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Sample records for suspected physical abuse

  1. The evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Cindy W

    2015-05-01

    Child physical abuse is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and is associated with major physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Pediatricians are in a unique position to identify and prevent child abuse, and this clinical report provides guidance to the practitioner regarding indicators and evaluation of suspected physical abuse of children. The role of the physician may include identifying abused children with suspicious injuries who present for care, reporting suspected abuse to the child protection agency for investigation, supporting families who are affected by child abuse, coordinating with other professionals and community agencies to provide immediate and long-term treatment to victimized children, providing court testimony when necessary, providing preventive care and anticipatory guidance in the office, and advocating for policies and programs that support families and protect vulnerable children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Disparities in the Medical Examination of Children in the Home of a Child with Suspected Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristine A.; Squires, Janet; Cook, Lawrence J.; Berger, Rachel P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors predicting the medical examination of children living in a home with a child referred to child protection services (CPS) for suspected physical abuse. Methods: Medical providers at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh referred 189 children for suspected physical abuse to CPS between November 1, 2004 and May 1, 2006…

  3. Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for ...

  4. Yield of retinal examination in suspected physical abuse with normal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Jonathan D; Scribano, Philip V; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2010-05-01

    In some centers, dedicated ophthalmologic examination is performed for all children who are evaluated for potential physical abuse. Although retinal hemorrhages have been reported in rare cases of abused children with normal neuroimaging results, the utility of ophthalmologic examination in this group is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of retinal hemorrhages in children younger than 2 years who were evaluated for physical abuse and who had no evidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on neuroimaging. We performed retrospective analysis of data obtained from 1676 children younger than 5 years who were evaluated for potential physical abuse as a part of the Using Liver Transaminases to Recognize Abuse research network. We reviewed results of dedicated ophthalmologic examination in all children younger than 2 years with no evidence of TBI on neuroimaging. Among 282 children who met inclusion criteria, only 2 (0.7% [95% confidence interval: 0.1%-2.5%]) had retinal hemorrhages considered "characteristic" of abuse. Seven other children (2.5% [95% confidence interval: 1.0%-5.1%]) had a nonspecific pattern of retinal hemorrhages. Both children with characteristic retinal hemorrhages in the absence of TBI showed evidence of head or facial injury on physical examination and/or altered mental status. In children younger than 2 years being evaluated for physical abuse without radiographic evidence of brain injury, retinal hemorrhages are rare. Dedicated ophthalmologic examination should not be considered mandatory in this population.

  5. Clinical assessment of suspected child physical abuse; Klinischer Verdacht auf Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Violence against children has many faces. Child physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and interparental violence can cause acute and permanent damage and affect children's development and their life plans in the long term. In industrialized nations almost 1 child in 10 is affected. Up to 10% of child physical abuse cases involve the central nervous system with 80% of these cases occurring during the first year of life. Worldwide more than 50,000 children die as a result of violence, abuse and neglect every year, according to the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF. In Germany, there are about 120 cases of non-accidental head injury per year. In addition to the officially known cases there is a large grey area for all forms of violence. Recognition of these cases and the provision of help for the victims require an appropriate suspicion and understanding of the pertinent pathophysiology. Suspicion must be based on a well-documented medical history and multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Medical confidentiality prevents the disclosure of such information making early detection networks and guidelines for collaboration absolutely indispensable. (orig.) [German] Gewalt gegen Kinder hat viele Gesichter: Kindesmisshandlung, Vernachlaessigung, sexueller Missbrauch und elterliche Partnerschaftsgewalt koennen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen zu akuten und bleibenden Schaeden fuehren und ihre Entwicklung und Lebensentwuerfe nachhaltig beeinflussen. Betroffen ist in Industrienationen fast jedes zehnte Kind. Bis zu 10% der Kindesmisshandlungen betreffen das zentrale Nervensystem. Von diesen ereignen sich ca. 80% im ersten Lebensjahr. Weltweit sterben nach Angaben der Kinderhilfsorganisation UNICEF jaehrlich ueber 50.000 Kinder an den Folgen von Gewalt, Missbrauch und Vernachlaessigung. In Deutschland ereignen sich pro Jahr ca. 120 Faelle an nichtakzidentellen Kopfverletzungen. Den oeffentlich bekannten Faellen steht eine hohe Dunkelziffer aller Formen von Gewalt

  6. Factors Influencing School Counselors' Suspecting and Reporting of Childhood Physical Abuse: Investigating Child, Parent, School, and Abuse Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Kathleen S.; Prazak, Michael D.; Burrier, Lauren; Miller, Sadie; Benezra, Max; Lynch, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore possible child abuse reporting problems for children, including both disparities among school counselors. The participants in this study were elementary school counselors (N = 398) from across the United States. Each participant read a series of vignettes and completed a survey regarding their inclinations about…

  7. Medical Evaluation of Suspected Child Sexual Abuse: 2011 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joyce A.

    2011-01-01

    The medical evaluation of children with suspected sexual abuse includes more than just the physical examination of the child. The importance of taking a detailed medical history from the parents and a history from the child about physical sensations following sexual contact has been emphasized in other articles in the medical literature. The…

  8. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  9. Suspect confession of child sexual abuse to investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Tonya; Cross, Theodore P; Jones, Lisa; Walsh, Wendy

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the number of suspects who give true confessions of sexual abuse serves justice and reduces the burden of the criminal justice process on child victims. With data from four communities, this study examined confession rates and predictors of confession of child sexual abuse over the course of criminal investigations (final N = 282). Overall, 30% of suspects confessed partially or fully to the crime. This rate was consistent across the communities and is very similar to the rates of suspect confession of child sexual abuse found by previous research, although lower than that from a study focused on a community with a vigorous practice of polygraph testing. In a multivariate analysis, confession was more likely when suspects were younger and when more evidence of abuse was available, particularly child disclosure and corroborative evidence. These results suggest the difficulty of obtaining confession but also the value of methods that facilitate child disclosure and seek corroborative evidence, for increasing the odds of confession.

  10. Interdisciplinary action of nurses to children with suspected sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Understanding the role of nurses as members of interdisciplinary teams in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse. Methodology. This is a qualitative research based on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. In 2008 were interviewed eleven nurses who worked in reference institutions for the care of child victims of sexual abuse in Rio de Janeiro. Results. The category called 'Interacting with other professionals in child care' emerged from the analysis of performance of professionals. The intersubjective relations between the nurses and the interdisciplinary team will enable to understand the intent of care from the perspective of social, emotional and psychological needs of children and their families. Conclusion. Interdisciplinarity favored the development of actions based on acceptance, listening and agreements on possible solutions in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse.

  11. Dynamics of Forensic Interviews with Suspected Abuse Victims Who Do Not Disclose Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Irit; Orbach, Yael; Lamb, Michael E.; Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Horowitz, Dvora

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to explore structural differences between forensic interviews in which children made allegations and those in which children did not make allegations. Methodology: Fifty forensic interviews of 4- to 13-year-old suspected victims of abuse who did not disclose abuse during the interview were compared with…

  12. Physical evidence of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Christopher J

    2012-05-01

    Child sexual abuse is increasingly recognised in all societies, affecting boys and girls alike in all age groups and often involving oral, anal and vaginal penetration. The presence of physical evidence following suspected child sexual abuse is important in confirming the diagnosis and providing legal corroboration that abuse has occurred. Whilst many children have no physical evidence, its presence should be carefully sought and documented by skilled examination, regardless of the time interval between any suspected abuse and the examination. When examination is close to the time of the abuse, forensic sampling may be required. Although many children have no physical findings, understanding the significance of physical findings has increased with both experience and research, although certainty and agreement is lacking in some areas. There are few case control studies of abused and non-abused children where standard terminology, examination method and description allow for meaningful comparison. Physical findings rarely provide conclusive evidence of sexual abuse in isolation but may offer important pieces of the diagnostic "jigsaw picture".

  13. Prevalence and risk factors of suspected elder abuse subtypes in people aged 75 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garre-Olmo, Josep; Planas-Pujol, Xènia; López-Pousa, Secundino; Juvinya, Dolors; Vilà, Antoni; Vilalta-Franch, Joan

    2009-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of suspected elder abuse subtypes and to identify related factors. Cross-sectional, population-based, descriptive study. Eight rural villages in Girona, Spain. Six hundred seventy-six inhabitants aged 75 and older. All participants were interviewed in their homes using the study protocol, which includes an abuse screen used in previous elder abuse studies and questions about demographic, social, physical, psychiatric, cognitive, and social services variables. The mean age of the participants was 81.7 +/- 4.8; 58.2% were female. Prevalence of suspected neglect abuse was 16.0% (95% confidence interval (CI)=13.2-18.9), prevalence of psychosocial abuse was 15.2% (95% CI=12.8-18.2), prevalence of financial abuse was 4.7% (95% CI=3.0-6.4) and prevalence of physical abuse was 0.1% (95% CI=0.004-0.8). Psychosocial abuse was positively associated with depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR)=1.65, 95% CI=1.01-2.72), social isolation (OR=0.35, 95% CI=0.18-0.69), and frequent bladder incontinence (OR=2.44, 95% CI=1.23-4.86). Neglect abuse was positively associated with social isolation (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.27-0.99), use of social services (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.05-3.20), and living arrangements (OR=5.29, 95% CI=2.65-10.56). Financial abuse was associated with marital status (OR=0.15, 95% CI=0.04-0.59), age 85 and older, (OR=3.84, 95% CI=1.70-8.68), and Mini-Mental State Examination score (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.78-0.94). After adjustment for confounding factors, each subtype of suspected elder abuse was associated with different variables. The results of this study suggest that elder abuse cannot be analyzed as a unitary concept and that risk factors must be assessed for each abuse subtype.

  14. Urogenital tract disorders in children suspected of being sexually abused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Wojciech; Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10-40% of girls and 5-20% of boys. The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms 'child abuse' in conjunction with 'urinary tract', 'urologist', 'urological dysfunction', 'urologic symptoms', 'LUTS' or 'urinary infection'. Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse.

  15. Virtual patients: an effective educational intervention to improve paediatric basic specialist trainee education in the management of suspected child abuse?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEvoy, M M

    2011-09-01

    Child abuse is a particularly difficult subject to teach at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Most doctors are dissatisfied with their training in child abuse recognition and management. We developed an interactive video based Virtual Patient to provide formal training for paediatric Basic Specialist Trainees in the recognition of suspected child abuse. The Virtual Patient case revolves around the management of suspected physical abuse in a seven month old child, who initially presents to the Emergency Department with viral upper respiratory tract symptoms. This Virtual Patient was used to facilitate a case discussion with Basic Specialist Trainees. A questionnaire was developed to determine their perception of the value of the Virtual Patient as an educational tool. Twenty five Basic Specialist Trainees completed the questionnaire. Upon completion of the case, 23\\/25 (92%) participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to recognize cases of suspected child abuse and 24\\/25 (96%) of participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to report cases of suspected child abuse. Basic Specialist Trainees perceived the Virtual Patient to be a useful educational tool. Virtual Patients may have a role to play in enhancing postgraduate training in the recognition of suspected child abuse.

  16. Diagnosis and management of physical abuse in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodner, Charles; Wetherton, Angela

    2013-11-15

    Child abuse is the third leading cause of death in children between one and four years of age, and almost 20% of child homicide victims have contact with a health care professional within a month of their death. Therefore, family physicians are in an ideal position to detect and intervene in cases of suspected child maltreatment. There is currently insufficient evidence that screening parents or guardians for child abuse reduces disability or premature death. Assessment for physical abuse involves evaluation of historical information and physical examination findings, as well as radiographic and laboratory studies, if indicated. The history should be obtained in a nonaccusatory manner and should include details of any injuries or incidents, the patient's medical and social history, and information from witnesses. The physical examination should focus on bruising patterns, injuries or findings concerning for abuse, and palpation for tenderness or other evidence of occult injury. Skeletal survey imaging is indicated for suspected abuse in children younger than two years. Imaging may be indicated for children two to five years of age if abuse is strongly suspected. Detailed documentation is crucial, and includes photographing physical examination findings. Physicians are mandated by law to report child abuse to the local child protective services or law enforcement agency. After a report is made, the child protection process is initiated, which involves a multidisciplinary team approach.

  17. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are UK radiologists satisfied with the training and support received in suspected child abuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, R.S. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Nwachuckwu, C. [Department of Paediatrics, Whipps Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Pervaiz, A. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, C.; Landes, C. [Department of Radiology, Royal Liverpool Childrens NHS Trust, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Offiah, A.C. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: OffiaA@gosh.nhs.uk

    2009-07-15

    Aim: To determine current practice and perceptions of the adequacy of training and support received for the reporting of skeletal surveys in suspected physical child abuse. Materials and methods: A list of telephone numbers of UK hospitals with a radiology department was obtained from Royal College of Radiologists. One hundred hospitals were then randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. An 18-item questionnaire was successfully administered to consultant radiologists from 84 departments. Results: Sixty-one percent of departments had a named radiologist to report their skeletal surveys, 16% assigned surveys to a random radiologist, and 23% referred them elsewhere. Only 52% of departments had a dedicated paediatric radiologist, thus in a significant proportion of departments (25%) initial reports on skeletal surveys for physical abuse were provided by non-paediatric radiologists. Fifteen percent did not have ready access to a paediatric radiology opinion. Sixty-one percent thought that the service could be improved. Expert evidence was provided by 5% of respondents. Seventy-three percent would never consider providing expert evidence, even if given adequate radiology and/or legal training. Conclusion: The survey shows significant dissatisfaction amongst consultant radiologists with the current service, confirms a low number of paediatric radiologists taking on this work, and suggests the potential to increase numbers of radiology child abuse experts by 27% if given improved training and support. Appropriate service and education strategies should be implemented.

  19. Facing suspected child abuse--what keeps Swedish general practitioners from reporting to child protective services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talsma, Marijke; Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reporting of suspected child abuse among Swedish general practitioners (GPs), and to investigate factors influencing them in their decision whether or not to report to child protective services (CPS). A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Primary health care centres in western Sweden. 177 GPs and GP trainees. Demographic and educational background, education on child abuse, attitudes to reporting and CPS, previous experience of reporting suspected child abuse, and need of support. Despite mandatory reporting, 20% of all physicians had at some point suspected but not reported child abuse. Main reasons for non-reporting were uncertainty about the suspicion and use of alternative strategies; for instance, referral to other health care providers or follow-up of the family by the treating physician. Only 30% of all physicians trusted CPS's methods of investigating and acting in cases of suspected child abuse, and 44% of all physicians would have wanted access to expert consultation. There were no differences in the failure to report suspected child abuse that could be attributed to GP characteristics. However, GPs educated abroad reported less frequently to CPS than GPs educated in Sweden. This study showed that GPs see a need for support from experts and that the communication and cooperation between GPs and CPS needs to be improved. The low frequency of reporting indicates a need for continued education of GPs and for updated guidelines including practical advice on how to manage child abuse.

  20. Teachers' Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect: Behaviour and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebbels, A. F. G.; Nicholson, J. M.; Walsh, K.; De Vries, H.

    2008-01-01

    By reporting suspected child abuse and neglect, teachers can make an important contribution to the early detection and prevention of abuse. However, teachers are sometimes reluctant to report their suspicions. This study investigated the determinants of teachers' reporting behaviour using concepts from the Integrated Change Model. Self-report data…

  1. Diagnostic value of a psychological test in cases of suspected child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddis, D C; Turner, I F; Eardley, J

    1977-01-01

    The use of the Bene-Anthony Family Relations Test is described and illustrated by three examples of child abuse. This test should be considered in the investigation of definite or suspected cases of abuse and as part of the preparation of court evidence. PMID:921320

  2. Guidelines for Skeletal Surveys in Suspected Chils Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo; Poulsen, Mette Ramsdal

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in that there is exceptional necessity for high quality images. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if imaging is sub-optimal. The consequences...... child. The second meeting resulted in consensus on the necessary projections required for follow-up skeletal surveys. Conclusion Common protocols for child abuse imaging have been established and fully implemented in the Region of Southern Denmark. Annual meetings have also been established where legal...... of misdiagnosis are serious. Should head trauma or fractures be overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. Conversely, where no abuse has taken place, but the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, the unnecessary...

  3. Abdominal and pelvic CT in cases of suspected abuse: can clinical and laboratory findings guide its use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Mohr, Bethany A. [University of Michigan Health System, C.S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Khalatbari, S.; Myles, Jamie D. [University of Michigan, Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Incomplete history and concern for occult injury in suspected child abuse occasionally results in CT screenings of the abdomen and pelvis. At our institution, we noted that these exams were infrequently positive. To identify clinical or laboratory criteria that may predict intra-abdominal injury and guide the use of abdominal and pelvic CT in this population. This retrospective review involved 68 children older than 36 months who had a CT of the abdomen/pelvis for suspected abuse. CT results and patient charts were reviewed for physical exam and historical and laboratory variables. CTs were positive in 16% of patients (11/68). Hypoactive/absent bowel sounds (P = 0.01, specificity = 94.7%) and AST and ALT values greater than twice normal (P = 0.004 and P = 0.003 respectively, NPV = 93.6%) were significantly associated with positive CTs. Multiple abnormal physical exam or laboratory findings were also significantly associated with positive CTs (P = 0.03 and P = 0.002 respectively, specificity = 91.3% and NPV = 93.6% respectively). CTs of the abdomen and pelvis are infrequently positive in cases of suspected abuse. To reduce radiation exposure, CTs should only be ordered if there are findings indicating that they may be positive. In our population, these findings include absent/hypoactive bowel sounds, LFTs greater than twice normal and {>=}2 abnormal labs or physical exam findings. (orig.)

  4. Is the Diagnosis of Physical Abuse Changed when Child Protective Services Consults a Child Abuse Pediatrics Subspecialty Group as a Second Opinion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, James; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize the changes regarding the diagnosis of physical abuse provided to Child Protective Services (CPS) when CPS asks a Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) specialty group for a second opinion and works in concert with that CAP group. Methods: Subjects were reported to CPS for suspected physical abuse and were first evaluated by a…

  5. Relevance of medical reports in criminal investigations of cases of suspected child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, Katharina; Greif, Dominik; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2017-07-01

    If a case of physical child abuse is suspected in Germany, the general feeling is often that "it does not matter whether you make a report or not" because, generally, no conviction is made anyway. This study investigates the juridical analysis of complaint cases of physical child abuse [criminal complaint parag. 225 StGB (German penal code) with filial victim]. It focuses on the doctor's role and the impact of their practice in relation to a later conviction. It is based on the analysis of 302 files of the enquiry from 2004-2009 from the department of public prosecution in Cologne, Germany. Besides general epidemiological data on the reporting person, the affected child and the presumed offender, the documents were reassessed for the relevance of medical reports for successful convictions. Only 7% (n = 21) of 302 complaints led to a conviction. In 38.1% (n = 8) of those cases, a medical report was mentioned as a piece of evidence, and just in two cases a (legal) medical report was quoted and mentioned as relevant for the conviction. 50% of the complaint cases with legal medical expertise led to a trial. In contrast, only 30.2% with a common medical report and 7.3% without a report led to a trial. The results show how a medical report existed in only a few cases. In those cases, the rate of performed trials was higher than for those without a medical report, but the report played a minor part when reasoning a verdict.

  6. Guidelines for skeletal surveys in Suspected Child Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo

    Purpose/Objective Child abuse imaging differs from general musculoskeletal imaging in the demands for low noise. The consequences of misdiagnosis are serious. The images are directly involved in legal processes and the child and the family faces major consequences if the images are not adequate....... If head trauma or fractures are overlooked, or if the radiological diagnosis is uncertain, abused children may be sent home with violent parents or caregivers. If no abuse has taken place, and the certainty of the diagnosis is questionable, it may result in prolonged hospitalization of an innocent family....... In many cases supplement images or a complete reexamination of the child were needed in order to state a second opinion, resulting in unnecessary excess radiation dose. Materials and methods A literature review was performed and the results were discussed at an initial meeting at Odense University...

  7. Facing suspected child abuse – what keeps Swedish general practitioners from reporting to child protective services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Östberg, Anna-Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the reporting of suspected child abuse among Swedish general practitioners (GPs), and to investigate factors influencing them in their decision whether or not to report to child protective services (CPS). Design. A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Setting. Primary health care centres in western Sweden. Subjects. 177 GPs and GP trainees. Main outcome measures. Demographic and educational background, education on child abuse, attitudes to reporting and CPS, previous experience of reporting suspected child abuse, and need of support. Results. Despite mandatory reporting, 20% of all physicians had at some point suspected but not reported child abuse. Main reasons for non-reporting were uncertainty about the suspicion and use of alternative strategies; for instance, referral to other health care providers or follow-up of the family by the treating physician. Only 30% of all physicians trusted CPS's methods of investigating and acting in cases of suspected child abuse, and 44% of all physicians would have wanted access to expert consultation. There were no differences in the failure to report suspected child abuse that could be attributed to GP characteristics. However, GPs educated abroad reported less frequently to CPS than GPs educated in Sweden. Conclusions. This study showed that GPs see a need for support from experts and that the communication and cooperation between GPs and CPS needs to be improved. The low frequency of reporting indicates a need for continued education of GPs and for updated guidelines including practical advice on how to manage child abuse. PMID:25676563

  8. Parents with Schizophrenia – Insights from notifications of suspected child abuse and neglect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard; Ranning, Anne

    2016-01-01

    with schizophrenia. In this study, notifications of suspected child abuse and neglect was used to elicit difficulties in parental role functioning in schizophrenia patients. Qualitative text analysis was used to elicit common themes in 49 written documents from social workers at mental health centres expressing...

  9. Experiences of School Counselors during and after Making Suspected Child Abuse Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Hays, Danica G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors during and after making suspected child abuse and neglect reports. A total of 847 school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) participated in this study. Results showed that professional school counselors encountered some…

  10. Expected Consequences of Disclosure Revealed in Investigative Interviews with Suspected Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Brubacher, Sonja P.; Lamb, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explored the expected consequences of disclosure discussed by 204 5- to 13-year-old suspected victims of child sexual abuse during the course of investigative interviews conducted using the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol. Expected consequences were mentioned in nearly half of all interviews, with older children and those…

  11. Comprehensive training in suspected child abuse and neglect for dental students: a hybrid curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L

    2013-06-01

    Child abuse and neglect are tragic realities of American society. However, most U.S. dental schools do not provide students with adequate training to deal with the problem. This article proposes expanding the predoctoral dental curriculum with a problem-based learning model that can effectively stimulate critical thinking skills to assist graduates in screening and reporting suspected child abuse and neglect throughout their careers. The unique multicultural environment of dental school offers students an unprecedented opportunity to develop awareness about child abuse and domestic violence, while increased vigilance can potentially save innocent young lives. Educating students about proper protocol when they suspect child abuse or neglect is imperative, particularly for dental schools involving students in community sealant and other preventive programs in public schools. By expanding their curriculum to include recognition and intervention, dental schools can help break the cycle of violence and transform attitudes towards taking decisive action. Clinical curricula that have moved to private practice preceptor models are well suited to screen for child abuse. The goal is to motivate dental schools to deal with this critical issue, develop reporting protocols and procedures for appropriate response, and provide their students with consummate training.

  12. Sexual and physical abuse and gynecologic disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schliep, K C; Mumford, Sunni L; Johnstone, Erica B; Peterson, C Matthew; Sharp, Howard T; Stanford, Joseph B; Chen, Zhen; Backonja, Uba; Wallace, Maeve E; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-01-01

    Is sexual and/or physical abuse history associated with incident endometriosis diagnosis or other gynecologic disorders among premenopausal women undergoing diagnostic and/or therapeutic laparoscopy...

  13. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Ignasi; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Wilson, Celeste R; Kleinman, Paul K

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population.

  14. The yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Ignasi [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Pediatric Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Boston, MA (United States); Wilson, Celeste R. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of General Pediatrics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-06

    Skeletal surveys are routinely performed in cases of suspected child abuse, but there are limited data regarding the yield of high-detail skeletal surveys in infants. To determine the diagnostic yield of high-detail radiographic skeletal surveys in suspected infant abuse. We reviewed the high-detail American College of Radiology standardized skeletal surveys performed for suspected abuse in 567 infants (median: 4.4 months, SD 3.47; range: 4 days-12 months) at a large urban children's hospital between 2005 and 2013. Skeletal survey images, radiology reports and medical records were reviewed. A skeletal survey was considered positive when it showed at least one unsuspected fracture. In 313 of 567 infants (55%), 1,029 definite fractures were found. Twenty-one percent (119/567) of the patients had a positive skeletal survey with a total of 789 (77%) unsuspected fractures. Long-bone fractures were the most common injuries, present in 145 children (26%). The skull was the site of fracture in 138 infants (24%); rib cage in 77 (14%), clavicle in 24 (4.2%) and uncommon fractures (including spine, scapula, hands and feet and pelvis) were noted in 26 infants (4.6%). Of the 425 infants with neuroimaging, 154 (36%) had intracranial injury. No significant correlation between positive skeletal survey and associated intracranial injury was found. Scapular fractures and complex skull fractures showed a statistically significant correlation with intracranial injury (P = 0.029, P = 0.007, respectively). Previously unsuspected fractures are noted on skeletal surveys in 20% of cases of suspected infant abuse. These data may be helpful in the design and optimization of global skeletal imaging in this vulnerable population. (orig.)

  15. The importance of laboratory re-evaluation in cases of suspected child abuse - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woydt, L; König, C; Bernhard, M K; Nickel, P; Dreßler, J; Ondruschka, B

    2017-09-01

    In order to accurately diagnose child abuse or neglect, a physician needs to be familiar with diseases and medical conditions that can simulate maltreatment. Unrecognized cases of abuse may lead to insufficient child protection, whereas, on the other hand, over-diagnosis could be the cause of various problems for the family and their potentially accused members. Regarding child abuse, numerous cases of false diagnoses with undetected causes of bleeding are described in the scientific literature, but, specifically concerning leukemia in childhood, only very few case reports exist. Here, for the first time, we report a case of a 2-year-old boy who got hospitalized twice because of suspicious injuries and psychosocial conspicuities, in a family situation known for repeated endangerment of the child's well-being. After his first hospitalization with injuries typical for child abuse, but without paraclinical abnormalities, medical inspections were arranged periodically. The child was hospitalized with signs of repeated child abuse again five months later. During second admission, an acute lymphoblastic leukemia was revealed by intermittent laboratory examination, ordered due to new bruises with changes in morphology, identifiable as petechial hemorrhages. This case elucidates the discussion of known cases of leukemia in childhood associated with suspected child abuse in order to provide an overview of possible diseases mimicking maltreatment. To arrange necessary supportive examinations, a skillful interaction between pediatrician and forensic pathologist is crucial in the differentiation between accidental and non-accidental injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. accidental injuries in children (physical child abuse)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-06

    Dec 6, 2016 ... Abstract: Background: Bruises commonly occur in children and are often due to minor accidental injuries. However, they can also occur in bleeding disorders or inflicted injuries (physical abuse) and is often the most common visible manifestation of child physical abuse. Objective: This paper aims at.

  17. Which radiological investigations should be performed to identify fractures in suspected child abuse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, A.M.; Butler, A.; Morris, S.; Mann, M.; Kemp, K.W.; Rolfe, K.; Sibert, J.R.; Maguire, S

    2006-09-15

    Aims: To determine which radiological investigations should be performed and which children should be investigated. Materials and methods: An all language literature search of original articles; from 1950-October 2005. Two reviewers independently reviewed each article. A third was carried out on disagreement. Each study was assessed using standardised data extraction, critical appraisal and evidence forms. Results: Thirty-four studies were included. Fifteen addressed the question: which investigation has a higher yield, skeletal surveys (SS) or bone scintigraphy (BS)? Studies gave conflicting results. Overall neither investigation is as good as the two combined. BS predominately missed skull, metaphyseal and epiphyseal fractures, whereas SS commonly missed rib fractures. Two studies showed that a repeat SS 2 weeks after the initial study provided significant additional information about tentative findings, the number and age of fractures. A comparative study evaluated additional oblique views of ribs in 73 children and showed improved diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Four studies addressed the diagnostic yield for occult fractures with respect to age. This was significant for children under 2-years old. Conclusions: In children under 2-years old, where physical abuse is suspected, diagnostic imaging of the skeleton should be mandatory. SS or BS alone is inadequate to identify all fractures. It is recommended that all SS should include oblique views of the ribs. This review suggests that the following options would optimize the diagnostic yield. However, each needs to be evaluated prospectively: SS that includes oblique views, SS and BS, a SS with repeat SS or selected images 2 weeks later or a BS plus skull radiography and coned views of metaphyses and epiphyses.

  18. Child abuse and physical health in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Boyle, Michael; Cheung, Kristene; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-03-16

    A large literature exists on the association between child abuse and mental health, but less is known about associations with physical health. The study objective was to determine if several types of child abuse were related to an increased likelihood of negative physical health outcomes in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adults. Data are from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (n = 23,395). The study sample was representative of the Canadian population aged 18 or older. Child physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to intimate partner violence were assessed in relation to self-perceived general health and 13 self-reported, physician-diagnosed physical conditions. All child abuse types were associated with having a physical condition (odds ratios = 1.4 to 2.0) and increased odds of obesity (odds ratios = 1.2 to 1.4). Abuse in childhood was associated with arthritis, back problems, high blood pressure, migraine headaches, chronic bronchitis/emphysema/COPD, cancer, stroke, bowel disease, and chronic fatigue syndrome in adulthood, even when sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and obesity were taken into account (odds ratios = 1.1 to 2.6). Child abuse remained significantly associated with back problems, migraine headaches, and bowel disease when further adjusting for mental conditions and other physical conditions (odds ratios = 1.2 to 1.5). Sex was a significant moderator between child abuse and back problems, chronic bronchitis/emphysema/COPD, cancer, and chronic fatigue syndrome, with slightly stronger effects for women than men. Abuse in childhood was associated with increased odds of having 9 of the 13 physical conditions assessed in this study and reduced self-perceived general health in adulthood. Awareness of associations between child abuse and physical conditions is important in the provision of health care.

  19. Nurse Reporting of Known and Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect Cases in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Lee

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the frontline role of taking care of children, nurses in Taiwan have been reluctant to report known and suspected cases of child abuse and neglect (CAN. This problem threatens the success of legislation aimed at reducing CAN cases in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of nurses' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge on suspecting and reporting CAN cases in health care settings in Taiwan. Two hundred and thirty-eight nurses were surveyed using structured questionnaires with a return rate of 79.3%. Health care settings surveyed in this study included emergency units, pediatric units, and community centers from eight hospitals in southern Taiwan. Almost 3/4 (70% of the sample of nurses thought they needed more training courses on CAN. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between suspecting and reporting CAN with perception, attitude, and knowledge. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that perception (β= 0.475, knowledge (β= 0.265, and attitude (β= 0.246 accounted for 60% of the variance in suspecting and reporting CAN. The focus and scope of training programs for nurses in Taiwan should take these findings into consideration.

  20. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Judy

    2005-08-01

    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse.

  1. Chronic anal fissure from suspected adult sexual abuse in a traumatic anal sex practice patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzimbala, M J; Bruyninx, L

    2007-01-01

    The aetiopathogenesis of chronic anal fissure (CAF) is unclear and is probably multifactorial. CAF represents 10-15% of proctological consultations. This case report identifies adulthood sexual abuse as a significant risk and a potential aetiopathogenic factor of CAF This case history was discovered while carrying out administrated interviews during authors' clinical retrospective study on CAF. The clinical presentation of this 49-year-old woman is predominated by chronic anal lesions (anal tears in the anoderm, anal sphincter hypertrophy), associated medical history as a high consumer of healthcare with very poor mental health, chronic traumatic anal sex practice history, and especially persistent recurrences of gastro-intestinal symptoms after surgery. Surgical history is summarized as: 7x spontaneous abortion; 5x fistulectomy and 3x anal abscess; 4x Bartholin's gland; 4x hypertrophy papilla ablation; 2x anal manometry, 2x fissurectomy and 1x sphincterotomy; 2x haemorrhoid; and 1x hysterectomy. These symptoms initially started and the operations in particular took place after she was married. After 26 years of sexual abuse within her marriage, the clinical diagnosis was made and was consented by this patient. A referral to a psychiatrist was evident and a long course of multidisciplinary therapy (medical, surgical, physiological and psychological approaches) seemed to be of benefit, in terms of improving the clinical symptoms. Authors suggest that physicians should suspect sexual abuse in any patient with a medical history as a high consumer of healthcare and especially when there is persistent recurrence after the lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy. We recognise that the link or causality is difficult to prove and further study is probably needed to shed light on the link between sexual abuse and CAF: although in the United Kingdom, over 20.83% of the population are subject to sexual abuse. 83%.

  2. Missed opportunities to diagnose child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Elizabeth L; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Wolford, Jennifer E; Berger, Rachel P

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of missed opportunities to diagnose abuse in a cohort of children with healing abusive fractures and to identify patterns present during previous medical visits, which could lead to an earlier diagnosis of abuse. This is a retrospective descriptive study of a 7-year consecutive sample of children diagnosed with child abuse at a single children's hospital. Children who had a healing fracture diagnosed on skeletal survey and a diagnosis of child abuse were included. We further collected data for the medical visit that lead to the diagnosis of child abuse and any previous medical visits that the subjects had during the 6 months preceding the diagnosis of abuse. All previous visits were classified as either a potential missed opportunity to diagnose abuse or as an unrelated previous visit, and the differences were analyzed. Median age at time of abuse diagnosis was 3.9 months. Forty-eight percent (37/77) of the subjects had at least 1 previous visit, and 33% (25/77) of those had at least 1 missed previous visit. Multiple missed previous visits for the same symptoms were recorded in 7 (25%) of these patients. The most common reason for presentation at missed previous visit was a physical examination sign suggestive of trauma (ie, bruising, swelling). Missed previous visits occurred across all care settings. One-third of young children with healing abusive fractures had previous medical visits where the diagnosis of abuse was not recognized. These children most commonly had signs of trauma on physical examination at the previous visits.

  3. A profile of suspected child abuse as a subgroup of major trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ffion C; Coats, Timothy J; Fisher, Ross; Lawrence, Thomas; Lecky, Fiona E

    2015-12-01

    Non-accidental injury (NAI) in children is an important cause of major injury. The Trauma Audit Research Network (TARN) recently analysed data on the demographics of paediatric trauma and highlighted NAI as a major cause of death and severe injury in children. This paper examined TARN data to characterise accidental versus abusive cases of major injury. The national trauma registry of England and Wales (TARN) database was interrogated for the classification of mechanism of injury in children by intent, from January 2004 to December 2013. Contributing hospitals' submissions were classified into accidental injury (AI), suspected child abuse (SCA) or alleged assault (AA) to enable demographic and injury comparisons. In the study population of 14 845 children, 13 708 (92.3%, CI 91.9% to 92.8%) were classified as accidental injury, 368 as alleged assault (2.5%, CI 2.2% to 2.7%) and 769 as SCA (5.2%, CI 4.8% to 5.5%). Nearly all cases of severely injured children suffering trauma because of SCA occurred in the age group of 0-5 years (751 of 769, 97.7%), with 76.3% occurring in infants under the age of 1 year. Compared with accidental injury, suspected victims of abuse have higher overall injury severity scores, have a higher proportion of head injury and a threefold higher mortality rate of 7.6% (CI 5.51% to 9.68%) vs 2.6% (CI 2.3% to 2.9%). This study highlights that major injury occurring as a result of SCA has a typical demographic pattern. These children tend to be under 12 months of age, with more severe injury. Understanding these demographics could help receiving hospitals identify children with major injuries resulting from abuse and ensure swift transfer to specialist care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Cutaneous Findings Mistaken for Physical Abuse: Present but Not Pervasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kimberly A; Metz, James; Feldman, Kenneth; Sidbury, Robert; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2014-02-26

    Incorrect diagnoses during child abuse evaluations are serious. Because skin lesions are common in abuse, it is important to consider cutaneous mimics of physical abuse. The current study prospectively identified cutaneous mimics in a cohort of children evaluated for possible physical abuse. This is a secondary analysis of data from the Examining Siblings To Recognize Abuse research network's prospective, observational, cross-sectional study involving 20 U.S. child abuse teams. Subjects were younger than 10 years old and were evaluated by child abuse physicians (CAPs) for concerns of physical abuse. CAPs prospectively documented whether mimics were identified during their physical abuse evaluations. Details of each patient with cutaneous mimics were evaluated to determine the types of mimics, which part of the evaluations identified mimics, and the perceived abuse likelihood. Of 2,890 children evaluated for physical abuse, 137 had at least one mimic identified and 69 had some cutaneous mimic components. Although 985 of 2,753 (39%) subjects without mimics had high levels of abuse concern, only 9 of 137 (6%) children with mimics had high levels of abuse concern (p physical examination. Cutaneous abuse mimics were identified in 2.4% of children evaluated for physical abuse. Although it was eventually determined that there was little or no concern for abuse in 84% of children with cutaneous mimics, a small number were physically abused. CAP evaluation may be valuable in recognizing children with cutaneous mimics who also were abused. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sexual and physical abuse and gynecologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliep, K C; Mumford, Sunni L; Johnstone, Erica B; Peterson, C Matthew; Sharp, Howard T; Stanford, Joseph B; Chen, Zhen; Backonja, Uba; Wallace, Maeve E; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-08-01

    Is sexual and/or physical abuse history associated with incident endometriosis diagnosis or other gynecologic disorders among premenopausal women undergoing diagnostic and/or therapeutic laparoscopy or laparotomy regardless of clinical indication? No association was observed between either a history of sexual or physical abuse and risk of endometriosis, ovarian cysts or fibroids; however, a history of physical abuse was associated with a higher likelihood of adhesions after taking into account important confounding and mediating factors. Sexual and physical abuse may alter neuroendocrine-immune processes leading to a higher risk for endometriosis and other noninfectious gynecologic disorders, but few studies have assessed abuse history prior to diagnosis. The study population for these analyses includes the ENDO Study (2007-2009) operative cohort: 473 women, ages 18-44 years, who underwent a diagnostic and/or therapeutic laparoscopy or laparotomy at 1 of the 14 surgical centers located in Salt Lake City, UT, USA or San Francisco, CA, USA. Women with a history of surgically confirmed endometriosis were excluded. Prior to surgery, women completed standardized abuse questionnaires. Relative risk (RR) of incident endometriosis, uterine fibroids, adhesions or ovarian cysts by abuse history were estimated, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, smoking, gravidity and recruitment site. We assessed whether a history of chronic pelvic pain, depression, or STIs explained any relationships via mediation analyses. 43 and 39% of women reported experiencing sexual and physical abuse. No association was observed between either a history of sexual or physical abuse, versus no history, and risk of endometriosis (aRR: 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80-1.25]); aRR: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.65-1.06]), ovarian cysts (aRR: 0.67 [95% CI: 0.39-1.15]); aRR: 0.60 [95% CI: 0.34-1.09]) or fibroids (aRR: 1.25 [95% CI: 0.85-1.83]); aRR: 1.36 [95% CI: 0.92-2.01]). Conversely

  6. Facial cutaneous necrosis associated with suspected levamisole toxicity from tainted cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formeister, Eric J; Falcone, Michael T; Mair, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to illustrate the otorhinolaryngologic manifestations of levamisole toxicity and illuminate the features of this diagnosis. We describe a case of a known cocaine abuser with suspected levamisole toxicity who developed cutaneous necrosis of the cheeks, earlobes, nose, upper and lower lip, and the midline hard palate. We also review the existing clinical literature about this emerging phenomenon. Levamisole is a common adulterant in cocaine distributed in the United States and has been reported to cause microvascular thrombosis and vasculitis with resultant skin necrosis in cocaine abusers. The distribution of skin findings characteristically involves the cheeks, earlobes, nose, lips, and hard palate and responds variably to cessation of cocaine use. In its most severe cases, immune suppression and/or surgical debridement may be required. Levamisole toxicity can frequently involve the ears, nose, and throat tissues. Otorhinolaryngologists should recognize these manifestations to expeditiously diagnose and manage this condition. Failure to do so promptly can lead to complications that may necessitate reconstructive or amputation surgery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Physical Abuse is Associated with HIV-related Drug Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Madhavi K.; Anderson, Bradley J; Liebschutz, Jane; Stein, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Those who have experienced abuse may be prone to engaging in risky sexual behavior and risky drug use. The relationship between sexual abuse and risky behavior has been well established in the literature, but the association between physical abuse and risky drug use has been equivocal. We hypothesize that the experience of PTSD symptoms following physical abuse leads to risky drug use. Therefore, we examined the associations among physical abuse history, PTSD symptoms, and HIV-related drug ri...

