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Sample records for suspected myocardial infarction

  1. The economics of cardiac biomarker testing in suspected myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Steve; Thokala, Praveen

    2015-03-01

    Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) is a common reason for emergency hospital attendance and admission. Cardiac biomarker measurement is an essential element of diagnostic assessment of suspected MI. Although the cost of a routinely available biomarker may be small, the large patient population and consequences in terms of hospital admission and investigation mean that the economic impact of cardiac biomarker testing is substantial. Economic evaluation involves comparing the estimated costs and effectiveness (outcomes) of two or more interventions or care alternatives. This process creates some difficulties with respect to cardiac biomarkers. Estimating the effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers involves identifying how they help to improve health and how we can measure this improvement. Comparison to an appropriate alternative is also problematic. New biomarkers may be promoted on the basis of reducing hospital admission or length of stay, but hospital admission for low risk patients may incur significant costs while providing very little benefit, making it an inappropriate comparator. Finally, economic evaluation may conclude that a more sensitive biomarker strategy is more effective but, by detecting and treating more cases, is also more expensive. In these circumstances it is unclear whether we should use the more effective or the cheaper option. This article provides an introduction to health economics and addresses the specific issues relevant to cardiac biomarkers. It describes the key concepts relevant to economic evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in suspected MI and highlights key areas of uncertainty and controversy. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The incidence of suspected myocardial infarction in Dutch general practice in the period 1978-1994.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Verkleij, H.; Jansen, J.; Bartelds, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate how the incidence of suspected myocardial infarction has developed from 1978 to 1994 and to study the incidence of confirmed acute myocardial infarction in Dutch general practices during the period 1991-1994. Methods: In three periods (1978, 1983-1985 and 1991-1994) the incidence of

  3. Suspected acute myocardial infarction in a dystrophin-deficient dog.

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    Schneider, Sarah Morar; Coleman, Amanda Erickson; Guo, Lee-Jae; Tou, Sandra; Keene, Bruce W; Kornegay, Joe N

    2016-06-01

    Golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) is a model for the genetically homologous human disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Unlike the mildly affected mdx mouse, GRMD recapitulates the severe DMD phenotype. In addition to skeletal muscle involvement, DMD boys develop cardiomyopathy. While the cardiomyopathy of DMD is typically slowly progressive, rare early episodes of acute cardiac decompensation, compatible with myocardial infarction, have been described. We report here a 7-month-old GRMD dog with an apparent analogous episode of myocardial infarction. The dog presented with acute signs of cardiac disease, including tachyarrhythmia, supraventricular premature complexes, and femoral pulse deficits. Serum cardiac biomarkers, cardiac-specific troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal prohormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), were markedly increased. Echocardiography showed areas of hyperechoic myocardial enhancement, typical of GRMD cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular dyskinesis and elevated cTnI were suggestive of acute myocardial damage/infarction. Over a 3-year period, progression to a severe dilated phenotype was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolving considerations in the management of patients with left bundle branch block and suspected myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeland, Ian J.; Kontos, Michael C.; de Lemos, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and left bundle branch block (LBBB) present a unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the clinician. Although current guidelines recommend that patients with new or presumed new LBBB undergo early reperfusion therapy, data suggest that only a minority of patients with LBBB are ultimately diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction regardless of LBBB chronicity and that a significant proportion of patients will not have an occluded culprit artery at cardiac catheterization. The current treatment approach exposes a significant proportion of patients to the risks of fibrinolytic therapy without the likelihood of significant benefit, and leads to increased rates of false-positive cardiac catheterization laboratory activation, unnecessary risks, and costs. Therefore, alternative strategies to those for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are needed to guide selection of appropriate patients with suspected ACS and LBBB for urgent reperfusion therapy. In this article, we describe the evolving epidemiology of LBBB in ACS and discuss controversies related to current clinical practice. We propose a more judicious diagnostic approach among clinically stable patients with LBBB who do not have electrocardiographic findings highly specific for STEMI. PMID:22766335

  5. A comparison of amiodarone and digoxin in the treatment of atrial fibrillation complicating suspected acute myocardial infarction.

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    Cowan, J C; Gardiner, P; Reid, D S; Newell, D J; Campbell, R W

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with atrial fibrillation complicating suspected acute myocardial infarction were randomised to treatment with intravenous amiodarone (n = 18) or intravenous digoxin (n = 16). After 24 h, similar proportions of patients in each group had reverted to sinus rhythm. However, there was a tendency towards earlier reversion with amiodarone. At 4 h, 72% of the amiodarone group had reverted to sinus rhythm, compared with 31% of the digoxin group (p less than 0.1). This tendency was more marked in patients with definite infarction (at 4 h, amiodarone 75% reversion, digoxin 10% reversion). Neither drug had a significant effect on blood pressure. Atrial fibrillation may cause serious haemodynamic deterioration in acute myocardial infarction. In comparison with digoxin, amiodarone offers more rapid control of the ventricular response rate and may, in addition, restore sinus rhythm more rapidly.

  6. Left bundle branch block and suspected myocardial infarction: does chronicity of the branch block matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulos, Vasileios; Kellerth, Thomas; Christensen, Kjeld

    2013-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate if patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI) and a new or presumed new left bundle branch block (nLBBB) were treated according to the ESC reperfusion guidelines and to compare them with patients having a previously known LBBB (oLBBB). Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of ST-segment concordance in this population. Retrospective data was collected from the Swedeheart registry for patients admitted to the cardiac care unit at Örebro University Hospital with LBBB and suspected MI during 2009 and 2010. The patients were divided in two age groups; <80 or ≥80 years and analysed for LBBB chronicity (nLBBB or oLBBB), MI, and reperfusion treatment. We also compared our data with the national Swedeheart database for 2009. A total of 99 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis of MI was significantly more common in the group ≥80 years compared to the group <80 years (53.8 vs. 25%, p=0.007). The rate of MI was similar in the groups with nLBBB and oLBBB (33 and 37% respectively, p=0.912). Of the 36 patients with a final diagnosis of MI, only eight (22%) had nLBBB. Reperfusion treatment, defined as an acute coronary angiography with or without intervention, was significantly more often performed in patients with nLBBB compared to patients with oLBBB (42 vs. 8%, p<0.001). The rate of MI and reperfusion treatment did not differ between our institution and the Swedish national data. ST-concordance was present in only two cases, one of which did not suffer an MI. The proportion of patients receiving reperfusion treatment was low, but higher in nLBBB, reflecting a partial adherence to the guidelines. We found no correlation between LBBB chronicity and MI. Furthermore, only a minority of the MIs occurred in patients with nLBBB. ST-concordance was found in only one of 36 MI cases, indicating lack of sensitivity for this test.

  7. Reduction of ventricular arrhythmias by early intravenous atenolol in suspected acute myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, P R; Yusuf, S; Ramsdale, D.; Furze, L; Sleight, P

    1983-01-01

    The effect of intravenous atenolol on ventricular arrhythmias in acute myocardial infarction was assessed in 182 patients admitted within 12 hours of the onset of chest pain. Ninety-five patients were randomised to receive 5 mg intravenous atenolol followed immediately by 50 mg by mouth and 50 mg 12 hours later, then 100 mg daily for 10 days; 87 patients served as controls. The treated patients had significantly fewer ventricular extrasystoles; 58 control patients (67%) had R-on-T extrasystol...

  8. Incremental value of copeptin in suspected acute myocardial infarction very early after symptom onset.

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    Stallone, Fabio; Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Puelacher, Christian; Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Walz, Brigitte; Naduvilekoot Devasia, Allwin; Bergner, Michael; Twerenbold, Raphael; Wildi, Karin; Reichlin, Tobias; Hillinger, Petra; Erne, Paul; Mueller, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Patients presenting very early after chest pain onset may provide a diagnostic challenge even when using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTnT). We hypothesized that in these patients the incremental value of copeptin in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may be substantial. We aimed to investigate the incremental value of copeptin in a pre-specified subgroup analysis of patients presenting with suspected AMI to the emergency department within 2 hours of symptom onset in a multicenter study. Copeptin was measured in a blinded fashion. Two independent cardiologists adjudicated the final diagnosis using all available clinical informations, including high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). Overall, 2000 patients were enrolled, of whom 519 (26%) arrived within 2 hours of symptom onset. Of these, 102 patients (20%) had an AMI. The additional use of copeptin did not increase diagnostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of hs-cTnT (0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-0.90) for hs-cTnT alone to 0.86 (95% CI: 0.82-0.90) for the combination; p = NS). Copeptin (using 9 pmol/L as a cut-off) increased the negative predictive value (NPV) of hs-cTnT (using 14 ng/L as a cut-off) alone from 93% (95% CI: 90-95%) to 96% (95% CI: 93-98%). The NPV for the combination of hs-cTnT and copeptin was lower in patients arriving in the first 2 hours than in those arriving after 2 hours: 96% (95% CI: 93-98%) versus 99% (95% CI: 99-100%), respectively. The additional use of copeptin on top of hs-cTnT seems to lead to a small increase in NPV, but no increase in AUC. Routine use of copeptin in early presenters does not seem warranted. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  9. Prognostic value of an electrocardiogram at rest and exercise test in patients admitted with suspected acute myocardial infarction, in whom the diagnosis is not confirmed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J K; Hommel, E; Hansen, J F

    1987-01-01

    The prognosis following discharge in 217 patients admitted with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to chest pain, but in whom AMI was not confirmed, was related to the electrocardiogram (ECG) at rest and a symptom-limited exercise test. The patients were followed for 12 to 24 months...

  10. Classification of myocardial infarction

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    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007 as an important component of the universal definition. In contrast to the plaque rupture-related type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction is considered to be caused by an imbalance between demand...... and supply of oxygen in the myocardium. However, no specific criteria for type 2 myocardial infarction have been established....

  11. Unrecognized non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: prevalence and prognostic significance in patients with suspected coronary disease.

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    Han W Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI is known to constitute a substantial portion of potentially lethal coronary heart disease. However, the diagnosis of UMI is based on the appearance of incidental Q-waves on 12-lead electrocardiography. Thus, the syndrome of non-Q-wave UMI has not been investigated. Delayed-enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DE-CMR can identify MI, even when small, subendocardial, or without associated Q-waves. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and prognosis associated with non-Q-wave UMI identified by DE-CMR.We conducted a prospective study of 185 patients with suspected coronary disease and without history of clinical myocardial infarction who were scheduled for invasive coronary angiography. Q-wave UMI was determined by electrocardiography (Minnesota Code. Non-Q-wave UMI was identified by DE-CMR in the absence of electrocardiographic Q-waves. Patients were followed to determine the prognostic significance of non-Q-wave UMI. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. The prevalence of non-Q-wave UMI was 27% (50/185, compared with 8% (15/185 for Q-wave UMI. Patients with non-Q-wave UMI were older, were more likely to have diabetes, and had higher Framingham risk than those without MI, but were similar to those with Q-wave UMI. Infarct size in non-Q-wave UMI was modest (8%+/-7% of left ventricular mass, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF by cine-CMR was usually preserved (52%+/-18%. The prevalence of non-Q-wave UMI increased with the extent and severity of coronary disease on angiography (p<0.0001 for both. Over 2.2 y (interquartile range 1.8-2.7, 16 deaths occurred: 13 in non-Q-wave UMI patients (26%, one in Q-wave UMI (7%, and two in patients without MI (2%. Multivariable analysis including New York Heart Association class and LVEF demonstrated that non-Q-wave UMI was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 11.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2

  12. Diagnosis and outcome in a prehospital cohort of patients with bundle branch block and suspected acute myocardial infarction.

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    Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Christina Ankjær; Thygesen, Kristian; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Thuesen, Leif; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2013-06-01

    Immediate revascularization is beneficial in patients with presumed new-onset bundle branch block myocardial infarction (BBBMI). In the prehospital setting, it is a challenge to diagnose new-onset BBBMI and triage accordingly. ECG, final diagnosis, and mortality were assessed in a prehospital cohort of 4905 consecutive patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Bundle branch block (BBB) was defined as QRS duration ≥120 ms caused by delayed intraventricular conduction. Mortality and angiography data were obtained from the Central Office of Civil Registration and the Western Denmark Heart Registry. Definite diagnosis of AMI and the onset of BBB were determined by expert consensus. Patients were divided into four groups: with or without AMI and with or without BBB. Mortality was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier plots and compared using log-rank statistics. AMI was diagnosed in 954 patients, of whom 118 had BBB. In 3951 patients without AMI, 436 had BBB. Patients with BBBMI were less often revascularized than patients with AMI without BBB (24 vs. 54%, p<0.001). BBBMI was categorized as new onset in 43 patients of whom two were triaged for acute angioplasty. One-year mortality was 47.2, 17.5, 20.8, and 8.6% (log-rank <0.001) in patients with BBBMI, patients with AMI without BBB, patients with BBB without AMI, and patients without AMI or BBB, respectively. Patients with BBBMI have a high mortality. Less than 25% undergo revascularization and only very few patients with new-onset BBBMI are transferred for urgent revascularization. Focus on improving triage and prehospital identification of high-risk patients with BBB and chest pain could improve outcome.

  13. Diagnosis and outcome in a prehospital cohort of patients with bundle branch block and suspected acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Christina Ankjær; Thygesen, Kristian; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Thuesen, Leif; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immediate revascularization is beneficial in patients with presumed new-onset bundle branch block myocardial infarction (BBBMI). In the prehospital setting, it is a challenge to diagnose new-onset BBBMI and triage accordingly. Methods: ECG, final diagnosis, and mortality were assessed in a prehospital cohort of 4905 consecutive patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Bundle branch block (BBB) was defined as QRS duration ≥120 ms caused by delayed intraventricular conduction. Mortality and angiography data were obtained from the Central Office of Civil Registration and the Western Denmark Heart Registry. Definite diagnosis of AMI and the onset of BBB were determined by expert consensus. Patients were divided into four groups: with or without AMI and with or without BBB. Mortality was evaluated by Kaplan–Meier plots and compared using log-rank statistics. Results: AMI was diagnosed in 954 patients, of whom 118 had BBB. In 3951 patients without AMI, 436 had BBB. Patients with BBBMI were less often revascularized than patients with AMI without BBB (24 vs. 54%, p<0.001). BBBMI was categorized as new onset in 43 patients of whom two were triaged for acute angioplasty. One-year mortality was 47.2, 17.5, 20.8, and 8.6% (log-rank <0.001) in patients with BBBMI, patients with AMI without BBB, patients with BBB without AMI, and patients without AMI or BBB, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with BBBMI have a high mortality. Less than 25% undergo revascularization and only very few patients with new-onset BBBMI are transferred for urgent revascularization. Focus on improving triage and prehospital identification of high-risk patients with BBB and chest pain could improve outcome. PMID:24222828

  14. Pre-Hospital ECG E-Transmission for Patients with Suspected Myocardial Infarction in the Highlands of Scotland

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    Gordon F. Rushworth

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI require prompt treatment, best done by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI. However, for patients unable to receive PPCI, immediate pre-hospital thrombolysis (PHT is the best alternative. Evidence indicates that diagnostic and management support for staff increases the use of PHT. This study aimed to describe the patient demographics and management of patients, to determine any potential inter-area differences in referral rates to the ECG e-transmission service and to explore the views and experiences of key staff involved in ECG e-transmission within NHS Highland. Data from 2,025 patient episodes of ECG e-transmission identified a statistically significant geographical variation in ECG e-transmission and PHT delivery. Scottish Ambulance Service (SAS staff were more likely than GPs to deliver PHT overall, however, GPs were more likely to deliver in remote areas. Interviews with six Cardiac Care Unit (CCU nurses and six SAS staff highlighted their positive views of ECG e-transmission, citing perceived benefits to patients and interprofessional relationships. Poor access to network signal was noted to be a barrier to engaging in the system. This study has demonstrated that a specialist triage service based on e-transmission of ECGs in patients with suspected STEMI can be implemented in a diverse geographical setting. Work is needed to ensure equity of the service for all patients.

  15. Predictive value of routine point-of-care cardiac troponin T measurement for prehospital diagnosis and risk-stratification in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B; Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Jacob T

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of routine prehospital point-of-care cardiac troponin T measurement for diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: All prehospital emergency medical servi...... irrespective of the final diagnosis. Routine troponin measurement in the prehospital setting has a high predictive value and can be used to identify high-risk patients even before hospital arrival so that they may be re-routed directly for advanced care at an invasive centre.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive value of routine prehospital point-of-care cardiac troponin T measurement for diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: All prehospital emergency medical service...... vehicles in the Central Denmark Region were equipped with a point-of-care cardiac troponin T device (Roche Cobas h232) for routine use in all patients with a suspected acute myocardial infarction. During the study period, 1 June 2012-30 November 2015, prehospital point-of-care cardiac troponin T...

  16. Acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Grant W; Rossi, Jeffrey E; Cannon, Christopher P

    2017-01-14

    Acute myocardial infarction has traditionally been divided into ST elevation or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; however, therapies are similar between the two, and the overall management of acute myocardial infarction can be reviewed for simplicity. Acute myocardial infarction remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite substantial improvements in prognosis over the past decade. The progress is a result of several major trends, including improvements in risk stratification, more widespread use of an invasive strategy, implementation of care delivery systems prioritising immediate revascularisation through percutaneous coronary intervention (or fibrinolysis), advances in antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, and greater use of secondary prevention strategies such as statins. This seminar discusses the important topics of the pathophysiology, epidemiological trends, and modern management of acute myocardial infarction, focusing on the recent advances in reperfusion strategies and pharmacological treatment approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Global Ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengaard, Carsten; Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Andersen, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: P5632 Global ischemia ECG pattern for diagnosis of acute left main occlusion: prevalence and associated mortality in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction Authors: C. Stengaard1, J.T. Sorensen2, M.P. Andersen3, K. Thygesen1, J.F. Lassen2, K. Nikus4, G. Wagner5, C...... by automated analysis using the Marquette 12SL algorithm. Data of mortality and angiography were obtained from the Danish cause of death registry and the Western Denmark Heart Registry. Prevalence and diagnostic performance of GIP was calculated. Kaplan Meier plots were constructed and mortality compared using...... log rank statistics. Results: ECG's from 3402 patients qualified for analysis. 211 patients (6.2%) showed GIP pattern, 73 of these were diagnosed with myocardial infarction, of whom only 9 had an acute LM occlusion. This corresponds to a positive predictive value of GIP for identification of LM...

  18. ISIS-2: 10 year survival among patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction in randomised comparison of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigent, Colin; Collins, Rory; Appleby, Paul; Parish, Sarah; Sleight, Peter; Peto, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To assess effects of intravenous streptokinase, one month of oral aspirin, or both, on long term survival after suspected acute myocardial infarction. Design: Randomised, “2×2 factorial,” placebo controlled trial. Setting: 417 hospitals in 16 countries. Subjects: 17 187 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction randomised between March 1985 and December 1987. Follow up of vital status complete to at least 1 January 1990 for 95% of all patients and to mid-1997 for the 6213 patients in United Kingdom. Interventions: Intravenous streptokinase (1.5 MU in 1 hour) and oral aspirin (162 mg daily for 1 month) versus matching placebos. Main outcome measures: Mortality from all causes during up to 10 years’ follow up, with subgroup analyses based on 4 year follow up. Results: After randomisation, 1841 deaths were recorded in days 0-35, 991 from day 36 to end of year 1, 1478 in years 2-4, and 1230 in years 5-10. Allocation to streptokinase was associated with 29 (95% confidence interval 20 to 38) fewer deaths per 1000 patients during days 0-35. This early benefit persisted (death rate ratio 0.98 (0.92 to 1.04) for additional deaths between day 36 and end of year 10), so that there were 28 (14 to 42) and 23 (2 to 44) fewer deaths per 1000 patients treated with streptokinase after 4 years and 10 years respectively. There was no evidence that absolute survival benefit increased with prolonged follow up among any category of patient, including those presenting early after symptoms started or with anterior ST elevation. Nor did the early benefits seem to be lost in any category (including those aged over 70). Allocation to one month of aspirin was associated with 26 (16 to 35) fewer deaths per 1000 during first 35 days, with little further benefit or loss during subsequent years (death rate ratio 0.99 (0.93 to 1.06) between day 36 and end of year 10). The early benefit obtained with combination of streptokinase and one month of aspirin also seemed

  19. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C compared to the estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict risk in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction.

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    von Jeinsen, Beatrice; Kraus, Daniel; Palapies, Lars; Tzikas, Stergios; Zeller, Tanja; Schauer, Anne; Drechsler, Christiane; Bickel, Christoph; Baldus, Stephan; Lackner, Karl J; Münzel, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeiher, Andreas M; Keller, Till

    2017-10-15

    Impaired renal function, reflected by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or cystatin C, is a strong risk predictor in the presence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) is an early marker of acute kidney injury. uNGAL might also be a good predictor of outcome in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of uNGAL compared to eGFR and cystatin C in patients with suspected AMI. 1818 patients were enrolled with suspected AMI. Follow-up information on the combined endpoint of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction was obtained 6months after enrolment and was available in 1804 patients. 63 events (3.5%) were registered. While cystatin C and eGFR were strong risk predictors for the primary endpoint even adjusted for several variables, uNGAL was not independently associated with outcome: When applied continuously uNGAL was associated with outcome but did not remain a statistically significant predictor after several adjustments (i.e. eGFR). By adding cystatin C or uNGAL to GRACE risk score variables, only cystatin C could improve the predictive value while uNGAL showed no improvement. We could show that cystatin C is an independent risk predictor in patients with suspected AMI and cystatin C can add improvement to the commonly used GRACE risk score. In contrast uNGAL is not independently associated with outcome and seems not to add further prognostic information to GRACE risk score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 44. Copeptin as early marker of acute non-ST elevation myocardial infarction in patients suspected with acute coronary syndrome

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    S. Rafla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis and management of AMI have great impact on morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis which is based on elevation of cardiac biomarkers has its limitations. Copeptin is the C-terminal part of the vasopressin prohormone. The pathophysiology mode of release should theoretically add diagnostic information of cardiac cell necrosis. One of the major limitations of cardiac biomarkers is the delayed release in circulation. So looking for a new marker with a short diagnostic time window is needed. Aim is to determine the role of copeptin as an early marker for acute non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI. This study included 88 patients with chest pain. They were divided into 2 groups. Group (1; included 30 patients with diagnosis of NSTEMI. Diagnosis of AMI was established according to the universal definition of MI. Group (2; included 58 patients with diagnosis of unstable angina (UA. Full medical history, physical examination, 12 lead ECG, random blood glucose level, renal function, total cholesterol, triglyceride, cardiac troponin I and Copeptin were obtained on admission. Follow up cardiac troponin I was done. Inclusion criteria: Defined as chest pain of ⩽6 h duration since onset, suggestive of myocardial ischemia, and lasting >20 min. at rest. Exclusion criteria: Patients with positive First cardiac troponin were rolled out, patients with ST segment elevation were rolled out. Other exclusion criteria: Patients presenting after a cardiac arrest, Trauma or major surgery within the last 4 week; pregnancy; IV drug abuse; age less than 18 years; shock and sepsis. Patients who were included had second troponin I re- done and copeptin analysis done. In group 1 (NSTEMI 28 patients had ECG changes and only 2 had NSTEMI without ECG changes. In group 2 (UA 23 patients had ECG changes and 35 patients had normal ECG. Males and females were 49 and 39. Age in G1 and G2 was 60 ± 4 and 53 ± 5. Copeptin analysis was done 6 h after Infarction or chest pain

  1. [Bonsai induced acute myocardial infarction].

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    Ayhan, Hüseyin; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Süygün, Hakan; Durmaz, Tahir

    2014-09-01

    Incidences of drug abuse and cannabis have increased in young adults, recently. Cannabis induced myocardial infarction has rarely been reported in these people. There is no any literature about a synthetic cannabinoid, being recently most popular Bonsai, to cause myocardial infarction. In this case report we presented a 33-year-old male patient who developed acute myocardial infarction after taking high doses of Bonsai.

  2. Benefits and risks of thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred); M.L. Simoons (Maarten)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThrombolytic therapy is a major step forward in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and may result in up to 50% mortality reduction, provided that it is administered early (chapter 1). In 80 to 85% of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction, a coronary artery is

  3. Omega-3 Status and the Relationship between Plasma Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

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    Heidi Borgeraas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. A previous rat study revealed an ADMA lowering effect following treatment with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs. We sought to examine if an association between plasma ADMA and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI was modified by serum n-3 PUFA status. Methods. The cohort included 1364 patients who underwent coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease in 2000-2001. Fatal and nonfatal AMI events were registered until December 31, 2006. Risk associations with AMI were estimated across ADMA quartiles (linear trend and the upper decile. Results. No association between concentration of any n-3 PUFA and ADMA was observed. Only ADMA levels in upper decile were significantly associated with AMI with a multivariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR (95% confidence interval versus the rest of the population of 2.11 (1.34, 3.32. The association was strengthened among patients with below median levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA (HR 3.12 (1.64, 5.93, but was only influenced by longer chain n-3 PUFA after additional adjustments for HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions. The association of ADMA with risk of AMI is influenced by serum n-3 PUFA and particularly ALA.

  4. Implementation of a pre-hospital decision rule in general practice. Triage of patients with suspected myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W.M. Grijseels (Els); J.W. Deckers (Jaap); A.W. Hoes (Arno); H. Boersma (Eric); J.A.M. Hartman; E. van der Does (Emiel); M.L. Simoons (Maarten)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To improve pre-hospital triage of patients with suspected acute cardiac disease. DESIGN: Prospective study. SUBJECTS. Patients with symptoms suggestive of acute cardiac pathology, who were seen by a general practitioner, for whom acute admission into hospital was requested,

  5. Scintigraphic findings in myocardial infarction

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    Schuemichen, C.; Krause, T.

    1988-09-01

    Radioisotope studies are currently used mainly to assess the individual risk before and after myocardial infarction (MI). Scintigraphy will be used increasingly to diagnose and localize acute myocardial infarction (AMI), to measure the infarct size and to detect reperfusion, whether spontaneous or after lysis, in the infarct area. High sensitivity and specificity are obtained by using tomographic imaging modalities and by the combined and simultaneous use of markers for perfusion and necrosis. This technique allows recognition even of nontransmural infarctions, involvement of the right ventricle, subendocardial necroses, and ischemic injuries in unstable angina pectoris.

  6. Myocardial infarction in the young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengel A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of patients under 40 years of age are being hospitalized with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. This is partly due to the increased prevalance of risk factors for atherosclerosis in the younger age group; especially increased incidence of impaired fasting glucose, high triglyceride, low high-density lipoprotein levels and increased waist to hip ratio. However, non-atherosclerotic coronary artery disease or hypercoagulability should also be investigated or at least suspected in the younger patients. The pathophysiology of different clinical conditions and disease states which cause acute coronary syndromes in the young patients are reviewed, and the diagnostic modalities and therapatic options for these conditions are briefly discussed by searching for "premature atherosclerosis", "hypercoagulable states", "risk factors for atherosclerosis in youth", "novel risk factors for atherosclerosis", "non-atherosclerotic coronary artery diseases" in PubMed.

  7. Transient myocardial ischemia after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H

    1995-01-01

    Ambulatory ST-segment monitoring is a relatively new device in the evaluation of myocardial ischemia. The method is unique in allowing us to continuously examine the patient over an extended period of time in a changing environmental milieu. In survivors of acute myocardial infarction the prevale...

  8. Depression following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe life event that is accompanied by an increased risk of depression. Mounting evidence suggests that post-MI depression is associated with adverse outcomes, but the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear, and no previous studies have examined...... whether the mental burden of MI is so heavy that it increases the risk of suicide. Although post-MI depression is common and burdensome, the condition remains under-recognised and under-treated. The development of new strategies to improve the quality of care for people with post-MI depression requires...... thorough understanding of the mechanisms that influence the prognosis as well as knowledge of the present care provided. The purpose of this PhD thesis is accordingly subdivided into four specific aims: 1. To estimate the prevalence of depression in people with MI after three months, and to estimate...

  9. Unexpected Coexisting Myocardial Infarction Detected by Delayed Enhancement MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edouard Gerbaud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an unexpected coexisting anterior myocardial infarction detected by delayed enhancement MRI in a 41-year-old man following a presentation with a first episode of chest pain during inferior acute myocardial infarction. This second necrotic area was not initially suspected because there were no ECG changes in the anterior leads and the left descending coronary artery did not present any significant stenoses on emergency coronary angiography. Unrecognised myocardial infarction may carry important prognostic implications. CMR is currently the best imaging technique to detect unexpected infarcts.

  10. Copeptin Testing in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Ready for Routine Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstadler, Sebastian Johannes; Klug, Gert; Metzler, Bernhard; Mair, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Suspected acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of admission to emergency departments. In the last decade, biomarkers revolutionized the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Besides their pivotal assistance in timely diagnosis, biomarkers provide additional information for risk stratification. Cardiac troponins I and T are the most sensitive and specific markers of acute myocardial injury. Nonetheless, in order to overcome the remaining limitations of these markers, novel candidate biomarkers sensitive to early stage of disease are being extensively investigated. Among them, copeptin, a stable peptide derived from the precursor of vasopressin, emerged as a promising biomarker for the evaluation of suspected acute myocardial infarction. In this review, we summarize the currently available evidence for the usefulness of copeptin in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction in comparison with routine biomarkers. PMID:25960596

  11. Copeptin Testing in Acute Myocardial Infarction: Ready for Routine Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Johannes Reinstadler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspected acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of admission to emergency departments. In the last decade, biomarkers revolutionized the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes. Besides their pivotal assistance in timely diagnosis, biomarkers provide additional information for risk stratification. Cardiac troponins I and T are the most sensitive and specific markers of acute myocardial injury. Nonetheless, in order to overcome the remaining limitations of these markers, novel candidate biomarkers sensitive to early stage of disease are being extensively investigated. Among them, copeptin, a stable peptide derived from the precursor of vasopressin, emerged as a promising biomarker for the evaluation of suspected acute myocardial infarction. In this review, we summarize the currently available evidence for the usefulness of copeptin in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction in comparison with routine biomarkers.

  12. Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan, Daniel; Ng, Leong L

    2010-01-01

    .... Biomarkers have been used to assist with timely diagnosis, while an increasing number of novel markers have been identified to predict outcome following an acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome...

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of copeptin sensitivity and specificity in patients with suspected non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction with troponin I below the 99th centile at presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchenne, Jonathan; Mestres, Stéphanie; Dublanchet, Nicolas; Combaret, Nicolas; Marceau, Geoffroy; Caumon, Laurent; Dutoit, Laurent; Ughetto, Sylvie; Motreff, Pascal; Sapin, Vincent; Schmidt, Jeannot

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether copeptin-us can rule out diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) without prolonged monitoring and serial blood sampling in patients with high-sensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnT) below the 99th centile at presentation to the emergency department (ED). Design Prospective, non-randomised, individual blinded diagnostic accuracy study. Setting Two EDs of a rural region of France. Participants Patients with chest pain suspected of NSTEMI with onset within the last 12 h were considered for enrolment. Interventions Serial clinical, electrographical and biochemical investigations were performed at admission and after 2, 4, 6 and 12 h. Hs-cTnT was measured using an assay with Dimension VISTA, Siemens. Copeptin was measured by the BRAHMS copeptin-us assay on the KRYPTOR Compact Plus system. The follow-up period was 90 days. Primary and secondary outcome measures Copeptin, troponin, myoglobin and creatine kinase values. Clinical and paraclinical events. The final diagnosis was adjudicated blinded to copeptin result. Results During 12 months, 102 patients were analysed. Final diagnosis was NSTEMI for 7.8% (n=8), unstable angina for 3.9% (n=4), cardiac but non-coronary artery disease for 8.8% (n=9), non-cardiac chest pain for 52% (n=53) and unknown for 27.5% (n=28). There was no statistical difference for copeptin values between patients with NSTEMI and others (respectively 5.5 pmol/L IQR (3.1–7.9) and 6.5 pmol/L IQR (3.9–12.1), p=0.49). Only one patient with NSTEMI had a copeptin value above the cut-off of 95th centile at admission. Conclusions In this study, copeptin does not add a diagnostic value at admission to ED for patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation and with hs-cTnT below the 99th centile. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01334645. PMID:24662448

  14. Myocardial infarction in children: Two interesting cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryawanshi Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction in children is extremely rare and can have various etiologies. The following two case reports highlight rare but important causes of myocardial infarction in children.

  15. Review Paper: Myocardial Rupture After Acute Myocardial Infarction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Myocardial rupture complications after acute myocardial infarction are infrequent but lethal. They mainly involve rupture of the ventricular free wall, ventricular septum, papillary muscle, or combined. We compare features of different kinds of myocardial ruptures after acute myocardial infarction by reviewing the clinical ...

  16. Perceived stress in myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Smolderen, K.G.E.; Buchanan, Donna M.; Li, Yan; Spertus, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to determine the association of chronic stress with long-term adverse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).BackgroundChronic stress has been shown to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and, in the case of particular types of stress

  17. Neonatal Myocardial Infarction or Myocarditis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vetten, Leanne; Bergman, Klasien A.; Elzenga, Nynke J.; van Melle, Joost P.; Timmer, Albertus; Bartelds, Beatrijs

    We report a 29 week-gestation preterm infant who presented during his second week of life with cardiogenic shock. Clinical presentation and first diagnostics suggested myocardial infarction, but echocardiographic features during follow-up pointed to a diagnosis of enteroviral myocarditis. The child

  18. Pregnancy-related myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameijer, H.; Lont, M. C.; Buter, H.; van Boven, A. J.; Boonstra, P. W.; Pieper, P. G.

    Introduction The risk of acute myocardial infarction in young women is low, but increases during pregnancy due to the physiological changes in pregnancy, including hypercoagulability. Ischaemic heart disease during pregnancy is not only associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality, but

  19. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  20. Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Leong L

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial infarction causes significant mortality and morbidity. Timely diagnosis allows clinicians to risk stratify their patients and select appropriate treatment. Biomarkers have been used to assist with timely diagnosis, while an increasing number of novel markers have been identified to predict outcome following an acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome. This may facilitate tailoring of appropriate therapy to high-risk patients. This review focuses on a variety of promising biomarkers which provide diagnostic and prognostic information. Heart-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein and copeptin in combination with cardiac troponin help diagnose myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome in the early hours following symptoms. An elevated N-Terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide has been well validated to predict death and heart failure following a myocardial infarction. Similarly other biomarkers such as Mid-regional pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, ST2, C-Terminal pro-endothelin 1, Mid-regional pro-Adrenomedullin and copeptin all provide incremental information in predicting death and heart failure. Growth differentiation factor-15 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein predict death following an acute coronary syndrome. Pregnancy associated plasma protein A levels following chest pain predicts risk of myocardial infarction and revascularisation. Some biomarkers such as myeloperoxidase and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in an apparently healthy population predicts risk of coronary disease and allows clinicians to initiate early preventative treatment. In addition to biomarkers, various well-validated scoring systems based on clinical characteristics are available to help clinicians predict mortality risk, such as the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score. A multimarker approach incorporating biomarkers and clinical scores will increase the prognostic

  1. Mortality rate in type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2014-01-01

    2 myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction is high, reaching approximately 50% after 2 years. Further descriptive and survival studies are needed to improve the scientific evidence on which treatment of type 2 myocardial infarction is based.......BACKGROUND: The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007. The prognostic impact of this universal definition, with particular focus on type 2 myocardial infarction, has not been studied prospectively in unselected hospital patients. METHODS: During a 1-year period......, all hospitalized patients having cardiac troponin I measured were considered. The diagnosis of a myocardial infarction was according to the universal definition, and specified criteria were used in the classification of type 2 myocardial infarction. Follow-up was at least 1 year, with mortality...

  2. Myocardial infarction false alarm: initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Esha Das; Sakthiswary, Rajalingham

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of a myocardial infarction "false alarm" and evaluate the efficacy of the initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia. We recruited patients who were admitted with suspected myocardial infarction from June to August 2008. The medical records of these patients were reviewed for the initial electrocardiogram, initial cardiac enzyme levels (creatinine kinase-MB and troponin T), and the final diagnosis upon discharge. The subjects were stratified into 2 groups: true myocardial infarction, and false alarm. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. Following admission and further evaluation, the diagnosis was revised from myocardial infarction to other medical conditions in 48 (38.4%) patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the initial ischemic electrocardiographic changes were 54.5% and 70.8%, respectively. Raised cardiac enzymes had a sensitivity of 44.3% and specificity of 95.8%. A significant proportion of patients in Malaysia are admitted with a false-alarm myocardial infarction. The efficacy of the electrocardiogram in diagnosing myocardial infarction in Malaysia was comparable to the findings of Western studies, but the cardiac enzymes had a much lower sensitivity.

  3. Experimental Approaches to Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Uitterdijk (André)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract This thesis is dedicated to i) novel methods and optimization studies to improve the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction as well as fundamental studies that precede novel therapies for myocardial infarction. In part ii) 2 novel, adjunctive therapies

  4. Myocardial infarction and stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ananda Krishna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Permanent loss of cardiomyocytes and scar tissue formation after myocardial infarction (MI results in an irreversible damage to the cardiac function. Cardiac repair (replacement, restoration, and regeneration is, therefore, essential to restore function of the heart following MI. Existing therapies lower early mortality rates, prevent additional damage to the heart muscle, and reduce the risk of further heart attacks. However, there is need for treatment to improve the infarcted area by replacing the damaged cells after MI. Thus, the cardiac tissue regeneration with the application of stem cells may be an effective therapeutic option. Recently, interest is more inclined toward myocardial regeneration with the application of stem cells. However, the potential benefits and the ability to improve cardiac function with the stem cell-based therapy need to be further addressed. In this review, we focus on the clinical applications of stem cells in the cardiac repair.

  5. Myocardial infarction and subsequent pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedoldi Citânia Lúcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with 2 previous myocardial infarctions, revascularization surgery, and an ongoing pregnancy complicated with preeclampsia and fetal hypoxia. Her follow-up performed by a multidisciplinary team made possible the birth through cesarean section of a premature infant of the female sex with a very low birth weight, but without severe respiratory distress of the hyaline membrane disease type. Three months after the delivery, mother and daughter were healthy.

  6. Leukocytosis: a risk factor for myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Kotla, Suman

    2012-01-01

    Suman K KotlaDepartment of Internal Medicine, Memorial Medical Center, Johnstown, PA, USAAbstract: Myocardial infarction commonly results from atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries. Approximately 5% of patients with acute myocardial infarction do not have atherosclerotic disease. In this case report, we present an unusual leukostatic complication in a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia and extreme hyperleukocytosis who presented with an acute myocardial infarction that resolv...

  7. Novel adjunctive treatments of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Michael Rahbek; Pryds, Kasper; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and myocardial infarct size is a major determinant of prognosis. Early and successful restoration of myocardial reperfusion following an ischemic event is the most effective strategy to reduce final infarct size and improve...... by endovascular infusion of cold saline all reduce infarct size and may confer clinical benefit for patients admitted with acute myocardial infarcts. Equally promising, three follow-up studies of the effect of remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) show clinical prognostic benefit in patients undergoing coronary...... clinical outcome, but reperfusion may induce further myocardial damage itself. Development of adjunctive therapies to limit myocardial reperfusion injury beyond opening of the coronary artery gains increasing attention. A vast number of experimental studies have shown cardioprotective effects of ischemic...

  8. Regenerative healing following foetal myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdrich, Benjamin J; Danzer, Enrico; Davey, Marcus G; Allukian, Myron; Englefield, Virginia; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C; Liechty, Kenneth W

    2010-12-01

    The adult response to myocardial infarction results in inflammation, scar formation, left ventricular dilatation, and loss of regional and global function. Regenerative scarless healing has been demonstrated in foetal dermis and tendon and is associated with diminished inflammation. We hypothesised that following foetal myocardial infarction, there would be minimal inflammation, regenerative healing, and preservation of function. Anteroapical myocardial infarction encompassing 20% of the left ventricle was created in adult or early gestation foetal sheep. Myocardial function was serially assessed using quantitative echocardiography. Infarct architecture was examined histologically for evidence of scar formation. Cellular inflammation, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed using immunohistochemistry. In the adult sheep 4 weeks following myocardial infarction, there was a significant decline in ejection fraction (EF) (41±7.4% to 26±7.4%, p<0.05), and the akinetic myocardial segment increased in size (6.9±0.8 cm to 7.9±1.1 cm, p<0.05). By contrast, there was no decline in the foetal EF (53±8.1% to 55±8.8%) and no akinetic foetal myocardial segment 4 weeks post-infarction. The foetal infarcts lacked an inflammatory cell infiltrate and healed with minimal fibrosis, compared with the adults. Foetal infarcts also demonstrated 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)+ proliferating cells, including cardiomyocytes, within the infarct. These data demonstrate that the foetal response to myocardial infarction is dramatically different from the adult and is characterised by minimal inflammation, lack of fibrosis, myocardial proliferation and restoration of cardiac function. Diminished inflammation is associated with foetal regenerative cardiac healing following injury. Understanding the mechanisms involved in foetal myocardial regeneration may lead to applications to alter the adult response following myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2010 European Association for

  9. Regenerative healing following fetal myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Danzer, Enrico; Davey, Marcus G.; Allukian, Myron; Englefield, Virginia; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The adult response to myocardial infarction results in inflammation, scar formation, left ventricular dilatation, and loss of regional and global function. Regenerative scarless healing has been demonstrated in fetal dermis and tendon and is associated with diminished inflammation. We hypothesized that following fetal myocardial infarction there would be minimal inflammation, regenerative healing, and preservation of function. Methods Anteroapical myocardial infarction encompassing 20% of the left ventricle were created in adult or early gestation fetal sheep. Myocardial function was serially assessed using quantitative echocardiography. Infarct architecture was examined histologically for evidence of scar formation. Cellular inflammation, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results In the adult sheep 4 weeks following myocardial infarction, there was a significant decline in ejection fraction (41±7.4% to 26±7.4%, p<0.05), and the akinetic myocardial segment increased in size (6.9±0.8 cm to 7.9±1.1 cm, p<0.05). In contrast, there was no decline in the fetal ejection fraction (53±8.1% to 55±8.8%) and no akinetic fetal myocardial segment 4 weeks post-infarction. The fetal infarcts lacked an inflammatory cell infiltrate and healed with minimal fibrosis, compared to the adults. Fetal infarcts also demonstrated BrdU+ proliferating cells, including cardiomyocytes, within the infarct. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the fetal response to myocardial infarction is dramatically different than the adult and is characterized by minimal inflammation, lack of fibrosis, myocardial proliferation, and restoration of cardiac function. Diminished inflammation is associated with fetal regenerative cardiac healing following injury. Understanding the mechanisms involved in fetal myocardial regeneration may lead to applications to alter the adult response following myocardial infarction. PMID:20452780

  10. Myocardial infarct expansion, infarct extension, and reinfarction: pathophysiologic concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, H F; Healy, B

    1987-01-01

    Infarct expansion and infarct extension are events early in the course of myocardial infarction with serious short- and long-term consequences. Infarct expansion, disproportionate thinning, and dilatation of the infarct segment probably begin within hours of acute infarction and usually reach peak extent within seven to 14 days. Clinical data suggest that infarct expansion occurs in approximately 35% to 45% of anterior transmural myocardial infarctions and to a lesser extent in infarctions at other sites. Although expansion usually develops in large infarcts, the extent of transmural necrosis rather than absolute infarct size predicts its occurrence. Expansion has an adverse effect on infarct structure and function for several reasons. Functional infarct size is increased because of infarct segment lengthening, and expansion results in over-all ventricular dilatation. Thus, patients with expansion of an infarct have poorer exercise tolerance, more congestive heart failure symptoms, and greater early and late mortality than those without expansion. Infarct rupture and late aneurysm formation are two additional structural consequences of infarct expansion. Experimental and clinical data suggest that the incidence and severity of expansion can be modified by interventions. Increased ventricular loading conditions and steroidal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents make expansion more severe. Reperfusion of the infarct segment and pharmacologic interventions that decrease ventricular afterload lessen the severity of expansion. Previous myocardial infarction and preexisting ventricular hypertrophy may also limit the development of infarct expansion. Infarct extension is defined clinically as early in-hospital reinfarction after a myocardial infarction. The pathologic finding of infarct extension is necrotic and healing myocardium of several different recent ages within the same vascular territory. Although this pathologic criterion usually cannot be verified, studies

  11. An unusual case of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetta, Riccardo; Vizzardi, Enrico; D'Aloia, Antonio; Bonadei, Ivano; Sciatti, Edoardo; Metra, Marco

    2014-06-01

    Myocardial infarction may be the result of embolism of calcified material from the aortic valve or thrombotic formations adhering to the same. We report a case of late myocardial infarction secondary to embolization from a thrombus adherent to the aortic valve jutting out in the ostium of the left main coronary artery.

  12. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  13. Acute myocardial infarction with changing axis deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2011-07-01

    Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. Left anterior hemiblock development during acute inferior myocardial infarction can be an indicator of left anterior descending coronary artery lesions, multivessel coronary artery disease, and impaired left ventricular systolic function. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 62-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computational modeling of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, P; Kuhl, E

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as heart attack, is caused by reduced blood supply and damages the heart muscle because of a lack of oxygen. Myocardial infarction initiates a cascade of biochemical and mechanical events. In the early stages, cardiomyocytes death, wall thinning, collagen degradation, and ventricular dilation are the immediate consequences of myocardial infarction. In the later stages, collagenous scar formation in the infarcted zone and hypertrophy of the non-infarcted zone are auto-regulatory mechanisms to partly correct for these events. Here we propose a computational model for the short-term adaptation after myocardial infarction using the continuum theory of multiplicative growth. Our model captures the effects of cell death initiating wall thinning, and collagen degradation initiating ventricular dilation. Our simulations agree well with clinical observations in early myocardial infarction. They represent a first step toward simulating the progression of myocardial infarction with the ultimate goal to predict the propensity toward heart failure as a function of infarct intensity, location, and size.

  15. Myocardial infarction and nocturnal hypoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penčić Biljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with nocturnal intermittent hypoxaemia. Objecive. The aim of this study was to evalute the influence of nocturnal hypoxaemia on ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial ischaemia in patients with myocardial infarction (MI. Method. We studied 77 patients (55.8±7.9 years with MI free of complications, chronic pulmonary diseases, abnormal awake blood gases tension. All patients underwent overnight pulse oximetry and 24-hour electrocardiography. Patients were divided into two groups according to nocturnal hypoxaemia. Total number of ventricular premature complex (VPC; maximal VPC/h; incidence of VPC Lown class>2 and occurrence of ST-segment depression were analyzed for nocturnal (10 PM to 6 AM, daytime (6 AM to 22 PM periods and for the entire 24 hours. Results. Both groups were similar in age, gender, standard risk factors, myocardial infarction size and did not differ in VPC during the analyzed periods. The number of nocturnal maximal VPC/h was insignificantly greater in group 1 (with hypoxaemia compared to group 2 (without hypoxaemia, (p=0.084. Maximal VPC/h did not differ significantly either for daytime or for 24 hours among the groups. Nocturnal VPC Lown>2 were significantly more frequent in group 1 (25% vs 0%, p=0.002. The incidence of VPC Lown>2 was similar during the daytime, and during 24 hrs in both groups. Occurrence of ST-segment depression did not differ between groups 1 and 2. Conclusion. Nocturnal hypoxaemia was associated with complex nocturnal ventricular arrhythmias in patients with MI. .

