it is vital that researchers continue to examine this phenomenon.

  9. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    , from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1, since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1.

  11. The Prevalence of Rape Myths among Middle School Students across Gender and Socioeconomic Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dyehouse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study designed to investigate the level and type of rape myths that are endorsed among middle school youth in terms of gender and socioeconomic background is reported in this paper. Participants were 582 seventh and eighth grade students who took part in Project Equality, a rape and sexual assault prevention curriculum that took place during eight, one and a half-hour sessions. The modified Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale was administered to students before and after Project Equality. Results indicate that males endorse higher levels of rape myth acceptance, both before and after the intervention, although the number of endorsed myths decreased. Rape myth endorsement decreased following the intervention among participants of differing socioeconomic backgrounds. Males and females showed lower levels of rape myth acceptance following the intervention. Implications include finding more effective ways to target male youth and that Project Equality works to lower rape myths among middle school youth.

  12. Visualising Shattered Lives: Potentiality in Representations of Rape Victimisation in Contemporary Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Lei Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how cinematic representations of rape can challenge the silence which surrounds the issue of rape and sexual violence in Japan. A textual analysis of two contemporary fictional Japanese films, DV: Domestic Violence [2005] and The Ravine of Goodbye [2013], was performed to illustrate how filmmakers can use narrative and cinematographic techniques to influence the viewer to reflect upon their attitudes to rape and rape victims. By examining how these two films depict rape and rape recovery, this article argues that there is discursive potential inherent within cinema to shape our imaginations and ideals about the world. But while the filmmaker can construct rape representations that encourage reflection, how the viewer decides to engage with the film has bearing on whether this potential for reflection is realised.

  13. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  14. An Experimental Study on the Diesel Engine Performance with Rape Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeong Og

    2002-02-01

    A four cycle diesel engine performance test was performed with four kinds of oils such as rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil, activated clay rape seed oil and light oil. The experiment was conducted at full load condition with constant injection time of the engine and the test oil temperature was maintained at 70±2 .deg. C. 1. The torque and the horsepower with rape seed fuel is increased about 10% compare with light seed oil at full load condition of the engine. High viscosity of the rape makes oil films in the combustor which leads to higher compression ratio and explosion. The results of the high viscosity make higher torque of the engine. The brake specific fuel consumption of the rape seed fuel increased 8%∼10% than that of the light oil. This effect could be the difference of heating value between the two kinds of oil. 2. The emission of the smoke gas was decreased 29%, 38% and 52% compare with light oil in rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil and activated clay rape respectively due to the low volatility and high viscosity of the soot. The NOx emission with rape seed oil is twice larger than that of the light oil at full load condition. The reason is that the fuel temperature increment effects on the combustor temperature and it makes thermal NOx of the engine. 3. The test engine could be started over 40 .deg. C of the rape seed oil. Engine inspection results shows that the soot adherence amount of the cylinder head piston head is higher in following order; activated clay rape seed oil > effective micro-organism rape seed oil > rape seed oil > light oil

  15. Evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Nancy D

    2007-06-01

    This report provides guidance in the clinical approach to the evaluation of suspected physical abuse in children. The medical assessment is outlined with respect to obtaining a history, physical examination, and appropriate ancillary testing. The role of the physician may encompass reporting suspected abuse; assessing the consistency of the explanation, the child's developmental capabilities, and the characteristics of the injury or injuries; and coordination with other professionals to provide immediate and long-term treatment and follow-up for victims. Accurate and timely diagnosis of children who are suspected victims of abuse can ensure appropriate evaluation, investigation, and outcomes for these children and their families.

  16. Evaluative effects of negative emotionality constructs on rape and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In everyday life, human beings are confronted with numerous psychological problems. These psychological problems are numerous and vital that at times they claim human life. One of such psychological problems is the one being face by victims of rape and sexual harassment in which many individual may be hesitant to ...

  17. Does DNA methylation pattern mark generative development in winter rape?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Filek, M.; Janiak, A.; Szarejko, I.; Grabczynska, J.; Macháčková, Ivana; Krekule, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 61, 5-6 (2006), s. 387-396 ISSN 0939-5075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600040612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : DNA methylation * rape * vernalization Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2006

  18. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of rape straw by the mixed-strain fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility. Orthogonal ...

  19. The child rape epidemic | Cox | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. There were 52 733 reported rapes in South Africa in 2003/2004, almost half of them involving children. South Africa is faced with the challenge of developing an appropriate management strategy to foster effective treatment and curtail the incidence of sexual assault. A child sexual assault protocol for the ...

  20. Date Rape: Hidden Epidemic Makes Campuses Unsafe for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eileen M.

    1989-01-01

    Date and acquaintance rape may be more prevalent on college campuses than in other environments, and colleges are struggling to confront the issue. Sexism and racism contribute to underreporting of and misconceptions about sexual abuse in college settings. Policies, programs, and procedures for combating sexual assaults on campus are recommended.…

  1. Institutional Liability for Campus Rapes: The Emerging Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossley, Richard; Smith, Michael Clay

    1995-01-01

    Courts have shown themselves increasingly willing to hold institutions of higher education responsible for rapes that occur on their campuses. In some instances, federal law now mandates a duty to help prevent these campus crimes. Provides a general campus security checklist. (82 footnotes) (MLF)

  2. Conceptually situating the harm of rape: An analysis of objectification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patriarchal societies is explained by seeing rape as making good on the threat of sexual objectification. I argue that what takes place in an encounter of sexual objectification can be thought of as establishing an implicit threat which permeates the lived experience of being a woman under patriarchy because of the ...