  8. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A.; Keyes, Benjamin B.; Xiao, Zeping; Yan, Heqin; Wang, Zhen; Zou, Zheng; Xu, Yong; Chen, Jue; Zhang, Haiyin

    2005-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of childhood physical and sexual abuse in China, the authors conducted a survey in Shanghai. The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 423 inpatients and 304 outpatients at Shanghai Mental Health Center, and to a non-clinical sample of 618 workers at a clothing…

  9. Recognizing and responding to cases of suspected animal cruelty, abuse, and neglect: what the veterinarian needs to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkow P

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phil Arkow National Link Coalition – The National Resource Center on The Link Between Animal Abuse and Human Violence, Stratford, NJ, USA Abstract: The identification of a “battered pets” syndrome, which put the veterinary profession on a parallel footing with its counterparts in human medicine who respond to battered children, women, and elders, expanded the veterinarian’s role as an advocate for animals’ welfare to include the recognition of, response to, and prevention of animal abuse. Professional policies and legislation in several nations have been amended to define these responsibilities and delineate appropriate responses when animal maltreatment or other forms of family violence are suspected. This article reviews these changes, discusses abuse as a matter of animal welfare and public health, and summarizes research describing animal abuse as a possible indicator and predictor of interpersonal violence. Five steps that helped build human health care’s response to child abuse, domestic violence, and elder abuse, and that are analogous to forces in contemporary veterinary practice, are described. It familiarizes practitioners with terminology used in animal cruelty investigations. It describes clinical presentations, client profiles and behaviors, and environmental conditions that may raise a practitioner’s index of suspicion of possible animal maltreatment. It reviews protocols that practitioners may employ to respond compassionately and effectively to suspected animal abuse and enhance successful law enforcement investigations and prosecutions. Such responses can unite human and veterinary medicine in a common concern for vulnerable, victimized, and at-risk populations and position veterinarians as an essential part of public health approaches to break the cycles of violence affecting animals and human members of the family and community. Keywords: animal cruelty, animal abuse, neglect, reporting, animal welfare, domestic

  10. Forty Years of Forensic Interviewing of Children Suspected of Sexual Abuse, 1974–2014: Historical Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Coulborn Faller

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of forensic interviewing as a method to determine whether or not a child has been sexually abused, focusing primarily on the United States. It notes that forensic interviewing practices are challenged to successfully identify children who have been sexually abused and successfully exclude children who have not been sexually abused. It describes models for child sexual abuse investigation, early writings and practices related to child interviews, and the de...

  11. Factors influencing the prosecution of child physical abuse cases in a Swedish metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, Gabriel; Lainpelto, Katrin; Lindblad, Frank

    2013-12-01

    To examine whether case characteristics of alleged child physical abuse, such as severity, influence criminal investigation procedures and judicial outcomes. We identified all police-reported cases of nonfatal child physical abuse during 2006 in a Swedish metropolitan area (n = 158). Case characteristics were abstracted from police records. Over half (56%) of the victims were boys, and the median age group was 9-12 years. The severity of the alleged violence was low in 8% of cases, moderate in 51% and high in 41%. Suspects were interviewed in 53% of cases, with fathers more likely to be interviewed than mothers. Children were forensically interviewed in 52% of cases, with 9% physically examined by a clinician and 2.5% by a forensic specialist. Seven per cent of the cases were prosecuted and 1.3% resulted in summary punishment. We found no association between severity of alleged abuse and whether the suspect was interviewed, the child was forensically interviewed or physically examined or whether the perpetrator was prosecuted. Despite the high severity of alleged violence, physical examination rates were low, suggesting a need for criminal investigative procedures on child physical abuse to be reviewed in Sweden. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Use of digital camera imaging of eye fundus for telemedicine in children suspected of abusive head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M; Schoenlaub, S; Desprez, P; Bourcier, T; Gaucher, D; Astruc, D; Speeg-Schatz, C

    2009-04-01

    Pilot study of the role of RetCam imaging for telemedicine in lieu of availability of ophthalmologist examination for cases of suspected abusive head injury. Cross-sectional observational study. 21 children admitted in the paediatric units of the University Hospital of Strasbourg (France) with suspicion of abusive head trauma were included. Children were examined by standard ophthalmoscopy. Photographs were taken using the RetCam-120 Digital Retinal Camera. Eye fundus images were stored and remotely read by an ophthalmologist. Patients also had radiographic skeletal series to look for bone fractures, and CT scan and/or MRI of the head to look for intracranial haemorrhages. The absence or presence of retinal haemorrhages was assessed by both methods. Feasability, sensitivity and specificity of the digital camera procedure were determined. 85.7% of the children presented cerebral bleeding, and 14 out of the 21 (66.7%) had retinal haemorrhages on ophthalmoscopy. The digital camera detected the retinal abnormalities in all cases. One false-positive case was also reported. The sensitivity of the digital camera detection method was 100% with a specificity of 85.7%. 14 patients were eventually diagnosed as suffering from abusive trauma. RetCam helped establishing the diagnosis of abuse in 92.8% of these cases. Digital photography compared with ophthalmoscopy has a good sensitivity and specificity in detecting retinal haemorrhages. Remote reading of RetCam-120 photographs could be a promising strategy in detecting children with abusive head trauma.

  13. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  14. Can the Punishment Fit the Crime When Suspects Confess Child Sexual Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Birdsall, William C.; Vandervort, Frank; Henry, James

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine significant predictors of severity of sentencing of sex offenders of minors in a jurisdiction which obtains many confessions. Method: Data were abstracted from 323 criminal court case records of sexually abused minors over 11 years in a county which places a high priority on sexual abuse prosecution. The sample used in this…

  15. Childhood physical abuse in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubo Chiharu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.

  16. Raccoon eyes and the MIBG super scan: scintigraphic signs of neuroblastoma in a case of suspected child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohdiewicz, P.J. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Gallegos, E. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Fink-Bennett, D. [Nuclear Medicine Dept., William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The authors report on an infant suspected of having been abused, who presented with periorbital edema and ecchymoses (clinial `raccoon eyes`). The pattern of the nuclear medicine bone scan suggested neuroblastoma rather than trauma. Both the bone scan and the subsequent MIBG scan revealed multiple abnormalities, including markedly increased activity around the orbits, that we termed the `scintigraphic raccoon eyes` sign. In addition, the grossly abnormal MIBG scan demonstrated avid uptake of MIBG throughout the entire skeleton with essentially complete absence of visualization of the liver and heart (the `MIBG super scan`). These signs have not previously been described in an infant or a child with neuroblastoma. (orig.)

  17. Use of Imaging in Children With Witnessed Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, John D; Hertz, Stephanie K; Steiner, R Daryl; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2017-03-13

    Physicians are occasionally asked to evaluate children who are reported to have been victims of witnessed abuse, but who have no injuries noted on examination. The rate of injury in these patients is presently unknown. This is important because abuse allegations are brought for both altruistic and other reasons. This study compares the use of skeletal survey and neuroimaging in well-appearing and clearly injured children reported to be victims of witnessed child abuse. Retrospectively planned secondary analysis of the Examination of Siblings to Recognize Abuse cohort of children referred to a child abuse pediatrician with concerns for physical abuse. Children were selected who presented to a medical provider with a history of witnessed child abuse including shaking. Rates of radiographically evident injuries are noted among children with and without injuries noted on physical examination. Among 2890 children evaluated by a child abuse pediatrician, 90 children (3.1%) presented with a history of witnessed abuse. Among these, 51 children (57%) had injuries noted on physical examination; 9 (29%) of 31 skeletal surveys and 9 (35%) of 26 neuroimaging studies revealed injuries. Of 39 children (43%) with witnessed abuse and normal examination, 3 (10%) of 30 skeletal surveys and 2 (8%) of 25 neuroimaging studies revealed an injury. A significant minority of children evaluated for allegations of witnessed abuse will have occult injuries identified radiographically. Absence of injury on examination should not deter physicians from obtaining otherwise indicated skeletal surveys and neuroimaging in children reported to have experienced witnessed abuse.

  18. Predictors of parental physical abuse: The contribution of internalizing and externalizing disorders and childhood experiences of abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Amanda; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Background The deleterious effects of childhood abuse have been a focus of much research; however, the causes of parental physical abuse are less well documented. Research with clinical samples suggests that individuals who display abusive behaviors are more likely to have a history of childhood abuse and higher rates of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Whether childhood abuse and psychopathology contribute independently to parental abusive behaviors or if the association between childhood abuse and the parental physical abuse is mediated by the individual’s psychopathology has not been studied empirically. Methods The current study is based on data from a representative sample (N=4141). Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, childhood experiences of sexual and physical abuse, and physically abusive behaviors exhibited towards children were assessed. Results Internalizing and externalizing disorders partially mediated the association between childhood abuse and parental abuse. Nonetheless, the participant’s internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders, and previous experiences of childhood abuse each independently predicted parental abuse. Further, the influence of childhood abuse was greater for women than men. Limitations The data is cross-sectional, thus clear conclusions regarding causality cannot be made. Conclusions There are multiple pathways in the etiology of parental abusive behaviors. Previous experiences of childhood abuse, internalizing disorders, and externalizing disorders each contribute to parental abuse. Individuals with psychiatric disorders or a history of childhood abuse are at an increased risk for abusive behaviors towards children in their care. Identifying such high risk parents and providing parent training programs may be effective in lowering rates of child abuse. PMID:18603302

  19. Management of physical child abuse in South Africa: literature review and children's hospital data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, T L; van Dijk, M; Al Malki, I; van As, A B

    2013-11-01

    The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which to base their management of physical child abuse, at both governmental and hospital management level. The main aim of the second part is to outline the extent of the problem as seen at the Red Cross Memorial Children's Hospital (RCH) in Cape Town. The National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was searched for articles specifically about the management of physical child abuse. Hospital data were analysed in two phases: one addressed various types of assault in order to assess the number of patients admitted to the trauma unit of RCH between 1991 and 2009, and the other to identify all children with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI) presenting to the trauma unit at RCH from January 2008 until December 2010. Information on physical abuse of children in Africa in the English scientific literature remains disappointing with only two articles focusing on its management. RCH data for the period 1991-2009 recorded a total number of 6415 children hospitalised with injuries following assault, who accounted for 4.2% of all trauma admissions. Types of abuse included assault with a blunt or sharp instrument, rape/sexual assault and human bite wounds. Over the last 2 decades, there has been a minor decline in the number of cases of severe abuse requiring admission; admissions for other injuries have remained stable. More detailed analysis of hospital data for 2008-2010, found that boys were far more commonly assaulted than girls (70.5% vs 29.5%). Physical abuse appeared to be the most common cause of abuse; 89.9% of all boys and 60.5% of all girls presented after physical abuse. In order to eradicate child abuse, awareness of it as to be promoted in the community at large. Because the types of child

  20. Parenting Behavior and Emotional Status of Physically Abusive Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared eight lower socioeconomic status abusive mothers with eight matched controls and eight middle class controls on three measures of emotional and somatic distress. Abusive mothers showed far greater depression and physical distress than controls and used more physical punishment. (BH)

  1. Recent sexual abuse, physical abuse, and suicide attempts among male veterans seeking psychiatric treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiet, Quyen Q; Finney, John W; Moos, Rudolf H

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the rates of sexual and physical abuse and suicide attempts among male and female patients and focused on the associations between sexual and physical abuse and recent suicide attempts among men. Data were examined for a cohort of patients aged 19 years and older who were seeking treatment for substance use disorders, other psychiatric disorders, or both from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between July 1997 and September 1997. Almost all the patients in the sample (more than 99 percent) had a substance use disorder. Patients were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index about lifetime and recent (past 30 days) sexual and physical abuse and recent suicide attempts. Because of the low prevalence of suicide attempts in the past 30 days and limited representation of female patients in this sample, the data for female patients were used only to conduct descriptive analyses to compare the prevalence of sexual and physical abuse and suicide attempts between genders. The sample comprised 34,245 patients (33,236 males and 1,009 females). Compared with male patients, female patients were ten times as likely to have been sexually abused in the past 30 days and four times as likely to have been physically abused. Among male patients, bivariate analyses showed that those who had been recently sexually or physically abused were more likely than those who had not experienced such abuse to have attempted suicide recently (odds ratios of 4.8 and 3.0, respectively). After controlling for demographic and diagnostic factors, multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that recent sexual abuse, recent physical abuse, and lifetime sexual abuse were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of a recent suicide attempt among male patients. Female patients were more likely than their male counterparts to experience sexual and physical abuse. Recent and lifetime history of sexual abuse and recent physical abuse were independent risk factors

  2. Child physical punishment, injury and abuse (part two).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Dianne; Cousins, Judy

    2005-09-01

    This is the second paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. Paper one concentrated on the extent of child physical punishment, injuries sustained and the relationship between macrotheoretical factors. It highlighted a continuum between child physical discipline, injuries and child physical abuse. Paper two introduces the reader to microtheoretical factors that contribute to child physical punishment and its relationship with child physical injuries and abuse. The focus is on parental and child influences, lifestyle factors and socialisation of parents. It will integrate macrotheroretical factors highlighted in paper one and microtheroretical factors presented in this paper into a framework for the prevention of child physical injury and abuse based on an ecological model.

  3. Multi-Informant Assessment of Anxiety regarding Ano-Genital Examinations for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V.; Hornor, Gail; Rhoda, Dale; Curran, Sherry; Stevens, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10…

  4. [Association between time spent on physical exercise, sleep, homework and suspected myopia among students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S J; Wan, Y H; Xu, Z H; Zhang, H; Xu, L; Wang, B; Tao, F B

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of suspected myopia among students and to examine the relationship between time spent on physical exercise, sleep, homework and suspected myopia. A total of 8 030 primary and secondary school students from 4(th) to 12(th) grades were selected from the National Student Constitution and Health Survey (NSCHS) in Anhui province in 2014. Time spent on exercise, sleep and homework per day were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire. Visual acuity was examined using the Standard Logarithmic Visual Acuity Chart. The overall prevalence of suspected myopia was 69.03%. Prevalence rates of suspected myopia appeared higher in girls, in urban students, with the highest in the 16 to 18 year-old groups. RESULTS from the multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the amount of time spent on physical exercise, sleep and homework per day were all significantly associated with suspected myopia. Suspected myopia was associated with longer time on physical exercise among students aged 8 to 12 years (OR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.64-0.99), and longer sleep time among students in the age groups of 13 to 15 years and 16 to 18 years (OR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.94;OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.21-0.68, respectively). Longer time spent on homework significantly increased the risk of suspected myopia among students in the age groups of 8 to 12 years and 13 to 15 years (OR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.11-1.79; OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.36-2.23, respectively). Suspected myopia appeared common among students. Comprehensive intervention programs focusing on sufficient physical exercise and sleep but less homework might help to prevent myopia among students at different ages.

  5. Exploration and validation of clusters of physically abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin Ward, Caryn; Haskett, Mary E

    2008-05-01

    Cluster analysis was used to enhance understanding of heterogeneity in social adjustment of physically abused children. Ninety-eight physically abused children (ages 5-10) were clustered on the basis of social adjustment, as measured by observed behavior with peers on the school playground and by teacher reports of social behavior. Seventy-seven matched nonabused children served as a comparison sample. Clusters were validated on the basis of observed parental sensitivity, parents' self-reported disciplinary tactics, and children's social information processing operations (i.e., generation of solutions to peer relationship problems and attributions of peer intentions in social situations). Three subgroups of physically abused children emerged from the cluster analysis; clusters were labeled Socially Well Adjusted, Hanging in There, and Social Difficulties. Examination of cluster differences on risk and protective factors provided substantial evidence in support of the external validity of the three-cluster solution. Specifically, clusters differed significantly in attributions of peer intent and in parenting (i.e., sensitivity and harshness of parenting). Clusters also differed in the ways in which they were similar to, or different from, the comparison group of nonabused children. Results supported the contention that there were clinically relevant subgroups of physically abused children with potentially unique treatment needs. Findings also pointed to the relevance of social information processing operations and parenting context in understanding diversity among physically abused children. Pending replication, findings provide support for the importance of considering unique treatment of needs among physically abused children. A singular approach to intervention is unlikely to be effective for these children. For example, some physically abused children might need a more intensive focus on development of prosocial skills in relationships with peers while the

  6. The Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Physical Abuse, Family Environment, and Gender on the Psychological Adjustment of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Lori A.; Long, Patricia J.; Miranda, Robert, Jr.; Marx, Brian P.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined contributions of sexual abuse, physical abuse, family cohesion, and conflict in predicting psychological functioning of 131 adolescents receiving residential vocational training services. In addition to child sexual abuse and physical abuse, family conflict and cohesion predicted development of psychological distress and…

  7. Forty Years of Forensic Interviewing of Children Suspected of Sexual Abuse, 1974–2014: Historical Benchmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Coulborn Faller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the evolution of forensic interviewing as a method to determine whether or not a child has been sexually abused, focusing primarily on the United States. It notes that forensic interviewing practices are challenged to successfully identify children who have been sexually abused and successfully exclude children who have not been sexually abused. It describes models for child sexual abuse investigation, early writings and practices related to child interviews, and the development of forensic interview structures from scripted, to semi-structured, to flexible. The article discusses the controversies related appropriate questions and the use of media (e.g., anatomical dolls and drawings. It summarizes the characteristics of four important interview structures and describes their impact of the field of forensic interviewing. The article describes forensic interview training and the challenge of implementing training in forensic practice. The article concludes with a summary of progress and remaining controversies and with future challenges for the field of forensic interviewing.

  8. Social, clinical and radiological characteristics of physical abuse of children up to 3 years of age hospitalized in a tertiary health institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuričić Goran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Child abuse is a significant public health problem in modern society. Many cases of violence against children remain undetected. Serbia has no official protocols for medical examination of abused children. The aim of the study is an analysis of the social, clinical and radiological characteristics of physical abuse of children under three years of age that required hospital treatment. Methods. This retrospective study included 98 physically injured children admitted to the University Children’s Hospital in the period from 2013 to 2015, with suspected physical abuse. In addition to the history of injuries, complete clinical examinations and standard laboratory analyses were performed in all children, as well as X-ray examination in children with apparent or suspected skeletal injury. Ultrasound examination and computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging were performed in selected patients. Final diagnosis of abuse was established by multidisciplinary assessment team. The children were divided into two groups – those with proven and those with suspected abuse. Results. Most of 98 children who were suspected of being abused (92% were from one or both unemployed parents, 68% were male, 60% were first-born, and 44% younger than one year. Ninety-two percent of the children had skeletal fractures, 19% of whom had two or more fractures. The commonest fracture was a linear skull fracture, which was detected in 51% of the cases. Abuse was confirmed in only five of 98 suspected cases. Conclusion. Among the known social risk factors for abuse of children, the low economic status of the family was the most frequent one in our analyzed sample. The most common injury is a linear skull fracture. A national guideline for medical investigating of abused children is required.

  9. Negative affect and parental aggression in child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammen, Oommen K; Kolko, David J; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2002-04-01

    Parental negative affect is a risk factor for child physical abuse. As negative affect contributes to aggression, and because physical abuse involves an aggressive act directed at the child, we examined the relationship between negative affect and parent-to-child aggression (PTCA) in parents reported to Child Protective Services for physical abuse. Baseline assessment data were retrospectively examined on 49 participants in a treatment study for child physical abuse. The negative affects studied were depression, anxiety, and hostility on the Beck Depression Inventory and the Brief Symptom Inventory. PTCA was assessed using the physical aggression subscales (Minor and Severe Physical Violence) of the Conflict Tactics Scale. The contribution of these negative affects to PTCA was examined after controlling individually for the effects of parental attributions and contextual variables widely regarded as etiological factors in child physical abuse. Contributions of negative affect to PTCA after individually controlling for other predictors were found for Minor Physical Violence but not Severe Physical Violence. Findings were strongest with depression on the Beck Depression Inventory and to a lesser extent with hostility on the Brief Symptom Inventory. Finding that negative affect contributed to PTCA in this sample suggests that it may be important to study the effects of emotion-focused treatments in physically abusive parents. These findings also suggest that PTCA may have qualities of impulsive aggression, a form of aggression that is conceptualized as driven by negative affect, occurs in response to aversive events, and is not planned.

  10. Post-Traumatic Stress in Sexually Abused, Physically Abused, and Nonabused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblinger, Esther; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This investigation compared rates of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms across sexually abused (N=29), physically abused (N=20), and nonabused (N=29) psychiatrically hospitalized children. Overall rates were not significantly different across groups, but significant differences were found with respect to specific symptoms, especially in…

  11. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. The role of parental stress in physically abusive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E E; Webster-Stratton, C

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the role of several components of parental stress in physically abusive and nonabusive families with conduct-disordered children. The 123 families studied were seen in a parenting clinic aimed at improving parent-child interactions in families with a highly oppositional child. Data were collected over a several-week period and included both mother and father self-report measures and independent observations by trained researchers. Parental stress was found to play an important role in abusive families. Physically abusive families were significantly more often low income, had younger mothers with less education, more frequently reported a family history of child abuse, and were more likely to be abusing alcohol or drugs. Abusive mothers reported more stress due to frequent life events, and had a more negative perception of these events. Further, these mothers had higher rates of both depression and state anxiety. Abusive fathers spanked their children significantly more often than the nonabusive fathers, and abusive mothers had the highest frequency of critical statements directed at their children. Children from abusive households had significantly more behavior problems. Finally, abusive mothers reported more marital dissatisfaction and social isolation than their nonabusive counterparts.

  13. Comparison of abuse, suspected suicidal intent, and fatalities related to the 7-day buprenorphine transdermal patch versus other opioid analgesics in the National Poison Data System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Paul M; Sessler, Nelson E; Harikrishnan, Venkatesh; Singh, Richa; Perkel, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Prescription opioid related abuse, suicide and death are significant public health problems. This study compares rates of poison center calls categorized as intentional abuse, suspected suicidal intent or fatality for the 7-day buprenorphine transdermal system/patch (BTDS) with other extended-release and long-acting (ER/LA) opioids indicated for chronic pain. Retrospective 24-month cohort study using National Poison Data System data from July 2012 through June 2014. BTDS was introduced in the United States in January 2011. Numbers and rates of calls of intentional abuse, suspected suicidal intent and fatalities were evaluated for BTDS, ER morphine, ER oxycodone, fentanyl patch, ER oxymorphone and methadone tablets/capsules, using prescription adjustment to account for community availability. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Absolute numbers and prescription-adjusted rates of intentional abuse and suspected suicidal intent with BTDS were significantly lower (p opioid analgesics examined. No fatalities associated with BTDS exposure were reported. This post-marketing evaluation of BTDS indicates infrequent poison center calls for intentional abuse and suspected suicidal intent events, suggesting lower rates of these risks with BTDS compared to other ER/LA opioids.

  14. [Update in Current Care guidelines. Evaluation of a suspected child sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piha, Jorma; Aronen, Eeva; Joki-Erkkilä, Minna; Komulainen, Jorma; Korkman, Julia; Raipela, Jouni; Tuominen, Mia

    2013-01-01

    According to Finnish Child Welfare Law, the authorities are obligated to report suspicions of child sexual abuse immediately to the police and to social services to ensure the well being of the child. The investigating police may request assistance for forensic interviews and medical assessments from specialized units. The child's disclosure is often the most important part of the evaluation. The timing of medical examination is crucial to obtain biological trace of evidence and to document evidence of acute injury or infection. The need for crisis support must be evaluated.

  15. Investigating the association between childhood physical abuse and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Baker, Tobi Michelle; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Recent clinical and population-based studies suggest that adults who were physically abused as children are more likely to experience migraine than those who were not abused. To investigate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and migraine while controlling for age, race, and gender, in addition to the following potential confounders: adverse childhood conditions; adult socioeconomic indicators; current health behaviors; current stressors; history of physical health conditions, and history of mood and/or anxiety disorders. Secondary analysis of the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey was undertaken using a regional sample of 13,089 men and women from Manitoba and Saskatchewan (response rate = 83.3% and 84.1%, respectively) of which 7.4% (n = 1025) of respondents reported childhood physical abuse. A series of logistic regression models were used to determine the association between abuse and self-report of a health professional diagnosis of migraine. Prevalence of a migraine was almost twice as high for those who reported childhood physical abuse in comparison with those who did not (17.9% vs 8.8%). The crude odds ratio was 2.27 (99% CI = 1.80, 2.86). The odds ratio of migraine was 1.77 (99% CI = 1.39, 2.25) for those who reported childhood physical abuse in comparison with those who did not when only age, gender, and race were adjusted for. When all 6 clusters of potential confounders were included in a final model the odds ratio declined but remained significant at 1.36 (99% CI = 1.04, 1.79). This study found a stable association between childhood physical abuse and migraine that persisted when 6 clusters of potentially confounding factors were adjusted for. Future research should investigate possible mechanisms which explain the abuse-migraine association.

  16. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. The Knowledge Level and Opinions of Physicians about the Medical and Legal Procedures Related to Physical Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirçin, Sema; Tütüncüler, Akın; Aslan, Fatmagül; Velipaşaoğlu Güney, Sevtap; Atılgan, Mehmet; Gülkesen, Hakan

    2017-04-05

    In order to diagnose child abuse, physicians need to consider the possibility of abuse in every child they encounter, have sufficient information about the topic and manage the cases according to current law. To determine the knowledge level of physicians on child abuse and to learn their opinions about the procedures when they suspect child abuse. A questionnaire (cross-sectional) study. A detailed questionnaire was applied to 390 physicians of whom 233 were general practitioners. The first part of the questionnaire included demographic variables (age, gender, occupational experience) and the frequency of child physical abuse cases encountered, since that is the most easily diagnosed and proven form of abuse. The second part consisted of 32 questions about diagnosis of physical child abuse and procedures during the follow-up of the cases. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 18.0. Of the participating physicians, 47.4% (n=185) were female and only 13.1% of the physicians had some kind of postgraduate training on child abuse. The correct response rate of specialists compared to general practitioners was significantly higher. A total of 263 (72.3%) physicians thought that there was a specific law on physical child abuse in the Turkish Republic. More than two-thirds of physicians thought that reporting should only be addressed to Social Services and physicians should not be obliged to report to law enforcement. The results of the present study adds to the already known necessity for better training of physicians about physical child abuse and the need to refresh their knowledge through postgraduate courses. According to current regulations, it is obligatory to report abuse cases to the public prosecutor and/or police, therefore physicians also need training in respect of the legal status and medico-legal approach to these cases.

  18. Physical Abuse, Cognitive and Emotional Processes, and Aggressive/Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Cicchetti, Dante

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive and emotional processes were examined in maltreated children with a history of physical abuse (n = 76), children with a history of maltreatment other than physical abuse (i.e., sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional maltreatment; n = 91), and a group of non-maltreated comparison children (N = 100). Physical abuse was associated…

  19. Perceptions of Psychological Abuse Versus Physical Abuse and Their Relationship With Mental Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, B S Sandra; Sanderson, Sonya

    2017-04-01

    Prior research has been limited in examining at what degree aggressive actions are initially perceived negatively. The present research examined whether anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were associated with prior abuse or with being attributed to past or present relationships. Scales such as the Dating Relationship Profile (DRP) and hypothetical scenarios of abuse perpetration were used. This study hypothesized that acceptability ratings from hypothetical scenarios would predict answers on DRP items measuring whether physical or psychological abuse is considered acceptable in relationships. Specifically, gender would be a predictor variable. Convenience sampling of undergraduate psychology students from a comprehensive, metropolitan university in north Georgia was used and resulted in 291 respondents (n = 227 [78%] female, n = 64 [22%] male) whose ages ranged from 18 to 54 years (M = 20.57 years, SD = 5.12 years). The present research used a 2 × 2 between-subjects design examining gender and type of hypothetical scenario violence with perceptions of abuse as the dependent variable. A significant association between experience of abuse and attribution of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptoms to past or present relationships and between experience of abuse and these symptoms was found. Results revealed a significant difference between acceptability ratings of psychological abuse and gender, with men perceiving psychological abuse as more acceptable.

  20. Pediatric radiological diagnostics in suspected child abuse; Kinderradiologische Diagnostik bei Verdacht auf Kindesmisshandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erfurt, C.; Schmidt, U. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Rechtsmedizin, Medizinische Fakultaet, Dresden (Germany); Hahn, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Abteilung Kinderradiologie, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Dresden (Germany); Roesner, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kinderchirurgie, Dresden (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostics are essential in the case of clinical suspicion of pediatric injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities when there is no case history or when ''battered child syndrome'' is assumed on the basis of inadequate trauma. In particular, the aim of this sophisticated diagnostic procedure is the detection of lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to initiate prompt medical treatment. If diagnostic imaging shows typical findings of child abuse, accurate documented evidence of the diagnostic results is required to prevent further endangerment of the child's welfare. (orig.) [German] Klinisch diagnostizierte Verletzungen an Kopf, Thorax, Abdomen oder Extremitaeten eines Kindes bei scheinbar leerer Anamnese oder Angabe eines inadaequaten Traumas erfordern beim Verdacht auf ein Battered-Child-Syndrom eine erweiterte und spezialisierte radiologische Diagnostik. Diese soll insbesondere im Bereich des ZNS Verletzungsfolgen erfassen, um therapeutische Massnahmen einleiten zu koennen. Bei typischen, auf eine Misshandlung hinweisenden radiologischen Befunden ist eine praezise beweissichere Befunddokumentation erforderlich, um eine weitere Kindeswohlgefaehrdung zu vermeiden. (orig.)

  1. The relationship between sexual and physical abuse and substance abuse consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Liebschutz, Jane; Savetsky, Jacqueline B.; Saitz, Richard; Horton, Nicholas J.; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between a history of physical and sexual abuse (PhySexAbuse) and drug and alcohol related consequences. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 359 male and 111 female subjects recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit. The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC), measured negative life consequences of substance use. Eighty-one percent of women and 69% of men report past PhySexAbuse, starting at a median age of 13 and 11, respectively...

  2. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  3. Risk factors for child abuse: quantitative correlational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Natan, Merav; Sharon, Ira; Barbashov, Polina; Minasyan, Yulia; Hanukayev, Isabella; Kajdan, David; Klein-Kremer, Adi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to identify risk factors typical of different types of suspected child abuse reported at a hospital. The study was based on 114 cases of children for whom some type of abuse was reported. Physical abuse was the most frequently reported of all types of suspected child abuse. Most victims of sexual abuse were female and at least half the cases of neglect and physical abuse were attributed to parents. Most cases were identified in the emergency room by nurses. Children older than 10 were more susceptible to physical abuse and neglect. © 2014.

  4. CT of the chest in suspected child abuse using submillisievert radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Thomas R.; Seibert, J.A.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca [Medical Center Children' s Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States); Lee, Justin S. [University of California-Davis, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Coulter, Kevin P. [Medical Center Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The cornerstone of child abuse imaging is the skeletal survey, but initial imaging with radiographs may not demonstrate acute and non-displaced fractures, especially those involving the ribs. Given the high mortality of undiagnosed non-accidental trauma, timely diagnosis is crucial. CT is more sensitive in assessing rib fractures; however the effective radiation dose of a standard chest CT is high. We retrospectively identified four children (three boys, one girl; age range 1-4 months) admitted between January 2013 and February 2014 with high suspicion for non-accidental trauma from unexplained fractures of the long bones; these children all had CT of the chest when no rib fractures were evident on the skeletal survey. The absorbed radiation dose estimates for organs and tissue from the four-view chest radiographs and subsequent CT were determined using Monte Carlo photon transport software, and the effective dose was calculated using published tissue-weighting factors. In two children, CT showed multiple fractures of the ribs, scapula and vertebral body that were not evident on the initial skeletal survey. The average effective dose for a four-view chest radiograph across the four children was 0.29 mSv and the average effective dose for the chest CT was 0.56 mSv. Therefore the effective dose of a chest CT is on average less than twice that of a four-view chest radiograph. Our protocol thus shows that a reduced-dose chest CT may be useful in the evaluation of high specificity fractures of non-accidental trauma when the four-view chest radiographs are negative. (orig.)

  5. accidental injuries in children (physical child abuse)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-06

    Dec 6, 2016 ... min K deficiency, hemophilia, drugs e.g. aspirin, hepa- rin), chronic diseases e.g. chronic renal failure, .... and that women have more tendencies to abuse children particularly in the setting where they were ... include bleeding disorders due to hemophilia, deficiency of clothing factors, thrombocytopenia, and ...

  6. The Effects of Alcohol Regulation on Physical Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Michael Grossman

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of alcohol regulation on physical child abuse. Given the established relationship between alcohol consumption and violence, the principal hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in the price of alcohol will lead to a reduction in the incidence of violence. We also examine the effects of measures of the ease of obtaining alcohol, illegal drug prices, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the parent on the incidence of child abuse. ...

  7. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  8. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse of women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is the first large-scale, communitybased prevalence study to be undertaken in South Africa The main findings are that emotional, financial and physical abuse are common features of relationships and that many women have been raped. Physical violence often continues during pregnancy and constitutes an ...

  9. [Physical and psychological abuse: follow-up of abused and delinquent adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiller, B

    1982-01-01

    Physical and Psychological Abuse: A Follow-up of Abused Delinquent Adolescents. This is a follow-up study of abused, very aggressive adolescent boys who had to be placed in an institution. A group of 252 boys were admitted between 1950 and 1977 in a limited freedom institution near Paris (France) because of delinquency or very difficult behaviour. Thirty-three of them had been abused either in their family or in other institutions during childhood. These adolescents proved to be three times more aggressive (i.e., they were involved in aggression episodes three times more often) as compared with their schoolmates who had not been abused previously. An inquiry about the subsequent life course of 22 of these 33 adolescents, made 3 to 30 years following their discharge, revealed that officially unlawful behaviour was recorded twice as often as in the life of their peers. The abused aggressive adolescents are therefore more difficult to rehabilitate than other non-abused adolescent with difficult behaviour. The author stresses this difference, which seems to be linked with a strong feeling of abandonment, and with an extreme difficulty to establish affective contacts with adults. The relationship with adults is always very fragile, and requires a large amount of tolerance regarding their aggressive behaviour.

  10. Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for ...

  11. Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Although many outcomes of physical punishment have been investigated, little attention has been given to the impact of physical punishment on later adult psychopathology. Also, it has been stated that physical punishment by a…

  12. PILL series. Management of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pei Ying; How, Choon How; Wong, Peter Choong Yi

    2013-10-01

    Children deserve a childhood free from abuse, where their basic physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs are met. Child abuse is defined as any act of omission or commission by a parent or guardian that would endanger or impair the child's physical or emotional well-being, or that is judged by a mixture of community values and professionals to be inappropriate. A total of 247 cases of suspected child abuse in Singapore was investigated in 2012. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical neglect or emotional abuse accounted for 60%, 30% and 10% of these cases, respectively. Primary care providers play an important role in the early detection and referral of child abuse cases, which enable timely intervention to ensure the well-being of the child and prevent further abuse. Hospitals and other medical centres form the largest source of referrals of suspected child abuse.

  13. Physical abuse against elderly persons in institutional settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Sofia Lalanda; Correia, Ana Margarida; Norton, Pedro; Magalhães, Teresa

    2015-11-01

    People over 65 years old are expected to be an increasing group exposed to abuse. Despite the well-studied intra-familial abuse, institutional abuse still lacks a proper understanding about its determinants and characteristics. The general objective of this study is to provide a better knowledge about physical abuse against elderly people in institutional settings, in order to contribute to a timely detection, correct forensic diagnosis and prevention of these cases. A retrospective study was conducted through the analysis of forensic medical exams performed in the North Forensic Medical Services of Portugal, between 2004 and 2013, to elderly persons allegedly victims of physical abuse in an institutional setting by a caregiver (n = 59). All the alleged cases occurred in nursing homes and in most of them (93.2%) the charges were against the institution and not focussing on a particular individual. The alleged victims were mainly female (79.7%), 75 years or older (75.9%), presenting a severe disability (55.9%) and 47.2% being unable to communicate. No injuries or post-traumatic pain were found in 55.9% of the cases to support the charge of physical abuse. Only in 6.8% of the cases were the forensic medical findings suggestive of physical abuse and, although this was not the object of the examination, 69.1% were considered suggestive or highly suggestive of neglect. A statistically significant association was found between the alleged victim's degree of disability and the occurrence of neglect (p = 0.003). The sample's size seems to be underestimated, probably due to lack of detection and/or reporting. The condition of these persons, mainly related with their inability to perceive abusive behaviours and/or to disclose them (mostly by physical and/or mental disability), as well as their reluctance to press charges due to fear of reprisal, affects significantly the detection and diagnosis of physical abuse, particularly in whom injuries are not obvious. In

  14. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

  15. Predicting childhood sexual or physical abuse: a logistic regression geo-mapping approach to prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadoum, Roland K; Smolij, Kamila; Lyn, Michelle A; Johnson, Craig W

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which gender, ethnicity, relationship to perpetrator, and geomapped socio-economic factors significantly predict the incidence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse and non- abuse. These variables are then linked to geographic identifiers using geographic information system (GIS) technology to develop a geo-mapping framework for child sexual and physical abuse prevention.

  16. Predicting Childhood Sexual or Physical Abuse: A Logistic Regression Geo-mapping Approach to Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tadoum, Roland K.; Smolij, Kamila; Michelle A. Lyn; Johnson, Craig W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which gender, ethnicity, relationship to perpetrator, and geo-mapped socio-economic factors significantly predict the incidence of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse and non- abuse. These variables are then linked to geographic identifiers using geographic information system (GIS) technology to develop a geo-mapping framework for child sexual and physical abuse prevention.

  17. Object relations and physical abuse: a TAT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedenfeld, R N; Ornduff, S R; Kelsey, R M

    1995-06-01

    Selected Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) stories of 39 physically abused children and a clinical group of 39 children with no recorded history of abuse were examined using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales (Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1985). As predicted, a history of physical abuse was associated with a more malevolent object world; a lower level capacity for emotional investment in relations and moral standards; and less accurate, complex, and logical attributions of causality in understanding human interaction. These impairments in object relations were manifest both as a typical level of functioning and as a propensity for more grossly pathological functioning. Results are discussed in terms of clinical and theoretical implications.

  18. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuðba AYAZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 116-120 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 116-120

  19. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba AYAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.

  20. Cohesion and Hierarchy in Physically Abusive Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa De Antoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cohesion (emotional bonding and hierarchy (powerstructure in families with abuse against their children. Twenty low-incomefamilies participated. Father, mother and child’s perspective of family relations(cohesion and hierarchy were evaluated by the Family System Test(FAST. The relationship between father-child, mother-child, couple, andamong siblings were evaluated at typical and conflictive situations. Resultsshow a significance regarding to cohesion in typical and conflictive situationfor father-child and mother-child dyads in all perspectives (by father, mother,and child. There is no significant differences regarding to hierarchy. Theseresults suggest that the families see the intrafamilial violence as a constant,since they cannot differentiate between both situations.

  1. Association between Physical Abuse, Physical Neglect and Health Risk Behaviours among Young Adolescents: Results from the National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated a relationship between physical abuse and later manifestation of health risk behaviours such as: smoking and early pregnancy. Physical neglect increased the chances for drug abuse, drink-driving, having early sex, having more sexual partners.

  2. Incidence of Physical Spouse Abuse in Nigeria: a Pilot Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This exploratory study of the incidence of physical spouse abuse in Nigeria reveals that women are the primary victims. The study further reveals that early marriages, length of marriage, number and ages of children, size of household, amount of household income and the reluctance of the police to intervene in familial ...

  3. Physical and sexual abuse factors influencing marriage and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical and sexual abuse factors influencing marriage and cohabitation among women of reproductive age in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. J A Ayangunna, D Oladeji. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for the psychological studies of social issue Vol. 10 (1&2) 2007: pp. 185-196. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  4. Perception of teenagers towards physical abuse in Lagos State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a cross sectional survey research, which provided a quantitative investigation on the perception of teenagers towards physical abuse in Lagos State, Nigeria. Three hundred teenagers from secondary schools in Badagry division of Lagos State were purposively selected for this study. These secondary teenagers are ...

  5. The effects of beer taxes on physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, S; Grossman, M

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of alcohol regulation on physical child abuse. Given the positive relationship between alcohol consumption and violence, and the negative relationship between consumption and price, the principal hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in the price of alcohol will lead to a reduction in the incidence of violence. We also examine the effects of illegal drug prices and alcohol availability on the incidence of child abuse. Equations are estimated separately for mothers and fathers, and include state fixed effects. Results indicate that increases in the beer tax may decrease the incidence of violence committed by females but not by males.

  6. Teacher Awareness of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Thomas C.

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 440 teachers indicated most teachers believed they had never had an abused or neglected child in class, that they would recognize signs of physical abuse but not sexual abuse, and that they knew their responsibilities under law (though few would report suspected cases if parents or principal objected). (DB)

  7. Guidelines for the use of molecular biological methods to detect sexually transmitted pathogens in cases of suspected sexual abuse in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2012-01-01

    Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child, in addition to medical implications, can have serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. The significance of the identification of a sexually transmitted agent in such children as evidence of possible child sexual abuse varies by pathogen.While culture has historically been used for the detection of STIs in cases of suspected abuse in children, the increasing use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) in adults and the increasing proliferation of second-generation tests with better sensitivity and specificity has made inroads into the use of such tests in children, especially for diagnostic and treatment purposes. Acceptance by the medicolegal system for sexual abuse cases is still controversial and more test cases will be necessary before definitive use becomes standard practice. In addition, if these assays ever become legally admissible in court, there will be recommendations that more than one NAAT assay be used in order to assure confirmation of the diagnostic result.

  8. Does physical activity protect against drug abuse vulnerability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardo, Michael T; Compton, Wilson M

    2015-08-01

    The current review examined recent literature to determine our state of knowledge about the potential ability of physical activity serve as a protectant against drug abuse vulnerability. Both preclinical and clinical studies were examined using either associational or random assignment study designs. In addition to examining drug use as an outcome variable, the potential neural mediators linking physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability were examined. Several important conclusions may be drawn. First, the preclinical evidence is solid in showing that physical activity in various forms is able to serve as both a preventive and treatment intervention that reduces drug use, although voluntary alcohol drinking appears to be an exception to this conclusion. Second, the clinical evidence provides some evidence, albeit mixed, to suggest a beneficial effect of physical activity on tobacco dependent individuals. In contrast, there exists only circumstantial evidence that physical activity may reduce use of drugs other than nicotine, and there is essentially no solid information from random control studies to know if physical activity may prevent initiation of problem use. Finally, both preclinical and clinical evidence shows that various brain systems are altered by physical activity, with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) serving as one potential node that may mediate the putative link between physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability. It is concluded that novel neurobehavioral approaches taking advantage of novel techniques for assessing the physiological impact of physical activity are needed and can be used to inform the longitudinal random control studies that will answer definitively the question posed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does Writing about Past Childhood Abuse Reduce Psychological and Physical Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.