  16. Myocardial infarction in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Amelia; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Advances in pharmacological treatment and effective early myocardial revascularization have -in recent years- led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it has been suggested that compared to younger subjects, elderly AMI patients are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment, including myocardial revascularization therapy. Several reasons have been postulated to explain this trend, including uncertainty regarding the true benefits of the interventions commonly used in this setting as well as increased risk mainly associated with comorbidities. The diagnosis, management, and post-hospitalization care of elderly patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome pose many difficulties at present. A complex interplay of variables such as comorbidities, functional and socioeconomic status, side effects associated with multiple drug administration, and individual biologic variability, all contribute to creating a complex clinical scenario. In this complex setting, clinicians are often required to extrapolate evidence-based results obtained in cardiovascular trials from which older patients are often, implicitly or explicitly, excluded. This article reviews current recommendations regarding management of AMI in the elderly.

  17. The aetiology and possible prevention of myocardial infarction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aetiology and possible prevention of myocardial infarction. ... The subjects of this study were 250 cases of myocardial infarction treated personally. ... Until the aetiology of myocardial infarction has been clarified, it would appear reasonable to treat these factors so as to perhaps afford potential myocardial infarction ...

  18. Acute myocardial infarction following a hornet sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković-Matić Danica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction following a hornet sting has been very rarely reported in the previous literature. Pathogenetic mechanisms include direct action of the venom components on the coronary endothelium and allergic reaction with mediators released from mast cells. The anaphylactic reaction and venom components can produce acute coronary artery thrombosis. Case report. We reported a 45-year-old man with acute myocardial infarction after a hornet sting in the presence of anaphylaxis. We also discussed clinical implications and pathophysiological mechanisms of acute myocardial infarction caused by hymenoptera sting. Conclusion. A case report of this unusual acute myocardial infarction highlights the potential acute myocardial ischemia associated with hymenoptera sting which requests early diagnosis, thorough cardiovascular evaluation and appropriate treatment.

  19. [Cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannem, M; Ghannem, L; Ghannem, L

    2015-12-01

    Although the proofs of the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation accumulate, many patients are not sent to rehabilitation units, especially younger and very elderly patients. As the length of stay in acute care units decreases, rehabilitation offers more time to fully assess the patients' conditions and needs. Meta-analyses of randomised trials suggest that mortality can be improved by as much as 20-30%. In addition, rehabilitation helps managing risk factors, including hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking and sedentary behaviours. Physical training also helps improving exercise capacity. Because of all of these effects, cardiac rehabilitation for post-myocardial infarction patients has been given a class IA recommendation in current guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-07-09

    Changing axis deviation has been reported during acute myocardial infarction also associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 70-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Autophagy, dysglycemia and myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xiao-Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy has been thought as a novel cell death mechanism involving in the pathophysiological process of myocardial infarction (MI, and modulation of autophagy may be considered as a promising treatment modality for MI. Dysglycemia was associated with higher mortality in patients with MI. We hypothesize that autophagy may be a potential pathway through which dysglycemia has an impact on the outcomes of MI. In this review, we summarize the function of autophagy in the conditions of MI and the regulatory effects of dysglycemia on autophagy. Four main impacts of autophagy on MI under dysglycemia have been revealed. The first one is that autophagy limits the infarct size via inhibited mTOR. The second one is that autophagy promotes the survival of cardiomyocytes through depleted ATP. The third one is that autophagy protects cardiac myocytes from imparing by way of degradation. The last one is that autophagy maintenance of LV function through FoxO1. Therefore, the ability to modulate autophagy may represent as a potential and promising therapeutic strategy in limiting MI caused by dysglycemia. However, elucidation of precise ways of autophagy in mediating MI caused by dysglycemia, as well as when and how autophagy is manipulated remains us to research.

  2. Myocardial infarction and cerebral infarction in a Danish suburban community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngborg, K; Marquardsen, J; Trautner, F

    1985-01-01

    A comparison was made of 485 cases of cerebral infarction (CI), registered prospectively in Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, with 495 cases of myocardial infarction (AMI), recorded retrospectively in the same population. The overall annual incidence of AMI was 6.5 per 1,000 population for males, 3...

  3. Cardiac biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldous, Sally J

    2013-01-01

    ... (established and novel) assays. Cardiac troponin, our current "gold standard" biomarker criterion for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction has high sensitivity and specificity for this diagnosis and therapies instituted...

  4. Effects of antidepressant treatment following myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Melle, Joost P.; De Jonge, Peter; Honig, Adriaan; Schene, Aart H.; Kuyper, Astrid M. G.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Schins, Annique; Tulner, Dorien; Van den Berg, Maarten P.; Ormel, Johan

    Background Depression following myocardial infarction is associated with poor cardiac prognosis. It is unclear whether antidepressant treatment improves long-term depression status and cardiac prognosis. Aims To evaluate the effects of antidepressant treatment compared with usual care in an

  5. Effects of antidepressant treatment following myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melle, Joost P.; de Jonge, Peter; Honig, Adriaan; Schene, Aart H.; Kuyper, Astrid M. G.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.; Schins, Annique; Tulner, Dorien; van den Berg, Maarten P.; Ormel, Johan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression following myocardial infarction is associated with poor cardiac prognosis. It is unclear whether antidepressant treatment improves long-term depression status and cardiac prognosis. AIMS: To evaluate the effects of antidepressant treatment compared with usual care in an

  6. Biventricular thrombi complicating acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghvi, Sanjeev; Baroopal, Anil; Sarda, Pawan

    2016-09-01

    A rare case of biventricular thrombi complicating acute myocardial infarction detected during echocardiography is described. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Myocardial infarction following cannabis induced coronary vasospasm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunawardena, Mudalige Don Vajira Malin; Rajapakse, Senaka; Herath, Jagath; Amarasena, Naomali

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is a rare cause of myocardial infarction. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with acute coronary syndrome following consumption of a type of cannabis with the street name 'Kerala Ganja...

  8. Stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Moelker, Amber

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCoronary heart disease and heart failure continue to be significant burdens to healthcare systems in the Western world and are predicted to become so in emerging economies. Despite mixed results in both experimental and clinical studies, stem cell therapy is a promising option for patients suffering from myocardial infarction or patients with chronic heart failure after myocardial infarction. However, many issues in the field of cellular cardiomyoplasty still need to be resolved. ...

  9. Echocardiography diagnosis of myocardial infarction complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Oryshchyn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and management of myocardial infarction complications are discussed in this article. These complications are associated with high level of mortality and surgery is a main treatment method. High level of suspicion and early diagnosis are essential for appropriate treatment and improvement of prognosis. Echocardiography is a main diagnostic method. Analysis of literature about contemporary management of mechanical complications of myocardial infarction has been performed, case reports are presented.

  10. Report of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Following Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akvan Paymard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Stroke is a rare complication of myocardial infarction (AMI. Aspirin, plavix, and enoxaparin are among drug treatments for myocardial infarction, which lead to stroke. The present study is a case report of stroke after myocardial infarction, which discusses patient’s records and clinical history along with paraclinical findings. Case Report: The patient was a 60-year-old man with a history of heart disease and diabetes, presented with severe chest pain and dyspnea to the Emergency Department of Yasuj Sajad Hospital on January 29, 2015, and after taking ECG, it was found that there was no signs of myocardial infarction, but troponin test was positive two times. The diagnosis was myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation. The patient took aspirin and plavix, and after subcutaneous injection of enoxaparin at the dose of 80 mg, his level of consciousness decreased, which caused GCS:5, right-side mydriasis, and motor paralysis in the left half of the body, therefore, CT was performed, and the patient that had about 90 ml hemorrhage in temporoparietal lobe. The patient was transformed to the operating room and 60 ml blood was removed using partial lobectomy and a microscope. After hospitalization in ICU for several days, the patient was extubated under the SIMV mode. Considering the high prevalence of heart disease, especially increasing rate of myocardial infarction in the country, anticoagulants should be more carefully used and after administration of this group of drugs, patients be regularly monitored for side effects.

  11. Ambulatory ST segment monitoring after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of transient myocardial ischaemia after myocardial infarction seems to be lower than in other subgroups with coronary artery disease. In postinfarction patients, however, a greater proportion of ischaemic episodes are silent. At present there is substantial evidence that transient ...

  12. Myocardial infarction : early diagnosis and cardioprotective strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, M.I.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we have investigated novel diagnostic and cardioprotective strategies to limit myocardial cell death and improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. We demonstrated a new way to speed up the diagnosis of acute MI by using very small pieces of RNA (microRNAs). Using these

  13. Posterior myocardial infarction: the dark side of the moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorselen, E O F; Verheugt, F W A; Meursing, B T J; Oude Ophuis, A J M

    2007-01-01

    The clinical presentation of posterior myocardial infarction is not always easy, not even for the cardiologist. In this article a 70-year-old woman who presented with chest pain is described. The electrocardiogram at presentation showed marked ST-segment depression in leads V(1) to V(5) and slight ST-segment depression in leads I and aVL. There was ST-segment elevation in the posterior leads V(7) to V(9). Elevation of specific cardiac enzymes confirmed the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. True posterior myocardial infarction is difficult to recognise because the leads of the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram are not a direct representation of the area involved. Only with indirect changes in the precordial leads as such the diagnosis can be suspected. This review will highlight the electrocardiographic fine-tuned diagnosis of posterior myocardial infarction by using the posterior leads V(7) to V(9) leading to easier and faster recognition with consequences for treatment and improved prognosis. (Neth Heart J 2007;15:16-21.).

  14. Oxygen therapy for acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B. Cabello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen (O2 is widely recommended for patients with myocardial infarction yet a narrative review has suggested it may do more harm than good. Systematic reviews have concluded that there was insufficient evidence to know whether oxygen reduced, increased or had no effect on the heart ischaemia or infarct size. OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence from randomized controlled trials to establish whether routine use of inhaled oxygen in acute myocardial infarction (AMI improves patient-centered outcomes, in particular pain and death. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: The following bibliographic databases were searched (to the end of February 2010: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, Medline, Medline In-Process, Embase, CINAHL, Lilacs and PASCAL, British Library ZETOC, Web of Science ISI Proceedings. Experts were also contacted to identify any studies. No language restrictions were applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials of people with suspected or proven AMI, less than 24 hours after onset, in which the intervention was inhaled oxygen (at normal pressure compared to air and regardless of co-therapies provided these were the same in both arms of the trial. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of identified studies to see if they met the inclusion criteria and independently undertook the data extraction. The quality of studies and the risk of bias were assessed according to guidance in the Cochrane Handbook. The primary outcomes were death, pain and complications. The measure of effect used was the relative risk (RR. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials involving 387 patients were included and 14 deaths occurred. The pooled RR of death was 2.88 (95% CI 0.88 to 9.39 in an intention-to-treat analysis and 3.03 (95% CI 0.93 to 9.83 in patients with confirmed AMI. While suggestive of harm, the small number of deaths

  15. Risk stratification after myocardial infarction. Clinical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Rourke, R.A. (Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Many patients with an acute myocardial infarction can be stratified into subgroups that are at high risk for morbidity and mortality on the basis of clinical characteristics that indicate recurrent myocardial ischemia, persistent left ventricular dysfunction, and/or recurrent cardiac arrhythmias. In patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction the assessment of symptoms, physical findings, and ECG changes during predischarge exercise testing often identifies patients at increased risk for further cardiac events. Because of the suboptimum sensitivity and specificity of the exercise ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia, myocardial perfusion imaging with 201Tl and/or assessment of global and segmental ventricular function by two-dimensional echocardiography or radionuclide cineangiography during or immediately after exercise are often added to the predischarge risk stratification.

  16. Improving lipid control following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankam, Jyoti; Feldman, David I; Blaha, Michael J; Martin, Seth S

    2014-09-01

    Following a myocardial infarction, lipid-lowering therapy is an established intervention to reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Prior studies show a need to improve clinical practice in this area. Here, we review the latest research and perspectives on improving postmyocardial infarction lipid control. Dyslipidemia and myocardial infarction remain leading causes of global disability and premature mortality throughout the world. The processes of care in lipid control involve multiple patient-level, provider-level, and healthcare system-level factors. They can be challenging to coordinate. Recent studies show suboptimal use of early high-intensity statin therapy and overall lipid control following myocardial infarction. Encouragingly, lipid control has improved over the last decade. Implementation science has identified checklists as an effective tool. At the top of the checklist for reducing atherogenic lipids and recurrent event risk postmyocardial infarction is early high-intensity statin therapy. Smoking cessation and participation in cardiac rehabilitation are also priorities, as are lifestyle counseling, promotion of medication adherence, ongoing lipid surveillance, and medication management. Optimizing lipid control could further enhance clinical outcomes after myocardial infarction.

  17. Aircraft noise, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880; Spoerri, A.; Egger, M.; Roosli, M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Myocardial infarction has been associated with both transportation noise and air pollution. We examined residential exposure to aircraft noise and mortality from myocardial infarction, taking air pollution into account. METHODS: We analyzed the Swiss National Cohort, which includes

  18. Association of blood transfusion with increased mortality in myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatterjee, Saurav; Wetterslev, Jørn; Sharma, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of blood transfusion in patients with myocardial infarction is controversial, and a possibility of harm exists.......The benefit of blood transfusion in patients with myocardial infarction is controversial, and a possibility of harm exists....

  19. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction alters collagen metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Hansen, S S; Jensen, L T

    1994-01-01

    infarction and receiving thrombolytic therapy. Regardless of whether acute myocardial infarction was confirmed or not, S-PIIINP increased (94-120%) 4 h after streptokinase therapy (p ....02). With confirmed acute myocardial infarction, S-PIIINP increased from 24 h towards a plateau reached at day 2-3 (p acute myocardial infarction had S-PICP above baseline at 1, 2, and 6 months (p ....05). A less pronounced S-PIIINP increase was noted with tissue-plasminogen activator than with streptokinase. Thrombolytic therapy induces collagen breakdown regardless of whether acute myocardial infarction is confirmed or not. With confirmed acute myocardial infarction collagen metabolism is altered...

  20. Pediatric myocardial infarction after racemic epinephrine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, M J; Nguyen, B X; Hutchison, T J; Wiggins, J W; Ziegler, J W

    1999-07-01

    Myocardial infarction is a previously unreported complication of treatment with racemic epinephrine that is used commonly in the emergency department for severe respiratory distress in bronchiolitis or croup syndrome. We describe a pediatric patient who presented with the croup syndrome and severe respiratory distress that required multiple doses of nebulized racemic epinephrine in the emergency department. The patient developed ventricular tachycardia and mild chest discomfort during one treatment, which resolved spontaneously on discontinuation of the nebulization. Persistently abnormal electrocardiograms and elevated creatine phosphokinase MB isoenzyme (CPK-MB) levels suggested a myocardial infarction had occurred. Subsequent echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, and angiography revealed an anatomically normal heart with normal coronary circulation; however, a stress nuclear study showed a small myocardial infarct. The significance of this previously unreported complication of racemic epinephrine is discussed, along with recommendations for proper use in the emergency department.

  1. Microvascular Resistance Predicts Myocardial Salvage and Infarct Characteristics in ST‐Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Alexander R.; Berry, Colin; Doolin, Orla; McEntegart, Margaret; Petrie, Mark C.; Lindsay, M. Mitchell; Hood, Stuart; Carrick, David; Tzemos, Niko; Weale, Peter; McComb, Christie; Foster, John; Ford, Ian; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of myocardial injury and repair in patients with ST‐elevation myocardial infarction is incompletely understood. We investigated the relationships among culprit artery microvascular resistance, myocardial salvage, and ventricular function. Methods and Results The index of microvascular resistance (IMR) was measured by means of a pressure‐ and temperature‐sensitive coronary guidewire in 108 patients with ST‐elevation myocardial infarction (83% male) at the end of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Paired cardiac MRI (cardiac magnetic resonance) scans were performed early (2 days; n=108) and late (3 months; n=96) after myocardial infarction. T2‐weighted‐ and late gadolinium–enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance delineated the ischemic area at risk and infarct size, respectively. Myocardial salvage was calculated by subtracting infarct size from area at risk. Univariable and multivariable models were constructed to determine the impact of IMR on cardiac magnetic resonance–derived surrogate outcomes. The median (interquartile range) IMR was 28 (17–42) mm Hg/s. The median (interquartile range) area at risk was 32% (24%–41%) of left ventricular mass, and the myocardial salvage index was 21% (11%–43%). IMR was a significant multivariable predictor of early myocardial salvage, with a multiplicative effect of 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.92) per 20% increase in IMR; Pmicrovascular obstruction and myocardial hemorrhage. Conclusion Microvascular resistance measured during primary percutaneous coronary intervention significantly predicts myocardial salvage, infarct characteristics, and left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with ST‐elevation myocardial infarction. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e002246 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.002246) PMID:23130166

  2. Repetitive Myocardial Infarctions Secondary to Delirium Tremens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schwartzberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium tremens develops in a minority of patients undergoing acute alcohol withdrawal; however, that minority is vulnerable to significant morbidity and mortality. Historically, benzodiazepines are given intravenously to control withdrawal symptoms, although occasionally a more substantial medication is needed to prevent the devastating effects of delirium tremens, that is, propofol. We report a trauma patient who required propofol sedation for delirium tremens that was refractory to benzodiazepine treatment. Extubed prematurely, he suffered a non-ST segment myocardial infarction followed by an ST segment myocardial infarction requiring multiple interventions by cardiology. We hypothesize that his myocardial ischemia was secondary to an increased myocardial oxygen demand that occurred during his stress-induced catecholamine surge during the time he was undertreated for delirium tremens. This advocates for the use of propofol for refractory benzodiazepine treatment of delirium tremens and adds to the literature on the instability patients experience during withdrawal.

  3. Acute myocardial infarction as a result of stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bakusová, Tereza

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to describe acute myocardial infarction as a psychosomatic disease. Represents acute myocardial infarction as a result of stress and type A behavior. Research part reveals number of respondents, affected by stresss at the time of myocardial infarction and respondents with type A behavior.

  4. [Emergency treatment of myocardial infarction in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allonneau, Alexandre; Gonzva, Jonathan; Lovi, Steven; Klein, Isabelle; Lefort, Hugues

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) affects mainly men. In women, chest pain is less typical, delaying the diagnosis and increasing the time before treatment is delivered. Morbidity-mortality is greater notably due to a modification of the myocardial reperfusion strategy. The acute care of MI is almost identical for men and women. Knowing more about the epidemiology of women with MI enables prevention strategies to be targeted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute myocardial infarction: 'telomerasing' for cardioprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Reactivating the telomerase gene through gene therapy after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been recently reported to improve survival in mice. Given that regular physical exercise also activates this gene, therapeutic and lifestyle interventions targeting telomerase need to be explored as possible additions to the current armamentarium for myocardial regeneration. 9.292 JCR (2015) Q1, 17/289 Biochemistry & mollecular biology, 17/187 Cell biology, 8/124 Medicine, research & experimen...

  6. The Changing Epidemiology of Myocardial Infarction in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1995–2012: Trends in Myocardial Infarction Incidence and Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Yariv; Weston, Susan A.; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Roger, Véronique L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Contemporary data on the epidemiology of myocardial infarction in the population are limited and derived primarily from cohorts of hospitalized myocardial infarction patients. We assessed temporal trends in incident and recurrent myocardial infarction, with further partitioning of the rates into prehospital deaths and hospitalized events, in a geographically defined community. METHODS All myocardial infarction events recorded among Olmsted County, Minnesota residents aged 25 years and older from 1995–2012, including prehospital deaths, were classified into incident and recurrent. Standardized rates were calculated and temporal trends compared. RESULTS Altogether, 5258 myocardial infarctions occurred, including 1448 (27.5%) recurrences; 430 (8.2%) prehospital deaths were recorded. Among hospitalized events, recurrent myocardial infarction was associated with greater mortality risk than incident myocardial infarction (age-, sex-, and year-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.37–1.61). Although the overall rate of myocardial infarction declined over time (average annual percent change, −3.3), the magnitude of the decline varied widely. Incident hospitalized myocardial infarction rate fell 2.7%/y, compared with decreases of 1.5%/y in recurrent hospitalized myocardial infarction, 14.1%/y in prehospital fatal incident myocardial infarction, and 12.3% in prehospital fatal recurrent myocardial infarction (all P for diverging trends infarctions (25.3% in 1995–2000, 26.8% in 2001–2006, and 29.0% in 2007–2012, Ptrend = .02). CONCLUSIONS Over the past 18 years, a heterogeneous decline in myocardial infarction rates occurred in Olmsted County, resulting in transitions from incident to recurrent events and from prehospital deaths to hospitalized myocardial infarctions. Recurrent myocardial infarction confers a worse prognosis, thereby stressing the need to optimize prevention strategies in the population. PMID:25261010

  7. Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S.; Hawes, Armani M.; Smith, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    Background The main strategy for alleviating heart disease has been to target individuals and encourage them to change their health behaviors. Though important, emphasis on individuals has diverted focus and responsibility away from neighborhood characteristics, which also strongly influence people’s behaviors. Although a growing body of research has repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between neighborhood characteristics and cardiovascular health, it has typically focused on negative neighborhood characteristics. Only a few studies have examined the potential health enhancing effects of positive neighborhood characteristics, such as perceived neighborhood social cohesion. Methods Using multiple logistic regression models, we tested whether higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with lower incidence of myocardial infarction. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study—a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50—were used to analyze 5,276 participants with no history of heart disease. Respondents were tracked for four years and analyses adjusted for relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, biological, and psychosocial factors. Results In a model that adjusted for age, gender, race, marital status, education, and total wealth, each standard deviation increase in perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a 22% reduced odds of myocardial infarction (OR = 0.78, 95% CI, 0.63–0.94. The association between perceived neighborhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction remained even after adjusting for behavioral, biological, and psychosocial covariates. Conclusions Higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion may have a protective effect against myocardial infarction. PMID:25135074

  8. Calcium and M'yocardial Infarction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-16

    Mar 16, 1974 ... Urinary excretion of calcium tended to be even lower in these .... 16 March 1974. S.A. MEDICAL JOURNAL. 525. 150. 50. Fig. 5. Urine calcium in myocardial infarction (means and standard error relative to age). AGE OF PATIENT .... Plasma proteins and blood urea were also measured in. 10 consecutive ...

  9. Metabolic interventions in acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, Johannes Cornelis Clemens van der

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is a new branch on the large tree of studies on optimal therapeutic strategy for and understanding of ST segment elevation MI. In 1989, the Zwolle Myocardial Infarction Study Group performed its first study of comparing PCI with streptokinase. Thereafter studies on the effect of primary

  10. Glucose control peri-myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatvedt, G D

    2008-05-01

    This review summarises the available clinical trials data investigating the effects of glucose lowering on mortality in patients admitted to hospital with acute myocardial infarction. The results of these studies are inconclusive with no clear evidence that this intervention has additional benefit over and above routine care.

  11. Statins and perioperative myocardial infarction. | Levin | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growing prevalence of atherosclerosis means that perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) is of significant concern to anesthesiologists. Perioperative revascularization (if indicated medically), beta blockade (in high risk patients) and statin therapy are therapeutic modalities that are currently employed to reduce PMI.

  12. Antioxidants and myocardial infarction : the EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis reports the background, design and results of a multi-centre study on the relationship between diet-derived antioxidants and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in men. Levels of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in adipose tissue and of selenium in toenails were compared between

  13. Antioxidants and myocardial infarction : the EURAMIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis reports the background, design and results of a multi-centre study on the relationship between diet-derived antioxidants and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in men. Levels of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in adipose tissue and of selenium in toenails were compared

  14. The treatment of perioperative myocardial infarctions following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) is a common complication following noncardiac surgery, with a 30-day mortality of 10-20%. Effective therapeutic interventions ... Significantly more haemodynamically unstable patients received acute coronary interventions (75.8% vs. 23.1%, p-value = 0.0006). Acute ...

  15. Aeromedical transport after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Bruun, Niels Eske; Nielsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No guidelines exist for the planning of aeromedical repatriation after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In 2004, we employed a risk evaluation-based decision-making system for repatriation of patients after AMI. The objective was to evaluate the safety of transports during 2005...

  16. Early assessment and treatment of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoog, V.C. de

    2015-01-01

    Although the detection and treatment of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has dramatically improved the last decades, ischemic heart disease is still a leading cause of death worldwide. Whereas mortality has declined in industrialized countries, it continues to rise in other parts of the world.

  17. Unrecognised myocardial infarction in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Juel, Jacob; Al Zuhairi, Karam Sadoon Majeed

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a reduction of the lifespan by 20 years, with type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease contributing the most to the increased mortality. Unrecognised or silent myocardial infarction (MI) occurs in ~30% of the population, but the rates of unrecognised...

  18. Echocardiographic Diagnostics of Myocardial Infarction in Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Revunenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early and correct diagnostics of myocardial infarction in newborns is impossible without modern instrumental methods, among which echocardiography is the leading one. Hypokinesia, akinesia or dyskinesia of local segments of the heart ventricular wall is determined with echocardiography. We examined a 3-days-old baby with circulatory failure requiring cardiotonic support. On auscultation there was a heart murmur. It was an intracardiac conduction disoder and infarction-like changes on ECG, however, a convincing evidence to interpret the patient’s condition as myocardial infarction has not been received. Therefore, it was decided to conduct echocardiography. According to the results of echocardiography the presence of hyperechogenic diskinetic locus in the apical segment of the right ventricle (post-infarction scar, a local pericardial effusion in the same projection, hyperechogenic movable mass (thrombus in the apical segment of the right ventricle were determined that together with the results of the ECG allowed us to set diagnosis myocardial infarction. Transthoracic echocardiography is one of highly informative methods; the data obtained allowed to correctly interpret the clinical picture of heart failure and to reveal the cause of the patien’st dependance on cardiotonic support.

  19. High dose aspirin and left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction: aspirin and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, Anna; Hu, Kai; Bayer, Barbara; Wagner, Helga; Ertl, Georg; Bauersachs, Johann; Frantz, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    Proinflammatory proteins like inflammatory cytokines are implicated in myocardial depression and left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. High-dose aspirin inhibits cytokine activation. Therefore, we tested the influence of high-dose aspirin treatment on left ventricular remodeling in mice after myocardial infarction. Mice were treated for 4 weeks with placebo or aspirin (120 mg/kg per day) by Alzet mini-osmotic pumps after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Serial transthoracic echocardiography was performed at days 1, 7, and 28. Over the 4 weeks, mortality was not different between the groups (placebo 30.8%, aspirin 30.8%). On echocardiography, animals after myocardial infarction exhibited left ventricular dilatation (week 4, end-systolic area, placebo sham 8.9 +/- 1.7 vs. placebo MI 15.9 +/- 2.5 mm(2)), which was not changed by aspirin treatment (week 4, end-systolic area, aspirin MI 14.5 +/- 1.3 mm(2), p= ns vs. placebo MI). The expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-1beta were markedly upregulated in mice with myocardial infarction on placebo. Cytokine expression was significantly reduced by aspirin treatment while collagen deposition was not influenced. Continuous aspirin treatment (120 mg/kg/d) reduces the expression of proinflammatory cytokines after myocardial infarction, but does not affect post-infarct cardiac remodeling and cardiac function.

  20. Porcine (Sus scrofa) Chronic Myocardial Infarction Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-03

    be used to investigate new methodologies for treatment of chronic myocardial infarction in individuals afflicted with chronic ischemic... Myocardial Infarction Model Development.” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (PI) / TRAINING COORDINATOR (TC): Lt Col. Daren Danielson DEPARTMENT: 60MSGS/SGCH...invasively, a myocardial infarction that was isolated to the mid-anterior, left ventricular wall. In doing so, we were able to create an infarct that

  1. Sensitive Troponin Assay and the Classification of Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anoop S.V.; McAllister, David A.; Mills, Rosamund; Lee, Kuan Ken; Churchhouse, Antonia M.D.; Fleming, Kathryn M.; Layden, Elizabeth; Anand, Atul; Fersia, Omar; Joshi, Nikhil V.; Walker, Simon; Jaffe, Allan S.; Fox, Keith A.A.; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lowering the diagnostic threshold for troponin is controversial because it may disproportionately increase the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in patients without acute coronary syndrome. We assessed the impact of lowering the diagnostic threshold of troponin on the incidence, management, and outcome of patients with type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury. Methods Consecutive patients with elevated plasma troponin I concentrations (≥50 ng/L; n = 2929) were classified with type 1 (50%) myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury (48%), and type 3 to 5 myocardial infarction (2%) before and after lowering the diagnostic threshold from 200 to 50 ng/L with a sensitive assay. Event-free survival from death and recurrent myocardial infarction was recorded at 1 year. Results Lowering the threshold increased the diagnosis of type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury more than type 1 myocardial infarction (672 vs 257 additional patients, P infarction were at higher risk of death compared with those with type 1 myocardial infarction (37% vs 16%; relative risk [RR], 2.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98-2.69) but had fewer recurrent myocardial infarctions (4% vs 12%; RR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.26-0.49). In patients with troponin concentrations 50 to 199 ng/L, lowering the diagnostic threshold was associated with increased healthcare resource use (P infarction and death for patients with type 1 myocardial infarction (31% vs 20%; RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-0.99), but not type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury (36% vs 33%; RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.75-1.15). Conclusions After implementation of a sensitive troponin assay, the incidence of type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury disproportionately increased and is now as frequent as type 1 myocardial infarction. Outcomes of patients with type 2 myocardial infarction or myocardial injury are poor and do not seem to be modifiable after reclassification despite

  2. [Myocardial infarction after voluntary intoxication by drug interaction between dipyridamole and aspirin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschalier, R; Eschalier, A; Ravan, R; Brahic, H; Marcaggi, X; Amat, G

    2010-11-01

    A 60-year-old male presented a myocardial infarction after a voluntary overdose of Asasantine(®) started after strokes. He took chronically this association and some psychotropic drugs with vasodilator effects. After an intake of 40 tablets, he presented a cardiogenic shock with a myocardial infarction confirmed by biological samples, EKG, echocardiography and angiocoronarographie. No recent change of his treatment was found and symptoms regressed when dipyridamole was stopped while other vasodilators drugs were continued. Chronological analysis of events led us to suspect dipyridamole as a starter of the myocardial infarction secondary to a coronary artery steal reinforced by the vasodilator effect of combined treatments, in a patient at risk of ischemia. This case shows that, in such particular conditions, a change in dipyridamole dosage can induce a myocardial infarction even if its blood level remains in the therapeutic range. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. The role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging following acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Dennis T.L.; Richardson, James D.; Puri, Rishi; Nelson, Adam J.; Teo, Karen S.L.; Worthley, Matthew I. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Adelaide (Australia); University of Adelaide, Department of Medicine, Adelaide (Australia); Bertaso, Angela G. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Adelaide (Australia); Worthley, Stephen G. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Adelaide (Australia); University of Adelaide, Department of Medicine, Adelaide (Australia); Cardiovascular Investigational Unit, Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    Advances in the management of myocardial infarction have resulted in substantial reductions in morbidity and mortality. However, after acute treatment a number of diagnostic and prognostic questions often remain to be answered, whereby cardiac imaging plays an essential role. For example, some patients will sustain early mechanical complications after infarction, while others may develop significant ventricular dysfunction. Furthermore, many individuals harbour a significant burden of residual coronary disease for which clarification of functional ischaemic status and/or viability of the suspected myocardial territory is required. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is well positioned to fulfil these requirements given its unparalleled capability in evaluating cardiac function, stress ischaemia testing and myocardial tissue characterisation. This review will focus on the utility of CMR in resolving diagnostic uncertainty, evaluating early complications following myocardial infarction, assessing inducible ischaemia, myocardial viability, ventricular remodelling and the emerging role of CMR-derived measures as endpoints in clinical trials. (orig.)

  4. Myocardial perfusion at fatal infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid-Jacobsen, K; Møller, J T; Kjøller, E

    1992-01-01

    In a consecutive study of myocardial scintigraphy in acute ischemic syndrome, four patients had 99mTc-hexamibi injected intravenously before they developed fatal cardiogenic shock. Planar scintigraphy was performed after death. Slices of the hearts after autopsy were analyzed for scintigraphic...

  5. Myocardial strain in sub-acute peri-infarct myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsics, Balázs; Surányi, Pál; Kiss, Pál; Brott, Brigitta C; Litovsky, Silvio; Denney, Thomas S; Aban, Inmaculada; Lloyd, Steven G; Simor, Tamas; Elgavish, Gabriel A; Gupta, Himanshu

    2009-02-01

    In the absence of additional ischemic insults, the peri-infarct region surrounding the infarct myocardium can recover function. T2 weighted MRI signal is sensitive to edema and used to detect peri-infarct, salvageable myocardium. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations in myocardial strain in the peri-infarct myocardium as compared to normal and infarct myocardium. Comprehensive MRI of the myocardium was performed in five pigs 6-7 days following coronary artery occlusion-reperfusion myocardial injury. MRI included tagged cine images for myocardial strain, T2weighted (T2w)-images and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for assessing myocardial viability. Automated signal intensity thresholds were used to define tissue edema and myocardial infarct. Maximum-shortening strains were analyzed in the infarct, peri-infarct and normal myocardial sectors. The results were correlated with triphenyltetrazolium-chloride (TTC) and hemotoxylin-eosin stained tissue images. We found an excellent correlation of LGE with TTC (r = 0.94, P myocardial sectors had higher myocardial strain than infarct myocardial sectors (P myocardial strain measurements provide complementary information and both may be useful for characterization of the peri-infarct myocardium.

  6. Mechanisms and therapeutic modulation of myocardial infarct healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818534

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aimed to increase the basic mechanistic understanding of myocardial infarct healing and to develop novel approaches to prevent heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI). Different approaches have been tested to reduce myocardial injury in the acute phase of MI, leading to

  7. [Did Emperior Tiberius die from myocardial infarction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, M

    1996-01-01

    In Svetonius' Life of the Twelve Cesars, in Tacitus' Annals, and in Dio, Cassius' Roman History, arguments can be found for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in the case of the Roman emperor Tiberius. After violent and repeated efforts he felt an intense thoracic pain, and from that moment he became very ill and had to be carried in a litter. The course of the disease was marked by several syncopes with apparent death, some of long duration, but with spontaneous total recovery, except for the last one (which occured when getting out of bed). Moreover, we know he had abnormalities of the pulse indicating a lethal prognosis. The most logical explanation is: myocardial infarction complicated with access of ventricular tachycardia, the last one ending in ventricular fibrillation.

  8. [Endogenous digoxin-like factor in myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrov, A I; Kuznetsova, E A; Fedorova, O V

    1996-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to test the hypotheses that (a) concentrations of endogenous digoxin-like factor (EDLF) are increased in the initial period after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and (b) may contribute to the onset of ventricular arrhythmias. 54 patients of both sexes with a first transmural AMI were included in a retrospective study. Plasma concentrations of EDLF were measured repeatedly during days 1-14 after AMI using DELFIA digoxin fluoroimmunoassay. 16 male patients with unstable angina pectoris and suspected AMI as well as 8 healthy subjects of both sexes served as controls. Plasma concentrations of EDLF in patients during the first day of AMI were increased (1.25 + (-)0.26 ng/ml, digoxin equivalents, p myocardial ischemia-induced arrhythmogenesis and participate in pathogenesis of congestive heart failure after AMI.

  9. Perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Hawes, Armani M; Smith, Jacqui

    2014-11-01

    The main strategy for alleviating heart disease has been to target individuals and encourage them to change their health behaviours. Although important, emphasis on individuals has diverted focus and responsibility away from neighbourhood characteristics, which also strongly influence people's behaviours. Although a growing body of research has repeatedly demonstrated strong associations between neighbourhood characteristics and cardiovascular health, it has typically focused on negative neighbourhood characteristics. Only a few studies have examined the potential health enhancing effects of positive neighbourhood characteristics, such as perceived neighbourhood social cohesion. Using multiple logistic regression models, we tested whether higher perceived neighbourhood social cohesion was associated with lower incidence of myocardial infarction. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study--a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50--were used to analyse 5276 participants with no history of heart disease. Respondents were tracked for 4 years and analyses adjusted for relevant sociodemographic, behavioural, biological and psychosocial factors. In a model that adjusted for age, gender, race, marital status, education and total wealth, each SD increase in perceived neighbourhood social cohesion was associated with a 22% reduced odds of myocardial infarction (OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.94. The association between perceived neighbourhood social cohesion and myocardial infarction remained even after adjusting for behavioural, biological and psychosocial covariates. Higher perceived neighbourhood social cohesion may have a protective effect against myocardial infarction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The value of exercise tests after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F E; Nielsen, S L; Knudsen, F

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate the clinical course in patients after a first acute myocardial infarction with the response to exercise-tests performed one month after discharge. 90 consecutive patients who suffered an acute myocardial infarction for the first time were followed-up after...... (W) were predictive with respect to mortality, heart failure, and angina pectoris requiring drug treatment. Exercise tests following acute myocardial infarction could not predict the chances of returning to work....

  11. Nursing Care in Patient with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Němec, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the issue of acute myocardial infarction in context of prehospital, and hospital care. Specific clinical symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and treatment of acute myocardial infarction are described in the theoretical part. The part is also devoted to nursing care. Emphasis is put especially on prevention of cardiovascular diseases development. The goal is to evaluate nursing care of patients with acute myocardial infarction in prehospital, and later on, hospital care. Th...

  12. Cerebral And Myocardial Infarction In A Patient With Uncorrected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    embolism. Ischaemia from thrombotic occlusion of vessels supplying major organs may occur. The case is presented of a 17 year old boy with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) who developed acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cerebral infarction ...

  13. Contribution of creatine kinase MB mass concentration at admission to early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A. J.; Gorgels, J. P.; van Vlies, B.; Koelemay, M. J.; Smits, R.; Tijssen, J. G.; Haagen, F. D.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic value at admission of creatine kinase MB mass concentration, alone or in combination with electrocardiographic changes, in suspected myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Prospective study of all consecutive patients admitted within 12 hours after onset of chest pain to

  14. Secondary prevention with calcium antagonists after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J F

    1992-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the 3 calcium antagonists nifedipine, diltiazem, and verapamil have a comparable effect in the prevention of myocardial damage during ischaemia. Secondary prevention trials after acute myocardial infarction, which aimed at improving survival...

  15. The prognostic importance of creatinine clearance after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C R; Brendorp, B; Rask-Madsen, C

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess renal dysfunction as an independent predictor of mortality after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The study population was 6252 patients with a myocardial infarction admitted alive from 1990 to 1992. The mortality status was obtained after at least.......9-1.3) respectively. CONCLUSION: Renal dysfunction is an important risk factor after acute myocardial infarction. When the risk is adjusted for available competing risk factors only severely reduced renal function is associated with an important and independent risk of mortality after acute myocardial infarction...

  16. Current trend of acute myocardial infarction in Korea (from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from 2006 to 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Oh, Sangeun; Yoo, Sung-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Ju Han; Chai, Leem Soon; Kim, Young Jo; Kim, Chong Jin; Chan Cho, Myeong

    2014-12-15

    Although the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea has been rapidly changed because of westernization of diet, lifestyle, and aging of the population, the recent trend of the myocardial infarction have not been reported by classification. We investigated recent trends in the incidence and mortality associated with the 2 major types of AMI. We reviewed 39,978 patients registered in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry for either ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from 2006 to 2013. When the rate for AMI were investigated according to each year, the incidence rates of STEMI decreased markedly from 60.5% in 2006 to 48.1% in 2013 (p myocardial infarction has been changed rapidly in the aspect of risk factors, ratio of STEMI versus NSTEMI, and therapeutic strategies during the recent 8 years in Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Terminology and diagnostic criteria for Non-Q-wave myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević Branislava; Štajnic Miroslav; Čemerlić-Ađić Nadica; Dejanović Jadranka

    2002-01-01

    Non-Q myocardial infarction represents a specific entity of infarction. Many studies have shown that non-Q myocardial infarction differs from Q myocardial infarction not only electrocardiographically, but also from pathophysiological, histological, clinical and prognostic points of view. Non-Q myocardial infarction - terminology Until 1980's, anatomical terminology depending on ECG changes was used in the literature. Subendocardial infarction referred to non-Q myocardial infarction, while tra...

  18. PHARMACOINTERVENTIONAL TACTICS OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Golikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study objective was to conduct a prospective observational study to assess the effect of pharmacointerventional tactics on the outcome of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI in terms of mortality.MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study included 405 patients with acute STEMI. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI Risk Score was used to assess the coronary circulation recovery in a major epicardial coronary artery (CA. Percutaneoous coronary interventions (PCIs were undertaken either as initial interventions, or in a framework of pharmacointervantional treatment tactics.RESULTS. Among 405 patients with STEMI, 154 (38% underwent a thrombolytic therapy (TLT. Coronarography performed within 24 h from the onset of disease clinical symptoms demonstrated a completely occluded CA that had supplied blood to the area of present infarction in 73% of patients without previous TLT and in 74% of patients after TLT. TLT proved to be effective only in 36 % of patients. A successful revascularization, compared to that of inefficient, reduced the relative all-cause mortality risk and MI-caused mortality risk in the initially high-risk patients by 74% and 78 %, respectively.concLusIons A timely myocardium revascularization using PCI is effective after successfully performed TLT. This proves the benefit of pharmacointerventional treatment tactics for the patients with STEMI in the cases when initial PCI appeared impossible for some reasons. 

  19. Prognostic impact of physical activity prior to myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlersen, Hanne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina

    2017-01-01

    Background: Animal studies indicate that exercise reduces myocardial damage during myocardial infarction by ischaemic preconditioning. Aim: To determine from a prospective cohort study whether the level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in humans prior to myocardial infarction could modify......-up. There was no association between LTPA levels prior to myocardial infarction and the risk of heart failure or all-cause mortality after non-fatal myocardial infarction: adjusted HRs for moderate/high versus sedentary LTPA were 1.06 (0.78-1.45) and 0.90 (0.74-1.08), respectively. Conclusion Individuals who were physically...... active had lower case fatality of myocardial infarction, but survivors were not protected against subsequent heart failure or mortality....

  20. Creation of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a Pig (Sus Scrofa) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Objectives: The goal of this protocol was to create myocardial infarctions in mini pigs using polystyrenemicrospheres to infarct a portion of the...underwent myocardial infarctions without misadventure. Infusion of polystyrene beads into a diagonal branch of the LAD resulted In a repeatable and...controlled myocardial Infarction.Conclusion: The method reported here provided consistent and repeatable myocardial infarcts with minimal morbidity.

  1. Acute Anterior Myocardial Infarction Accompanied by Acute Inferior Myocardial Infarction: A Very Rare Coronary Artery Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Alsancak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies are rare and mostly silent in clinical practice. First manifestation of this congenital abnormality can be devastating as syncope, acute coronary syndrome, and sudden cardiac death. Herein we report a case with coronary artery anomaly complicated with ST segment myocardial infarction in both inferior and anterior walls simultaneously diagnosed during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

  2. A detailed family history of myocardial infarction and risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Petersen, Jonathan Aavang; Bundgård, Henning

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Family history of myocardial infarction (MI) is an independent risk factor for MI. Several genetic variants are associated with increased risk of MI and family history of MI in a first-degree relative doubles MI risk. However, although family history of MI is not a simple dichotomous...

  3. Detection of myocardial infarct extension by CK-B radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkopf, M; Boerner, J; Stone, M J; Smitherman, T C; Buja, L M; Parkey, R W; Willerson, J T

    1979-02-01

    Myocardial infarct extension after the acute event was defined as a second reise in the myocardial isoenzyme of serum creatine kinase (CK-B) after the initial return of CK-B to normal values. In 43 patients with acute myocardial infarcts, CK-B was measured by radioimmunoassay every 12 hours for 14 days. Nineteen patients had anterior transmural myocardial infarcts AMI, 14 had inferior transmural myocardial infarcts (IMI) and 10 had subendocardial myocardial infarcts (SEMI). Infarct extension as detectd by a second rise in serum CK-B occurred in six patients (32%) with AMI, two (14%) with IMI and two (20%) with SEMI; these differences are not statistically significant. Infarct extension for all patients combined was 23%. Four patients with AMI also had infarct extension as determined by recurrent chest pain. ECG alterations and other enzyme changes. In the other six, the infarct extension was undetected clinically. Four patients with AMI and infarct extension died within 3 weeks after hospitalization. We did not note any additional morbidity or mortality in patients with infarct extension who had IMI or SEMI. There was no significant difference in the frequency of previous myocardial infarction, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus or smoking history in patients with and without infarct extension shown by serum CK-B isoenzyme elevations. The measurement of serum CK-B values with a quantitative and sensitive assay suggests that myocardial infarct extension occurs more commonly than clinically recognized, but the frequency of extension may be less than that reported in patients in whom precordial mapping and total serum CK values were measured to identify this phenomenon.

  4. "DETERMINANTS OF PREHOSPITAL DELAY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alidoosti

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of pre-hospital delay time of patients with acute myocardial infarction and seeking ways of speeding up the time for reperfusion is an important factor to lower mortality in these patients. This is a cross-sectional study to determine pre-hospital delay time, its components, and related causes and conditions, obtained in 375 patients with prolonged chest pain referred to four hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Means of transport to hospital, reasons of ambulance disuse, decision time by the patient and finally the entire time of pre-hospital delay were specified. Suspected factors related to delays of more than 2 and 6 h were scrutinized with chi-square test. Rate of ambulance utility (18.9% directly correlated with age of patients (P<0.05. Principal motives to disuse ambulance insuccession were unrememberance (33.7%, access to private vehicle (32.8% and supposition of sufficient speed of personal reference (18.9%. Pre-hospital delay time was 8.1 ± 9.1 h (mean ± SD in whole patients and 7.6 ± 9.1 h in those with acute myocardial infarction. Delays of more than 2 and 6 hoccurred in 67.5% and 33.6% of patients, respectively. Decision time constitute three fourth of whole pre-hospital delay and was correlated with female gender, older age, history of diabetes, lower level of literacy and nocturnal onset of symptoms. In conclusion, a significant number of patients with acute myocardial infarction have pre-hospital delay of more than 2 and even 6 h, when golden time for thrombolytic therapy has already been elapsed.

  5. Invasive surgery reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function in a porcine model of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.P.J. van Hout (G. P J); M.P.J. Teuben (Michel P.J.); M. Heeres (Marjolein); S. de Maat (Steven); R. Jong (Rosa); C. Maas (Coen); L.H.J.A. Kouwenberg (Lisanne H.J.A.); L. Koenderman (Leo); W.W. van Solinge (Wouter W.); S.C.A. de Jager (Saskia); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); I.E. Hoefer (Imo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract& Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine. Reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction (MI) increases infarct size (IS) and deteriorates cardiac function. Cardioprotective strategies in large animal MI models often failed in clinical trials, suggesting

  6. Invasive surgery reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac function in a porcine model of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Gerardus P J; Teuben, Michel P J; Heeres, Marjolein; de Maat, Steven; de Jong, Renate; Maas, Coen; Kouwenberg, Lisanne H J A; Koenderman, Leo; van Solinge, Wouter W; de Jager, Saskia C A; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Höfer, IE

    2015-01-01

    Reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction (MI) increases infarct size (IS) and deteriorates cardiac function. Cardioprotective strategies in large animal MI models often failed in clinical trials, suggesting translational failure. Experimentally, MI is induced artificially and the effect of

  7. Nonfasting glucose, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; McCarthy, Mark I

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether elevated nonfasting glucose levels associate with and cause ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI).......The purpose of this study was to test whether elevated nonfasting glucose levels associate with and cause ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI)....

  8. Prognostic relevance of PCI-related myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, Pier; Grundeken, Maik J.; van de Hoef, Tim P.; Wallentin, Lars; Fox, Keith A.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Damman, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Procedure-related myocardial infarction (pMI) is directly associated with a coronary revascularization procedure, such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or CABG surgery. In contrast to spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), the prognostic relevance of pMI is the subject of ongoing debate.