  3. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  4. Understanding the innermost nature of genocidal rape: A community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of societal norms, values, rules and taboos making sense of normality in sexual intercourse, the refusal of any link with the victim recalling togetherness, and the dismissal of humanity characterized by a total lack of guilt. Key words: genocidal rape, normality, togetherness, humanity, community-based approach, Rwanda ...

  5. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates,.

  6. Psychological Techniques In Helping Rape Victims | Ayinde | Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling psychology is concerned with assisting people who have personal, social, educational and vocational problems to better understand themselves and solve their problems. Rape is seen as a problem that militates against the psychological well being of victims, because of the devastating aftermath of the incident ...

  7. The Experience of Male Rape in Non-Institutionalised Settings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Research Methodology. Qualitative research design. Exploration of the literature investigating the phenomenon of male rape reveals a predominantly positivistic and hence quantitative approach to the research. There seems to be a lack of research that embraces an interpretative epistemology and, consequently, of studies ...

  8. Recovering of DNA evidence after rape | Jina | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used to collect evidence for DNA recovery after rape. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of completion of the kits by health care workers in 6 provinces of South Africa. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to code SAECKs that were analysed at one forensic science laboratory in South Africa. Results ...

  9. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (oilseed rape isolate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) De Bary, the causal agent of stem rot of oilseed rape, is one of the most important phytopathogens. In order to find appropriate biocontrol agents, antagonistic and especially chitinolytical activities of 110 soil actinomycetes were examined. Among assayed isolates, Streptomyces sp. isolate 422 ...

  10. The lived experience of genocide rape survivors in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukamana, Donatilla; Brysiewicz, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of women who were raped during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. A phenomenological approach was used and this study was carried out in Rwanda in three different locations. The 7 participants took part in three semi-structured, individual interviews which were audiotaped. Participants reported many themes unique to Rwandan women survivors of genocide. These themes included violation by perceived inferiors, loss of dignity and respect, loss of identity, social isolation, loss of hope for the future (i.e., HIV/AIDS), the ongoing torture of rape babies, and developing a sense of community. Rwandan women survivors of the 1994 genocide have lived through unimaginable suffering. Limited information is available regarding the experiences of these rape survivors and this information could create awareness and some understanding of what these women endured. This study can help nurses to understand the sequelae of war and rape and thus have needed information which can be used to offer assistance to women in these circumstances.

  11. Clinical Perspective Psycho-legal issues surrounding the rape of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rape of individuals with mental retardation poses challenges for the judicial system as well as for the survivors themselves. As a result, the courts tend to refer these individuals for forensic mental health examination to assist them in proceeding with criminal trials. This sequence of events may appear unusual, ...

  12. The relationshp between rape experience and post-traumatic stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the relationship between rape experience and of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder among victims. One hundred and thirty-two female participants made up of seventy-two from Nasarawa State University and sixty from the general public in Keffi town of Nasarawa State participated in the ...

  13. Genotypic variation of rape in phosphorus uptake from sparingly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... were washed repeatedly with water 10 times, dried in an oven 70°C before use. The total amount of P (10 mg ..... by soybean plants grown with low P supply in the solution culture experiment was highly .... yield of barley and rape seed on reddish brown soils of Ethiopian highlands. Fertil. Res. 34: 243-250.

  14. Knowledge and Perceptions of Date Rape among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Rape is the act of forcing another person to engage in sex against his or her wish through violence, threats, .... persons aged ≤ 24 years, majority (77.9%) of them had ever dated someone and 55.1% were currently ..... he has invested in if she refuses a sexual request15. A cultural re-orientation is necessary in order to.

  15. Perception of Spousal Rape among Lagos State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recognition of sex in the context of marriage as crime is strange. Men are often accused of exclusively perpetrating this culturally alien offence which exclusively causes enormous trauma to women within the family. This study examines the perception of undergraduates about marital rape among married couples in ...

  16. Bioconversion of rape straw into a nutritionally enriched substrate by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-22

    Jun 22, 2011 ... This work aims to select biological treatments and conditions for the bioconversion of rape straw by the mixed-strain fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida tropicalis and Candida utilis), into an enriched substrate with increased crude protein and digestibility.

  17. "CORRECTIVE RAPE" OF LESBIANS IN THE ERA OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NWUuser

    sexual preferences.2 The phenomenon of "corrective" rape has become rife and has received significant media attention.3 Although South Africa has some of the ..... apply to court to not have the trial conducted in open court, in terms of section. 153(1) of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977. 5. That Parole Boards view the ...

  18. The Relationships Between Psychopathy and Rape: Focus on Keffi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the paper is on the relationships between psychopathy and rape behaviour. Keffi prisons consist of 98 inmates, 88 male and 20 female, and they were used as participants of the study. Data from the Nigerian prison service for the period of 2002 to 2009 were collected at the Keffi prison correlation and linear ...

  19. A REVIEW OF LITERATURE: RAPE AND COMMUNICATION MEDIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective management of rape and gender violence and related issues in contemporary Nigeria. Keywords: ... carried around in the cognitive system, and understanding is more or less. 'correct' to the extent that it .... communication strategies employed by the selected NGOs, their target audience and the effectiveness of the ...

  20. Maps of Woe Narratives of Rape in Early Modern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available By considering a selection of texts, both fictional and non-fictional, this study ad- dresses different representations of rape in early modern English culture. Its aim is to highlight the interconnections between aspects of culture and the creative exchange, the confrontation and mutual assimilation between ‘high’ and ‘low’ cultural forms.