    2009-01-01

    To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…

  10. Childhood physical abuse and midlife physical health: testing a multi-pathway life course model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W

    2009-07-01

    Although prior research has established that childhood abuse adversely affects midlife physical health, it is unclear how abuse continues to harm health decades after the abuse has ended. In this project, I assess four life course pathways (health behaviors, cognition, mental health, and social relation) that plausibly link childhood physical abuse to three midlife physical health outcomes (bronchitis diagnosis, ulcer diagnosis, and general physical health). These three outcomes are etiologically distinct, leading to unique testable hypotheses. Multivariate models controlling for childhood background and early adversity were estimated using data from over 3000 respondents in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, USA. The results indicate that midlife social relations and cognition do not function as pathways for any outcome. However, smoking is a crucial pathway connecting childhood abuse with bronchitis; mental health is important for ulcers; and BMI, smoking, and mental health are paramount for general physical health. These findings suggest that abuse survivors' coping mechanisms can lead to an array of midlife health problems. Furthermore, the results validate the use of etiologically distinct outcomes for understanding plausible causal pathways when using cross-sectional data.

  11. Physical abuse in the era of financial crisis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Michael; Moris, Demetrios; Davakis, Spyridon; Schizas, Dimitrios; Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Liakakos, Theodoros

    2017-04-01

    Greece is suffering an economic recession of enormous magnitude, but whether its health has deteriorated as a result, has not yet been well established. We aim to present and analyze differences in demographics and clinical distribution of patients victims of physical abuse examined at the surgical emergency room in an Academic institution in the era of financial crisis. A retrospective database analysis of all patients that were examined to surgical emergency room (ER), between January 1st 2008 and December 31st 2014, was conducted. We only analyzed and evaluated data for the years 2008 to 2014. The number of patients being examined in the ER in 2011 was higher compared with that of 2014 and to 2008 respectively (Pcrisis. Financial crisis seems to have a multivariable effect on epidemiology and clinical diversity of the patients, victims of physical abuse, being examined in the ER.

  12. Physical symptoms in very young children assessed for sexual abuse: a mixed method analysis from the ASAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; Widdershoven, Guy A; Teeuw, Arianne Rian H; Verlinden, Eva; Voskes, Yolande; van Duin, Esther M; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Benninga, Marc A; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2017-10-01

    So far, a recognizable pattern of clinical symptoms for child sexual abuse (CSA), especially in young male children, is lacking. To improve early recognition of CSA, we reviewed physical complaints, physical examination, and tests on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in confirmed victims (predominantly preschool boys) of CSA from the Amsterdam sexual abuse case (ASAC). We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of the primary assessment using mixed methods: descriptive analysis of physical complaints, physical exams, and STI tests from medical files and a qualitative analysis on expert's interpretations of physical complaints and children's behavior during physical examination. We included 54 confirmed CSA victims, median age 3.2 (0-6) years, 43 boys (80%), and 11 girls (20%). Physical complaints were reported in 50%, of which gastrointestinal and anogenital complaints were most common. None of the children showed CSA-specific genital signs at physical examination. Most prominent finding during physical examination was a deviant behavioral response (anxiety, withdrawal, too outgoing) in 15 children (28%), especially in children who experienced anal/vaginal penetration. Testing for STIs was negative. Physical complaints and physical signs at examinations were non-specific for CSA. Deviant behavioral reactions during physical examination were the most prominent finding. Precise observation of a child's behavior during physical examination is needed. What is known • Child sexual abuse (CSA) affects many children on both the short and the long term but remains unrecognized in most cases. • So far, there is a lack of studies on symptom patterns of CSA in male, preschool children. What is new • None of the children showed CSA-specific findings at physical and anogenital examination; STIs were not found in the confirmed victims of CSA. • The most prominent finding was the deviant behavioral response of the children examined, especially in children who

  13. Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    .... Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio...

  14. Verbal, Physical and Sexual Abuse among Children Working on the Street

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celik, Sevilay Senol; Baybuga, Media Subasi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the verbal, physical and sexual abuse experienced by children working on the street in Ankara, Turkey to determine the type of abuse occurred, the reactions...

  15. Child physical abuse and concurrence of other types of child abuse in Sweden-Associations with health and risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerbäck, E-M; Sahlqvist, L; Svedin, C G; Wingren, G; Gustafsson, P A

    2012-01-01

    To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking behaviors. A population-based survey was carried out in 2008 among all the pupils in 2 different grades (15 respectively 17 years old) in Södermanland County, Sweden (n=7,262). The response rate was 81.8%. The pupils were asked among other things about their exposure to child physical abuse, exposure to parental intimate violence, bullying, and exposure to being forced to engage in sexual acts. Adjusted analyses were conducted to estimate associations between exposure and ill-health/risk-taking behaviors. Child physical abuse was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.6 to 6.2. The associations were stronger when the pupils reported repeated abuse with OR ranging from 2.0 to 13.2. Also experiencing parental intimate partner violence, bullying and being forced to engage in sexual acts was associated with poor health and risk-taking behaviors with the same graded relationship to repeated abuse. Finally there was a cumulative effect of multiple abuse in the form of being exposed to child physical abuse plus other types of abuse and the associations increased with the number of concurrent abuse. This study provides strong indications that child abuse is a serious public health problem based on the clear links seen between abuse and poor health and behavioral problems. Consistent with other studies showing a graded relationship between experiences of abuse and poor health/risk-taking behaviors our study shows poorer outcomes for repeated and multiple abuse. Thus, our study calls for improvement of methods of comprehensive assessments, interventions and treatment in all settings where

  16. Physical Abuse Related Death of a Disabled Child in Nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Metin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available People with disabilities constitute a large portion of our society as approximately 12.3%. İndividuals with disabilities have been in the risk group of violence. Disabled people have been target of physical, sexual, economic, emotional violence  such as children, women and elderly. As a result of the violence experience they may have physical, mental problems, increasing disabled level or die. Many national and international research include that people with disabilities  are exposed to different type of violence especially physical and sexual violence. 9 year old child that had lived in disabled care service, exposed to severe violence and neglect from care service worker. To show the incidence and result of violence  and neglect contribute destruction the source of violence. Key words: Disabled child, Physical abuse, Death.

  17. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norman, Rosana E; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes...

  18. Speak softly--and forget the stick. Corporal punishment and child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotor, Adam J; Theodore, Adrea D; Chang, Jen Jen; Berkoff, Molly C; Runyan, Desmond K

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between spanking and child physical abuse. However, the relationship between more frequent and severe corporal punishment and abuse remains unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between reported spanking, spanking frequency, or spanking with an object and the odds of physical abuse in a representative sample of mothers from North and South Carolina. This study is a cross-sectional, anonymous telephone survey of adult mothers with children agedpunishment (spanking, spanking frequency, and spanking with an object) and an index of harsh physical punishment consistent with physical abuse (beating, burning, kicking, hitting with an object somewhere other than the buttocks, or shaking a child agedphysical abuse, the relationship between the reported hitting of a child with an object and reported abuse is much stronger. Reduction in this form of discipline through media, educational, and legislative efforts may reduce child physical abuse.

  19. A national survey on the use of screening tools to detect physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Kristin Garton; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Groner, Jonathan I; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Deans, Katherine J

    2016-08-01

    Recognition of physical child abuse is imperative for ensuring children's safety. Screening tools (ST) may increase identification of physical abuse; however, the extent of their use is unknown. This study assessed use of STs for physical abuse in children's hospitals and determined attitudes regarding STs. A web-based survey was sent to child abuse program contacts at 103 children's hospitals. The survey assessed institutional use of a ST for physical abuse and characteristics of the ST used. Respondents were asked to identify benefits and liabilities of STs used or barriers to ST use. Seventy-two respondents (70 %) completed the survey; most (64 %) were child abuse pediatricians. Nine (13 %) respondents reported using a ST for physical abuse; STs varied in length, population, administration, and outcomes of a positive screen. Most respondents (86 %) using a ST felt that it increased detection of abuse. Barriers noted included lack of time for development and provider completion of a ST. While few respondents endorsed use of a ST for physical abuse, most believed that it increased detection of abuse. Future research should focus on development of a brief, uniform ST for physical abuse which may increase detection in at-risk children.

  20. Addressing the Clinical Burden of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect in a Large Metropolitan Region: Improving the Evidence-Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanti Raman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children at risk of abuse are more likely to be hospitalized and utilize health services according to international research. In a large metropolitan health region in New South Wales, Australia, there was little known of the clinical burden of child physical abuse and/or neglect (PAN, or of systems for clinical assessment of children presenting with abuse/neglect. We aimed to identify the number of children presenting with suspected PAN to emergency departments (EDs and paediatric services in this region, to determine enablers and barriers to assessment for children with PAN presenting to frontline services, and to identify best practices to address gaps. We collated available data on children presenting to EDs and paediatric services with suspected PAN in 2007. We interviewed 36 health professionals from nine hospitals and 12 statutory child protection professionals, across the region before undertaking relevant document analysis. Of 64,700 paediatric ED presentations, a quarter were due to injury; 2%–5% of these were due to maltreatment. Clinician estimates and assessments of PAN varied widely; health and welfare workers identified major practice gaps, as well as good local practice. We identified feasible minimum standards for improving clinical assessment and follow-up for children presenting with PAN, given the right organizational support.

  1. [Sexual and physical abuse during early childhood or adolescence and later drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M; Schnack, B; Soyka, M

    2000-02-01

    Sexual or physical abuse of children are discussed as possible causes or risk-factors for psychiatric disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug addiction. The aim of this study was to identify possible differences between sexually or physically abused and non-abused patients with polytoxic drug abuse. 100 patients with polytoxic drug abuse were interviewed during their therapy about a history of sexual abuse prior to the age of sixteen. Using different questionnaires we tried to find possible differences between drug users being sexually abused or not and risk factors for later drug addiction. 70% of the female and 56% of the male drug users had been sexually abused as children, 40% of the male and 50% of the female participants had a history of severe sexual abuse with sexual intercourse. In over 50% friends or relatives were the perpetrators committed the crime, in no case the parents had. More than 40% showed also a history of physical abuse. Significantly more drug users than alcohol abusers had a sexual trauma. Especially severe sexual abuse was associated with abuse of hard illegal drugs. Furthermore, we could find significantly more symptoms such as autoaggressive and suicidal behaviour, social isolation, reduced emotional binding to others, tendency to be persistently victimized, prostitution and violence against others in the group of sexually abused. Many of these symptoms are not only characteristic of addiction, but can be found also in other psychiatric diseases such as borderline and eating disorder. In conclusion, we could not find a significant correlation between sexual abuse and later drug addiction. 80% of the drug users themselves did not relate the fact of being sexually abused as child to later drug abuse. However, there seems to be a positive correlation between sexual abuse and a more severe addiction to illegal drugs as well as higher rates of symptoms with a negative course of the disease. For this group of patients

  2. Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2013-03-02

    Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Our study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort study, conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The current study included 65,393 women who responded to two extensive postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Any adult abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of adult abuse, any child abuse is defined as being exposed to one or more types of child abuse, and any lifetime abuse is defined as being exposed to abuse either as a child and/or as an adult. Perpetrators were categorized as known or stranger. Overall, 32% of the women reported any lifetime abuse, 20% reported any adult abuse, 19% reported any child abuse and 6% reported abuse both as adults and as children. Emotional abuse was the most frequently reported type of abuse both as adults (16%) and children (14%). Adult sexual abuse was reported by 5% and child sexual abuse by 7%. Physical abuse was reported by 6% as adults and by 6% as children. Approximately 30% of those reporting adult or child abuse reported exposure to two or three types of abuse. Five percent of the women reported exposure to any abuse during the last 12 months. For all types of abuse, a known perpetrator was more commonly reported. Logistic regression showed that being exposed to child abuse, smoking and drinking alcohol in the first trimester of pregnancy, living alone, and belonging to the eldest age group were significantly associated with being exposed to any adult abuse. The reported prevalence of any lifetime abuse was substantial in our low-risk pregnant population

  3. Alcohol and drug problems and sexual and physical abuse at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...

  4. Alcohol Use, Drinking Venue Utilization, and Child Physical Abuse: Results from a Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Freisthler, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    A positive relationship between parents’ drinking and child physical abuse has been established by previous research. This paper examines how a parent’s use of drinking locations is related to physical abuse. A convenience sample of 103 parents answered questions on physical abuse with the Conflict Tactics Scale-Parent Child version (CTS-PC), current drinking behavior, and the frequency with which they drank at different venues, including bars and parties. Ordered probit models were used to a...

  5. Physical and Emotional Abuse of Primary School Children by Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theoklitou, D.; Kabitsis, N.; Kabitsi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The existence of child abuse is unfortunately a reality of contemporary society. Although various organizations and researchers have been making progress in the struggle against abuse, it has not been decisively dealt with thus far. Most of the research on abuse has focused on the abuse of children in their family environment. Objective: The aim…

  6. Prevalence of sexual, physical and emotional abuse in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Grimstad, Hilde; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Background Abuse of women occurs in every society of the world. Increased information about the prevalence in industrialized countries, like Norway, is required to make strategies to prevent abuse. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported sexual, physical and emotional abuse in a large obstetric population in Norway, and the associations between exposure to adult abuse, socio-demographics and other characteristics. Methods Our study is based on the Norwegian Mothe...

  7. Recognizing and responding to cases of suspected animal cruelty, abuse, and neglect: what the veterinarian needs to know

    OpenAIRE

    Arkow, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Phil Arkow National Link Coalition – The National Resource Center on The Link Between Animal Abuse and Human Violence, Stratford, NJ, USA Abstract: The identification of a “battered pets” syndrome, which put the veterinary profession on a parallel footing with its counterparts in human medicine who respond to battered children, women, and elders, expanded the veterinarian’s role as an advocate for animals’ welfare to include the recognition o...

  8. Prevalence of childhood physical and sexual abuse in veterans with psychiatric diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koola, Maju Mathew; Qualls, Clifford; Kelly, Deanna L; Skelton, Kelly; Bradley, Bekh; Amar, Richard; Duncan, Erica J

    2013-04-01

    We examined the prevalence of childhood (≤ 18 years) physical and sexual abuse reported among patients admitted to the psychiatric inpatient service and the differential rates of this abuse associated with psychiatric diagnoses. This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 603 patients admitted to a psychiatric ward during a period of 1 year at Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center who had data on childhood physical and sexual abuse. The prevalence of reported childhood physical or sexual abuse in this inpatient clinical population was 19.4% (117/603). The prevalence of reported physical abuse was 22.6% (19/84) in the women and 12.0% (62/519) in the men (p = 0.008); the prevalence of sexual abuse was 33.3% (28/84) in the women and 7.7% (40/519) in the men (p abuse than did those without these disorders. More patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported physical and sexual abuse than did those without these disorders. Stratifying by race, sex, and diagnoses, multivariate analyses showed that the women with PTSD had a greater likelihood to report physical abuse (p = 0.03) and sexual abuse histories (p = 0.008) than did the women without PTSD. The men with substance-induced mood disorder (p = 0.01) were more likely to report physical abuse compared with the men without substance-induced mood disorder. Screening for abuse in patients with depressive disorders and PTSD is warranted to tailor individualized treatments for these patients. More research is needed to better understand the potential implications of childhood abuse on psychiatric diagnoses.

  9. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situations (like the loss of a job or marriage problems) may lash out at others inappropriately. Also, ... and learn ways to stop. What Are the Effects of Abuse? When people are abused, it can ...

  10. Drug Use, the Drug Environment, and Child Physical Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J

    2017-08-01

    Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.

  11. Dedicated retinal examination in children evaluated for physical abuse without radiographically identified traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Mary V; Berger, Rachel P; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2013-08-01

    To determine the rate of retinal hemorrhages in children evaluated for physical abuse without traumatic brain injury (TBI) by diagnostic imaging. This study was a prospectively planned, secondary analysis of the Examining Siblings to Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) research network, and included only index children who presented with concerns for abuse. Subjects were eligible for the parent study if they were less than 10 years old and evaluated by a Child Abuse Physician for concerns of physical abuse. Child Abuse Physicians recorded results of all screening testing and determination of the likelihood of abuse in each case. For this analysis, we examined the results of dedicated retinal examinations for children with neuroimaging that showed no TBI. Isolated skull fractures were not considered to be TBI. The original ExSTRA sample included 2890 index children evaluated for physical abuse. Of this group, 1692 underwent neuroimaging and 1122 had no TBI. Of these 1122 children, 352 had a dedicated retinal examination. Retinal hemorrhages were identified in 2 (0.6%) children. In both cases, there were few (defined as 3-10) hemorrhages isolated to the posterior poles; neither was diagnosed with physical abuse. The presence of facial bruising, altered mental status, or complex skull fractures was neither sensitive nor specific for retinal hemorrhage identification. Forensically significant retinal hemorrhages are unlikely to be found in children evaluated for physical abuse without TBI on neuroimaging, and such children may not require routine dedicated retinal examination. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  12. Understanding the medical markers of elder abuse and neglect: physical examination findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    A specific foundation of knowledge is important for evaluating potential abuse from physical findings in the older adult. The standard physical examination is a foundation for detecting many types of abuse. An understanding of traumatic injuries, including patterns of injury, is important for health care providers, and inclusion of elder abuse in the differential diagnosis of patient care is essential. One must possess the skills needed to piece the history, including functional capabilities, and physical findings together. Armed with this skill set, health care providers will develop the confidence needed to identify and intervene in cases of elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Rosana E; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Child maltreatment—the abuse and neglect of children—is a global problem. There are four types of child maltreatment—sexual abuse (the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not understand, is unable to give consent to, or is not developmentally prepared for), physical abuse (the use of physical force that harms the child's health, survival, development, or dignity), emotional abuse (the failure to provide a supportive environment by, for exa...

  14. The Interpersonal and Psychological Functioning of Women Who Experienced Childhood Physical Abuse, Incest, and Parental Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen M.; Gilbert, Brenda O.

    1994-01-01

    Questionnaires assessing childhood physical abuse, childhood incest, and parental alcoholism were completed by 253 college women. Analysis of level of depression; self-esteem; and involvement with physically abusive, sexually assaultive, sexually coercive, and chemically dependent partners revealed support for an additive model of trauma that…

  15. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  16. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…

  17. Emotion Recognition in Fathers and Mothers at High-Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…

  18. Management of physical child abuse in South Africa:Literature review and children's hospital data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T.L. (T. L.); M. van Dijk (Monique); Al Malki, I. (I.); A.B. van As (Àrjan Bastiaan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The reason for this review is the lack of data on the management of physical abused children in Africa. The primary goal of the first part is to outline the management of physical child abuse in (South) Africa and provide suggestions for other governments in Africa on which

  19. Dispositional Empathy in Neglectful Mothers and Mothers at High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…

  20. Aging and Risk: Physical and Sexual Abuse of Elders in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozowski, Kari; Hall, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review the literature on physical and sexual elder abuse within the context of risk theory and feminist sociology. Employing data from the 1999 General Social Survey, we also examine several variables potentially associated with the risk for physical or sexual abuse of elders. Women, Aboriginal Canadians, and elders who are…

  1. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in a Representative Sample of College Students in Samsun, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Ozkanli, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to obtain the prevalence of childhood physical abuse experiences in college students. This cross-sectional study was performed on a gender-stratified random sample of 988 participants studying at Ondokuz Mayis University, with self-reported anonymous questionnaires. It included questions on physical abuse in…

  2. The Role of Adolescent Physical Abuse in Adult Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…

  3. Does physical abuse in early childhood predict substance use in adolescence and early adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Pettit, Gregory S; Bates, John E

    2010-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal data from 585 families were used to examine parents' reports of child physical abuse in the first 5 years of life as a predictor of substance use at ages 12, 16, and 24. Path analyses revealed that physical abuse in the first 5 years of life predicted subsequent substance use for females but not males. We found a direct effect of early physical abuse on girls'substance use at age 12 and indirect effects on substance use at age 16 and age 24 through substance use at age 12. For boys, age 12 substance use predicted age 16 substance use, and age 16 substance use predicted age 24 substance use, but physical abuse in the first 5 years of life was unrelated to subsequent substance use. These findings suggest that for females, a mechanism of influence of early physical abuse on substance use into early adulthood appears to be through precocious initiation of substance use in early adolescence.

  4. Elder Physical Abuse and Failure to Report Cases: Similarities and Differences in Case Type and the Justice System's Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Treated initially as a social problem, elder abuse has only recently been criminalized. The criminalization of elder abuse involves penalizing offenders for actively abusing offenders as well as for violating mandatory reporting laws. Mandatory reporting laws exist to encourage professionals to report suspected cases of elder abuse. In this study,…

  5. Characteristics of women physically abused by their spouses and who seek treatment regarding marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascardi, M; O'Leary, K D; Lawrence, E E; Schlee, K A

    1995-08-01

    Physically abused women seeking treatment for marital difficulties (abused women, n = 49) were compared with maritally discordant, nonabused women (discordant only, n = 23) and maritally satisfied nonabused women (community control, n = 25). Abused women reported significantly more fear of their spouses and reported that their spouses were significantly more coercive and psychologically aggressive than women in the 2 matched nonabused groups. Abused women did not report higher rates of abuse as a child, nor did they report higher rates of past psychopathology than women in the nonabused groups. However, abused women and nonabused discordant women reported higher rates of emotional abuse in childhood than maritally satisfied nonabused women. Furthermore, both clinical groups had a tendency to have higher lifetime rates of major depression before their current marriage than the maritally satisfied women. This result suggests that childhood abuse and a history of depression may be risk factors for women in abusive and nonabusive discordant relationships. As expected, abused women reported higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder than women in the discordant-only and community control groups. Treatment implications for both standard treatments for marital problems and treatments for victims of physical abuse are discussed.

  6. History of sexual, emotional or physical abuse and psychiatric comorbidity in substance-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigre, Constanza; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Tarifa, Núria; Rodríguez-Martos, Lola; Grau-López, Lara; Berenguer, Marta; Casas, Miguel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-10-30

    Sexual, emotional or physical abuse history is a risk factor for mental disorders in addicted patients. However, the relationship between addiction and abuse lifespan is not well known. This study aims to compare clinical and psychopathological features of addicted patients according to the experience of abuse and to the number of different types of abuse suffered. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. 512 addicted patients seeking treatment were included, 45.9% reported abuse throughout life (38.9% emotional, 22.3% physical and 13.5% sexual abuse). It was found that female gender; depressive symptoms and borderline personality disorder were independently associated with history of any abuse throughout life. As well, it was found that 14% have been suffered from all three types of abuse (sexual, emotional and physical), 34.5% from two and 55.5% from one type. Female gender and borderline personality disorder were independently associated independently with a greater number of different types of abuse. Results suggest that history of abuse is frequent among substance-dependent patients and these experiences are more prevalent in women and are associated with more psychiatric comorbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Object relations of sexually and physically abused female children: a TAT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornduff, S R; Kelsey, R M

    1996-02-01

    Selected Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) stories of 17 sexually abused, 15 physically abused, and 15 nonabused but distressed clinical comparison subjects were analyzed using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales (Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1985). Results revealed significant differences in overall object relations between the abused and nonabused children both on mean scores, reflecting lower levels of typical functioning, and on frequency of Level 1 scores, indicating a propensity for more grossly pathological functioning. Further comparisons between sexual and physical abuse victims revealed differential impairments in the capacity to invest in relationships and moral standards. Diagnostic and theoretical implications are discussed.

  8. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  9. The diagnostic value of history and physical examination for COPD in suspected or known cases: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Sachs, Alfred P E; Oostvogels, Rimke; Hoes, Arno W; Verheij, Theo J M; Moons, Karel G M

    2009-08-01

    According to current guidelines, spirometry should be performed in patients suspected of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by the results of history taking and physical examination. However, little is known about the diagnostic value of patient history and physical examination for COPD. To review the existing evidence on the diagnostic value of history taking and physical examination in recognizing COPD in patients suspected of COPD. A systematic literature search was performed in electronic medical databases. Studies were included after using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and judged on their methodological quality by using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies criteria. A formal meta-analysis was not performed because all studied items of history and physical examination were investigated in only in a maximum of three studies. Six studies were included. The history items dyspnoea, wheezing, previous consultation for wheezing or cough, self-reported COPD, age and smoking and the physical examination items wheezing, forced expiratory time, laryngeal height and prolonged expiration were found to have diagnostic value for COPD. These items were studied in maximally three studies and study population studies were heterogenic. The reference test for COPD in five of the six studies concerned obstructive lung disease in general and not COPD. There is insufficient evidence to assess the value of history taking and physical examination for diagnosing COPD.

  10. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.

    ObjectivesPhysical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. MethodsWe examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult

  11. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.M.; Altshuler, L.L.; Kupka, R.W.; McElroy, S.L.; Frye, M.A.; Rowe, M.; Leverich, G.S.; Grunze, H.; Suppes, T.; Keck, P.E.; Nolen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Physical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. Methods: We examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US

  12. Review of serious events in cases of (suspected) child abuse and/or neglect: A RoSE by any other name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Shanti; Maiese, Michelle; Vasquez, Viviana; Gordon, Paola; Jones, Jennifer M

    2017-08-01

    Child abuse and neglect (CAN) cases presenting to health-services may be complex; when things go seriously wrong such as a child death or near miss, cases are reviewed and health-services and professionals subject to intense scrutiny. While there are a variety of mechanisms to review critical incidents in health-services no formal process for the review of cases where child protection is the primary concern exists in Australia. We aimed to develop a systematic process to review serious events in cases of suspected CAN across two health districts in Sydney, so that shared learnings could fuel system change. Drawing upon mapping, case review, literature findings and using quality improvement methodology, we developed a model named Review of Serious Events (RoSE), in suspected cases of CAN. The RoSE model has the key features of: being child focused; seeking to examine care over a period of time; using child protection staff as lead reviewers; involving health professionals/services in the review who have been involved with the child; and actioning systems change at local levels. The RoSE model was trialled through 2014-2015. Eight cases were reviewed using RoSE; cases were similar to those reviewed prior to having a model. Participant feedback from RoSE group processes was overwhelmingly positive; outputs were transparent and accessible to key stakeholders, there was mixed progress with implementation. The RoSE model is a serious case review process that is strongly child-focused, is both investigative and reflective, led by child protection experts; and can be adapted to other settings and systems. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Child Abuse in the Eyes of the Beholder: Lay Perceptions of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Brian H.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Perry, Andrea R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to explore the effects of victim and perpetrator gender, type of abuse, and victim-perpetrator relationship on university students' and non-students' perceptions of different kinds of child abuse. Method: One hundred and ninety-nine participants (including university students and non-student adults) evaluated each of 24…

  14. Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Physically Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity versus Family Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Margaret L.; Amodeo, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood…

  15. Consistency of reporting sexual and physical abuse during psychological treatment of personality disorder: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Bamelis, Lotte; Haringsma, Rimke; Molendijk, Marc; Arntz, Arnoud

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of decreasing, consistent and increasing reports of sexual and physical abuse after 12 months of long-term psychological treatment of personality disorders, to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics predictive of inconsistency of reporting abuse, and to explore whether autobiographical memory may account for this inconsistency. In 229 clinical participants with an SCID II diagnosed personality disorder, 180 (78.6%) reported the same instances of invasive sexual and/or physical abuse on a trauma questionnaire (SPAQ) at baseline and follow-up, 25 (10.9%) decreased and 24 (10.4%) increased their abuse reports. Consistency of reporting abuse did not differ between schema-focused therapy, clarification-oriented psychotherapy and treatment-as-usual. Current depressive episode (SCID-I) and decreased capacity to produce specific negative memories on the Autobiographical Memory Test were characteristic of decreasing abuse reporters, while increasing abuse reporters showed higher levels of Cluster A personality pathology (in particular schizotypal traits) on the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders (ADP-IV). These results suggest that even in treatment procedures directed at exploring someone's personal past with abuse-related imagery consistency of reporting abuse is quite stable. However, certain clinical characteristics may make some persons more likely to change their trauma reports. Moreover, reduced negative memory specificity may represent an avoidant strategy associated with no longer reporting instances of abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of physical and sexual abuse in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Soledad; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Gill, Mary Kay; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Strober, Michael A; Hunt, Jeffrey; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Ryan, Neal D; Leonard, Henrietta; Keller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Adult bipolar disorder (BP) has been associated with lifetime history of physical and sexual abuse. However, there are no reports of the prevalence of abuse in BP youth. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of physical and/or sexual abuse among youth with BP spectrum disorders. Four hundred forty-six youths, ages 7 to 17 years (12.7+/-3.2), meeting DSM-IV criteria for BP-I (n=260), BP-II (n=32) or operationalized definition of BP-NOS (n=154) were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). Abuse was ascertained using the K-SADS. Twenty percent of the sample experienced physical and/or sexual abuse. The most robust correlates of any abuse history were living with a non-intact family (OR=2.6), lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (OR=8.8), psychosis (OR=2.1), conduct disorder (CD) (OR=2.3), and first-degree family history of mood disorder (OR=2.2). After adjusting for confounding demographic factors, physical abuse was associated with longer duration of BP illness, non-intact family, PTSD, psychosis, and first-degree family history of mood disorder. Sexual abuse was associated with PTSD. Subjects with both types of abuse were older, with longer illness duration, non-intact family, and greater prevalence of PTSD and CD as compared with the non-abused group. Retrospective data. Also, since this is a cross-sectional study, no inferences regarding causality can be made. Sexual and/or physical abuse is common in youth with BP particularly in subjects with comorbid PTSD, psychosis, or CD. Prompt identification and treatment of these youth is warranted.

  17. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  18. Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physically Abusive Mothers' Responses Following Episodes of Child Noncompliance and Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego Jr., Joaquin; Timmer, Susan G.; Urquiza, Anthony J.; Follette, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors used sequential analysis to examine specific interaction patterns between physically abusive mothers and their children following episodes of noncompliance and compliance. Fifteen abusive and 15 nonabusive, low-risk mother-child dyads were observed, and their behaviors were coded for specific interactions. The children in the study…

  20. Evidence Supporting an Independent Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Lifetime Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson; Esme; Baker, Tobi M.; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A regionally representative Canadian sample was used to investigate the gender-specific relationship between childhood physical abuse and lifetime suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was about five times higher in abused men and women compared with their nonabused counterparts. After controlling for five clusters of potentially…

  1. Brief Report: The Sexual and Physical Abuse Histories of Offenders with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, W.; Steptoe, L.; Haut, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have found higher rates of childhood sexual abuse in sex offenders while others have failed to find such relationships. Method: This study reviews the sexual and physical abuse histories of 156 male sex offenders with intellectual disability (ID), 126 non-sexual male offenders with ID and 27 female offenders with ID.…

  2. Discrepancies in Reporting of Physical and Sexual Abuse among Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homeless young adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to…

  3. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

  4. Physically Abusive Parents and the 16-PF: A Preliminary Psychological Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Carolyn R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A typology of physically abusive parents was developed based upon personality characteristics measured by the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Cluster analysis revealed five distinct patterns, with differences among clusters in age, education, number of children, number of parents involved in abuse, and other variables. Possible treatment…

  5. Physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect: Evidence of alcohol-related harm to children in five states of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Rao, Girish N; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Murthy, Pratima; Jayarajan, Deepak; Sethu, Lakshmanan; Jernigan, David H; Benegal, Vivek

    2016-09-01

    In India, alcohol consumption per capita has increased in recent years, and child maltreatment is highly prevalent. We assess alcohol-related harms to children, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect, and correlates for men reporting these harms. We analysed data from household interviews collected in a cross-sectional, case-control study in five Indian states (n = 5026). Data were collected from October 2011 to May 2012. Using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression, we examined male adult's reports of five types of alcohol-related harm to children (respondents were not necessarily the perpetrators of the harms) and respondents' drinking patterns and socio-demographic characteristics associated with the reporting of these harms. In this sample, 43.2% of the men reported at least one alcohol-related harm to children in the past year; among them, 61.6% reported multiple. Among all men, 15.7% reported that a child experienced physical abuse from adults' drinking. Adjusting for respondents' drinking pattern and socio-demographics, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression showed that living in a rural area was associated with greater odds of reporting alcohol-related physical abuse, psychological harm and neglect to children. Compared with past-year abstainers, both non-heavy episodic and heavy episodic drinkers had significantly greater odds of reporting these harms. We found significant differences in the reporting of harms by location. This study suggests that adults' drinking is associated with physical and psychological abuse and neglect to children. Greater use of evidence-based alcohol policy interventions may help reduce alcohol-related harms to children in India. [Esser MB, Rao GN, Gururaj G, Murthy P, Jayarajan D, Sethu L, Jernigan DH, Benegal V, Collaborators Group on Epidemiological Study of Patterns and Consequences of Alcohol Misuse in India. Physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect: Evidence of alcohol-related harm

  6. Psychological, physical, and sexual abuse in addicted patients who undergo treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the prevalence of a history as victims of abuse among patients who sought outpatient treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 252 addicted patients was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse), sociodemographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. Drug-addicted patients who present a lifelong history of abuse were compared with patients who were not abused. Of the total sample, 46% of the patients (n = 115) who were addicted to drugs had been victims of abuse. There was a statistically significant difference between the victimization rates of men (37.8%) and women (79.6%). Moreover, for some variables, significant differences were observed between patients who had been abused and those who had not. Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted patients with a history of victimization scored significantly higher on several European Addiction Severity Index, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, and maladjustment variables but not on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The current results indicate that patients who present a lifelong history of abuse exhibit both a more severe addiction than patients who were not abused and several comorbidities. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M

    2017-01-01

    To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t-test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can be

  8. Evaluating children with fractures for child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Perez-Rossello, Jeannette M; Levine, Michael A; Hennrikus, William L

    2014-02-01

    Fractures are common injuries caused by child abuse. Although the consequences of failing to diagnose an abusive injury in a child can be grave, incorrectly diagnosing child abuse in a child whose fractures have another etiology can be distressing for a family. The aim of this report is to review recent advances in the understanding of fracture specificity, the mechanism of fractures, and other medical diseases that predispose to fractures in infants and children. This clinical report will aid physicians in developing an evidence-based differential diagnosis and performing the appropriate evaluation when assessing a child with fractures.

  9. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.

  10. Intimate Partner Violence and Miscarriage: Examination of the Role of Physical and Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and Cigarette Smoking: Association Between Smoking Risk and Psychological Abuse With and Without Co-Occurrence of Physical and Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between psychological abuse in a current relationship and current cigarette smoking among women, with and without the co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse. Methods. Women’s experience of psychological abuse, experience of physical or sexual abuse, and smoking status were ascertained through a survey of female nurses. A score of 20 or more on the Women’s Experience With Battering scale defined psychological abuse. We used logistic regression to predict current smoking, adjusting for demographic and social covariates. Analyses included women in a current relationship (n=54200). Results. Adjusted analyses demonstrated that women experiencing only psychological abuse alone were 33% (95% confidence interval [CI]=13%, 57%) more likely to smoke than nonabused women. Compared with nonabused women, psychologically abused women’s risk of smoking was greater if they reported a single co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.5; 95% CI=1.3, 1.8) or multiple co-occurrences (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.7, 2.3). Conclusions. Psychological abuse in a current relationship was associated with an increased risk of smoking in this cohort of largely White, well-educated, and employed women. The co-occurrence of physical or sexual abuse enhanced that risk. Further research is needed to see if these associations hold for other groups. PMID:17600272

  12. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Acker, Deborah; Webb, Tina; Brenzel, Allen; Lorenz, Douglas J; Young, Audrey; Thompson, Richard

    2017-10-01

    This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article "History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse" (Pierce et al., 2017) [1].

  13. Disciplining, chastisement and physical child abuse: perceptions and attitudes of the British Pakistani community

    OpenAIRE

    S. Irfan; Cowburn, M.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of cross-cultural differences in people's perspectives of what constitutes physical abuse of children. The focus of the present study was to explore the British Pakistani community's perception about physical child abuse and to understand more about the values held by them in relation to child protection. The study aimed to discover issues that are important to protect the children from harm, and to describe the possibilities these issues present. The study used a questionn...

  14. Concordance of Parent- and Child-Reported Physical Abuse Following Child Protective Services Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobulsky, Julia M; Kepple, Nancy Jo; Holmes, Megan R; Hussey, David L

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge about the concordance of parent- and child-reported child physical abuse is scarce, leaving researchers and practitioners with little guidance on the implications of selecting either informant. Drawing from a 2008-2009 sample of 11- to 17-year-olds ( N = 636) from Wave 1 of the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, this study first examined parent-child concordance in physical abuse reporting (Parent-Child Conflict Tactic Scale). Second, it applied multivariate regression analysis to relate parent-child agreement in physical abuse to parent-reported (Child Behavior Checklist) and child-reported (Youth Self Report) child behavioral problems. Results indicate low parent-child concordance of physical abuse (κ = .145). Coreporting of physical abuse was related to clinical-level parent-reported externalizing problems ([Formula: see text] = 64.57), whereas child-only reports of physical abuse were the only agreement category related to child-reported internalizing problems ( B = 4.17, p < .001). Attribution bias theory may further understanding of reporting concordance and its implications.

  15. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Alcohol Use, Drinking Venue Utilization, and Child Physical Abuse: Results from a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget

    2011-04-01

    A positive relationship between parents' drinking and child physical abuse has been established by previous research. This paper examines how a parent's use of drinking locations is related to physical abuse. A convenience sample of 103 parents answered questions on physical abuse with the Conflict Tactics Scale-Parent Child version (CTS-PC), current drinking behavior, and the frequency with which they drank at different venues, including bars and parties. Ordered probit models were used to assess relationships between parent demographics, drinking patterns, places of drinking, and CTS-PC scores. Frequent drinking, frequently going to bars, frequently going to parties in a parent's own home, and frequently going to parties in friends' homes were positively related to child physical abuse. The number of drinking locations was positively related to child physical abuse such that parents who report attending and drinking at more of these venues were more likely to be perpetrators of physical abuse. This suggests that time spent in these venues provides opportunities to mix with individuals that may share the same attitudes and norms towards acting violently.

  17. Intervening in severe physical child abuse cases: mental health, legal, and social services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B V; Fox, B R; Garcia-Beckwith, L

    1999-09-01

    To examine the child protection process in cases of severe physical abuse, to compare characteristics of the families with risk factors previously reported in the published literature, and to develop recommendations about the use of mental health professionals in such cases. Reviewers examined 30 case records of severely physically abused children under age 5, nominated by child protection workers and mental health providers. The reviewers recorded demographic, clinical, and case process information such as mental health and other referrals, reunification status, and frequency of criminal prosecution. A case study was described. The parents displayed a range of psychological characteristics (e.g., depression, anxiety, personality disorders) and life problems (e.g., domestic violence, substance abuse, abused as child). The majority of parents denied the abuse. The children were very young (more than half under 6 months old) and many had difficult births or medical problems prior to the abuse. The most common services offered were individual psychotherapy and parenting classes. More than half of the children reunified with at least one parent within I year. Forty percent of the cases involved criminal prosecution. Reunification occurred more quickly and more often than expected based on the severity of the injuries. The system often relies on psychotherapy to correct the abusive behavior, even when the perpetrator remains unknown and specific risks such as substance abuse or domestic violence are present. The authors advise utilizing multidisciplinary teams for recommendations regarding reunification.

  18. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  19. Lifetime Physical and Sexual Abuse and Self-Harm in Women With Severe Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret V

    2016-09-01

    In a sample of 242 women in treatment for severe mental illness (SMI), we used regression analysis to test the hypothesis that lifetime physical and sexual abuse would correlate with self-harm behaviors (thoughts of self-harm and suicide, self-harming behaviors, and suicide attempts) when controlling for psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, and negative appraisals of trauma. Lifetime physical abuse and alcohol use were the only significant factors in the model. Women with SMI should be screened regularly for physical abuse, alcohol use, as well as thoughts and behaviors related to self-harming behaviors. Limitations of the study include its cross-sectional design. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

  1. Alcohol and drug disorders among physically abusive and neglectful parents in a community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, K; Chaffin, M; Hollenberg, J; Fischer, E

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of substance use disorders and symptoms between adults reporting child physical abuse or neglect and individually matched control subjects in a community sample. In a nested case-control study, 169 adults reporting physical abuse of a child and 209 adults reporting neglect of a child from 11,662 individuals successfully interviewed in a probabilistic survey in four communities were individually matched with control subjects drawn from the participants. Case subjects were compared with control subjects on the number of alcohol- or drug-related symptoms and disorder diagnoses as determined by symptoms from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Respondents reporting either physical abuse or neglect of children were much more likely than their matched control subjects to report substance abuse or dependence. These differences persisted after potential confounding variables were controlled for. Parental substance abuse and dependence, independent of confounding factors, are highly associated with child maltreatment. Inconsistent results in previous studies may have arisen from reliance on referred samples and unstandardized assessment methods. Agencies involved in the care of abused or neglected children and their families should consider incorporating routine substance abuse evaluations with treatment, or referral for treatment, where indicated.

  2. Physical punishment, abuse, torture or revenge? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Behdad; Esmaeili, Sara; Mazloomi Nobandegani, Narges; Shariati, Golnaz

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment happens in all countries and cultures. Children as the vulnerable part of the societies are subject to rage, abuse and maltreatment and need special multidisciplinary attention to get proper protection and care. Appropriate legislation, community education, advocacy in media and attention of care givers and children health providers may alter the trend of child abuse in communities. In order to raise awareness about child abuse for healthcare professionals, in this report we introduce a disastrous case of 4 years old boy who was attacked by his father which presented to Children's Medical Center in Tehran. The living environment of the victim was a dysfunctional family and an addict father as the risk factors of dangerous circumstances for a child.