  9. Giant biventricular thrombi presenting with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Adnan; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Keskin, Muhammed; Öz, Ahmet; Aydın, Berat Arıkan

    2016-09-01

    Biventricular thrombi secondary to anterior myocardial infarction is very rare. We present a patient with giant biventricular thrombi subsequent to an old anterior wall myocardial infarction, and devastating consequences, including acute pulmonary artery and femoral artery embolism. We introduce a unique case report with demonstrative and illustrative images. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Survival and cause of death after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Torben; Davidsen, M

    2001-01-01

    As part of the Danish WHO MONICA study, a register of patients with myocardial infarction was established in 1982, covering 11 municipalities in the western part of Copenhagen County, Denmark. During the period 1982-91, all cases of myocardial infarction among citizens aged 25-74 years were regis...

  11. Thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction with hormonal contraception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have assessed the risk of venous thromboembolism with newer hormonal contraception, few have examined thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction, and results have been conflicting.......Although several studies have assessed the risk of venous thromboembolism with newer hormonal contraception, few have examined thrombotic stroke and myocardial infarction, and results have been conflicting....

  12. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults with Antiphospholipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes ...

  13. Prognostic importance of complete atrioventricular block complicating acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aplin, Mark; Engstrøm, Thomas; Vejlstrup, Niels G

    2003-01-01

    Third-degree atrioventricular block after acute myocardial infarction is considered to have prognostic importance. However, its importance in conjunction with thrombolytic therapy and its relation to left ventricular function remains uncertain. This report also outlines an important distinction...... between atrioventricular block in the setting of anterior and inferior wall acute myocardial infarction, with profound clinical and prognostic implications....

  14. Galectin-3 and post-myocardial infarction cardiac remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Wouter C.; van der Velde, A. Rogier; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A.; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the current literature regarding the involvement and the putative role(s) of galectin-3 in post-myocardial infarction cardiac remodeling. Post-myocardial infarction remodeling is characterized by acute loss of myocardium, which leads to structural and biomechanical changes in

  15. Predictors of Appraisal and Coping Dimensions in Myocardial Infarction Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyong Sil; Martin, Peter

    This study attempted to identify predictors of perception and coping after the occurrence of a myocardial infarction. Sixty males and 17 females who had suffered from a myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to the research were recruited from a hospital rehabilitation program. Subjects completed the Peri-Life Events Scale, the 16-PF…

  16. Outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanush; Harikrishnan, Prakash; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Aronow, Wilbert S; Mujib, Marjan; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Sule, Sachin; Jain, Diwakar; Ahmed, Ali; Lanier, Gregg M; Cooper, Howard A; Frishman, William H; Fonarow, Gregg C; Panza, Julio A

    2015-08-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a recognized complication in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, limited data are available on outcomes of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and acute myocardial infarction. We analyzed the 2003-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients aged ≥18 years with a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Patients with a concomitant diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were then identified and analyzed as a separate cohort. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Of 5,901,827 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 5688 (0.1%) had a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were older, more likely to be female, and less likely to have traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Compared with patients without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were less likely to present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and more likely to present with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with ST-elevation myocardial infarction or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction were less likely to receive revascularization. In the overall population with acute myocardial infarction, there was no difference in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality between patients with and without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (odds ratio [OR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.11; P = .59). In the population with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had lower risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality than those without hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.91; P = .003), whereas in the population with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, there was no difference in risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality between patients with

  17. Sex differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Carolyn S P; McEntegart, Margaret; Claggett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the association of sex with clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients following myocardial infarction (MI) in the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4570 women and 10 133 men with heart failure (HF), left...... ventricular systolic dysfunction or both were enrolled 0.5-10 days after myocardial infarction (MI) and followed for a median of 24.7 months. Compared with men, women were older, had more comorbidities, and were more likely to present in Killip Class III/IV and experience post-infarction angina or HF. After...

  18. [Integrated assessment of serum homeostasis shifts in experimental myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, M A; Medvedeva, U S; Mirzoyan, R S; Maslennikov, D V; Zolotov, N N; Karganov, M Yu

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic changes in serum homeostasis of rats with experimental myocardial infarction evolution using the method of laser correlation spectroscopy were studied. The presence of necrotic myocardial damage was confirmed by electrocardiographic, histological and biochemical methods. Increased contribution of small particles in the acute period of myocardial infarction was detected, which indicates products of catabolism accumulation in serum and changing the level of some proteins. Comparison of subfractional content of sera from rats with varying degrees of extension of myocardial necrosis through the ventricular wall revealed the predominance of particles of low molecular size (up to 10 nm) in animals with transmural infarction and middle-size fraction (50-120 nm) in animals with non-transmural infarction. These results are consistent with the clinical data obtained by this method in patients with Q-wave and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction.

  19. Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Associated with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Koeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM.

  20. Different Causes of Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction Type 1, Type 2 and Myocardial Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambrecht, S; Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    troponin I measured on clinical indication, were prospectively studied. Patients with at least 1 cardiac troponin I value >30 ng/L underwent case ascertainment and individual evaluation by an experienced adjudication committee. Patients were classified as having type 1 myocardial infarction, type 2...... myocardial infarction or myocardial injury according to the criteria of the Universal definition of myocardial infarction. Follow-up was ensured until December 31st 2014. Data on mortality and causes of death were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Register of Causes of Death....... RESULTS: Overall, 3762 consecutive patients were followed for a mean of 3.2 years (IQR, 1.3-3.6 years). All-cause mortality differed significantly between categories: Type 1 myocardial infarction 32%, type 2 myocardial infarction 62%, myocardial injury 59%, and 22% in patients with non-elevated troponin...

  1. Platelet hyperreactivity and prognosis in survivors of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, M. D.; Cats, V. M.; van Capelle, F. J.; Vreeken, J.

    1990-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in spontaneous aggregability of platelets in vitro predicts mortality and coronary events in patients who have survived a recent myocardial infarction. A cohort of 149 survivors of infarction entered our study three months after the index infarction and was

  2. Women's experiences during myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Rikke; Birkelund, Regner

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this review is to identify, analyse and synthesise existing knowledge concerning female experiences during myocardial infarction. There is a lack of knowledge about women's experiences during myocardial infarction, and a meta-synthesis is needed to synthesise existing evidence. A systematic review and meta-ethnography. A systematic review was undertaken in September 2013. Four databases were searched. Grey literature and reference lists were screened for relevant studies. Four hundred and eighty-one papers were identified and 14 were included. The method of Noblit and Hare was used in the process of conducting this review and meta-ethnography. Three themes were identified. 1. 'Feeling the changes in my body', 2. 'Understanding the changes in my body' and 3. 'Acting on the changes in my body'. The majority of women did not experience their body changes as being severe and threatening. Therefore, the women chose to wait or self-medicate before consulting others. The women who initially experienced the symptoms related to myocardial infarction as being severe and threatening, chose to consult others earlier than the majority of women. Women's experiences and interpretation of body symptoms during myocardial infarction vary. Most commonly women do not initially recognise their body symptoms as being severe and life threatening. The theory of Merleau-Ponty's 'current and habituated body' is relevant for explaining women's ways of understanding and acting on their body changes during myocardial infarction. This review is relevant in a preventive and rehabilitating perspective for professionals working in health care. It helps professionals to understand women's experiences during myocardial infarction, optimises their ability to suspect myocardial infarction and teach women to react on these body changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Angiographic assessment of reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction by myocardial blush grade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriques, JPS; Zijlstra, F; van 't Hof, AWJ; de Boer, MJ; Gosselink, M; Hoorntje, JCA; Suryapranata, H; Dambrink, Jan Hendrik Everwijn

    2003-01-01

    Background-Angiographic successful reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction has been defined as TIMI 3 flow. However, TIMI 3 flow does not always result in effective myocardial reperfusion. Myocardial blush grade (MBG) is an angiographic measure of myocardial perfusion. We hypothesized that

  4. Angiographic assessment of reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction by myocardial blush grade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriques, Jose P. S.; Zijlstra, Felix; van 't Hof, Arnoud W. J.; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E.; Gosselink, Marcel; Hoorntje, Jan C. A.; Suryapranata, Harry

    2003-01-01

    Angiographic successful reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction has been defined as TIMI 3 flow. However, TIMI 3 flow does not always result in effective myocardial reperfusion. Myocardial blush grade (MBG) is an angiographic measure of myocardial perfusion. We hypothesized that optimal

  5. Acute myocardial infarction during regadenoson myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachil; Parra, David; Rosenstein, Robert S

    2013-06-01

    Pharmacologic stress testing uses vasodilators to provide objective evidence of myocardial ischemia. Adenosine and dipyridamole are nonselective adenosine receptor agonists that have been associated with myocardial infarction (MI) during intravenous infusion. Mechanisms postulated for this effect include coronary steal, transmural steal, global hypotension, and direct vasoconstriction. Regadenoson, a direct A2A agonist, was approved for use in stress testing in 2008. We describe a 68-year-old man who presented to our institution with typical angina, relieved by nitroglycerin. He did not have electrocardiogram (ECG) changes suggestive of myocardial pathology, and laboratory testing did not reveal a significant rise in troponin-I levels. To further assess the etiology of his symptoms, he underwent a pharmacologic stress test with regadenoson followed by technetium 99 m sestamibi. Six minutes after regadenoson infusion, the patient developed severe retrosternal chest pain accompanied by ST elevations on ECG. Sublingual nitroglycerin was administered that resolved both the pain and ECG changes. The patient subsequently underwent urgent coronary angiography and was found to have a 95% critical stenosis involving the left anterior descending artery. We conclude this case represents a MI secondary to coronary steal phenomenon induced by regadenoson infusion. Clinicians should be aware this adverse effect can occur despite the improved side-effect profile of regadenoson. Continuous monitoring of vital signs and the ECG with regular assessment of symptoms is imperative to identify this rare but potentially devastating adverse event. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Myocardial bridging as a cause of acute myocardial infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiroglu Yunus

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systolic compression of a coronary artery by overlying myocardial tissue is termed myocardial bridging. Myocardial bridging usually has a benign prognosis, but some cases resulting in myocardial ischemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death have been reported. We are reporting a case of myocardial bridging which was complicated with acute myocardial infarction associated with inappropriate blood donation. Case presentation A 33 year-old-man was admitted to our emergency with acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction after a blood donation. The electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm and was consistent with an acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction. We decided to perform primary percutanous intervention (PCI. Myocardial bridging was observed in the mid segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery on coronary angiogram. PCI was canceled and medical follow up was decided. Blood transfusion was made because he had a deep anemia. A normal hemaglobin level and clinical reperfusion was achieved after ten hours by blood transfusion. At the one year follow up visit, our patient was healthy and had no cardiac complaints. Conclusions Myocardial bridging may cause acute myocardial infarction in various clinical conditions. Although the condition in this case caused profound anemia related acute myocardial infarction, its treatment and management was unusual.

  7. Influence of thrombolytic therapy on the patterns of ventricular septal rupture after acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Rhydwen, G; Charman, S; Schofield, P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect (VSD) complicates ∼2% of myocardial infarctions. Thrombolytic therapy may accelerate the time from myocardial infarction to VSD formation. The effects of thrombolytic therapy in patients with a post-myocardial infarction VSD were investigated.

  8. Regional Mechanics Determine Collagen Fiber Structure in Healing Myocardial Infarcts

    OpenAIRE

    Fomovsky, Gregory M.; Rouillard, Andrew D; Holmes, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Following myocardial infarction, the mechanical properties of the healing infarct are an important determinant of heart function and the risk of progression to heart failure. In particular, mechanical anisotropy (having different mechanical properties in different directions) in the healing infarct can preserve pump function of the heart. Based on reports of different collagen structures and mechanical properties in various animal models, we hypothesized that differences in infarct size, shap...

  9. Class of Antiretroviral Drugs and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Reiss, P.; Sabin, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated an association between combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. It is not clear whether this association differs according to the class of antiretroviral drugs. We conducted a study to investigate the association...... of cumulative exposure to protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors with the risk of myocardial infarction. METHODS: We analyzed data collected through February 2005 from our prospective observational study of 23,437 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus....... The incidence rates of myocardial infarction during the follow-up period were calculated, and the associations between myocardial infarction and exposure to protease inhibitors or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors were determined. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-five patients had a myocardial...

  10. Influence of smoking on the location of acute myocardial infarctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Rahel; Fuller, Eileen E; Harper, John F; Feldman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether there is an association between smoking and the location of acute myocardial infarctions. Methods. Using a cohort from our hospital and published cohorts from Ireland, Uruguay, and Israel, we calculated odds of having an inferior wall as opposed to an anterior wall acute myocardial infarction among smokers and nonsmokers. Results. In our cohort, there was a higher proportion of smokers than nonsmokers in patients with inferior acute myocardial infarctions than in patients with anterior infarctions. This difference was also present in each of the other cohorts. Odds ratios for an inferior versus an anterior acute myocardial infarction among smokers ranged from 1.15 to 2.00 (median odds ratio, 1.32). When the cohorts were combined (n = 3, 160), the pooled odds ratio for an inferior as opposed to an anterior acute myocardial infarction among smokers was 1.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 1.58) (P < .002). Conclusions. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of inferior wall acute myocardial infarction more than the risk of anterior wall infarction. Smoking thus appears to adversely affect the right coronary arterial circulation to a greater extent than the left coronary arterial circulation by a mechanism not yet understood.

  11. Recovery of midlife women from myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sherri; Thomas, Sandra P

    2012-01-01

    We conducted this qualitative study to elicit the experiences of midlife women who survived myocardial infarctions (MIs) and returned home to recover. We selected a phenomenological research method based on the philosophy of Merleau-Ponty. The researcher interviewed eight women ranging in age from 45 to 65. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the approach of Thomas and Pollio. For the women in this study, figural themes of the experience of the MI and recovery must be understood within the existential grounds of the body and others. Themes included the following: (a) interference, (b) freedom/unfreedom, (c) knowing/not knowing, and (d) living in fear. Based on the findings of this study, we suggest that women need to be better educated before leaving the hospital. Returning home post MI was a difficult time, and the women in this study felt a support group for female MI survivors was needed.

  12. Heart failure-complicating acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2007-10-01

    This article addresses issues related to acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by heart failure, particularly in elderly patients. Findings have shown that acute MI complicated by congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with a high mortality, and that women with acute MI are more likely to be older and to develop CHF than men with acute MI. In general, management of CHF complicating acute MI is similar in older and younger patients. Actions discussed include hemodynamic monitoring; the administration of oxygen; and the use of morphine, diuretics, nitroglycerin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, spironolactone, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, magnesium, digoxin, and positive inotropic drugs. The article also discusses measures for treating arrhythmias and for diagnosing mechanical complications.

  13. Heart-failure-complicating acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2007-02-01

    This article addresses issues related to acute myocardial infarction(MI) complicated by heart failure, particularly in elderly patients. Findings have shown that acute MI complicated by congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with a high mortality, and that women with acute MI are more likely to be older and to develop CHF than men with acute MI. In general, management of CHF-complicating acute MI is similar in older and younger patients. Actions discussed include hemodynamic monitoring; the administration of oxygen; and the use of morphine, diuretics, nitroglycerin,angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, spironolactone, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, magnesium, digoxin, and positive inotropic drugs. The article also discusses measures for treating arrhythmias and for diagnosing mechanical complications.

  14. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...... million person-hours, and the attributable proportion was 5.7 percent. The risk was modified by physical fitness, with an increased risk being seen among sedentary subjects as in earlier studies, but the data also suggested a U-shaped association. In addition, the trigger effect was modified......, and a standard case-referent analysis) were applied to overcome the threat of misclassification of control exposure information. A case-crossover analysis in a random sample of healthy subjects resulted in a relative risk close to unity, as expected....

  15. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherin P. Antony

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial Infarction (MI, commonly known as a Heart Attack, remains a leading cause of death throughout the world. Studies have shown that patients, who had MI, have cognitive impairment affecting attention, problem solving, memory, visuospatial, executive function and even dementia. Since cognition and emotion are integral part of the disease, there are no focused studies addressing this issue in the Indian context. Hence the present study. The objective of the study was to determine the neuropsychological deficits in patients with MI and with MI after cardiac bypass surgery. The sample consisted of 30 patients, 15 MI and 15 MI after CABG. All patients were assessed on. a battery of Neuropsychological tests and Hamilton Rating Scale for depression, The findings revealed impairment in mental speed, sustained attention, Animal Fluency Test, Phonemic Fluency Test, verbal and visual working memory, planning, response inhibition, verbal and visual learning and memory. On comparison with MI patients CABG patients showed significant deficits in Planning.

  16. [Evaluating work capacity after myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, W

    1997-02-01

    Work resumption of patients after myocardial infarction is primarily dependent on left-ventricular function, stress-related ischemia and rhythm-disturbances, additionally the general physical and psychological state play an important role. -The basic examination includes not only the history and physical examination, but also resting ECG, ECG exercise testing, 2-dimensional echocardiogramm and Holter-ECG. Additionally, stress-echocardiogramm, nuclear exercise testing and invasive procedures can be necessary. It is possible to estimate the work-capacity of the patient by classifying the ECG testing and by regarding further details of the disease. The return-to-work-rate does not only depend on the severity of a CHD, but also on the age, education, social class, high physical activity during work, job related satisfaction, family situation and available suitable jobs on the labor market.

  17. Asian dust exposure triggers acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Sunao; Michikawa, Takehiro; Ueda, Kayo; Sakamoto, Tetsuo; Matsui, Kunihiko; Kojima, Tomoko; Tsujita, Kenichi; Ogawa, Hisao; Nitta, Hiroshi; Takami, Akinori

    2017-08-29

    To elucidate whether Asian dust is associated with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to clarify whether patients who are highly sensitive to Asian dust will develop AMI. Twenty-one participating institutions located throughout Kumamoto Prefecture and capable of performing coronary intervention were included in the study. Data for ground-level observations of Asian dust events were measured at the Kumamoto Local Meteorological Observatory. Data collected between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015 were analysed, and 3713 consecutive AMI patients were included. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to examine the association between Asian dust exposure and AMI. The occurrence of Asian dust events at 1 day before the onset of AMI was associated with the incidence of AMI [odds ratio (OR), 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.95] and especially, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was significant (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.30-3.15). A significant association between AMI and Asian dust was observed in patients with age ≥75 years, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, never-smoking status, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, Asian dust events had a great impact on AMI onset in patients with CKD (P Asian dust events was found to be significantly associated with AMI incidence among patients with a risk score of 5-6 (OR 2.45; 95% CI: 1.14-5.27). Asian dust events may lead to AMI and have a great impact on its onset in patients with CKD.

  18. Vitamin D and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Valentina; De Metrio, Monica; Cosentino, Nicola; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Tremoli, Elena

    2017-01-26

    Vitamin D deficiency is a prevalent condition, cutting across all ethnicities and among all age groups, and occurring in about 30%-50% of the population. Besides vitamin D established role in calcium homeostasis, its deficiency is emerging as a new risk factor for coronary artery disease. Notably, clinical investigations have suggested that there is an association between hypovitaminosis D and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Not only has it been linked to incident AMI, but also to increased morbidity and mortality in this clinical setting. Moreover, vitamin D deficiency seems to predispose to recurrent adverse cardiovascular events, as it is associated with post-infarction complications and cardiac remodeling in patients with AMI. Several mechanisms underlying the association between vitamin D and AMI risk can be involved. Despite these observational and mechanistic data, interventional trials with supplementation of vitamin D are controversial. In this review, we will discuss the evidence on the association between vitamin D deficiency and AMI, in terms of prevalence and prognostic impact, and the possible mechanisms mediating it. Further research in this direction is warranted and it is likely to open up new avenues for reducing the risk of AMI.

  19. Biomaterial strategies for alleviation of myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Dan, Kai; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization estimated that heart failure initiated by coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction (MI) leads to 29 per cent of deaths worldwide. Heart failure is one of the leading causes of death in industrialized countries and is expected to become a global epidemic within the twenty-first century. MI, the main cause of heart failure, leads to a loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. The damaged left ventricle undergoes progressive ‘remodelling’ and chamber dilation, with myocyte slippage and fibroblast proliferation. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro-engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for heart failure patients. These events reflect an apparent lack of effective intrinsic mechanism for myocardial repair and regeneration. Motivated by the desire to develop minimally invasive procedures, the last 10 years observed growing efforts to develop injectable biomaterials with and without cells to treat cardiac failure. Biomaterials evaluated include alginate, fibrin, collagen, chitosan, self-assembling peptides, biopolymers and a range of synthetic hydrogels. The ultimate goal in therapeutic cardiac tissue engineering is to generate biocompatible, non-immunogenic heart muscle with morphological and functional properties similar to natural myocardium to repair MI. This review summarizes the properties of biomaterial substrates having sufficient mechanical stability, which stimulates the native collagen fibril structure for differentiating pluripotent stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells into cardiomyocytes for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:21900319

  20. [Acute myocardial infarction in patients under 45 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Pedro J; Cabadés, Adolfo; Bertomeu, Vicente; Echanove, Ildefonso; Colomina, Francisco; Cebrián, Javier; Pérez, Gloria; Mota, Angel; Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sanz, Juan Carlos

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the differential features of acute myocardial infarction in patients younger than 45 years old compared to older patients. From 1995 to 1999, delays in the assistance, evaluation, and therapeutic strategies as well as complications in patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, have been registered in the intensive care units of the 17 hospitals participating in the PRIMVAC Register. During the study, 10,213 patients were registered, 6.8% younger than 45 years old (691 patients). Young patients show a greater prevalence of cigarette smoking (80.9 vs 34.1%; p digoxin, and inotropic drugs. Younger patients had a better prognosis and a lower mortality rate (3.5 vs 14%; p myocardial infarction in patients younger than 45 years had different clinical features and responded to different therapeutic and diagnostic approaches than acute myocardial infarction in patients over 45 years, as well as a better short-term prognosis.

  1. Myocardial infarction of interior wall: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Musiał

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the primary death factors of people in the world. Myocardial infarctions and strokes are the most predominant among them. Securing a patient with myocardial infarction requires a rapid pre-hospital procedure and a fast cardiac intervention at an invasive cardiology centre. The paper describes a case of a 55-year-old man diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, i.e. myocardial infarction of the bottom wall. The operative procedure requires following the MONA algorithm (M – morphine, O – oxygen, N – nitroglycerin, A – aspirin. The process of data tele-transmission is an important element of the pre-hospital proceedings at the level of Medical Emergency Team. It makes it possible to send quickly the ECG record from the ambulance or patient’s home to a cardiology centre.

  2. Clopidogrel discontinuation after myocardial infarction and risk of thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The benefit of extending clopidogrel treatment beyond the 12-month period recommended in current guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI) is debated. We analysed the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes after discontinuation of 12 months of clopidogrel treatment....

  3. Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friis-Moller, N; Sabin, CA; Weber, R; Monforte, AD; El-Sadr, WM; Reiss, P; Thiebaut, R; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Kirk, O; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD; Lundgren, JD; Weber, R; Monteforte, AD; Bartsch, G; Reiss, P; Dabis, F; Morfeldt, L; De Wit, S; Pradier, C; Calvo, G; Law, MG; Kirk, O; Phillips, AN; Houyez, F; Loeliger, E; Tressler, R; Weller, I.; Friis-Moller, N; Sabin, CA; Sjol, A; Lundgren, JD; Sawitz, A; Rickenbach, M; Pezzotti, P; Krum, E; Meester, R; Lavignolle, V.; Sundstrom, A; Poll, B; Fontas, E; Torres, F; Petoumenos, K; Kjaer, J; Hammer, S; Neaton, J; Sjol, A; de Wolf, F; van der Ven, E; Zaheri, S; Van Valkengoed, L; Meester, R; Bronsveld, W; Weigel, H; Brinkman, K; Frissen, P; ten Veen, J; Hillbrand, M; Schieveld, S; Mulder, J; van Gorp, E; Meenhorst, P; Danner, S; Claessen, F; Perenboom, R; Schattenkerk, JKE; Godfried, M; Lange, J; Lowe, S; van der Meer, J; Nellen, F; Pogany, K; van der Poll, T; Reiss, R; Ruys, T; Wit, F; Richter, C; van Leusen, R; Vriesendorp, R; Jeurissen, F; Kauffmann, R; Koger, E; Brevenboer, B; Sprenger, HG; Law, G; ten Kate, RW; Leemhuis, M; Schippers, E; Schrey, G; van der Geest, S; Verbon, A; Koopmans, P; Keuter, M; Telgt, D; van der Ven, A; van der Ende, Marchina E.; Gyssens, I.; de Marie, S; Juttmann, J; van der Heul, C; Schneider, M; Borleffs, J; Hoepelman, I.; Jaspers, C; Matute, A; Schurink, C; Blok, W; Salamon, R; Beylot, J; Dupon, M; Le Bras, M; Pellegrin, JL; Ragnaud, JM; Dabis, F; Chene, G; Jacqmin-Gadda, H; Rhiebaut, R; Lawson-Ayayi, S; Lavignolle, V.; Balestre, E; Blaizeau, MJ; Decoin, M; Formaggio, AM; Delveaux, S; Labarerre, S; Uwamaliya, B; Vimard, E; Merchadou, L; Palmer, G; Touchard, D; Dutoit, D; Pereira, F; Boulant, B; Beylot, J; Morlat, P; Bonarek, M; Bonnet, F; Coadou, B; Gelie, P; Jaubert, D; Nouts, C; Lacoste, D; Dupon, M; Dutronc, H; Cipriano, G; Lafarie, S; Chossat, I.; Lacut, JY; Leng, B; Pellegrin, JL; Mercie, P; Viallard, JF; Faure, I.; Rispal, P; Cipriano, C; Tchamgoue, S; Le Bras, M; Djossou, F; Malvy, D; Pivetaud, JP; Ragnaud, JM; Chambon, D; De La Taille, C; Galperine, T; Lafarie, S; Neau, D; Ochoa, A; Beylot, C; Doutre, MS; Bezian, JH; Moreau, JF; Taupin, JL; Conri, C; Constans, J; Couzigou, P; Castera, L; Fleury, H; Lafon, ME; Masquelier, B; Pellegrin, I.; Trimoulet, P; Moreau, F; Mestre, C; Series, C; Taytard, A; Law, M; Petoumenos, K; Bal, J; Mijch, A; Watson, K; Roth, N; Wood, H; Austin, D; Gowers, A; Baker, B; McFarlane, R; Carr, A; Cooper, D; Chuah, J; Fankhauser, W; Mallal, S; Skett, J; Calvo, G; Torres, F; Mateau, S; Domingo, P; Sambeat, MA; Gatell, J; Del Cacho, E; Cadafalch, J; Fuster, M; Codina, C; Sirera, G; Vaque, A; Clumeck, N; De Wit, S; Gerard, M; Hildebrand, M; Kabeya, K; Konopnicki, D; Payen, MC; Poll, B; Van Laethem, Y; Neaton, J; Bartsch, G; El-Sadr, WM; Krum, E; Thompson, G; Wentworth, D; Luskin-Hawk, R; Telzak, E; El-Sadr, WM; Abrams, DI; Cohn, D; Markowitz, N; Arduino, R; Mushatt, D; Friedland, G; Perez, G; Tedaldi, E; Fisher, E; Gordin, F; Crane, LR; Sampson, J; Baxter, J; Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Phillips, AN; Lundgren, JD; Vetter, N; Clumeck, N; Hermans, P; Colebunders, R; Machala, L; Nielsen, J; Benfield, T; Gerstoft, J; Katzenstein, T; Roge, B; Skinhoj, P; Pedersen, C; Katlama, C; Viard, JP; Saint-Marc, T; Vanhems, P; Pradier, C; Dietrich, M; Manegold, C; van Lunzen, J; Miller, V.; Staszewski, S; Bieckel, M; Goebel, FD; Salzberger, B; Rockstroh, J; Kosmidis, J; Gargalianos, P; Sambatakou, H; Perdios, J; Panos, G; Karydis, I.; Filandras, A; Banhegyi, D; Mulcahy, F; Yust, I.; Turner, D; Pollack, S; Ben-Ishai, Z; Bentwich, Z; Maayan, S; Vella, S; Chiesi, A; Arici, C; Pristera, R; Mazzotta, F; Gabbuti, A; Esposito, R; Bedini, A; Chirianni, A; Montesarchio, E; Vullo, V.; Santopadre, P; Narciso, P; Antinori, A; Franci, P; Zaccarelli, M; Lazzarin, A; Finazzi, R; Monforte, VO; Hemmer, R; Staub, T; Reiss, P; Bruun, J; Maeland, A; Ormaasen, V.; Knysz, B; Gasiorowski, J; Horban, A; Prokopowicz, D; Boron-Kaczmarska, A; Pnyka, M; Beniowski, M; Trocha, H; Antunes, F; Mansinho, K; Proenca, R; Gonzalez-Lahoz, J; Diaz, B; Garcia-Benayas, T; Martin-Carbonero, L; Soriano, V.; Clotet, B; Jou, A; Conejero, J; Tural, C; Gatell, JM; Miro, JM; Blaxhult, A; Heidemann, B; Pehrson, P; Ledergerber, B; Weber, R; Francioli, P; Telenti, A; Hirschel, B; Soravia-Dunand, V.; Furrer, H; Fisher, M; Brettle, R; Barton, S; Johnson, AM; Mercey, D; Loveday, C; Johnson, MA; Pinching, A; Parkin, J; Weber, J; Scullard, G; Morfeldt, L; Thulin, G; Sunstrom, A; Akerlund, B; Koppel, K; Karlsson, A; Flamholc, L; Hakangard, C; Monforte, AD; Pezzotti, P; Moroni, M; Monforte, AD; Cargnel, A; Merli, S; Vigevani, GM; Pastecchia, C; Lazzarin, A; Novati, R; Caggese, L; Moioli, C; Mura, MS; Mannazzu, M; Suter, F; Arici, C; Manconi, PE; Piano, P; Mazzotta, F; Lo Caputo, S; Poggio, A; Bottari, G; Pagano, G; Alessandrini, A; Scasso, A; Vincenti, A; Abbadesse, V.; Mancuso, S; Alberici, F; Ruggieri, A; Arlotti, M; Ortolani, P; De Lalla, F; Tositti, G; Piersantelli, N; Piscopo, R; Raise, E; Pasquinucci, S; Soscia, F; Tacconi, L; Tirelli, U; Nasti, G; Santoro, D; Pusterla, L; Carosi, G; Castelli, F; Cadeo, G; Vangi, D; Carnevale, G; Galloni, D; Filice, G; Bruno, R; Sinicco, A; Sciandra, M; Caramello, P; Gennero, L; Soranzo, ML; Bonasso, M; Rizzardini, G; Migliorino, G; Chiodo, F; Colangeli, V.; Magnani, G; Ursitti, M; Menichetti, F; Martinelli, C; Esposito, R; Mussini, C; Ghinelli, F; Sighinolfi, L; Coronado, O; Zauli, T; Ballardini, G; Montroni, M; Zoli, A; Petrelli, E; Cioppi, A; Ortona, L; De Luca, A; Petrosillo, N; Noto, P; Narciso, P; Salcuni, P; Antinori, A; De Longis, P; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M; Pastore, G; Minafra, G; Chiriann, A; Loiacono, L; Piazza, M; Nappa, S; Abrescia, N; De Marco, M; Colomba, A; Prestileo, T; De Stefano, C; La Gala, A; Ferraro, T; Scerbo, A; Grima, P; Tundo, P; Pizzigallo, E; D'Alessandro, M; Grisorio, B; Ferrara, S; Pradier, C; Fontas, E; Caissotti, C; Dellamonica, P; Bentz, L; Bernard, E; Chaillou, S; De Salvador-Guillouet, F; Durant, J; Guttman, R; Heripret, L; Mondain-Miton, V.; Perbost, I.; Prouvost-Keller, B; Pugliese, P; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, PM; Vandenbos, F; Bernasconi, E; Bucher, H; Burgisser, P; Cattacin, S; Egger, M; Erb, P; Fierz, W; Fischer, M; Flepp, M; Fontana, A; Francioli, P; Furrer, HJ; Gorgievski, M; Hirschel, B; Kaiser, L; Kind, C; Klimkait, T; Ledergerber, B; Lauper, U; Opravil, M; Paccaud, F; Pantaleo, G; Perrin, L; Piffaretti, JC; Rickenbach, M; Rudin, C; Schupbach, J; Speck, R; Telenti, A; Trkola, A; Vernazza, P; Weber, R; Yerly, S; Ten Napel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Background: It remains controversial whether exposure to combination antiretroviral treatment increases the risk of myocardial infarction. Methods: In this prospective observational study, we enrolled 23,468 patients from 11 previously established cohorts from December 1999 to April 2001 and

  4. Sildenafil and diastolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads J; Gustafsson, Finn; Hassager, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction following myocardial infarction is an important predictor of outcome, irrespective of left ventricular systolic function. Previous studies suggest that phosphordiesterase-5 inhibition has a favorable effect on the myocardium as well as on the pulmonary and systemic vasculature....

  5. Intracoronary and systemic melatonin to patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvland Halladin, Natalie; Busch, Sarah Ekeløf; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2014-01-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury following acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) is an unavoidable consequence of the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) procedure. A pivotal mechanism in ischaemia-reperfusion injury is the production of reactive oxygen species following reperfusion...

  6. Clinical Manifestation of Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftah Suryadipradja

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study were performed in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI that hospitalized in ICCU Cipto Mangunkusumo hospital, Jakarta during the period of January 1994 until Decmber 1999. There were 513 patients hospitalized with MCI, 227 patients (44.2% were classified as elderly, and 35.2% of them were female. Most of the elderly AMI patients reported typical chest pain just like their younger counterparts. Elderly AMI patients tend to come later to the hospital, and more Q-wave myocardial infarction were identified compared to non- Q-wave myocardial infarction. Risk factors of diabetes mellitus and hypertension were more common among the elderly. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation and the mortality rate were higher among elderly AMI patients. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 229-35 Keywords: clinical manifestation, acute myocardial infarction, elderly

  7. Expanded cardiac rehabilitation in socially vulnerable patients with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2018-01-01

    , cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal recurrent events and major cardiac events (MACE) 10 years after. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The cardiac ward at a university hospital in Denmark from 2000 to 2004. PARTICIPANTS: 379 patients aged myocardial infarction (MI...

  8. Rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Mogens; Søndergaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To describe the rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction (MI) to identify focus areas for long-term cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in general practice. Design. Population-based cross-sectional study....

  9. Air Versus Oxygen in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stub, Dion; Smith, Karen; Bernard, Stephen; Nehme, Ziad; Stephenson, Michael; Bray, Janet E; Cameron, Peter; Barger, Bill; Ellims, Andris H; Taylor, Andrew J; Meredith, Ian T; Kaye, David M

    2015-06-16

    Oxygen is commonly administered to patients with ST-elevation-myocardial infarction despite previous studies suggesting a possible increase in myocardial injury as a result of coronary vasoconstriction and heightened oxidative stress. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing oxygen (8 L/min) with no supplemental oxygen in patients with ST-elevation-myocardial infarction diagnosed on paramedic 12-lead ECG. Of 638 patients randomized, 441 patients had confirmed ST-elevation-myocardial infarction and underwent primary end-point analysis. The primary end point was myocardial infarct size as assessed by cardiac enzymes, troponin I, and creatine kinase. Secondary end points included recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and myocardial infarct size assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 6 months. Mean peak troponin was similar in the oxygen and no oxygen groups (57.4 versus 48.0 μg/L; ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.56; P=0.18). There was a significant increase in mean peak creatine kinase in the oxygen group compared with the no oxygen group (1948 versus 1543 U/L; means ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.52; P=0.01). There was an increase in the rate of recurrent myocardial infarction in the oxygen group compared with the no oxygen group (5.5% versus 0.9%; P=0.006) and an increase in frequency of cardiac arrhythmia (40.4% versus 31.4%; P=0.05). At 6 months, the oxygen group had an increase in myocardial infarct size on cardiac magnetic resonance (n=139; 20.3 versus 13.1 g; P=0.04). Supplemental oxygen therapy in patients with ST-elevation-myocardial infarction but without hypoxia may increase early myocardial injury and was associated with larger myocardial infarct size assessed at 6 months. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01272713. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Acute myocardial infarction in a young woman on isotretinoin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Natalia; Antuña, Paula; Dominguez, Lourdes; Rivero, Fernando; Bastante, Teresa; Alfonso, Fernando

    2015-02-15

    The use of isotretinoin has been associated with mild changes in the metabolic profile of adolescents. In very rare cases, a possible association with myocardial infarction, stroke and thromboembolic events has been reported. In this report we describe the potential association of isotretinoin with the occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction in a very young girl. OCT provided unique visualization of the culprit lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The fate of post-myocardial infarction thrombi

    OpenAIRE

    Kinsara, Abdulhalim Jamal; Hasanin, Adel M.

    2012-01-01

    We are reporting a patient who sustained a large myocardial infarction with large kissing thrombi in echocardiogram that disappeared within 1 month without the administration of thrombolytic, anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy. The patient did not manifest any embolic events. This unusual course calls for specific studies on the natural history of thrombi post myocardial infarction and the best modality to treat such thrombi.

  12. Mortality in type 1 vs. type 2 myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian; Gerke, Oke; Saaby, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Immediate revascularization is beneficial in patients with presumed new-onset bundle branch block myocardial infarction (BBBMI). In the prehospital setting, it is a challenge to diagnose new-onset BBBMI and triage accordingly.......Immediate revascularization is beneficial in patients with presumed new-onset bundle branch block myocardial infarction (BBBMI). In the prehospital setting, it is a challenge to diagnose new-onset BBBMI and triage accordingly....

  13. Acute myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Pedro; Ferreira, Pedro; Correia, Emanuel; dos Santos, Luís Ferreira; Nunes, Luis; Pipa, João; Dionísio, Odete; Santos, Jorge Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    The authors present the case of a 51-year-old woman, with no known cardiovascular risk factors, admitted with anterior acute myocardial infarction complicated by primary ventricular fibrillation, who underwent reperfusion therapy with tenecteplase. Left heart catheterization on the sixth day showed left ventricular anteroapical akinesia and normal coronary arteries. The causes of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries and its differential diagnosis are discussed.

  14. Sleep impairment and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice; Lange, Theis; Hallqvist, Johan

    2014-01-01

    fatality and subsequent cardiovascular events following first-time acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: There were 2,246 first-time AMI cases. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: SLEEP IMPAIRMENT WAS ASSESSED...... assessment that could benefit secondary cardiovascular prevention. CITATION: Clark A, Lange T, Hallqvist J, Jennum P, Rod NH. Sleep impairment and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study. SLEEP 2014;37(5):851-858....

  15. [Acute pain in myocardial infarction: analysis of concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sônia Maria Josino; de Araújo, Thelma Leite; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galindo Neto, Nelson Miguel

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the concept "sharp pain" in the context of acute myocardial infarction. Conceptual analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant. This makes it possible to clarify the concept of attributes. We conducted an integrative review to assist the search of studies published in 2006 and 2012, using the descriptors 'Acute Pain' and 'myocardial infarction', through consultation to Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus and Public/Publish Medline (PubMed) data. A sample of 29 studies was selected in which the background identified was: reduction of myocardial perfusion and/or death of myocardial tissue; attributes: quality, location, time, duration and irradiation; and consequent: report of pain, dyspnea, high heart rate, nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, high respiratory rate, sleep disturbance, diaphoresis, fatigue, paleness, weakness, anxiety and fear. The findings have clarified the attributes of the concept sharp pain in myocardial infarction.

  16. Exercise Training Protects Against Acute Myocardial Infarction via Improving Myocardial Energy Metabolism and Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lichan Tao; Yihua Bei; Shenghui Lin; Haifeng Zhang; Yanli Zhou; Jingfa Jiang; Ping Chen; Shutong Shen; Junjie Xiao; Xinli Li

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise has been proved to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury However it remains unclear whether, and (if so) how, exercise could protect against AMI. Methods: Mice were trained using a 3-week swimming protocol, and then subjected to left coronary artery (LCA) ligation, and finally sacrificed 24 h after AMI. Myocardial infarct size was examined with triphenyltetr...

  17. Diagnostic value of copeptin in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, M O; Erenler, A K; Dogan, T; Yetim, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of copeptin in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to compare the diagnostic efficacy of copeptin with other cardiac markers. A total of 160 cases were enrolled in the study. All were over 18 years of age, and consisted of 54 non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI), 54 ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), and 52 healthy subjects (controls). Serum troponin-I, CK-MB mass, copeptin and CRP levels were measured in each of the cases, and were compared between the three groups for statistical differences. The copeptin levels in the STEMI (p copeptin and the presence of AMI (r = 0.285, p 0.1 ng/mL (71.0%, 100.0%, and 0.855); CK-MB mass > 3.59 ng/mL (77.8%, 92.3%, and 0.911); CRP > 6.37 mg/L (53.7%, 88.5%, and 0.769); and copeptin > 2.47 ng/mL (66.7%, 75.0%, and 0.676), respectively (p Copeptin can be used as a diagnostic marker in patients with suspected AMI in combination with other biomarkers, but, copeptin alone should not be considered as a single diagnostic marker in patients with suspected AMI.

  18. Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Early Rule-Out Pathways for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Anand, Atul; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Ferry, Amy V; Sandeman, Dennis; Adamson, Philip D; Andrews, Jack; Tan, Stephanie; Cheng, Sheun F; D'Souza, Michelle; Orme, Kate; Strachan, Fiona E; Nestelberger, Thomas; Twerenbold, Raphael; Badertscher, Patrick; Reichlin, Tobias; Gray, Alasdair; Shah, Anoop S V; Mueller, Christian; Newby, David E; Mills, Nicholas L

    2017-04-25

    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable myocardial infarction to be ruled out earlier, but the optimal approach is uncertain. We compared the European Society of Cardiology rule-out pathway with a pathway that incorporates lower cardiac troponin concentrations to risk stratify patients. Patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n=1218) underwent high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I measurement at presentation and 3 and 6 or 12 hours. We compared the European Society of Cardiology pathway (Acute Coronary S yndrome) population (myocardial infarction or type 1 myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. We evaluated the primary outcome in prespecified subgroups stratified by age, sex, time of symptom onset, and known ischemic heart disease. The primary outcome occurred in 15.7% (191 of 1218) patients. In those less than the 99th centile at presentation, the European Society of Cardiology pathway ruled out myocardial infarction in 28.1% (342 of 1218) and 78.9% (961 of 1218) at presentation and 3 hours, respectively, missing 18 index and two 30-day events (negative predictive value, 97.9%; 95% confidence interval, 96.9-98.7). The High-STEACS pathway ruled out 40.7% (496 of 1218) and 74.2% (904 of 1218) at presentation and 3 hours, missing 2 index and two 30-day events (negative predictive value, 99.5%; 95% confidence interval, 99.0-99.9; P myocardial infarction in more patients at presentation and misses 5-fold fewer index myocardial infarctions than guideline-approved pathways based exclusively on the 99th centile. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01852123. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Immunohistochemical detection of S100A1 in the postmortem diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death resulting from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) constitutes a significant percentage of the caseload for forensic and clinical pathologists. When sudden death occurs at an early stage (autopsy material, all human cases of definite myocardial infarction and suspected early infarction showed well-defined areas without S100A1 staining. None of the normal human cases showed diffuse depletion of S100A1. Conclusion Our results suggest that immunohistochemical detection of S100A1 is useful for the postmortem diagnosis of AMI at an early stage. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4366650979519818 PMID:23683996

  20. Acute anterior myocardial infarction seen on conventional iodine-contrast CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hagdrup, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI is based on clinical symptoms of chest pain and dyspnea in combination with electrocardiographic changes and a raise in myocardial-specific biomarkers. Imaging is by echocardiography and magnetic resonance. The preferred technique for identification of previous myocardial infarction (MI is magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium technique, but in the acute patient echocardiography is applied. In selected cases, important information can be obtained from other imaging modalities. We describe a case of a patient first suspected of an abdominal catastrophe in whom acute MI was diagnosed from a computerized tomography (CT scan with iodine contrast. Our case together with a few other cases reported in the literature demonstrate that contrast enhancement of the myocardium can be important to follow in the acute patient because the CT scans sometimes give a unique opportunity to recognize findings consistent with MI even though the CT scan was performed for another reason.

  1. Aborted myocardial infarction: a new target for reperfusion therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.; Gersh, B.J.; Armstrong, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Reperfusion therapy for ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes aims at early and complete recanalization of the infarct-related artery in order to salvage myocardium and improve both early and late clinical outcomes. Myocardial necrosis is usually confirmed and quantified by myocardial enzyme release

  2. Radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarction using Tc-99m TBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, B.L.; Campbell, S.; Kirshenbaum, J.M.; Lister-James, J.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.; Antman, E.

    1985-05-01

    The cationic complex Tc-99m t-butylisonitrile (TBI) concentrates in the myocardial tissue of several animal species. Its myocardial distribution is proportional to blood flow both in zones of ischemia and in normal myocardium at rest. Planar, tomographic, and gated myocardial images have been obtained using Tc-99m TBI in the human. The authors investigated the potential application of Tc-99m TBI imaging to detect and localize myocardial infarction. Four subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease and five patients with ECG evidence of previous myocardial infarction were studied. Tc-99m TBI (10mCi) was injected intravenously with the patient in a resting state with planar imaging in the anterior, 30 and 70 degree LAO projections beginning one hr after injection. The distribution of the tracer was homogeneous throughout the left ventricular wall in the normal subjects. Regional perfusion defects were present in 4/5 of the patients with myocardial infarction. Location of the defects corresponded to the location of the infarct using ECG criteria (2 inferoposterior and 2 anterior). The patient in whom the Tc-99m TBI image appeared normal had sustained a subendocardial myocardial infarct which could not be localized by ECG; the other 4 pts had transmural infarcts. Anterior and 30 degree LAO images were of excellent quality in all cases; there was overlap of the liver on the inferior wall of the left ventricle on the 70 degree LAO views. The authors conclude that accurate perfusion imaging may be possible using Tc-99m TBI in patients with transmural myocardial infarction.

  3. Time of symptom onset and value of myocardial blush and infarct size on prognosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Wouter G; Lexis, Chris P H; Mahmoud, Karim D; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Pundziute, Gabija; van 't Hof, Arnoud W J; van Gilst, Wiek H; Lipsic, Erik

    In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), the time of onset of ischemia has been associated with myocardial infarction (MI) size. Myocardial blush grade (MBG) reflects myocardial response to ischemia/reperfusion injury, which may differ according to time of the day. The

  4. Chronic antithrombotic therapy in post-myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarakanti, Rangadham; Sodhi, Sandeep; Lee, Robert; Ezekowitz, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Because 1.1 million myocardial infarctions occur in the United States alone each year, and 450,000 of them are recurrent infarctions, which carry an inherently greater risk of death and disability than first events, the importance of secondary prevention strategies that can be implemented widely is unparalleled in health care. Antithrombotic therapies, both antiplatelet and anticoagulant, have become the mainstays of these strategies. This article covers the use of chronic antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents after myocardial infarction. It does not include the management of these patients in the acute phase.

  5. Justification for intravenous magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, H S

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are magnesium-deficient and develop an additional transient decrease in serum magnesium concentrations (S-Mg c) during the acute phase of the infarct. Animal experiments, as well as studies on humans, have indicated...... of routine practice for patients with acute myocardial infarction....... that the acute decrease in S-Mg c as well as a more chronic magnesium (Mg) deficiency state are harmful to the myocardium in the setting of acute ischaemia. This knowledge has led during the last couple of years to the performance of four double-blind placebo controlled studies in which the effect of i...

  6. Effect of Metformin on Metabolites and Relation With Myocardial Infarct Size and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction After Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppinga, Ruben N.; Kofink, Daniel; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.; Lipsic, Erik; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; van der Harst, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Background-Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size (ISZ) are key predictors of long-term survival after myocardial infarction (MI). However, little is known about the biochemical pathways driving LV dysfunction after MI. To identify novel biomarkers predicting post-MI LVEF and

  7. Myocardial sympathetic innervation, function, and oxidative metabolism in non-infarcted myocardium in patients with prior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hirofumi; Matsunari, Ichiro; Nomura, Yusuke; Fujita, Wataru; Komatsu, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu; Nekolla, Stephan G; Kajinami, Kouji

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sympathetic innervation, contractile function, and the oxidative metabolism of the non-infarcted myocardium in patients with prior myocardial infarction. In 19 patients (14 men, 5 women, 65 ± 9 years) after prior myocardial infarction, sympathetic innervation was assessed by (11)C-hydroxyephedrine (HED) positron emission tomography (PET). Oxidative metabolism was quantified using (11)C-acetate PET. Left ventricular systolic function was measured by echocardiography with speckle tracking technique. The (11)C-HED retention was positively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r = 0.566, P infarcted myocardium (r = -0.561, P infarcted myocardium. When the patients were divided into two groups based on the median value of left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) (41 mL), there were no significant differences in age, sex, and rate pressure product between the groups. However, the large LVESVI group (>41 mL) was associated with reduced (11)C-HED retention and peak longitudinal strain in systole, whereas Kmono was similar between the groups. This study indicates that remodeled LV after myocardial infarction is associated with impaired sympathetic innervation and function even in the non-infarcted myocardial tissue. Furthermore, oxidative metabolism in the non-infarcted myocardium seems to be operated by normal regulatory mechanisms rather than pre-synaptic sympathetic neuronal function.

  8. Fatigue in Older Adults Post Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Barton Crane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively examine putative factors that may independently contribute to fatigue and subsequent persistence of fatigue in elderly adults 6-8 months post myocardial infarction (MI. Studies suggest cardiac function, comorbidities, daytime sleepiness, depression, anemia, interleukins, and social support are correlates of fatigue; however, no studies have systematically examined these factors 6 months post MI in an aging population. Methods. Study participants included 49 women and men (N=98 ages 65 to 91 who were 6-8 months post MI. Data collection included the Demographic Health Status Questionnaire (heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index, medications, Fatigue-Related Comorbidity Scale, Revised Piper Fatigue Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Social Provisions Scale and venous blood tests (b-natriuretic peptide, hemoglobin, interleukin-6. Results. Fatigue persisted after MI in 76% of older men and women with no difference by sex. Only depression scores (Ptrend=.0004 and mean arterial pressure (Ptrend=.015 were found to be linearly independent predictors for fatigue, controlling for age, Il-6 levels, and body mass index.Conclusions. Post MI depression and mean arterial blood pressure are important to assess when examining fatigue post MI in older populations.

  9. Spouses' coping alongside myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen-Tuomaala, Mari; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Rekiaro, Matti; Paavilainen, Eija

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the research was to develop a substantive theory to describe the coping of myocardial infarction (MI) patients' spouses. The theory describes spousal coping experiences at 4 and 12 months after the patient's MI. The data were collected by means of theme interviews from 28 spouses in the years 2006 and 2007 and analysed using Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory method. The substantive theory describes four main categories of spousal coping. The categories are: serene and balanced coping; action-centred coping; illness-centred coping; and coping based on denial of illness. The theory can be useful when developing support and counselling interventions for the spouses of MI patients. The study provides new knowledge about the spouses' coping experiences and about the factors that influence their coping over a longer period of time. The theory also discusses causal, contextual, and concurrent factors, which affect the coping experience and whose identification is important when seeking to support the spouses. Another application of the theory can be found in nursing education.

  10. [ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo-Silberman, S

    2016-12-01

    In France, coronary disease is responsible for 11.9 deaths/100,000 women aged 35 to 74 years old every year. In France, the number of hospitalizations and deaths for myocardial infarction (MI) increases more significantly in women, particularly under 65. To date, women with MI were 5-10 years older than men, with more risk factors and comorbidities, especially regarding diabetes, high blood pressure and lipid profile. However, a recent comparative study of the FAST-MI registry notes a change in the characteristics of these patients with more and more young women, active smoking and obesity. Their symptoms include more often atypics ones. They also have the particularity of a higher frequency of MI without obstructive lesion. Though, even at the same age, women have a worse prognosis with significantly higher mortality rate, especially early, in-hospital, than those of men. However, there are means to implement in order to reduce complications rate and improve the prognosis through information campaign and primary prevention screening and appropriate care and correction of risk factors. It is also important to raise awareness of general population and care actors about women MI risk even young, about its atypical forms and the necessity of to rapid and aggressive care processes. A better understanding of specific pathophysiological mechanisms appears mandatory and should be supported by prospective dedicated studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Drug-induced chest pain and myocardial infarction. Reports to a national centre and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Ottervanger (Jan Paul); J.H.P. Wilson (Paul); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To analyse reports of drug-induced myocardial infarction and chest pain sent to a national reporting centre. To review which drugs were suspected of exhibiting these adverse events and what mechanisms were involved. Methods: During the 20-year period 1975 through 1994, a

  12. Conditions mimicking acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in patients referred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y. L.; Svilaas, T.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Zijistra, F.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objectives. A rapid diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is mandatory for optimal treatment. However, a small proportion of patients with suspected STEMI suffer from other conditions. Although case reports have described these conditions, a contemporary

  13. An autopsy case of myocardial infarction due to idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Takashi; Yamada, Sohsuke; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Nawata, Aya; Hisaoka, Masanori; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Nakayama, Toshiyuki

    2015-05-29

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a life-threatening disorder characterized by systemic platelet-von Willebrand factor aggregation, organ ischemia and profound thrombocytopenia. In this report, we describe an autopsy case of a 77-year-old Japanese man diagnosed with idiopathic TTP. He had no history of cardiovascular disease symptoms, such as chest pain, ST segment elevation, and elevation of cardiac enzyme levels, except arrhythmia. The patient suddenly died despite receiving many treatments. On autopsy, macroscopically and microscopically, acute and chronic myocardial infarction manifested as petechiae and fibrotic foci and covered a wide area in the myocardium, including the area near the atrioventricular node. The microthrombi in the small arterioles and capillaries were platelet thrombi, which showed positive results for periodic acid-Schiff stain and factor VIII on immunohistochemical staining. The cause of the sudden death was suspected to be myocardial infarction, including a cardiac conduction system disorder due to multiple platelet microthrombi. Asymptomatic myocardial infarction is an important cause of death in TTP. Therefore, the heart tissue, including the sinus-atrial node and the atrioventricular node, should be microscopically examined more closely in autopsy cases of patients with TTP who experienced sudden death of TTP. This report is a critical teaching case considering that its cause of sudden death may be arrhythmia due to a myocardial infarction including cardiac conduction system disorder by platelet microthrombi. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2113354005156739.

  14. Utility of desmin and a Masson's trichrome method to detect early acute myocardial infarction in autopsy tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jie; Guzman, Miguel; Desoto-Lapaix, Fidelina; Pincus, Matthew R; Wieczorek, Rosemary

    2009-09-20

    Detection of early acute myocardial ischemia/infarction prior to neutrophilic infiltration in autopsy myocardium poses a diagnostic dilemma to the surgical pathologist. Morphological changes can be subtle or not identified at all on the hematoxylin and eosin stain. To evaluate the Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemical stains, desmin and myoglobin, in detecting acute myocardial ischemia/infarction in autopsy myocardium. We reviewed the autopsy files of the New York Harbor Healthcare System and retrieved 25 cases of early acute myocardial infarction. Three autopsy hearts of non-cardiac related deaths were used as controls. Sections from grossly suspected early acute myocardial infaction areas were stained by a Masson's trichrome stain technique and with desmin by a standard immnunohistochemical method. The ischemic zone surrounding myocardial infarction and the acute infarct itself in 23/25(92%) were detected by desmin depletion, and in all cases with Masson's trichrome color changes. No change in staining for desmin or Masson's trichrome were seen in the three controls. Desmin and Masson's trichrome together are valuable tools when faced with the problem of postmortem detection of early myocardial infarction/ischemia.

  15. A Case of Myopericarditis Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Özdemir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Myopericarditis is an inflammatory disease of the both myocardial and pericardial tissues, and resulting from different etiologies. Viral agents such as coxsackie virus type B, adenovirus, and echovirus are the most common leading cause of this disease and it usually occurs following viral upper respiratory tract infections. Although there are different clinical features according to ages groups, some common findings such as tachycardia incompatible with fever, deeply heared heart sounds, and heart failure can be seen. Clinical findings often mimics a myocardial infarction. Diagnosis of this disease is made by the evaluation of the clinical condition, electrocardiography, echocardiography and elevation of the cardiac enzymes. Because it is mortality, discrimination of myopericarditis from myocardial infarction is very important. Herein, we report a 13 year-old-girl with the diagnosis of myopericarditis presenting with chest pain, electrocardiographic changes mimicking myocardial infarction and elevated cardiac enzymes and also aimed to emphasize the importance of accurate diagnosis of this disease.

  16. Regional Mechanics Determine Collagen Fiber Structure in Healing Myocardial Infarcts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomovsky, Gregory M.; Rouillard, Andrew D.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Following myocardial infarction, the mechanical properties of the healing infarct are an important determinant of heart function and the risk of progression to heart failure. In particular, mechanical anisotropy (having different mechanical properties in different directions) in the healing infarct can preserve pump function of the heart. Based on reports of different collagen structures and mechanical properties in various animal models, we hypothesized that differences in infarct size, shape, and/or location produce different patterns of mechanical stretch that guide evolving collagen fiber structure. We tested the effects of infarct shape and location using a combined experimental and computational approach. We studied mechanics and collagen fiber structure in cryoinfarcts in 53 Sprague-Dawley rats and found that regardless of shape or orientation, cryoinfarcts near the equator of the left ventricle stretched primarily in the circumferential direction and developed circumferentially aligned collagen, while infarcts at the apex stretched similarly in the circumferential and longitudinal direction and developed randomly oriented collagen. In a computational model of infarct healing, an effect of mechanical stretch on fibroblast and collagen alignment was required to reproduce the experimental results. We conclude that mechanical environment determines collagen fiber structure in healing myocardial infarcts. Our results suggest that emerging post-infarction therapies that alter regional mechanics will also alter infarct collagen structure, offering both potential risks and novel therapeutic opportunities. PMID:22418281

  17. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator and immediate angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction. : One-year follow up. The European Cooperative Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); D.P. de Bono (David); J.G.P. Tijssen (Jan); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M. Verstraete (Marc); J. Lubsen (Jacob); F.J.J. van de Werf (Frans)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND. The European Cooperative Study Group conducted two randomized trials in patients with suspected myocardial infarction to assess the effect of 100 mg single-chain recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA, alteplase) on enzymatic infarct size, left ventricular

  18. New Horizons of Acute Myocardial Infarction: From the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Hong; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Kim, Young Jo

    2013-01-01

    As the first nationwide Korean prospective multicenter data collection registry, the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) launched in November 2005. Through a number of innovative approaches, KAMIR suggested new horizons about acute myocardial infarction (AMI) which contains unique features of Asian patients from baseline characteristics to treatment strategy. Obesity paradox was existed in Korean AMI patients, whereas no gender differences among them. KAMIR score suggested new risk stratifying method with increased convenience and an enhanced accuracy for the prediction of adverse outcomes. Standard loading dose of clopidogrel was enough for Asian AMI patients. Triple antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel and cilostazol could improve clinical outcomes than dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. Statin improved clinical outcomes even in AMI patients with very low LDL-C levels. The rate of percutaneous coronary intervention was higher and door-to-balloon time was shorter than the previous reports. Zotarolimus eluting stents as the 2nd generation drug-eluting stent (DES) was not superior to the 1st generation DES, in contrast to the western AMI studies. KAMIR made a cornerstone in the study of Korean AMI and expected to be new standards of care for AMI with the renewal of KAMIR design to overcome its pitfalls. PMID:23399991

  19. The zebrafish heart regenerates after cryoinjury-induced myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Gregor

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, myocardial infarction is characterized by irreversible loss of heart tissue, which becomes replaced with a fibrous scar. By contrast, teleost fish and urodele amphibians are capable of heart regeneration after a partial amputation. However, due to the lack of a suitable infarct model, it is not known how these animals respond to myocardial infarction. Results Here, we have established a heart infarct model in zebrafish using cryoinjury. In contrast to the common method of partial resection, cryoinjury results in massive cell death within 20% of the ventricular wall, similar to that observed in mammalian infarcts. As in mammals, the initial stages of the injury response include thrombosis, accumulation of fibroblasts and collagen deposition. However, at later stages, cardiac cells can enter the cell cycle and invade the infarct area in zebrafish. In the subsequent two months, fibrotic scar tissue is progressively eliminated by cell apoptosis and becomes replaced with a new myocardium, resulting in scarless regeneration. We show that tissue remodeling at the myocardial-infarct border zone is associated with accumulation of Vimentin-positive fibroblasts and with expression of an extracellular matrix protein Tenascin-C. Electrocardiogram analysis demonstrated that the reconstitution of the cardiac muscle leads to the restoration of the heart function. Conclusions We developed a new cryoinjury model to induce myocardial infarction in zebrafish. Although the initial stages following cryoinjury resemble typical healing in mammals, the zebrafish heart is capable of structural and functional regeneration. Understanding the key healing processes after myocardial infarction in zebrafish may result in identification of the barriers to efficient cardiac regeneration in mammals.

  20. Extracellular volume fractions in chronic myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauner, Kerstin Ulrike; Biffar, Andreas; Theisen, Daniel; Greiser, Andreas; Zech, Christoph Johannes; Nguyen, Elsie T; Reiser, Maximilian F; Wintersperger, Bernd J

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and delineate chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) using precontrast and postcontrast T1 mapping techniques including quantification of extracellular volume fractions (ECVs). A total of 26 patients with CMI were examined at 1.5 T applying a modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery sequence before and 10 minutes after contrast at 3 short-axis slice positions. An inversion recovery gradient recalled echo sequence (standard of reference) was used for imaging late gadolinium enhancement. Precontrast and postcontrast T1 maps were calculated, and CMI was defined as areas with T1 values more than 3 SDs different compared with normal myocardium (MYO). T1 values of CMI, MYO, and blood pool were measured, and ECVs of CMI and MYO were calculated. Two-tailed Student t test was used for statistical analysis of T1 values and ECVs. Sensitivities and specificities for detection of CMI on precontrast and postcontrast T1 maps were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed for postcontrast T1 values and ECV for discrimination of CMI. The comparison of T1 values of CMI and MYO revealed significant differences in precontrast and postcontrast scans (1159 ± 64 vs 1001 ± 47 milliseconds, P T1 mapping were 41.7% and 100% in precontrast Look-Locker Inversion Recovery scans and 95.8% and 99.3% in postcontrast images, respectively. Average ECV for MYO and CMI were 28% ± 5% and 53% ± 10% (P T1 values and ECV, respectively (P = 0.137). Sensitivities and specificities were 92.3% and 92.3% for detecting CMI by postcontrast T1 values and 95.5% and 100% for ECV, with cutoff values being 305 milliseconds or less and greater than 42%. Combined criteria did not result in any further improvement of sensitivity for CMI detection. Postcontrast T1 values and ECV of chronically infarcted MYO are significantly different compared with respective values of normal MYO. Both parameters allow for accurate detection of CMI with ECV showing

  1. Interstitial collagen is increased in the non-infarcted human myocardium after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, P. G.; Willems, I. E.; Cleutjens, J. P.; Arends, J. W.; Havenith, M. G.; Daemen, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    In this study we report the changes of interstitial collagen in the human non-infarcted interventricular septum after a myocardial infarction as well as in hypertrophic human hearts with or without hypertension. The collagen amount was determined with the Sirius Red morphometry technique, which

  2. Human Umbilical Cord Blood for Transplantation Therapy in Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Sandra A; Franzese, Nick; Staples, Meaghan; Weinbren, Nathan L; Babilonia, Monica; Patel, Jason; Merchant, Neil; Simancas, Alejandra Jacotte; Slakter, Adam; Caputo, Mathew; Patel, Milan; Franyuti, Giorgio; Franzblau, Max H; Suarez, Lyanne; Gonzales-Portillo, Chiara; Diamandis, Theo; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Tajiri, Naoki; Sanberg, Paul R; Kaneko, Yuji; Miller, Leslie W; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2013-07-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising therapy for myocardial infarction. Endogenous repair of the heart muscle after myocardial infarction is a challenge because adult cardiomyocytes have a limited capacity to proliferate and replace damaged cells. Pre-clinical and clinical evidence has shown that cell based therapy may promote revascularization and replacement of damaged myocytes after myocardial infarction. Adult stem cells can be harvested from different sources including bone marrow, skeletal myoblast, and human umbilical cord blood cells. The use of these cells for the repair of myocardial infarction presents various advantages over other sources of stem cells. Among these are easy harvesting, unlimited differentiation capability, and robust angiogenic potential. In this review, we discuss the milestone findings and the most recent evidence demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy and safety of the transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with gene therapy, highlighting the importance of optimizing the timing, dose and delivery methods, and a better understanding of the mechanisms of action that will guide the clinical entry of this innovative treatment for ischemic disorders, specifically myocardial infarction.

  3. [Acute myocardial infarction in Morocco: FES-AMI registry data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoudad, H; El Khorb, N; Sekkali, N; Mechrafi, A; Zakari, N; Ouaha, L; Lahlou, I

    2015-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is the most dangerous complication of coronary atherothrombosis. There are several disparities in regard to its management around the world. The aim of this study is to analyze the specificities of management of acute myocardial infarction in Morocco. FES-AMI (Fès Acute Myocardial Infarction) is a prospective monocentric registry conducted in cardiology department of Hassan II university hospital in Fès. In this registry, we enrolled patients with acute myocardial infarction who presented within 5 days after symptom onset. From January 2005 to August 2015, we enrolled 1835 patients. Seventy-five percent of patients were males and mean age was 60 years old. Fifty-one percent of patients were smokers, 27% were hypertensives and 14% were diabetics. Sixty-six percent of patients had more than 2 risk factors. Time from symptom onset to hospital admission was less than six hours for 40% of the patients. Thirty-six percent of patients were admitted more than twelve hours after the onset of chest pain. Only 37% of patients received reperfusion therapy, 31% with in-hospital thrombolysis and 6% with primary angioplasty. In-hospital mortality was 7.6%. The patients enrolled in our registry have late presentation of acute myocardial infarction and less rate of reperfusion therapy. Furthermore, the majority of our patients have multiple risk factors and this result underlines the failure of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between chronic dental infection and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, Brita; Kasaj, Adrian; Willershausen, Ines; Zahorka, Denisa; Briseño, Benjamin; Blettner, Maria; Genth-Zotz, Sabine; Münzel, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    In patients with cardiovascular diseases several risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and drinking habits, genetic disposition, and chronic inflammation must be considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between dental origin infections and the presence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of 125 patients who had experienced a myocardial infarction and 125 healthy individuals were included in this study. The oral examination was carried out following the consent of the ethics committee and the National Board for Radiation Protection and included the number of teeth, endodontically treated teeth, periodontal screening index (PSI), clinical attachment level, and radiographic apical lesions (radiograph examination). The medical examination included, among others, blood glucose level, C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels, and leukocyte number. The study demonstrated that patients with AMI exhibited an unfavorable dental state of health. After statistical adjustment for age, gender, and smoking, they exhibited a significantly higher number of missing teeth (P = .001), less teeth with root canal fillings (P = .0015), a higher number of radiologic apical lesions (P = .001), and a higher PSI value (P = .001) compared with individuals without myocardial infarction. The medical data showed a nonsignificant correlation between CRP and the number of radiologic apical lesions. This study presents evidence that patients who have experienced myocardial infarction also exhibit an unfavorable dental state of health in comparison to healthy patients and suggests an association between chronic oral infections and myocardial infarction.

  5. Role of antiarrhythmic agents after myocardial infarction with special reference to the EMIAT and CAMIAT trials of amiodarone. European Myocardial Infarct Amiodarone Trial. Canadian Amiodarone Myocardial Infarction Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, S M; Borzak, S; Goldberger, J; Gheorghiade, M

    1998-01-01

    The role of antiarrhythmic agents in the post-MI patients has been investigated for several years. Recently, clinical trials have assessed the effects of amiodarone in the post-MI population. The Basel Antiarrhythmic Study of Infarct Survival (BASIS) trial showed a reduction in total mortality, sudden death, and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias with amiodarone therapy. The European Myocardial Infarct Amiodarone Trial (EMIAT) did not show a mortality benefit, but amiodarone was associated with fewer antiarrhythmic deaths. The Canadian Amiodarone Myocardial Infarction Trial (CAMIAT) showed no significant impact on mortality, but arrhythmia deaths and resuscitated cardiac deaths were reduced. Amiodarone therapy after MI should be reserved for the treatment of symptomatic or sustained ventricular arrhythmias. The current data do not support routine use of amiodarone in all patients after MI.

  6. Beneficial role of tamoxifen in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayabarapu, Nihar; Patel, Bhoomika M

    2014-10-01

    ER-α and ER-β agonist 17β-estradiol is reported to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tamoxifen in myocardial infarction. For this, tamoxifen was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats for 1-14 days, and isoproterenol (ISO) (100 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)) was administered subcutaneously on the 13th and 14th days of the study in order to induce myocardial infarction, after which, various biochemical, cardiac, and morphometric parameters were evaluated. ISO produced significant dyslipidemia, hypertension, bradycardia, oxidative stress, and an increase in serum cardiac markers. Treatment with tamoxifen significantly controlled dyslipidemia, hypertension, bradycardia, oxidative stress, and reduced serum cardiac markers. The ISO control rats exhibited significant increases in the infarct size of the left ventricle (LV), LV cavity area, cardiac and LV hypertrophic indices, LV-wall thickness, cardiomyocyte diameter, and area. Treatment with tamoxifen significantly reduced infarction as well as hypertrophic and morphometric parameters. ISO also produced significant increases in the LV collagen level, decreases in Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity, and a reduction in the rate of pressure development and decay, which were prevented by tamoxifen treatment. The protective effect of tamoxifen on myocardial infarct was further confirmed by histopathological examination. Our data thus suggest that tamoxifen exerts beneficial effects in ISO-induced myocardial infarction.

  7. Degeneration of capsaicin sensitive sensory nerves enhances myocardial injury in acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Lin; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Li-Li; Wu, Jie

    2012-09-20

    Evidence indicated an involvement of afferent nerves in the pathology of acute myocardial infarction. This study was undertaken to clarify the role and mechanisms by which the sensory afferent degeneration exacerbates the myocardial injury in acute myocardial infarction in rats. The myocardial injury was assessed by analysis of 1) the differences in the infarct size, myocyte apoptosis, the caspase activity in the myocardium and cardiac troponin I in serum between the denervated and non-denervated rats; 2) the differences in the size of infarctiom with and without antagonisms of endogenous neurokinin 1 receptor or calcitonin gene related peptide receptor in acute myocardial infarction. Degeneration of the afferent nerves resulted in marked increase in the pain threshold and decrease in substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide in dorsal root ganglia, spinal dorsal horn and myocardium. Increases of the infarction size (39% ± 4% vs. 26% ± 4%,), troponin-I (28.4 ± 8.89 ng/ml, vs. 14.6 ± 9.75 ng/ml), apoptosis of myocytes (by 1.8 ± 0.2 folds) and caspase-3 activity (1.6 ± 0.3 vs. 1.05 ± 0.18) were observed in the denervated animals at 6h of myocardial infarction, compared with the non-denervated rats. Antagonisms of the endogenous neurokinin 1 receptor or calcitonin gene related peptide receptor caused increase of the size of infarction in the animals. Degeneration of capsaicin sensitive afferent nerves enhances the myocardial injury of acute myocardial infarction, possibly due to reduction of endogenous calcitonin gene related peptide and substance P. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CT detection of subendocardial fat in myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Kim, Young-Jin; Hur, Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Tae Hoon; Choe, Kyu Ok; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2009-02-01

    We sought to systemically analyze the characteristics of fat accumulation in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) relative to various clinical parameters. We included 161 patients (129 men, 32 women; mean age, 60.7 years) who had previously been diagnosed with MI and had undergone CT coronary angiography between February 2003 and April 2005. We analyzed the characteristics of myocardial fat, if present, and compared the clinical parameters of the patients with and those without myocardial fat. Myocardial fat was found in the subendocardial region in 36 (22.4%) patients with MI. In all cases, the myocardial fat was located in the subendocardial region and was typically detected in the left anterior descending artery territory (75%, n = 27). The mean attenuation value of myocardial fat was -29.6 HU on unenhanced CT. Myocardial fat was more frequently associated with a greater infarct age, milder coronary artery stenosis, and fewer number of diseased vessels. Patients with myocardial fat had more severe regional wall motion abnormalities on follow-up echocardiography. Age, sex, the presence of ST elevation or Q wave, elevated levels of cardiac enzymes, ejection fraction, and end-diastolic left ventricular dimension on follow-up echocardiography, as well as the presence of arrhythmia, were not significantly different between the two groups. Myocardial fat was detected in 22.4% of MI patients and was more frequently associated with a longer postinfarct period, milder coronary artery stenosis, fewer number of diseased vessels, and more severe regional wall motion abnormalities.

  9. Model-based design of mechanical therapies for myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomovsky, Gregory M; Macadangdang, Jesse R; Ailawadi, Gorav; Holmes, Jeffrey W

    2011-02-01

    The mechanical properties of healing myocardial infarcts are a critical determinant of pump function and the transition to heart failure. Recent reports suggest that modifying infarct mechanical properties can improve function and limit ventricular remodeling. However, little attempt has been made to identify the specific infarct material properties that would optimize left ventricular (LV) function. We utilized a finite-element model of a large anteroapical infarct in a dog heart to explore a wide range of infarct mechanical properties. Isotropic stiffening of the infarct reduced end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes, improved LV contractility, but had little effect on stroke volume. A highly anisotropic infarct, with high longitudinal stiffness but low circumferential stiffness coefficients, produced the best stroke volume by increasing diastolic filling, without affecting contractility or ESV. Simulated infarcts in two different locations displayed different transmural strain patterns. Our results suggest that there is a general trade-off between acutely reducing LV size and acutely improving LV pump function, that isotropically stiffening the infarct is not the only option of potential therapeutic interest, and that customizing therapies for different infarct locations may be important. Our model results should provide guidance for design and development of therapies to improve LV function by modifying infarct mechanical properties.

  10. Virtual electrophysiological study in a 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging model of porcine myocardial infarction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Jason; Jacobson, Jason T; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-01-01

    ...) in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize myocardial infarction and "gray zones," which are thought to reflect heterogeneous regions of viable and nonviable myocytes...

  11. Angiogenic peptide nanofibers repair cardiac tissue defect after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Yasa, I Ceren; Ramanujam, Vaibavi Srirangam; Arularasu, Suganya Cheyyatraivendran; Kofidis, Theo; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2017-08-01

    Myocardial infarction remains one of the top leading causes of death in the world and the damage sustained in the heart eventually develops into heart failure. Limited conventional treatment options due to the inability of the myocardium to regenerate after injury and shortage of organ donors require the development of alternative therapies to repair the damaged myocardium. Current efforts in repairing damage after myocardial infarction concentrates on using biologically derived molecules such as growth factors or stem cells, which carry risks of serious side effects including the formation of teratomas. Here, we demonstrate that synthetic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffolds induce neovascularization in cardiovascular tissue after myocardial infarction, without the addition of any biologically derived factors or stem cells. When the GAG mimetic nanofiber gels were injected in the infarct site of rodent myocardial infarct model, increased VEGF-A expression and recruitment of vascular cells was observed. This was accompanied with significant degree of neovascularization and better cardiac performance when compared to the control saline group. The results demonstrate the potential of future clinical applications of these bioactive peptide nanofibers as a promising strategy for cardiovascular repair. We present a synthetic bioactive peptide nanofiber system can enhance cardiac function and enhance cardiovascular regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI) without the addition of growth factors, stem cells or other biologically derived molecules. Current state of the art in cardiac repair after MI utilize at least one of the above mentioned biologically derived molecules, thus our approach is ground-breaking for cardiovascular therapy after MI. In this work, we showed that synthetic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffolds induce neovascularization and cardiomyocyte differentiation for the regeneration of cardiovascular

  12. Cancer risk of patients discharged with acute myocardial infarct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H

    1998-01-01

    We studied whether common shared environmental or behavioral risk factors, other than tobacco smoking, underlie both atherosclerotic diseases and cancer. We identified a group of 96,891 one-year survivors of acute myocardial infarct through the Danish Hospital Discharge Register between 1977...... and 1989. We calculated the incidence of cancer in this group by linking it to the Danish Cancer Registry for the period 1978-1993. There was no consistent excess over the expected figures for any of the categories of cancer not related to tobacco smoking. Specifically, the rates of colorectal cancer...... onset of acute myocardial infarct and for female patients. Overall, there do not seem to be major shared environmental or behavioral risk factors for acute myocardial infarct and cancers, except for smoking, and there seems to be no common inherited susceptibility to the development of these diseases....

  13. Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anavekar, Nagesh S; McMurray, John J V; Velazquez, Eric J

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of coexisting conditions has a substantial effect on the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. Renal failure is associated with one of the highest risks, but the influence of milder degrees of renal impairment is less well defined. METHODS: As part of the Valsartan...... in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT), we identified 14,527 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by clinical or radiologic signs of heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both, and a documented serum creatinine measurement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive...... causes, reinfarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or resuscitation after cardiac arrest increased with declining estimated GFRs. Although the rate of renal events increased with declining estimated GFRs, the adverse outcomes were predominantly cardiovascular. Below 81.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2...

  14. CMR of microvascular obstruction and hemorrhage in myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Katherine C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microvascular obstruction (MO or no-reflow phenomenon is an established complication of coronary reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction. It is increasingly recognized as a poor prognostic indicator and marker of subsequent adverse LV remodeling. Although MO can be assessed using various imaging modalities including electrocardiography, myocardial contrast echocardiography, nuclear scintigraphy, and coronary angiography, evaluation by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is particularly useful in enhancing its detection, diagnosis, and quantification, as well as following its subsequent effects on infarct evolution and healing. MO assessment has become a routine component of the CMR evaluation of acute myocardial infarction and will increasingly play a role in clinical trials of adjunctive reperfusion agents and strategies. This review will summarize the pathophysiology of MO, current CMR approaches to diagnosis, clinical implications, and future directions needed for improving our understanding of this common clinical problem.

  15. Contemporary management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Arun; Sumaya, Wael; Gunn, Julian P; Morton, Allison C; Storey, Robert F

    2012-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United States, approximately 1 of every 6 deaths in 2007 was caused by coronary heart disease. Clinical presentation in the acute setting is mostly due to atherosclerotic plaque rupture leading to flow limitation in the affected vessel, and myocardial ischemia and infarction. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction is usually associated with complete occlusion of the coronary artery and carries the worst prognosis in terms of in-hospital mortality. Despite various advances in treatment options, including percutaneous coronary intervention, ischemic heart disease still carries a significant morbidity and mortality. In this article, we aim to provide a summary of a few key advances in the management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

  16. Air Pollution Exposure—A Trigger for Myocardial Infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Berglind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The association between ambient air pollution exposure and hospitalization for cardiovascular events has been reported in several studies with conflicting results. A case-crossover design was used to investigate the effects of air pollution in 660 first-time myocardial infarction cases in Stockholm in 1993–1994, interviewed shortly after diagnosis using a standard protocol. Air pollution data came from central urban background monitors. No associations were observed between the risk for onset of myocardial infarction and two-hour or 24-hour air pollution exposure. No evidence of susceptible subgroups was found. This study provides no support that moderately elevated air pollution levels trigger first-time myocardial infarction.

  17. The incomplete bucindolol evaluation in acute myocardial infarction Trial (BEAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Ball, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding the beta-blocker bucindolol to standard therapy shortly after a myocardial infarction in a high-risk population with reduced left ventricular function. METHODS: The study was planned to include 2000 patients with an enzyme confirmed...... myocardial infarction and severely reduced left ventricular function determined by echocardiography (corresponding to ejection fraction ... of bucindolol 0.88 (95% confidence limits 0.5-1.5; P=0.6). There were 9/4 (bucindolol/placebo, P=0.16) heart failure events and 5/17 (P=0.01) reinfarctions in the bucindolol/placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Due to early closure it is unknown whether bucindolol changes mortality in high-risk post myocardial infarct...

  18. Circulating PCSK9 and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars E. Laugsand, MD, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of circulating proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9 as a risk marker of coronary heart disease in the general population remains unclear. In a nested case-control study in Norway, 1,488 incident myocardial infarctions were registered during 11.3 years of follow-up and compared with 3,819 controls. Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of PCSK9, myocardial infarction risk was 47% higher in the highest quartile after adjustment for age and sex. After additional adjustment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the association was strongly attenuated. Thus, circulating PCSK9 does not contribute useful information in the assessment of myocardial infarction risk in the general population beyond the information provided by lipid measurements.

  19. Predictors of fatal outcome in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Kayani, Azhar M; Qureshi, Omarah; Mughal, Muhammad Mujahid

    2008-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is one of the most common life threatening diagnoses in emergency hospital admissions. Most of the complications occur during the first few hours while the patients are likely to be in the hospital. Although the mortality rate after admission for myocardial infarction has declined significantly over the last two decades but it still remains high. Survival is markedly influenced by age of the patient, presence of different risk factors and complications that patients develop after myocardial infarction. We conducted a study at Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC/NIHD) to document the predictors of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patients with first acute myocardial infarction admitted to the hospital from Feb. 2007 to June 2007 were included in the study. It was a descriptive case series study and data was collected on a pre-designed proforma with convenient sampling technique. Patients were assessed clinically with special emphasis on history of typical chest pain and physical examination. Relevant investigations were carried out to establish the diagnosis. Two hundred and fifty cases were assessed. Mean age was 57.94-14.00 years. Males were 74.4% and Females were 25.6%. Overall in-hospital mortality was 9.2%. Females had a higher mortality (14.06%) as compared to males (7.52%). Mortality was also related with age of the patient and Diabetes Mellitus. Other features adversely affecting the in-hospital mortality included higher Killip class, anterior wall myocardial infarction and higher peak Creatine Kinase (CK) levels. Mortality was also higher in patients who did not receive thrombolytic therapy for different reasons. Patients with certain risk factors are more prone to develop complications and have a higher mortality rate. Identification of some of these risk factors and timely management of complications may reduce mortality.

  20. Sequential thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy after acute infarction in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.W.; Mueller, H.S.; Rao, P.S.

    1980-07-01

    Three sequential Tl-201 myocardial perfusion studies were performed in 21 patients (18 men, 3 women) with first acute transmural myocardia infarction. The Tl-201 image defect size was determined with a semiquantitative visual scoring method and temporal changes in image defect size were compared to CK-MB infarct size and enzymatic evidence of progressive myocardial necrosis and infarct extension. Progressive decreases in Tl-201 image defect size were observed and the visual score in all 21 patients decreased significantly from 6.5 +- 3.7 (mean +- SD) on day 1 to 4.9 +- 3.5 on day 12. Eleven patients without evidence of infarct extension had significantly lower infarct size, a significant decrease in visual score by the 12th day and had significantly smaller Tl-201 defects at all three study times compared to 10 patients with infarct extension. Seven of 10 (70%) with extension had an initial visual score greater than or equal to 7 compared to only 2/11 (18%) without extension. The temporal behavior of Tl-201 image defects is related to the size of the infarction and presence or absence of extension. Sequential studies comparing early initial and subsequent defect size may assist in evaluating the behavior of ischemic and infarcted myocardium in the postinfarction period.

  1. Thrombolysis significantly reduces transient myocardial ischaemia following first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate whether thrombolysis affects residual myocardial ischaemia, we prospectively performed a predischarge maximal exercise test and early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST segment monitoring in 123 consecutive men surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Seventy...... less than 0.02). Thrombolysis resulted in a non-significant reduction in exercise-induced ST segment depression: prevalence 43% vs 62% in controls. However, during ambulatory monitoring the duration of transient myocardial ischaemia was significantly reduced in thrombolysed patients: 322 min vs 1144...... myocardial ischaemia. This may explain the improvement in myocardial function during physical activities, which was also observed in this study....

  2. Prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia after first acute myocardial infarction: five year follow up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the five year prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia on ambulatory monitoring after a first acute myocardial infarction, and to compare the diagnostic and long term prognostic value of ambulatory ST segment monitoring, maximal exercise testing, and echocard...

  3. Value of the Doppler index of myocardial performance in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Tei, C

    2000-01-01

    Prospective assessment of a nongeometric Doppler-derived index of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial performance was performed in 64 patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) within 1 hour after their arrival to the hospital and in 39 age-matched healthy subjects. The index is defined...

  4. ST segment elevations: Always a marker of acute myocardial infarction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Coppola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is one of the chief presenting complaints among patients attending Emergency department. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction may be a challenge. Various tools such as anamnesis, blood sample (with evaluation of markers of myocardial necrosis, ultrasound techniques and coronary computed tomography could be useful. However, the interpretation of electrocardiograms of these patients may be a real concern. The earliest manifestations of myocardial ischemia typically interest T waves and ST segment. Despite the high sensitivity, ST segment deviation has however poor specificity since it may be observed in many other cardiac and non-cardiac conditions. Therefore, when ST–T abnormalities are detected the physicians should take into account many other parameters (such as risk factors, symptoms and anamnesis and all the other differential diagnoses. The aim of our review is to overview of the main conditions that may mimic a ST segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI.

  5. Intracoronary and systemic melatonin to patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halladin, Natalie L; Busch, Sarah Ekeløf; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ischaemia-reperfusion injury following acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) is an unavoidable consequence of the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) procedure. A pivotal mechanism in ischaemia-reperfusion injury is the production of reactive oxygen species following...... following pPCI in patients with AMI. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The IMPACT trial is a multicentre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. We wish to include 2 × 20 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarctions undergoing pPCI within six hours from symptom onset. The primary end......-point is the Myocardial Salvage Index assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging on day 4 (± 1) after pPCI. The secondary end-points are high-sensitivity troponin, creatinekinase myocardial band and clinical events. CONCLUSION: The aim of the IMPACT trial is to evaluate the effect of melatonin on reperfusion...

  6. Spatial analysis of myocardial infarction in Iran: National report from the Iranian myocardial infarction registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarction (MI is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Iran. No spatial analysis of MI has been conducted to date. The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of MI incidence and to identify the associated factors in Iran by province. Materials and Methods: This study has two parts. One part is prospective and hospital-based, and the other part is an ecological study. In this study, the data of 20,750 new MI cases registered in Iranian Myocardial Infarction Registry in 2012 were used. For spatial analysis in global and local, spatial autocorrelation, Moran′s I, Getis-Ord, and logistic regression models were used. Data were analyzed by Stata software and ArcGIS 9.3. Results: Based on autocorrelation coefficient, a specific pattern was observed in the distribution of MI incidence in different provinces (Moran′s I: 0.75, P < 0.001. Spatial pattern of incidence was approximately the same in men and women. MI incidence was clustering in six provinces (North Khorasan, Yazd, Kerman, Semnan, Golestan, and Mazandaran. Out of the associated factors with clustered MI in six provinces, temperature, humidity, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI could be mentioned. Hypertension, smoking, and BMI contributed to clustering with, respectively, 2.36, 1.31, and 1.31 odds ratio. Conclusion: Addressing the place-based pattern of incidence and clarifying their epidemiologic dimension, including spatial analysis, has not yet been implemented in Iran. Report on MI incidence rate by place and formal borders is useful and is used in the planning and prioritization in different levels of health system.

  7. Prehospital identification of acute coronary syndrome/myocardial infarction in relation to ST elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Leif; Axelsson, Christer; Nordlander, Rolf; Herlitz, Johan

    2005-02-15

    To evaluate factors that identify patients with an acute coronary syndrome/myocardial infarction prior to hospital admission among patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome who were transported by ambulance with and without ST elevation on the ambulance electrocardiogram (ECG). This was a prospective observational study in the part of Stockholm that is served by South Hospital ambulance organisation and the Municipality of Goteborg. All the patients who called for an ambulance due to acute chest pain or other symptoms raising the suspicion of an acute coronary syndrome took part. Immediately after the arrival of the ambulance, a blood sample was drawn for the analysis of serum myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK) MB and troponin I. A 12-lead ECG was simultaneously recorded. Further factors that were taken into consideration were age, gender, history of cardiovascular disease, symptoms and clinical findings. In patients with ST elevation in prehospital ECG, the likelihood of an acute myocardial infarction increased if there were simultaneous ST depression in other leads (OR 3.94, 95% CL 1.26-12.38). For patients without an ST elevation, the likelihood of an acute myocardial infarction increased if there were: elevation of any biochemical marker OR 2.96, 95% CL 1.32-6.64; ST depression (OR 2.54, 95% CL 1.43-4.51), T-inversion (OR 2.22, 95% CL 1.10-4.48), male gender (OR 2.21, 95% CL 1.24-3.93) and increasing age (OR 1.04, 95% CL 1.01-1.06). Among patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome, factors that increased the likelihood for an ongoing acute myocardial infarction could already be defined prior to hospital admission. For those with an ST elevation, factors were found in ECG pattern. For those without an ST elevation, such factors were found in elevation of biochemical markers, admission ECG, male gender and increasing age.

  8. Pseudo-dissection of ascending aorta in inferior myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grahame K. Goode

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic dissection is a cardiac emergency which can present as inferior myocardial infarction. It has high morbidity and mortality requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment. Rapid advances in noninvasive imaging modalities have facilitated the early diagnosis of this condition and in ruling out this potentially catastrophic illness. We report an interesting case of a 57 year- old -man who presented with inferior myocardial infarction requiring thrombolysis and temporary pacing wire for complete heart block. An echocardiogram was highly suspicious of aortic dissection. CT scan confirmed that the malposition of the temporary pacing wire through the aorta mimicked aortic dissection.

  9. Patient delay in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christel Ga; Laut, Kristina G; Jensen, Lisette O

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To improve treatment success of ST-elevation myocardial infarction, a minimal delay from symptom onset to reperfusion therapy is crucial. The patient's response to initial symptoms (patient delay) substantially affects the delay. We investigated time patterns of patient delay...... during a seven-year time period, and aimed to identify key predictors that affect the length of the patient delay. METHODS: Data on 5848 patients hospitalized with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and treated with primary percutaneous intervention during the period 2003-2009 were obtained from Danish...

  10. Postoperative myocardial infarction in an orthognatic jaw surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Marques, F; Montenegro Sá, F; Lapa, T; Simões, I

    2017-11-01

    Cardiovascular complications, in particular perioperative myocardial infarctions, are central contributors to morbidity and mortality after non-cardiac surgery. We present a case of a 41-year-old male, smoker and dyslipidemic, who underwent bimaxillary orthognathic jaw surgery with the development of an acute coronary syndrome in the immediate postoperative period. We managed to early diagnose the myocardial infarction and promptly performed a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, resulting in a positive outcome. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal myocardial infarction: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Sutton, Nicole; Weinstein, Samuel; Menegus, Mark; Spindola-Franco, Hugo; Pass, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial infarction in a neonate is rare. We describe the case of a full-term male who presented with respiratory distress. A chest radiograph demonstrated cardiomegaly. An electrocardiogram revealed ST segment changes suggestive of ischemia. Cardiac enzymes were elevated and an echocardiogram revealed a regional wall motion abnormality. Cardiac catheterization was performed demonstrating occlusion of the ramus intermedius branch of the left main coronary artery. The patient decompensated, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The infant was able to be decannulated from ECMO support in 5 days and was ultimately discharged on hospital day 25. We review this case as well as the literature on neonatal myocardial infarction. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Silent ischemia and severity of pain in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F E; Nielsen, S L; Knudsen, F

    1991-01-01

    An overall low tendency to complain of pain, due to a low perception of pain, has been suggested in the pathogenesis of silent ischemia, independent of the extent of the diseased coronaries and a history of previous acute myocardial infarction. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly...... in this retrospective study by comparison of the use of analgesics during admission for a first acute myocardial infarction with the occurrence of silent ischemia at exertion tests four weeks after discharge from hospital. The study did not show a lower use of analgesics in patients with silent ischemia, but this may...

  13. Challenges in secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Corrà, Ugo; Dendale, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, each year more than 7 million people experience myocardial infarction, in which one-year mortality rates are now in the range of 10%, but vary with patient characteristics. The consequences are even more dramatic: among patients who survive, 20% suffer a second cardiovascular event...... in the first year and approximately 50% of major coronary events occur in those with a previous hospital discharge diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease. The people behind these numbers spur this call for action. Prevention after myocardial infarction is crucial to reduce risk and suffering. Evidence...

  14. Challenges in secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Corrà, Ugo; Dendale, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, each year more than 7 million people experience myocardial infarction, in which one-year mortality rates are now in the range of 10%, but vary with patient characteristics. The consequences are even more dramatic: among patients who survive, 20% suffer a second cardiovascular event...... in the first year and approximately 50% of major coronary events occur in those with a previous hospital discharge diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease. The people behind these numbers spur this call for action. Prevention after myocardial infarction is crucial to reduce risk and suffering. Evidence...

  15. 3D cardiac wall thickening assessment for acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A.; Chan, B. T.; Lim, E.; Liew, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most severe form of coronary artery disease leading to localized myocardial injury and therefore irregularities in the cardiac wall contractility. Studies have found very limited differences in global indices (such as ejection fraction, myocardial mass and volume) between healthy subjects and AMI patients, and therefore suggested regional assessment. Regional index, specifically cardiac wall thickness (WT) and thickening is closely related to cardiac function and could reveal regional abnormality due to AMI. In this study, we developed a 3D wall thickening assessment method to identify regional wall contractility dysfunction due to localized myocardial injury from infarction. Wall thickness and thickening were assessed from 3D personalized cardiac models reconstructed from cine MRI images by fitting inscribed sphere between endocardial and epicardial wall. The thickening analysis was performed in 5 patients and 3 healthy subjects and the results were compared against the gold standard 2D late-gadolinium-enhanced (LGE) images for infarct localization. The notable finding of this study is the highly accurate estimation and visual representation of the infarct size and location in 3D. This study provides clinicians with an intuitive way to visually and qualitatively assess regional cardiac wall dysfunction due to infarction in AMI patients.

  16. System delay and timing of intervention in acute myocardial infarction (from the Danish Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 [DANAMI-2] trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Haubjerg; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Nielsen, Torsten Toftegård

    2011-01-01

    The interval from the first alert of the healthcare system to the initiation of reperfusion therapy (system delay) is associated with mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). The importance of system delay...... in patients treated with fibrinolysis versus pPCI has not been assessed. We obtained data on system delay from the Danish Acute Myocardial Infarction-2 study, which randomized 1,572 patients to fibrinolysis or pPCI. The study end points were 30-day and 8-year mortality. The short system delays were associated...... 30-day and 8-year mortality as fibrinolysis within 1 to 2 hours. In conclusion, short system delays are associated with reduced mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with fibrinolysis as well as pPCI. pPCI performed with a system delay of...

  17. A rare case of myocardial infarction by myocardial bridging of circumflex artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, F; Di Sabatino, D; Ricci, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, S

    Myocardial Bridging (MB) is a benign condition that may be considered as a possible cause of ischaemic cardiopathy up to myocardial infarction. The authors describe the autopsy case of an MB of circumflex artery in a person with a myocardial infarction of the posterior wall of the left ventricle. In this case, the chronic ischemic heart disease can be explained by the congenital anomaly and in the literature there is scientific evidence to support the thesis. The MB is a benign condition that in combination with other risk factors can cause ischemic heart disease.