  3. Evaluation of forensic medical history taking from the child in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rachel; Gall, John A M

    2017-02-01

    Suspected child physical abuse, sexual abuse and neglect are not uncommon presentations. As part of the assessment of these cases, a forensic medical history may be taken. This forensic history is used not only to determine the steps necessary to address the child's wellbeing but also to direct the forensic examination. Currently, there is no clear consensus on whether or not a forensic medical history should consistently be considered an integral element within the paediatric forensic evaluation. This study examines the value derived by the medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history rather than relying on hearsay evidence when a child presents for an assessment. A retrospective review of paediatric cases seen by the Victorian Forensic Paediatric Medical Service (VFPMS) between 2014 and 2015 was undertaken. 274 forensic case reports were reviewed and the data was entered into an Excel spread sheet and analysed using chi squared tests within STATA®. With increasing age of the child, a forensic medical history is significantly more likely to be taken. Additional information is made available to the medical practitioner what would otherwise have been provided if the medical practitioner relied only on the interview conducted by the police. Discrepancies observed between the official third parties (police or child protection) report of what a child has said and what the child says to the medical practitioner decrease with age, as do discrepancies observed between the child's version of events and a third party's (eg. parents, caregivers, friends) version of events. The study showed that by taking a forensic medical history from the child additional information can be obtained. Further, that there is a value in the examining medical practitioner taking a forensic medical history from children in cases of child physical and sexual abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Berman, Anne H; Gumpert, Clara H; Palmstierna, Tom; Kristiansson, Marianne; Alm, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index in a sample of 181 suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems. The screening tools showed moderate to high accuracy for identification of dependency diagnoses. The AUDIT was associated with alcohol problem severity, whereas the DUDIT was associated with drug and legal problem severity. Administering the screening tools in the current population yields valid results. However, the suggested cutoff scores should be applied with caution due to the discrepancy between present and previous findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychopathology of the physically abusing parent: a comparison with the borderline syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodgers, A

    1984-01-01

    This article compares the psychopathology of the physically abusing parent and that of the borderline patient in four specific areas: common personality characteristics; personal history; psychopathology; and psychodynamics of the abusive act. The first major personality characteristic is the umbrella characteristic of arrested emotional development, the other four characteristics are: poor self image, emotionally isolated, depressive loneliness and poorly suppressed aggression. These correlate with the four major characteristics of the core borderline personality. The personal history for both abusing parents and borderline patients indicate maternal deprivation in preverbal development. The abusing parent's psychopathology is very similar to that of the borderline patient. They both have poor ego strength, a punitive superego and use primitive ego-defenses of denial, splitting and projection. The act of abuse is related to these ego defects but in particular projective identification plays a major role. Further research is indicated and tentative implications are made as regards psychodynamically oriented treatment.

  6. Differentiating corporal punishment from physical abuse in the prediction of lifetime aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alan R; Ratzak, Abrianna; Ballantyne, Sage; Knutson, Shane; Russell, Tiffany D; Pogalz, Colton R; Breen, Cody M

    2018-02-10

    Corporal punishment and parental physical abuse often co-occur during upbringing, making it difficult to differentiate their selective impacts on psychological functioning. Associations between corporal punishment and a number of lifetime aggression indicators were examined in this study after efforts to control the potential influence of various forms of co-occurring maltreatment (parental physical abuse, childhood sexual abuse, sibling abuse, peer bullying, and observed parental violence). College students (N = 1,136) provided retrospective self-reports regarding their history of aggression and levels of exposure to childhood corporal punishment and maltreatment experiences. Analyses focused on three hypotheses: 1) The odds of experiencing childhood physical abuse would be higher among respondents reporting frequent corporal punishment during upbringing; 2) Corporal punishment scores would predict the criterion aggression indices after control of variance associated with childhood maltreatment; 3) Aggression scores would be higher among respondents classified in the moderate and elevated corporal punishment risk groups. Strong support was found for the first hypothesis since the odds of childhood physical abuse recollections were higher (OR = 65.3) among respondents who experienced frequent (>60 total disciplinary acts) corporal punishment during upbringing. Partial support was found for the second and third hypotheses. Dimensional and categorical corporal punishment scores were associated significantly with half of the criterion measures. These findings support efforts to dissuade reliance on corporal punishment to manage child behavior. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He ...

  8. Stepchildren, community disadvantage, and physical injury in a child abuse incident: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Stewart J; Stolzenberg, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    It is proffered that stepchildren are more likely than genetic children to be physically abused because they are unable to ensure the genetic survival of their adoptive parents. This abuse is theorized to be more pronounced in communities where social and economic resources are scarce. The salience of this cross-level interaction hinges on the assumption that the limited resources of a family are first allocated to genetic offspring because these children, unlike their nongenetic siblings, carry the genes of their parents. A multilevel analysis of child abuse incidents reported to police in 133 U.S. cities during 2005 shows that in cities with a high level of community disadvantage, stepchildren are much more apt than are genetic children to suffer a physical injury in a child abuse incident. Such a finding buttresses the position articulated by proponents of sociobiology.

  9. Multiple unexplained fractures in infants and child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, John Jacob; Holick, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    When an infant presents with X-rays showing multiple unexplained fractures in various stages of healing (MUFVSH), the child is usually diagnosed with child abuse based on criteria of the Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect (AAPCCAAN). Almost always, the infant is subsequently removed from the home and civil or criminal proceeding commence. It may be that healing infantile rickets or other poorly understood metabolic bone disorders of infancy are responsible for these x-rays. Activated vitamin D is a seco-steroid hormone, whose mechanism of action is genetic regulation. Lack of it can result in musculoskeletal defects known as rickets. Low calcium can also cause rickets. However, it is clear that experts for the state believe that the x-rays in these cases are so definitive as to be pathognomonic for child abuse. Therefore, if the caregivers deny abusing their infants, experts following American Academy of Pediatric's Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. guidelines are essentially claiming that x-rays showing multiple unexplained fractures in various stages of healing are lie detector tests. However, it is not widely appreciated that the gold standard for the diagnosis of rickets is a bone biopsy, not x-rays, as radiologists miss biopsy proven rickets 80% of the time; that is, 4 out of 5 infants with rickets will have normal x-rays. In this article we provide reports of two cases and their outcomes. We discuss information about healing infantile rickets and an example of common sense medical conclusions in these cases. This information could lead to a significant reduction in the number of innocent parents having their infant removed or sent to prison. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse among pregnant women in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Ryding, Elsa Lena

    2014-01-01

    in Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden between March 2008 and August 2010. POPULATION: A total of 7174 pregnant women. METHODS: A questionnaire including a validated instrument measuring emotional, physical and sexual abuse. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of women reporting emotional......OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to investigate the prevalence of a history of abuse among women attending routine antenatal care in six northern European countries. Second, we explored current suffering from reported abuse. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Routine antenatal care...

  11. Impact of Childhood Abuse on Physical and Mental Health Status and Health Care Utilization Among Female Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Rowena C; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon; Iverson, Katherine M

    2015-10-01

    To determine whether childhood abuse predicts health symptoms and health care use among female veterans. Participants were 369 female patients at Veterans Affairs hospitals in New England who completed a mail survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the differential impact of childhood physical abuse and childhood sexual abuse on health symptoms and health care use, while accounting for age, race, military branch, and military sexual trauma (MST). In our sample, 109 (29%) female veterans reported experiencing childhood abuse. After adjusting for age, race, military branch, childhood sexual abuse, and MST, childhood physical abuse was predictive of poorer physical health, and greater depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. No significant association was found between childhood sexual abuse and poor physical or mental health status. After adjusting for other factors, childhood physical abuse was associated with more frequent use of medical health care. Childhood sexual abuse was not a predictor for health care use. Childhood physical abuse remains an important contributor to physical health and mental health, even after adjusting for the more proximate experience of MST. Screening for adverse childhood experiences may facilitate access to appropriate physical and mental health treatment among female veterans. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. The Roles of Peritraumatic Dissociation, Child Physical Abuse, and Child Sexual Abuse in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Adult Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Melanie D.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has indicated that women who experience childhood physical abuse or childhood sexual abuse are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and adult victimization. Recently, peritraumatic dissociation (PD) has been suggested as another possible risk factor for PTSD and adult victimization. The purpose of…

  13. Social-Relational Risk Factors for Predicting Elder Physical Abuse: An Ecological Bi-Focal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heydrich, Levente; Schiamberg, Lawrence B.; Chee, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Annually in the United States, 1 to 5 million older adults, 65 and above, are physically or sexually injured or mistreated by their caregivers in family settings. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors involved in elder physical abuse by adult child caregivers, moving from the immediate elderly parent/adult child relationship context…

  14. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Association between Self-Reported Health and Physical and/or Sexual Abuse Experienced before Age 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated the association between women's health and physical and sexual abuse suffered before age 18. Methods: A total of 3,568 randomly sampled insured women ages 18-64 completed a telephone interview to assess history of physical only, sexual only, or both physical and sexual abuse before age 18 (Behavioral Risk…

  16. Mediating and moderating effects of social support in the study of child abuse and adult physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J Bart; Mason, W Alex; Brown, Eric C; Leeb, Rebecca T; Herrenkohl, Roy C

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Differentiating physical discipline from abuse: Q findings from Chinese American mothers and pediatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Grace W K; Gross, Deborah A

    2015-05-01

    The perception and use of physical discipline (PD) is culture-based, and the differentiation between PD and abuse is subjective and complex. The purpose of this study was to understand how Chinese American mothers and one group of mandated reporters of child abuse (i.e. pediatric nurses) differentiate PD from abuse. Using Q-methodology, 3 viewpoints on PD and abuse differentiation were uncovered from a sample of 35 Chinese American mothers and 48 pediatric nurses. Although there was wide consensus on the most acceptable and most unacceptable parent discipline behaviors across the 3 views, the acceptability of punishments differed by their potential to inflict injury, pain, or incite fear and uncertainty. This was the first study to examine PD and abuse differentiation based on 5 definable domains of PD (i.e. specific behavior, intention, delivery, outcome, and pattern of use). Findings point to important nuances in how some mothers and nurses differentiate abuse from acceptable discipline, and the potential for using Q-methodology for exploring PD and abuse differentiations across diverse cultural, social, and professional groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluations of the effects of Sweden's spanking ban on physical child abuse rates: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, R E; Johnson, B

    1999-10-01

    Sweden's 1979 law banning corporal punishment by parents was welcomed by many as a needed policy to help reduce physical abuse of children. This study reviews the published empirical evidence relevant to that goal. Only seven journal articles with pertinent data were located. One study reported that the rate of physical child abuse was 49% higher in Sweden than in the USA, comparing its 1980 Swedish national survey with the average rates from two national surveys in the United States in 1975 and 1985. In contrast, a 1981 retrospective survey of university students suggested that the Swedish abuse rate had been 79% less than the American rate prior to the Swedish spanking ban. Some unpublished evidence suggests that Swedish rates of physical child abuse have remained high, although child abuse mortality rates have stayed low there. A recent Swedish report suggested that the spanking ban has made little change in problematic forms of physical punishment. The conclusion calls for more timely and rigorous evaluations of similar social experiments in the future.

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  20. Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Leverich, Gabriele S; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Nolen, Willem A

    2015-05-01

    Physical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated. We examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult outpatients (average age 40 years). Patients gave informed consent and provided information about their age of onset and course of illness prior to study entry. Verbal abuse alone occurred in 24% of the patients. Similar to a history of physical or sexual abuse, a history of verbal abuse was related to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder and other poor prognosis characteristics, including anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity, rapid cycling, and a deteriorating illness course as reflected in ratings of increasing frequency or severity of mania and depression. A lasting adverse impact of the experience of verbal abuse in childhood is suggested by its relationship to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder, other poor prognosis factors, and a deteriorating course of illness. Verbal abuse is a common confound in comparison groups defined by a lack of physical or sexual abuse. Ameliorating the impact of verbal abuse on the unfolding course of bipolar disorder appears to be an important target of therapeutics and worthy of attempts at primary and secondary prophylaxis. Family-based treatments that focus on psychoeducation, enhancing intra-family communication, and coping skills may be particularly helpful. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Childhood sexual and physical abuse in Spanish female undergraduates: does it affect eating disturbances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Ana M; Penelo, Eva; Portell, Mariona; Raich, Rosa M

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship between childhood sexual and physical abuse, and key attitudinal and behavioural aspects of eating disorders (ED). Participants included 708 female undergraduates in a Spanish public university, aged from 18 to 30. Abuse was measured by the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, and ED by the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). 14.3% of the sample had suffered childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and 3.8% childhood physical abuse (CPA). With respect to ED attitudinal features, we observed an increased Weight Concern score among CSA survivors. No association was found between this kind of abuse and disordered eating behaviours, after adjusting for depression, anxiety, self-esteem, body mass index, age and socioeconomic status. An inverse relationship was found between CPA and ED attitudes measured by EDE-Q (Restraint, Weight Concern, Shape Concern and the Overall Score), whereas no association was found with the behavioural aspects of eating disturbances. After controlling for different risk factors, CSA appears to be related to an increased Weight Concern, whilst other ED attitudinal features and behaviours do not seem to be related to childhood abuse. The inverse relationship found is discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  2. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rosana E; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16-2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43-3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61-2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67-2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21-1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17-5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44-4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13-3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50-2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39-1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. This overview of the evidence suggests a causal relationship between non-sexual child

  3. The interpersonal and psychological functioning of women who experienced childhood physical abuse, incest, and parental alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, K M; Gilbert, B O

    1994-10-01

    Questionnaires assessing childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood incest (CI), and parental alcoholism (ACOA) were completed by 253 college women from introductory psychology classes at a large midwestern university. The relationship between these variables and the level of depression, self-esteem and involvement with physically abusive, sexually assaultive, sexually coercive, and chemically dependent partners was assessed. Support was found for an additive model of trauma that predicted a relationship between number of childhood traumas and adult outcomes. Limited support was found for a specificity model of trauma that predicted that specific childhood trauma would be predictive of parallel negative adult outcomes.

  4. Physical Spouse Abuse in a 28-Week-Pregnant Woman: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Azadeh; Ameri, Maryam; Shakeri, Mozhgan; Mehrpisheh, Shahrokh

    2016-05-01

    In some relationships, pregnancy is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV). We present a case of a 34-year-old, 28-week-pregnant woman who was admitted to the emergency department with multiple traumas due to IPV. Her husband had hit her with a power cable after abusing methamphetamine. There were multiple ecchymoses and lacerations on her body. On questioning, the patient revealed a low socioeconomic status. The couple had been married for five years, and the abuse began 11 months earlier, after the husband became addicted to methamphetamines. In this instance of abuse, the husband was suspicious of the wife's pregnancy and believed that the child had been fathered by another man. Her husband's methamphetamine abuse had resulted in previous incidences of non-physical IPV, but, in the present incident, the combination of abuse coupled with partner jealousy resulted in physical abuse. During admission, there were no significant changes to the patient's health, and the fetus was deemed to be healthy and unharmed. After discharge, the patient decided to divorce her abusive husband. Screening and counseling for interpersonal and domestic violence is especially recommended during pregnancy to protect the mother and her fetus. In Iranian civil law, IPV is regarded as "osr-o-haraj" or severe and intolerable hardship, and women may cite it as grounds for divorce in cases such as spousal drug addiction and certain forms of spousal abuse. When intimate partner assault is repeated and petition for khula is presented to the courts, the court can order the man to divorce his wife and, if he refuses, the court judge can grant the khula without the husband's consent.

  5. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in

  6. Predicting long-term outcomes for women physically abused in childhood: contribution of abuse severity versus family environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Margaret L; Amodeo, Maryann

    2010-10-01

    Child physical abuse (CPA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for the explanation for heterogeneous outcomes in women with CPA has led to an examination of a range of CPA-related factors, from the severity of CPA incidents to the childhood family environment. This study compares several models for predicting adult outcomes: a multidimensional CPA severity scale, the presence or absence of CPA, family environment, and childhood stresses. The effect of CPA on adult outcomes was examined among 290 community-dwelling women raised in 2-parent families. Standardized measures and a focused interview were used to collect data, with siblings as collateral informants. Comparison of a multidimensional CPA severity scale to a dichotomous measure of the presence or absence of CPA showed that the severity scale did not have greater predictive value for adult outcomes than the dichotomous measure. Childhood family environment scales considerably attenuated the predictive value of the dichotomous measure of CPA, exerting a greater mediating effect on outcomes than did childhood stresses. The specific characteristics of a CPA experience may be less important than the occurrence of CPA and the woman's childhood family environment for predicting long-term psychosocial outcomes. The presence of child physical abuse is substantial and continues to increase, but the clinical significance of abuse on adult outcomes is unclear. The findings of the current study lend credence to the idea that family stresses and resources other than CPA may be crucial in understanding long-term effects in women. Hence treatment and support for victims of CPA might benefit from clinicians' exploration of the family environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical discipline, escalation, and child abuse potential: psychometric evidence for the Analog Parenting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russa, Mary Bower; Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    Data from three studies provide new evidence to support the validity of the Analog Parenting Task (APT) as an instrument to assess risk for harsh, physically aggressive parenting. In this series of studies, there was a strong association between APT scores of expected use and escalation of discipline strategies and self-reported disciplinary attitudes. APT scores were also associated with physical abuse potential as assessed by both a well-established measure of child abuse potential (Child Abuse Potential Inventory) and another instrument designed specifically for use in pre-parent populations (e.g., Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2). This study provides new psychometric evidence to support the use of the APT to assess harsh parenting. Additionally, these data highlight the connection between acceptance and use of physical disciplinary strategies, propensity for disciplinary escalation, and risk for abuse perpetration. The findings are discussed in the context of Milner's Social Information Processing model [Milner, 2003] of abuse, which suggests that parental selection of disciplinary responding and the monitoring of disciplinary responding are key events in the disciplinary process. The APT may prove a useful adjunct to more commonly used self-report measures to allow for multimethod assessment of risk for punitive parenting.

  8. Gender differences in the association between childhood physical and sexual abuse, social support and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Fisher, Helen L; Fearon, Paul; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Boydell, Jane; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Craig, Thomas K; Morgan, Craig

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversity (variously defined) is a robust risk factor for psychosis, yet the mitigating effects of social support in adulthood have not yet been explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult psychosis, and gender differences in levels of perceived social support. A sample of 202 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychosis and 266 population-based controls from south-east London and Nottingham, UK, was utilised. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to elicit retrospective reports of exposure to childhood adversity, and the Significant Others Questionnaire was completed to collect information on the current size of social networks and perceptions of emotional and practical support. There was evidence of an interaction between severe physical abuse and levels of support (namely, number of significant others; likelihood ratio test χ(2) = 3.90, p = 0.048). When stratified by gender, there were no clear associations between childhood physical or sexual abuse, current social support and odds of psychosis in men. In contrast, for women, the highest odds of psychosis were generally found in those who reported severe abuse and low levels of social support in adulthood. However, tests for interaction by gender did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the potential benefits of social support as a buffer against the development of adult psychosis amongst those, particularly women, with a history of early life stress.

  9. Analog of parental empathy: association with physical child abuse risk and punishment intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2013-08-01

    Current research has been inconsistent in corroborating that parents' compromised empathy is associated with elevated physical child abuse risk, perhaps in part because of an emphasis on dispositional empathy rather than empathy directed at their own children. Research has also relied on self-reports of empathy that are susceptible to participant misrepresentation. The present study utilized an analog task of parental empathy to investigate the association of parental empathy toward one's own child with physical child abuse potential and with their tendency to punish perceived child misbehavior. A sample of 135 mothers and their 4-9 year old children were recruited, with mothers estimating their children's emotional reactions using a behavioral simulation of parental empathy. Mothers also provided self-reports on two measures of child abuse potential, a measure of negative attributions and expected punishment of children using vignettes, as well as a traditional measure of dispositional empathic concern and perspective-taking. Findings suggest that parental demonstration of poorer empathic ability on the analog task was significantly related to increased physical abuse potential, likelihood to punish, and negative child attributions. However, self-reported dispositional empathy exhibited the pattern of inconsistent associations previously observed in the literature. Parental empathy appears to be a relevant target for prevention and intervention programs. Future research should also consider similar analog approaches to investigate such constructs to better uncover the factors that elevate abuse risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early physical and sexual abuse associated with an adverse course of bipolar illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverich, Gabriele S; McElroy, Susan L; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Denicoff, Kirk D; Nolen, Willem A; Altshuler, Lori L; Rush, A John; Kupka, Ralph; Frye, Mark A; Autio, Karen A; Post, Robert M

    2002-02-15

    There is growing awareness of the association between physical and sexual abuse and subsequent development of psychopathology, but little is known, however, about their relationship to the longitudinal course of bipolar disorder. We evaluated 631 outpatients with bipolar I or II disorder for general demographics, a history of physical or sexual abuse as a child or adolescent, course of illness variables, and prior suicide attempts, as well as SCID-derived Axis I and patient endorsed Axis II comorbidity. Those who endorsed a history of child or adolescent physical or sexual abuse, compared with those who did not, had a history of an earlier onset of bipolar illness, an increased number of Axis I, II, and III comorbid disorders, including drug and alcohol abuse, faster cycling frequencies, a higher rate of suicide attempts, and more psychosocial stressors occurring before the first and most recent affective episode. The retrospectively reported associations of early abuse with a more severe course of illness were validated prospectively. Greater appreciation of the association of early traumatic experiences and an adverse course of bipolar illness should lead to preventive and early intervention approaches that may lessen the associated risk of a poor outcome.

  11. Physical, Financial, and Psychological Abuse Committed Against Older Women by Relatives With Psychiatric Disorders: Extent of the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Solomon, Phyllis L; Bressi, Sara K

    2015-01-01

    Persons with psychiatric disorders (PD) are known to be at an increased risk of committing elder abuse, with much of this abuse occurring toward women. However, there is no evidence available speaking to the extent of this problem. The objective of the present study is to explore rates of abuse committed against older women by a relative with PD. In conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania, 217 women residing across the United States who are at least 55 years of age and who have a relative with PD completed an online survey. Analyses found that in the past 6 months 15% of survey respondents experienced physical abuse committed by their relative with PD, 20% experienced financial abuse, and 42% experienced psychological abuse. Given these high rates of abuse it is imperative that research into factors predicting abuse be conducted, as such information would help target and determine the nature of interventions.

  12. Mental and Physical Health Needs of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentje, Annesa; Livingston, Nicholas A; Roley, Jason; Sorensen, James L

    2015-11-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) orientation predicts greater substance use, treatment utilization, and poorer mental and physical health, but health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify differences in mental and physical health needs of LGB individuals in substance abuse treatment. Substance abuse treatment admissions data from the County of San Francisco were used in this investigation of differences in mental and physical health problems and service utilization between LGB (n=1,441) and heterosexual individuals (n=11,770). LGB individuals were more likely to have mental health diagnoses (adjORs ranging from 1.86 to 4.00) and current mental health prescription medications (adjORs from 1.79 to 4.99) than heterosexual counterparts. Gay and bisexual men and bisexual women but not lesbian women, were more likely to be receiving mental health treatment. Gay men and bisexual women were more likely than heterosexual counterparts to report physical health problems. Gay and bisexual men and bisexual women but not lesbian women were more likely to be receiving health care. There were no differences between LGB individuals and heterosexual counterparts in the number of emergency room visits or hospital overnight stays. This study found that LGB individuals entering substance abuse treatment have greater mental and physical health needs than heterosexual counterparts. Implications for healthcare integration, research, and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk factors of child physical abuse by parents with mixed anxiety-depressive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalebić Jakupčević, Katija; Ajduković, Marina

    2011-02-01

    To determine the risk that parents with mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) will physically abuse their child and evaluate the specific contribution of mental health, perceived social support, experience of childhood abuse, and attributes of family relations to the risk of child physical abuse. The study conducted in 2007 included men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) with a diagnosis of MADD, men with a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 30), and a control sample of parents from the general population (n = 100, 45 men and 55 women) with children of elementary school age. General Information Questionnaire, Child Abuse Experience Inventory, Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) Clinical Abuse Scale were used. Total results on the Clinical Abuse Scale of the CAPI indicated higher risk of child physical abuse in parents with MADD (273.3 ± 13.6) and in fathers with PTSD (333.21 ± 17.98) than in parents from the general population (79.6 ± 9.9) (F = 110.40, P Parents with MADD and PTSD exhibit high risk of child abuse. Since parents with PTSD have significantly higher risk of child abuse than parents with MADD, further large-sample research is needed to clarify the relationship between PTSD intensity and the risk of child abuse.

  14. Sex differences in disinhibition and its relationship to physical abuse in a sample of stimulant-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Research suggests that impulsivity is a vulnerability factor for developing stimulant dependence, that women develop dependence more quickly than men, and that physical abuse can increase impulsivity and may have greater adverse health consequences in women. This study sought to tie these findings together by evaluating: (1) sex differences in disinhibition prior to lifetime initiation of stimulant abuse and (2) the relationship between physical abuse and disinhibition in stimulant-dependent patients. The Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe) is a reliable and valid self-report assessment of three neurobehavioral domains associated with frontal systems functioning (Apathy, Disinhibition, and Executive Dysfunction, summed for a Total), that assesses pre-morbid functioning and has a specific cutoff for defining clinically significant abnormalities. Six sites evaluating 12-step facilitation for stimulant abusers obtained the FrSBe from 118 methamphetamine- and/or cocaine-dependent participants. Lifetime physical abuse was measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The proportion reporting clinically significant disinhibition was significantly higher in women (64.9%) than in men (45.0%, p=0.04), with no significant difference on the other FrSBe scales. Physical abuse in women, but not men, was associated with worse functioning, with physically abused, relative to non-abused, women having a significantly greater proportion with clinically significant disinhibition (pabuse and that physical abuse in women is associated with greater disinhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  16. The Association between Childhood Physical Abuse and Heart Disease in Adulthood: Findings from a Representative Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Frank, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Although, the relationship between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease has been documented, very few studies have controlled for many of the known risk factors for heart disease. The objective of the current study, therefore, was to investigate the association between childhood physical abuse and adult heart disease while…

  17. Out of home placement to promote safety? The prevalence of physical abuse in residential and foster care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, S.; Alink, L.R.A.; Tharner, A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-home placement may not always protect children against violence or maltreatment. We investigated the prevalence rates of physical abuse of adolescents in different types of out-of-home care, and compared these with the prevalence of physical abuse in the general population, using findings

  18. Cultural-geographical differences in the occurrence of child physical abuse? A meta-analysis of global prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenborgh, Marije; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2013-01-01

    Our comprehensive meta-analysis combined prevalence figures of child physical abuse reported in 111 studies, including 168 independent samples with a total of 9,698,801 participants. The overall estimated prevalence was 3/1000 for studies using informants and 226/1000 for studies using self-report measures of child physical abuse, with no apparent gender differences. Methodological factors partly explained the vast variation of self-reported prevalence rates in individual studies. The highest prevalence rates were found for studies using a broad definition of child physical abuse, studies measuring physical abuse over the longest period of 0-18 years, studies using college samples, studies in which adults served as respondents, and studies using more questions on physical abuse. Cultural-geographical factors did not seem to affect prevalence rates of physical abuse, which may be partly due to procedural factors. More crosscultural research on physical abuse is badly needed, especially in Africa and South America. We conclude that child physical abuse is a widespread, global phenomenon affecting the lives of millions of children all over the world, which is in sharp contrast with the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  19. Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2013-10-01

    Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mediated Effects of Coping on Mental Health Outcomes of African American Women Exposed to Physical and Psychological Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chmaika P; Hill, Hope M; Johnson, Joshua A D

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have assessed the individual symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as separate mental health consequences of intimate partner abuse (IPA). This study examined the role of coping strategies associated with symptoms of PTSD in a community sample of African American women who have experienced abuse ( N = 128). The results revealed that nonphysical abuse was more prevalent than physical abuse. Specific symptoms of PTSD expressed depended on the type of abuse experienced and the type of coping strategies utilized. The findings have multiple implications on how IPA is studied as well as its clinical screening and treatment processes.

  1. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2011-01-01

    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons…

  2. Verbal and Physical Abuse toward Mothers: The Role of Family Configuration, Environment, and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Linda; Larocque, Denis; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    Studied factors that can increase the risk of abusive behaviors toward mothers. Findings for 6,397 French-speaking Canadian adolescents show that parental divorce is associated with a greater risk of physical aggression directed toward mothers, but family environment and parental coping strategies partially mediated that relationship. (SLD)

  3. Assessment of lifetime physical and sexual abuse in treated alcoholics Validity of the Addiction Severity Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeland, Willie; Draijer, Nel; van den Brink, Wim

    2003-01-01

    We examined the validity of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) regarding the identification of lifetime physical and sexual abuse histories using the Structured Trauma Interview (STI) as external criterion in alcohol-dependent patients (n = 144). Compared to the STI, the ASI showed a lower incidence

  4. Sexual and physical abuse in women with fibromyalgia syndrome: a test of the trauma hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccone, Donald S; Elliott, Deborah K; Chandler, Helena K; Nayak, Sangeetha; Raphael, Karen G

    2005-01-01

    According to the trauma hypothesis, women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) are more likely to report a history of sexual and/or physical abuse than women without FMS. In this study, we rely on a community sample to test this hypothesis and the related prediction that women with FMS are more likely to have posttraumatic stress disorder than women without FMS. Eligibility for the present study was limited to an existing community sample in which FMS and major depressive disorder were prevalent. The unique composition of the original sample allowed us to recruit women with and without FMS from the community. A total of 52 female participants were enrolled in the present FMS group and 53 in the control (no FMS) group. Sexual and physical abuse were assessed retrospectively using a standardized telephone interview. Except for rape, sexual and physical abuse were reported equally often by women in the FMS and control groups. Women who reported rape were 3.1 times more likely to have FMS than women who did not report rape (Prape, no self-reported sexual or physical abuse event was associated with FMS in this community sample. In accord with the trauma hypothesis, however, posttraumatic stress disorder was more prevalent in the FMS group. Chronic stress in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder but not major depressive disorder may mediate the relationship between rape and FMS.

  5. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Correlates among Adolescents Living in Rural Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Yang, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Ching; Wang, Mei-Hua; Lan, Chu-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents living in the rural areas of Taiwan. Method: A sample of indigenous (n = 756) and non-indigenous (n = 928) adolescents was randomly selected from junior high schools in the rural areas of…

  6. Does Accessibility of Positive and Negative Schema Vary by Child Physical Abuse Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L.; Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Farc, Magdalena M.; Irwin, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in accessibility of positive and negative schema in parents with high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: This study combined picture priming and lexical decision making methods to assess the accessibility of positive and negative words following presentation of child and adult faces. The child…

  7. Physical Wife Abuse in a Non-Western Society: An Integrated Theoretical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kristi L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Used survey data from 619 husbands residing in Bangkok, Thailand, to assess their use of physical force against their wives. Results provide strong support for importance of socioeconomic status, marital instability, and verbal marital conflict as predictors of Thai wife abuse. (Author/NB)

  8. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  9. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Processes, Stress, Personal Control, and Risk for Physical Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study set out to examine whether mothers' individual perceptions of their neighborhood social processes predict their risk for physical child abuse and neglect directly and/or indirectly via pathways involving parents' reported stress and sense of personal control in the parenting role. Methods: In-home and phone interview data…

  10. Youth Self-Report of Physical and Sexual Abuse: A Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooner, Kate B.; Litrownik, Alan J.; Thompson, Richard; Margolis, Benjamin; English, Diana J.; Knight, Elizabeth D.; Everson, Mark D.; Roesch, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if meaningful groups of at-risk pre-adolescent youth could be identified based on their self-report of physical and sexual abuse histories. Methods: Youth participating in a consortium of ongoing longitudinal studies were interviewed using an audio-computer assisted self-interview (A-CASI) when they were approximately 12…

  11. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  12. Using Neuropsychological Profiles to Classify Neglected Children with or without Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolin, Pierre; Ethier, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is twofold: First, to investigate whether cognitive functions can contribute to differentiating neglected children with or without physical abuse compared to comparison participants; second, to demonstrate the detrimental impact of children being victimized by a combination of different types of maltreatment.…

  13. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Subsequent Educational Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…

  14. Guidelines for the Use of Molecular Biological Methods to Detect Sexually Transmitted Pathogens in Cases of Suspected Sexual Abuse in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerschlag, Margaret R.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2012-01-01

    Testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in children presents a number of problems for the practitioner that are not usually faced when testing adults for the same infections. The identification of an STI in a child, in addition to medical implications, can have serious legal implications. The presence of an STI is often used to support the presence or allegations of sexual abuse and conversely, the identification of an STI in a child will prompt an investigation of possible abuse. ...

  15. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Clyde Pierce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article “History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse” (Pierce et al., 2017 [1].

  16. The association between childhood physical and sexual abuse and functioning and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Abby E; Polusny, Melissa A; Murdoch, Maureen

    2011-02-01

    We examined associations between abusive childhood experiences and functioning and psychiatric symptoms in an active duty sample of U.S. Army soldiers. Cross-sectional survey of 204 soldiers stationed at a southern U.S. Army facility. Forty-six percent of individuals reported childhood physical abuse alone, whereas 25% reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse. Soldiers' work, role, and social functioning; physical functioning; depression severity; and severity of alcohol misuse did not differ significantly with childhood abuse status (p > 0.22 for all). However, individuals who reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse reported severer posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms than did soldiers who reported no childhood abuse or childhood physical abuse only (p = 0.007). Although abusive childhood experiences were common, soldiers with such experiences reported functioning as well as those soldiers without such experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were significantly elevated only in those who reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse.

  17. RORA and posttraumatic stress trajectories: main effects and interactions with childhood physical abuse history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Galea, Sandro; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Wildman, Derek E; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-04-01

    Longitudinal studies of posttraumatic stress (PTS) have documented environmental factors as predictors of trajectories of higher, versus lower, symptoms, among them experiences of childhood physical abuse. Although it is now well-accepted that genes and environments jointly shape the risk of PTS, no published studies have investigated genes, or gene-by-environment interactions (GxEs), as predictors of PTS trajectories. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap. We examined associations between variants of the retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) gene and trajectory membership among a sample of predominantly non-Hispanic Black urban adults (N = 473). The RORA gene was selected based on its association with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the first PTSD genome wide association study. Additionally, we explored GxEs between RORA variants and childhood physical abuse history. We found that the minor allele of the RORA SNP rs893290 was a significant predictor of membership in a trajectory of consistently high PTS, relatively to a trajectory of consistently low PTS. Additionally, the GxE of rs893290 with childhood physical abuse was significant. Decomposition of the interaction showed that minor allele frequency was more strongly associated with membership in consistently high or decreasing PTS trajectories, relative to a consistently low PTS trajectory, among participants with higher levels of childhood physical abuse. The results of the study provide preliminary evidence that variation in the RORA gene is associated with membership in trajectories of higher PTS and that these associations are stronger among persons exposed to childhood physical abuse. Replication and analysis of functional data are needed to further our understanding of how RORA relates to PTS trajectories.

  18. A greater role of emotional than physical or sexual abuse in predicting disordered eating attitudes: the role of mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, A; Waller, G; Dagnan, D

    1999-03-01

    Previous research on the role of trauma in eating psychopathology has generally focused on reported childhood sexual abuse. There has been relatively little research addressing the full range of abusive experiences, and none considering their long-term impact on eating. This study investigated the relationships between four forms of reported childhood abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect) and unhealthy eating attitudes in adult life. Within this relationship, depression, anxiety, and dissociation were considered potential mediators, and age of onset of abuse was considered a potential moderator. A nonclinical sample of 236 women completed self-report measures of abuse, eating psychopathology, and psychological function. Multiple regression analyses were used to test for associations as well as for mediating and moderating influences. When the intercorrelations of the different forms of reported abuse were controlled for, emotional abuse was the only form of childhood trauma that predicted unhealthy adult eating attitudes. That relationship was perfectly mediated by the women's levels of anxiety and dissociation. Age at onset of emotional abuse did not moderate these relationships. Although these results require extension to a clinical sample, the findings underscore the need to consider a history of emotional trauma as a potentially central factor in any abusive history. Treatment may depend on addressing the psychological consequences of such trauma.

  19. Physical and Psychological Abuse among Seropositive African American MSM 50 Aged Years and Older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Christopher Lance

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about abuse experienced among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) who are 50 years and older. A series of focus groups were conducted to examine perspectives of seropositive African American MSM age 50 years and older who reported experiencing some form of psychological or physical abuse. Thirty African American MSM were divided into four focus groups and four themes emerged: "Fear Being Gay," "No One Else to Love Me," "Nowhere to Turn," and "Sexual Risk & Control." The data suggest there is a need to develop culturally tailored interventions for this population.

  20. Physically Abused Women's Experiences of Sexual Victimization and their Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Laura C; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A

    2012-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women's experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children's disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers' physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women's sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. METHOD: The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4-8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children's disruptive behavior problems. RESULTS: Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children's disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women's experiences of sexual victimization and their children's disruptive behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that physically abused women's experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children's disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children.

  1. Physical and sexual abuse and early-onset bipolar disorder in youths receiving outpatient services: frequent, but not specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina; Youngstrom, Eric A; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C; Findling, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N = 829, M = 10.9 years old ± 3.4 SD, 60% male, 69% African American, and 18% with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21%, sexual abuse in 20%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11% of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16%, sexual abuse in 15%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5% of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment.

  2. Community and Individual Risk Factors for Physical Child Abuse and Child Neglect: Variations by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire-Jack, Kathryn; Font, Sarah A

    2017-08-01

    Families are impacted by a variety of risk and protective factors for maltreatment at multiple levels of the social ecology. Individual- and neighborhood-level poverty has consistently been shown to be associated with higher risk for child abuse and neglect. The current study sought to understand the ways in which individual- and neighborhood-level risk and protective factors affect physical child abuse and child neglect and whether these factors differed for families based on their individual poverty status. Specifically, we used a three-level hierarchical linear model (families nested within census tracts and nested within cities) to estimate the relationships between physical child abuse and child neglect and neighborhood structural factors, neighborhood processes, and individual characteristics. We compared these relationships between lower and higher income families in a sample of approximately 3,000 families from 50 cities in the State of California. We found that neighborhood-level disadvantage was especially detrimental for families in poverty and that neighborhood-level protective processes (social) were not associated with physical child abuse and child neglect for impoverished families, but that they had a protective effect for higher income families.

  3. Crossing the line from physical discipline to child abuse: how much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E E; Richey, C A

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to better differentiate physical discipline, corporal punishment, and physical child abuse based on samples drawn from the United States. The American literature was examined to differentiate these three constructs, first on such dimensions as severity, intention, and child effects; and second on key contextual or environmental factors empirically associated with higher rates of violent behavior in families. Third, normative data on parental spanking frequencies were summarized to better operationalize patterns of physical discipline among abusive and nonabusive parents. Five articles that met selection criteria revealed that abusive parents spanked their children more often than did nonabusive parents. Aggregated data from nonabusive parents were used to compute a continuum or "normal range" of daily spanking frequencies from 0 to 5.73 (M = 2.5) times in 24 hours. While further research is needed to address spanking intensity, severity, and context, results of the research suggest that "relative exposure" to spanking may be an additional risk marker for abuse when considered with other known indicators or risk factors.

  4. The prospective assessment of self-concept in neglectful and physically abusive low income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M J; Brayden, R M; Dietrich, M S; McLaughlin, F J; Sherrod, K B; Altemeier, W A

    1994-03-01

    Maternal self-esteem has long been associated with the quality of maternal-child interactions and many assume that low self-esteem contributes to the cause of maltreatment. Assessments of the self-concepts of maltreating parents, however, have been done only after maltreatment has occurred. Prospective measurement of self-concept would help to clarify its role in the etiology of maltreatment. In this study, 471 pregnant women completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS). State protective services' records were reviewed 3 years after these children were born. When records of the 459 women with a known live-born child were reviewed, 29 were found to have maltreated their children (neglect n = 22; physical abuse n = 11; four women found to have both neglected and abused their children). Neglectful mothers had lower scores on scales measuring overall self-esteem, moral self-worth, personal and social adequacy, and perception of self-worth in family relationships than matched nonreported mothers. They described their identity and behavior more negatively and had greater general maladjustment and neurotic symptoms. Physically abusive mothers had lower scores on self-worth in family relationships. When measured prospectively, low self-esteem appears to be a risk factor for child neglect, but is not a strong predictor for physical abuse. Implications for prevention programs are discussed.

  5. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N.; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Khaled K Aldossari; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' ...

  6. Epidemiology and etiology of reported cases of child physical abuse in Zimbabwean primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumba, A

    2001-02-01

    There were two objectives: First, to determine the nature and extent of physical abuse perpetrated on primary school pupils by their teachers; second, to determine why some teachers physically abuse their primary school pupils in Zimbabwe. Epidemiological data of reported physical abuse by teachers in Zimbabwe between January 1990 and December 1997 were analyzed using information in their files. The study found that 78.9% of the perpetrators were male while 21.1% were female; 92.1% of the perpetrators were trained teachers while 7.9% were untrained; 58.7% of the victims were male while 41.3% were female; 91.4% of the cases were reported by the pupils themselves and 8.7% by the school head; 73.9% of these cases were reported to the Ministry of Education and 26.1% to the police. In this study, 80.4% of the victims were beaten, whipped or hit by their perpetrators; 10.9% were clapped or slapped; 4.3% were punched with fists; 2.2% each were kicked and pinched, respectively. The findings indicate that teachers perpetuate various forms of physical abuse and that this form of abuse is now on the increase. The findings indicate that some perpetrators use corporal punishment on female pupils against the stipulated Public Service (Disciplinary) Regulations. What is clear is that the Public Service (Disciplinary) Regulations seem not to be deterrent enough because the majority of the perpetrators are merely fined or reprimanded while only a very small percentage is discharged from the teaching service.