  18. Myocardial infarction: A critical role of macrophages in cardiac remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eWeinberger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease is a common condition and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Macrophages, besides their role in host defense and tissue homeostasis, are critical players in the pathophysiological processes induced by myocardial infarction. In this article we will summarize the current understanding of the role of monocytes and macrophages in myocardial damage and cardiac remodeling in relation to their origin and developmental paths. Furthermore, we describe their potential implications in therapeutic strategies to modulate myocardial healing and regeneration.

  19. Acute myocardial infarction and renal failure following naphtha ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, R J; Crippen, D R; Jayadevappa, D; Kosek, T L

    2001-10-01

    We present a case of a non-Q wave myocardial infarction and acute renal failure following an ingestion of naphtha, a petroleum distillate composed primarily of hydrocarbons. The patient's renal, metabolic, and cardiac status improved over several days with aggressive volume replacement and bicarbonate therapy. Acute cardiotoxic effects of hydrocarbon exposure generally manifest as dysrhythmias, secondary to myocardial sensitization to circulating catecholamines, or, possibly, coronary vasospasm. Ischemia from associated hypotension or direct myocardial toxicity are other potential causes of naphtha-related cardiac injury.

  20. Sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Hee; Park, Tai Que; Chae, Yoo Soon; Kim, Yang Sook [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    To assess the difference of the diagnostic sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-Pyrophosphate (PYP) myocardial scintigraphy in acute transmural infarction and acute subendocardial infarction, we analyzed 38 patients with a confirmed transmural infarct, 10 with a subendocardial infarct, 2 with old myocardial infarct, and 10 with other cardiovascular disease (2 unstable angina, 6 stable angina, 1 Prinzmetal angina, and 1 atrial fibrillation) according to Berman's criteria for scintigraphic assessment and then come to conclusion; When only focal myocardial uptake wa used as a criteria for positivity, the diagnostic sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-PYP scintigraphy in acute subendocardial myocardial infarction was only 40% (4/10) compared with 86.8% (33/38) of acute transmural myocardial infarction. There was no case that was interpreted as focal myocardial uptake in 2 old myocardial infarction and 10 other cardiovascular disease. The incidence of complication was higher in doughnut pattern of myocardial uptake 50% (3/6) than in non-doughnut focal patterns 19.4% (6/31). It is concluded that focal myocardial uptake is a sensitive indicator suggesting acute myocardial necrosis and that {sup 99m}Tc-PYP myocardial scintigraphy is a sensitive technique for diagnosing acute transmural myocardial infarction, but a insensitive method in acute subendocardial infarction, and that the doughnut pattern of myocardial uptake an provide clues to the patient's future course.

  1. Type 2 myocardial infarction due to supply-demand mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihatov, Nino; Januzzi, James L; Gaggin, Hanna K

    2017-08-01

    The best-accepted definition of myocardial infarction (MI) is provided by statements from the Universal Definition of MI Global Task force. This article, now in its third iteration, defines MI as myocardial cell death due to prolonged myocardial ischemia. It further delineates an increasingly incident subclassification of MI known as type 2 MI (T2MI). T2MI identifies instances of myocardial necrosis in which an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and/or demand occurs for reasons other than atherosclerotic plaque disruption. While associated with considerable risk (comparable to that of type 1 MI, which has well-defined management strategies), the spectrum of potential etiologies for T2MI makes development of precise diagnostic criteria and therapeutic implications of the diagnosis challenging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Induced pluripotent stem cells for post myocardial infarction repair

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Fernández, Eduardo de la

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to study translational aspects of induced pluripotent stem cell technology in cardiac repair after myocardial infarction. This will be achieved by illustrating the current state of the art of this technology and, furthermore, by evaluating the limitations for clinical traslation.

  3. Discharge Policy and Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Vlugt (Maureen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) has improved over time and the duration of hospital stay has considerably decreased. Early hospital discharge after MI has been promoted for over 25 years. However, the meaning of “early” evolved over time. In the early

  4. Public Reporting in ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Michael C; Rab, S Tanveer

    2016-10-01

    Public reporting provides transparency and improved quality of care. However, methods in estimating risk adjusted mortality in ST-segment myocardial infarction, particularly in cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest are contentious. There are concerns that this has resulted in risk-averse behavior in publicly reporting states, resulting in suboptimal care in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. a cause of repeated myocardial infarction and symptomatic 'torsade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiac Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, Univer- sity of Stellenboscb and ... anterolateral acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Clinical exa- mination ... He was an exceptionally well-built, tall man with no evidence of hypertension or valvular heart disease. A chest radiograph was. NO ANGINA. SEvERE ANGINA. Fig. 3.

  6. Acute myocardial infarction treatment : from prehospital care to secondary prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atary, Jael Z.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality in the western World, but significant improvements have been made in its treatment and prevention. This thesis shows that consistent implementation of a structured regional treatment and prevention program for acute myocardial infarction

  7. Prehospital thrombolysis for acute st-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamfers, Evert Jan Pieter

    2003-01-01

    Early treatment of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction is associated with a good prognosis and a low incidence of complications. Prehospital administration of thrombolytic treatment is one of the ways of starting treatment early after onset of symptoms. Fifteen years of experience in

  8. The inflammatory response in myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These are two cardiac diseases in which inflammation of the cardiac muscle occurs. In myocarditis, inflammation results in the elimination of a viral infection of the heart. During AMI, one of the coronary arteries is occluded,

  9. High Tension Electric Current Injury and Silent Myocardial Infarction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 55-year-old male, non-diabetic, sustained severe electric current injury as evidenced by the grievous exit wound on the left dorsum of foot as well as entry wound in both palms. There was silent anterior wall myocardial infarction, discovered from incidental electrocardiograph. Keywords: Electric current injury, grievous exit ...

  10. Acute myocardial infarction in middle-aged male Nigerian with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of an acute myocardial infarction in a 64-year-old man with background pemphigus vulgaris and long term dapsone and oral corticosteroid therapy. Pemphigus is an uncommon autoimmune blistering disease, mediated by antibodies directed against desmosomal adhesion proteins that are responsible ...

  11. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Peloso, Gina M; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2012-01-01

    High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes...

  12. Spousal depression, anxiety, and suicide after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup; Peterson, Eric D; Weeke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    AimsDeath of a spouse from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) presents hardship, yet few studies have investigated the psychological consequences of fatal and non-fatal AMI on spouses.Methods and resultsSeveral Danish national registries were linked to identify individuals whose spouses had a fatal...

  13. Recurrent myocardial infarction in a young cocaine abuser | Stiha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cocaine increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction. We herein describe a case of a 22-year-old man with a long history of cocaine abuse. He presented at our institution because of acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation. Emergency coronary angiography revealed ostial ...

  14. Thrombolysis in acute myocardial infarction : factors determining its efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brügemann, Johannes

    1994-01-01

    Insight in the mechanisms leading to acute myocardial infarction (MI) has resulted in the administration of exogenous plasminogen activator, later called thrombolytic therapy. This treatment was associated with a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity. However, success has not always been

  15. Stem Cell Therapy for Myocardial Infarction: Are We Missing Time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, Kasper W.

    2010-01-01

    The success of stem cell therapy in myocardial infarction (MI) is modest, and for stem cell therapy to be clinically effective fine-tuning in regard to timing, dosing, and the route of administration is required. Experimental studies suggest the existence of a temporal window of opportunity bound by

  16. Beta-Blocker Therapy Early After Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Bendesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beta-blocker (BB) therapy after myocardial infarction (MI) reduces all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate BB dosing patterns and compliance following MI. METHODS: Using medical patient files and nationwide databases, we identified 100 patients who wer...

  17. Mannose-Binding Lectin Deficiency Is Associated with Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vengen, Inga Thorsen; Madsen, Hans O; Garred, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins activate the complement cascade, which is involved in atherogenesis. Based on a pilot study, we hypothesized that functional polymorphisms in the MBL gene (MBL2) leading to dysfunctional protein are related to development of myocardial infarction (MI...

  18. Myocardial Infarction in a Premenopausal Woman on Leuprolide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving E. Perez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Premenopausal women with chest pain syndrome may have nonatherosclerotic coronary arteries with abnormal coronary flow. Estrogens have cardioprotective effect improving coronary vasodilatation. This case report discusses the consequences of leuprolide use by decreasing estrogen levels which led to acute myocardial infarction.

  19. Myocardial Infarction in a Premenopausal Woman on Leuprolide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Irving E; Menegus, Mark A; Taub, Cynthia C

    2015-01-01

    Premenopausal women with chest pain syndrome may have nonatherosclerotic coronary arteries with abnormal coronary flow. Estrogens have cardioprotective effect improving coronary vasodilatation. This case report discusses the consequences of leuprolide use by decreasing estrogen levels which led to acute myocardial infarction.

  20. Left ventricular global longitudinal strain in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersbøll, Mads

    Systolic dysfunction, clinical heart failure and elevated levels of neurohormonal peptides are major predictors of adverse outcome after acute myocardial infarction (MI). In the present thesis we evaluated global longitudinal strain (GLS) in patients with acute MI in relation to neurohormonal...

  1. Clinical features of acute myocardial infarction: A report from Halibet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) still remains a major reason for ICU admission although mortality from Coronary heart disease (CHD) has declined steadily in the western world 1. The average incidence of AMI in these societies is 3.5 per 1000 for males and. 1 per 1000 for females aged 20 to 64 years 2.

  2. Depressed natural killer cell activity in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, K; Pedersen, B K; Theander, T G

    1987-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell activity against K562 target cells was measured in patients within 24 h of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and regularly thereafter for 6 weeks. NK cell activity was suppressed on days 1, 3, and 7 (P less than 0.01), day 14 (P less than 0.05) and at 6 weeks (P = 0...

  3. Thrombolytic therapy preserves vagal activity early after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, P; Hintze, U; Møller, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thrombolytic therapy on vagal tone after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN: Holter monitoring for 24 h was performed at hospital discharge and 6 weeks after AMI in 74 consecutive male survivors of a first AMI, who fulfilled...

  4. Frequency and Pattern of Acute Myocardial Infarction in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute myocardial infarction has been regarded as one of the rarest cardiovascular diseases in the African continent. Recent findings have shown that the incidence is on the increase. To provide more information on the burden of this deadly disease in Nigeria and in the West African sub –region. This study is a 10 - year ...

  5. Mortality after acute myocardial infarction according to income and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Rasmussen, Søren; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how income and educational level influence mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective analysis using individual level linkage of registries in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All patients 30-74 years old hospitalised for the first time with AMI...

  6. Posterior myocardial infarction: the dark side of the moon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorselen, E.O. van; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Meursing, B.T.J.; Oude Ophuis, A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The clinical presentation of posterior myocardial infarction is not always easy, not even for the cardiologist. In this article a 70-year-old woman who presented with chest pain is described. The electrocardiogram at presentation showed marked ST-segment depression in leads V(1) to V(5) and slight

  7. Myocardial infarction & sudden death in recreational master marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Suzanne Elizabeth; Coviello, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    This review of the current literature on myocardial infarction and sudden death in recreational master marathon runners aims to help raise awareness of the scope of the problem to primary care providers, and to provide guidelines for educating and screening in recreational master marathon runners.

  8. Vascular Function and Structure in Veteran Athletes after Myocardial Infarction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, M.F.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Grotens, A.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although athletes demonstrate lower cardiovascular risk and superior vascular function compared with sedentary peers, they are not exempted from cardiac events (i.e., myocardial infarction [MI]). The presence of an MI is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and impaired vascular

  9. The importance of β2-agonists in myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Rasmus; Fosbøl, Emil L; Mogensen, Ulrik M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: β2-Agonists are widely used for relief of respiratory symptoms. Studies so far have reported conflicting results regarding use of β2-agonists and risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Yet, coronary angiographical data and longitudinal outcomes data are sparse and could help explain...

  10. Is there any difference between the early age myocardial infarction and late age myocardial infarction in terms of psychiatric morbidity in patients who have survived acute myocardial infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Avci, Ahmet; Demir, Kenan; Uygur, Ömer Faruk

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to compare the rates of psychiatric morbidity in patients who had early age and late age MI in patients who have survived acute myocardial infarction? One hundred sixteen patients who were hospitalized in the coronary care unit were included in the study. Psychiatric assessment of the patients was carried out within 1-6months post-MI. Psychiatric interviews were conducted with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I). Also used were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI). A total of 116 patients were divided into two groups according to age as an early age myocardial infarction group (EA-MI) and a late age myocardial infarction group (LA-MI). The EA-MI group included 24 patients 45years of age and under. The LA-MI group included 92 patients over 45years of age. Current psychiatric disorders, lifetime psychiatric disorders and lifetime depressive disorders were significantly more frequent in the EA-MI group than in the LA-MI group. EA-MI patients have experienced a depressive episode prior to the onset of the MI, whereas in the LA-MI group, the patients typically experienced depressive episodes after MI. Our findings suggest that depression may increase the risk of MI at an early age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systemic inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu FANG Xiao-Lei Moorea Anthony M Dart Le-Min WANG

    2015-01-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response...

  12. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  13. [Bradyarrhythmias in the acute phase of myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroto Montero, J M; Lemus, J M; Marín-Huerta, E; Gorodezky, M; Cárdenas, M

    1975-01-01

    The functioning of the Intensive Care Units has permitted a better study and treatment of the arrhythmias which complicate the acute phase of myocardial infarction. 1,100 charts of patients admitted to the Coronary Unit of the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico were reviewed. Acute myocardial infarction was demonstrated in 819 of them by the usual methods. The frequency and characteristics of the following bradiarrhythmias were studied: sinus bradicardia, sinus stoppage, seno-atrial block, migration of the atrial pacing, union rhythm and slow ventricular tachycardia. Sinus bradicardia was presented in 23.7% of the infarctions, sinus stoppage in 2.4%, migration of the atrial pacing in 9.4%, nodal rhythm in 7.2% and slow ventricular tachycardia in 7.8%. Bradiarrhythmias, generally considered as "lesser" arrhythmias, favor the appearance of lethal arrhythmias, regardless of the degree of mechanical failure, and thus should be treated actively.

  14. [Readaptation to work after myocardial infarction: model considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turczyn-Jabłońska, Katarzyna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    In Poland only 50-60% of persons who have experienced myocardial infarction return to work. Bearing in mind that psychophysical condition changes after such an event, this group of people has to be readapted to work. Factors that determine good work performance among post-infarction workers have been not yet investigated. The aim of our study is to identify those factors and to define their role in the readaptation process. The first stage of our project involved the development of a theoretical model of readaptation to work after myocardial infarction. This model is described in this paper. It comprises the following components: medical evaluation of the workers' health status, his or her subjective assessment of work ability, expectations (optimistic vs. pessimistic attitude), motivation to work, social support, and job characteristics.

  15. Single coronary artery presenting as acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Román, Alfonso; Sánchez-Pérez, Ignacio; Lozano-Ruíz-Poveda, Fernando; Pinilla-Echeverri, Natalia; López-Lluva, María T; Moreno-Arciniegas, Andrea; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Piqueras-Flores, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    A single coronary artery is one of the most rarely seen coronary artery anomalies. In addition, the specific subtype (Lipton RII-A) that our patient presented is one of the least common, and its clinical presentation as myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest has not been described in the literature. The case shows that although it is essential to exclude a malignant interarterial course of the vessel, cardiac arrest is a possible clinical presentation produced by myocardial ischemia in the context of acute myocardial infarction and should be managed according to clinical practice guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology and genetics of ventricular fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Sattler, Stefan; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    of a family member is a risk factor for SCD and VF during acute myocardial infarction (MI), independent of traditional risk factors including family history of MI, suggesting a genetic component in the susceptibility to VF. To prevent SCD and VF due to MI, we need a better understanding of the genetic...... infarction, myocardial ischemia", "coronary artery disease", and "genetics". This review describes the epidemiology and evidence for genetic susceptibility to VF due to MI....... several genetic variants, both common and rare variants, have been associated to either VF or SCD. For this review, we searched PubMed for potentially relevant articles, using the following MeSH-terms: "sudden cardiac death", "ventricular fibrillation", "out-of-hospital cardiac arrest", "myocardial...

  17. Regional left ventricular myocardial contractility and stress in a finite element model of posterobasal myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Jonathan F; Sun, Kay; Zhang, Zhihong; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Ge, Liang; Saloner, David; Wallace, Arthur W; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Guccione, Julius M

    2011-04-01

    Recently, a noninvasive method for determining regional myocardial contractility, using an animal-specific finite element (FE) model-based optimization, was developed to study a sheep with anteroapical infarction (Sun et al., 2009, "A Computationally Efficient Formal Optimization of Regional Myocardial Contractility in a Sheep With Left Ventricular Aneurysm," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(11), p. 111001). Using the methodology developed in the previous study (Sun et al., 2009, "A Computationally Efficient Formal Optimization of Regional Myocardial Contractility in a Sheep With Left Ventricular Aneurysm," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(11), p. 111001), which incorporates tagged magnetic resonance images, three-dimensional myocardial strains, left ventricular (LV) volumes, and LV cardiac catheterization pressures, the regional myocardial contractility and stress distribution of a sheep with posterobasal infarction were investigated. Active material parameters in the noninfarcted border zone (BZ) myocardium adjacent to the infarct (T(max_B)), in the myocardium remote from the infarct (T(max_R)), and in the infarct (T(max_I)) were estimated by minimizing the errors between FE model-predicted and experimentally measured systolic strains and LV volumes using the previously developed optimization scheme. The optimized T(max_B) was found to be significantly depressed relative to T(max_R), while T(max_I) was found to be zero. The myofiber stress in the BZ was found to be elevated, relative to the remote region. This could cause further damage to the contracting myocytes, leading to heart failure.

  18. Hesperidin supplementation modulates inflammatory responses following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, F; Heybar, H; Jalali, M T; Ahmadi Engali, K; Helli, B; Shirbeigi, E

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of studies have suggested a crucial role for a variety of inflammatory mediators in myocardial infarction. Recently, several flavonoids have been shown to have cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hesperidin-a common constituent of citrus fruits-on the serum levels of inflammatory markers and adipocytocines in patients with myocardial infarction. Seventy-five patients with myocardial infarction were participated in this randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial and were assigned to 2 intervention and control groups. Subjects consumed 600 mg/d pure hesperidin supplement and placebo in the intervention and control groups, respectively, for 4 weeks. Serum concentrations of inflammatory markers and adipocytocines were measured at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Consumption of 600 mg/day hesperidin significantly decreased the serum levels of E-selectin and increased adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations in patients with myocardial infarction. The improvement in other inflammatory markers, such as interleukin (IL)-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leptin, and other lipid profile was also observed at the end of the intervention, compared to the baseline values, but the difference between the hesperidin and placebo groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Hesperidin supplementation could compensate for decreased levels of adiponectin and HDL-C and increased levels of E-selectin in patients with myocardial infarction. These results support the concept that certain flavonoids in the diet can be associated with significant health benefits, including heart health.

  19. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Myocardial Infarction, Myocardial Injury, and Nonelevated Troponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkisian, Laura; Saaby, Lotte; Poulsen, Tina S

    2015-01-01

    was diagnosed in cases of a cardiac troponin I increase or decrease pattern with at least 1 value >30 ng/L (99th percentile) together with myocardial ischemia. Myocardial injury was defined as cardiac troponin I values >30 ng/L, but without signs or symptoms indicating overt cardiac ischemia. Patients with peak...... troponin value is encountered in the absence of obvious myocardial ischemia, a careful search for other clinical conditions is crucial. METHODS: In 2010 to 2011, we prospectively studied hospitalized patients who had cardiac troponin I measured on clinical indication. An acute myocardial infarction...

  20. Myocardial T1 mapping: application to patients with acute and chronic myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messroghli, Daniel R; Walters, Kevin; Plein, Sven; Sparrow, Patrick; Friedrich, Matthias G; Ridgway, John P; Sivananthan, Mohan U

    2007-07-01

    T(1) maps obtained with modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) can be used to measure myocardial T(1). We aimed to evaluate the potential of MOLLI T(1) mapping for the assessment of acute and chronic myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 24 patients with a first MI underwent MRI within 8 days and after 6 months. T(1) mapping was performed at baseline and at selected intervals between 2-20 min following administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). Delayed-enhancement (DE) imaging served as the reference standard for delineation of the infarct zone. On T(1) maps the myocardial T(1) relaxation time was assessed in hyperenhanced areas, hypoenhanced infarct cores, and remote myocardium. The planimetric size of myocardial areas with standardized T(1) threshold values was measured. Acute and chronic MI exhibited different T(1) changes. Precontrast threshold T(1) maps detected segmental abnormalities caused by acute MI with 96% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Agreement between measurements of infarct size from T(1) mapping and DE imaging was higher in chronic than in acute infarcts. Precontrast T(1) maps enable the detection of acute MI. Acute and chronic MI show different patterns of T(1) changes. Standardized T(1) thresholds provide the potential to dichotomously identify areas of infarction. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Impact of Atrial Fibrillation During ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction on Infarct Characteristics and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstadler, Sebastian J; Stiermaier, Thomas; Eitel, Charlotte; Fuernau, Georg; Saad, Mohammed; Pöss, Janine; de Waha, Suzanne; Mende, Meinhard; Desch, Steffen; Metzler, Bernhard; Thiele, Holger; Eitel, Ingo

    2018-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently observed in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and associated with worse clinical outcome. However, the mechanisms for this increased risk are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of the presence of AF to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) derived myocardial salvage and damage as well as clinical outcomes. This multicenter CMR study enrolled 786 patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. CMR parameters (infarct size, myocardial salvage index, microvascular obstruction, and myocardial function) were assessed 3 (interquartile range [IQR], 2-4) days post-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and compared between patients with or without AF during hospitalization. Major adverse cardiac events were assessed as a composite of all-cause death, reinfarction, and new congestive heart failure at 12 months. AF was documented in 48 (6.1%) patients. There was no significant difference in infarct size (18 [IQR, 9-29]% versus 17 [IQR, 9-25]% of left ventricular mass; P=0.340), myocardial salvage index (51 [IQR, 34-69] versus 51 [IQR, 33-69]; P=0.830), or microvascular obstruction (0.6 [IQR, 0-2.0]% versus 0.0 [IQR, 0-1.8]% of left ventricular mass; P=0.340) between groups. Patients with AF had significantly lower left ventricular (47 [IQR, 34-54]% versus 51 [IQR, 44-58]%; P=0.003) and left atrial (42 [IQR, 17-57]% versus 53 [IQR, 45-59]%; PURL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00712101. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Type 2 myocardial infarction: A descriptive analysis and comparison with type 1 myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Uri; Bental, Tamir; Orvin, Katia; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Rechavia, Eldad; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Lev, Eli; Assali, Abid; Kornowski, Ran

    2016-01-01

    While 'plaque rupture' is the paradigm of type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI), T2MI is myocardial necrosis secondary to oxygen supply-demand mismatch. Being a heterogeneous and rather newly defined group, data are lacking about T2MI. A retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed with T2MI in the Rabin Cardiology Center, Israel between the years 2007 and 2012 was performed. Following a descriptive analysis, we used multivariate time dependent models to estimate the association of T2MI with the risk for 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year all-cause-mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and compared it to a T1MI group matched for age, gender and electrocardiographic changes. The study included 107 T2MI (and 107 T1MI) patients. Sepsis, anemia, and atrial fibrillation were the most common etiologies. Triple anti-thrombotic therapy was given to 22% of T2MI patients (vs. 82% of T1MI patients, p<0.001). Twenty-five percent were managed using urgent percutaneous coronary intervention. Angiography unmasked acute plaque rupture in 29% of T2MI patients group. Compared to T1MI, T2MI was associated with higher all-cause-mortality rate: adjusted-hazard-ratio 7.14 (1.31-38.9) at 30 days, 3.42 (1.51-7.75) at 1 year, and 2.08 (1.14-3.81) at 5 years follow-up. MACE risk was consistent between T2 and T1MI patients. The most common T2MI triggers are sepsis, anemia, and atrial fibrillation. Compared to a T1MI population, T2MI is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality rates but equal cardiovascular mortality and MACE risk. As many as 30% may harbor plaque rupture and in fact have T1MI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Chronic Metformin Treatment is Associated with Reduced Myocardial Infarct Size in Diabetic Patients with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexis, Chris P. H.; Wieringa, Wouter G.; Hiemstra, Bart; van Deursen, Vincent M.; Lipsic, Erik; van der Harst, Pim; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.

    Increased myocardial infarct (MI) size is associated with higher risk of developing left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure and mortality. Experimental studies have suggested that metformin treatment reduces MI size after induced ischaemia but human data is lacking. We aimed to investigate the

  4. The aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen provides new information on prognosis after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Jensen, L T; Bendixen, P M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine sequential changes in serum levels of the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen (S-PIIINP) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and to assess the value of S-PIIINP as a predictor of outcome. The study group comprised 74 patients with AMI, and 24...... patients in whom AMI was suspected but disproved. S-PIIINP changed characteristically after AMI, and in patients not receiving thrombolytic therapy or having cardiogenic shock, the changes correlated to peak enzyme values (r = 0.4, p

  5. Systematic adjudication of myocardial infarction end-points in an international clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kerry L

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical events committees (CEC are used routinely to adjudicate suspected end-points in cardiovascular trials, but little information has been published about the various processes used. We reviewed results of the CEC process used to identify and adjudicate suspected end-point (post-enrolment myocardial infarction (MI in the large Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin (Eptifibatide Therapy (PURSUIT trial. Methods The PURSUIT trial randomised 10,948 patients with acute coronary syndromes to receive eptifibatide or placebo. A central adjudication process was established prospectively to identify all suspected MIs and adjudicate events based on protocol definitions of MI. Suspected MIs were identified by systematic review of data collection forms, cardiac enzyme results, and electrocardiograms. Two physicians independently reviewed all suspected events. If they disagreed whether a MI had occurred, a committee of cardiologists adjudicated the case. Results The CEC identified 5005 patients with suspected infarction (46%, of which 1415 (28% were adjudicated as end-point infarctions. As expected, the process identified more end-point events than did the site investigators. Absolute and relative treatment effects of eptifibatide were smaller when using CEC-determined MI rates rather than site investigator-determined rates. The site-investigator reporting of MI and the CEC assessment of MI disagreed in 20% of the cases reviewed by the CEC. Conclusions End-point adjudication by a CEC is important, to provide standardised, systematic, independent, and unbiased assessment of end-points, particularly in trials that span geographic regions and clinical practice settings. Understanding the CEC process used is important in the interpretation of trial results and event rates.

  6. Exercise Training Protects Against Acute Myocardial Infarction via Improving Myocardial Energy Metabolism and Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichan Tao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise has been proved to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury However it remains unclear whether, and (if so how, exercise could protect against AMI. Methods: Mice were trained using a 3-week swimming protocol, and then subjected to left coronary artery (LCA ligation, and finally sacrificed 24 h after AMI. Myocardial infarct size was examined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Cardiac apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. Mitochondria density was checked by Mito-Tracker immunofluorescent staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions and Western blotting were used to determine genes related to apoptosis, autophagy and myocardial energy metabolism. Results: Exercise training reduces myocardial infarct size and abolishes AMI-induced autophagy and apoptosis. AMI leads to a shift from fatty acid to glucose metabolism in the myocardium with a downregulation of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. Also, AMI induces an adaptive increase of mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription in the acute phase of MI, accompanied by an activation of PGC-1α signaling. Exercise abolishes the derangement of myocardial glucose and lipid metabolism and further enhances the adaptive increase of mitochondrial biogenesis. Conclusion: Exercise training protects against AMI-induced acute cardiac injury through improving myocardial energy metabolism and enhancing the early adaptive change of mitochondrial biogenesis.

  7. Exercise Training Protects Against Acute Myocardial Infarction via Improving Myocardial Energy Metabolism and Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lichan; Bei, Yihua; Lin, Shenghui; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhou, Yanli; Jiang, Jingfa; Chen, Ping; Shen, Shutong; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise has been proved to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury However it remains unclear whether, and (if so) how, exercise could protect against AMI. Mice were trained using a 3-week swimming protocol, and then subjected to left coronary artery (LCA) ligation, and finally sacrificed 24 h after AMI. Myocardial infarct size was examined with triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Cardiac apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. Mitochondria density was checked by Mito-Tracker immunofluorescent staining. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions and Western blotting were used to determine genes related to apoptosis, autophagy and myocardial energy metabolism. Exercise training reduces myocardial infarct size and abolishes AMI-induced autophagy and apoptosis. AMI leads to a shift from fatty acid to glucose metabolism in the myocardium with a downregulation of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. Also, AMI induces an adaptive increase of mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription in the acute phase of MI, accompanied by an activation of PGC-1α signaling. Exercise abolishes the derangement of myocardial glucose and lipid metabolism and further enhances the adaptive increase of mitochondrial biogenesis. Exercise training protects against AMI-induced acute cardiac injury through improving myocardial energy metabolism and enhancing the early adaptive change of mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Computer-assisted myocardial blush quantification after percutaneous coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction : a substudy from the TAPAS trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, Mathijs; Vlaar, Pieter J.; Svilaas, Tone; Amo, Diny; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.; Zijlstra, Felix

    Myocardial reperfusion after acute myocardial infarction can be angiographically assessed by the myocardial blush grade (MBG) or TIMI Perfusion Grade. These scores are based on subjective human judgement and lead to a score of four categories. A more operator-independent way of scoring myocardial

  9. Cardiac Telocytes in Regeneration of Myocardium After Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofu, Liao; Dongqing, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Recent research progress has revealed that a novel type of interstitial cells termed cardiac telocytes (CTs) is found in the interstitium of the heart. We demonstrated that CTs are distributed both longitudinally and within the cross network in the myocardium and that the density of CTs in the atrium-atria and base of the myocardium is higher than that in the middle of the myocardium, while the density of CTs in the epicardium is higher than that in the endocardium. In addition, we documented, for the first time, that the network of CTs in the infarct zone of the myocardium is destroyed during myocardial infarction (MI). This fact shows that, in addition to the death of cardiac myocytes, the previously unrecognized death of CTs is an important mechanism that contributes to the structural damage and poor healing and regeneration observed in the infarcted myocardium. Furthermore, we demonstrated, for the first time, that transplantation of CTs in cases of MI decreases the infarct size and improves myocardial function. The mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of CT transplantation are increased angiogenesis at the infarct site and the border zone, decreased fibrosis in the infarct and non-infarct zones, improved pathological reconstruction of the left ventricle, and increased regeneration of CTs in the infarct zone. Our findings reveal that CTs can be specifically identified by the following characteristics: very small cell bodies, extreme prolongation with some dilation, predisposition to cell death under ischemia, and expression of molecular markers such as c-Kit, CD34, vimentin, and PDGFR-β. CTs act as a structural and functional niche microenvironment in the myocardium and play an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the myocardium and in the regeneration of damaged myocardium.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, U R; Jounela, A J; Pakarinen, A J; Pentikäinen, P J; Takkunen, J T

    1979-11-01

    The effects of acute myocardial infarction on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin were studied. Digoxin, 0.75 mg, was given orally to 12 patients with left-sided cardiac failure due to acute myocardial infarction and to 9 healthy control subjects. Serum concentration of digoxin in the first 4 hours and the area under the serum concentration-time curve in the first 12 hours after administration of the drug were lower in patients with infarction than in control subjects (P less than 0.01). The 24 hour area under the concentration curve, the amount excreted in urine and the renal clearance did not differ between the groups. The 24 hour area under the concentration curve correlated with the predigoxin pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and with heart rate (P less than 0.01). The decrease of renal clearance of digoxin was related to the serum activity of MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (P less than 0.001). Morphine reduced and delayed the peak serum concentrations of digoxin (P less than 0.001). Thus, the absorption of oral digoxin was slower and the peak concentrations remained lower in patients with acute myocardial infarction than in healthy control subjects. However, the total amount of digoxin absorbed was unchanged.

  11. Protein therapeutics for cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Vincent F M; Lee, Richard T

    2010-10-01

    Although most medicines have historically been small molecules, many newly approved drugs are derived from proteins. Protein therapies have been developed for treatment of diseases in almost every organ system, including the heart. Great excitement has now arisen in the field of regenerative medicine, particularly for cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction. Every year, millions of people suffer from acute myocardial infarction, but the adult mammalian myocardium has limited regeneration potential. Regeneration of the heart after myocardium infarction is therefore an exciting target for protein therapeutics. In this review, we discuss different classes of proteins that have therapeutic potential to regenerate the heart after myocardial infarction. Protein candidates have been described that induce angiogenesis, including fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors, although thus far clinical development has been disappointing. Chemotactic factors that attract stem cells, e.g., hepatocyte growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1, may also be useful. Finally, neuregulins and periostin are proteins that induce cell-cycle reentry of cardiomyocytes, and growth factors like IGF-1 can induce growth and differentiation of stem cells. As our knowledge of the biology of regenerative processes and the role of specific proteins in these processes increases, the use of proteins as regenerative drugs could develop as a cardiac therapy.

  12. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part I. Safety and feasibility of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan [State University and Academic Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Bronovo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Bronovolaan 1, P.O. Box 96900, The Hague (Netherlands); Janssen, Caroline H.C.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [State University and Academic Hospital Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Dijkman, Paul R.M. van [Bronovo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Cardiology, Bronovolaan 1, P.O. Box 96900, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate safety and feasibility of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with proven or suspected coronary artery disease. Dobutamine CMR was evaluated retrospectively in 400 consecutive patients with suspicion of myocardial ischemia. Dobutamine was infused using an incremental protocol up to 40 {mu}g/kg body weight per minute. All anti-anginal medication was stopped 4 days before the CMR study and infusion time of dobutamine was 6 min per stage. Hemodynamic data, CMR findings and side effects were reported. Patients with contraindications to CMR (metallic implants and claustrophobia) were excluded from analysis. Dobutamine CMR was successfully performed in 355 (89%) patients. Forty-five (11%) patients could not be investigated adequately because of non-cardiac side effects in 29 (7%) and cardiac side effects in 16 (4%) patients. Hypotension (1.5%) and arrhythmias (1%) were the most frequent cardiac side effects. One patient developed a severe complication (ventricular fibrillation) at the end of the study. There were no myocardial infarctions or fatal complications of the stress test. The most frequent non-cardiac side effects were nausea, vomiting and claustrophobia. Age >70 years, prior myocardial infarction and rest wall motion abnormalities showed no significant differences with side effects (P>0.05). Dobutamine CMR is safe and feasible in patients with suspicion of myocardial ischemia. (orig.)

  13. Cells involved in extracellular matrix remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Larissa Ferraz [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Mataveli, Fábio D’Aguiar [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Evaluate the effects of VEGF{sub 165} gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF{sub 165} treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF{sub 165}. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF{sub 165}, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF{sub 165} seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct.

  14. Therapeutic hypothermia to protect the heart against acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauer, Matthias; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan; Tissier, Renaud

    2016-12-01

    The cardioprotective effect of therapeutic hypothermia (32-34°C) has been well demonstrated in animal models of acute myocardial infarction. Beyond infarct size reduction, this protection was associated with prevention of the no-reflow phenomenon and long-term improvement in terms of left ventricular remodelling and performance. However, all these events were observed when hypothermia was induced during the ischaemic episode, and most benefits virtually vanished after reperfusion. This is consistent with clinical findings showing a lack of benefit from hypothermia in patients presenting acute myocardial infarction in most trials. In these studies, hypothermia was most often achieved too far into the reperfusion phase (i.e. possibly too late to reduce infarct size); this is supported by meta-analyses and subgroup analyses suggesting that the benefits of hypothermia could still be observed in patients with a large infarction and more rapid cooling before reperfusion. Novel strategies for ultra-fast induction of hypothermia and/or prehospital cooling might therefore be more beneficial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of complement membrane attack complex formation in myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Väkevä, A.; Laurila, P; Meri, S.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the complement (C) system is involved in the development of tissue injury of myocardial infarction. As it is not known why the strictly controlled C system starts to react against autologous heart tissue, we have analyzed the expression of various membrane regulators of C (CR1, DAF, MCP, CD59, C8 binding protein) and the pattern of deposition of C components and plasma C regulators (C4b binding protein and vitronectin) in normal (n = 7) and infarcted (n = 13...

  16. B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Guérin, Coralie; Vilar, José; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Mallat, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6Chi monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell–selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24037091

  17. Prehospital versus hospital fibrinolytic therapy using automated versus cardiologist electrocardiographic diagnosis of myocardial infarction: abortion of myocardial infarction and unjustified fibrinolytic therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamfers, E.J.P.; Schut, A.; Hertzberger, D.P.; Hooghoudt, T.E.H.; Stolwijk, P.W.J.; Boersma, E.; Simoons, M.L.; Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated the incidence of abortion of myocardial infarction and of unjustified fibrinolysis by using automated versus cardiologist-assisted diagnosis of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The results of prehospital diagnosis and treatment (2 cities in the

  18. [Painless anterior acute myocardial infarction in a transplanted heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyet, R; Capilla, E; Tortat, A V; Brocq, F X; Pons, F; Kerebel, S; Jego, C; Cellarier, G R

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is the major determinant of long-term survival in patients after heart transplantation. Clinical presentations are congestive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Acute coronary syndrome is a rare presentation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy due to myocardial denervation. We present the case of a 31-year-old patient, who had undergone heart transplantation 6 months earlier and who developed a painless anterior myocardial infarction revealed by syncope. He was successfully treated by percutaneous coronary intervention with drug eluting stent implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Do results from major clinical trials indicate a change in management in the acute phase of myocardial infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalmarson, A

    1987-01-01

    Since introduction of modern Coronary Care Units, hospital mortality has been reduced by about 50%. This is most likely due to a number of treatments that today are well established. Those include detection and treatment of serious arrhythmias with antiarrhythmic agents and electrical conversion, and more aggressive early treatment of congestive heart failure, of chest pain, and of atrioventricular (AV) block and bradyarrhythmias. The new goals in early management of suspected acute myocardial infarction must aim at prevention and limitation of ischemic damage. The use of beta-blockers has been widely studied. Data from 27 randomized trials with a total of about 27,000 patients have convincingly shown that early beta-blockade reduces mortality, prevents and limits infarct development and arrhythmias, and reduces infarct complications. Three large trials, the Göteborg and MIAMI Trials on metoprolol and the ISIS Trial on atenolol, have demonstrated significant beneficial effects and good tolerance. Thrombolytic therapy in patients with signs of acute myocardial infarction, mainly streptokinase, has demonstrated significant reduction of short-term mortality. The large Italian GISSI Trial, including almost 12,000 patients, showed very significant reduction in 21 day mortality by streptokinase, and the earlier treatment started, the better the reduction. Pooling all published studies in the literature also shows the same favorable effects on mortality. Early treatment with thrombolytic therapy might also prevent and limit infarct development and preserve myocardial function. Recent large scale studies have convincingly demonstrated the value of early beta-blockade and of thrombolytic therapy in selected patients with signs of acute myocardial infarction. It seems reasonable to change the management in the acute phase of myocardial infarction based upon recent major clinical trials.

  20. Regional myocardial lidocaine concentration following continuous intravenous infusion early and later after myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zito, R.A.; Caride, V.J.; Holford, T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The regional concentration of lidocaine using a double constant infusion technique (250 micrograms/kg/min x 15 minutes followed by 35 micrograms/kg/mg/min x 120 minutes) was studied immediately (2 hours) in seven dogs and 24 hours (six dogs) after myocardial infarction. Tissue levels were determined by gas chromatography and related to regional myocardial blood flow as determined by the radioactive microsphere technique in multiple samples. At 2 hours after infarction a significantly higher lidocaine concentration (4.1 +/- 0.42 micrograms/g) was found in zones with greatly reduced blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that (2.6 +/- 0.19 micrograms/g) in zones with normal blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow greater than 0.8 ml/min per g) (p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the 24 hour model the opposite situation was observed. Although the concentration of lidocaine in the infarct zone was substantial, a significant decline in lidocaine tissue concentration was found in the zones of lowest blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that in normal zones (1.76 +/- 0.21 versus 3.38 +/- 0.21 micrograms/g, p less than 0.001). In addition, no significant differences in lidocaine concentrations were found between endocardium and epicardium in any of the groups other than those related to regional myocardial blood flow. Thus, with the double constant infusion technique, lidocaine reached normal and ischemic myocardium in concentrations equivalent to therapeutic plasma concentrations, even in lower infarct blood flow zones, with no significant differences between endocardium and epicardium. Of perhaps greater significance, the age of the ischemic insult is an important determinant of lidocaine tissue distribution in infarcted myocardium.

  1. Protein C deficiency in a patient of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamzeed Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year old male presented with acute myocardial infarction with no discernable risk factors; he never smoked; did not suffer from diabetes and had a well controlled blood pressure with single medication; plasma concentration of total cholesterol was on the upper normal limit, high and low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and triglyceride being normal. In addition to a single antihypertensive he received Allupurinol(Xanthine Oxidase inhibitorfor hyperuricaemia. Coronary angiogram revealed ectatic epicardial coronary arteries. The patient developed deep vein thrombosis of right leg after four days of the coronary angiogram. Coagulation analysis revealed protein C deficiency. The recognition of protein C deficiency as a risk factor for myocardial infarction is important as anticoagulators prevent further thrombotic events whereas inhibitors of platelet aggregation are ineffective. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2009; 3(1: 34-35

  2. Hyperkalemia induced pseudo-myocardial infarction in septic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Pothiawala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperkalemia is an acute life-threatening disorder presenting to the emergency department. Patients with hyperkalemia may manifest characteristic electrocardiographic changes including tented T waves, widening of the QRS complex and loss of P waves, sine wave pattern and eventually asystole. There have been only few reports of hyperkalemia causing ST segment elevation on electrocardiogram simulating an acute myocardial infarction. This case describes pseudo-myocardial infarction due to hyperkalemia and septic shock. Rapid determination of serum potassium levels by bedside blood gas analyzers serves to be a useful guide. ST segment elevation related to hyperkalemia will resolve with successful reduction of the serum potassium levels by appropriate therapy. It is important for physicians to be aware of this condition as this will aid in initiating correct therapy and prevent the patient from unnecessary interventions and the associated risk of complications.

  3. Myocardial infarction: stem cell transplantation for cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edmund; Verma, Paul; Hourigan, Kerry; Banerjee, Rinti

    2015-11-01

    It is estimated that by 2030, almost 23.6 million people will perish from cardiovascular disease, according to the WHO. The review discusses advances in stem cell therapy for myocardial infarction, including cell sources, methods of differentiation, expansion selection and their route of delivery. Skeletal muscle cells, hematopoietic cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived cardiomyocytes have advanced to the clinical stage, while induced pluripotent cells (iPSCs) are yet to be considered clinically. Delivery of cells to the sites of injury and their subsequent retention is a major issue. The development of supportive scaffold matrices to facilitate stem cell retention and differentiation are analyzed. The review outlines clinical translation of conjugate stem cell-based cellular therapeutics post-myocardial infarction.

  4. Nitroglycerine induced acute myocardial infarction in a patient with myocardial bridging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rujic, Dragana; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Veien, Karsten Tange

    2014-01-01

    Muscle overlying an intramyocardial segment of a coronary artery is termed a myocardial bridge. The intramyocardial segment, the tunneled artery, is compressed during systole. The condition is generally benign but may occasionally cause myocardial ischemia, infarction, arrhythmia, or sudden cardiac...... death. We present a case regarding a 52-year-old man with exercise-induced angina who was diagnosed with a myocardial bridge overlying the left anterior descending artery. He was initially treated with beta-blockers and later received coronary bypass graft surgery....

  5. Current therapy of the right ventricle myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozović Vjekoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute myocardial infarction of the right ventricle (AMI-RV is a separate subgroup within the scope of inferoposterior infarction of the left ventricle. It still represents the population of patients at high risk due to numerous, often hardly predictable complications and high mortality rate. Methods. In fifteen-year period (1987-2001 3 765 patients with the acute myocardial infarction (AMI of different localizations of both sexes – 2 283 males and 1 482 females of the average age 61.4 ± 4.6 years were treated in our institution. Anterior myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 2 146 (56.9% patients, inferior in 1 619 (43.1% patients, out of whom right ventricular infarction (RVI was confirmed in 384 (23.7%. Thrombolytic therapy was administered in 163 (42.4% patients with RVI, and in 53 (41.7% of these patients balloon dilatation was performed with coronary stent implantation in 24 (45.2%. Results. Favorable clinical effect of the combined thrombolytic therapy and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA was achieved in 51 (96.1%, and in only 2 (3.9% of patients the expected effect wasn't achieved. Myocardial revascularization was accomplished in 6 (3.6% and 1 patient died. In 3 (3.4% patients primary balloon dilatation with the implantation of intracoronary stent was performed within 6 hours from the onset of anginal pain. In the other group of 221 (57.5% patients with RVI who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, or it had no effect, 26 (11.7% patients died, which indicated the validity and the efficacy of this treatment (p<0,01. In the whole group of patients with myocardial infarction of the right ventricle 31 (8.1% died; in the group that received thrombolytic therapy and PTCA 5 (3.1% died, while in the group treated in a conservative way 26 (11.7% died. Conclusion. Combined therapy was successful in the treatment of patients with RVI and should be administered whenever possible, since it was the best

  6. An unusual presentation of mad honey poisoning: acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci, Sinan; Arslan, Uğur; Karakurt, Kamber; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-09-26

    An unusual type of food poisoning is commonly seen in the Black Sea coast of Turkey due to grayanotoxin containing toxic honey so called "mad honey" ingestion. In cases of toxication bradycardia and rhythm disturbances are commonly observed. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was admitted to the hospital because of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries after "mad honey" ingestion.

  7. Discharge Policy and Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Vlugt, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTreatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) has improved over time and the duration of hospital stay has considerably decreased. Early hospital discharge after MI has been promoted for over 25 years. However, the meaning of “early” evolved over time. In the early eighties, before the widespread introduction of reperfusion therapy, patients were hospitalised for approximately 3 weeks and early discharge implemented a reduction to 7 days. Nowadays, the average hospit...

  8. Acute myocardial infarction in a teenager due to Adderall XR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Angela L; Agarwala, Brojendra

    2012-01-01

    Adderall XR is commonly prescribed for children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We present a case of a 15-year-old male who suffered a myocardial infarction after starting Adderall XR. Patient was otherwise in good health with no previous cardiac abnormalities. Cardiac catheterization was normal, and etiology was presumed to be secondary to acute vasospasm. The patient improved with cessation of medication. Physicians need to carefully screen patients for cardiac abnormalities prior to starting amphetamine-based medications.

  9. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  10. Family size and paternal unemployment in relation to myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Burr, M. L.; Sweetnam, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Men who had been in hospital for myocardial infarction (MI) were compared with other male patients in an attempt to provide evidence on the hypothesis linking MI with poverty in childhood followed by relative affluence. In each of three social class groupings MI patients came from larger families than controls, and a higher proportion of their fathers had been unemployed for more than a year during their childhood. This gives some support to the hypothesis that childhood poverty may be associ...