  7. Verbal and Physical Abuse as Stressors in the Lives of Lesbian, Gay Male, and Bisexual Youths: Associations with School Problems, Running Away, Substance Abuse, Prostitution, and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews verbal and physical abuse that threatens well-being and physical survival of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths. Notes that this response to gay male, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents by significant others in their environment is often associated with several problematic outcomes, including school-related problems, running away,…

  8. Association of childhood physical and sexual abuse with intimate partner violence, poor general health and depressive symptoms among pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin V Barrios

    Full Text Available We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV. We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women.In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI.Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72-2.83. Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15-12.26. The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60-6.89. Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04-1.68 and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58-2.71.These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women's health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence.

  9. Cognitive and behavioral risk factors for child physical abuse among Chinese children: a multiple-informant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Naixue; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-01-01

    It has been well established that child physical abuse is a risk factor for cognitive deficits and behavioral problems. However, the possible link between cognitive deficits and behavioral problems placing children at a higher risk of physical abuse has been overlooked. Using a prospective design, the present study aims to examine whether previously measured cognition indicated by intelligence quotient (IQ), including performance IQ (PIQ) and verbal IQ (VIQ), and behavioral problems reported by multiple informants (i.e. mothers, teachers, and children) predict later child physical abuse (which may include minor and severe forms of abuse inflicted separately by mothers and fathers) in Chinese children. A school-based survey was conducted to collect data from 265 Chinese children (52.8 % boys, mean age 13.71 ± 0.60 years) in the Wave II of China Jintan Cohort study. When they were in the last year of elementary school, children completed the Chinese version of the Wechsler intelligence scale for children-revised that measured VIQ and PIQ during 2010-2012 when their behaviors were self-assessed. Mothers and teachers of these children used the Chinese versions of the youth self report, the child behavior checklist and the teacher report form, respectively, to assess the children's behaviors. These children reported minor and severe physical abuse experiences in the previous 12 months from mothers and fathers separately using the Chinese version of parent-child conflict tactics scale in 2013 when children were in grades 7 and 8 of middle school. The present study found that after controlling for the sociodemographic and other cognitive and/or behavior variables, high scores of child externalizing behavior rated by their mothers or teachers were associated with increased risks of experiencing maternal and paternal severe physical abuse, while a high score of self-reported externalizing behavior was associated with a decreased risk of paternal severe physical abuse

  10. History of reported sexual or physical abuse among long-term heroin users and their response to substitution treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Marchand, Kirsten; Guh, Daphne; Marsh, David C; Brissette, Suzanne; Krausz, Michael; Anis, Aslam; Schechter, Martin T

    2011-01-01

    Opioid-dependent individuals with a history of abuse have exhibited worse mental and physical health compared to those without such a history; however, the evidence regarding the influence of abuse histories on addiction treatment outcomes are conflicting. In the present study, we identified history of physical or sexual abuse at treatment initiation in relation to drug use and health among long-term opioid-dependent individuals and we determined the relationship of abuse histories with treatment outcomes following substitution treatment. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial that compared the effectiveness of opioid-agonists in the treatment of chronic opioid dependence. The North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) was conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada) and provided oral methadone, injectable diacetylmorphine or injectable hydromorphone, the last two on a double blind basis, over 12 months. A total of 112 (44.6%) participants reported a history of physical or sexual abuse at baseline. Participants with an abuse history reported a significantly higher number of chronic medical problems, suicide attempts, and previous drug treatments and had poorer psychiatric, family and social relations, and quality of life status compared to those without abuse histories. No differences in current and past substance use were found between those with and without abuse histories. Following 12 months of treatment, the participants with abuse histories improved to a similar degree as those without a history of abuse in all of the European Addiction Severity Index sub-scales, with the exception of medical status. The findings suggest that individuals with abuse histories were able to achieve similar outcomes as those without abuse histories following treatment despite having poorer scores in physical and mental health, social status and quality of life at treatment initiation. These findings suggest that the substitution treatments as provided in

  11. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan R. Holmes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I. Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  12. Impact of Physical Abuse on Internalizing Behavior Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kyle; Gray, Sarah A O; Theall, Katherine P; Drury, Stacy S

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the multigenerational impact of mothers' own exposure to physical maltreatment on internalizing symptoms in her child after accounting for her parenting practices, depression, and the child's own exposure to stressful life events. Children (n = 101, ages 5-16), predominantly African American, were recruited into this cross sectional study using ethnographic mapping and targeted sampling for high-risk neighborhoods. Mothers reported retrospectively on their own exposure to physical maltreatment in childhood, their parenting practices, as well as current depressive symptoms. Maternal report of her child's exposure to stressful life events and child behavior was also collected. Maternal childhood exposure to physical maltreatment was significantly associated with her child's internalizing symptoms (p = .004); this effect remained after accounting for child sex, maternal depressive symptoms, harsh parenting practices, and the child's own exposure to stressful life events. Formal tests of mediation through these pathways were non-significant. Findings suggest mothers' experience of childhood maltreatment contributes uniquely to children's internalizing symptoms, potentially through previously uncharacterized pathways. Examination of additional behavioral, psychosocial and biological pathways may help better describe the multi-generational effects of child maltreatment.

  13. Resilience in physically abused children: protective factors for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R; Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M; Steigerwald, Stacey

    2015-04-27

    Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being) that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children's internalizing well-being, children's prosocial behavior, and caregivers' well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children's internalizing well-being and children's prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment.

  14. Resilience in Physically Abused Children: Protective Factors for Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan R.; Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A.; Kobulsky, Julia M.; Steigerwald, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Aggression continues to be a serious problem among children, especially those children who have experienced adverse life events such as maltreatment. However, there are many maltreated children who show resilient functioning. This study investigated potential protective factors (i.e., child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being) that promoted positive adaptation and increased the likelihood of a child engaging in the healthy, normative range of aggressive behavior, despite experiencing physical maltreatment. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using two waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-I). Children who were physically maltreated were more likely to exhibit clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1 than children who were not physically maltreated. Children’s internalizing well-being, children’s prosocial behavior, and caregivers’ well-being were associated with lower likelihood of clinical levels of aggressive behavior at Time 1. Children’s internalizing well-being and children’s prosocial behavior remained significantly associated with nonclinical aggression 18 months later. These findings highlight the role of protective factors in fostering positive and adaptive behaviors in maltreated children. Interventions focusing on preventing early aggression and reinforcing child prosocial skills, child internalizing well-being, and caregiver well-being may be promising in promoting healthy positive behavioral adjustment. PMID:25924113

  15. Spooky Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Lara

    2011-01-01

    This activity presents an option for covering biology content while engaging students in an investigation that highlights the spirit of Halloween. Students are engaged in the story line and have fun trying to solve the mystery kidnapping by using science skills to examine the evidence and eliminate some ghoulish suspects. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Comparative research on substance abuse and self-perception among adolescents with physical handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeković, Koraljka

    2003-12-01

    The research on substance (alcohol, tobacco and drug) abuse and on self-perception was done by comparing a test group of physically disabled adolescents and a test group of non-disabled adolescents. The respondents of the experimental group were students of the only special high school for physically handicapped persons in Croatia, Zagreb. The respondents of the control group were the students of two regular high schools in the capital of Croatia. The instrument used in this research was a self-reported, anonymous questionnaire. The respondents completed the questionnaire in the classroom. The data analysis regarding alcohol abuse indicated that physically disabled adolescents drink more often and out of quite different motives than their non-disabled peers. Regarding the prevalence, frequency, quantity and motives for smoking, no statistically significant difference has been found between the tested groups. On the contrary, significant differences between handicapped and non-disabled adolescents were evident regarding drug abuse. Only one physically disabled examinee used a drug--marijuana, only a few times a year. On the other hand, almost one quarter of the non-disabled adolescents use at least one, five at the most, type of drug sometimes or often. The results on the self-perception scale show that adolescent with physical disabilities have a much more negative attitude toward themselves than non-disabled controls. Their self-esteem and self-confidence are seriously diminished. Described findings could have a mighty impact on ways of preventing substance abuse, and on ways of increasing self-esteem among disabled and non-disabled adolescents.

  17. An abused five-month-old girl: Hangman's fracture or congenital arch defect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, R.R. van; Kool, D.R.; Witt-Hamer, P.C. de; Majoie, C.B.

    2005-01-01

    Hangman's fractures are a rare finding in childhood. In case of suspected or proven child abuse, differentiation with a congenital defect of the posterior arch of C2 is essential. We present the case of a 5-month-old girl, who had a history of being physically abused by one of her caretakers. On the

  18. Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adult Vulnerability to PTSD: The Mediating Effects of Attachment and Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaite, James A.; Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty-four adults from the metropolitan New York area reported on their history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), and on the nature of their exposure to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The respondents also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Attachment Style…

  19. Maternal versus Paternal Physical and Emotional Abuse, Affect Regulation and Risk for Depression from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marlene M.; Craig, Stephanie G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Current research has established that depression is a common outcome of child abuse. The current study extends previous research by examining the relationship between parental emotional and physical abuse and adolescents' depressive symptoms using a prospective longitudinal design. We anticipated that this relationship would be mediated…

  20. The Prevalence of Physical and Psychological Abuse and its Correlation with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms among Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukomanovic Ivana Simic

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abuse in younger populations has been an issue of growing concern globally since youth already face various life situations that can heighten the occurrence of depression and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical and psychological abuse and its correlation with depressive and anxiety symptoms among students.

  1. The Influence of Case and Professional Variables on Identification and Reporting of Physical Abuse: A Study with Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Rogers, Jody E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study, with 60 medical students and 15 pediatricians, found that a delay in seeking medical attention and an explanation for the presenting injuries that was discrepant from the physical findings impacted the identification and reporting of child abuse. Positive correlations were found between identification and reporting of abuse. (CR)

  2. Intranasal buprenorphine alone and in combination with naloxone: Abuse liability and reinforcing efficacy in physically dependent opioid abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sharon L; Nuzzo, Paul A; Babalonis, Shanna; Casselton, Victoria; Lofwall, Michelle R

    2016-05-01

    Buprenorphine can be abused by the intranasal route. This study sought to examine the relative abuse liability and reinforcing efficacy of intranasal buprenorphine compared to intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone in opioid-dependent individuals. Eleven healthy male and female volunteers physically dependent on short-acting opioids resided as inpatients during participation in this double blind, within subject, placebo-controlled study. Participants were maintained on oxycodone (30 mg/q.i.d., p.o.) throughout the 6-week study. Eight pairs of experimental sessions were conducted at ≥48 h intervals to examine the pharmacodynamic profile (Sample) and reinforcing efficacy (Self-administration the following day) of intranasal placebo, oxycodone (60 mg), buprenorphine (2, 8 & 16 mg) and buprenorphine/naloxone (2/0.5, 8/2 & 16/4 mg). Subjective, observer-rated and physiological measures were collected to assess the magnitude of opioid agonist and antagonist effects. A progressive ratio self-administration procedure assessed choices for drug versus money. All active doses produced opioid agonist-like effects (e.g., increased ratings of "liking," and miosis) compared to placebo. The effects of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone were not reliably dose-dependent. Intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone elicited modest and transient opioid withdrawal-like effects in the first hour post-drug administration, while simultaneously blunting or blocking the early onset of agonist effects seen with buprenorphine alone. All active doses of buprenorphine were self-administered more than placebo, but buprenorphine/naloxone doses were not. These data confirm that intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has deterrent properties related to transient withdrawal effects that likely decrease its desirability for misuse compared to buprenorphine in opioid-dependent individuals maintained on short-acting opioids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using simulation to identify sources of medical diagnostic error in child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderst, James; Nielsen-Parker, Monica; Moffatt, Mary; Frazier, Terra; Kennedy, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Little is known regarding sources of diagnostic error at the provider level in cases of possible child physical abuse. This study examines medical diagnosis as part of medical management and not as part of legal investigation. Simulation offers the opportunity to evaluate diagnostic accuracy and identify error sources. We aimed to identify sources of medical diagnostic error in cases of possible abuse by assessing diagnostic accuracy, identifying gaps in evaluation, and characterizing information used by medical providers to reach their diagnoses. Eight femur fracture simulation cases, half of which were abuse and half accident, were created. Providers from a tertiary pediatric emergency department participated in a simulation exercise involving 1 of the 8 cases. Performance was evaluated using structured scoring tools and debriefing, and qualitative analysis characterized participants' rationales for their diagnoses. Overall, 39% of the 43 participants made an incorrect diagnosis regarding abuse. An incorrect diagnosis was over 8 times more likely to occur in accident than in abuse cases (OR=8.8; 95% CI 2 to 39). Only 58% of participants correctly identified the fracture morphology, 60% correctly identified the mechanics necessary to generate the morphology, and 30% of ordered all appropriate tests for occult injury. In misdiagnoses, participants frequently falsely believed the injury did not match the proposed mechanism and the history provided by the caregiver had changed. Education programs targeting the identified error sources may result in fewer diagnostic errors and improve outcomes. The findings also support the need for referral to child abuse experts in many cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Intuition and Social Information in Physical Child Abuse Evaluation and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Heather T; Cook, Lawrence J; Olson, Lenora M; Bardsley, Tyler; Campbell, Kristine A

    2017-11-01

    Poor and minority children with injuries concerning for abuse are evaluated and diagnosed for abuse differentially. We hypothesized that 2 steps in the decision-making process would influence evaluation and diagnosis: social intuition from meeting the family and objective social information associated with child abuse risk. Between 2009 and 2013, 32 child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) submitted 730 child abuse consultations including original medical evaluations and diagnoses. CAPs evaluated and diagnosed each other's cases. Comparisons of evaluations and diagnoses were made by levels of social understanding available to the CAP: meeting the family (social intuition and information), reading the case (social information), and reading the case without social information. Evaluations were compared with a consensus gold standard by using logistic regression modeling adjusting for child and CAP characteristics. Diagnostic categories were compared by level of social understanding and diagnostic certainty by using contingency tables. CAPs without access to social intuition were approximately twice as likely to perform gold standard evaluations for neurotrauma and long bone fracture compared with CAPs who met families. Diagnostic agreement fell from 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.1%-76.5%) when social information was present to 66.5% (95% CI: 63.1%-70.0%) when social information was restricted. In cases with less certainty, agreement dropped to 51.3% (95% CI: 46.0%-56.7%). Social intuition and information play a role in the physical child abuse decision-making process, which may contribute to differential diagnosis. Simple interventions including decision tools, check lists, and peer review may structure evaluations to ensure children's equal treatment. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for ...

  6. Gender differences in the association between childhood physical and sexual abuse, social support and psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Fisher, Helen; Fearon, Paul; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Boydell, Jane; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M.; Craig, Thomas K.; Morgan, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Childhood adversity (variously defined) is a robust risk factor for psychosis, yet the mitigating effects of social support in adulthood have not yet been explored. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult psychosis, and gender differences in levels of perceived social support. Methods A sample of 202 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychosis and 266 population-based controls from s...

  7. North African and Latin American parents' and adolescents' perceptions of physical discipline and physical abuse: when dysnormativity begets exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile

    2009-01-01

    This research documents the cultural norms around physical discipline and physical abuse among immigrant parents and youth, and assesses the impact that perceived divergences in these norms have on the relation between the family and the outer social world. Interviews were conducted with 10 parents and 10 adolescents from North African Arab countries, and 10 parents and 10 adolescents from Latin America living in Canada. Results highlight that divergent discipline practices were perceived by participants as an important source of tension when they were accompanied with a demeaning image, projected by the host society onto the immigrant family.

  8. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana E Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16-2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43-3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61-2.77]; drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67-2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21-1.54]; suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17-5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44-4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13-3.37]; and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50-2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39-1.78]. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: This overview of the evidence

  9. The Long-Term Health Consequences of Child Physical Abuse, Emotional Abuse, and Neglect: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Rosana E.; Byambaa, Munkhtsetseg; De, Rumna; Butchart, Alexander; Scott, James; Vos, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Background Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. Methods and Findings A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16–2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43–3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61–2.77]); drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67–2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11–1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21–1.54]); suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17–5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44–4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13–3.37]); and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50–2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49–2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39–1.78]). Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these

  10. Psychological and Physical Health of Nonoffending Parents After Disclosure of Sexual Abuse of Their Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Hébert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc; McDuff, Pierre; Turcotte, Marie-Ève

    2016-10-01

    Disclosure of child sexual abuse can be traumatic for nonoffending parents. Research has shown its impact on mothers' mental health, which includes heightened psychological distress, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Very little is known, however, about its impact on their physical health or on fathers' health. The self-perceived mental and physical health of nonoffending parents after child sexual abuse disclosure was compared to determine gender-related differences in this regard. Interviews were conducted with 109 mothers and 43 fathers of 6- to 13-year-old sexually abused children. Bivariate analyses revealed that a fair proportion of parents reported psychological and physical problems after disclosure. However, proportionally more mothers than fathers reported psychological distress, depression, and use of professional services. Fathers were more likely to resort to health services instead of social services and to use medication for depression. Study findings provide leads for health and social service providers for the development of intervention protocols and referral procedures sensitive to gender issues, and they shed new light on specific needs of nonoffending parents.

  11. Suicide-Related Concerns as a Mediator Between Physical Abuse and Self-Harm Behaviors in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M; Holaday, Tara C

    2015-01-01

    Multiple studies have found correlations between history of abuse and self-harm behaviors, but few have examined potential mediators. Studying suicide-related concerns as a mediator in this relationship could inform the interpersonal theory of suicide by identifying acquired capability as a necessary component in self-harm behavior. This study examined the link between childhood physical abuse, self-injurious behaviors, and suicide-related concerns in young adults. It was hypothesized that more physical abuse and fewer suicide-related concerns would predict self-harm behaviors, and that suicide-related concerns would mediate this relationship. A sample of 212 university students completed self-report measures that assessed self-harm behavior history, reasons for living, and childhood physical abuse. Results supported the hypothesis that more instances of abuse and less concern about pain and death were significantly associated with greater self-harm history. Suicide-related concerns also mediated the relationship between physical abuse and self-harm behaviors. These results support recent theories that habituation to painful and provocative events is an important mechanism in explaining why people engage in self-injurious acts, and provides initial evidence for cognitive mediators between physical abuse and self-harm.

  12. Reporting and identifying child physical abuse: How well are we doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Grace W K; Bettencourt, Amie; Gross, Deborah A

    2017-12-01

    Entry into the child protection system in the US begins with a child maltreatment report. Some evidence suggests that report source and child age are related to report outcomes, but there has been no national study of these relationships. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to describe the distribution of report sources for child physical abuse (CPA), and examine whether (a) the source of a report and (b) child age contribute to the likelihood of substantiation of the reported abuse. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted using a US national sample of 204,414 children investigated for CPA in 2013 in a dataset obtained from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Results showed that fewer than one in seven children reported for CPA were confirmed victims of abuse. Professionally mandated reporters initiated the majority of CPA reports, and their reports were more likely to be substantiated compared with nonprofessionals. However, reports made by even the most accurate professional group (legal/law enforcement) had only a 26% chance of substantiation, and some professional groups had a lower likelihood of substantiation than nonprofessionals. Reports made by professionals were less likely to be substantiated as child age increased. More research is warranted to develop and test the effectiveness of training programs to improve CPA reporting and identification. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Identification and management of elder physical abuse in the routine of dentistry - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luanderson O; Souza-Silva, Bianca N; de Alcântara Rodrigues, José Lucas; Rigo, Lilian; Cericato, Graziela O; Franco, Ademir; Paranhos, Luiz R

    2017-03-01

    To perform a systematic search in the literature in order to verify whether the dentists are able to identify and manage cases elder physical abuse. Dentists may play an important legal role contributing to the management of abused patients through the identification of injuries in their face, head and neck. The present systematic review was performed following the PRISMA Statement and was registered in the PROSPERO database. A search was conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, Embase, Web of Science, OpenGrey, Google Scholar. Specifically, the last two databases were used to search the 'grey literature'. The research question was based on the PVO strategy for systematic exploratory review. Two examiners determined the eligibility criteria for selecting the studies and performed all the research steps. The initial search resulted in 842 studies, from which eight were considered eligible. Six studies used questionnaires to assess the perception, knowledge and attitudes of dentists towards the identification and management of cases of elder abuse, while two studies assessed this information through personal interviews. Two studies were rated as high quality, while six studies reached moderate quality. Male and female dentists were assessed separately in six studies. Only three studies specified the aggressor. The dentists revealed insufficient knowledge on elder abuse. Most of the dentists are not able to identify and manage these cases in the clinical routine. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Protection against antisocial behavior in children exposed to physically abusive discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Tajima, Emiko A; Whitney, Stephen D; Huang, Bu

    2005-06-01

    The study investigated protective factors (school commitment/importance, parent/peer disapproval of antisocial behavior, positive future orientation, and religion) hypothesized to lower risk for antisocial behavior among adolescents who, as children, had been physically abused. Protective factors also were investigated for comparison, nonabused children, and for children at risk on abuse and other factors: low socioeconomic status and early antisocial behavior. Analyses used a two-step hierarchical regression approach. In step 1, age, gender, and early antisocial behavior were entered as controls. In step 2, each protective factor was entered separately as a predictor. A final regression model in each case examined the additive (combined) effect of all protective factors on a given outcome. Tests of predictor-by-group interactions were used to examine group differences. Among abused and nonabused children, having a strong commitment to school, having parents and peers who disapprove of antisocial behavior, and being involved in a religious community lowered rates of lifetime violence, delinquency, and status offenses. Having a positive future orientation appeared less powerful as a protective influence. Exposure to an increasing number of protective factors was for each outcome associated with a diminution in risk for antisocial behavior. Protective factors represent targets for preventive intervention that are viable for children as they enter adolescence. The fact that protective factors were predictive of lower antisocial behavior in both the abuse and comparison groups suggests that protective effects are more universal than they are unique to a given group of children.

  15. Experience of physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of physical punishment and violence in adulthood amongst fathers: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Paterson, Janis

    2011-09-01

    Family violence is a serious and increasingly significant public health issue, both in New Zealand and internationally. While Pacific families in New Zealand experience disproportionately higher rates of violence compared to their Palagi counterparts, little epidemiological information exists about the effect of childhood abuse on Pacific fathers and whether it increases their proclivity on perpetrating violence. To determine the prevalence of physical discipline administered to young Pacific children by their fathers and physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated against their partners; and to relate this to fathers' recalled levels of paternal and maternal childhood physical abuse. A cohort of Pacific infants born during 2000 in Auckland, New Zealand, was followed. At 6-weeks and 2-years postpartum, home interviews conducted for mothers and experience of IPV within the last 12 months was measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale. At 1-year and 2-years postpartum, home interviews conducted for fathers and acts of physical discipline were elicited. At the 1-year phase, childhood history of physical abuse was also elicited using the Exposure to Abusive and Supportive Environments Parenting Inventory. Crude and adjusted generalised estimating equation models were employed for statistical analyses. The sample included 786 partnered fathers who were living with their child at the 1-year measurement wave and 579 fathers at the 2-years measurement wave. Smacking children was common (25.0% at 1-year, 81.7% at 2-years) and hitting children with an object was not infrequent (1.4% at 1-year, 14.2% at 2-years). Physical IPV perpetrated by the father ranged from 23.1% to 27.5% while severe IPV was reported by 10.1% to 14.3% of partners. Fathers subjected to higher levels of paternal physical abuse in childhood were significantly more likely to physically discipline their child with smacking than those with lower levels of paternal physical abuse, after adjusting for

  16. Fatal child maltreatment: characteristics of deaths from physical abuse versus neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damashek, Amy; Nelson, Melanie McDiarmid; Bonner, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    This study examined victim, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics associated with fatal child maltreatment (FCM) in 685 cases identified by child welfare services in the state of Oklahoma over a 21-year period. Analyses also examined differences in child, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics of deaths from abuse versus neglect. Case information was drawn from child welfare investigation records for all FCM cases identified by the state Department of Human Services. Fatal neglect accounted for the majority (51%) of deaths. Children were primarily younger than age 5, and parents were most frequently the alleged perpetrators. Moreover, most victims had not been the subject of a child welfare report prior to their death. A greater number of children in the home and previous family involvement with child welfare increased children's likelihood of dying from neglect, rather than physical abuse. In addition, alleged perpetrators of neglect were more likely to be female and biologically related to the victim. These results indicate that there are unique family risk factors for death from neglect (versus physical abuse) that may be important to consider when selecting or developing prevention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Raine, A; Chan, F; Venables, P H; Mednick, S A

    2010-06-01

    A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding.MethodThis study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy.

  18. Antisocial personality disorder is associated with receipt of physical disability benefits in substance abuse treatment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Shannon A; Cherniack, Martin G; Petry, Nancy M

    2013-09-01

    Opioid dependence is growing at an alarming rate in the United States, and opioid dependent patients have substantial medical, as well as psychiatric, conditions that impact their ability to work. This study evaluated the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and receipt of physical disability payments in methadone maintenance patients. Using data from 115 drug and alcohol abusing methadone maintained patients participating in two clinical trials, baseline characteristics of individuals receiving (n=22) and those not receiving (n=93) physical disability benefits were compared, and a logistic regression evaluated unique predictors of disability status. Both an ASPD diagnosis and severity of medical problems were significant predictors of disability receipt, ps<.05. After controlling for other variables that differed between groups, patients with ASPD were more than five times likelier to receive physical disability benefits than patients without ASPD (odds ratio=5.66; 95% confidence interval=1.58-20.28). These results demonstrate a role of ASPD in the receipt of disability benefits in substance abusers and suggest the need for greater understanding of the reasons for high rates of physical disability benefits in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical and/or Sexual Abuse Is Associated with Increased Psychological and Emotional Distress Among Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussin-Shoptaw, Alexandra L; Fletcher, Jesse B; Reback, Cathy J

    2017-08-01

    Transgender women have consistently reported elevated rates of lifetime physical and sexual abuse. This study examined the associations between reported physical and/or sexual abuse and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of urban, high-risk transgender women. From June 2005 through July 2012, 99 transgender women enrolled in a Comprehensive Risk Counseling and Services program in Hollywood, CA. Seemingly unrelated regression equations (SURE) were used to simultaneously regress psychiatric symptom reports on participant sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported history of physical/sexual abuse. Participants were African American/Black (33.3%), Caucasian/White (28.3%), or Hispanic/Latina (24.2%). Average age was 35 years (standard deviation [SD] = 9), and 37.4% of participants self-reported an HIV-positive status. Most (84.9%) participants reported experiencing physical or sexual abuse at some point in their lifetime, and symptoms of psychological and emotional distress (as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory) among those who reported abuse were more severe than those observed in cisgender psychiatric in-patient populations. After controlling for participant sociodemographics, prior experience of physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with significantly increased psychological and emotional distress across all measured symptom domains except psychoticism [χ 2 (9)  = 17.56; p < 0.05]. Given these associations as well as the high prevalence of physical and/or sexual abuse among transgender women, mental health professionals and social service providers working with this population should be sensitive to the abuse history and mental health needs of the transgender women with whom they work.

  20. Medical evaluation for child sexual abuse: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) will most likely encounter sexually abused children in their practice, both those who have been previously diagnosed and others who are undiagnosed and require identification by the PNP. This continuing education article will discuss the medical evaluation of children with concerns of suspected sexual abuse. Acute and non-acute sexual abuse/assault examinations will be discussed. Physical findings and sexually transmitted infections concerning for sexual abuse/assault will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  2. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  3. Guidelines for the treatment of adults abused or possibly abused as children (with attention to issues of delayed/recovered memory). NATO Advanced Study Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, C A

    1997-01-01

    These guidelines provide practicing clinicians with information regarding psychotherapy with adults who (1) disclose an abuse history (physical, sexual, emotional) at the beginning of therapy; (2) do not disclose abuse despite having knowledge and memory about such events in their past; (3) report new (delayed or recovered) memories of abuse during the course of therapy; and/or (4) suspect past abuse but have no clear memories of having been abused. The more common clinical scenario involves an individual who has retained memory for past abuse but recalls additional events or details during therapy. The less common scenario is for an individual to have totally absent memory of abuse and to later develop highly detailed memory. Practitioners should expect a range of memory presentations and must work to neither suggest nor suppress abuse-related issues that arise in the course of therapy.

  4. WHERE THE INDIVIDUAL MEETS THE ECOLOGICAL: A STUDY OF PARENT DRINKING PATTERNS, ALCOHOL OUTLETS AND CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite well-known associations between heavy drinking and child physical abuse, little is known about specific risks related to drinking different amounts of alcohol in different drinking venues. This study uses a context specific dose-response model to examine how drinking in various venues (e.g., at bars or parties) are related to physically abusive parenting practices while controlling for individual and psychosocial characteristics. Methods Data were collected via a telephone survey of parents in 50 cities in California resulting in 2,163 respondents who reported drinking in the past year. Child physical abuse and corporal punishment were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent Child version. Drinking behaviors were measured using continued drinking measures. Data were analyzed using zero inflated Poisson models. Results Drinking at homes, parties or bars more frequently was related to greater frequencies of physically abusive parenting practices. The use of greater amounts of alcohol in association with drinking at bars appeared to increase risks for corporal punishment, a dose-response effect. Dose-response relationships were not found for drinking at homes or parties or drinking at bars for physical abuse nor for drinking at home and parties for corporal punishment. Conclusion Frequencies of using drinking venues, particularly bars and home or parties, are associated with greater use of abusive parenting practices. These findings suggest that a parent’s routine drinking activities place children at different risks for being physically abused. They also suggest that interventions that take into account parents’ alcohol use at drinking venues are an important avenue for secondary prevention efforts. PMID:23316780

  5. Exposure to Domestic Violence and Abuse: Evidence of Distinct Physical and Psychological Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2017-05-01

    Recent literature on exposure to domestic violence (DV) highlights the need for increased understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence and abuse (DVA). The current aims were to explore whether two separate dimensions, physical and psychological DVA, were evident in adult children's reports of their exposure to DVA in their family of origin, and whether these dimensions affected psychological well-being and perceived satisfaction with emotional support (hereafter referred to as social support satisfaction). Young adults ( N = 465, aged 17-25, 70% female) reported their experiences of DVA as perpetrated by their parents/caregivers, as well as psychological well-being and social support satisfaction, in an online survey. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we verified the presence of a two-factor model (physical and psychological DVA). Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated the differing impact of these two factors: Specifically, although exposure to psychological DVA (domestic abuse [DA]) was related to reduced psychological well-being, there was no significant effect of exposure to physical DVA (DV). However, mediation analysis suggested the presence of a suppression effect; there was a magnification of the negative relationship between exposure to psychological DA and social support satisfaction when exposure to physical DV was accounted for. Although findings are preliminary, they provide strong evidence to support theoretical arguments regarding the need for future research to conceptualize exposure to DVA in terms of both physical and psychological dimensions. Our findings also highlight that to improve service response and provide effective interventions, it is essential to include exposure to psychological DA in risk assessments of such young adults.

  6. Physical symptoms in very young children assessed for sexual abuse: a mixed method analysis from the ASAC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Widdershoven, Guy A.; Teeuw, Arianne Rian H.; Verlinden, Eva; Voskes, Yolande; van Duin, Esther M.; Verhoeff, Arnoud P.; Benninga, Marc A.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2017-01-01

    So far, a recognizable pattern of clinical symptoms for child sexual abuse (CSA), especially in young male children, is lacking. To improve early recognition of CSA, we reviewed physical complaints, physical examination, and tests on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in confirmed victims

  7. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Happening en español Cómo manejar el abuso Grown-ups are usually there to help and ... to understand the different types of abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical ...

  8. Deaths Due to Child Abuse: A 6-Year Review of Cases in The Cook County Medical Examiner's Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serinelli, Serenella; Arunkumar, Ponni; Filkins, James A; Gitto, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Case files from the Cook County Medical Examiner's Office from 2007 to 2012 were reviewed to analyze homicides due to physical child abuse in children multiple injuries is highly suggestive of child abuse. In suspected child abuse, a postmortem examination including neuropathological, ophthalmological, and radiological information should be always evaluated, together with investigative reports and the medical history. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Household illness, poverty and physical and emotional child abuse victimisation: findings from South Africa's first prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-17 (n = 3515, 56.7% female) using door-to-door sampling in randomly selected areas in rural and urban locations of South Africa. Follow-up surveys were conducted a year later (96.7% retention rate). Using multiple mediation analyses, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of chronic household illness (AIDS or other illness) on frequent (monthly) physical and emotional abuse victimisation with poverty and extent of the ill person's disability as hypothesised mediators. For children in AIDS-ill families, a positive direct effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, positive indirect effects through poverty and disability were established. For boys, a positive direct and indirect effect of AIDS-illness on emotional abuse through poverty were detected. For girls, a positive indirect effect through poverty was observed. For children in households with other chronic illness, a negative indirect effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, a negative indirect effect through poverty and positive indirect effect through disability was established. For boys, positive and negative indirect effects through poverty and disability were found respectively. For girls, a negative indirect effect through poverty was observed. These results indicate that children in families affected by AIDS-illness are at higher risk of child abuse victimisation, and this risk is mediated by higher levels of poverty and disability. Children affected by other chronic illness are at lower risk for

  10. Gender differences in pathways from child physical and sexual abuse to adolescent risky sexual behavior among high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M

    2018-02-10

    This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anger-Related Dysregulation as a Factor Linking Childhood Physical Abuse and Interparental Violence to Intimate Partner Violence Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Adair, Kathryn C.; Monson, Candice M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood family violence exposure is associated with increased risk for experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain inadequately understood. Difficulties with emotion regulation may be one factor that helps to explain this relationship. Method Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence, as well as subsequent IPV experiences, were assessed in a large sample of young adults (N = 670). Several indicators of anger-related dysregulation were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable of anger-related dysregulation, which was examined as a potential mediator of the associations between childhood family violence exposure and IPV. Results Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were associated with greater physical, sexual, and emotional IPV victimization. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were also associated with anger-related dysregulation, which was positively associated with all three types of IPV experiences. Anger-related dysregulation fully mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and physical IPV. Anger-related dysregulation partially mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and psychological IPV and the associations of childhood physical abuse with all three forms of IPV. These associations were consistent across gender. Conclusions Interventions aimed at reducing IPV risk among survivors of childhood family violence may benefit from including techniques to target anger-related emotion regulation skills. PMID:25199386

  12. Anger-related dysregulation as a factor linking childhood physical abuse and interparental violence to intimate partner violence experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M; McLaughlin, Katie A; Adair, Kathryn C; Monson, Candice M

    2014-01-01

    Childhood family violence exposure is associated with increased risk for experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain inadequately understood. Difficulties with emotion regulation may be one factor that helps to explain this relationship. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence, as well as subsequent IPV experiences, were assessed in a large sample of young adults (N = 670). Several indicators of anger-related dysregulation were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable of anger-related dysregulation, which was examined as a potential mediator of the associations between childhood family violence exposure and IPV. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were associated with greater physical, sexual, and emotional IPV victimization. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were also associated with anger-related dysregulation, which was positively associated with all three types of IPV experiences. Anger-related dysregulation fully mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and physical IPV. Anger-related dysregulation partially mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and psychological IPV and the associations of childhood physical abuse with all three forms of IPV. These associations were consistent across gender. Interventions aimed at reducing IPV risk among survivors of childhood family violence may benefit from including techniques to target anger-related emotion regulation skills.

  13. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse - children ... boys are sexually abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser ... anus or vagina Tongue kissing Oral sex Intercourse Sexual abuse can also happen without physical contact, such as: ...

  14. The influence of psychosomatic symptoms, physical and sexual abuse, and coping strategies on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo; Samuels-Dennis, Joan

    2012-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to examine the contributing factors related to juvenile delinquency, as well as to identify the effect of psychosomatic symptoms, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and coping strategies on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. To investigate the research problem, 2,146 adolescents, including 1,350 student adolescents and 796 delinquent adolescents, were assessed using a cross-sectional descriptive design study via anonymous, self-reporting questionnaires. Almost all research variables were measured using the Mental Health Questionnaire for Korean Adolescents. Our results revealed that delinquent adolescents showed a greater incidence of psychosomatic symptoms, higher levels of physical and sexual abuse, and a higher level of less effective coping strategies compared with student adolescents. Our path analysis revealed that the likelihood of delinquent behavior among adolescents appeared to be influenced mainly by sexual abuse, Psychosomatic Symptoms I, and physical abuse, with these three variables having the highest total effect. This study confirms the relationships previously identified among stress, somatic complaints, and ineffective coping. In addition, we demonstrated that these relationships cover a wide spectrum, ranging from psychosomatic symptoms to behavioral problems. Further implications of the results and research limitation were discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Individual- and County-Level Religious Participation, Corporal Punishment, and Physical Abuse of Children: An Exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennifer Price; Kepple, Nancy Jo

    2016-10-01

    Parental religiosity has been associated with corporal punishment. However, most of this research has focused exclusively on Christians and has not examined physical abuse. In addition, little is known about how the larger religious environment might be associated with discipline behaviors. In this exploratory study, we examine how individual- and county-level religious attendance are related to corporal punishment and physical abuse. We sampled and surveyed 3,023 parents of children aged 12 and younger from 50 mid-sized California cities. We used weighted Poisson models to calculate the frequency of corporal punishment and physical abuse in the past year. Parents who attend religious groups used corporal punishment more frequently than parents who did not attend religious groups. However, those who lived in counties with greater rates of religious participation used corporal punishment less frequently than those living in counties with lower rates of religious participation. There were no effects for religious participation on physical abuse at the individual or county level. This exploratory study suggests that parents who attend religious groups may be more likely to use some types of physical discipline with children. Religious groups could be imparting parenting norms supporting corporal punishment at the individual level. More research examining specific doctrines and faiths is needed to validate the study findings.

  16. Cervical spine injury in child abuse: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooks, V.J.; Sisler, C.; Burton, B. [Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-03-01

    Pediatric cervical spine injuries have rarely been reported in the setting of child abuse. We report two cases of unsuspected lower cervical spine fracture-dislocation in twin infant girls who had no physical examination findings to suggest cervical spine injury. Classic radio-graphic findings of child abuse were noted at multiple other sites in the axial and appendicular skeleton. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging proved to be valuable in both the initial evaluation of the extent of cervical spine injury and in following postoperative changes. The unexpected yet devastating findings in these two cases further substantiate the importance of routine evaluation of the cervical spine in cases of suspected child abuse. (orig.)

  17. Forensic child abuse evaluation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraque, Danielle; DeMattia, Amy; Low, Christine

    2006-12-01

    This review discusses the forensic medical and psychological assessments of children and adolescents suspected of being victims of sexual or physical abuse/neglect. Evaluation of the whole child and the need to minimize trauma during the investigative and assessment processes are stressed. The forensic medical examination is reviewed, including the specifics of the pediatric anogenital examination. The key components of the forensic medical examination in sexual assault cases are also reviewed, with particular attention to maintaining the integrity of the process. Special emphasis is placed on the forensic interview in child sexual abuse cases, the best evidence available and areas in need of further research.

  18. Social indicators and physical abuse of women by intimate partners: a study of women in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okenwa, Leah; Lawoko, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner physical abuse (IPPA) of women is a societal problem with sinister implications on health. IPPA has been integrally linked to social status though the direction of association remains elusive, not the least in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigated the association between IPPA and social status of women in Zambia. Data comprising 3,969 currently partnered women were retrieved from the 2001 Zambian Demographic and Health Survey and analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression. IPPA augmented with low education, income-generating activity, access to information, autonomy over household health issues, and having tolerant attitudes toward IPPA. Tolerant attitude toward IPPA and illiteracy were independent risk factors for IPPA. Educational interventions are recommended to prevent IPPA in Zambia.

  19. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  20. The effects of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P

    In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by

  1. Moderating Factors in the Path from Physical Abuse to Attempted Suicide in Adolescents: Application of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced…

  2. Skeletal injuries associated with sexual abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl; Chapman, Stephen [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Steelhouse Lane, B4 6NH, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Hall, Christine M. [Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-08-01

    Background: Sexual abuse is often associated with physical abuse, the most common injuries being bruising and other soft-tissue injuries, but fractures occur in 5% of sexually abused children. The fractures described to date have formed part of the spectrum of injuries in these children and have not been specifically related to the abusive act. Objective: To describe concurrent sexual abuse and fractures. Materials and methods: Three children with pelvic or femoral shaft injuries in association with sexual abuse. Results: A 3-year-old girl with extensive soft-tissue injuries to the arms, legs and perineum also sustained fractures of both pubic rami and the sacral side of the right sacro-iliac joint. A 5-month-old girl with an introital tear was shown to have an undisplaced left femoral shaft fracture. A 5-year-old girl presented with an acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum due to a ruptured rectum following sexual abuse. She had old healed fractures of both pubic rami with disruption of the symphysis pubis. Conclusions: Although the finding of a perineal injury in a young child may be significant enough for the diagnosis of abuse, additional skeletal injuries revealed by radiography will assist in confirmation of that diagnosis and may be more common than hitherto suspected. (orig.)