  11. Sequential management of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Kalyani R; Aldebert, Philippe; Riberi, Alberto; Mancini, Julien; Levy, Gilles; Macia, Jean-Christophe; Quilicci, Jacques; Habib, Gilbert; Fraisse, Alain

    2015-05-01

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) after acute myocardial infarction is a catastrophic event. We describe our multicentre experience of a defect closure strategy that combined surgery and transcatheter closure. Data were obtained by retrospective chart review. Twenty patients (mean age, 67 years) from three centres were studied. Median time from myocardial infarction to VSD was 6 (range, 3-9) days. Acute cardiogenic shock occurred in 12 (60%) patients. Median defect diameter by echocardiography was 18 (range, 12-28) mm. Median time to first surgical or percutaneous closure was 18 (range, 4-96) days. Twenty-seven procedures were performed in the 20 patients. Surgical closure was undertaken in 14 patients and contraindicated in eight, six of whom underwent percutaneous closure; the other two, after reconsideration, proceeded to surgical closure. No procedural complications occurred with percutaneous closure. Percutaneous closure patients were older than surgical patients (75 vs. 64 years; P=0.01) and had a higher mean logistic EuroSCORE (87% vs. 67%; P=0.02). Rates of residual shunt and mortality did not differ between surgical and percutaneous patients (P=0.12 and 0.3, respectively). Those who underwent early VSD closure (<21 days after myocardial infarction) had higher rates of residual shunt (P=0.09) and mortality (P=0.01), irrespective of closure strategy. The mortality rate was also higher after early percutaneous closure (P=0.001), but not after early surgery. Finally, predicted mortality (logistic EuroSCORE) was higher than hospital mortality (≤30 days) in our patient population (75% vs. 30%; P=0.01). Vigorous pursuit of closure of post-myocardial infarction VSD with a sequential surgical and/or percutaneous approach is recommended for improved outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Improving the Acute Myocardial Infarction Rapid Rule Out process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, Rachel; Fields, Willa

    2010-01-01

    Bedside staff nurses are in a unique position to identify implementation problems and ways to improve compliance with evidence-based practice guidelines. The goal of this performance improvement project was to improve compliance with an evidence-based Acute Myocardial Infarction Rapid Rule Out pathway. The purpose of the article is to demonstrate how a bedside staff nurse was able to decrease wait times and length of stay for patients with low-risk chest pain while applying evidence-based practice.

  13. Early changes in left atrial volume after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkestrom, R.; Andersen, Mads J; Ersboll, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dilatation of left atrium (LA) reflects chronic LA pressure or volume overload that possesses considerable prognostic information. Little is known regarding the interaction between LA remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (MI) and left atrial pressure at rest and during exercise...... hypothesis early LA dilatation after MI was weakly associated with resting and exercise induced changes in LA pressure overload. The dilatation was however associated with lower e' and higher MR-proANP. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. Cocaine-Associated Myocardial Infarction: Should They All Be Stented?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazzli Kasim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use is a known cause of chest pain and acute myocardial infarction and frequently leads to cardiac catheterization procedure. The treatment of cocaine-related acute coronary syndromes presents unique challenges because a variety of mechanisms including atherosclerotic plaque rupture, platelet activation, and coronary vasospasm may contribute to the pathogenesis. Our case highlights important considerations taken in dealing with this acute scenario

  15. Acute myocarditis mimicking myocardial infarction can misdirect the diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Yildirim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocarditis is a well-recognized but rare manifestation of mostly viral infections. It can present with various clinical manifestations and may mimic myocardial infarction (MI since patients usually present with chest pain, and the electrocardiographic changes similar to those observed in acute ST-elevation MI. We, herein, present such an extreme case of acute myocarditis characterized by dynamic ST segment elevation with reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  16. Abacavir use and risk of recurrent myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, Caroline A; Ryom, Lene; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between abacavir (ABC) use and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) among HIV-positive people with a prior MI. DESIGN: International multi-cohort collaboration with follow-up from 1999-2016. METHODS: The rate of recurrent MI was described among D:A:D part......, there was no evidence for an association between use of ABC post-MI and an elevated risk of a recurrent MI....

  17. Beta blockers after myocardial infarction: have trials changed practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, N S; Julian, D G; Lewis, J A; Rose, G

    1984-11-24

    A survey of British consultant cardiologists was carried out to elicit their current practices when prescribing long term beta blockers after myocardial infarction. Sixty (72%) of the respondents reported that they used beta blockers prophylactically even in the absence of any other indications; the details of their stated policies, however, varied considerably. The favourable evidence of clinical trials in this indication appears to have been assimilated into hospital practice.

  18. Beta blockers after myocardial infarction: have trials changed practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Baber, N S; Julian, D. G.; Lewis, J A; Rose, G

    1984-01-01

    A survey of British consultant cardiologists was carried out to elicit their current practices when prescribing long term beta blockers after myocardial infarction. Sixty (72%) of the respondents reported that they used beta blockers prophylactically even in the absence of any other indications; the details of their stated policies, however, varied considerably. The favourable evidence of clinical trials in this indication appears to have been assimilated into hospital practice.

  19. Myocardial infarction with acute valvular regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sandhya; Greenberg, Mark; Wharton, Ronald

    2012-08-01

    Left-sided valvular lesions are commonly associated with acute and chronic coronary syndromes. Ischemic mitral regurgitation is well described in the literature. We report a case of acute ischemic right-sided valvular disease in which the presenting symptom of an infarction was severe tricuspid regurgitation. This rare entity is usually caused by distortion of the valve apparatus due to underlying wall motion abnormalities. In conclusion, tricuspid regurgitation is an important yet uncommon presentation of acute ischemia that requires a high degree of suspicion for diagnosis.

  20. Amphetamine Containing Dietary Supplements and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Perez-Downes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss is one of the most researched and marketed topics in American society. Dietary regimens, medications that claim to boost the metabolism, and the constant pressure to fit into society all play a role in our patient’s choices regarding new dietary products. One of the products that are well known to suppress appetite and cause weight loss is amphetamines. While these medications suppress appetite, most people are not aware of the detrimental side effects of amphetamines, including hypertension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, and in certain instances acute myocardial infarction. Here we present the uncommon entity of an acute myocardial infarction due to chronic use of an amphetamine containing dietary supplement in conjunction with an exercise regimen. Our case brings to light further awareness regarding use of amphetamines. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of use of these substances when young patients with no risk factors for coronary artery disease present with acute arrhythmias, heart failure, and myocardial infarctions.

  1. Internal migration, coffee drinking, and nonfatal myocardial infarction in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabajoli, F; Martone, T; Arneodo, D; Balzola, F; Leo, L; Vineis, P

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 153 patients who had been recently diagnosed with myocardial infarction; there were 157 hospital controls. All subjects were 35-70-y-old males who lived in the province of Torino (northern Italy). These individuals were nonsmokers or had quit smoking for at least 6 mo. A protective role of migration from southern Italy was found (age-adjusted odds ratio for northern versus southern origin = 1.82, 95% confidence interval = 1.0, 3.3). Although fat consumption differed greatly between those born in northern Italy and those in southern Italy (i.e., the former used mainly butter and the latter used mainly olive oil during their early lives), it did not explain the migration effect. A family history of myocardial infarction increased the risk of a myocardial infarction (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.1, 4.9). Moderate coffee consumption also increased the risk and was not explained by the known coronary risk factors. Relative risks were up to 4 among both nonsmokers and exsmokers who drank more than 4 cups of coffee each day. We controlled for coffee drinking and found that the association with southern origin appeared strengthened.

  2. Acute myocardial infarction and stress cardiomyopathy following the Christchurch earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christina; Elliott, John; Troughton, Richard; Frampton, Christopher; Smyth, David; Crozier, Ian; Bridgman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36 am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital was the region's only acute care hospital. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We were able to examine the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations. Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 week prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and others. There was a significant increase in overall admissions (pearthquake. This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6-6.4) in 4 days. There had been 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44-2.62). Statistical analysis showed this to be a significant difference between the earthquakes (pearthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy. Two major earthquakes occurring at different times of day differed in their effect on acute cardiac events.

  3. Experimental myocardial stem cell therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens; Mygind, Naja D; Qayyum, Abbas A

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and is characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries reducing the blood supply to the heart muscle causing ischemia. IHD can result in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI...

  4. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial oedema following acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamshere, Stephen; Jones, A Daniel; Pellaton, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Background: AAR measurement is useful when assessing the efficacy of reperfusion therapy and novel cardioprotective agents after myocardial infarction. Multi-slice (Typically 10-12) T2-STIR has been used widely for its measurement, typically with a short axis stack (SAX) covering the entire left...

  5. Fibroblasts in myocardial infarction: a role in inflammation and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Arti V.; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts do not only serve as matrix-producing reparative cells, but exhibit a wide range of functions in inflammatory and immune responses, angiogenesis and neoplasia. The adult mammalian myocardium contains abundant fibroblasts enmeshed within the interstitial and perivascular extracellular matrix. The current review manuscript discusses the dynamic phenotypic and functional alterations of cardiac fibroblasts following myocardial infarction. Extensive necrosis of cardiomyocytes in the infarcted heart triggers an intense inflammatory reaction. In the early stages of infarct healing, fibroblasts become pro-inflammatory cells, activating the inflammasome and producing cytokines, chemokines and proteases. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as Interleukin-1) delay myofibroblast transformation, until the wound is cleared from dead cells and matrix debris. Resolution of the inflammatory infiltrate is associated with fibroblast migration, proliferation, matrix protein synthesis and myofibroblast conversion. Growth factors and matricellular proteins play an important role in myofibroblast activation during the proliferative phase of healing. Formation of a mature cross-linked scar is associated with clearance of fibroblasts, as poorly-understood inhibitory signals restrain the fibrotic response. However, in the non-infarcted remodeling myocardium, local fibroblasts may remain activated in response to volume and pressure overload and may promote interstitial fibrosis. Considering their abundance, their crucial role in cardiac inflammation and repair, and their involvement in myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmogenesis, cardiac fibroblasts may be key therapeutic targets in cardiac remodeling. PMID:24321195

  6. Alcohol intake, myocardial infarction, biochemical risk factors, and alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne S; Grønbæk, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol dehydroge......BACKGROUND: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol...... of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated...

  7. Case of right ventricular infarction identified by sup(99m)Tc-PYP myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Akiyoshi; Nakai, Kenji; Matsushita, Kazuo (Iwate Medical Coll., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    A case of 53-year-old-man with myocardial infarction accompanied by right ventricular infarction assessed by Tc-99m-PYP scintiscan was reported. Patient was admitted to our clinic because of sudden chest pain and Adames-Stokes attack. At the time of admission he was pre-shock state and cold sweating was markedly noted in the lower extremities. ECG revealed complete A-V block with ST elevation in II, III, aV sub(F). Chest X-ray film showed cardiomegaly and lung congestion. CVP was high (22 cm H/sub 2/O) and cardiac output was low (2.4 L/min). Marked elevation of SGOT, LDH and CPK was also noted. After administration of 20 mCi of Tc-99m-PYP, myocardial scintiscan revealed a positive accumulation, which continued for 80 days, in accordant with anterior portion of the right ventricle. From these findings, right ventricular infarction was clinicaly suspected. Combined therapy with dopamine (10 ..gamma../kg/min) and vasodilator and blood transfusion was effective in this patient. At the 60th day after admission, this patient had been recovered: Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy showed a perfusion defect in the inferior region. Total obstruction of RCA and diffuse stenosis of LAD were observed on CAG. Akinesis of inferoposterior region was found in the left ventriculogram. Tc-99m-PYP scintiscan in acute phase was a useful method in detecting of right ventricular infarction. Continued of positive accumulation of Tc-99m-PYP scintiscan suggested a possibility of aneurysmal formation of the right ventricle.

  8. The stability of myocardial area at risk estimated electrocardiographically in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Esben A; Hassell, Mariëlla E C J; van Hellemond, Irene E G

    2014-01-01

    In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the amount of myocardial area at risk (MaR) indicates the maximal potential loss of myocardium if the coronary artery remains occluded. During the time course of infarct evolution ischemic MaR is replaced by necrosis, which results...... and Selvester score, indicating MaR, is stable until myocardial reperfusion therapy. In a retrospective analysis of a study population of 114 patients, 33 patients were included. The combined Aldrich and Selvester score was determined in ECGs recorded in the ambulance (ECG1) and in the hospital before...... (12 patients) of the combined Aldrich and Selvester score. In conclusion, the ECG estimated MaR was stable between the earliest recording time and initiation of reperfusion treatment only in a subgroup of the patients with STEMI. The findings of this study may suggest heterogeneity in regards...

  9. Emergency coronary bypass grafting for evolving myocardial infarction. Effects on infarct size and left ventricular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flameng, W.; Sergeant, P.; Vanhaecke, J.; Suy, R.

    1987-07-01

    Emergency aorta-coronary bypass grafting was performed early in the course of evolving myocardial infarction in 48 patients. The time interval between the onset of symptoms and reperfusion was 169 +/- 80 minutes. Quantitative assessment of postoperative thallium 201 myocardial scans in 19 patients revealed a significant salvage of myocardium after surgical reperfusion: The size of the residual infarction was less than 50% of that in a matched, medically treated, prospective control group (n = 39) (p less than 0.05). Postoperative equilibrium-gated radionuclide blood pool studies (technetium 99m) showed an enhanced recovery of regional and global ejection fraction after operation as compared to after medical treatment (p less than 0.05). Ultrastructural evaluation of biopsy specimens obtained during the operation delineated subendocardial necrosis in the majority of cases (72%), but subepicardial necrosis was found in only 6% of instances. Q-wave abnormalities were observed on the postoperative electrocardiogram in 50% of cases. Operative mortality was 0% in low-risk patients (i.e., hemodynamically stable condition, n = 26) and 18% in high-risk patients (i.e., cardiogenic shock including total electromechanical dysfunction, n = 22). Survival rate at 18 months was 92% +/- 4%, and 95% +/- 4% of the survivors were event free. It is concluded that early surgical reperfusion of evolving myocardial infarction limits infarct size significantly, enhances functional recovery, and may be a lifesaving operation in patients having cardiogenic shock associated with unsuccessful resuscitation.

  10. Recurrent extensive anterior myocardial infarction with left and right bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hexi; Chang, Qinghua; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Renguang

    2017-10-15

    The diagnosis of myocardial infarction with left bundle branch block is difficult. We report a case of 56-year-old man with old extensive anterior myocardial infarction and left bundle branch block (masked each other). The recurrent myocardial infarction indicated right bundle branch block and first-degree atrioventricular block, making a clear diagnosis of complicated and interesting ECG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A quantitative histopathological study of right bundle branch block complicating acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Okabe, M; Fukuda, K; Nakashima, Y; Hiroki, T; Arakawa, K; Kikuchi, M

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether necrosis of the right bundle branch is responsible for development of right bundle branch block in acute myocardial infarction. Twenty patients with acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction were studied--10 with right bundle branch block (group A) and 10 without (group B)--to evaluate by serial sectioning the pathological extent of myocardial infarction surrounding the right bundle branch and also that of right bundle branch necrosis. Myoca...

  12. Post-Myocardial Infarction Ventricular Septal Defect Six Months following Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Amy G; Sundt Iii, Thoralf M; Tolis, George

    2017-08-25

    Mechanical complications following acute myocardial infarction are associated with high mortality. We present the first reported case of a new post myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect (VSD) within six months of coronary artery bypass grafting. The patient underwent successful surgical correction of the VSD with the assistance of mechanical circulatory support (MCS). This case highlights the importance of mechanical circulatory support in the management of cardiogenic shock associated with rare complications of myocardial infarction, even after surgical revascularization.

  13. Differences in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry Compared with Western Registries

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2017-01-01

    The Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) is the first nationwide registry that reflects current therapeutic approaches and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) management in Korea. The results of the KAMIR demonstrated different risk factors and responses to medical and interventional treatments. The results indicated that the incidence of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was relatively high, and that the prevalence of dyslipidemia was relatively low with higher triglycer...

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS AND HEALTH BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Milenković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and

  15. Xylan polysaccharides fabricated into nanofibrous substrate for myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venugopal, J., E-mail: nnijrv@nus.edu.sg; Rajeswari, R.; Shayanti, M.; Sridhar, R.; Sundarrajan, S.; Balamurugan, R.; Ramakrishna, S.

    2013-04-01

    Myocardial infarction, a main cause of heart failure, leads to loss of cardiac tissue impairment of left ventricular function. Repair of diseased myocardium with in vitro engineered cardiac muscle patch/injectable biopolymers with cells may become a viable option for myocardial infarction. We attempted to solve these problems by in vitro study by selecting a plant based polysaccharides beech wood Xylan for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. The present study fabricated Xylan based nanofibrous scaffolds cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (Glu) vapors for 24 h, 48 h and 1% Glu blended fibers for the culture of neonatal rat cardiac cells for myocardial infarction. These nanofibers were characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies for the normal expression of cardiac proteins. The observed results showed that the Xylan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) 24 h Glu vapor cross-linked nanofibers (427 nm) having mechanical strength of 2.43 MPa and Young modulus of 3.74 MPa are suitable for the culture of cardiac cells. Cardiac cells proliferation increased only by 11% in Xylan/PVA 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to control tissue culture plate (TCP). The normal cardiac cell morphology was observed in 24 h cross-linked Xylan/PVA nanofibers but 48 h cross-linked fibers cell morphology was changed to flattened and elongated on the fibrous surfaces. Confocal analysis for cardiac expression proteins actinin, connexin 43 was observed normally in 24 h Glu cross-linked nanofibers compared to all other nanofibrous scaffolds. The fabricated Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffold may have good potential for the normal functioning of infarcted myocardium. - Highlights: ► Fabrication of polysaccharides Xylan/PVA nanofibers for cardiac tissue engineering ► Nanofibers characterized by SEM, FT-IR, tensile testing and cell culture studies ► Isolation of cardiac cells and cultured on Xylan/PVA nanofibrous scaffolds ► Cultured cells on 24 h Glu cross

  16. Assessment and classification of patients with myocardial injury and infarction in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andrew R; Adamson, Philip D

    2017-01-01

    Myocardial injury is common in patients without acute coronary syndrome, and international guidelines recommend patients with myocardial infarction are classified by aetiology. The universal definition differentiates patients with myocardial infarction due to plaque rupture (type 1) from those due to myocardial oxygen supply-demand imbalance (type 2) secondary to other acute illnesses. Patients with myocardial necrosis, but no symptoms or signs of myocardial ischaemia, are classified as acute or chronic myocardial injury. This classification has not been widely adopted in practice, because the diagnostic criteria for type 2 myocardial infarction encompass a wide range of presentations, and the implications of the diagnosis are uncertain. However, both myocardial injury and type 2 myocardial infarction are common, occurring in more than one-third of all hospitalised patients. These patients have poor short-term and long-term outcomes with two-thirds dead in 5 years. The classification of patients with myocardial infarction continues to evolve, and future guidelines are likely to recognise the importance of identifying coronary artery disease in type 2 myocardial infarction. Clinicians should consider whether coronary artery disease has contributed to myocardial injury, as selected patients are likely to benefit from further investigation and in these patients targeted secondary prevention has the potential to improve outcomes. PMID:27806987

  17. Chronic myocardial infarction detection and characterization during coronary artery calcium scoring acquisitions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón A

    2012-01-05

    Hypoenhanced regions on multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography correlate with myocardial hyperperfusion. In addition to a limited capillary density, chronic myocardial infarction (MI) commonly contains a considerable amount of adipose tissue.

  18. Alcohol Intake, Myocardial Infarction, Biochemical Risk Factors, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Grønbæk, Morten; nordestgaard, børge

    2009-01-01

      Background- The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol...... of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. Conclusions- Increasing alcohol intake is associated...

  19. Use of copeptin for rapid rule-out of acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christian; Möckel, Martin; Giannitsis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Copeptin is currently understood as a quantitative marker of endogenous stress. It rises rapidly in multiple acute disorders including acute myocardial infarction. As a single variable, it has only modest diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction. However, the use of copeptin within...... a dual-marker strategy together with conventional cardiac troponin increases the diagnostic accuracy and particularly the negative predictive value of cardiac troponin alone for acute myocardial infarction. The rapid rule-out of acute myocardial infarction is the only application in acute cardiac care...

  20. [Myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome: definitions, classification, and diagnostic criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭrat'iants, O V; Mishnev, O D; Kakturskiĭ, L V

    2014-01-01

    The review gives the definitions and classification of and diagnostic criteria for myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome in accordance with the "The third universal definition of myocardial infarction" adopted in 2012 (Joint ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF Task Force for the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction, 2012). It also discusses the clinical and morphological comparisons of and the problems in the differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction as a nosological entity within coronary heart disease with other coronarogenic and non-coronarogenic necroses of the myocardium.

  1. Myocardial connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF attenuates left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Gravning

    Full Text Available AIMS: Myocardial CCN2/CTGF is induced in heart failure of various etiologies. However, its role in the pathophysiology of left ventricular (LV remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI remains unresolved. The current study explores the role of CTGF in infarct healing and LV remodeling in an animal model and in patients admitted for acute ST-elevation MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of CTGF (Tg-CTGF and non-transgenic littermate controls (NLC were subjected to permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Despite similar infarct size (area of infarction relative to area at risk 24 hours after ligation of the coronary artery in Tg-CTGF and NLC mice, Tg-CTGF mice disclosed smaller area of scar tissue, smaller increase of cardiac hypertrophy, and less LV dilatation and deterioration of LV function 4 weeks after MI. Tg-CTGF mice also revealed substantially reduced mortality after MI. Remote/peri-infarct tissue of Tg-CTGF mice contained reduced numbers of leucocytes, macrophages, and cells undergoing apoptosis as compared with NLC mice. In a cohort of patients with acute ST-elevation MI (n = 42 admitted to hospital for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI serum-CTGF levels (s-CTGF were monitored and related to infarct size and LV function assessed by cardiac MRI. Increase in s-CTGF levels after MI was associated with reduced infarct size and improved LV ejection fraction one year after MI, as well as attenuated levels of CRP and GDF-15. CONCLUSION: Increased myocardial CTGF activities after MI are associated with attenuation of LV remodeling and improved LV function mediated by attenuation of inflammatory responses and inhibition of apoptosis.

  2. Acute myocardial infarction and infarct size: do circadian variations play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Aída Suárez-Barrientos,1 Borja Ibáñez1,21Cardiovascular Institute, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, 2Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Madrid, SpainAbstract: The circadian rhythm influences cardiovascular system physiology, inducing diurnal variations in blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, endothelial functions, platelet aggregation, and coronary arterial flow, among other physiological parameters. Indeed, an internal circadian network modulates cardiovascular physiology by regulating heart rate, metabolism, and even myocyte growth and repair ability. Consequently, cardiovascular pathology is also controlled by circadian oscillations, with increased morning incidence of cardiovascular events. The potential circadian influence on the human tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion has not been systematically scrutinized until recently. It has since been proven, in both animals and humans, that infarct size varies during the day depending on the symptom onset time, while circadian fluctuations in spontaneous cardioprotection in humans with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI have also been demonstrated. Furthermore, several studies have proposed that the time of day at which revascularization occurs in patients with STEMI may also influence infarct size and reperfusion outcomes. The potential association of the circadian clock with infarct size advocates the acknowledgment of time of day as a new prognostic factor in patients suffering acute myocardial infarction, which would open up a new field for chronotherapeutic targets and lead to the inclusion of time of day as a variable in clinical trials that test novel cardioprotective strategies.Keywords: cardioprotection, circadian rhythm, reperfusion injury, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

  3. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of the myocardial scar fallowing acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatić Vujadin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The heart has traditionally been considered as a static organ without capacity of regeneration after trauma. Currently, the more and more often asked question is whether the heart has any intrinsic capacities to regenerate myocytes after myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to present the existence of the preserved muscle fibers in the myocardial scar following myocardial infarction as well as the presence of numerous cells of various size and form that differently reacted to the used immunohistochemical antibodies. Methods. Histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of myocardial sections taken from 177 patients who had died of acute myocardial infarction and had the myocardial scar following myocardial infarction, were carried out. More sections taken both from the site of acute infarction and scar were examined by the following methods: hematoxylin-eosin (HE, periodic acid schiff (PAS, PAS-diastasis, Masson trichrom, Malory, van Gieson, vimentin, desmin, myosin, myoglobin, alpha actin, smoth muscle actin (SMA, p53, leukocyte common antigen (LCA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, Ki-67, actin HHF35, CD34, CD31, CD45, CD45Ro, CD8, CD20. Results. In all sections taken from the scar region, larger or smaller islets of the preserved muscle fibers with the signs of hypertrophy were found. In the scar, a large number of cells of various size and form: spindle, oval, elongated with abundant cytoplasm, small with one nucleus and cells with scanty cytoplasm, were found. The present cells differently reacted to histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Large oval cells showed negative reaction to lymphocytic and leukocytic markers, and positive to alpha actin, actin HHF35, Ki-67, myosin, myoglobin and desmin. Elongated cells were also positive to those markers. Small mononuclear cells showed positive reaction to lymphocytic markers. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells in the blood vessel walls

  4. Nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging with a cadmium-telluride semiconductor detector gamma camera in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Kawaguchi, Tsuneaki; Maruyama, Takatoshi; Kawasaki, Yoshiyuki; Shinkai, Yasuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Since myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with conventional sodium iodine (NaI) device has low spatial resolution, there have been some cases in which small structures such as non-transmural myocardial infarction could not be properly detected. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential usefulness of cadmium-telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detector-based high spatial resolution gamma cameras in detecting myocardial infarction sites, especially non-transmural infarction. A total of 38 patients (mean age ± SD: 64 ± 21 year) who were clinically diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction were included. Twenty-eight cases of them were with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 10 cases with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). In all patients, myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography images were acquired with Infinia (NaI device) and R1-M (CdTe device), and the images were compared concerning the detectability of acute myocardial infarction sites. The detection rates of the myocardial infarction site in cases with STEMI were 100% both by NaI and CdTe images. In cases with NSTEMI, detection rate by NaI images was 50%, while that of CdTe images was 100% (p = 0.033). The summed rest score (SRS) value derived from CdTe images was significantly higher than that from NaI images in cases with STEMI [NaI images: 12 (7-18) versus CdTe images: 14 (9-20)] (p cases with NSTEMI [NaI images: 2 (0-5) versus CdTe images: 6 (6-8)] (p = 0.006). These results indicate that MPI using CdTe-semiconductor device will provide a much more accurate assessment of acute myocardial infarction in comparison to current methods.

  5. Early and Delayed Myocardial Enhancement in Myocardial Infarction Using Two-Phase Contrast-Enhanced Multidetector-Row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Sung-Min; Kim, Young-Whan; Han, Seong-Wook [University of Keimyung College of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon-Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe the myocardial enhancement patterns in patients with myocardial infarction using two-phase contrast enhanced multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Twenty-three patients with clinically proven myocardial infarction (17 acute myocardial infarction [AMI] and 6 chronic myocardial infarction [CMI]) were examined with two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT. The presence, location, and patterns of myocardial enhancement on two phase MDCT images were compared with infarcted myocardial territories determined by using electrocardiogram, echocardiography, thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography, catheter and MDCT coronary angiography. After clinical assessment, the presence of myocardial infarctions were found in 27 territories (19 AMI and 8 CMI) of 23 patients. Early perfusion defects were observed in 30 territories of all 23 patients. Three territories not corresponding to a myocardial infarction were detected in three patients with AMI and were associated with artifacts. Fourteen of perfusion defects were in the left anterior descending artery territory, four in the left circumflex artery territory, and nine in the right coronary artery territory. Delayed enhancement was observed in 25 territories (17 AMI and 8 CMI) of 21 patients. Delayed enhancement patterns were variable. Transmural early perfusion defects (n =12) were closely associated with transmural late enhancement (n = 5) and subendocardial residual defect with subepicardial late enhancement (n = 5). Myocardial infarction showed early perfusion defects and variable delayed enhancement patterns on two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT. Delayed enhancement technique of MDCT could provide additional information of the location and extent of infarcted myocardium, and could be useful to plan appropriate therapeutic strategies in patients with AMI.

  6. Holmium:YAG laser angioplasty: treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, On

    1993-06-01

    We report our clinical experience with a group of 14 patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction. A holmium:YAG laser was applied to the infarct-related artery. This laser emits 250 - 600 mJ per pulse, with a pulse length of 250 microseconds and repetition rate of 5 Hz. Potential benefits of acute thrombolysis by lasers include the absence of systemic lytic state; a shortened thrombus clearing time relative to using thrombolytics; safe removal of the intracoronary thrombus and facilitation of adjunct balloon angioplasty. Potential clinical difficulties include targeting the obstructive clot and plaque, creation of debris and distal emboli and laser-tissue damage. It is conceivable that holmium:YAG laser can be a successful thrombolytic device as its wave length (2.1 microns) coincides with strong water absorption peaks. Since it is common to find an atherosclerotic plaque located under or distal to the thrombotic occlusion, this laser can also be applied for plaque ablation, and the patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction can clearly benefit from the combined function of this laser system.

  7. Macrophages mediate cardioprotective cellular postconditioning in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Couto, Geoffrey; Liu, Weixin; Tseliou, Eleni; Sun, Baiming; Makkar, Nupur; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Arditi, Moshe; Marbán, Eduardo

    2015-08-03

    Ischemic injury in the heart induces an inflammatory cascade that both repairs damage and exacerbates scar tissue formation. Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) are a stem-like population that is derived ex vivo from cardiac biopsies; they confer both cardioprotection and regeneration in acute myocardial infarction (MI). While the regenerative effects of CDCs in chronic settings have been studied extensively, little is known about how CDCs confer the cardioprotective process known as cellular postconditioning. Here, we used an in vivo rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury-induced MI and in vitro coculture assays to investigate how CDCs protect stressed cardiomyocytes. Compared with control animals, animals that received CDCs 20 minutes after IR had reduced infarct size when measured at 48 hours. CDCs modified the myocardial leukocyte population after ischemic injury. Specifically, introduction of CDCs reduced the number of CD68+ macrophages, and these CDCs secreted factors that polarized macrophages toward a distinctive cardioprotective phenotype that was not M1 or M2. Systemic depletion of macrophages with clodronate abolished CDC-mediated cardioprotection. Using both in vitro coculture assays and a rat model of adoptive transfer after IR, we determined that CDC-conditioned macrophages attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis and reduced infarct size, thereby recapitulating the beneficial effects of CDC therapy. Together, our data indicate that CDCs limit acute injury by polarizing an effector macrophage population within the heart.

  8. Current perspectives on revascularization in multivessel ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witberg, Guy; Kornowski, Ran

    2017-09-01

    Up to 50% of patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) are found to have multivessel coronary artery disease. These patients have a worse prognosis compared with the overall STEMI population. Two revascularization strategies are possible for these patients: treating the infarct-related artery percutaneous coronary intervention (IRA-PCI) only or achieving Complete revascularization (CR), either through an immediate multivessel PCI during the index angiography or during a second-staged procedure. Until recently, most clinical data on this issue were derived from observational studies - which all showed a clear advantage to the IRA-PCI over the CR approach. Over the past few years, several groundbreaking randomized trials have suggested that the CR approach may be at least equivalent, and perhaps superior, to the IRA-PCI strategy. This has caused a paradigm shift reflected in the recent US and European guidelines. However, there is still uncertainty on the optimal timing for achieving CR (immediate/during the index admission/during a subsequent elective admission) and several other important issues in terms of revascularization: the extent of revascularization needed to achieve maximal benefit, the optimal means to evaluate the significance of intermediate coronary stenosis in the context of acute myocardial infarction, and the best approach to treat chronic total occlusions have not been thoroughly examined, and are the subject of an ongoing debate.

  9. Vectorcardiographic and nuclear scintigraphic studies of myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, W.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of patients after myocardial infarction have concentrated on the left ventricle. Though there are reasons to suggest that right ventricular (RV) involvement may alter management, the RV has not been fully investigated. In a previous study vector cardiograms (VCG) obtained in patients with inferior myocardial infarction within 24 hours after the onset of chest pain suggested that in patients with RV involvement the maximum injury vector pointed to the right-anterior-inferior or right-posterior-inferior directions. In this thesis, the VCG and nuclear studies have been used to determine the extent of RV involvement in patients with acute inferior myoardial infraction. The mechanisms of ST segment elevation in scalar chest leads was correlated with the VCG. In the majority of patients ST segment elevation in the right praecordial leads was due to the large magnitude of the right-posterior-inferior maximal spatial ST vector in adjacent leads. The supine rest radionuclide ventriculogram 4 weeks after infarction showed those with RV involvement had lower RV ejection fraction (EF) than those without. During stress, there was no difference in the RVEF in those with or without RV involvement.

  10. Gender differences in myocardial infarction: health professionals' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foà, Chiara; Artioli, Giovanna

    2016-05-26

    Backgroud and aims: Aim of this study is contributing to an analysis of healthcare professionals' perceptions of gender differences in myocardial infarction. For this purpose, the study examines bio-clinical and psychosocial aspects of myocardial infarction in men and women, thanks to 8 focus groups attended by healthcare professionals working at Milan Hospital (Niguarda Ca' Granda), Parma University Hospital, Catania Hospital (Ospedale Cannizzaro) and Ancona INRCA (Scientific Institute recognized in the area of Geriatrics and Gerontology). A qualitative analysis of the narratives have been aggregated in 5 code families: "pathophysiological peculiarities", "psycho-relational peculiarities", "therapeutic problems", "protection and risk factors", and "no difference" between men and women, in particular as far as diagnostic-therapeutic treatment is concerned. Pathophysiological peculiarities concern the acknowledgement of typically female characteristics which can affect clinical pathways, such as comorbidity and different symptoms. Psycho-relational peculiarities show women's attitudes toward symptoms underestimation and a high pain endurance. Therapeutic problems are connected to female physio-pathological peculiarities, which reduce treatment effectiveness. Protection and risk factors indicate peculiar protective conditions or potentially dangerous situations in female population, such as distress and greater responsibilities. The study confirms the "male model" of heart disease and a gap in evaluating and dealing with female infarction. The study takes into account differences in narratives.

  11. Early detection of myocardial infarction following blunt chest trauma by computed tomography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thung-Lip; Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Shih, Chen-Hsiang; Liang, Huai-Wen; Tsai, Hsing-Shan; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Hsu, Kwan-Lih

    2017-02-10

    Blunt cardiac trauma encompasses a wide range of clinical entities, including myocardial contusion, cardiac rupture, valve avulsion, pericardial injuries, arrhythmia, and even myocardial infarction. Acute myocardial infarction due to coronary artery dissection after blunt chest trauma is rare and may be life threatening. Differential diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from cardiac contusion at this setting is not easy. Here we demonstrated a case of blunt chest trauma, with computed tomography detected myocardium enhancement defect early at emergency department. Under the impression of acute myocardial infarction, emergent coronary angiography revealed left anterior descending artery occlusion. Revascularization was performed and coronary artery dissection was found after thrombus aspiration. Finally, the patient survived after coronary stenting. Perfusion defects of myocardium enhancement on CT after blunt chest trauma can be very helpful to suggest myocardial infarction and facilitate the decision making of emergent procedure. This valuable sign should not be missed during the initial interpretation.

  12. Positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging in children with suspected coronary abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T P; Muzik, O; Forbes, T F; Di Carli, M F

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging has higher spatial resolution than conventional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and allows accurate and reproducible quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF). In this article, we describe the role of PET myocardial perfusion imaging in clinical decision making in children with suspected coronary abnormalities. We performed a PET myocardial perfusion study using N-13 ammonia in 10 children (median age, 14 years; range, 1-17 years). The indications included exercise-induced chest pain and ST segment changes during exercise testing, coronary artery ectasia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending coronary artery, and suspected left coronary stenosis in an infant with William's syndrome. MBF was assessed at baseline and during adenosine hyperemia in all 10 patients and postexercise in 8 patients. Myocardial perfusion was homogeneous at baseline in all 10 patients, during adenosine perfusion in 9 of 10 patients, and postexercise in all 8 patients. Three patients with homogeneous rest and stress perfusion had impaired myocardial flow reserve. The infant with William's syndrome developed a large, reversible perfusion defect in the left coronary territory during adenosine stress and underwent surgical repair. Myocardial flow reserve findings were valuable for clinical decision making in individual patients. We conclude that MBF quantification with N-13 ammonia and PET provides supplemental perfusion information and is helpful in clinical decision making in children with suspected coronary abnormalities.

  13. Reduction of the ischaemia of the myocard by labetalol after experimental myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glogar, D.H.; Kloner, R.A.; Zilcher, H.; Weber, H.; Kaindl, F. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kardiologische Klinik; Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1981-01-01

    After experimental myocardial infarction in 28 dogs coronary blood supply was measured by Tc-99-labelled microspheres. The effect of different doses of labetalol on infarct size was observed. Infarct size was measured by autoradiography. In a dose of 0.5 mg/kg labetalol is blocking predominant beta receptors and does not influence infarct extension. Labetalol in a dose of more than 5 mg/kg (alpha- and betareceptors are blocked) reduces significantly infarct extension. Alpha- and beta-blocking with labetalol is a potential favourable intervention during fresh myocardial infarction.

  14. Treatment with hESC-Derived Myocardial Precursors Improves Cardiac Function after a Myocardial Infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Ye

    Full Text Available We previously reported the generation of a reporter line of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP expression driven by the α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter. The GFP+/αMHC+ cells derived from this cell line behave as multipotent, human myocardial precursors (hMPs in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of GFP+/αMHC+ cells isolated from the reporter line in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI.MI was generated in immunodeficient mice. hMPs were injected into murine infarcted hearts under ultrasound guidance at 3 days post-MI. Human fetal skin fibroblasts (hFFs were injected as control. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography. Infarct size, angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell fate, and teratoma formation were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining.Compared with control, hMPs resulted in improvement of cardiac function post-MI with smaller infarct size, induced endogenous angiogenesis, and reduced apoptosis of host cardiomyocytes at the peri-infarct zone at 28 days post-MI.Intramyocardial injection of hMPs improved cardiac function post-MI. The engraftment rate of these cells in the myocardium post-MI was low, suggesting that the majority of effect occurs via paracrine mechanisms.

  15. Long-term recording of cardiac arrhythmias with an implantable cardiac monitor in patients with reduced ejection fraction after acute myocardial infarction: the Cardiac Arrhythmias and Risk Stratification After Acute Myocardial Infarction (CARISMA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch Thomsen, Poul Erik; Jons, Christian; Raatikainen, M J Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction has been limited by the lack of traditional ECG recording systems to document and confirm asymptomatic and symptomatic arrhythmias. The Cardiac Arrhythmias and Risk Stratification After Myocardial Infarction...

  16. Mortality and morbidity remain high despite captopril and/or valsartan therapy in elderly patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, heart failure, or both after acute myocardial infarction - Results from the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, HD; Aylward, PEG; Huang, Z; Dalby, AJ; Weaver, WD; Barvik, S; Marin-Neto, JA; Murin, J; Nordlander, RO; van Gilst, WH; Zannad, F; McMurray, JJV; Califf, RM; Pfeffer, MA

    2005-01-01

    Background - The elderly constitute an increasing proportion of acute myocardial infarction patients and have disproportionately high mortality and morbidity. Those with heart failure or impaired left ventricular left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction have high complication and

  17. Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and bradykinin peptides in rats with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhe; Xu, Hongxin; Tian, Yihao

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been reported to decrease myocardial remodeling and faciliate cardiac function improvement in the setting myocardial infarction by affecting bradykinin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combination effects of perindopril and bradykinin (BK) in rats with myocardial infarction. Wistar Rats underwent to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation were allocated into MI group (n=6); Perindopril group (n=7); Perindopril+BK group (n=7). An additional sham operation group (Sham group, n=6) were also established. After 4 weeks, the left ventricle function, myocardial tissue morphology, myocardial collagen volume faction, infracted ventricular wall thickness, myocardial infarction area and neovascular formation were evaluated. Combination treatment with perindopril and BK were showed significant improvement on LVEDV, LVEF and LVFS than MI group. Moreover, a significant improvement on LVEF was found in Perindopril+BK group than Perindopril group but not on LVEDV and LVFS between these two groups. Furthermore, neo-vessel density was significantly increased in Perindopril+BK group than other groups while no significant improvement on vessel density was found after the treatment of perindopril. In addition, myocardial infarction thickness improvement was found in Perindopril and group than MI group while combination treatment with perindopril and BK can significant improve the myocardial infarction thickness than perindopril only. Combination treatment with ACE inhibitor perindopril and BK can significantly improve the ventricle function in the rat model of myocardial infarction. Our data suggest BK can serve as adjuvant treatment in myocardial infarction treatment.

  18. The impact of acute myocardial infarction on left ventricular systolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçinaj, Dardan; Bakalli, Aurora; Gashi, Masar; Begolli, Luljeta; Berisha, Merita; Koçinaj, Allma; Berisha, Blerim; Krasniqi, Xhevdet

    2011-01-01

    During acute myocardial infarction left ventricular systolic function is an important prognostic factor whose worsening is still frequent despite the therapeutic approach. We aimed to estimate the incidence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction among patients experiencing acute myocardial infarction. The study involved 154 consecutive patients admitted at Coronary Care Unit. The study design was based upon the collection of patient histories, clinical examination and other complementary tests. In overall study population, predominantly with male gender, the incidence of left ventricle systolic dysfunction was 42.3%, which correlated with myocardial damage, electrocardiography changes, myocardial enzymes, and myocardial wall motion. Transthoracic Echocardiography represents a valuable tool and left ventricular ejection fraction should be evaluated in all patients experiencing acute myocardial infarction since the incidence of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction remains relatively high.

  19. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Maldonado, Izabel Regina dos Santos Costa; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Silva, Márcia Ferreira da; Moreira, José Bianco Nascimento; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Ramos, Regiane Maria Soares; Mill, José Geraldo; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Felix, Leonardo Bonato; Gomes, Thales Nicolau Prímola; Natali, Antônio José

    2013-04-01

    The present study was performed to investigate 1) whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2) whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM), sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (pmyocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  20. Experimental myocardial stem cell therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens; Mygind, Naja D; Qayyum, Abbas A

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and is characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries reducing the blood supply to the heart muscle causing ischemia. IHD can result in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI...... interest in the last 10-15 years especially after STEMI. Many preclinical and clinical studies have shown encouraging results but also very diverse clinical outcomes after stem cell treatment. This diversity in results may be explained by different factors, such as cell isolation technique, infarct...

  1. Determinants of pre-hospital pharmacological intervention and its association with outcome in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Rasmus; Herlitz, Johan; Axelsson, Christer; Claesson, Andreas; Bremer, Anders; Karlsson, Thomas; Jimenez-Herrera, Maria; Ravn-Fischer, Annica

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was a) To identify predictors of the use of aspirin in the pre-hospital setting in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and b) To analyze whether the use of any of the recommended medications was associated with outcome. All patients with a final diagnosis of AMI, transported by the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and admitted to the coronary care unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009-2011, were included. 1,726 patients were included. 58 % received aspirin by the EMS. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) was suspected in 84 %. Among patients who did not receive aspirin IHD was still suspected in 67 %. Among patients in whom IHD was suspected, and who were not on chronic treatment with aspirin the following predicted its pre-hospital use: a) age (odds ratio 0.98; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.96-0.99); b) a history of myocardial infarction (2.21; 1.21-4.04); c) priority given by EMS (8.07; 5.42-12.02); d) ST-elevation on ECG on admission to hospital (2.22; 1.50-3.29); e) oxygen saturation > 90 % (3.37; 1.81-6.27). After adjusting for confounders among patients who were not on chronic aspirin, only nitroglycerin of the recommended medications was associated with a reduced risk of death within 1 year (hazard ratio 0.40; 95 % CI 0.23-0.70). Less than six out of ten patients with AMI received pre-hospital aspirin. Five clinical factors were independently associated with the pre-hospital administration of aspirin. This suggests that the decision to treat is multifactorial, and it highlights the lack of accurate diagnostic tools in the pre-hospital environment. Nitroglycerin was independently associated with a reduced risk of death, suggesting that we select the use for a low-risk cohort.

  2. Effect of hydroxy safflower yellow A on myocardial apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M X; Fu, J H; Zhang, Q; Wang, J Q

    2015-04-10

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxy safflower yellow A (HSYA) on myocardial apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats. We randomly divided 170 male Wistar rats into 6 groups (N = 23): normal control, sham, control, SY (90 mg/kg), HSYA high-dose (HSYA-H, 40 mg/kg), and HSYA low-dose groups (HSYA-L, 20 mg/kg). Myocardial ischemic injury was induced by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery, and the degree of myocardial ischemia was evaluated using electrocardiography and nitroblue tetrazolium staining. Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in the ischemic myocardium were determined using immunohistochemical analysis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) expression in the myocardium of rats with AMI was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Compared to rats in the control group, those in the HYSA-H, HSYA-L, and SY groups showed a decrease in the elevated ST segments and an increase in the infarct size. The rats in the drug-treated groups showed a significantly lower percentage of Bax-positive cells and a significantly higher percentage of Bcl-2-positive cells than those in the control group (P myocardial ischemia in rats, possibly by increasing the level of Bcl-2/Bax, and PPAR-γ may be not a necessary link in this process.

  3. Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Long-Term Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Fernandes Petriz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed anatomical information on infarction. However, few studies have investigated the association of these data with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Objective: To study the association between data regarding infarct size and anatomy, as obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, and long-term mortality. Methods: A total of 1959 reports of “infarct size” were identified in 7119 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, of which 420 had clinical and laboratory confirmation of previous myocardial infarction. The variables studied were the classic risk factors – left ventricular ejection fraction, categorized ventricular function, and location of acute myocardial infarction. Infarct size and acute myocardial infarction extent and transmurality were analyzed alone and together, using the variable named “MET-AMI”. The statistical analysis was carried out using the elastic net regularization, with the Cox model and survival trees. Results: The mean age was 62.3 ± 12 years, and 77.3% were males. During the mean follow-up of 6.4 ± 2.9 years, there were 76 deaths (18.1%. Serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with mortality. Age was the main explanatory factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables independently associated with mortality were transmurality of acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.047, ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005 and infarcted size (p = 0.0005; the latter was the main explanatory variable for ischemic heart disease death. The MET-AMI variable was the most strongly associated with risk of ischemic heart disease death (HR: 16.04; 95%CI: 2.64-97.5; p = 0.003. Conclusion: The anatomical data of infarction, obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, were independently associated with long

  4. Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Long-Term Mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriz, João Luiz Fernandes, E-mail: jlpetriz@cardiol.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) / Instituto do Coração Edson Saad - Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina (Cardiologia), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Barra D’Or, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto D’Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Bruno Ferraz de Oliveira; Rua, Braulio Santos [Hospital Barra D’Or, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo, Clério Francisco [Instituto D’Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hadlich, Marcelo Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) / Instituto do Coração Edson Saad - Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina (Cardiologia), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto D’Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mussi, Henrique Thadeu Periard [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) / Instituto do Coração Edson Saad - Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina (Cardiologia), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Barra D’Or, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Taets, Gunnar de Cunto [Instituto D’Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Emília Matos do; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) / Instituto do Coração Edson Saad - Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina (Cardiologia), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed anatomical information on infarction. However, few studies have investigated the association of these data with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. To study the association between data regarding infarct size and anatomy, as obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, and long-term mortality. A total of 1959 reports of “infarct size” were identified in 7119 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, of which 420 had clinical and laboratory confirmation of previous myocardial infarction. The variables studied were the classic risk factors – left ventricular ejection fraction, categorized ventricular function, and location of acute myocardial infarction. Infarct size and acute myocardial infarction extent and transmurality were analyzed alone and together, using the variable named “MET-AMI”. The statistical analysis was carried out using the elastic net regularization, with the Cox model and survival trees. The mean age was 62.3 ± 12 years, and 77.3% were males. During the mean follow-up of 6.4 ± 2.9 years, there were 76 deaths (18.1%). Serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with mortality. Age was the main explanatory factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables independently associated with mortality were transmurality of acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.047), ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005) and infarcted size (p = 0.0005); the latter was the main explanatory variable for ischemic heart disease death. The MET-AMI variable was the most strongly associated with risk of ischemic heart disease death (HR: 16.04; 95%CI: 2.64-97.5; p = 0.003). The anatomical data of infarction, obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, were independently associated with long-term mortality, especially for ischemic heart disease death.