  3. Gender-specific linkages of parents’ childhood physical abuse and neglect with children’s problem behaviour: evidence from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Oshio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. Methods A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers. Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1 both parents’ childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse, 2 parents’ psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6, and 3 children’s problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Results Daughters’ problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers’ than fathers’ childhood abuse, whereas sons’ problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers’ experience. The impact of mothers’ childhood abuse on daughters’ problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents’ psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents’ psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers’ childhood abuse on sons’ problem behaviour. Conclusion The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children’s problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.

  4. Attention Problems Mediate the Association between Severity of Physical Abuse and Aggressive Behavior in a Sample of Maltreated Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali

    2011-01-01

    Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the…

  5. Can Norm Theory Explain the Effects of Victim Age and Level of Physical Maturity on Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Davies, Michelle; Anderson, Irina; Potton, Anita

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of victim age, victim physical maturity, and respondent gender on attributions toward victims, perpetrator, and the nonoffending members of the victim's family in a hypothetical child sexual abuse (CSA) case. Participants read a brief CSA vignette in which the male perpetrator (a school caretaker) sexually…

  6. Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Child-Reported Emotional and Physical Abuse: Rates, Risk Factors and Psychosocial Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebre, Sandra; Sprugevica, Ieva; Novotni, Antoni; Bonevski, Dimitar; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante; Popescu, Daniela; Turchina, Tatiana; Friedrich, William; Lewis, Owen

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the incidence of child emotional and physical abuse, associated risk factors and psychosocial symptoms in a cross-cultural comparison between post-communist bloc countries. Method: One-thousand one-hundred forty-five children ages 10-14 from Latvia (N=297), Lithuania (N=300), Macedonia (N=302), and…

  7. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mößle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1 female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2 male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3 this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.

  8. Differential Influences of Parenting Dimensions and Parental Physical Abuse during Childhood on Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößle, Thomas; Kliem, Sören; Lohmann, Anna; Bergmann, Marie Christine; Baier, Dirk

    2017-03-07

    Besides other explanatory variables, parenting styles and parental violence might also be responsible for setting a path towards overweight/obesity in childhood. While this association has consistently been observed for adults, findings for adolescents still remain scarce and inconsistent. Therefore, the goal of this study is to add evidence on this topic for children and adolescents. Analyses are based on a sample of 1729 German, ninth-grade students. To analyze associations between parenting dimensions and weight status, non-parametric conditional inference trees were applied. Three gender-specific pathways for a heightened risk of overweight/obesity were observed: (1) female adolescents who report having experienced severe parental physical abuse and medium/high parental warmth in childhood; (2) male adolescents who report having experienced low or medium parental monitoring in childhood; and (3) this second pathway for male adolescents is more pronounced if the families receive welfare. The importance of promoting parenting styles characterized by warmth and a lack of physical abuse is also discussed. This is one of only a few studies examining the association of parenting dimensions/parental physical abuse and weight status in adolescence. Future studies should include even more parenting dimensions, as well as parental physical abuse levels, in order to detect and untangle gender-specific effects on weight status.

  9. Nutritional status and physical abuse among the children involved in domestic labour in Karachi Pakistan: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, Saima; Kadir, Masood

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of physical abuse among domestic child labours and to assess the nutritional status by calculating the Body Mass Index of children involved in domestic labour in Karachi. A cross sectional study was conducted in the squatter settlements of Karachi. Questionnaire based interviews were conducted to capture physical abuse with 385 children who worked as domestic labour in the household of their employer. The ages of the children were between 10 to 14 years belonging to both genders. The children were enrolled in study by snow-ball sampling technique. The overall prevalence of physical abuse among domestic child labour in Karachi was found to be 8.3 %. Over 9 % had low weight and about 90% were stunted. This study also highlighted that 95% of the children involved in domestic labour perform overtime work in their employer's home, more than once per week. There is high burden of physical abuse among the domestic child labour and these children are malnourished. There is a need to recognize and regulate this form of labour in Pakistan.

  10. Child Physical Abuse and the Related PTSD in Taiwan: The Role of Chinese Cultural Background and Victims' Subjective Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Su, Yi-Jen; Wu, Ho-Mao; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate child physical abuse (CPA) while taking into account the more rigorous definitions of CPA in the Chinese societies. The prevalence of CPA and CPA-related PTSD were estimated, together with the examination of peri-traumatic subjective reactions and their impacts on PTSD. Methods: In a Taiwanese sample of…

  11. Oblique Chest Views as a Routine Part of Skeletal Surveys Performed for Possible Physical Abuse--Is This Practice Worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karen Kirhofer; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Nixon, G. William

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of oblique chest views in the diagnosis of rib fractures when used as a routine part of the skeletal survey performed for possible physical abuse. Methods: Oblique chest views have been part of the routine skeletal survey protocol at Primary Children's Medical Center since October 2002. Dictated radiology reports…

  12. A scale for home visiting nurses to identify risks of physical abuse and neglect among mothers with newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grietens, H; Geeraert, L; Hellinckx, W

    Objective: The aim was to construct and test the reliability (utility, internal consistency, interrater agreement) and the validity (internal validity, concurrent validity) of a scale for home visiting social nurses to identify risks of physical abuse and neglect in mothers with a newborn child.

  13. Three-Year Trajectories of Parenting Behaviors among Physically Abusive Parents and Their Link to Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Haskett, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about how positive and negative parenting practices differ across individuals and change over time in parents with substantiated physical abuse history, and how trajectories of these parenting practices affect child adjustment. Objective: The present study examined latent trajectories of positive and negative…

  14. Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: the role of the team doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn

    2012-10-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.

  15. Sexual and physical abuse in childhood is associated with depression and anxiety over the life course: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Grashow, Rachel; Gal, Gilad; Braehler, Elmar; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2014-04-01

    To determine whether depression and anxiety in adulthood are associated with abuse exposure in childhood. A search of PUBMED, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO databases (2002–2012) was supplemented by hand searches of bibliographies of articles and reviews. We included studies contrasting abuse exposure vs. no-abuse exposure before age 16 years to depression and anxiety after age 16 years. Data on sample and exposure and outcome instruments, covariates and odds ratios (ORs) with the respective 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were extracted. Combined ORs and 95 % CI were calculated using random effects models. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I(2) test. Inclusion criteria were met by 19 studies with 115,579 study participants, for assessing depression (n = 14) and anxiety (n = 13). The combined ORs for depression were 2.04 (95 % CI: 1.65–2.53) for sexual abuse and 1.49 (95 % CI: 1.29–1.72) for physical abuse.The combined ORs for anxiety were 2.52 (95 % CI:2.12–2.98) for sexual abuse and 1.70 (95 % CI: 1.33–2.18)for physical abuse. High levels of depression, anxiety and distress are reported in adults exposed to childhood sexual and physical abuse. These findings require increased awareness for the potential needs of adults exposed to child abuse and public health interventions to prevent child abuse.

  16. Physically Abused Women’s Experiences of Sexual Victimization and their Children’s Disruptive Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Laura C.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Skopp, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Despite the substantial co-occurrence of women’s experiences of physical and sexual violence, very little is known about their separate and combined effects on child functioning. The present study examines whether sexual victimization experienced by physically abused women is associated with their children’s disruptive behavior problems, after controlling for mothers’ physical victimization and parent to child aggression. It also tests the hypothesis that maternal distress mediates the association between women’s sexual victimization and their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Method The sample includes 449 mothers and their children (4–8 years) who were recruited while residing in domestic violence shelters. Mothers reported on their experiences of physical and sexual victimization over the past year and their current symptoms of psychological distress. Trained diagnosticians interviewed mothers about their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Results Approximately 75% of the women reported experiences of sexual victimization. Physically abused women’s experiences of sexual victimization correlated positively with their children’s disruptive behavior problems and their own psychological distress. The results of path analyses indicated that maternal psychological distress mediates the relation between women’s experiences of sexual victimization and their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Conclusions This research suggests that physically abused women’s experiences of sexual victimization are important for understanding their children’s disruptive behavior problems. Additionally, this research provides further evidence that maternal psychological distress is important for understanding how intimate partner violence might influence children. PMID:23166861

  17. Value of minor trauma in the diagnosis of physical child abuse: ‘The law of common man’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidanapathirana M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition of Meadow (1989, child abuse is defined as treating a child in an unacceptable way in a given culture at a given time. Major criteria for diagnosis of physical child abuse include sever, multiple, and patterned injuries with different stages of healing. Sometimes, even a single, minor injury may be sufficient to diagnose physical child abuse based on how much it is unacceptable to that particular culture at a given time. When single minor trauma is found, the criteria that could be used to decide whether it is unacceptable to the culture at a given time include; severe pain, severe disfiguration, negligence and lack of care such as injuries to main members of the body,unacceptable punishments such as biting, burning, pinching or tying to an object and,severe mental trauma such as due to non-sexual genital injuries. Much information can be gathered from minor injuries and their consequences such as how much of care was rendered. A new criterion to diagnose physical child abuse is introduced using single minor injuries. However, there is no objective and defined way of deciding how much the trauma is unacceptable for the culture at a given time. Therefore, this should be decided by law of common man, that is, if the ill-treatment of the child is unacceptable to a common man in the society.

  18. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines

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    Diddy Antai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS (N = 9,316. Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women’s mental health.

  19. The effect of economic, physical, and psychological abuse on mental health: a population-based study of women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Oke, Ayo; Braithwaite, Patrick; Lopez, Gerald Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15-49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women's mental health.

  20. Counseling Child Sexual Abuse Victims: Myths and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lynn W.; Thompson, Charles L.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to create awareness among counselors about nature and prevalence of child sexual abuse. Identifies six myths about sexual abuse and discusses both myths and realities about the topic. Presents recommendations for interviewing suspected victims of child sexual abuse. (Author)

  1. Hospital based emergency department visits attributed to child physical abuse in United States: predictors of in-hospital mortality.

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    Veerajalandhar Allareddy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe nationally representative outcomes of physical abuse injuries in children necessitating Emergency Department (ED visits in United States. The impact of various injuries on mortality is examined. We hypothesize that physical abuse resulting in intracranial injuries are associated with worse outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS, the largest all payer hospital based ED database, for the years 2008-2010. All ED visits and subsequent hospitalizations with a diagnosis of "Child physical abuse" (Battered baby or child syndrome due to various injuries were identified using ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. In addition, we also examined the prevalence of sexual abuse in this cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the association between mortality and types of injuries after adjusting for a multitude of patient and hospital level factors. RESULTS: Of the 16897 ED visits that were attributed to child physical abuse, 5182 (30.7% required hospitalization. Hospitalized children were younger than those released treated and released from the ED (1.9 years vs. 6.4 years. Male or female partner of the child's parent/guardian accounted for >45% of perpetrators. Common injuries in hospitalized children include- any fractures (63.5%, intracranial injuries (32.3% and crushing/internal injuries (9.1%. Death occurred in 246 patients (13 in ED and 233 following hospitalization. Amongst the 16897 ED visits, 1.3% also had sexual abuse. Multivariable analyses revealed each 1 year increase in age was associated with a lower odds of mortality (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.96, p < 0.0001. Females (OR = 2.39, 1.07-5.34, p = 0.03, those with intracranial injuries (OR = 65.24, 27.57-154.41, p<0.0001, or crushing/internal injury (OR = 4.98, 2.24-11.07, p<0.0001 had higher odds of

  2. Value of systematic detection of physical child abuse at emergency rooms: a cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Judith S; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Moons, Karel G M; Russel, Ingrid M B; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; van de Putte, Elise M

    2016-03-22

    The aim of our diagnostic accuracy study Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms (CHAIN-ER) was to establish whether a widely used checklist accurately detects or excludes physical abuse among children presenting to ERs with physical injury. A large multicentre study with a 6-month follow-up. 4 ERs in The Netherlands. 4290 children aged 0-7 years attending the ER because of physical injury. All children were systematically tested with an easy-to-use child abuse checklist (index test). A national expert panel (reference standard) retrospectively assessed all children with positive screens and a 15% random sample of the children with negative screens for physical abuse, using additional information, namely, an injury history taken by a paediatrician, information provided by the general practitioner, youth doctor and social services by structured questionnaires, and 6-month follow-up information. Physical child abuse. Injury due to neglect and need for help. 4253/4290 (99%) parents agreed to follow-up. At a prevalence of 0.07% (3/4253) for inflicted injury by expert panel decision, the positive predictive value of the checklist was 0.03 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.085), and the negative predictive value 1.0 (0.994 to 1.0). There was 100% (93 to 100) agreement about inflicted injury in children, with positive screens between the expert panel and child abuse experts. Rare cases of inflicted injury among preschool children presenting at ERs for injury are very likely captured by easy-to-use checklists, but at very high false-positive rates. Subsequent assessment by child abuse experts can be safely restricted to children with positive screens at very low risk of missing cases of inflicted injury. Because of the high false positive rate, we do advise careful prior consideration of cost-effectiveness and clinical and societal implications before de novo implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  3. "The battered fetus syndrome". Preliminary data on the incidence of the urge to physically abuse the unborn child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, J T

    1987-12-01

    Recently published reports of physical assault by women in late pregnancy upon their unborn children have elicited a response of incredulity in many professionals. This response is identical to that which followed the publication of the first cases of child abuse in the 1960s. The present paper attempts a preliminary exploration of the incidence of the urge to "hurt or punish" the unborn child using a sample of 112 normal pregnant women and their male partners. Eight percent of the women and 4% of the men acknowledged experiencing such an urge. The male partner appeared to be aware of the woman's aggressive feelings toward the fetus and the male's reports tend to validate the female findings. Despite some methodological shortcomings, the findings suggest that the urge to physically assault the fetus is not rare. The need for further investigation of the phenomenon is highlighted, as it may well represent the earliest precursor of later physical child abuse.

  4. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  5. Recurrent concerns for child abuse: repeated consultations by a subspecialty child abuse team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Jennifer; Swenson, Alice; Coffman, Jamye; Newton, Alice W; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2014-07-01

    Physically abused children may be repeatedly reported to child protection services and undergo multiple medical evaluations. Less is known about recurrent evaluations by hospital-based child abuse teams for possible abuse. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of repeated consultations by child abuse teams and to describe this cohort in terms of injury pattern, perceived likelihood of abuse, disposition plan, and factors related to repeat consultation. This was a prospectively planned, secondary analysis of data from the Examining Siblings to Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) research network. Subjects included children younger than 10 years of age who were referred to child abuse subspecialty teams at one of 20 U.S. academic centers. Repeat consultations occurred in 101 (3.5%; 95% CI 2.9-4.2%) of 2890 subjects. The incidence of death was 4% (95% CI 1-9%) in subjects with repeated consults and 3% (95% CI 2-3%) in subjects with single consults. Perceived likelihood of abuse from initial to repeat visit remained low in 33% of subjects, remained high in 24.2% of subjects, went from low to high in 16.5%, and high to low in 26.4% of subjects. Themes identified among the subset of patients suspected of repeated abuse include return to the same environment, failure to comply with a safety plan, and abuse in foster care. Repeated consultation by child abuse specialists occurs for a minority of children. This group of children may be at higher risk of subsequent abuse and may represent an opportunity for quality improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Child abuse and dentistry: a study of knowledge and attitudes among Nigerian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, O O; Denloye, O O; Adeyemi, A T

    2008-06-01

    Child abuse is recognized globally as a major public health issue and in recent years, Nigerian communities have become increasingly aware of this problem. Numerous studies have revealed that the head and oro-facial region are common sites of trauma from child abuse. For this reason, dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report suspected cases. The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Nigerian dentists towards child abuse. A descriptive survey was conducted among 175 dentists in Nigeria. Results revealed that physical abuse, neglect and emotional abuse was recognized by 61.7%, 53.1% and 33.1% of the respondents respectively as forms of abuse. A greater proportion of the females (42.3%) in contrast to the males (26.9%) identified emotional abuse (pdentists claimed to have suspected child abuse in one or more of their young patients however, only 6.9% had actually reported. The possible effects on the child, uncertainty about the diagnosis and fear of litigation were factors which 92%, 81.1% and 64.6% of the dentists respectively claimed could influence their decision to reporting child abuse. This study has demonstrated that some knowledge gaps exist among dentists in recognizing and reporting this problem. There is a need for further information and training at all levels of the dental profession in the recognition and reporting of child abuse.

  7. Anxiety disorders and depression among high school adolescents and youths in Nigeria: Understanding differential effects of physical abuse at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakunmoju, Sunday B; Bammeke, Funmi O

    2015-07-01

    Despite the exposure of children to physical abuse in more than one setting in many regions of the world, little is known about the associations of physical abuse in different settings (e.g., at home and school) with anxiety disorders and depression among adolescents and youths. Using a convenience sample of 502 adolescents and youths ages 13-23 years from five public and three private senior secondary schools in Nigeria, the study examined associations of gender and physical abuse by parents with anxiety disorders as well as associations of physical abuse by parents and/or teachers with depression in the sample, 39.6% of whom had experienced physical abuse at home and in school. Findings suggest that physical abuse by parents was associated with anxiety disorders and depression than physical abuse by teachers. Being female was equally associated with anxiety disorders. Implications of findings for mental health, practice, research, and theory are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A population-based study of physical function and risk for elder abuse reported to social service agency: findings from the Chicago health and aging project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; Evans, Denis

    2014-10-01

    We examined the association between physical function and the risk for reported elder abuse. In the Chicago Health and Aging Project (N = 8,932), 238 participants had reported elder abuse. The independent variable was objectively assessed physical function using both directly observed physical performance testing and self-reported physical function (Katz activity of daily living scale, Nagi physical activity scale, and Rosow Breslau mobility scales). Outcomes were elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse. After adjusting for confounders, lower levels of physical performance testing (OR, 2.71[1.58-4.64]), Katz impairment (OR, 1.84[1.29-2.59]), Nagi impairment (OR, 1.65[1.15-2.37]) and Rosow Breslau (OR, 1.76[1.26-2.47]) were associated with increased risk for elder abuse. Lowest levels of physical performance testing were associated with increased risk for psychological abuse (OR, 2.69[1.27-5.71]), caregiver neglect (OR, 2.66[1.22-5.79]), and financial exploitation (OR, 2.35 [1.21-4.55]). Our results may have important implications to healthcare professional, social services and other disciplines to prevent and treat elder abuse. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  10. Child abuse. Diagnostic imaging of skeletal injuries; Kindesmisshandlung. Radiologische Diagnostik skelettaler Verletzungsfolgen

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    Stenzel, Martin; Mentzel, Hans-Joachim [Universitaetsklinikum Jena (Germany). Sektion Paediatrische Radiologie

    2012-06-15

    Diagnostic imaging, besides medical history and clinical examination, is a major component in assessment of cases of suspected physical child abuse. Performance of proper imaging technique, and knowledge of specific injury patterns is required for accurate image interpretation by the radiologist, and serves protection of the child in case of proven abuse. On the other side, it is essential to protect the family in unjustified accusations. The reader will be familiarised with essentials of the topic 'Physical child abuse', in order to be able to correctly assess quality, completeness, and results of X-ray films. Moreover, opportunities and limitations of alternative diagnostic modalities will be discussed. (orig.)

  11. Can projective drawings detect if a child experienced sexual or physical abuse? A systematic review of the controlled research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Tussey, Chriscelyn

    2012-04-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that children who experience physical or sexual abuse may provide indicators in their drawings that can distinguish them from nonabused children. Some have even suggested that a child's drawings and the interpretive testimony of a trained mental health clinician should be admissible in court as evidence of a child's abuse status. Many of these comments, however, may reflect a limited consideration of the available research. The current article provides a comprehensive literature review of the controlled research to determine whether any graphic indicators (e.g., genitalia, omission of body parts) or predefined scoring system can reliability and validly discriminate abused from nonabused children. Results indicate that, although individual studies have found support for various indicators or scoring systems, these results are rarely replicated, many times studies finding significant results suffer from serious methodological flaws and alternative explanations for findings (e.g., mental illness) are often present. No graphic indicator or scoring system possessed sufficient empirical evidence to support its use for identifying sexual or physical abuse. A discussion of the legal ramifications of these results is provided.

  12. Effectiveness of Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention on marital satisfaction and partner abuse (Non-physical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Heshmati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the aim of this research was to investigate effectiveness self-regulation couple therapy intervention on marital and partner abuse. in a semi-experimental with experimental and control group design, 24 couples were selected by convenient sampling method from Family Counseling Center of Ardabil city and were divided into two experimental (12 couples and control groups (12 couples through random assignment. Before the treatment, participants completed the Index of Marital Satisfaction (IMS and Partner Abuse Scale (Non-physical (PASNP. Then, Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention protocol was implemented for the experimental group in 7 sessions of 90 minutes, and again the questionnaires were completed by both groups after eight weeks. The results showed that Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention had a significant increase in marital satisfaction scores and significant reduction in non-physical partner abuse scores in experimental group compared with control group. These results suggest that Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention is an effective way to improve marital conflicts and marital satisfaction. Key words: Self-Regulation Couple Therapy intervention, marital satisfaction, partner abuse

  13. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse and Social Network Patterns on Social Media: Associations With Alcohol Use and Problems Among Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A; Sutton, Tara E; Mackillop, James

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals' Facebook network. Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions.

  14. Sexual and Physical Abuse History and Adult Sexual Risk Behaviors: Relationships among Women and Potential Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Berenson, Abbey

    2007-01-01

    Objective: While research has supported associations between experiencing abuse and engaging in risky sexual behaviors during adolescence, research regarding these associations among adult women is much more equivocal. In addition, few studies have attempted to identify potential pathways from abuse experiences to sexual risk behaviors. The…

  15. Perception of Physical Child Abuse Among Parents and Professionals in a French Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailhache, Marion; Alioum, Ahmadou; Salmi, Louis-Rachid

    2017-04-01

    France has not prohibited all forms of corporal punishment, and the point at which an act is regarded as physical abuse is not clearly determined. The aim of our study was to compare perception of a caregiver's violent behavior toward his child by professionals and parents in an emergency department and determine characteristics associated with that perception. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to October 2014 in the emergency department of the pediatric university hospital in Bordeaux, France. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire, including vignettes describing hypothetical situations of violent interaction between a parent and child, and items related to sociodemographic and family characteristics, was administered to professionals and parents. Vignettes included varying child's age and behavior, frequency of caregiver's behavior, hitting with/without an object, and targeted child's body part. Violent behavior was restricted to hitting for reasons of feasibility. Respondents were asked to rate the acceptability of situations on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Analyses were multivariate mixed Poisson regressions. A total of 1,001 participants assessed the vignettes. Participants were predominantly females (64%), married or living with a partner (87%), with a median age of 34 years. Professionals assessed vignettes as acceptable significantly more than parents (mean rating 2.8 times higher; p children were less tolerant. Such findings indicate the need for additional research to better appreciate consequences and severity of violent behavior toward children, and the need to educate parents and professionals.

  16. Child with multiple ecchymoses … is it abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pimentel Marcos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Case report: Child abuse is a public health problem; bleeding disorders can mimic some of these situations. We alert to this problem reporting a case of suspected child abuse in a toddler with multiple ecchymoses. The history and clinical evaluation, including coagulation tests, achieved the diagnosis of severe type I von Willebrand disease failing to prove social dysfunction. Comments: Physical abuse suspicion in children with bruising symptoms should raise the concern of a potentialbleeding disorder. Laboratory tests should be done on the basis of patient and family history, physical examination and prevalence of bleeding conditions. Nonetheless, laboratory testing indicating the presence of a bleeding disorder does not exclude concomitant child abuse and social monitoring and vigilance should be maintained.

  17. Physical abuse of older adults in nursing homes: a random sample survey of adults with an elderly family member in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B; Oehmke, James; Zhang, Zhenmei; Barboza, Gia E; Griffore, Robert J; Von Heydrich, Levente; Post, Lori A; Weatherill, Robin P; Mastin, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Few empirical studies have focused on elder abuse in nursing home settings. The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of staff physical abuse among elderly individuals receiving nursing home care in Michigan. A random sample of 452 adults with elderly relatives, older than 65 years, and in nursing home care completed a telephone survey regarding elder abuse and neglect experienced by this elder family member in the care setting. Some 24.3% of respondents reported at least one incident of physical abuse by nursing home staff. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the importance of various risk factors in nursing home abuse. Limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs), older adult behavioral difficulties, and previous victimization by nonstaff perpetrators were associated with a greater likelihood of physical abuse. Interventions that address these risk factors may be effective in reducing older adult physical abuse in nursing homes. Attention to the contextual or ecological character of nursing home abuse is essential, particularly in light of the findings of this study.

  18. The Presence of a Stepfather and Child Physical Abuse, as Reported by a Sample of Brazilian Mothers in Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Substitute fathers are often reported to commit child abuse at higher rates than birth (i.e., putative genetic) fathers. Due to the paucity of studies, especially in developing countries, and to some conflicting results from developed countries regarding the identity of perpetrators of less extreme forms of physical abuse of children in…

  19. Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Wong, Rosa S; Li, Sophia L; Chan, Ko Ling; Ho, Frederick K; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2016-12-01

    Childhood physical abuse (CPA) can lead to adverse mental health outcomes in adulthood, but its potential impact on Chinese populations is still unclear. This meta-analysis is the first to examine the association between CPA and mental health outcomes in Chinese populations. Studies published before December 31, 2014 were identified from Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. Studies with data on the association between CPA and mental health outcomes from Chinese subjects were included. Twenty-four studies were initially identified but two were excluded because of poor quality. Two reviewers independently extracted data to generate summary effect sizes using a random-effects meta-analytic model. A priori subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate heterogeneity and bias in these studies. Our meta-analysis of 22 studies found a significant positive association between CPA and overall mental health outcomes among all Chinese subjects (pooled effect size: odds ratio [OR] = 2.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.87, 2.49]) and among community samples (pooled effect size: OR = 2.06, 95% CI [1.71, 2.48]). Based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, diagnostic criteria, CPA was more strongly associated with Axis II (OR = 2.62, 95% CI [2.13, 3.22]) than Axis I disorders (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.58, 2.17]). The detrimental effects of CPA on mental health outcomes in Chinese populations were comparable to, if not more than, the West. Contrary to the Chinese belief that physical punishment is a safe way to discipline children, our findings highlight the potential harm to mental health and the need to change this parenting practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Verbal abuse and physical assault in the emergency department: Rates of violence, perceptions of safety, and attitudes towards security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Bradley; Affleck, Julia

    2017-08-01

    Emergency Department (ED) workers are prone to occupational violence, however the extent and impact of this may not be evenly felt across all roles in the ED. Explore: 1) the rate of verbal abuse and physical assaults experienced by ED staff, 2) perceptions of safety, 3) attitudes towards security officers, and 4) formal reporting of incidents. 330 ED workers were surveyed at four public hospitals in one metropolitan health service district in Queensland, Australia, including 179 nurses, 83 medical staff, 44 administration staff, 14 allied health, and 9 operational. Nurses were more likely to have been physically assaulted in the last six months and were less likely to feel safe. Most ED staff across all roles experienced verbal abuse. Nurses were better than medical staff at reporting instances of occupational violence although overall reporting across all roles was low. Staff who thought that security officers respond to incidents quickly and are a visible presence in the ED were more likely to feel safe in the ED. Workers in the ED, particularly nurses, experience high rates of verbal abuse and physical aggression and there may be a case for having designated security guards in the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Relationship of childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder in adolescence: the mediating role of self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-hua; Yang, Lin-sheng; Hao, Jia-hu; Huang, Fen; Zhang, Xiu-jun; Sun, Ye-huan

    2012-01-01

    To find out whether the effects of childhood physical abuse on internet addiction disorder in adolescence could be mediated by self-esteem. 3798 high school students selected from 76 classes in Grade One and Grade Two, were asked to fill in the anonymous questionnaire, which including the demographic characteristics of students, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Childhood physical abuse could directly predict less self-esteem and internet addiction disorder (r = -0.108, P internet addiction disorder which could be mediated through self-esteem (a = -0.703, standardized b = -0.104, z = 5.052, P internet addiction disorders during the period of adolescence. Self-esteem could partially mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder. The mediating roles of self-esteem suggested that salient leverage points could make a change through empowerment training, self-esteem group training on self-esteem enhancement in the stage of adolescence.

  2. Pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress in women after sexual and physical abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, C; Newport, D J; Heit, S; Graham, Y P; Wilcox, M; Bonsall, R; Miller, A H; Nemeroff, C B

    2000-08-02

    Evidence suggests that early adverse experiences play a preeminent role in development of mood and anxiety disorders and that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems may mediate this association. To determine whether early-life stress results in a persistent sensitization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to mild stress in adulthood, thereby contributing to vulnerability to psychopathological conditions. Prospective controlled study conducted from May 1997 to July 1999 at the General Clinical Research Center of Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Ga. Forty-nine healthy women aged 18 to 45 years with regular menses, with no history of mania or psychosis, with no active substance abuse or eating disorder within 6 months, and who were free of hormonal and psychotropic medications were recruited into 4 study groups (n = 12 with no history of childhood abuse or psychiatric disorder [controls]; n = 13 with diagnosis of current major depression who were sexually or physically abused as children; n = 14 without current major depression who were sexually or physically abused as children; and n = 10 with diagnosis of current major depression and no history of childhood abuse). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and heart rate responses to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor compared among the 4 study groups. Women with a history of childhood abuse exhibited increased pituitary-adrenal and autonomic responses to stress compared with controls. This effect was particularly robust in women with current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Women with a history of childhood abuse and a current major depression diagnosis exhibited a more than 6-fold greater ACTH response to stress than age-matched controls (net peak of 9.0 pmol/L [41.0 pg/mL]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.7-13.3 pmol/L [21.6-60. 4 pg/mL]; vs net peak of 1.4 pmol/L [6.19 pg/mL]; 95% CI, 0.2-2.5 pmol/L [1.0-11.4 pg/mL]; difference, 8.6 pmol/L [38.9 pg/mL]; 95% CI, 4

  3. [Brief analytic essay on unconscious forces facilitating transgenerational repetition of physical or sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, B

    1994-01-01

    Transmission of abusive conduct is mainly determined by unconscious guilt and identification with the aggressor. The abused child is bound to split the parental object. The hostile side is eclipsed due to dependence and regression. Therefore deprived of the hated object, the guilt surges forcefully with the role reversal of the following generation. The former victim, whose identifications with the aggressor are actuated, discharges his guilt by projective identifications with the new victims. The ongoing splitting perpetuates the pathology of the relation.

  4. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse History and Leukocyte Telomere Length among Women in Middle Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Susan M.; Jennifer Prescott; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Immaculata DeVivo; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte te...

  5. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that ... more alcohol to feel the same effect With alcohol abuse, you are not physically dependent, but you still ...

  6. Substance abuse and psychosocial adaptation to physical disability: analysis of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Ebener, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the current state of the literature with respect to substance abuse and psychosocial adjustment in persons with disabilities. The two primary databases containing the literature related to rehabilitation and disability issues (PsychINFO and MedLine) were searched to identify articles addressing the psychosocial impact of substance abuse in persons with disabilities. Eleven empirical articles specifically measuring the strength of the relationship between substance use and psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities were selected for analysis. Of the studies identified, five were related to spinal cord injury, three were related to traumatic brain injury, one was related to chronic back pain, one was related to HIV/AIDS, and one was related to persons with any type of disability. Each of the studies used different methodologies, measured substance abuse in different ways, and examined different psychosocial outcome variables. Examination of trends suggested that pre-injury substance abuse appears to be unrelated to acceptance of disability in persons with spinal cord injury and negatively associated with satisfaction in persons with traumatic brain injury. Recent substance abuse tends to have a detrimental effect on psychosocial outcomes across all disability groups. Future research, combined with appropriate pre-service and continuing education related to substance abuse and disability for rehabilitation practitioners, has the potential to lead to improved psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities.

  7. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Childhood physical abuse and respiratory disease in the community: the role of mental health and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Wamboldt, Frederick S

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found an association between child abuse and respiratory disease in some populations, but the mechanisms remain unknown, and this association has not been examined in a representative community-based sample. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood physical abuse and the odds of respiratory disease and to investigate the role of depression, anxiety, and pack-years of smoking in this association. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the United States Survey (n = 3,032), a representative sample of adults aged 25-74 years. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between childhood abuse and current respiratory disease (past 12 months) and to examine whether pack-years of smoking, depression, and anxiety disorders mediated the relationship. Individuals who often experienced childhood abuse had a significantly increased odds of respiratory disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87 [1.21, 2.90]). The association was attenuated, after adjusting for demographic characteristics and pack-years of smoking, and was no longer significant after adjusting for depression and anxiety disorders. These results are consistent with previous data suggesting a significant association between childhood abuse and respiratory disease and extend existing knowledge by providing initial evidence that demographic differences, depression and anxiety disorders, and lifetime cigarette smoking may mediate this observed relationship. Results require replication with longitudinal data in large community-based samples. Future studies that can explore potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed associations, such as immune factors, are needed next to better understand these relationships.

  9. An overview of child physical abuse: developing an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral treatment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Melissa K; Deblinger, Esther; Ryan, Erika E; Thakkar-Kolar, Reena

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews and summarizes the extant literature regarding child physical abuse (CPA). Literature is summarized that describes the wide range of short- and long-term effects of CPA on children as well as the documented characteristics of parents/caregivers who engage in physically abusive parenting practices. Although the reviewed research documents that interventions geared only toward the parent have been found to produce significant improvements with respect to parenting abilities, parent-child interactions, and children's behavior problems, there is a paucity of research examining the efficacy of interventions developed specifically to target the child's emotional and behavioral difficulties. Based on the few studies that have shown emotional and behavioral gains for children who have participated in treatment, an integrated parent-child cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approach is proposed here to address the complex issues presented by both parent and child in CPA cases. The direct participation of the child in treatment also may improve our ability to target posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive symptoms as well as anger control and dysfunctional abuse attributions in the children themselves. Implications for practice, public policy, and research are also addressed.

  10. The relationship between childhood sexual/physical abuse and sexual dysfunction in patients with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Atilla; Meriç, Ceren; Sağbilge, Ezgi; Kenar, Jülide; Yayla, Sinan; Özer, Ömer Akil; Karamustafalioğlu, Oğuz

    2016-01-01

    Childhood traumatic events are known as developmental factors for various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse (CSA/CPA), and co-morbid depression on sexual functions in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Data obtained from 113 SAD patients was analysed. Childhood traumatic experiences were evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale was used for the evaluation of the sexual functions. The data from interviews performed with SCID-I were used for determination of Axis I diagnosis. The Beck Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Scale and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were administered to each patient. History of childhood physical abuse (CPA) was present in 45.1% of the SAD patients, and 14.2% had a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Depression co-diagnosis was present in 30.1% of SAD patients and 36.3% had sexual dysfunction. History of CSA and depression co-diagnosis were determined as two strong predictors in SAD patients (odds ratio (OR) for CSA, 7.83; 95% CI, 1.97-31.11; p = 0.003 and OR for depression, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.47-9.13; p = 0.005). CSA and depression should be considered and questioned as an important factor for SAD patients who suffer from sexual dysfunction.

  11. Maltrato Físico Infantil y Apoyo Social: Un Estudio Descriptivo - Comparativo Entre Maltratadores Físicos y No Maltratadores de la Ciudad de Temuco Child Physical Abuse and Social Support: A Descriptive and Comparative Study Between Physical and Non Physical Abusers From the City of Temuco, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Medina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Para realizar intervenciones preventivas o terapéuticas con familias maltratadoras, es relevante conocer los déficit predominantes en la variable apoyo social. Es por ello, que el objetivo del presente estudio es describir y comparar aspectos estructurales y funcionales del apoyo social de padres maltratadores físicos y no maltratadores. Este estudio, es un análisis secundario realizado con datos del proyecto FONDECYT 1960795 "Construcción de un instrumento para detectar potencial maltrato físico infantil". La investigación utiliza diseño de casos y controles, incluye 325 sujetos, 112 maltratadores físicos y 213 no maltratadores. El análisis de datos incluyó análisis univariado de la varianza y análisis de varianza factorial. Los aspectos funcionales del apoyo social resultan ser más significativos al diferenciar padres no maltratadores de padres maltratadores físicos. Se discuten principales hallazgos, implicancias y limitaciones del estudio.To carry out preventive and therapeutic interventions in abusive families, it is very important to consider the huge deficit of social support for these families. For this reason, the outcome of this research is the description and comparison of structural and functional aspects of abusive and non-abusive parent's social support. This investigation is a secondary analysis carried out with data taken from the FONDECYT 1960795, "Building up an instrument to detect potencial physical abuse". For the research a cases-control design is used including 325 subjects, 112 physical abusers and 213 non-physical abusers. The data analysis included a univariate analysis of variance and analysis of factorial variance. The functional aspects of the social support turn out to be more significant when comparing physical abusive parents and non-physical abusive parents. Main discoveries, implications, and limitations are discussed.

  12. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior: examining lifetime sexual and physical abuse histories in relation to substance use and psychiatric problem severity among ex-offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.