  5. Myocardial infarction, symptomatic third degree atrioventricular block and pulmonary embolism caused by thalidomide: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengyu; Yang, Jing; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Shuyang

    2015-12-18

    Thalidomide has been reported to cause numerous thromboembolic events. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are more common. It can also cause bradycardia and even total atrioventricular block. Rarely, it causes coronary artery spasm and even myocardial infarction. But almost simultaneous onset of myocardial infarction, third degree atrioventricular block and pulmonary embolism in one patient has not been reported so far. A 53-year old man presented because of chest pain, nausea and then syncope for several minutes. Previous medical history included neurodermitis for which thalidomide was given and hypercholesterolemia with simvastatin taking. The patient didn't exhibit any other established risk factors for coronary artery disease. Electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm with third degree atrioventricular block and complete right bundle branch block, and precordial leads ST segment elevation. The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome was suspected, but further coronary angiography demonstrated no flow-limiting lesions in coronary arteries, and temporary pacemaker was implanted. After admission, low SpO2 and elevated D-dimer level was mentioned. Further computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed pulmonary embolism. Thalidomide was thought to be the cause of hypercoagulability and coronary spasm, so it was ceased immediately. Therapeutic low molecule weight heparin was initiated and then switched to warfarin with appropriate INR, and nifedipine was described for coronary spasm. The patient's symptoms completely relived and SpO2 recovered, and atrioventricular block had disappeared during hospitalization with pacemaker removed. This is the very first case in which myocardial infarction, third degree atrioventricular block and pulmonary embolism almost simultaneously developed. We should be ware that anti-thrombotic prophylaxis, which needs further investigation for optimal drug and dosage, may be beneficial in thalidomide therapy. And it is also

  6. Acetylsalicylic acid resistance risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarek, Wioleta; Kasprzak, Michał; Obońska, Karolina; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Wiciński, Michał; Kubica, Aldona; Kubica, Jacek; Grześk, Grzegorz

    2015-10-01

    Despite its commonly recognized benefits in the cardiovascular disease setting, an issue of resistance to this drug has lately emerged. The aim of this research was assessment of the phenomenon of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) resistance and its risk factors in patients treated for myocardial infarction. This study is a post-hoc analysis of a previous prospective study with approximately 200 patients treated for myocardial infarction with a coated formulation of ASA. The population was divided into two subgroups according to the response to ASA. ASA responsiveness was assessed using the arachidonic acid-dependent platelet aggregation (ASPI-test). The measurements were performed using the technique of impedance aggregometry. The prevalence of aspirin resistance among the study population was 6.2%. All analyzed aggregometric parameters (including ASPI-test, adenosine diphosphate dependent platelet aggregation - ADP-test, bleeding time measurement) showed significant differences between both subgroups. ASA resistant patients had higher concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leukocytes (WBC) and platelets (PLT) but lower concentrations of hemoglobin (HGB). The temporal point analysis for both subgroups showed aspirin resistance incidence peak in patients at 9 months after myocardial infarction. The prevalence of aspirin resistance in our study population is comparable with rates reported in literature among patients with cardiovascular diseases. There is a possible relation between aspirin resistance and clopidogrel resistance. Presence did not affect the incidence of the clinical end-points. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Myocardial infarction and intramyocardial injection models in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Frederic C; Telukuntla, Kartik S; Karantalis, Vasileios; Suncion, Viky Y; Heldman, Alan W; Mushtaq, Muzammil; Williams, Adam R; Hare, Joshua M

    2012-07-12

    Sustainable and reproducible large animal models that closely replicate the clinical sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI) are important for the translation of basic science research into bedside medicine. Swine are well accepted by the scientific community for cardiovascular research, and they represent an established animal model for preclinical trials for US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of novel therapies. Here we present a protocol for using porcine models of MI created with a closed-chest coronary artery occlusion-reperfusion technique. This creates a model of MI encompassing the anteroapical, lateral and septal walls of the left ventricle. This model infarction can be easily adapted to suit individual study design and enables the investigation of a variety of possible interventions. This model is therefore a useful tool for translational research into the pathophysiology of ventricular remodeling and is an ideal testing platform for novel biological approaches targeting regenerative medicine. This model can be created in approximately 8-10 h.

  8. Diabetes mellitus and cardiogenic shock in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, M G; Boesgaard, S; Torp-Pedersen, C

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiogenic shock is the leading cause of in-hospital mortality after acute myocardial infarction (MI). This study investigates the importance of age and preexisting diabetes mellitus on the incidence and prognosis of cardiogenic shock in a large group of consecutive patients with MI. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: Baseline characteristics and in-hospital complications to the infarction were prospectively recorded in 6676 patients with MI. Ten-year mortality was collected. Diabetes was present in 10.8% of the total population. A total of 443 developed cardiogenic shock with an incidence of 6.2% among...... nondiabetic patients with acute MI. The prognosis of diabetics with cardiogenic shock is similar to the prognosis of nondiabetic patients with cardiogenic shock....

  9. Matrix Signaling Subsequent to a Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Akpalu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the release and proteomic profile of tissue factor microparticles (TFMPs prospectively (up to 6 months following a myocardial infarction (MI in a chronic porcine model to establish their utility in tracking cellular level activities that predict physiologic outcomes. Our animal groups (n = 6 to 8 each consisted of control, noninfarcted (negative control; infarcted only (positive control; and infarcted animals treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT and a β-blocker (BB (metoprolol succinate. The authors found different protein profiles in TFMPs between the control, infarcted only group, and the CRT + BB treated group with predictive impact on the outward phenotype of pathological remodeling after an MI within and between groups. This novel approach of monitoring cellular level activities by profiling the content of TFMPs has the potential of addressing a shortfall of the current crop of cardiac biomarkers, which is the inability to capture composite molecular changes associated with chronic maladaptive signaling in a spatial and temporal manner.

  10. Bleeding after initiation of multiple antithrombotic drugs, including triple therapy, in atrial fibrillation patients following myocardial infarction and coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberts, Morten; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Ruwald, Martin Huth

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty remains over optimal antithrombotic treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation presenting with myocardial infarction and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. We investigated the risk and time frame for bleeding following myocardial infarction/percutaneous coronary int...

  11. Does plasma copeptin level at admission predict final infarct size in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, Vijai; Beig, Jahangir Rashid; Tramboo, Nisar A; Rasool, Roohi; Choh, Nasir A; Bashir, Shazia; Rather, Hilal A; Lone, Ajaz A

    2016-09-15

    Copeptin is a novel biomarker of potential diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plasma copeptin levels at admission and final infarct size in STEMI patients. This observational study was conducted in Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical sciences, Srinagar, for a period of 1year. 60 patients with STEMI admitted within 24h of symptom onset were included in the study. Plasma copeptin concentrations were determined by ELISA from blood samples drawn at the time of admission. Infarct size was estimated on cardiac MRI after 5-14days of admission, in successfully reperfused patients. Correlations between plasma copeptin levels, infarct size and various clinico-hemodynamic variables were studied. Plasma copeptin concentrations showed a significant positive correlation with MRI determined infarct size (r=0.957; p≤0.0001). Copeptin levels were significantly higher in patients with anterior wall infarction (p≤0.0001), longer symptom duration (p=0.018), advanced Killip class (p≤0.0001), higher body mass index (p=0.019) and extensive coronary artery disease (p≤0.0001). On multivariate analysis, copeptin levels at admission independently predicted final infarct size, irrespective of the clinico-hemodynamic profile of patients or mode of reperfusion (p≤0.0001). The only independent predictor of copeptin level was symptom duration (p=0.018). Copeptin level at admission predicts final infarct size in STEMI patients. Further evidence is however needed before implementation of this biomarker into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Prehospital Electrocardiogram Score Predicts Myocardial Salvage in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Evaluated by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel Malby; Lønborg, Jacob; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that prehopsital ECG scores can identify ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in whom time delay is particularly important for myocardial salvage.......We hypothesized that prehopsital ECG scores can identify ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients in whom time delay is particularly important for myocardial salvage....

  13. Age related issues in reperfusion of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Amelia; Bastiaenen, Rachel; Kaski, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-01

    Advances in pharmacological treatment and effective early myocardial revascularization have led to improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it has been suggested that compared to younger subjects, elderly AMI patients are less likely to receive evidence-based treatment. Several reasons have been postulated to explain this trend, including uncertainty regarding the benefits of the commonly used interventions in the older age group as well as increased risk associated with comorbidities. The diagnosis, management, and post-hospitalization care of elderly patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) pose many difficulties at present due, at least in part, to the fact that trial data are scanty as elderly patients have been poorly represented in most clinical trials. Thus it appears that these high-risk individuals are often managed with more conservative strategies, compared to younger patients. This article reviews current evidence regarding management of AMI in the elderly.

  14. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  15. Rehabilitation status three months after first-time myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Vestergaard, Mogens; Søndergaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the rehabilitation status three months after fi rst-time myocardial infarction (MI) to identify focus areas for long-term cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in general practice. Design. Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects. Patients with fi rst-time MI...... Scale. Of these, 78 (29.8%) reported that they had participated in psychosocial support, and 55 (21.0%) used antidepressants. One in fi ve patients smoked three months after MI although nearly half of the smokers had stopped after the MI. Regarding cardioprotective drugs, 714 (78.6%) used aspirin, 694...

  16. Challenges in secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Corrà, Ugo; Dendale, Paul

    2017-01-01

    in the first year and approximately 50% of major coronary events occur in those with a previous hospital discharge diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease. The people behind these numbers spur this call for action. Prevention after myocardial infarction is crucial to reduce risk and suffering. Evidence......-based interventions include optimal medical treatment with anti-platelets and statins, achieve-ment of blood pressure, lipid and blood glucose targets, and appropriate lifestyle changes. The European Society of Cardiology and its constituent bodies are determined to embrace this challenge by developing a consensus...

  17. Survival and cause of death after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Jørgensen, Torben; Davidsen, M

    2001-01-01

    registered and validated according to the criteria set up for the WHO MONICA project. Short-term (28 days) and long-term (up to 15 years) survival in three periods were compared. The rate of mortality after a non-fatal myocardial infarction was compared with that of the general population, and causes...... of death were analyzed. Short-term survival did not change during the study period, whereas long-term survival improved for men but did not change for women. The excess mortality rate among female patients over that of the general population was due to ischemic heart disease, other cardiovascular diseases...

  18. [Treatment of cardiogenic shock in myocardial infarction with intraaortic counterpulsation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiński, W; Markiewicz, M; Koziara, D; Grzywna, R; Lakomski, B

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) in treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by cardiogenic shock. The study group consists of 20 consecutive patients (13 males and 7 females, aged 38-82 years) with cardiogenic shock developed in the course of MI. Catecholamines were administrated in all patients before intraaortic balloon pumping was instituted. IABP was performed using Datascope device. Efficacy of the procedure was determined with invasive measurements of arterial blood pressure and the level of diuresis. Of 20 patients with cardiogenic shock, 7 were successfully treated with IABP and they were discharged from the hospital.

  19. Family size and paternal unemployment in relation to myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, M L; Sweetnam, P M

    1980-06-01

    Men who had been in hospital for myocardial infarction (MI) were compared with other male patients in an attempt to provide evidence on the hypothesis linking MI with poverty in childhood followed by relative affluence. In each of three social class groupings MI patients came from larger families than controls, and a higher proportion of their fathers had been unemployed for more than a year during their childhood. This gives some support to the hypothesis that childhood poverty may be associated with an excess risk of MI. There was no obvious evidence of a greater improvement in social class status among the MI patients compared with the controls.

  20. Imaging QRS complex and ST segment in myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Bang, Lia E; Szathmary, Vavrinec

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction creates regions of altered electrical properties of myocardium resulting in typical QRS patterns (pathological Q waves) and ST segment deviations observed in leads related to the MI location. The aim of this study was to present a graphical method for imaging...... of the instantaneous QRS vectors, and the estimated "myocardium at risk" based on the ST segment deviation. RESULTS: The images are presented as Mercator projections with the texture of anatomical segments of the heart and the corresponding coronary artery distribution. The changes in depolarization sequence were...

  1. Chameleons: Electrocardiogram Imitators of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nable, Jose V; Lawner, Benjamin J

    2015-08-01

    The imperative for timely reperfusion therapy for patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) underscores the need for clinicians to have an understanding of how to distinguish patterns of STEMI from its imitators. These imitating diagnoses may confound an evaluation, potentially delaying necessary therapy. Although numerous diagnoses may mimic STEMI, several morphologic clues may allow the physician to determine if the pattern is concerning for either STEMI or a mimicking diagnosis. Furthermore, obtaining a satisfactory history, comparing previous electrocardiograms, and assessing serial tests may provide valuable clues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Successful endovascular treatment for simultaneous multiple thromboemboli following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Akiko; Hara, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Masato

    2013-06-01

    An 81-year-old female was referred for myocardial infarction with heart failure. She was successfully treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and left ventriculogram revealed an apical thrombus 20 mm in diameter. Multiple simultaneous thromboemboli occurred in her right renal artery, supramesenteric artery (SMA), and right popliteal artery on the fifth day after PCI despite anticoagulant therapy. Emergency endovascular therapy (EVT) with an aspiration catheter and ballooning were performed to the popliteal and renal artery, in addition to additional stenting of the SMA because of an intramural hematoma. This one session of emergency EVT was sufficient to save this patient, and no sequelae were observed after this treatment.

  3. T1 mapping in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messroghli, Daniel R; Niendorf, Thoralf; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Dietz, Rainer; Friedrich, Matthias G

    2003-01-01

    Pixel-by-pixel calculation of T1 values (T1 mapping) has been used in different tissues to focus on T1 changes in a quantitative fashion. The aim of this study was to establish T1 mapping of human myocardium on a 1.5 Tesla system and to examine its diagnostic potential in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). 8 patients with reperfused AMI (day 3 +/- 1) underwent multi-breath-hold MRI in a 1.5 Tesla system. Sets of five images with varying T1 weighting were acquired prior to and after the administration of contrast agent to generate images from calculated T1 values (T1 mapping). Prior to the contrast agent administration, all patients showed T1 prolongation in the area of infarction, which was identified in separate measurements using the delayed enhancement approach. Compared to noninfarcted areas, T1 values in the infarcted areas were increased by 18 +/- 7% (SE, p T1 prolongation was larger than that of the hyper-enhanced areas in conventional contrast-enhanced images. T1 maps obtained after the application of Gadolinium-DTPA revealed a T1 reduction of 27 +/- 4% in infarcted tissue compared to noninfarcted areas (p T1 reduction were in agreement with the hyper-enhanced regions in conventional T1-weighted images. T1 mapping visualizes changes in the longitudinal relaxation time induced by AMI. T1 mapping can detect myocardial necrosis without the use of contrast media. Information that can be extracted from a combination of pre- and postcontrast T1 maps exceeds that from conventional contrast studies.

  4. Bronchogenic Carcinoma with Cardiac Invasion Simulating Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac metastases in bronchogenic carcinoma may occur due to retrograde lymphatic spread or by hematogenous dissemination of tumour cells, but direct invasion of heart by adjacent malignant lung mass is very uncommon. Pericardium is frequently involved in direct cardiac invasion by adjacent lung cancer. Pericardial effusion, pericarditis, and tamponade are common and life threatening presentation in such cases. But direct invasion of myocardium and endocardium is very uncommon. Left atrial endocardium is most commonly involved in such cases due to anatomical contiguity with pulmonary hilum through pulmonary veins, and in most cases left atrial involvement is asymptomatic. But myocardial compression and invasion by adjacent lung mass may result in myocardial ischemia and may present with retrosternal, oppressive chest pain which clinically may simulate with the acute myocardial infarction (AMI. As a result, it leads to misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Here we report a case of non-small-cell carcinoma of right lung which was presented with asymptomatic invasion in left atrium and retrosternal chest pain simulating AMI due to myocardial compression by adjacent lung mass, in a seventy-four-year-old male smoker.

  5. Early identification and delay to treatment in myocardial infarction and stroke: differences and similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlitz Johan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two major complications of atherosclerosis are acute myocardial infarction (AMI and acute ischemic stroke. Both are life-threatening conditions characterised by the abrupt cessation of blood flow to respective organs, resulting in an infarction. Depending on the extent of the infarction, loss of organ function varies considerably. In both conditions, it is possible to limit the extent of infarction with early intervention. In both conditions, minutes count. This article aims to describe differences and similarities with regard to the way patients, bystanders and health care providers act in the acute phase of the two diseases with the emphasis on the pre-hospital phase. Method A literature search was performed on the PubMed, Embase (Ovid SP and Cochrane Library databases. Results In both conditions, symptoms vary considerably. Patients appear to suspect AMI more frequently than stroke and, in the former, there is a gender gap (men suspect AMI more frequently than women. With regard to detection of AMI and stroke at dispatch centre and in Emergency Medical Service (EMS there is room for improvement in both conditions. The use of EMS appears to be higher in stroke but the overall delay to hospital admission is shorter in AMI. In both conditions, the fast track concept has been shown to influence the delay to treatment considerably. In terms of diagnostic evaluation by the EMS, more supported instruments are available in AMI than in stroke. Knowledge of the importance of early treatment has been reported to influence delays in both AMI and stroke. Conclusion Both in AMI and stroke minutes count and therefore the fast track concept has been introduced. Time to treatment still appears to be longer in stroke than in AMI. In the future improvement in the early detection as well as further shortening to start of treatment will be in focus in both conditions. A collaboration between cardiologists and neurologists and also between

  6. Initiation and adherence to secondary prevention pharmacotherapy after myocardial infarction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with less optimal secondary prevention pharmacotherapy after first-time myocardial infarction (MI).......To examine whether rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with less optimal secondary prevention pharmacotherapy after first-time myocardial infarction (MI)....

  7. Income as mediator of the effect of occupation on the risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Gamborg, Michael; Osler, Merete

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of occupational grade on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by income with different aspects of income taken into account.......To investigate whether the effect of occupational grade on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by income with different aspects of income taken into account....

  8. Exercise hemodynamics in patients with and without diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads J; Ersbøll, Mads; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) is common after myocardial infarction (MI) despite preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, yet it remains unclear how or whether DD affects cardiac hemodynamics with stress.......Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) is common after myocardial infarction (MI) despite preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, yet it remains unclear how or whether DD affects cardiac hemodynamics with stress....

  9. Preprocedural TIMI flow and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.; Ernst, N.; Zijlstra, F.; van't Hof, A.W.J.; Hoorntje, J.C.A.; Dambrink, J.H.E.; Gosslink, A.T.M.; de Boer, M.J.; Suryapranata, H.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of preprocedural Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow on one-year mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary angioplasty. Background Although there is an excellent outcome

  10. Left Bundle Branch Block and Complete Heart Block Complicating Inferior Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jillian S; Stair, Brad; Aktas, Mehmet; Bravo-Jaimes, Katia

    2017-01-01

    Left bundle branch block following inferior myocardial infarction remains uncommon and scarcely reported in the literature. We describe a rare presentation of a 58-year-old male patient who developed left bundle branch block and third degree atrioventricular block after inferior myocardial infarction requiring permanent pacemaker placement. Pathophysiology, impact on mortality, and management options are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Myocardial infarction and other co-morbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is nominally the most important co-morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the one with the greatest potential for treatment and prevention to improve the overall prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. We assessed the extent...... of myocardial infarction and other co-morbidities in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the general population....

  12. [Cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle associated with premature myocardial infarction diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Eva; León, Montserrat; Cordero, Alberto; Magallón Botaya, Rosa; Magán, Purificación; Luengo, Emilio; Alegría, Eduardo; Casasnovas, José A

    2011-06-01

    Young and old patients with acute myocardial infarction have different risk factor profiles, clinical presentation, angiographic findings and prognosis. In the present study we investigated the clinical profile of patients aged myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Liposome-encapsulated berberine treatment reduces adverse ventricle remodeling after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413575055; Allijn, I.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369493192; Czarny, B.M.S.; Wang, X.Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413575152; Chong, S.Y.; Pastorin, G.; De Kleijn, D.P.V.; Storm, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073356328; Schiffelers, R.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/212909509

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adverse left ventricle remodeling can be measured as a reduction in ejection fraction after myocardial infarction. Left ventricle remodeling leads to congestive heart failure and is a main determinant of mortality and morbidity after myocardial infarction. Berberine is an isoquinoline

  14. Discontinuation of hormone replacement therapy after myocardial infarction and short term risk of adverse cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Hansen, Peter Riis; Sørensen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    To assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in women who discontinue hormone replacement therapy after myocardial infarction compared with those who continue.......To assess the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in women who discontinue hormone replacement therapy after myocardial infarction compared with those who continue....

  15. Significance of the invasive strategy after acute myocardial infarction on prognosis and secondary preventive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To describe gender-specific long-term outcome and initiation of secondary preventive medication among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).......To describe gender-specific long-term outcome and initiation of secondary preventive medication among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)....

  16. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Werner, S; Eggertsen, G

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone therapy after myocardial infarction improves cardiac function and survival in animals. Beneficial effects in humans are reported from studies where patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were treated with growth hormone. We have studied the role of the endogenous growth...... hormone system in myocardial infarction....

  17. The revised role of left ventricular dilatation and ACE-inhibition after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kam, Pieter Jan de

    2002-01-01

    It has generally been accepted that a myocardial infarction is complicated by extensive LVdilatation and that the main mechanism by which ACE-inhibitors produce their beneficial effects after myocardial infarction is attenuation of LV dilatation. This thesis tests both theories in an era where the

  18. Fibrinogen polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Bertina, R.M.; Manger Cats, V.; Rosendaal, F.R.

    2000-01-01

    In the Study of Myocardial Infarctions Leiden, we investigated the prevalence of three polymorphisms in the α- and β-fibrinogen genes among 560 patients with a myocardial infarction and 646 control subjects. Secondly, we studied the relationships between these polymorphisms and fibrinogen activity

  19. Detecting Acute Myocardial Infarction by Diffusion-Weighted versus T2-Weighted Imaging and Myocardial Necrosis Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiyang; Chen, Min; Li, Yongjun; Wang, YaLing; Zhang, Shijun; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Ju, Shenghong

    2016-10-01

    We used a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction to study the signal evolution of ischemic myocardium on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DWI). Eight Chinese miniature pigs underwent percutaneous left anterior descending or left circumflex coronary artery occlusion for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion, which induced acute myocardial infarction. We used DWI preprocedurally and hourly for 4 hours postprocedurally. We acquired turbo inversion recovery magnitude T2-weighted images (TIRM T2WI) and late gadolinium enhancement images from the DWI slices. We measured the serum myocardial necrosis markers myoglobin, creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme, and cardiac troponin I at the same time points as the magnetic resonance scanning. We used histochemical staining to confirm injury. All images were analyzed qualitatively. Contrast-to-noise ratio (the contrast between infarcted and healthy myocardium) and relative signal index were used in quantitative image analysis. We found that DWI identified myocardial signal abnormity early (acute myocardial infarction and identified the infarct-related high signal more often than did TIRM T2WI: 7 of 8 pigs (87.5%) versus 3 of 8 (37.5%) ( P =0.046). Quantitative image analysis yielded a significant difference in contrast-to-noise ratio and relative signal index between infarcted and normal myocardium on DWI. However, within 4 hours after infarction, the serologic myocardial injury markers were not significantly positive. We conclude that DWI can be used to detect myocardial signal abnormalities early after acute myocardial infarction-identifying the infarction earlier than TIRM T2WI and widely used clinical serologic biomarkers.

  20. [Asynchronous Bilateral Testicular Infarction with Suspected Polyarteritis Nodosa : A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masayuki; Naito, Sei; Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Suto, Aya; Kurota, Yuta; Sakurai, Toshihiko; Nishida, Hayato; Kawazoe, Hisashi; Kato, Tomoyuki; Nagaoka, Akira; Ito, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Tsuchiya, Norihiko

    2016-12-01

    This report documents a case of asynchronous bilateral testicular infarction. The patient was a 42- year-old man who presented with left testicular pain and swelling. He had a past history of right idiopathic testicular infarction and underwent a right orchiectomy 6 years ago. He also had received treatment for 5 years for suspected polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). The left scrotal pain persisted for a week and left orchiectomy was performed. Pathological evaluations demonstrated a benign testis with testicular hemorrhage and chronic vasculopathy. There was no fibrinoid necrosis of medium-size vessel walls which characterizes PAN. In this report, we review the pathogenesis, risk of contralateral testicular infarction, and management of testicular infarction.

  1. Time elapsed after contrast injection is crucial to determine infarct transmurality and myocardial functional recovery after an acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palomares, José F; Ortiz-Pérez, José T; Lee, Daniel C; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara; Tejedor, Paula; Bonow, Robert O; Wu, Edwin

    2015-05-30

    In acute myocardial infarction (MI), late Gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has been proposed to include the infarcted myocardium and area at risk. However, little information is available on the optimal timing after contrast injection to differentiate these 2 areas. Our aim was to determine in acute and chronic MI whether imaging time after contrast injection influences the LGE size that better predicts infarct size and functional recovery. Subjects were evaluated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) the first week (n = 60) and 3 months (n = 47) after a percutaneously revascularized STEMI. Inversion-recovery single-shot (ss-IR) imaging was acquired at multiple time points following contrast administration and compared to segmented inversion-recovery (seg-IR) sequences. Inversion time was properly adjusted and images were blinded, randomized and measured for LGE volumes. In acute MI, LGE volume decreased over several minutes (p = 0.005) with the greatest volume occurring at 3 minutes and the smallest at 25 minutes post-contrast injection; however, LGE volume remained constant over time in chronic MI (p = 0.886). Depending on the imaging time, in acute phase, a change in the transmurality index was also observed. A transmural infarction (>75%) at 25 minutes better predicted the absence of improvement in the wall motion score index (WMSI), a higher increase in left ventricular volumes and a lower ejection fraction compared to 10 minutes. A change was observed in LGE volume in the minutes following contrast administration in acute but not in chronic MI. Infarct transmurality 25 minutes post-contrast injection better predicted infarct size and functional recovery at follow-up.

  2. Trends in Incidence of Hospitalized Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Cardiovascular Research Network (CVRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Go, Alan S; Leong, Thomas K; Boudreau, Denise M; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Fortmann, Stephen P; Goldberg, Robert J; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Magid, David J; Margolis, Karen L; McNeal, Catherine J; Newton, Katherine M; Novotny, Rachel; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rosamond, Wayne D; Smith, David H; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Vupputuri, Suma; Waring, Stephen C; Williams, Marc S; Sidney, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Monitoring trends in cardiovascular events can provide key insights into the effectiveness of prevention efforts. Leveraging data from electronic health records provides a unique opportunity to examine contemporary, community-based trends in acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations. We examined trends in hospitalized acute myocardial infarction incidence among adults aged ≥25 years in 13 US health plans in the Cardiovascular Research Network. The first hospitalization per member for acute myocardial infarction overall and for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification primary discharge codes in each calendar year from 2000 through 2008. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence was calculated per 100,000 person-years using direct adjustment with 2000 US census data. Between 2000 and 2008, we identified 125,435 acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of acute myocardial infarction decreased an average 3.8%/y from 230.5 in 2000 to 168.6 in 2008. Incidence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction decreased 8.7%/y from 104.3 in 2000 to 51.7 in 2008, whereas incidence of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction increased from 126.1 to 129.4 between 2000 and 2004 and then decreased thereafter to 116.8 in 2008. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates generally reflected similar patterns, with relatively larger decreases in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction rates in women compared with men. As compared with 2000, the age-adjusted incidence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in 2008 was 48% lower among men and 61% lower among women. Among a large, diverse, multicenter community-based insured population, there were significant decreases in incidence of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction and the more serious ST-segment elevation

  3. Acute Myocardial Infarction Secondary to Catecholamine Release Owing to Cocaine Abuse and Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Quintana, Efren; Jaimes-Vivas, Ricardo; Cuba-Herrera, Javiel; Saiz-Udaeta, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Gonzalez, Fayna; Martinez-Martin, Maria Soledad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Most pheochromocytomas are not suspected clinically while a high percentage of them are curable with surgery. We present the case of an adult cocaine-addicted male patient with an underlying pheochromocytoma and repeated myocardial infarctions. Computed tomography showed a left round adrenal mass, also high 24-hour urine levels of catecholamines and metanephrines were detected from urinalysis. The patient was given alpha and beta blockers, moreover a laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. Cocaine can block the reuptake of noradrenaline, leading to increasing its concentration and consequently its effects as well, and induce local or diffuse coronary vasoconstriction in normal coronary artery segments per se, cocaine can also trigger pheochromocytoma crisis, and therefore, cardiac complications such as myocardial infarction due to these additive effects are intended to occur. For this reason, in the presence of typical clinical manifestations of pheochromocytoma, such as sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, headache, sweating, tachycardia and abdominal pain, probable association of this tumor in patients with cocaine abuse and associated cardiac complications must be ruled out. PMID:23853620

  4. “Spice” (Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ul Haq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana is the most widely abused “recreational” substance in the United States, with highest prevalence in young adults. It is reported to cause ischemic strokes, hepatitis, anxiety, and psychosis. Although it is associated with dose dependent tachycardia and can lead to coronary vasospasm, it has not been directly related to acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Marijuana induced coronary vasospasm can result in endothelial denudation at the site of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in response to hemodynamic stressors, potentially causing an AMI. Spice refers to herbal mixture with composition and effects similar to that of marijuana and therefore is referred to as “synthetic marijuana.” Herein, we report 3 cases of spice induced ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. All patients were relatively young and had few or absolutely no risk factors for cardiovascular disease. All patients underwent emergent coronary angiography, with two needing stent placement and the third requiring only aspiration thrombectomy. Our case series emphasizes the importance of suspecting and investigating synthetic marijuana use in low risk young adults presenting with AMI.

  5. Sex-specific chest pain characteristics in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini Gimenez, Maria; Reiter, Miriam; Twerenbold, Raphael; Reichlin, Tobias; Wildi, Karin; Haaf, Philip; Wicki, Katharina; Zellweger, Christa; Hoeller, Rebeca; Moehring, Berit; Sou, Seoung Mann; Mueller, Mira; Denhaerynck, Kris; Meller, Bernadette; Stallone, Fabio; Henseler, Sarah; Bassetti, Stefano; Geigy, Nicolas; Osswald, Stefan; Mueller, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Whether sex-specific chest pain characteristics (CPCs) would allow physicians in the emergency department to differentiate women with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from women with other causes of acute chest pain more accurately remains unknown. OBJECTIVE To improve the management of suspected AMI in women by exploring sex-specific CPCs. From April 21, 2006, through August 12, 2012, we enrolled 2475 consecutive patients (796 women and 1679 men) presenting with acute chest pain to 9 emergency departments in a prospective multicenter study. The final diagnosis of AMI was adjudicated by 2 independent cardiologists. Treatment of AMI in the emergency department. Sex-specific diagnostic performance of 34 predefined and uniformly recorded CPCs in the early diagnosis of AMI. Acute myocardial infarction was the adjudicated final diagnosis in 143 women (18.0%) and 369 men (22.0%). Although most CPCs were reported with similar frequency in women and men, several CPCs were reported more frequently in women (P pain duration (2-30 and >30 minutes) and dynamics (decreasing pain intensity). However, because their likelihood ratios were close to 1, the 3 CPCs did not seem clinically helpful. Similar results were obtained when examining combinations of CPCs (all interactions, P ≥ .05). Differences in the sex-specific diagnostic performance of CPCs are small and do not seem to support the use of women-specific CPCs in the early diagnosis of AMI. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00470587.

  6. Complement component 3 is necessary to preserve myocardium and myocardial function in chronic myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Solanki, Mitesh; Borkowska, Sylwia; van Hoose, Patrick; Brittian, Kenneth R; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Rokosh, Gregg

    2014-09-01

    Activation of the complement cascade (CC) with myocardial infarction (MI) acutely initiates immune cell infiltration, membrane attack complex formation on injured myocytes, and exacerbates myocardial injury. Recent studies implicate the CC in mobilization of stem/progenitor cells and tissue regeneration. Its role in chronic MI is unknown. Here, we consider complement component C3, in the chronic response to MI. C3 knockout (KO) mice were studied after permanent coronary artery ligation. C3 deficiency exacerbated myocardial dysfunction 28 days after MI compared to WT with further impaired systolic function and LV dilation despite similar infarct size 24 hours post-MI. Morphometric analysis 28 days post-MI showed C3 KO mice had more scar tissue with less viable myocardium within the infarct zone which correlated with decreased c-kit(pos) cardiac stem/progenitor cells (CPSC), decreased proliferating Ki67(pos) CSPCs and decreased formation of new BrdU(pos) /α-sarcomeric actin(pos) myocytes, and increased apoptosis compared to WT. Decreased CSPCs and increased apoptosis were evident 7 days post-MI in C3 KO hearts. The inflammatory response with MI was attenuated in the C3 KO and was accompanied by attenuated hematopoietic, pluripotent, and cardiac stem/progenitor cell mobilization into the peripheral blood 72 hours post-MI. These results are the first to demonstrate that CC, through C3, contributes to myocardial preservation and regeneration in response to chronic MI. Responses in the C3 KO infer that C3 activation in response to MI expands the resident CSPC population, increases new myocyte formation, increases and preserves myocardium, inflammatory response, and bone marrow stem/progenitor cell mobilization to preserve myocardial function. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  7. Assessment of myocardial viability using multidetector computed tomography in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B.J. [Department of Cardiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, D.K., E-mail: kdklsm@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Sun, J.S. [Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Aim: To assess the prognostic value of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to predict follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery after reperfusion therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) as defined by echocardiography. Materials and methods: After reperfusion therapy for acute MI, 71 patients underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced MDCT and follow-up echocardiography. MDCT findings were compared with echocardiographic findings using kappa statistics. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) and the odds ratios (ORs) of early perfusion defects (EPD), delayed enhancement (DE), and residual perfusion defects (RPD) for predicting follow-up myocardial dysfunction and functional recovery were calculated on a segmental basis. Results: The presence of transmural EPD (EPD{sub TM}) or RPD showed good agreement (k = 0.611 and 0.658, respectively) with follow-up myocardial dysfunction, while subendocardial EPD (EPD{sub sub}) or subendocardial DE (DE{sub sub}) showed fair agreement with follow-up myocardial dysfunction (k = 0.235 and 0.234, respectively). The AUC of RPD (0.796) was superior (p < 0.001 and 0.031, respectively) to those of EPD{sub TM} (0.761) and DE{sub TM} (0.771). The presence of EPD{sub TM}, DE{sub TM}, and RPD were significant, independent positive predictors of follow-up myocardial dysfunction (OR = 6.4, 1.9, and 9.8, respectively). EPD{sub TM} was a significant, independent negative predictor of myocardial functional recovery (OR = 0.13). Conclusion: Abnormal myocardial attenuation on two-phase MDCT after reperfusion therapy may provide promising information regarding myocardial viability in patients with acute MI.

  8. Excess long-term mortality among hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction. Soroka Acute Myocardial Infarction (SAMI) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakht, Y; Gilutz, H; Shiyovich, A

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in unselected 'real life' patients according to the various risk groups, and it's persistence with time after AMI as compared with the matched general population. Retrospective study. Data were collected from 2671 AMI hospital survivors (tertiary medical centre in Israel), which included demographics, clinical characteristics of AMI, comorbidities, interventions and test results. All-cause mortality during the 10-year follow-up period was compared with age-, sex- and ethnicity/religion-matched general population using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Overall mortality of AMI patients (48.6%) was higher than the general population (SMR, 2.2; P < 0.001). Mortality rates and SMRs tended to be greater in higher risk strata of patients, Jews vs Muslims, women vs men, non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) vs ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-invasive treatment vs invasive treatment, and recurrent vs first AMI. Mortality rates increased with age, but SMRs were highest in the youngest group. Through the follow-up period, SMR was highest during the first year after discharge (SMR, 4.85; P < 0.001) and higher in 7th-10th years compared with 2nd-6th years. Patients who survived hospital admission with AMI continue to be at higher (approximately twice) risk of death compared with the general population for at least 10-year follow-up period and especially throughout the first and 7th-10th years after AMI, young women, high-risk patients, Jews, NSTEMI, non-invasively treated and recurrent AMI. These findings can assist healthcare providers and decision makers prioritizing targets of secondary prevention and allocation of resources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Impact of pre-admission depression on mortality following myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbøll, Jens; Schmidt, Morten; Adelborg, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundThe prognostic impact of previous depression on myocardial infarction survival remains poorly understood.AimsTo examine the association between depression and all-cause mortality following myocardial infarction.MethodUsing Danish medical registries, we conducted a nationwide population......-based cohort study. We included all patients with first-time myocardial infarction (1995-2014) and identified previous depression as either a depression diagnosis or use of antidepressants. We used Cox regression to compute adjusted mortality rate ratios (aMRRs) with 95% confidence intervals.......ResultsWe identified 170 771 patients with first-time myocardial infarction. Patients with myocardial infarction and a previous depression diagnosis had higher 19-year mortality risks (87% v. 78%). The overall aMRR was 1.11 (95% CI 1.07-1.15) increasing to 1.22 (95% CI 1.17-1.27) when including use of antidepressants...

  10. A Multidisciplinary Assessment of Remote Myocardial Fibrosis After Reperfused Myocardial Infarction in Swine and Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervas, Arantxa; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo; Gavara, Jose; Monmeneu, Jose V; de Dios, Elena; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Perez-Sole, Nerea; Perez, Itziar; Monleon, Daniel; Morales, Jose M; Minana, Gema; Nunez, Julio; Bonanad, Clara; Diaz, Ana; Vila, Jose M; Chorro, Francisco J; Bodi, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    In extensive nonreperfused myocardial infarction (MI), remote fibrosis has been documented. Early reperfusion by primary angioplasty represents the gold standard method to minimize the extension of the infarction. We aimed to ascertain whether fibrosis also affects remote regions in reperfused MI in swine and patients. Swine were subjected to a transient occlusion of the left anterior descending artery followed by 1-week or 1-month reperfusion. Collagen content in the remote area macroscopically, microscopically, by magnetic resonance microimaging, and at the molecular level was similar to controls. In patients with previous MI, samples from autopsies displayed a significant increase in collagen content only in the infarct region. In patients with previous MI submitted to cardiac magnetic resonance-T1 mapping, the extracellular volume fraction in remote segments was similar to that for controls. In all scenarios, the remote region did not show a significant increase of collagen content in comparison with controls.

  11. CURRENT REPERFUSION THERAPY POSSIBILITIES IN MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Konstantinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke remain to be of the greatest medical and social importance because of their high prevalence, disability, and mortality rates. Intractable thrombotic occlusion of the respective artery leads to the formation of an ischemic lesion focus in the tissue of the heart or brain. Emergency reperfusion serves to decrease a necrotic focus, makes its formation reversible, and reduces patient death rates. The paper considers main reperfusion therapy lines: medical (with thrombolytic drugs and mechanical (with primary interventions one and their combination in treating patients with acute myocardial and cerebral ischemia. Each reperfusion procedure is discussed in view of its advantages, disadvantages, available guidelines, and possibilities of real clinical practice. Tenecteplase is assessed in terms of its efficacy, safety, and capacities for bolus administration, which allows its use at any hospital and at the pre-hospital stage. Prehospital thrombolysis permits reperfusion therapy to bring much closer to the patient and therefore aids in reducing time to reperfusion and in salvaging as much the myocardial volume as possible. The rapidest recovery of myocardial and cerebral perfusion results in a decreased necrotic area and both improved immediate and late prognosis. The results of randomized clinical trials studying the possibilities of the medical and mechanical methods to restore blood flow are analyzed in the context of evidence-based medicine. The reason why despite the available contraindications, limited efficiency, and the risk of hemorrhagic complications, thrombolytic therapy remains the method of choice for prehospital reperfusion, an alternative to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI if it cannot be carried out in patients with myocardial infarction at the stated time, and the only treatment ischemic stroke treatment that has proven its efficiency and safety in clinical trials is under

  12. Elevated levels of adipokines predict outcome after acute myocardial infarction: A long-term follow-up of the Glucose Tolerance in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsinger, Viveca; Brismar, Kerstin; Malmberg, Klas; Mellbin, Linda; Näsman, Per; Rydén, Lars; Söderberg, Stefan; Tenerz, Åke; Norhammar, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Adiponectin and leptin are associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Information on the prognostic value after an acute myocardial infarction is still conflicting. Patients (n = 180) without known diabetes and with admission glucose of acute myocardial infarction in 1998-2000 were followed for mortality and cardiovascular events (first of cardiovascular mortality/acute myocardial infarction/stroke/heart failure) until the end of 2011 (median: 11.6 years). Plasma adiponectin and leptin were related to outcome in Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses. Median age was 64 years and 69% were male. Total mortality was 34% (n = 61) and 44% (n = 80) experienced a cardiovascular event. Adiponectin at discharge predicted cardiovascular events (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval; 1.45; 1.02-2.07, p = 0.038), total mortality (2.53; 1.64-3.91, p myocardial infarction and heart failure, adiponectin predicted total mortality (1.79; 1.07-3.00, p = 0.027) but not cardiovascular events. High levels of leptin were associated with cardiovascular events during the first 7 years, after which the association was attenuated. Leptin did not predict total mortality. In patients with acute myocardial infarction but without previously known diabetes, high levels of adiponectin at discharge predicted total mortality. The present results support the hypothesis that high rather than low levels of adiponectin predict mortality after acute myocardial infarction.

  13. Treatment with the gap junction modifier rotigaptide (ZP123) reduces infarct size in rats with chronic myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Marcussen, Niels; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2006-01-01

    Treatment with non-selective drugs (eg, long-chain alcohols, halothane) that reduce gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with reduced infarct size after myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, it has been suggested that gap junction intercellular communication stimulating...... compounds may increase infarct size. The antiarrhythmic peptide analogue rotigaptide (ZP123) increases cardiac gap junction intercellular communication and the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of rotigaptide treatment on infarct size. Myocardial infarction was induced in male rats...... by ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Rats (n = 156) were treated with rotigaptide at three dose levels or vehicle from the onset of ischemia and for 3 weeks following LAD occlusion. Infarct size was determined using histomorphometry after 3 weeks treatment. Rotigaptide treatment producing...

  14. Correlation between reverse redistribution and subendocardial myocardial infarction observed in myocardial contrast echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Choe, Won Sick; Kwan, Jun [Inha Univ. Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand the pattern and nature of reverse redistribution (RR) in myocardial perfusion imaging. In consecutive 20 acute myocardial infarction (MI) patients, frequency of RR was correlated with that of subendocardial MI that was detected by myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). RR was judged to be present when there was more than one grade of worsening in perfusion at 24 hr delayed images compared with the initial rest images. MCE evaluated the significant lack of opacification in the subendocardial myocardium relative to the subepicardial myocardium to suggest the subendocardial MI. Kendall's nonparametric correlation coefficiency was calculated. Concordant cases were 15 of 20 (75%) and correlation was statistically significant (p=3D0.0285). Our results suggested that RR was correlated with MCE-detected nontransmural MI.

  15. Electrocardiographic infarct size assessment after thrombolysis: insights from the Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagelata, Alejandro; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Califf, Robert M; Garg, Jyotsna; Birnbaum, Yochai; Grinfeld, Liliana; Gibbons, Raymond J; Granger, Christopher B; Goodman, Shaun G; Wagner, Galen S; Mahaffey, Kenneth W

    2005-10-01

    Noninvasive methods are needed to evaluate reperfusion success in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). The AMISTAD trial was analyzed to compare MI size and myocardial salvage determined by electrocardiogram (ECG) with technetium Tc 99m sestamibi single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) imaging. Of 236 patients enrolled in AMISTAD, 166 (70 %) with no ECG confounding factors and no prior MI were included in this analysis. Of these, group 1 (126 patients, 53%) had final infarct size (FIS) available by both ECG and SPECT. Group 2 (56 patients, 24%) had myocardium at risk, FIS, and salvage index (SI) assessed by both SPECT and ECG techniques. Aldrich/Clemmensen scores for myocardium at risk and the Selvester QRS score for final MI size were used. Salvage index was calculated as follows: SI = (myocardium at risk-FIS)/(myocardium at risk). In group 1, FIS was 15% (6, 24) as measured by ECG and 11% (2, 27) as measured by SPECT. In the adenosine group, FIS was 12% (6, 21) and 11% (2, 22). In the placebo group, FIS was 16.5% (7.5, 24) and 11.5% (3.0, 38.5) by ECG and SPECT, respectively. The overall correlation between SPECT and ECG for FIS was 0.58 (P = .0001): 0.60 in the placebo group (P = .0001) and 0.54 (P = .0001) in the adenosine group. In group 2, myocardium at risk was 23% (17, 30) and 26% (10, 50) with ECG and SPECT, respectively (P = .0066). Final infarct size was 17% (6, 21) and 12% (1, 24) (P < .0001). The SI was 29% (-7, 57) and 46% (15, 79) with ECG and SPECT, respectively (P = .0510). The ECG measurement of infarct size has a moderate relationship with SPECT infarct size measurements in the population with available assessments. This ECG algorithm must further be validated on clinical outcomes.

  16. [Prognostic importance of cardiomegaly in patients with acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaulent-Huertas, Leticia; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Vicente-Gilabert, Marta; Melgarejo-Moreno, Antonio; Alonso-Fernández, Nuria; Díaz-Pastor, Angela; Escudero-García, Germán; Galcerá-Tomás, José

    2015-10-01

    To assess the in-hospital and long-term prognostic importance of cardiomegaly demonstrated by a simple admission radiograph in patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction. Prospective study of 7644 patients admitted for acute myocardial infarction; 2 hospitals participated. We recorded detailed clinical data, especially noting the presence or absence of cardiomegaly in the chest radiograph. Adjusted predictive models for all-cause mortality in hospital or after discharge were constructed. The median followup was 6 years. Cardiomegaly was detected in 1351 (17.7%) of the patients. Hospital mortality was 11.2% overall; the incidence of long-term mortality was 5.7 per 100 patient-years. Patients with cardiomegaly were older and had more cardiovascular risk factors other than current smoking; they also had more concomitant conditions, had undergone fewer revascularization procedures, and received suboptimal care after discharge. Cardiomegaly was associated with higher in-hospital rates of adverse events, especially heart failure (70.8% in patients with cardiomegaly vs 21.4% in others, P<.001) and death (27.8% vs 7.7%, P<.001). Cardiomegaly was also an independent predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.34; P=.02) as well as mortality after discharge (hazard ratio, 1.16; P<.01). Cardiomegaly was an independent predictor of both hospital mortality and long-term mortality after discharge in this series.