  13. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Fear of crime and psychological and physical abuse associated with ill health in a Swedish population aged 65-84 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, N; Lindqvist, K; Danielsson, I

    2012-04-01

    To assess the association between fear of crime and/or psychological and/or physical abuse in relation to self-reported physical and psychological health, using a large representative sample of elderly women and men in Sweden. Cross-sectional national survey. Data were taken from a nationwide representative public health survey (2006). Men and women between the ages of 65 and 84 years were selected for the present analyses (4386 men and 4974 women). The response rate for this age group was 59% for men and 70% for women. Psychological and physical abuse against elderly women and men led to higher odds ratios for negative health outcomes, independently of socio-economic status. Strong correlation was found between psychological abuse and negative health outcomes in both men and women, while the correlation was less strong for physical abuse, especially among women. The men had high odds ratios for suicidal thoughts and even for attempted suicide in connection with physical and psychological abuse and fear of crime. The study provides representative results addressing an extensive negative health outcome panorama caused by fear of crime and exposure to abuse. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk and protective factors for physical and sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Africa: a review and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Mhlongo, Elsinah L

    2015-01-01

    There is now conclusive evidence of the major and long-lasting negative effects of physical and sexual abuse on children. Within Africa, studies consistently report high rates of child abuse, with prevalence as high as 64%. However, to date, there has been no review of factors associated with physical and sexual child abuse and polyvictimization in Africa. This review identified 23 quantitative studies, all of which showed high levels of child abuse in varying samples of children and adults. Although studies were very heterogeneous, a range of correlates of abuse at different levels of the Model of Ecologic Development were identified. These included community-level factors (exposure to bullying, sexual violence, and rural/urban location), household-level factors (poverty, household violence, and non-nuclear family), caregiver-level factors (caregiver illness in particular AIDS and mental health problems, caregiver changes, family functioning, parenting, caregiver-child relationship, and substance abuse), and child-level factors (age, disability, physical health, behavior, and gender). These findings identify key associated factors that are potential foci of child abuse prevention interventions. In addition, there is a clear need for further rigorous longitudinal research into predictive factors and culturally relevant interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The behavior patterns of abused children as described in their testimonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, C; Barnetz, Z

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current study is to identify how children describe their behavior during abuse and to explore their behavior further with respect to the type of the abuse (physical or sexual), frequency of abuse (single or multiple incidents), familiarity with the suspect, and children's age and gender, with the assumption that this information may have a significant effect on the children's recovery process. The study involved 224 transcripts of interviews with alleged victims aged 5-14 in Israel. The sample was randomly selected from all of the forensic investigations with children that were conducted in Israel in 2011. The results show that abuse type has a strong effect on children's behavior, with children in the sexual abuse group reporting more fight and flight behavior and children in the physical abuse group reporting more self-change behavior. This finding was interacted with the severity of abuse variable, with children in the sexual abuse group reporting less flight behavior and an increase in the self-change behavior with the highest level of severity of abuse (touch under the clothes and penetration). Investigative interviews with children can be a significant source of information for practitioners within the clinical context. The current study stresses the consequences that abuse can have on children's behavior during these incidents and the implications for the therapy process with the children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Winters

    Full Text Available Children with disabilities (CWDs are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of

  18. Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Niall; Langer, Laurenz; Geniets, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with

  19. Developmental trauma and its correlates: a study of Chinese children with repeated familial physical and sexual abuse in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ellen Y M; Li, Frendi W S

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the relevance of the developmental trauma disorder (DTD) framework (van der Kolk, ) in Hong Kong Chinese children with repeated familial physical and/or sexual abuse. Self-reports of (a) key dimensions of DTD including emotion regulation, attribution and perceptions in self and relationships, belief in future victimization, behavioral difficulties, and self-esteem; and (b) attachment styles and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reactions were obtained from children aged 9-15 years in clinical and school settings. Children were categorized into an abused trauma group (n = 82), a nonabused trauma group (n = 83), and a no-trauma control group (n = 201). The findings indicated that the DTD framework was applicable to abused children who showed a lower level of attachment security (Cohen's d from 0.50-0.61) and a higher level of PTSD reactions (Cohen's d = 0.71) than the comparison groups. After adding attachment security and emotion dysregulation to the model, there were no longer significant group differences in most of the variables. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Acker, Deborah; Webb, Tina; Brenzel, Allen; Lorenz, Douglas J; Young, Audrey; Thompson, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Failure to recognize child maltreatment results in chronic exposure to high-risk environments where re-injury or death may occur. We analyzed a series (n=20) of fatal (n=10) and near-fatal (n=10) physical child abuse cases from the Commonwealth of Kentucky to identify commonalities and determine whether indicators of maltreatment were present prior to the child's fatal or near-fatal event. We conducted retrospective state record reviews involving children Psychosocial risk factors (PRFs) were present in 100% of cases. Traumatic brain injury (95%) and bruising (90%) were the most common injuries. Of the 14 children with available prior medical records, 9 (64%) had sentinel injuries in the form of prior unexplained bruising; all nine suffered subsequent traumatic brain injury resulting in four deaths. A male was caring for the child at the time of the final event in 70% of cases. Our study identified key commonalities across cases of fatal and near-fatal abuse, highlighting the prevalence of psychosocial risk factors and the significance of prior unexplained bruising as a herald of escalating abuse. Further study is warranted to ascertain the predictive value of our findings in the larger population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to childhood neglect and physical abuse and developmental trajectories of heavy episodic drinking from early adolescence into young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Miller, Daniel P; Teicher, Martin H

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature suggests that childhood maltreatment (CM) relates to adolescent heavy episodic drinking (HED), few studies have examined the long-term effects of CM on adolescent HED. This study is the first to examine associations between exposure to CM and trajectories of HED from adolescence to young adulthood for the US population. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. A total of 8503 adolescents followed from adolescence (7th-12th grades) into young adulthood (ages 24-32) were assessed on CM and past-year HED frequency. Using growth curve modeling, trajectories of adolescent HED were examined, with subtype, frequency, and severity of CM as the primary independent variables. All of our analyses controlled for common risk factors for adolescent HED, including demographics, parental and peer alcohol use, parental education and employment, family income, parent-child relationship, and adolescent depression. After controlling for potential risk factors, neglect and physical abuse, both individually and in conjunction, were associated with faster increases in HED during adolescence and persistently elevated HED over much of adolescence and young adulthood. The frequency of neglect and physical abuse, individually and in conjunction, was also associated with the trajectory of HED, such that additional instances of these types of maltreatment were associated with faster increases in HED during adolescence and higher rates of peak use during young adulthood. Child neglect and physical abuse appear to have long-lasting adverse effects on HED beyond adolescence and throughout much of young adulthood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect and its Psycho-Physical and Social Consequences: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, P; Guadagno, C; Sbordone, A; Amato, M; Spina, G; Perrone, G; Cutrona, C; Basile, M C; Ianniello, F; Fabrizio, G C; Pettoello-Mantovani, M; Verrotti, A; Villani, A; Corsello, G

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex life experience occurs when a parent or caregiver does an intentional or potential damage to a child, including acts of commission and omission. Child abuse is not an uncommon event, but it is not always recognized. Identifying the real number of maltreated children is a challenge because of the large variability in reported prevalence data across studies. Unfortunately, in the United States, it affects 1 in 8 children, by the age of 18 years, annually. Paediatricians may encounter a variety of forms of maltreatment such as neglect, emotional, physical and sexual abuse. These aspects should be recognised, examined and evaluated by employing a systematic approach and focusing on basic needs of children that may not be met. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long physical and psychological or psychiatric outcomes. It is associated with important economic and social costs (such as physical and mental health, productivity losses, child welfare, criminal justice and special education costs) due to its high prevalence and its long-term and short-term consequences. In the United States, the average cost of nonfatal maltreatment is $210,012 per children and the cost of fatal maltreatment is $1,272,900. General Practitioners are quite prepared to face the problem of child maltreatment: since they have the opportunity to meet several members of the same family, they can detect stressors that put children at risk of maltreatment. All health professionals have the responsibility to protect children from abuse and neglect. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Prevalence and Attitude of Women to Spousal Physical Abuse in Pregnancy in a Niger Delta Community of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Vincent Umoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Spousal physical violence in pregnancy is a major public health and human rights concern. Identifying its prevalence and understanding the women’s attitude towards this phenomenon in our environment is key to developing strategies for effective intervention. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH, Uyo in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Information was collected using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire instrument. Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.72 ± 4.47 years with a range of 16 – 48 years. The prevalence of spousal physical violence in the current pregnancy was 10.3%. 45.2% of those who experienced violence in the current pregnancy also experienced violence in other pregnancies while 73.7% of those who reported spousal violence in previous pregnancies also experienced violence in the current pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between spousal physical violence and the woman’s number of deliveries/parity (x2 = 16.145, p=0.025, marital status (x2=11.105, p=0.025 and husband’s occupation (x2=12.786, p=0.047. About half of the respondents expressed the view that spousal violence was not excusable under any circumstance while 22.7% believed that it could be excused under certain circumstances. Also 50.0% of those who experienced physical violence in the current pregnancy expressed the view that physical violence can be excusable. Most of the women (65.8% either kept the incidence of abuse secret or just did nothing. None reported to the police. Conclusion: Spousal physical abuse is still prevalent in our society. There is need to enlighten the women on this phenomenon in order to get their cooperation towards its eradication. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 731-736

  4. Pathway from child sexual and physical abuse to risky sex among emerging adults: the role of trauma-related intrusions and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, which emphasized the need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions after early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Participants were 1,169 racially diverse college students (72.9% female, 37.6% black/African-American, and 33.6% white) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, whereas for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood, and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. How To Define Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nora M.

    This paper examines definitions of child abuse and neglect as put forth by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984. Four types of child abuse and neglect are identified and briefly described: physical abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, and mental injury (also referred to as emotional/psychological…

  6. A Comparison of Deaf College Students’ and Hard of Hearing College Students’ Experiences and Risk Factors of Psychological and Physical Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaVerne McQuiller Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 222 Deaf or hard of hearing college students in an upstate New York university provided a unique opportunity to explore possible differences between Deaf students’ and hard of hearing students’ experiences and risk factors of psychological and physical abuse in their intimate relationships. Previous research has indicated that Deaf and hard of hearing college students in the aggregate were significantly more likely to experience abuse than were hearing students. A comparison of Deaf students with hard of hearing students revealed that hard of hearing individuals were significantly more likely to experience physical abuse than were Deaf students but not more likely to experience psychological abuse. Findings also revealed that in most cases, traditional risk factors for partner violence (e.g., gender, race/ethnicity, living on campus used in hearing college samples were not significant. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  7. Moderating factors in the path from physical abuse to attempted suicide in adolescents: application of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Childhood physical abuse is a major risk factor for suicide attempt, but factors that moderate this risk remain largely unexamined. Moderated mediation analysis was used with 186 adolescents who responded to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey. Physical abuse increased risk directly and indirectly through reduced self-esteem. Involvement in youth programs moderated the direct effect. Community service moderated the indirect effect. Results indicate 2 hours per week of involvement in youth programs and 2 hours per week of community service mitigated suicide attempt risk associated with abuse. Providing avenues for youth experiencing abuse to increase their community service and involvement is recommended. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. Dentist attitudes and responsibilities concerning child sexual abuse. A review and a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Márquez-Preciado, Raúl; Olguín-Vivar, Ana-Isabel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2015-07-01

    According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is "every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child's health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power". The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and orofacial regions, in addition to the suggested role of, and management by, the dentist for the evaluation of this condition, and also for reporting a case of a physically and sexually abused girl aged 5 years 8 months. Throughout the appointments, some type of abuse in this patient was suspected by the treating dentists at the clinic, mainly due to the initial behavior exhibited by the patient in the dental chair. Based on the clinical diagnostic an intensive preventive plan and restorative treatment was realized. The timely detection of the signs and symptoms of sexual abuse, often present in the orofacial region, place the pediatric dentist in a strategic situation, with the capacity to recognize, register, and later report those cases considered as suspect, including the dental treatment delivered and the intensive behavioral-psychological management, in order to achieve acceptation by the otherwise very anxious patient of the indicated restorative and preventive dental procedures. Key words:Child abuse, dentistry, behavior management.

  9. [Forensic procedures for interview physical exam and evidence collection in children and young people victims of physical and/or sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Teresa; Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Jardim, Patrícia; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2011-01-01

    The public nature of child abuse crime (domestic violence, maltreatment and sexual crimes) implies the opening of a criminal enquiry as soon as facts likely to be considered as such are known. Professionals who suspect of these cases are considered mandatory reporters as is the case of health care professionals. The work with abused children and youth involves several courses of action between institutions, namely as to the starting procedures to follow in case triage, reporting of suspicion, diagnosis and preservation of evidence for penal purposes, as well as to the protection of the victim(s), all of which still lack a clear definition in Portugal. Several professionals often take part simultaneously in these early procedures and it is crucial that their own personal intervention be articulated with one another's. With the aim of promoting that adequate articulation between the professionals and the acting services, technical orientations to be followed have to be established, namely as far as the articulation between the medicolegal services and the health care services are concerned. These orientations should aim at: ruling the reporting of the occurrence in good time; guarantee an appropriate collection of evidence; guarantee good medical procedures in medical exams and evidence collection; avoid repetition of exams of the victims, preventing secondary victimisation and cross-contamination of child report. Based on the internationally accepted rules for the matter and taking into consideration the Portuguese reality, namely in legal terms, the authors made a proposition concerning the procedures for the intervention in such cases that are herewith presented and were approved as General Recommendations for the Examination in Cases of Suspicion of Domestic Violence, Maltreatment or Sexual Crime Against Children by the National Institute of Legal Medicine, in January 2010. These were later confirmed by the Specialty College of Legal Medicine of the Medical Board

  10. Knowledge and attitude in regards to physical child abuse amongst medical and dental residents of central Gujarat: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Anshula; Macwan, Chirag; Poonacha, K S; Bargale, Seema; Dhillon, Steffi; Porwal, Prriya

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a state of emotional, physical, economic, and sexual maltreatment met out to a person below the age of 18 and is a globally prevalent phenomenon. However, in India, there has been no understanding of the extent, magnitude, and trends of the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of medical and dental residents with regards to physical child abuse of central Gujarat. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the medical and dental residents of central Gujarat. Data were collected from a self-administered questionnaire for a total of 130 residents, in which 89 medical and 41 dental residents responded. Knowledge regarding the social indicator of child abuse was found to be poor in 27.7% (n = 36), average in 68.5% (n = 89), and good in 3.8% (n = 5); and for physical indicator it was found to be poor in 10.8% (n = 14), average 66.9% (n = 87), and good 22.3% (n = 29). Forty-nine percent (n = 64) of the respondents reported having formal training in recognizing child abuse, and 32% (n = 42) had read literature on the topic. Fifty-five percent (n = 72) stated that education regarding child abuse is extremely important. Result of the present study found that medical and dental residents are not sufficiently prepared to endure their role in protection of child from abuse. A significant gap existed between recognizing signs of physical child abuse and responding effectively. Improvements in child abuse education and continuing education courses are advised to provide adequate knowledge.

  11. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N Al Dosari

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can be measured, and prevention initiatives, such as screening and counseling for parents of children at risk, can be developed and incorporated into primary care practice.

  12. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  13. Evaluations of child transgressions, disciplinary choices, and expected child compliance in a no-cry and a crying infant condition in physically abusive and comparison mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselles, C E; Milner, J S

    2000-04-01

    Several components of a social information processing model of child physical abuse were tested. Abusive and comparison mothers' evaluations of children's transgressions, choices of disciplinary techniques, expectations for children's compliance following discipline, and appraisals of the appropriateness of disciplinary choice were examined in a no-cry and a crying-infant condition. Thirty physically abusive and 30 matched comparison mothers were individually matched on ethnic background, age, education, marital status, number of children, and cognitive ability. Mothers were asked to respond to questions related to vignettes describing children engaging in moral, conventional, and personal transgressions. As predicted, abusive, relative to comparison, mothers evaluated conventional and personal, but not moral, transgressions as more wrong, used more power assertion (physical and verbal force), expected less compliance from their own children, and appraised their own disciplinary responses as less appropriate. In contrast to expectations, there were no group by cry condition interaction effects on any of the study measures. The findings provide additional support for the view that abusive, relative to comparison, mothers are different in their evaluations and expectations of their own children's behaviors and that they more frequently select aversive disciplinary techniques. However, given the lack of an expected differential impact of a stressful condition on the cognitions and disciplinary choices in abusive mothers, additional research is needed.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  15. Exploratory Study of the Clinical Characteristics of Adolescent Girls with a History of Physical or Sexual Abuse Consulting in a Mood Disorder Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Amelie; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Berthiaume, Claude; Balan, Bogdan; Huynh, Christophe; Guile, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the clinical characteristics of adolescent girls consulting in a mood disorder clinic with a history of physical or sexual abuse. Method A retrospective review was conducted of the charts of 55 adolescent girls consulting in a mood disorder clinic. An analysis grid was used to gather data on demographics, personal antecedents, symptoms and diagnoses. Girls with a history of physical or sexual abuse were compared with girls without such a history. Univariate analyses and a logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Adolescent girls with a history of physical or sexual abuse did not differ statistically from those without such a history in terms of depressive symptoms or type and number of diagnoses. However, proportionally more girls with a history of physical or sexual abuse presented self-harm and relational problems with their parents and peers. Conclusion Both history of physical or sexual abuse and self-destructive behaviors are rooted in relational problems. The results show that these are related to one another among those adolescent girls. Clinically, these findings suggest that it is important for clinicians do a thorough exploration of self-destructive behaviors and family and peer relations when assessing depressed adolescent girls. PMID:28747935

  16. Strategies to reduce the tampering and subsequent abuse of long-acting opioids: potential risks and benefits of formulations with physical or pharmacologic deterrents to tampering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanos, Steven P; Bruckenthal, Patricia; Barkin, Robert L

    2012-07-01

    Increased prescribing of opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain may reflect acceptance that opioid benefits outweigh risks of adverse events for a broadening array of indications and patient populations; however, a parallel increase in the abuse, misuse, and diversion of prescription opioids has resulted. There is an urgent need to reduce opioid tampering and subsequent abuse without creating barriers to safe, effective analgesia. Similar to the "magic bullet" concept of antibiotic development (kill the bacteria without harming the patient), the idea behind reformulating opioid analgesics is to make them more difficult to tamper with and abuse by drug abusers but innocuous to the compliant patient. As antibiotics exploit differences in bacterial and human physiology, tamper-resistant formulations depend on differences in the way drug abusers and compliant patients consume opioids. Most opioid abusers tamper with tablets to facilitate oral, intranasal, or intravenous administration, whereas compliant patients usually take intact tablets. Pharmaceutical strategies to deter opioid abuse predominantly focus on tablet tampering, incorporating physical barriers (eg, crush resistance) or embedded chemicals that render tampered tablets inert, unusable, or noxious. Deterring tampering and abuse of intact tablets is more challenging. At present, only a few formulations with characteristics designed to oppose tampering for abuse have received approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and none has been permitted to include claims of abuse deterrence or tamper resistance in their labeling. This review discusses the potential benefits, risks, and limitations associated with available tamper-resistant opioids and those in development. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring Unsubstantiated Reports by Educational Personnel of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect in New York State Using Geographic Information System Technology: Is There a Disproportionate Impact on African American Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krase, Kathryn S.

    2009-01-01

    "Educational personnel" serve as an important conduit for family involvement in child protective services (CPS). Educational personnel are the largest source of reports of suspected child maltreatment in the United States (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2007). However, reports made by educational personnel are…

  18. Predictors of Physical Altercation among Adolescents in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, Rachel D.; Becan, Jennifer Edwards; Knight, Danica Kalling; Joe, George W.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that basic social information-processing components represented by family conflict, peer aggression, and pro-aggression cognitive scripts are related to aggression and social problems among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The sample consisted of 547 adolescents in two community-based residential facilities. Correlation results indicated that more peer aggression is related to more pro-aggression scripts; scripts, peer aggression, and family conflict ...

  19. [Factors associated with non-institutional abuse in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Martínez, Carmelo; Hernández Morante, Juan José; Carrasco Martínez, Elena; García Belzunce, Agustín; Nicolás Alarcón, Virginia

    Abuse in elderly has dimensions not yet sufficiently explored. Particularly, little is known about the abuse or mistreatment suffered by old people in nursing homes, but where the origin is not, at least initially, institutional, since is perpetrated by external social agents not related to the nursing home. The lack of data in this area has led us to conduct this exploratory study, with the aim of assessing the prevalence of this non-institutional abuse. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index was administered to a total of 286 subjects belonging to the nursing homes from the «Mensajeros de la Paz» Association of Murcia. Cases of suspected abuse were referred to the social workers to confirm the diagnosis. Initially, 53 subjects (18.5%) suffered any kind of abuse, which was reduced to only 26 cases after one year. On the other hand, abuse appeared after admission in 20 subjects (7%). Precisely, this 7% might present what we called non-institutional abuse. Economic abuse was the most prevalent, followed by psychological, neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. The data showed a significant interaction between the different types of abuse. Our data provides evidence of a new scenario that must be addressed in a professional and social context, considering the environment where this mistreatment takes place. Health and social professionals must be sensitive to this reality, and should be informed and trained about the different ways to dignify the care of the elderly. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of veterinarians in recognition and prevention of animal abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Criminal law of the Republic of Serbia in 2005 as well as the Law on veterinary medicine, there has been an increasing number of cases that deal with raising criminal charges due to animal killing or torturing. There is also a significant number of forensic cases that are aimed at discovering criminal acts. Animal abuse is a social issue, which includes a range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse, or neglect. Abuse and neglect of animals have a variety of forms and manifestations, but the end result is always the same - animal suffering. The connection between animal abuse, domestic violence, and child abuse indicates that there is a significant role of veterinarians in social contexts and in terms of stopping this vicious cycle by preventing, discovering and turning in suspects involved in these crimes. The help that veterinarians provide to public prosecutors is of great importance. This study shows the role of veterinarians in cases of possible animal abuse, as well as their role in processing that type of cases.

  1. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  2. Physical and sexual abuse in orphaned compared to non-orphaned children in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J; Embleton, L; Mwangi, A; Morantz, G; Vreeman, R; Ayaya, S; Ayuku, D; Braitstein, P

    2014-02-01

    This systematic review assessed the quantitative literature to determine whether orphans are more likely to experience physical and/or sexual abuse compared to non-orphans in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It also evaluated the quality of evidence and identified research gaps. Our search identified 10 studies, all published after 2005, from Zimbabwe, South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. The studies consisted of a total 17,336 participants (51% female and 58% non-orphans). Of those classified as orphans (n=7,315), 73% were single orphans, and 27% were double orphans. The majority of single orphans were paternal orphans (74%). Quality assessment revealed significant variability in the quality of the studies, although most scored higher for general design than dimensions specific to the domain of orphans and abuse. Combined estimates of data suggested that, compared to non-orphans, orphans are not more likely to experience physical abuse (combined OR=0.96, 95% CI [0.79, 1.16]) or sexual abuse (combined OR=1.25, 95% CI [0.88, 1.78]). These data suggest that orphans are not systematically at higher risk of experiencing physical or sexual abuse compared to non-orphans in sub-Saharan Africa. However, because of inconsistent quality of data and reporting, these findings should be interpreted with caution. Several recommendations are made for improving data quality and reporting consistency on this important issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  4. Exploring the relationship between child physical abuse and adult dating violence using a causal inference approach in an emerging adult population in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Park, MiRang; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela; Powers, Ráchael A

    2014-12-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most commonly examined risk factors for violence in dating relationships. Often referred to as the intergenerational transmission of violence or cycle of violence, a fair amount of research suggests that experiencing abuse during childhood significantly increases the likelihood of involvement in violent relationships later, but these conclusions are primarily based on correlational research designs. Furthermore, the majority of research linking childhood maltreatment and dating violence has focused on samples of young people from the United States. Considering these limitations, the current study uses a rigorous, propensity score matching approach to estimate the causal effect of experiencing child physical abuse on adult dating violence among a large sample of South Korean emerging adults. Results indicate that the link between child physical abuse and adult dating violence is spurious rather than causal. Study limitations and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  6. [Female child sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyedy, Andrea; Csorba, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse is 12-13% worldwide (18% by girls, 8% by boys). The exact knowledge of sexual abuse and the spread of the adequate medical diagnosis is an essential medical, social and national requirement. In our present study we examine the medical diagnosis of female child sexual abuse. Selective literature research in the available international and domestic databases. Majority of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse have normal genital and anal findings. Contrary to popular belief, the majority of child sexual abuse is a chronic multiple event, caused by a family member. The task of the medical staff is difficult and various, due to the diagnostic challenges of child sexual abuse. The difficulties of the medical diagnosis, evaluation and therapy, the complexity of the legal proceedings and prosecution, the isolation of the profession and the victim and the issue treated like a taboo subject often lead to failure. The physicians dealing with children have suboptimal knowledge of child sexual abuse, the characteristics of victims and perpetretors, the medical diagnosis and therapy of sexual abuse and the rehabilitation of victims. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(23): 910-917.

  7. Maternal Use of Physical Punishment in Response to Child Misbehavior: Implications for Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateah, C.A.; Durrant, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The objective was to examine the roles of cognition and affect in maternal use of physical punishment. Method:: Through a review of the literature, distal and proximal predictors (cognitive and affective) of physical punishment use were identified. One hundred and ten mothers of 3-year-old children were interviewed regarding two…

  8. Mechanisms of the Intergenerational Transmission of Physical and Emotional Abuse : Emotion Regulation, Chronic Stress, Empathy and Rejection Sensitivity as Underlying Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, L.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Research proposal of my PhD-project. In this project, 4 potential mechanisms of the intergenerational transmission of physical and emotional abuse, being emotion regulation, chronic stress, empathy and rejection sensitivity will be examined using the data from the RADAR and YOUth study.

  9. Case, Teacher and School Characteristics Influencing Teachers' Detection and Reporting of Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: Results from an Australian Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Farrell, Ann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Schweitzer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the influence of multiple case, teacher and school characteristics on Australian primary school teachers' propensity to detect and report child physical abuse and neglect using vignettes as short hypothetical cases. Methods: A sample of 254 teachers completed a self-report questionnaire. They responded to a series of 32…

  10. The Differential Impacts of Early Physical and Sexual Abuse and Internalizing Problems on Daytime Cortisol Rhythm in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of early physical and sexual abuse (EPA/SA) occurring in the first 5 years of life was investigated in relation to depressive and internalizing symptomatology and diurnal cortisol regulation. In a summer camp context, school-aged maltreated (n = 265) and nonmaltreated (n = 288) children provided morning and late afternoon saliva samples…

  11. Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse as Risk Factors for the Development of Bulimia Nervosa: A Community-Based Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Sarah L.; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    Young women (n=102) with bulimia nervosa were compared with 204 control subjects without an eating disorder and with 102 subjects with other psychiatric disorders. Results suggest that sexual and physical abuse are both risk factors for psychiatric disorders in general, including bulimia nervosa, but are not specific risk factors for bulimia. (DB)

  12. The Co-Occurrence of Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Use of Psychologically, Physically, and Sexually Abusive Behaviours in Their Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Heather A.; Sandra Byers, E.; Lisa Price, E.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the co-occurrence of and risk factors for adolescent boys' and girls' self-reported use of psychologically, physically, and sexually abusive behaviours in their dating relationships. The participants were 324 boys and 309 girls in grades 7, 9, or 11 who completed surveys at school. Descriptive analyses showed that 19% of boys and 26%…

  13. Comparing Physically Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Parents during Interactions with Their Children: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven R.; Rack, Jessica J.; Shi, Xiaowei; Norris, Alda M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the nature and extent of differences in the ways that physically abusive, neglectful, and non-maltreating parents communicate during interactions with their children. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted of 33 observational studies comparing parent-child interactions in families where parents have a documented history of…

  14. The association between childhood sexual and physical abuse with incident adult severe obesity across 13 years of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Dietz, William H.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe obesity has increased yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Objective Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared to those who did not report abuse. Methods Longitudinal analysis of participants from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=10,774) Wave II (1996; aged 12–22 years) followed through Wave IV (2008–09; aged 24–34 years). New cases of adult-onset severe obesity (BMI≥40 kg/m2 using measured height and weight) in individuals followed over 13 years who were not severely obese during adolescence (BMI obesity in adulthood in non-minority females (Hazard Ratio=2.5; 1.3, 4.8) and males (Hazard Ratio=3.6; 1.5, 8.5) compared to individuals with no history of abuse. Conclusion In addition to other social and emotional risks, exposure to sexual and physical abuse during childhood may increase risk of severe obesity later in life. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity. PMID:24115589

  15. The association between childhood sexual and physical abuse with incident adult severe obesity across 13 years of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A S; Dietz, W H; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2014-10-01

    Severe obesity has increased, yet childhood antecedents of adult severe obesity are not well understood. Estimate adult-onset severe obesity risk in individuals with history of childhood physical and/or sexual abuse compared with those who did not report abuse. Longitudinal analysis of participants from the US National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 10,774) wave II (1996; aged 12-22 years) followed through wave IV (2008-2009; aged 24-34 years). New cases of adult-onset severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 40 kg/m2 using measured height and weight) in individuals followed over 13 years who were not severely obese during adolescence (BMI severe obesity in adulthood in non-minority females (hazard ratio [HR; 95% Confidence Interval] = 2.5; 1.3, 4.8) and males (HR = 3.6; 1.5, 8.5) compared with individuals with no history of abuse. In addition to other social and emotional risks, exposure to sexual and physical abuse during childhood may increase risk of severe obesity later in life. Consideration of the confluence of childhood abuse might be considered as part of preventive and therapeutic approaches to address severe obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  16. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  17. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 389-394

  18. Child Abuse-Neglect and Forensic Odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehtiye Fusun Yasar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The battered child syndrome, a behavioral deviation exposing children to harmful, non-accidental and preventable physical treatment of person or people who are responsible to look after them which prevents their physical and psycosocial development and conflicts with the cultural values of the society, is style of great importance today as an undissolved humanity problem. Child abuse is considered among the most severe forms of chidhood trauma due to its repeatability, and to its being performed by those closest to the victim. Its diagnosis is very difficult, and therefore so is its treatment. Its physical, psychological and social consequences appear in the long run. The awereness, experience and motivation of the physician are extremely important for diagnosis. Forensic deontologists have a very important role to describe the child abuse and neglect. When they examine the child they can find many evidence about abuse and neglect in oral cavity. Therefore when a child has oral injuries or dental neglect is suspected, the child will benefit from the physician's consultation with a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology. Multidisciplinary teams for identifying and evaluating cases of child abuse and neglect present one option for collaboration. In that case physicians, dentists and child care workers working together can assist each other in the detection and of the effects of child abuse. This article is planned, to underline the seriousness and importance of the law, to clarify deficiencies of the law and to take attention of related people. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 389-394

  19. Examining the effectiveness of home-based parent aide services to reduce risk for physical child abuse and neglect: six-month findings from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B; Tabone, Jiyoung K; Bryan, George M; Taylor, Catherine A; Napoleon-Hanger, Cynthia; Banman, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    This study set out to carry out a feasible, real-world, randomized clinical trial to examine the benefits of home-based paraprofessional parent aide services in reducing physical abuse and neglect risk in high-risk parents. Families were randomly assigned to receive either parent aide plus case management services (n = 73) or case management services only (n = 65), collecting in-home data on physical child abuse and neglect and proximal risk and protective factors, just prior to service initiation, and again after six months of services. Mothers receiving parent aide and case management services reported significant improvements from baseline to six-month follow-up in self-reported indicators of physical child abuse risk, as well as improvements on parental stress, mastery, depression, and anxiety, whereas mothers receiving only case management services did not. The slopes of such observed changes across groups, however, were not found to be statistically significantly different. No discernable improvements were found with regard to indicators of risk for child neglect. As the first randomized clinical trial examining the effectiveness of parent aide services, this study provides the first controlled evidence examining the potential benefits of this service modality. This study suggests promising trends regarding the benefit of parent aide services with respect to physical child abuse risk reduction and related predictors, but evidence does not appear to suggest that such services, as they are presently delivered, reduce child neglect. These findings support the continued use of parent aide services in cases of physical child abuse and also suggest careful consideration of the ways such services may be better configured to extend their impact, particularly with respect to child neglect risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Prevalence and Comorbidity between Delinquency, Drug Abuse, Suicide Attempts, Physical and Sexual Abuse, and Self-Mutilation among Delinquent Hispanic Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Jeanette; Curry, Theodore R.

    2007-01-01

    Representative data show that drug abuse, delinquency, and suicide attempts are major concerns among adolescent Hispanic females. Although comorbidity research indicates that such problems tend to be related to each other, this research largely neglects Hispanic females. Using data from presentence investigations on 141 Hispanic girls sentenced to…

  1. The Use and Abuse of Anabolic Steroids: A Discussion for Health and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John A.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This article reviews research on anabolic steroids, indicating that athletes are mistaken in believing that taking them will improve their physical performance. Dangerous side-effects are also discussed. (JA)

  2. Risk factors for child physical abuse and neglect among Chinese young mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Camilla K M; Tung, Keith T S; Chan, Ko Ling; Yip, Paul S F; Lau, Joseph T F; Wong, Wilfred H S; Wong, Rosa S; Tsang, Anita M C; Tsang, Hannah Y H; Tso, Winnie W Y; Ip, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Although studies have reported a linkage between young pregnancy and child maltreatment risk, it is still unclear about what factors place young mothers at greater risk of maltreating their child in Chinese context. Based on the socio-ecological model, risk factors in 4 domains: family background/structure, maternal stressors, mother-child interaction, and child behavioral issue in relation to physical assault, neglect, both physical assault and neglect, and either physical assault or neglect among Chinese young mothers in Hong Kong were assessed. 392 young mothers were recruited from an integrated supportive program for young mothers. The mean age of mothers at delivery was 21.8 (SD=3.0) and 52.3% were married. Individual risk factors and cumulative risk domains related to different child maltreatment groups were examined. Our results show both overlapping and unique risk factors across the domains associated with physical assault and neglect. Further, young families exposed to higher number of risk domains show higher rates for physical assault and neglect, co-occurrence of physical assault and neglect, and either form of maltreatment. In addition, various risk domains were found to be particularly important for different forms of maltreatment: family background/structure domain was found to be an important risk domain for neglect; mother-child interaction domain for both physical assault and neglect; family background/structure and maternal stressors domains for either physical assault or neglect. Closer examination of a subgroup of adolescent mothers aged 18 and below shows that family background/structure was an important risk domain for this group. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The scope of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse in a Bedouin-Arab community of female adolescents: The interplay of racism, urbanization, polygamy, family honor, and the social marginalization of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-03-01

    This is an exploratory study of the abuse-especially sexual-of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these forms of abuse. : A self-administered survey that measured demographic characteristics and psychological abuse was distributed to 217 female high-school students (aged 14-18 years). Sexual and physical abuse were measured via the Finkelhor's scale [Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press]. Sixty-nine percent of the participants (n=149) reported no sexual abuse experiences, 16% reported one or two experiences, 11% reported three or four, and 4% reported more than four. Most participants indicated that they had been physically abused at least once by their father (37.1%), mother (43.7%), or siblings (44%) during the previous month. More than 50% of the participants reported being psychologically abused by members of their immediate families. Mother's age and closeness to mother significantly predicted physical abuse, and marital satisfaction and mother's age significantly predicted psychological abuse. This study addresses a topic that has never before been fully investigated--the maltreatment of females in a conservative, tribal Arab community. Although this was an exploratory study, the results attest that female abuse is a serious social problem in this community, and that the rate of abuse exceeds that of other Palestinian groups. These findings demonstrate an immediate need for professional intervention and prevention to address this problem.

  4. [Legal consequences in cases of child abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S

    2013-09-01

    Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse: A Review and Intervention Framework for the Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharinger, Deborah J.; Vevier, Ellen

    1987-01-01

    A review of descriptive and demographic data pertaining to intervention strategies with child sexual abuse victims presents an intervention framework delineating six role functions: becoming knowledgeable about abuse; responding sensitively to disclosures of abuse; detecting possible indicators of abuse; reporting suspected abuse; seeking…

  6. A preliminary examination of child well-being of physically abused and neglected children compared to a normative pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Raghavan, Ramesh; Auslander, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Federal mandates require state child welfare systems to monitor and improve outcomes for children in three areas: safety, permanency, and well-being. Research across separate domains of child well-being indicates maltreated children may experience lower pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed well-being in maltreated children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), a widely used measure of pediatric HRQL. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess well-being in a sample of children (N = 129) receiving child welfare services following reports of alleged physical abuse or neglect. We compared total scores and domain scores for this maltreated sample to those of a published normative sample. Within the maltreated sample, we also compared well-being by child and family demographic characteristics. As compared with a normative pediatric population, maltreated children reported significantly lower total, physical, and psychosocial health. We found no significant differences in total and domain scores based on child and parent demographics within the maltreated sample. This preliminary exploration indicates children receiving child welfare services have significantly lower well-being status than the general child population and have considerable deficits in social and emotional functioning. These findings support continued investment in maltreatment prevention and services to improve the well-being of victims of maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Sexual Abuse Of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1982-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relation...

  9. Helpfulness of rectoanal endosonography in diagnosis of sexual abuse in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostion, Carmen Gloria; Galaz, María Isabel; Contador, Mónica; Aldunate, Margarita; Benavides, Sandra; Harz, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Clinical importance of sexual abuse in children has rapidly expanded in recent years, but despite of it, the lack of medical signs in the vast majority of sexual abuse cases, makes it difficult to assess. Given that, owing to our prior experience in endosonography (EUS) of the anal canal in child with anorectal malformations, we wanted to test EUS as a diagnostic method of sexual abuse in a child. The purpose of our study is to present our experience in the use of anorectal EUS among children with suspected sexual abuse. We present 40 consecutive patients (34 boys and 6 girls, age: 10months-13years) recruited from April 2010 to December 2012, with suspected sexual abuse those made a transrectal EUS. The procedure was well-tolerated in all patients without complications. Rectoanal EUS findings were normal in 27 patients and showed a partial interruption in the external anal sphincter in 8, scars in 2, double rail image in 2, and rectal wall hematoma in 1. The interpretation of findings in children depends of historical, physical, and laboratory findings. We believe that anal EUS is another aid in the constellation of clinical factors that could help in diagnostic of sexual abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Overlooked Factor in Sexual Abuse: Psychological and Physical Force Examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Separate studies of sex offenders in treatment while serving prison sentences and placed on probation suggest that psychological force is more commonly used in sexual assault than physical force. Seven types of psychological force are described, and the conceptual validity of this schematic for use in treatment is evaluated. (Author/EMK)

  11. Sexual Abuse Directed to Children Admitted to Kocaeli University School of Medicine Department of Forensic Medicine 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başar Çolak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is the abuse of the child, who has not yet completed his/her sexual development, by an adult for sexual arousal. Misdiagnosed sexual abuse is the cause of either suspect’s being punished or harming of unguilt as well as preventing children’s protection. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate child sexual abuse cases with their characteristics and examination periods which are informed to Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine. Between 1998-2006, the reports and files of cases at the registers of Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, examined retrospectively. Fifty cases (3,1%under the heading of sexual abuse are included in the study. It is determined that 62% of cases are females, 38% of them are males and 60 % of the cases are under the age of 12. It is also determined that suspects are mostly the cases’ acquaintances (70% and all of suspects are males. In the 36% (n= 18 of the cases, the questions are asked towards physical diagnosis, in 50% (n = 25 of the cases, the questions were oriented towards mental health, while 14% (n=7 of the cases are examined through both physical and mental evaluations. Impairment of mental health which can be considered as the result of sexual abuse are determined in the 60,5% (n=23 of 38 mental-oriented cases. After recent legal arrangement, a significant increase in sexual abuses is observed and recorded in Department of Forensic Medicine. The organisation and functioning of the units connected to the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Justice are considered unsuitable for the evaluation of sexual abuse. Foundation of Center of Sexual Abuse Evaluation would provide early treatment of present or probable pathologies as well as precise diagnosis. Key words: Child, sexual abuse, mental evaluation, child psychiatry

  12. Physical assault, physical threat, and verbal abuse perpetrated against hospital workers by patients or visitors in six U.S. hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeii, Lisa A; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Smith, Claudia D; Upadhyaya, Mudita

    2015-11-01

    An elevated risk of patient/visitor perpetrated violence (type II) against hospital nurses and physicians have been reported, while little is known about type II violence among other hospital workers, and circumstances surrounding these events. Hospital workers (n = 11,000) in different geographic areas were invited to participate in an anonymous survey. Twelve-month prevalence of type II violence was 39%; 2,098 of 5,385 workers experienced 1,180 physical assaults, 2,260 physical threats, and 5,576 incidents of verbal abuse. Direct care providers were at significant risk, as well as some workers that do not provide direct care. Perpetrator circumstances attributed to violent events included altered mental status, behavioral issues, pain/medication withdrawal, dissatisfaction with care. Fear for safety was common among worker victims (38%). Only 19% of events were reported into official reporting systems. This pervasive occupational safety issue is of great concern and likely extends to patients for whom these workers care for. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of... suspected child abuse and neglect to State or local authorities The prohibitions of this section do not... suspected child abuse and neglect to the appropriate State or local authorities. (f) Penalty for first and...

  14. Maltrato infantil físico en pacientes diagnosticados en el Hospital Pediátrico “Juan M. Márquez”, 1996-1998 Physical child abuse in patients diagnosed at “Juan M. Márquez” Pediatric Hospital, 1996-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Fernández Couce

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en el período de octubre de 1996 a octubre de 1998 en el Hospital Pediátrico “Juan M. Márquez” para identificar el comportamiento del maltrato físico en una muestra de 81 niños con diagnóstico de maltrato físico intencional o no. Predominó el maltrato infantil en el menor de un año (38,2 % y la madre estuvo vinculada al maltrato en los lactantes el 71,0 %. Lesiones en la cabeza el 49,4 % y fueron severas en 27 pacientes (33,3 %. En 21 casos la explicación de cómo ocurrió la lesión no fue consecuente con los signos encontrados (25,9 % y el abuso fue reportado por 15 niños (18,5 %. Las equimosis en 33 niños para el 40,7 %. Requirió de hospitalización el 60,4 % y 4 niños fallecieron (1,4 por 10 000 niños ingresados. En este estudio, los lactantes fueron vulnerables al maltrato físico por la madre y cuando las lesiones clínicas no están en el rango previsible para la edad sugiere sospecha de maltrato, por lo que el interrogatorio adecuado es importante.A descriptive study was conducted from October 1996 to October 1998 at “Juan M. Márquez” Pediatric Hospital aimed at identifying the behavior of child abuse in a sample of 81 children with diagnosis of intentional or not physical abuse. Child abuse predominated in children under one year old (38.2 % and the mother was related to abuse in infants in 71.0 % of the cases. Head injuries were observed in 49.4 % and they were severe in 27patients (33.3 %. The explanation of how the injury occurred was not consistent with the signs detected in 21 cases (25.9 %. Abuse was reported by 15 children (18.5 %. Ecchymosis was present in 33 children, accounting for 40.7 %. 60.4 % required hospitalization and 4 children died (1.4 per 10 000 admitted children. In this study, the infants were vulnerable to physical abuse by the mother and when the clinical injuries are not in the foreseeable range according to age, abuse is suspected and that's why an

  15. A prospective study examining the effects of gender and sexual/physical abuse on mood outcomes in patients with co-occurring bipolar I and substance use disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S.; McDonald, Leah J.; Graff, Fiona S.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Prior research suggests possible gender differences in the longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD). This study prospectively examined gender differences in mood outcomes and tested the effects of sexual/physical abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods Participants (49 men, 41 women) with co-occurring bipolar I and substance use disorders (92% alcohol, 42% drug) were enrolled in a group treatment trial. They were followed for 8 months, with monthly assessments, yielding 32 weeks of data. Primary outcome measures were number of weeks in each mood state, recurrences to depression or mania, and polarity shifts from depression to mania or vice versa. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the effects of gender, lifetime abuse, and PTSD on these outcomes. Results Participants met syndromal criteria for a mood episode on a mean of 27% of 32 weeks, with depression occurring most frequently. Compared to men, women reported significantly more weeks of mixed mania (RR = 8.53), fewer weeks of euthymia (RR = 0.58), more recurrences to mania (RR = 1.96), and more direct polarity shifts (RR = 1.49) (all p sexual or physical abuse (68% vs. 33%), which partially explained the relationships between gender and mixed mania and direct polarity shifts. Conclusions Participants experienced persistent mood symptoms over time. Women consistently reported poorer mood outcomes, and lifetime abuse may help explain observed gender differences in mood outcomes. Further research is necessary to better understand the treatment implications of these findings. PMID:19392857

  16. Reported physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adult HIV risk behaviour in three African countries: findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR -0.6 (CI: -0.9, -0.4, p abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection.

  17. A prospective study examining the effects of gender and sexual/physical abuse on mood outcomes in patients with co-occurring bipolar I and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; McDonald, Leah J; Graff, Fiona S; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Griffin, Margaret L; Weiss, Roger D

    2009-06-01

    Prior research suggests possible gender differences in the longitudinal course of bipolar disorder. This study prospectively examined gender differences in mood outcomes and tested the effects of sexual/physical abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants (49 men, 41 women) with co-occurring bipolar I and substance use disorders (92% alcohol, 42% drug) were enrolled in a group treatment trial. They were followed for eight months, with monthly assessments, yielding 32 weeks of data. Primary outcome measures were number of weeks in each mood state, recurrences of depression or mania, and polarity shifts from depression to mania or vice versa. Negative binomial regression was used to examine the effects of gender, lifetime abuse, and PTSD on these outcomes. Participants met syndromal criteria for a mood episode on a mean of 27% of 32 weeks, with depression occurring most frequently. Compared to men, women reported significantly more weeks of mixed mania [relative rate (RR) = 8.53], fewer weeks of euthymia (RR = 0.58), more recurrences of mania (RR = 1.96), and more direct polarity shifts (RR = 1.49) (all p physical abuse (68% versus 33%), which partially explained the relationships between gender and mixed mania and direct polarity shifts. Participants experienced persistent mood symptoms over time. Women consistently reported poorer mood outcomes, and lifetime abuse may help explain observed gender differences in mood outcomes. Further research is necessary to better understand the treatment implications of these findings.

  18. sexually abused children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence of child abuse rockets. The Daily News 1996; 11 July: 15. 2. Kiser LJ, Heston J, Millsap PA, Pruitt DB. Physical and sexual abuse in childhood: relationship with post-traumatic stress disorder. J. An Acad Child. Adolesc Psychiatry 1991; 30: 776-783. 3. Kendall-Tackett W, Myers L. Finkelhor D. Impact of sexual ...

  19. Pediatric glaucoma suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooner K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Karanjit Kooner,1 Matthew Harrison,1 Zohra Prasla,1 Mohannad Albdour,1 Beverley Adams-Huet21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: To report demographic and ocular features of pediatric glaucoma suspects in an ethnically diverse population of North Central Texas.Design: Retrospective cross-sectional chart review.Participants: Subjects included 75 (136 eyes pediatric glaucoma suspects. Patients with one or more of the following risk factors were included: cup-to disc (C/D ratio of ≥0.6; intraocular pressure (IOP ≥21 mmHg; family history of glaucoma; congenital glaucoma in the opposite eye; history of blunt trauma to either eye; and presence of either Sturge–Weber or Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome, or oculodermal melanocytosis.Methods: Data were extracted from electronic patient medical records. Patient records with incomplete data were excluded. The main outcome measures were race, sex, age, IOP, C/D, family history of glaucoma; and glaucoma treatment.Results: Subjects included 28 (37.3% Hispanics, 20 (26.6% African Americans, 20 (26.6% Caucasians, and seven (9.3% Asians. Forty (53.3% of the patients were male. Suspicious optic disc was seen in 57 (76%; elevated IOP in 25 (33.3%; presence of family history in 13 (17.3%, and Sturge–Weber syndrome in nine (12% patients. The average C/D ratio was 0.58±0.2. The C/D ratios of African American (0.65±0.2, Hispanic (0.63±0.2, and Asian (0.62±0.15 patients were significantly greater than those of Caucasians (0.43±0.18; P=0.0004, 0.0003, and 0.0139, respectively. Caucasian patients were the youngest (7.9±4.8 years. Eleven cases (14.7% required medication.Conclusion: Thirty-three point seven percent of patients seen in the glaucoma clinic were glaucoma suspects. The most common risk factors for suspected glaucoma were suspicious optic discs, elevated IOP, and family history

  20. Trauma and Sexuality: The Effects of Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse on Sexual Identity and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, James A., Ed.; Bowman, Elizabeth S., Ed.

    This book examines the effects of childhood trauma--including sexual abuse--on sexual orientation and behavior. It is directed at helping counselors expand their sensitivity and expertise in a critically important way: by providing a nonjudgmental look at the profound effects of long-standing early abuse on the sexual identities, orientation,…

  1. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  2. Prenatal exposure to testosterone interacts with lifetime physical abuse to predict anger rumination and cognitive flexibility among incarcerated methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschl, Laura C; Highland, Krista B; McChargue, Dennis E

    2012-01-01

    The present pilot study hypothesized that degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with a history of lifetime physical abuse (LPA) to predict the cognitive (anger rumination) and behavioral (intimate partner and interpersonal violence) components of aggression within incarcerated methamphetamine (MA) users. In addition, we hypothesized that the degree of exposure to prenatal testosterone interacts with LPA to predict cognitive flexibility (Stroop Color-Word performance). Male inmate MA users (N = 60) completed neuropsychological and paper/pencil tests. Hand photocopies were also obtained to index prenatal testosterone exposure. Five covariate-adjusted moderation models were tested using anger rumination, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, interpersonal violence perpetration (before and while incarcerated), and Stroop Color-Word T-score as the criteria, prenatal testosterone exposure as the predictor, and LPA as the moderator. Results indicated that, in individuals with a history of LPA, exposure to higher levels of prenatal testosterone exposure predicted greater anger rumination, lower Stroop Color-Word test T-scores, and lower frequencies of IPV perpetration. Findings were not significant in individuals without a history of LPA. This research suggests that biochemical and psychosocial vulnerabilities influence anger rumination and cognitive flexibility, which may render incarcerated MA users at greater risk to relapse or recidivate upon release from prison. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Psychological pathways from childhood sexual and physical abuse to HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among homeless women: the role of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Eric; Sandfort, Theo G M; Watson, Kalycia T; Caton, Carol L M

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the psychological factors linking childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection outcomes among 190 single homeless women in New York City. Participants were assessed for mental health symptoms, sexually transmitted infections, and exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse. Findings indicate that the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV/sexually transmitted infection diagnoses during adulthood is mediated by a combination of posttraumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms. Screening single homeless women who report childhood abuse histories for symptoms of both disorders may aid in the identification of individuals particularly vulnerable for HIV infection. Implications for clinical interventions are discussed.

  4. The Principal's Role in Reporting Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Beth

    1991-01-01

    The role of the principal in identifying and reporting child abuse and neglect is discussed in this bulletin. Although all 50 states and the District of Columbia have laws that require educators to report cases in which they have knowledge or reasonable cause to suspect child abuse, passage of legislation does not always lead to compliance.…

  5. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  6. Advocacy Interventions to Reduce or Eliminate Violence and Promote the Physical and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Abuse: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas, C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency intervention provided by service staff or others. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. SEARCH METHODS In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN, and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. MAIN RESULTS We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status. The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years, although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also

  7. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...

  8. Child Abuse and Neglect: Knowing when to Intervene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Susan

    2007-01-01

    If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…

  9. Prevention of Child Abuse: Possibilities for Educational Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Christine P.

    1987-01-01

    Educators' roles in identification of abused/neglected children, subsequent reporting, and techniques for interviewing suspected abused children are discussed. Educators' expanded role in abuse prevention, involving such activities as offering courses in parenting, child safety/protection, and human sexuality, is examined, followed by a…

  10. The direct and interactive effects of physical abuse severity and negative affectivity on length of psychiatric hospitalization: evidence of differential reactivity to adverse environments in psychiatrically high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Michelle; Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the interactive influence of multiple factors (i.e., physical abuse severity and negative affectivity) in predicting youth's inpatient psychiatric length of stay (LOS), extending previous research focused on identification of only single LOS predictors. Elevated physical abuse severity was hypothesized to predict longer youth LOS, and negative affectivity was anticipated to exacerbate this relationship. This study included 42 youth. Clinicians rated youth temperament, whereas physical abuse severity and LOS were coded from youth medical records. Controlling for other previously determined predictors of LOS (i.e., age, gender, and GAF), moderation analyses confirmed hypotheses, revealing a temperament by environment interaction. Specifically, physical abuse severity was positively associated with LOS only in the context of high negative affectivity. Findings highlighted the importance of disentangling the interactive effects of multiple factors in predicting LOS. Moreover, critical clinical implications involving prioritized trauma assessment and treatment for inpatient youth are discussed.

  11. Advocacy interventions to reduce or eliminate violence and promote the physical and psychosocial well-being of women who experience intimate partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Ramsay, Jean; Sadowski, Laura; Davidson, Leslie L; Dunne, Danielle; Eldridge, Sandra; Hegarty, Kelsey; Taft, Angela; Feder, Gene

    2015-12-03

    Intimate partner abuse is common worldwide, damaging the short- and long-term physical, mental, and emotional health of survivors and children. Advocacy may contribute to reducing abuse, empowering women to improve their situation by providing informal counselling and support for safety planning and increasing access to different services. Advocacy may be a stand-alone service, accepting referrals from healthcare providers, or part of a multi-component (and possibly multi-agency) intervention provided by service staff or others. To assess the effects of advocacy interventions within or outside healthcare settings in women who have experienced intimate partner abuse. In April 2015, we searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 10 other databases. We also searched WHO ICTRP, mRCT, and UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN), and examined relevant websites and reference lists with forward citation tracking of included studies. For the original review we handsearched six key journals. We also contacted first authors of eligible papers and experts in the field. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing advocacy interventions for women with experience of intimate partner abuse versus no intervention or usual care (if advocacy was minimal and fewer than 20% of women received it). Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. We contacted authors for missing information needed to calculate statistics for the review and looked for adverse events. We included 13 trials involving 2141 participants aged 15 to 65 years, frequently having low socioeconomic status.The studies were quite heterogeneous in terms of methodology, study processes and design, including with regard to the duration of follow-up (postintervention to three years), although this was not associated with differences in effect. The studies also had considerable clinical heterogeneity in relation to staff delivering advocacy; setting (community, shelter

  12. Moderation of adult depression by a polymorphism in the FKBP5 gene and childhood physical abuse in the general population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Appel, Katja; Schwahn, Christian; Mahler, Jessie; Schulz, Andrea; Spitzer, Carsten; Fenske, Kristin; Stender, Jan; Barnow, Sven; John, Ulrich; Teumer, Alexander; Biffar, Reiner; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Freyberger, Harald J; Grabe, Hans J

    2011-01-01

    ...) rs1360780 have an increased susceptibility to adverse effects of experimental stress. We therefore tested the hypothesis of an interaction of childhood abuse with rs1360780 in predicting adult depression...

  13. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2016-01-01

    The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) and skin bleaching. A total of 1226 university participants (ages 18-30 years and 63.4% female) from three Caribbean countries (Jamaica, Barbados, and Grenada) provided data for the current analysis. They all completed self-reported measures of general demographic information along with the short screening scale for posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV), childhood trauma, and skin bleaching questions. The prevalence of skin bleaching in our study was 25.4%. Our findings showed that individuals who bleached their skin were more likely to have been abused as children (21.6% versus 13.5%, psymptoms of trauma (34.1% versus 24.0%, p=0.005), and were more likely to have significant depression (43.7% versus 35.1%, p=0.032). We found that trauma-related hyperarousal symptoms positively mediated the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse and skin bleaching (Indirect Effect=0.03, p0.05) and depressive (Indirect Effect=0.005, p>0.05) symptoms did not. The presence of trauma symptoms and childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPSA) may increase the likelihood of skin bleaching. Findings suggest that further exploration is needed to ascertain if the presence of skin bleaching warrants being also screened for trauma.

  14. Abuso físico infantil: avaliando fatores de risco psicológicos em cuidadores notificados Child physical abuse: evaluating psychological risk factors in accused caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Paula D. Bérgamo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se em que medida variáveis cognitivas e afetivas/emocionais diferenciariam cuidadores notificados por abusos físicos (G1 de cuidadores sem esse histórico (G2. O Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP foi utilizado para avaliar fatores de risco psicológicos em cuidadores. Um Questionário de Caracterização sócio-demográfica e outro econômico também foram empregados para equiparar os grupos. G1 apresentou um potencial de risco superior a G2, e maiores níveis de Angústia, Rigidez, Problemas com a Criança e Consigo, Problemas com os Outros, e um menor nível de Força do Ego. Essas variáveis se articulam para compor o risco de abuso físico, pois segundo o Modelo do Processamento da Informação Social, remeteriam a processos básicos cognitivos/afetivos subjacentes a percepções e avaliações/interpretações, associados ao comportamento parental abusivo.It was verified to what extent cognitive and affective/emotional variables could distinguish caregivers accused of committing physical abuse (G1 from those without physical abuse records (G2. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP, which is an instrument designed to assess psychological risk factors in caregivers, was used. A questionnaire on socio-demographic characterization and another on economic classification were also employed to equate the groups. G1 presented a greater potential risk than G2, higher levels of Distress, Rigidity, Problems with the Child and with Themselves, Problems with Others, and a lower level of Ego Strength. These variables contribute with the composition of physical abuse risk, since, in agreement with the Social Information Processing Model, they would be related to cognitive and affective basic processes which are veiled to the perceptions and evaluation/interpretations, associated to abusive parental behavior.

  15. Abuse liability, behavioral pharmacology, and physical-dependence potential of opioids in humans and laboratory animals: lessons from tramadol

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, David H; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of abuse potential of opioid analgesics has a long history in both laboratory animals and humans. This article reviews the methods used in animals and in humans and then presents the data collected in the evaluation of tramadol, an atypical centrally acting opioid analgesic approved for marketing in the United States in 1998. Finally, data on the abuse of tramadol from postmarketing surveillance and case reports are presented. The consistency between animal and human study results ...

  16. The Word Game: an innovative strategy for assessing implicit processes in parents at risk for child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Wells, Brett M; Shelton, Christopher R; Skowronski, John J; Milner, Joel S

    2012-06-01

    Contemporary theories of child physical abuse (CPA) emphasize the proximal role of social cognitive processes (many of which are implicit in nature) in the occurrence of parental aggression. However, methods that allow for the systematic examination of implicit cognitive processes during the course of aggressive interactions are needed. To address this need, the present study was designed to examine the utility of the Word Game, an innovative procedure designed to assess implicit changes in schema accessibility during the course of an interpersonal exchange involving aggressive response options. The game involves a series of competitive reaction time trials which are actually lexical decision making trials designed to determine the accessibility of schema throughout the game. Each parent was led to believe that they were competing against another player with whom they exchanged sound blasts of varying intensities. Participants in the present study were parents who were either low (n=50) or high (n=20) risk for CPA. Results revealed that high CPA risk parents behaved more aggressively than low CPA risk parents and that provocation augmented the aggressiveness of all participants. Among high CPA risk parents, positive schema became less accessible (whereas negative schema became more accessible) following lost rounds. At the conclusion of the game, high CPA risk parents reported more aggressive motives than low CPA risk parents. Further, aggressive motives significantly mediated the association between CPA risk status and aggressiveness (i.e., mean sound blast selections). Collectively, results support the potential utility of the Word Game as a means of advancing the study of social cognitive processes involved in parental aggression. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Prevalence of sexual and physical abuse in patients with obstructed defecation: impact on biofeedback treatment Prevalencia de abusos sexuales y físicos en pacientes con defecación obstruida: impacto del tratamiento con biofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Solé

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: obstructed defecation is one of the most common subtypes of constipation, and it is frequently responsive to biofeedback treatment. Aims: since a history of sexual and physical abuse may be present in patients with obstructed defecation, we assessed the incidence of abuse history in patients with obstructed defecation referred to a general gastroenterology practice, and whether such a history may lead to a different outcome of biofeedback training in these patients. Patients and methods: one hundred and twenty-one patients (17 men, 104 women, age 53 ± 15 years with obstructed defecation were studied by retrospective chart review. Their history of sexual, physical and psychological abuse was obtained by a standard interview, and biofeedback training was carried out by means of a three-balloon technique. Results: a history of sexual/physical or psychological abuse was present in 12.4% patients. Biofeedback training yielded a successful improvement of obstructed defecation in 93% patients without abuse and in 100% of patients with abuse; this difference was not statistically different (p = 0.53. Conclusions: the prevalence of sexual/physical or psychological abuse in a population of patients with obstructed defecation referred to a general gastroenterology practice is relatively low; such a history seems not to affect the outcome of biofeedback training in these patients.

  18. Techniques Used in Forensic Psychological Examinations in Cases of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gava, Lara Lages; DellAglio, Debora Dalbosco

    2013-01-01

    .... Thus, this study investigated the techniques used by psychologists in forensic examinations in cases of suspected child and adolescent sexual abuse in the context of the criminal investigation...

  19. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  20. The physical manifestations of shaken baby syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mraz, Megan A

    2009-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a great concern for forensic nurses. Accurate diagnosis and treatment is essential. The purpose of this report is to review the history of SBS, as well as the physical symptoms of a patient suspected of suffering from this form of abuse. Implications of SBS for the forensic nurse will be presented; this will include the education of families and caregivers and methods of prevention.

  1. The School's Role in the Prevention and Intervention of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Manual for School Personnel. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandau-Christopher, Debra

    Because of the large number of children being maltreated, Colorado law mandates that suspected cases of child abuse be reported. It is essential that professionals working with children understand how to recognize and report suspected abuse. This handbook was written to assist teachers, counselors, and social workers in defining child abuse and…

  2. Technology and the Glaucoma Suspect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumberg, Dana M; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Garg, Reena; Chen, Cynthia; Theventhiran, Alex; Hood, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    ...), stereoscopic disc photographs, and automated perimetry as assessed by a group of glaucoma specialists in differentiating individuals with early glaucoma from suspects. Forty-six eyes (46 patients...

  3. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  4. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  5. Abused Adolescents: How Schools and Educators Can Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnborg, Barbara

    The booklet examines issues involved in the physical battering, sexual misuse, or emotional maltreatment of adolescents. The nature and extent of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse are briefly addressed, as are possible consequences, including withdrawal, mistrust, and suicide. Signs of abuse are linked to physical characteristics…

  6. Abuse liability, behavioral pharmacology, and physical-dependence potential of opioids in humans and laboratory animals: lessons from tramadol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of abuse potential of opioid analgesics has a long history in both laboratory animals and humans. This article reviews the methods used in animals and in humans and then presents the data collected in the evaluation of tramadol, an atypical centrally acting opioid analgesic approved for marketing in the United States in 1998. Finally, data on the abuse of tramadol from postmarketing surveillance and case reports are presented. The consistency between animal and human study results and the predictive value of both are discussed. Overall, there was substantial agreement between animal and human data, with each having predictive value. Nonetheless, it is suggested that abuse-potential screening of new medications would benefit from an organized, integrated cross-species program. PMID:16497429

  7. Development of a comprehensive hospital-based elder abuse intervention: an initial systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review.Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation.The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1 addressed a response (e.g., an intervention to elder abuse, 2 contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3 were available in English.The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics.649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser;physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of recommendations.To address the lack of evidence to

  8. Prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a nationwide sample of Arab high school students: association with family characteristics, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fayez, Ghenaim A; Ohaeri, Jude U; Gado, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were first, to assess the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse among a stratified random sample of Kuwaiti high school students and second, to explore the association of child abuse with parental characteristics, subjective quality of life (QOL), self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. We assessed the students for experience of abuse by their mothers, fathers, and others, using standard scales on psychological, physical and sexual abuse. They also completed the short version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument; the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a scale for anxiety and depression. We obtained responses from 4,467 students (49% boys), mean age 16.9 years. About 18, 15, and 18%, indicated that for at least six times in the past 12 months, they experienced psychological abuse by their mothers, fathers and others, respectively. The corresponding figures for lifetime experience were similar. The respective figures for experience of physical abuse during the past 12 months were 4.3, 5.8, and 6.4%. For lifetime experience, the corresponding figures were 3.4, 5.3, and 5.8%. The girls had significantly higher physical/psychological abuse scores. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of sexual attacks (8.6%) and someone threatening the subjects with sex (5.9%). The prevalence of someone sexually exposing themselves to the students (15.3%) and unwanted touching of sexual parts (17.4%) was significantly higher among the boys. Over one-third of those abused had experienced multiple abuses. Child abuse was significantly associated with parental divorce, diminished QOL and self-esteem, high scores on anxiety/depression, and difficulty with studies, and social relationships. In the regression analysis involving only the abuse indices, psychological abuse by mothers was the most important predictor of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem (11.5-19.7% of variance). Good quality of

  9. Intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage following child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Pamela H.; Burrowes, Delilah M.; Ali, Saad; Shaibani, Ali [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bowman, Robin M. [Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Child abuse is often suspected based on particular patterns of injury. We report a case of intracranial vertebral artery dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 3-month-old boy following child abuse. The mechanisms of injury and the clinical and imaging findings are discussed. This particular pattern of injury has rarely been reported in association with child abuse. We hope to raise physician awareness of child abuse when faced with these imaging findings. (orig.)

  10. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  11. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  12. Sleepwalking in Sexual Abuse Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülen Güler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical, sexual and emotional abuse in childhood can lead to many other psychiatric disorders. The most common psychiatric disorders after sexual abuse are anxiety disorders, depression, post traumatic stres disorder, eating disorders and sleep disorders. Although almost all psychiatric disorders can affect sleep patterns, triggering sleep walking due to sexual abuse is a rare condition. In this case report, sleepwalking triggered by sexual abuse case will be discussed. Key Words: Sexual abuse; sleepwalking; post traumatic stres disorder

  13. Is the cluster risk model of parental adversities better than the cumulative risk model as an indicator of childhood physical abuse?: findings from two representative community surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Sawyer, J-L

    2014-01-01

    Screening strategies for childhood physical abuse (CPA) need to be improved in order to identify those most at risk. This study uses two regionally representative community samples to examine whether a cluster or cumulative model of risk indicators (i.e. parental divorce, parental unemployment, and parental addictions) explains a larger proportion of the variation in CPA. Data were drawn from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994-1995) and Canadian Community Health Survey 3.1 (2005). Response rates were greater than 80% in both samples. Each survey had approximately 13,000 respondents aged 18 and over who answered questions about the above adverse childhood experiences. A gradient was shown with similar outcomes in each data set. Only 3.4% of adults who experienced none of the three risk indicators reported they had been physically abused during childhood or adolescence. The prevalence of CPA was greater among those who experienced parental divorce alone (8.3%-10.7%), parental unemployment alone (8.9%-9.7%) or parental addictions alone (18.0%-19.5%). When all three risk indicators were present, the prevalence of CPA ranged from 36.0%-41.0% and the age-sex-race adjusted odds were greater than 15 times that of individuals with none of the three risk indicators. The cluster model explained a statistically significantly larger proportion of the variation than the cumulative model although the difference between the two models was modest. For the purposes of parsimony, the cumulative model may be the better alternative. Adults who were exposed to two or more childhood risk indicators were much more likely to report that they were physically abused during their childhood than those with only one or no risk factors. Medical professionals may use this information on cumulative risk factors to more effectively target screening for potential CPA. Future research should include prospective studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  15. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or injuries among Americans. Abused drugs include Methamphetamine Anabolic steroids Club drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social ...

  16. Child Abuse and Emotional Stability among Senior Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey data collected from 2,000 Senior Secondary Two (SS II) Students in Cross River State, Nigeria were analysed to determine the influence of child abuse on later emotional stability of the individual. Four dimensions of child abuse namely: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and child neglect were ...

  17. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  18. Sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Iztok Takač; Darjan Kos; Darja Arko

    2012-01-01

    Background: Due to its complexity, sexual abuse is a significant public health problem. Treatment of victims of sexual abuse is a complex process that demands an experienced physician and is supported by the guidelines of various organizations in this field. Difficulties in the management of victims of sexual abuse come from the fact that the role of the doctor is not only in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse, but also the collection of possible evide...

  19. Child And Adolescent Physical Abuse - A Proposal For Classifyingits Severity [violência Contra Crianças E Adolescentes - Proposta De Classificação Dos Níveis De Gravidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer L.; Rosario N.A.; Cat M.N.L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report different clinical presentation of child physical abuse and propose a method for classifying its severity as applied to a program that provides assistance for children and adolescents under risk in Curitiba, in Southern Brazil. Methods: The study comprised four phases: involvement and assessment of the implementation of the network that provides assistance for children and adolescents under risk; development of a method to classify abuse according to its severity level in...

  20. SEXUAL ABUSE IN ADOLESCENTS - DATA FROM A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aimed: (i) to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse in a large sample of adolescent psychiatric ... Sexual abuse is defined as any physical involvement of children/adolescents in ... Table I. Characteristics of the study sample. Demographic ...

  1. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  2. Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results from a Large Population-Based Sample of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate,…

  3. Oral and Dental Aspects of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Owens, Susan A; Lukefahr, James L; Tate, Anupama Rao

    2017-08-01

    In all 50 states, health care providers (including dentists) are mandated to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect to social service or law enforcement agencies. The purpose of this report is to review the oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in children and the role of pediatric care providers and dental providers in evaluating such conditions. This report addresses the evaluation of bite marks as well as perioral and intraoral injuries, infections, and diseases that may raise suspicion for child abuse or neglect. Oral health issues can also be associated with bullying and are commonly seen in human trafficking victims. Some medical providers may receive less education pertaining to oral health and dental injury and disease and may not detect the mouth and gum findings that are related to abuse or neglect as readily as they detect those involving other areas of the body. Therefore, pediatric care providers and dental providers are encouraged to collaborate to increase the prevention, detection, and treatment of these conditions in children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry.

  4. [Orofacial aspects of childhood abuse and dental negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino; Ferreira, Angela Maria Brito; Aragão, Ana Karla Ramalho; de Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida; Colares, Viviane

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify the main oral and dental aspects of childhood abuse and dental neglect, contributing to the identification of these victims in a dental office. A bibliographic research was carried out, in ADOLEC, MEDLINE, LILACS and BBO databases. The following key words were used: child abuse, oral manifestations, dentists; role; liability, legal. It was verified that violence against children happens in general at home and the resulting orofacial injuries encompass: injuries, burns and lacerations on soft and hard tissues, bite marks and gradually-healed wounds. It can have wounds in other parts of the body next to the oral cavity, such as periorbital wound and nasal injury. Regarding sexual abuse, many victims do not present any associated physic signs; therefore, behavioral indicators must be observed. The immediate recognition and report of childhood abuse and dental negligence by dental surgeon are essential for children protection. Therefore, it is critical to define more effective action from those professionals, by registration and denunciation of suspect cases to child protection agencies.

  5. Lifetime Prevalence Rates and Overlap of Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Dating Abuse Perpetration and Victimization in a National Sample of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Espelage, Dorothy L; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Boyd, Danah

    2016-07-01

    National, epidemiological data that provide lifetime rates of psychological, physical, and sexual adolescent data abuse (ADA) perpetration and victimization within the same sample of youth are lacking. To address this gap, data from 1058 randomly selected U.S. youth, 14-21 years old, surveyed online in 2011 and/or 2012, were weighted to be nationally representative and analyzed. In addition to reporting prevalence rates, we also examined the overlap of the six types of ADA queried. Results suggested that ADA was commonly reported by both male and female youth. Half (51 %) of female youth and 43 % of male youth reported victimization of at least one of the three types of ADA. Half (50 %) of female youth and 35 % of male youth reported at least one type of ADA perpetration. More male youth reported sexual ADA perpetration than female youth. More female youth reported perpetration of psychological and physical ADA and more reported psychological victimization than male youth. Rates were similar across race and ethnicity, but increased with age. This increase may have been because older youth spent longer time in relationships than younger youth, or perhaps because older youth were developmentally more likely than younger youth to be in abusive relationships. Many youth reported being both perpetrators and victims and/or involved in multiple forms of ADA across their dating history. Together, these findings suggested that interventions should acknowledge that youth may play multiple roles in abusive dyads. Understanding the overlap among ADA within the same as well as across multiple relationships will be invaluable to future interventions aiming to disrupt and prevent ADA.

  6. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  7. Do physical abuse, depression, and parental substance use influence patterns of substance use among child welfare involved youth? Substance use misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Susan M; Smith, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11-17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.

  8. Association between childhood physical abuse, unprotected receptive anal intercourse and HIV infection among young men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arn J Schilder

    Full Text Available The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population.We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders.Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5% reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6% reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8% participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.65-14.48, after controlling for potential confounders.Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.

  9. Association between Childhood Physical Abuse, Unprotected Receptive Anal Intercourse and HIV Infection among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men in Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Arn J.; Anema, Aranka; Pai, Jay; Rich, Ashleigh; Miller, Cari L.; Chan, Keith; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Moore, David; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population. Methods We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA) on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders. Results Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5%) reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6%) reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8%) participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65–14.48), after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population. PMID:24963804

  10. Individual, family, and culture level contributions to child physical abuse and neglect: A longitudinal study in nine countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Peña Alampay, Liane

    2015-11-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,418 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers' and fathers' reports of corporal punishment and children's reports of their parents' neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers' and fathers' use of corporal punishment and children's perceptions of their parents' neglect were predicted by parents' belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents' perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents' progressive parenting attitudes, parents' endorsement of aggression, parents' education, children's externalizing problems, and children's internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect.

  11. Individual, Family, and Culture Level Contributions to Child Physical Abuse and Neglect: A Longitudinal Study in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    This study advances understanding of predictors of child abuse and neglect at multiple levels of influence. Mothers, fathers, and children (N = 1,432 families, M age of children = 8.29 years) were interviewed annually in three waves in 13 cultural groups in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Multilevel models were estimated to examine predictors of (a) within-family differences across the three time points, (b) between-family within-culture differences, and (c) between-cultural group differences in mothers’ and fathers’ reports of corporal punishment and children’s reports of their parents’ neglect. These analyses addressed to what extent mothers’ and fathers’ use of corporal punishment and children’s perceptions of their parents’ neglect were predicted by parents’ belief in the necessity of using corporal punishment, parents’ perception of the normativeness of corporal punishment in their community, parents’ progressive parenting attitudes, parents’ endorsement of aggression, parents’ education, children’s externalizing problems, and children’s internalizing problems at each of the three levels. Individual-level predictors (especially child externalizing behaviors) as well as cultural-level predictors (especially normativeness of corporal punishment in the community) predicted corporal punishment and neglect. Findings are framed in an international context that considers how abuse and neglect are defined by the global community and how countries have attempted to prevent abuse and neglect. PMID:26535934

  12. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  13. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-03-01

    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors affecting medical and nursing staff reporting of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, M; Faour, C; Naamhah, S; Grinberg, K; Klein-Kremer, A

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the current research was to examine whether the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) succeeds in predicting nursing and medical staff reporting of suspected child abuse. Despite the rising incidence of child abuse in Israel, medical and nursing staff reports of suspected child abuse remain low. This descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study was based on TPB. The Child Abuse Report Intention Scale questionnaire was administered to 143 nurses and 42 doctors who work with children in various departments of a central Israeli hospital and in a large affiliated community-based clinic. Descriptive, correlational and linear regression statistics were calculated. Objection to child abuse, views of professional responsibility on this issue, degree of self-control and subjective beliefs, affect reporting of suspected child abuse. Differences in reporting are evident between doctors and nurses and also between medical and nursing staff from the Arab and Jewish sectors. Doctors report more than nurses and Jewish staff members report more than their Arab colleagues. Medical and nursing staff's number of own children has a direct effect on their inclination to report child abuse. The TPB model succeeds in partly predicting medical and nursing staff reporting of suspected child abuse. This model can serve as a basis for intervention plans aimed at developing medical and nursing simulations of coping with conflict issues involving child abuse in an attempt to eradicate and treat inadequate reporting. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect: Do We know enough? A Cross-sectional Study of Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Dentists regarding Child Abuse and Neglect in Pune, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpani, Suruchi; Arora, Jatin; Diwaker, Gunjeeta; Kaleka, Priyajeet Kaur; Parey, Aditi; Bontala, Parinita

    2017-02-01

    Child abuse and neglect (CAN) is a significant global problem with a serious impact on the victims throughout their lives. Dentists have the unique opportunity to address this problem. However, reporting such cases has become a sensitive issue due to the uncertainty of the diagnosis. The authors are testing the knowledge of the dentists toward CAN and also trying to question the efforts of the educational institutions to improve this knowledge for the better future of the younger generation. Questionnaire data were distributed to 1,106 members regarding their knowledge, professional responsibilities, and behavior concerning child abuse. There were 762 responses to the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 68.9%. Although dentists consider themselves able to identify suspicious cases, only a small percentage of the participants correctly identified all signs of abuse and 76.8% knew the indicators of child abuse. Most of them were willing to get involved in detecting a case and about 90% believed that it is their ethical duty to report child abuse. Only 7.2% suspected an abuse case in the past. The numbers indicate a lack of awareness about CAN in these participants. No differences were observed between sexes, year of graduation, types of license, frequency at which children were treated, and formal training already received. A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. The data showed that not all dental care providers and students were prepared to fulfill their legal and professional responsibilities in these situations. There should be modifications in the dental school curriculum focusing on educational experiences regarding child abuse to strengthen their capability to care and protect children.

  16. Working on Memories of Abuse....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, Jenny

    1994-01-01

    Through working with a woman abused as a child, a teacher concluded that the violence of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse is common among many adults who read and write poorly. Their experiences should be acknowledged in literacy programs that encourage people to develop skills with which to tell their stories. (SK)

  17. Elder abuse in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inger Plaisier; Mirjam de Klerk

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Ouderenmishandeling in Nederland It is twenty years since the last study was carried out on the number of older persons in the Netherlands who are deliberate or accidental victims of abuse in the form of verbal, physical or sexual violence, financial abuse and/or neglect by

  18. Maternal Child Abuse and its Association with Maternal Anxiety in the Socio-Cultural Context of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Esmaeili Douki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of parental violence has been an area of major public concern. There are few available data detailing the ways parents and other caregivers discipline children, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study focuses on the prevalence of different types of maternal child abuse and its association with maternal anxiety in the socio-cultural context of Iran.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional study consisted of 562 mothers with the last child aged from 1 month to 12 years old who attended the Amirkola Children’s Referral Hospital in Mazandaran Province, Iran, seeking healthcare services for their children. Demographic characteristics of the mothers, their children and reactions to conflicts with children were evaluated by a validated version of Conflict Tactics Scale for Parent and Child. Also, the relationship between maternal anxiety and child abuse was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The association between variables was examined by Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and multivariate regression.Results: The prevalence of mother-to-child corporal punishment, severe physical abuse and very severe physical abuse were 436 (78%, 260 (46% and 180 (32%, respectively. Verbal emotional abuse was reported by 506 (90% participants and nonverbal emotional abuse was reported in 374 (67% cases. A correlation was observed between child abuse and mothers’ age (p=0.02, as well as with the number of children in the family (p=0.03, and the mothers’ trait anxiety (p<0.001.Conclusion: Overall, the assessment of maternal child abuse should be an important focus for evaluation in mothers with anxiety and vice versa, when child abuse is suspected, maternal psychological assessment should be essential.

  19. Child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Maryann

    2011-12-01

    Child abuse can have a long-lasting and devastating effect on the growth and development of infants, children, and adolescents. Studies of abused and neglected children indicate that they have a higher rate of delayed intellectual development, poor school performance, aggressive behaviors, and social and relationship deficits compared with nonmaltreated children. Early recognition and appropriate treatment is one of the most important factors in preventing further child abuse and maltreatment. Every practitioner should be educated on the signs and symptoms of child abuse. The referral to child protective services is a necessity for the future well-being of the child. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Impact of Violence and Abuse on Women's Physical Health: Can Trauma-Informed Treatment Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbecker, Inka; Clark, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    A history of traumatic experiences has been associated with poor physical health. This study examined associations between trauma and physical health, as well as changes in physical health over time, in women with co-occurring disorders and histories of violence who received either integrated trauma-informed services or usual care. Results…

  1. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  2. Incest and child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J L; Hamlin, W T; Minor, M A; Knasel, A L

    1982-06-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

  3. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexually Abused Children: Identification and Suggestions for Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    This article is designed to help school psychologists: (1) identify victims of child abuse; (2) interview a victim and the victim's parents; (3) know who to notify when sexual abuse is suspected; and (4) identify suggested intervention and treatment approaches that are appropriate in the practice of school psychology. (Author/PN)

  5. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian E

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child′s physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  6. Fetal Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  7. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  8. Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

  9. Helping Students with Emotional Abuse: A Critical Area of Competence for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Trevor J.; Buser, Juleen K.

    2013-01-01

    Many school counselors experience difficulties in identifying and reporting suspected cases of emotional abuse. These difficulties are concerning, given the relatively high prevalence rates of emotional abuse. In this article, we discuss the definition of emotional abuse, review research on its prevalence and psychological correlates, and provide…

  10. The sexually abused battered child.

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, C. J.; Wynne, J M

    1990-01-01

    A total of 130 children were identified in whom both evidence of sexual abuse and non-accidental, non-genital physical injuries (bruises, fractures, scratches, burns and scalds, including failure to thrive) were found. There were 77 girls and 53 boys with mean ages 5.7 and 6.8 years respectively and the peak age between the second and seventh birthdays; this reflects previous reports indicating that physical and sexual abuse predominantly involves young children. Patterns of injury that sugge...

  11. False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, R

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegations of abuse did not occur in the context of parental separation, divorce, or custody disputes concerning the children. They occurred in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The age of the children, 3 to 9 years, was older than the usual age for Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The mother was the source of the false allegations and was the person who encouraged or taught six of the children to substantiate allegations of sexual abuse. PMID:8503664

  12. Japan's emerging challenge for child abuse: system coordination for early prevention of child abuse is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Kanda, Hideyuki; Sugaya, Nagisa

    2014-08-01

    At the end of 2013, a Japanese newspaper reported that 4,173 children were unidentified or missing in Japan. The article concluded that child abuse was a matter of national concern. In examining the strengths and weaknesses of Japan's welfare system in regard to child abuse, it would seem that a weakness exists with regard to its ambiguity on the roles of different officers who contact suspected cases. Although three types of officer (health, welfare, and police officers) can take charge, child abuse cases might be missed because the division of labor varies between the different types of officer. However, a strength exists in the periodical pediatric health check system that is in place in each of Japan's 1,742 municipalities. To efficiently implement early intervention for child abuse, it is necessary to rearrange the division of labor among the three types of officers to clarify who should intervene in suspected cases.

  13. Patients Undergoing Substance Abuse Treatment and Receiving Financial Assistance for a Physical Disability Respond Well to Contingency Management Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Ashley E; Morasco, Benjamin J; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-11-01

    Physical illness and disability are common in individuals with substance use disorders, but little is known about the impact of physical disability status on substance use treatment outcomes. This study examined the main and interactive effects of physical disability payment status on substance use treatment. Participants (N = 1,013) were enrolled in one of six prior randomized clinical trials comparing contingency management (CM) to standard care; 79 (7.8%) participants reported receiving disability payments, CM improved all three primary substance use outcomes: treatment retention, percent negative samples and longest duration of abstinence. There was no significant main effect of physical disability payment status on treatment outcomes; however, a significant treatment condition by physical disability status interaction effect emerged in terms of retention in treatment and duration of abstinence achieved. Patients who were receiving physical disability payments responded particularly well to CM, and their time in treatment and durations of drug and alcohol abstinence increased even more markedly with CM than did that of their counterparts who were not receiving physical disability assistance. These findings suggest an objectively defined cohort of patients receiving substance use treatment who respond particularly well to CM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychotherapy and Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D. Stephen

    This conference address examines the question of whether "memory work"--using therapeutic techniques to help clients recover suspected hidden memories of childhood sexual abuse--has led some clients to develop illusory memories or false beliefs. Prospective research on memory for childhood trauma indicates that the gist of traumatic…

  15. Understanding Complaints and Reporting Abuse. Research Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the function of complaining and characteristics of complainers. Addresses implications for camp, in allowing everyone to be heard and in dealing with complainers. A New York study of 49 therapists and child protective services workers found that interpretations of the "reasonable cause to suspect" clause of child abuse laws…

  16. Types of abuse and risk factors associated with elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Lacher; Wettstein, Albert; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Hasler, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Detecting elder abuse is challenging because it is a taboo, and many cases remain unreported. This study aimed to identify types of elder abuse and to investigate its associated risk factors. Retrospective analyses of 903 dossiers created at an Independent Complaints Authority for Old Age in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, from January 1, 2008 to October 31, 2012. Characteristics of victims and perpetrators, types of abuse, and associated risk factors related to the victim or the perpetrator were assessed. Bi- and multivariate analysis were used to identify abuse and neglect determinants. A total of 150 cases reflected at least one form of elder abuse or neglect; 104 cases were categorised as abuse with at least one type of abuse (overall 135 mentions), 46 cases were categorised as neglect (active or passive). Psychological abuse was the most reported form (47%), followed by financial (35%), physical (30%) and anticonstitutional abuse (18%). In 81% of the 150 cases at least two risk factors existed. In 13% no associated risk factor could be identified. Compared with neglect, elders with abuse were less likely to be a nursing home resident than living at home (odds ratio [OR] 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.19). In addition, they were more likely to be cohabiting with their perpetrators (OR 18.01, 95% CI 4.43-73.19). For the majority of the reported elder abuse cases at least two associated risk factors could be identified. Knowledge about these red flags and a multifaceted strategy are needed to identify and prevent elder abuse.

  17. Counseling Abused Children. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This digest familiarizes counselors with the four major types of child maltreatment: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect. A definition is provided for each, along with relevant symptoms and statistics. The subsequent discussion focuses on identifying maltreatment and on counseling abused children.…

  18. Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Malaysian Paramedical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, HSS Amar; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 616 nursing and paramedical students in Malaysia found that 2.1% of males and 8.3% of females reported having been sexually abused in their childhood. Of these, 69% reported the abuse involved physical contact; 38% reported the abuse began before the age of 10; and 71% reported knowing the abuser. (Author/DB)

  19. Mandatory Reporting Laws and Identification of Child Abuse and Neglect: Consideration of Differential Maltreatment Types, and a Cross-Jurisdictional Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Reports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ben Mathews

    2014-01-01

    .... In scholarly research and normative debates about mandatory reporting laws and their effects, the four major forms of child maltreatment-physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect...

  20. Predictors of intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Mi; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-11-11

    The current study investigates predictors of intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses in Korea. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected from 200 emergency nurses in eight general hospitals in Korea through a questionnaire that asked about their general characteristics, knowledge about child abuse, perceived behavioral control, experiences of child abuse cases and reporting, and attitude toward child abuse. Multiple regression analysis indicated that attitude toward child abuse was the most influential predictor of the intention of reporting child abuse among Korea's emergency nurses. Knowledge about child abuse, and perceived behavioral control were also significant influencing predictors of reporting intention. These variables explained 22.1% of the variances in the intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses. Reporting child abuse has not yet been established as a professional responsibility among Korea's emergency nurses. Increasing the level of awareness of the characteristics of child abuse and encouraging communication among nurses about the responsibility to report suspected child abuse will increase nurses' confidence to report. Training for reporting child abuse should be implemented in the near future to improve emergency nurses' understanding of child abuse. A support program is also needed to help emergency nurses build confidence in reporting child abuse as a professional responsibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.