  17. [Thromboaspiration in the treatment of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasselet, C; Duval, S; Leroux, M; Davienne, Y

    2015-12-01

    Routine manual thrombectomy during primary percutaneous coronary intervention might be intuitively justified. While older registers reported contradictory results, interventional cardiologists remained interested in using such devices during the mechanical treatment of acute myocardial infarction. The first studies were congruent to demonstrate a significant relationship between thromboaspiration and significant improvement of ST-segment elevation, lower distal embolization, despite TAPAS was the only to significantly reduce the mortality. Later studies were unable to confirm these promising data, avoiding routine manual thrombectomy prior to primary angioplasty to decrease cardiovascular mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock or severe heart failure. Moreover, thrombectomy was associated with an increased rate of stroke. Should thrombectomy therefore be conclusively overlooked? It is presumably required to define which patient is eligible for thrombectomy, to define how to perfectly perform manual thrombectomy, to specify how to gently move towards the thrombus, the optimal pharmacological environment, the number of aspirations and the criterion to stop or to repeat aspiration. Indeed, while thrombectomy is nowadays scientifically downgraded, it remains of potential interest in numerous interventional cardiologists. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC AND ERGOMETRIC DISTURBANCES IN DIABETICS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica Jankovic

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine echocardiographic and ergometric disorders in non-insulin dependent diabetics with myocardial infarction and their correlation with appearing of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.We examined 80 patients with myocardial infarction (MI treated in Military Hospital in Nis. They were divided into two groups: diabetics and non-diabetics. Doppler echocardiography was used for evaluating left ventricular diastolic function, and ergometric parameters were obtained by bicycle ergometer "Quinton" - Bruce protocol.Diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were higher in diabetics. Double product and power (68.75±13.5 and 50±14.97W were lower in diabetics. They also had frequent appearances of ST depression, dyspnea, palpitation, and rhythm disturbances in rest and after ergo test. Fatigue and pain were more prominent symptoms in non-diabetics. The Doppler mitral E wave was similar between these groups and the A wave was increased in diabetics (0.51 ±0.05 vs. 0.48±0.09, p<0.01. E/A ratio was significantly decreased in diabetics as a sign of worst diastolic dysfunction (1.14±0.09 vs. 1.26±0.17; p<0.01.

  19. Approach to chest pain and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandie, S; Hellenberg, D; Hellig, F; Ntsekhe, M

    2016-03-01

    Patient history, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac biomarkers are key components of an effective chest pain assessment. The first priority is excluding serious chest pain syndromes, namely acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, cardiac tamponade and tension pneumothorax. On history, the mnemonic SOCRATES (Site Onset Character Radiation Association Time Exacerbating/relieving factor and Severity) helps differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac pain. On examination, evaluation of vital signs, evidence of murmurs, rubs, heart failure, tension pneumothoraces and chest infections are important. A 12-lead ECG should be interpreted within 10 minutes of first medical contact, specifically to identify ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). High-sensitivity troponins improve the rapid rule-out of myocardial infarction (MI) and confirmation of non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI). ACS (STEMI and NSTEMI/unstable anginapectoris (UAP)) result from acute destabilisation of coronary atheroma with resultant complete (STEMI) or subtotal (NSTEMI/UAP) thrombotic coronary occlusion. The management of STEMI patients includes providing urgent reperfusion: primary percutaneous coronary intervention(PPCI) if available, deliverable within 60 - 120 minutes, and fibrinolysis if PPCI is not available. Essential adjunctive therapies include antiplatelet therapy (aspirin, P2Y12 inhibitors), anticoagulation (heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin) and cardiac monitoring.

  20. Arrhythmic death and ICD implantation after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lombardi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmic death remains one of the most important causes of mortality after an acute myocardial infarction also in the revascularization era. As a consequence, identification of patients at risk should be performed before discharge. Unfortunately, in the clinical practice, this evaluation is mainly based on detection of a depressed left ventricular ejection. This approach, however, cannot adequately distinguish arrhythmic versus non-arrhythmic risk. This issue is of critical relevance when considering that arrhythmic death can be significantly reduced by appropriate interventions of implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Available evidence, however, indicates that in the first month after myocardial infarction, device implantation does not significantly reduce cardiac mortality: it seems that the reduction of arrhythmic death is counterbalanced by an increase in rate of death from non arrhythmic cause. It is therefore to be hoped that, in the future, arrhythmic risk evaluation will be based not only on the extent of left ventricular dysfunction but also on the analysis of other risk markers such as those reflecting autonomic dysfunction, cardiac electrical instability and presence of subclinical inflammation.

  1. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Marchesi Bozi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate 1 whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2 whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM, sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Myocardial infarctions in exercise-trained animals resulted in a smaller myocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. CONCLUSION: Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  2. Cardiac MRI of myocardial salvage at the peri-infarct border zones after primary coronary intervention

    OpenAIRE

    O'Regan, Declan P.; Ahmed, Rizwan; Neuwirth, Clare; Tan, Yvonne; Durighel, Giuliana; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Nadra, Imad; Corbett, Simon J.; Cook, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use cardiac MRI to define the morphology of the reversibly injured peri-infarct border zone in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction. In 15 patients, T2-weighted myocardial edema imaging was used to identify the ischemic bed or area at risk (AAR), and late gadolinium enhancement imaging was used to measure infarct size. Images were coregistered, and the boundaries of edema and necro...

  3. Early Use of N-acetylcysteine With Nitrate Therapy in Patients Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Reduces Myocardial Infarct Size (the NACIAM Trial [N-acetylcysteine in Acute Myocardial Infarction]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupathy, Sivabaskari; Tavella, Rosanna; Grover, Suchi; Raman, Betty; Procter, Nathan E K; Du, Yang Timothy; Mahadavan, Gnanadevan; Stafford, Irene; Heresztyn, Tamila; Holmes, Andrew; Zeitz, Christopher; Arstall, Margaret; Selvanayagam, Joseph; Horowitz, John D; Beltrame, John F

    2017-09-05

    Contemporary ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction management involves primary percutaneous coronary intervention, with ongoing studies focusing on infarct size reduction using ancillary therapies. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant with reactive oxygen species scavenging properties that also potentiates the effects of nitroglycerin and thus represents a potentially beneficial ancillary therapy in primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The NACIAM trial (N-acetylcysteine in Acute Myocardial Infarction) examined the effects of NAC on infarct size in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study evaluated the effects of intravenous high-dose NAC (29 g over 2 days) with background low-dose nitroglycerin (7.2 mg over 2 days) on early cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-assessed infarct size. Secondary end points included cardiac magnetic resonance-determined myocardial salvage and creatine kinase kinetics. Of 112 randomized patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, 75 (37 in NAC group, 38 in placebo group) underwent early cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Median duration of ischemia pretreatment was 2.4 hours. With background nitroglycerin infusion administered to all patients, those randomized to NAC exhibited an absolute 5.5% reduction in cardiac magnetic resonance-assessed infarct size relative to placebo (median, 11.0%; [interquartile range 4.1, 16.3] versus 16.5%; [interquartile range 10.7, 24.2]; P=0.02). Myocardial salvage was approximately doubled in the NAC group (60%; interquartile range, 37-79) compared with placebo (27%; interquartile range, 14-42; Pintervention. A larger study is required to assess the impact of this therapy on clinical cardiac outcomes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au/. Unique identifier: 12610000280000. © 2017 American Heart

  4. THE SPEKL-TREKING PREDICTIVE VALUE OF THE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY AT THE ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kosheleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Speckle-tracking echocardiography is a non-invasive method  for assessment of myocardial deformation, which is closely associated with its regional and global function. Although it is not yet introduced into clinical practice, deformation parameters are actively studied in different clinical conditions, particularly in acute myocardial infarction. Numerous studies show deformation  impairment may have important prognostic value at patients with a acute myocardial infarction.

  5. Global longitudinal strain predicts incident atrial fibrillation and stroke occurrence after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Javier; Pedersen, Sune; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute myocardial infarction are at increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation. We aimed to evaluate whether speckle tracking echocardiography improves risk stratification for atrial fibrillation in these patients.The study comprised of 373 patients with ST-segment elevation...... myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients had an echocardiogram performed at a median of 2 days after their STEMI. The echocardiograms consisted of conventional measurements and myocardial strain analysis by speckle tracking from 3 apical projections...

  6. [Antagonistic effect and mechanism of Rosuvastatin on myocardial apoptosis in rats with acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhanchun; Bai, Jinghui; Wang, Qi; Chen, Liang; Guo, Qunping; Zhang, Di

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Rosuvastatin on myocardial cells in rats with acute myocardial infarction and its possible mechanism. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Control group, Sham group, AMI and Rosuvastatin group. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine jubase (CK), the vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected by assay kits and the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 expression were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TTC/Evans blue staining was used to determine the relative myocardial infarction area, HE staining was used to detect pathologic changes and myocardial apoptosis was detected by terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL). What's more, Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bax, cleaved-Caspase-3, Rock1, Rock2, I-κB and NF-κBp65. The model of acute myocardial infarction rats was established. Compared with Sham group, the myocardial pathological changes were more severe, and the apoptosis number, the production of inflammatory factors and oxidative damage were significantly increased in AMI group. Compared with AMI group, the relative area of infarction myocardium (43% ± 4% vs 31% ± 8%, P=0.004 3) was dramatically reduced, the levels of LDH (2 545.45 ± 613.67 U/L vs 1 573.43 ± 373.72 U/L, P=0.02) and CK (7.49 ± 1.75 U/ml vs 4.42 ± 1.28 U/ml, P=0.04) in serum were significantly lower (Pmyocardial pathological damage degree was relieved, the apoptosis number (41% ± 8% vs 23% ± 6%, P=0.014 7) was significantly decreased, the expression of Bax (1.17 ± 0.10 vs 0.57 ± 0.08, P=0.003) and cleaved-Caspase-3 (1.31 ± 0.07 vs 0.70 ± 0.01, P=0.004) were dramatically reduced, and the expression of Bcl-2 (0.19 ± 0.01 vs 0.32 ± 0.01, P=0.003) was enhanced in Rosuvastatin group. Furthermore, the production of

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-Pyrophosphate Scan in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koong, Sung Soo; Kim, Seung Taik [Chungpook National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Hyuk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Bo Youn; Koh, Chang Soon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-03-15

    To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate (PYP) myocardial scan, we analysed 160 {sup 99m}Tc-PYP scans (acute transmural myocardial infarction 87 cases, acute subendocardial infarction; 20 cases, unstable angina pectoris; 7 cases, other disease; 46 cases). These scans were requested by the physician in Seoul National University Hospital from Sep. 1982 to Oct. 1987. And the diagnosis was confirmed by clinical course and laboratory examinations. 1) The diagnostic sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-PYP scan in acute transmural myocardial infarction was 91.2% (62/68) if scintigraphy was performed within 7 days after infarction, 57.1% (8/14) between 8th and 14th day, 20% (1/5) and after 15 days. 2) The diagnostic sensitivity of {sup 99m}Tc-PYP scan in acute subendocardial infarction was 75% (12/16) if scintigraphy was performed within 7 days after infarction and 0% after 8 days. 3) The diagnostic specificity of {sup 99m}Tc-PYP scan in acute myocardial infarction was 94.3% (5/53). Among 5 cases of false positive scans, 1 case was unstable angina pectoris, 2 cases were old myocardial infarction with left ventricular aneurysm, 1 case was old myocardial infarction and the remaining 1 case was cardiomyopathy.

  8. OSM Enhances Angiogenesis and Improves Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncostatin M (OSM has been reported to stimulate angiogenesis by upregulating VEGF and bFGF, implying that it could be a therapeutic strategy in treating ischemic diseases. The present study was aimed at investigating whether OSM could improve cardiac function via prompting angiogenesis following myocardial infarction (MI. Wild type (WT and Oβ knock-out (Oβ−/− mice were, respectively, randomized into sham group, MI + vehicle group, and MI + OSM group. WT mice displayed significantly impaired cardiac function after MI. OSM treatment attenuated cardiac dysfunction in WT MI mice, while Oβ deletion abrogated the protective effects. Besides, OSM attenuated heart hypertrophy and pulmonary congestion evidenced by decreased heart weight/body weight and lung weight/body weight ratio. Further, reduction of apoptosis and fibrosis in infarct border zone was observed in OSM treated WT MI mice compared with vehicle. Moreover, in WT mice subjected to MI, OSM treatment significantly increased capillary density along with upregulation of p-Akt and angiogenic factors VEGF and bFGF in comparison with vehicle, and this phenomenon was not found in Oβ−/− mice. In conclusion, OSM treatment preserved cardiac function, inhibited apoptosis and fibrosis, and stimulated angiogenesis via upregulating VEGF and bFGF in infarct border zone of ischemic myocardium, indicating that OSM could be a novel therapeutic target for MI.

  9. Does Myocardial Infarction Beget Atrial Fibrillation and Atrial Fibrillation Beget Myocardial Infarction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermond, Rob A.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.; Crijns, Harry J.; Rienstra, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects millions of people worldwide.(1) It is already known several decades that AF is not a benign condition, and it's associated with a 5-fold increased risk of stroke, 3-fold increased risk of heart failure, and doubling of risk of dementia and death.(2-4) Myocardial

  10. Cardioprotective effect of amlodipine in oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhira Begum

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether the administration of amlodipine ameliorates oxidative stress induced by experimental myocardial infarction in rats. Adrenaline was administered and myocardial damage was evaluated biochemically [significantly increased serum aspertate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA levels of myocardial tissue] and histologically (morphological changes of myocardium. Amlodipine was administered as pretreatment for 14 days in adrenaline treated rats. Statistically significant amelioration in all the biochemical parameters supported by significantly improved myocardial morphology was observed in amlodipine pretreatment. It was concluded that amlodipine afforded cardioprotection by reducing oxidative stress induced in experimental myocardial infarction of catecholamine assault.

  11. Dietary iron and risk of myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klipstein-Grobusch, K.; Grobbee, D.E.; Breeijen, J.H. den; Boeing, H.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Free iron has been implicated in lipid peroxidation and ischemic myocardial damage, and it has been suggested that iron is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. The authors investigated whether dietary iron is associated with an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal myocardial

  12. Measurement of myocardial perfusion and infarction size using computer-aided diagnosis system for myocardial contrast echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guo-Qing; Xue, Jing-Yi; Guo, Yanhui; Chen, Shuang; Du, Pei; Wu, Yan; Wang, Yu-Hang; Zong, Li-Qiu; Tian, Jia-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Proper evaluation of myocardial microvascular perfusion and assessment of infarct size is critical for clinicians. We have developed a novel computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) approach for myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to measure myocardial perfusion and infarct size. Rabbits underwent 15 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group I, n = 15) or 60 min of coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion (group II, n = 15). Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed before and 7 d after ischemia/reperfusion, and images were analyzed with the CAD system on the basis of eliminating particle swarm optimization clustering analysis. The myocardium was quickly and accurately detected using contrast-enhanced images, myocardial perfusion was quantitatively calibrated and a color-coded map calibrated by contrast intensity and automatically produced by the CAD system was used to outline the infarction region. Calibrated contrast intensity was significantly lower in infarct regions than in non-infarct regions, allowing differentiation of abnormal and normal myocardial perfusion. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis documented that -54-pixel contrast intensity was an optimal cutoff point for the identification of infarcted myocardium with a sensitivity of 95.45% and specificity of 87.50%. Infarct sizes obtained using myocardial perfusion defect analysis of original contrast images and the contrast intensity-based color-coded map in computerized images were compared with infarct sizes measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Use of the proposed CAD approach provided observers with more information. The infarct sizes obtained with myocardial perfusion defect analysis, the contrast intensity-based color-coded map and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were 23.72 ± 8.41%, 21.77 ± 7.8% and 18.21 ± 4.40% (% left ventricle) respectively (p > 0.05), indicating that computerized myocardial contrast echocardiography can

  13. Physicians' perceptions of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score in older adults with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Shelli L; Schulman-Green, Dena; Geda, Mary; Williams, Kathleen; Dodson, John A; Nanna, Michael G; Allore, Heather G; Murphy, Terrence E; Tinetti, Mary E; Gill, Thomas M; Chaudhry, Sarwat I

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate physician-perceived strengths and limitations of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for use in older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The TIMI risk scores are risk stratification models developed to estimate mortality risk for patients hospitalized for AMI. However, these models were developed and validated in cohorts underrepresenting older adults (≥75 years). Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews and the constant comparative method for analysis. Twenty-two physicians completed interviews ranging 10-30 min (mean = 18 min). Median sample age was 37 years, with a median of 11.5 years of clinical experience. TIMI strengths included familiarity, ease of use, and validation. Limitations included a lack of risk factors relevant to older adults and model scope and influence. Physicians report that the TIMI models, while widely used in clinical practice, have limitations when applied to older adults. New risk models are needed to guide AMI treatment in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Physicians’ Perceptions of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Risk Score in Older Adults with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Shelli L.; Schulman-Green, Dena; Geda, Mary; Williams, Kathleen; Dodson, John A.; Nanna, Michael G.; Allore, Heather G.; Murphy, Terrence E.; Tinetti, Mary E.; Gill, Thomas M.; Chaudhry, Sarwat I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate physician-perceived strengths and limitations of the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for use in older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Background The TIMI risk scores are risk stratification models developed to estimate mortality risk for patients hospitalized for AMI. However, these models were developed and validated in cohorts underrepresenting older adults (≥75 years). Methods Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews and the constant comparative method for analysis. Results Twenty-two physicians completed interviews ranging 10–30 minutes (mean = 18 minutes). Median sample age was 37 years, with a median of 11.5 years of clinical experience. TIMI strengths included familiarity, ease of use, and validation. Limitations included a lack of risk factors relevant to older adults and model scope and influence. Conclusions Physicians report that the TIMI models, while widely used in clinical practice, have limitations when applied to older adults. New risk models are needed to guide AMI treatment in this population. PMID:26164651

  15. Prehospital diagnosis and triage of ST-elevation myocardial infarction by paramedics without advanced care training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Warren J; Hoogeveen, Paul; Robert, Andrew; Elliott, Karen; Goldman, Lorne E; Sanderson, Erica; Plante, Sylvain; Prabhakar, Manu; Miner, Steven

    2012-08-01

    Prehospital triage of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) reduces treatment times. Prehospital triage and transport of STEMI patients have traditionally been undertaken in emergency medical service systems with Advanced Care Paramedics (ACPs). However, ACPs are not available in many regions. A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of prehospital STEMI triage in a region with only Primary Care Paramedics. Hemodynamically stable patients with chest pain and suspected STEMI were brought directly to a catheterization laboratory for primary PCI. End points included accuracy of prehospital STEMI identification, complications during transfer, and treatment times. One hundred thirty-four consecutive patients with suspected STEMI were triaged for primary PCI. Only 1 patient developed complications during transport (rapid atrial flutter) that required ACP skills. One hundred thirty-three patients underwent urgent angiography, and 105 patients underwent PCI. Based on physician interpretation of the prehospital electrocardiogram, there was agreement with triage decision for 121 (90%) of the 134 cases. The final diagnosis based on the angiogram and cardiac markers was true STEMI for 106 patients and false positive for 28 patients. The median first medical contact to balloon time was 91 (81-115) minutes. Hemodynamically stable patients with suspected STEMI can be safely and effectively transported directly for primary PCI by paramedics without advanced care training. Prehospital STEMI triage for primary PCI can be extended to regions that have few or no paramedics with advanced care training. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with increased infarct size and decreased myocardial salvage in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Christensen, Lars; Lønborg, Jacob; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov

    2017-01-01

    Background--Approximately one third of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which is associated with impaired outcome. However, the causal association between LVH and outcome in STEMI is unknown. We evaluated the association...... between LVH and: myocardial infarct size, area at risk, myocardial salvage, microvascular obstruction, left ventricular (LV) function (all determined by cardiac magnetic resonance [CMR]), and all-cause mortality and readmission for heart failure in STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary...

  17. The relationship between serum enzyme activity, infarct site, and cardiac complications after a first myocardial infarction. A follow-up study in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H T; Nielsen, F E; Klausen, I B

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate the clinical course in patients after a first acute myocardial infarction with the site and size of infarct, estimated from standard enzyme measurements. One hundred and eight consecutive patients who suffered an acute myocardial infarction for the first...

  18. Combining angiogenic gene and stem cell therapies for myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Jennifer; Huang, Yu; Takagawa, Junya; Arakawa-Hoyt, Janice; Ye, Jianqin; Grossman, William; Kan, Yuet Wai; Su, Hua

    2009-09-01

    Transplantation of stem cells from various sources into infarcted hearts has the potential to promote myocardial regeneration. However, the regenerative capacity is limited partly as a result of the low survival rate of the transplanted cells in the ischemic myocardium. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that combining cell and angiogenic gene therapies would provide additive therapeutic effects via co-injection of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV), MLCVEGF, which expresses vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a cardiac-specific and hypoxia-inducible manner. MSCs isolated from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein and MLCVEGF packaged in AAV serotype 1 capsid were injected into mouse hearts at the border of ischemic area, immediately after occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary, individually or together. Engrafted cells were detected and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. Angiogenesis and infarct size were analyzed on histological and immunohistochemical stained sections. Cardiac function was analyzed by echocardiography. We found that co-injection of AAV1-MLCVEGF with MSCs reduced cell loss. Although injection of MSCs and AAV1-MLCVEGF individually improved cardiac function and reduced infarct size, co-injection of MSC and AAV1-MLCVEGF resulted in the best improvement in cardiac function as well as the smallest infarct among all groups. Moreover, injection of AAV1-MLCVEGF induced neovasculatures. Nonetheless, injection of MSCs attracted endogenous stem cell homing and increased scar thickness. Co-injection of MLCVEGF and MSCs in ischemic hearts can result in better cardiac function and MSC survival, compared to their individual injections, as a result of the additive effects of each therapy.

  19. Circadian variation of transient myocardial ischemia in the early out-of-hospital period after first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1991-01-01

    Circadian rhythms have been demonstrated in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and in other clinical cardiac dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether a circadian pattern of transient myocardial ischemia exists after first AMI. Prospectively, 24-hour ambulatory ST-segment mo...

  20. Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging of chronic myocardial infarct scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáček, B Milan; Wang, Linwei; Dawoud, Fady; Xu, Jingjia; Sapp, John L

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) scar constitutes a substrate for ventricular tachycardia (VT), and an accurate delineation of infarct scar may help to identify reentrant circuits and thus facilitate catheter ablation. One of the recent advancements in characterization of a VT substrate is its volumetric delineation within the ventricular wall by noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging. This paper compares, in four specific cases, epicardial and volumetric inverse solutions, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with late gadolinium enhancement as a gold standard. For patients with chronic MI, who presented at Glasgow Western Infirmary, delayed-enhancement MRI and 120-lead body surface potential mapping (BSPM) data were acquired and 4 selected cases were later made available to a wider community as part of the 2007 PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge. These data were used to perform patient-specific inverse solutions for epicardial electrograms and morphology-based criteria were applied to delineate infarct scar on the epicardial surface. Later, the Rochester group analyzed the same data by means of a novel inverse solution for reconstructing intramural transmembrane potentials, to delineate infarct scar in three dimensions. Comparison of the performance of three specific inverse-solution algorithms is presented here, using scores based on the 17-segment ventricular division scheme recommended by the American Heart Association. The noninvasive methods delineating infarct scar as three-dimensional (3D) intramural distribution of transmembrane action potentials outperform estimates providing scar delineation on the epicardial surface in all scores used for comparison. In particular, the extent of infarct scar (its percentage mass relative to the total ventricular mass) is rendered more accurately by the 3D estimate. Moreover, the volumetric rendition of scar border provides better clues to potential targets for catheter ablation. Electrocardiographic inverse

  1. Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging of chronic myocardial infarct scar§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horáček, B. Milan; Wang, Linwei; Dawoud, Fady; Xu, Jingjia; Sapp, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Myocardial infarction (MI) scar constitutes a substrate for ventricular tachycardia (VT), and an accurate delineation of infarct scar may help to identify reentrant circuits and thus facilitate catheter ablation. One of the recent advancements in characterization of a VT substrate is its volumetric delineation within the ventricular wall by noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging. This paper compares, in four specific cases, epicardial and volumetric inverse solutions, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with late gadolinium enhancement as a gold standard. Methods For patients with chronic MI, who presented at Glasgow Western Infirmary, delayed-enhancement MRI and 120-lead body surface potential mapping (BSPM) data were acquired and 4 selected cases were later made available to a wider community as part of the 2007 PhysioNet/Computers in Cardiology Challenge. These data were used to perform patient-specific inverse solutions for epicardial electrograms and morphology-based criteria were applied to delineate infarct scar on the epicardial surface. Later, the Rochester group analyzed the same data by means of a novel inverse solution for reconstructing intramural transmembrane potentials, to delineate infarct scar in three dimensions. Comparison of the performance of three specific inverse-solution algorithms is presented here, using scores based on the 17-segment ventricular division scheme recommended by the American Heart Association. Results The noninvasive methods delineating infarct scar as three-dimensional (3D) intramural distribution of transmembrane action potentials outperform estimates providing scar delineation on the epicardial surface in all scores used for comparison. In particular, the extent of infarct scar (its percentage mass relative to the total ventricular mass) is rendered more accurately by the 3D estimate. Moreover, the volumetric rendition of scar border provides better clues to potential targets for catheter ablation

  2. Hemodynamic effects of digoxin on congestive heart failure in old myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, acute myocardial infarction and mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurogane, K; Fujitani, K; Fukuzaki, H

    1985-03-01

    The hemodynamic effects of digoxin (0.01 mg/Kg) on congestive heart failure were compared in 32 patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI) (n = 9), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (n = 10), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n = 5) and mitral stenosis (MS) (n = 8). The responses of heart rate (HR) and pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP) to digoxin in OMI, DCM and MS were marked but different in each of these groups and no significant changes were found in patients with AMI. The responses of cardiac index (CI) to digoxin in patients with OMI and DCM in whom left ventricular myocardial contractile force was impaired were divided into 2 groups (Group 1: CI increased more than 15% and Group 2: less than 15%). In Group 1, both CI and percent fractional shortening (%FS) before digoxin administration were lower than in Group 2, i.e., 1.97 +/- 0.27 vs 2.80 +/- 0.48 L/min/m2 (p less than 0.001) and 10.9 +/- 8.0 vs 19.5 +/- 11.9% (p less than 0.05), respectively. In MS, CI increased after digoxin administration only in the 2 patients with low CI and rapid HR in the control state. These results indicate that the mode of hemodynamic response to digoxin is considerably different in various diseases. They further suggest that digoxin should not be used in the early phase of AMI, although digoxin was of great clinical benefit in patients with OMI and DCM through such mechanisms as its positive inotropic and negative chronotropic effects and lowering of PCP.

  3. Levels of intrinsic coagulation factors and the risk of myocardial infarction among men: opposite and synergistic effects of factors XI and XII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Meijers, Joost C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The role of the intrinsic coagulation system on the risk of myocardial infarction is unclear. In the Study of Myocardial Infarctions Leiden (SMILE) that included 560 men younger than age 70 with a first myocardial infarction and 646 control subjects, we investigated the risk of myocardial infarction

  4. Levels of intrinsic coagulation factors and the risk of myocardial infarction among men: Opposite and synergistic effects of factors XI and XII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doggen, Carine J. M.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Meijers, Joost C. M.

    2006-01-01

    The role of the intrinsic coagulation system on the risk of myocardial infarction is unclear. In the Study of Myocardial Infarctions Leiden (SMILE) that included 560 men younger than age 70 with a first myocardial infarction and 646 control subjects, we investigated the risk of myocardial infarction

  5. ELECTROCARDIOGRAMS AND VECTORELECTROCARDIOGRAMS—An Appraisal of Their Value in Subendocardial and in Transmural Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, John C.; Cosby, Richard S.; Levinson, David C.; Griffith, George C.; Mayo, Mary

    1956-01-01

    By vector methods quantitative differences can be shown to be present between subendocardial and transmural myocardial infarction. In acute transmural infarction the vector shift occurs later, the degree of shift is greater, the return to normal is later in time and an abnormal vector shift remains more frequently than in subendocardial infarction. In acute anteroseptal transmural infarction the degree of vector shift was closely correlated with the severity of the acute illness. PMID:13342996

  6. Acute Myocardial Infarction: The First Manifestation of Ischemic Heart Disease and Relation to Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfroi Waldomiro Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between cardiovascular risk factors and acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease, correlating them with coronary angiographic findings. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 104 patients with previous acute myocardial infarction, who were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of angina prior to acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the presence of angina preceding acute myocardial infarction and risk factors, such as age >55 years, male sex, smoking, systemic arterial hypertension, lipid profile, diabetes mellitus, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and familial history of ischemic heart disease. On coronary angiography, the severity of coronary heart disease and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 104 patients studied, 72.1% were males, 90.4% were white, 73.1% were older than 55 years, and 53.8% were hypertensive. Acute myocardial infarction was the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease in 49% of the patients. The associated risk factors were systemic arterial hypertension (RR=0.19; 95% CI=0.06-0.59; P=0.04 and left ventricular hypertrophy (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0,.8-0.88; P=0.03. The remaining risk factors were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease is high, approximately 50%. Hypertensive individuals more frequently have symptoms preceding acute myocardial infarction, probably due to ventricular hypertrophy associated with high blood pressure levels.

  7. Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on recurrent myocardial infarction in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Li, Muwei; Gao, Chuanyu; Wang, Xianpei; Qi, Datun; Liu, Jun; Jin, Qiangsong

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the influence of type 2 diabetes mellitus on the long-term outcomes of Chinese patients with previous myocardial infarction, we studied 864 patients with previous myocardial infarction, including 251 with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 613 without type 2 diabetes mellitus, over a median follow-up time of 2.9 years. The type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were subdivided into 95 insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and 156 non-insulin-treated diabetes mellitus subjects. The crude incidences (per 1000 patient-years) in the type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects versus the non-type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects were 43.7 versus 25.1 for recurrent myocardial infarction, 68.7 versus 28.3 for all-cause death and 99.8 versus 49.9 for the composite end point (i.e. recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause death). Cox regression analysis showed that the adjusted hazard ratios for recurrent myocardial infarction, all-cause death and their combination were 1.67 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.74), 1.90 (1.25-2.90) and 1.72 (1.23-2.40), respectively. Significant associations were also observed between insulin treatment and all-cause death. Our findings suggested that type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction, all-cause death and the composite end point among previous myocardial infarction patients. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Acute myocardial infarction: estimation of at-risk and salvaged myocardium at myocardial perfusion SPECT 1 month after infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Farina, Guillermo; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; Candell-Riera, Jaume; Pizzi, M Nazarena; Pineda, Victor; Figueras, Jaume; Cuberas, Gemma; de León, Gustavo; Castell-Conesa, Joan; García-Dorado, David

    2013-11-01

    To estimate at-risk and salvaged myocardium by using gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study was approved by the hospital's Ethical Committee on Clinical Trials (trial register number, PR(HG)36/2000), and all patients gave informed consent. Forty patients (mean age, 61.78 years; eight women) with a first AMI underwent two gated SPECT examinations--one before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and one 4-5 weeks after PCI. Myocardium at risk was estimated by assessing the perfusion defect at the first gated SPECT examination, and salvaged myocardium was estimated by assessing the risk area minus necrosis at the second examination. Myocardium at risk was estimated by determining the discordance between the areas of left ventricular (LV) wall motion and perfusion at the second examination. Concordance between tests was analyzed by means of linear regression analysis, the Pearson correlation, the intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis. An improvement in perfusion, wall motion, wall thickening, and LV ejection fraction (P Myocardial perfusion gated SPECT performed 1 month after early PCI in a first AMI provides potentially useful information on at-risk and salvaged myocardium. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122324/-/DC1. RSNA, 2013

  9. Effect of perindopril on the myocardial energy consumption in patients with heart failure after myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Peng Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy of perinodopril in the treatment of heart failure in patients after myocardial infarction and effect on the myocardial energy consumption. Methods: A total of 87 patients with heart failure after myocardial infarction who were admitted in our hospital from August, 2014 to October, 2015 were included in the study and divided into the routine dose group (n=43, perinodopril 4 mg/d and high dose group (n=44, perinodopril 8 mg/d according to the long-term oral dose. All the patients were given perinodopril, continuously for 6 months. The changes of blood pressure and serum biochemical indicators before and after treatment in the two groups were compared. The changes of cardiac function indicators and myocardial energy consumption indicators before and after treatment in the two groups were compared. 6MWT 6 months and 1 year after treatment in the two groups was calculated. Results: The plasma BNP and H-FABP levels, LVEDD, LVESD, MEE, and cESS after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, and those in the high dose group were significantly lower than those in the low dose group. LVEF and FS after treatment in the two groups were significantly increased, and those in the high dose group were significantly greater than those in the routine dose group. The seurm potassium level after treatment in the high dose group was significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, but was not significantly different from that in the routine dose group. SBP, DBP, and Scr levels after treatment in the two groups were not significantly changed. 6MWT 6 months and 1 year after treatment in the high dose group was significantly greater than that in the routine dose group. Conclusions: Perinodopril in a high dose can significantly reduce the plasma BNP and H-FABP levels in patients with heart failure after myocardial infarction, inhibit the ventricular remodeling

  10. Myocardial uptake of indium-111-labeled antimyosin in acute subendocardial infarction: Clinical, histochemical, and autoradiographic correlation of myocardial necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendel, R.C.; McSherry, B.A.; Leppo, J.A. (Univ. of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Indium-111-labeled antimyosin has been utilized in the diagnosis and localization of acute transmural myocardial infarction. The present report describes a patient who presented with a massive subendocardial infarction. Two days after the injection of antimyosin, the patient's clinical status markedly deteriorated and he expired. Postmortem examination demonstrated severe three-vessel coronary artery disease with extensive myocyte death in the endocardium. Autoradiography and histochemical staining of the prosected heart demonstrated high correlation for myocardial necrosis and corresponded to clinical evidence for diffuse subendocardial infarction.

  11. MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN CELJE GENERAL HOSPITAL IN 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Veninšek

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. DIGAMI study showed that intrahospital mortality and mortality at one year after myocardial infarction can be significantly reduced in diabetics treated in acute phase of myocardial infarction by GI infusion and afterwards for at least three months with intensive insulin treatment. Mortality can be reduced for more than 50% in a subgroup of patients younger than 70 years, without congestive heart failure, with first myocardial infarction, not treated with insulin or digitalis. In this perspective we reviewed treatment of diabetics with acute myocardial infarction in 1999 in Celje General Hospital.Methods. We reviewed documentation of treatment of all diabetics with acute myocardial infarction treated in Celje General Hospital in 1999. We collected data on number of newly discovered diabetes, on previous treatment of diabetes, on treatment of diabetes during hospitalization and at discharge, on drugs used for treatment of diabetes and on mortality during hospitalization.Results. Diabetics presented 20% of all patients with acute myocardial infarction treated in Celje General Hospital in 1999. None of patients received GI infusion, none had intensively managed blood sugar. 24% of patients were treated with sulfonylureas in acute phase of myocardial infarction. 33% of patients were discharged from hospital with insulin therapy. Intrahospital mortality was 9%, comparable with patients without diabetes.Conclusions. In 1999 was intrahospital treatment of diabetics with acute myocardial infarction in Celje General Hospital successful as their intrahospital mortality equaled non-diabetics. Treatment of diabetes itself, during hospitalization and after discharge, on the other hand, in 1999 had not been up to date according to results of recent studies. In our opinion, it is mandatory for diabetologist to make part of the team that treats diabetic with acute myocardial infarction

  12. Rubidium-82 PET imaging is feasible in a rat myocardial infarction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Clemmensen, Andreas; Kyhl, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small-animal myocardial infarct models are frequently used in the assessment of new cardioprotective strategies. A validated quantification of perfusion using a non-cyclotron-dependent PET tracer would be of importance in monitoring response to therapy. We tested whether myocardial PET...... perfusion imaging is feasible with Rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) in a small-animal scanner using a rat myocardial infarct model. METHODS: 18 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent coronary artery ligation (infarct group), and 11 rats underwent ischemia-reperfusion (reperfusion group) procedure. (82)Rb......-PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were conducted before and after the intervention. Perfusion was compared to both left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size assessed by MRI. RESULTS: Follow-up global (82)Rb-uptake correlated significantly with infarct size (infarct group: r = -0.81, P

  13. Survival after Left Ventricular Free Wall Rupture in an Elderly Woman with Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated Only Medically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Roa-Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle is rare and may occur as a result of transmural myocardial infarction. The course of rupture after acute myocardial infarction varies from a catastrophic event, with an acute tear leading to immediate death (acute rupture, or slow and incomplete tear leading to a late rupture (subacute rupture. Incomplete rupture may occur when the thrombus and haematoma together with the pericardium seal the rupture of the left ventricle and may develop into a pseudoaneurysm. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential in this condition. Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is the first-choice method for most patients with suspected left ventricular pseudoaneurysm (LVP and suggests left ventricular rupture in 85% to 90% of patients. We report the case of an 87-year-old woman presenting with symptoms and findings of myocardial infarction and left ventricular free wall rupture with a pseudoaneurysm formation diagnosed by echocardiography and confirmed on CT, MRI, and NM. She received only intense medical treatment, because she refused surgery with a favorable outcome. After 24-month followup, she is in NYHA functional class II. The survival of this patient is due to the contained pseudoaneurysm by dense pericardial adhesions, related to her previous coronary bypass surgery.

  14. [Effect of digoxin on central hemodynamics in myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagubova, A S; Karpov, Iu A; Gratsianskiĭ, N A

    1979-07-01

    The effect of digoxin on the cardiac index and diastolic pressure in the pulmonary artery was studied in 17 patients with acute myocardial infarction on the 1st-3rd day of the disease by the method of thermodilution. Twelve of these patients had clinical manifestations of congestive circulatory insufficiency. Digoxin was infused intravenously in a dose of 0.5 mg. Its infusion led to reduction of diastolic pressure in the pulmonary artery from 19.0 to 16.7 mm Hg and rise of cardiac index from 2.26 to 2.4 1/min/m2 (statistically untrustworhty difference). In all cases digoxin concentration in blood serum examined by the radioimmune method was therapeutical (1.64 ng/ml, on the average). The positive hemodynamic effect of digoxin infused in a dose producing its therapeutic concentration in blood is negligible.

  15. Right Ventricular Involvement in either Anterior or Inferior Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Abtahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unlike left ventricular function, less attention has been paid to Right Ventricular (RV function after Myocardial Infarction (MI. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare RV function in patients with inferior and anterior MI. Patients and Methods: During the study period, 60 patients consecutively presented to the Emergency Department with chest pain were divided into two groups based on their electrocardiographic findings. Accordingly, 25 patients had inferior MI (IMI group and 35 ones had anterior MI (AMI group. Echocardiography was performed 48 hours after starting the standard therapy. Conventional echocardiographic parameters and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI measurements were acquired from the standard views. Student t-test and the chi-square test were respectively used for comparisons of the normally distributed continuous and categorical variables in the two groups. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

  16. Myocardial Infarction as a Complication of Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, Hugo, E-mail: hugo.labbe.1@ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Medicine (Canada); Bordeleau, Simon [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada); Drouin, Christine [Université Laval, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (Canada); Archambault, Patrick [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    Bronchial artery embolization is now a common treatment for massive pulmonary hemoptysis if flexible bronchoscopy at the bedside failed to control the bleeding. Complications of this technique range from benign chest pain to devastating neurological impairments. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who developed an ST elevation myocardial infarction during bronchial artery embolization, presumably because of coronary embolism by injected particles. In this patient who had no previously known coronary artery disease, we retrospectively found a communication between the left bronchial artery and the circumflex coronary artery. This fistula was not visible on the initial angiographic view and likely opened because of the hemodynamic changes resulting from the embolization. This case advocates for careful search for bronchial-to-coronary arterial fistulas and the need for repeated angiographic views during embolization procedures.

  17. Treatment of post-myocardial infarction depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Astrid M G; Honig, Adriaan

    2008-07-01

    Both major and minor depressive disorder post-myocardial infarction (MI) are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality and new cardiovascular events. Post-MI depressive disorder predicts slow recovery and poor quality of life. This review attends to post-MI depressive disorder, its underlying mechanisms and options for and effects of treatment. Evidence has been found for several mechanisms to be involved in the pathophysiology, including hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, immune activity, polyunsaturated fatty acids, serotonin, platelet activation, type D personality and negative health behavior. Five leading randomized controlled trials are discussed, showing safety and efficacy of antidepressive treatment in post-MI patients. Effects on cardiac outcome remain unclear.

  18. Treatment following myocardial infarction in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Attar, Rubina; Berg Johansen, Martin; Valentin, Jan Brink

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A correlation between excess mortality from myocardial infarctions (MI) and schizophrenia has already been established. What remains unclear is whether the initial communication between the treating doctor and the corresponding patient contributes to this excess mortality. AIM: The aim...... of this study is to investigate whether a patient with schizophrenia receives the same offers for examination and treatment following a MI compared to a psychiatric healthy control (PHC). METHODS: This cohort study includes patients diagnosed with schizophrenia at the time of their first MI (n = 47......) in the years between 1995-2015 matched 1:2 to psychiatric healthy MI patients on gender, age and year of first MI. All existing hospital files for the 141 patients were thoroughly reviewed and the number of offered and accepted examinations and treatments were extracted for comparisons between the two groups...

  19. Beta-Blocker Therapy Early After Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Bendesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Bøtker, Hans Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Beta-blocker (BB) therapy after myocardial infarction (MI) reduces all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate BB dosing patterns and compliance following MI. METHODS: Using medical patient files and nationwide databases, we identified 100 patients who were...... dose change = 33.4 % [IQR 2.0-115.1]). Still, comparing final daily doses to discharge doses, 40.2 % did not change dose group (median dose change -5.7 % [IQR -18.0 to 4.2]). Only 31.5 % reached a final daily dose >50 % of target dose. CONCLUSIONS: Target dose BB treatment was infrequently achieved...... at discharge following MI. Despite dose up-titration early after discharge, most patients did not receive target dose BB treatment approximately 1 year following MI....

  20. The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Study Group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunwald, Eugene; Sabatine, Marc S

    2012-10-01

    The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) study group, an academic research organization, was formed in 1984 with initial support from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Its initial goal was to compare the effects of the then-new thrombolytic agent, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, with streptokinase. The TIMI study group has remained active since then and has completed 50 multicenter clinical trials. The TIMI network now collaborates with more than 1000 separate sites in 45 countries on 5 continents. In addition to thrombolytic agents, TIMI has studied antithrombotic, antiplatelet, anti-ischemic, lipid lowering, and anti-inflammatory drugs. TIMI has also established robust biomarker and pharmacogenetics programs, and has devised a panel of risk assessment scores that are widely used. TIMI is currently conducting 7 large trials worldwide on novel agents designed to reduce the morbidity and mortality of a variety of cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnosing and treating acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merrigan, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in pregnancy is a very rare occurrence. However, statistics indicate high mortality rates, with a maternal death rate at 20-37%. Nursing and medical care of AMI in pregnancy is a very complex issue. Risk factors such as stress, smoking, obesity, high cholesterol and family history of heart disease may increase the risk of AMI in pregnancy. There are a variety of challenges for the nurse caring for this patient, as the presenting signs and symptoms of AMI in pregnancy can mimic regular pregnancy symptoms and therefore may be misdiagnosed. There is limited nursing literature on this topic to guide and educate nurses. Recommendations need to be implemented across multiple nursing settings. There is a need for both national and international guidelines on care of this type of patient. There is also a need for policies to be in place and links within the hospital setting and the community.

  2. Familial clustering of myocardial infarction in first-degree relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mia; Andersson, Charlotte; Gerds, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Aims Family history is an established risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI), but it is not clear how this risk changes with number and gender of first-degree relatives with MI. We used the entire Danish population to examine the importance of MI in siblings and parents. Methods and results...... showed an RR of 4.30 (95% confidence interval 3.53–5.23) for siblings of a patient with MI. Children of parents with MI also showed high risk: for children of a maternal case RR 2.40 (2.20–2.60), and of a paternal case RR 1.98 (1.98–2.09), respectively; P value for gender interaction

  3. Climate and environmental triggers of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeys, Marc J; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Nawrot, Tim S; Brook, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past few decades, a growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence has led to heightened concerns about the potential short- and long-term deleterious effects of the environment on cardiovascular health, including the risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This review highlights the increased risk of AMI caused by exposure to air pollution and cold temperatures. These factors should be considered modifiable risk factors in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. The current body of knowledge about the biological mechanisms linking environmental changes to atherothrombotic events and the impact of climate change on cardiovascular health are discussed. Finally, recommendations for prevention and public policy are presented. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Does retirement reduce the risk of myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kasper; Rugulies, Reiner; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that retirement may have beneficial effects on health outcomes. In this study we examined whether the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) was reduced following retirement in a Danish population sample. METHODS: Participants were 617 511 Danish workers, born...... adjusting for age, sex, income, occupational position, education, cohabitation and immigrant status. The participants were followed for up to 7 years. RESULTS: Of the study population, 3% were diagnosed with MI during follow-up. Retirement was associated with a modestly higher risk of MI with a hazard ratio...... of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.16) when comparing retirees with active workers of the same age. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support the hypothesis that retirement reduces risk of MI. On the contrary, we find that retirement is associated with a modestly increased risk of MI....

  5. Antiplatelet Therapy for Secondary Prevention After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Ilaria; Bonaca, Marc P

    2017-01-01

    Patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) are at long-term heightened risk for recurrent ischemic events. Several large randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the benefit of more intensive antiplatelet strategies for long-term secondary prevention of cardiovascular death, recurrent MI, and stroke in patients with a history of MI at a cost of increased bleeding. The bleeding risk associated with long-term intensive antiplatelet strategies requires careful patient selection and involvement of patients in shared decision making regarding risks and benefits of therapy. Clinical characteristics, adherence to therapy, and integrated risk scores may aid clinicians in translating clinical trials into individualized therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Recurrent Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyi Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP, also known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is an acquired immune-mediated disease of adults and children characterized by a transient or persistent decrease of platelets and, depending upon the degree of thrombocytopenia, an increased risk of bleeding. The use of standard treatments for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, such as antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants, pose serious problems in patients with ITP due to the potential higher risk of bleeding complications. There are no current guidelines available for management of ITP patients with AMI. In this brief review of the limited available literature, we discuss the proposed pathophysiological link between ITP and arterial thrombosis and the challenging medical and interventional treatment of these patients.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  8. Rat Models of Ventricular Fibrillation Following Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Laura A.; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Jespersen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A number of animal models have been designed in order to unravel the underlying mechanisms of acute ischemia-induced arrhythmias and to test compounds and interventions for antiarrhythmic therapy. This is important as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) continues to be the major cause of sudden...... cardiac death, and we are yet to discover safe and effective treatments of the lethal arrhythmias occurring in the acute setting. Animal models therefore continue to be relevant for our understanding and treatment of acute ischemic arrhythmias. This review discusses the applicability of the rat as a model...... for ventricular arrhythmias occurring during the acute phase of AMI. It provides a description of models developed, advantages and disadvantages of rats, as well as an overview of the most important interventions investigated and the relevance for human pathophysiology....

  9. Double trouble with acute inferior myocardial infarction and left anterior descending artery thrombi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yıldırımtürk, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant occlusion of multiple epicardial coronary arteries is an uncommon finding in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. We reported a 50 years-old male patient who presented with inferior myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed simultaneous occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD and right coronary artery (RCA. The RCA occlusion treated successfully with percutaneous coronary intervention while LAD occlusion treated with antithrombotic and glycoprotein 2B/3A administration. Although multiple coronary thromboses of coronary arteries in the course of myocardial infarction is uncommon, it is crucial to determine proper treatment for these patients.

  10. Risk factors for myocardial infarction associated with the Chicago snowstorm of jan 13- 15, 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R I; Wiesenthal, A M; Zack, M M; Preston, M

    1981-01-09

    Sixty male survivors of acute myocardial infarction in the week after the Chicago blizzard of Jan 15, 1979, were matched by hospital and sex with 60 myocardial infarction survivors from a week without snowfall to determine whether a history of previous heart disease or of cardiac risk factors increased the risk of a postblizzard myocardial infarction. Cases did not differ significantly from control subjects with respect to age, percentage working full time, or percentage with a history of heart disease, hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, obesity, or gout. Hypercholesterolemia was four times as common among cases as among controls.

  11. Impact of obesity on long-term prognosis following acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Charlotte; Hassager, Christian; Hildebrandt, Per

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of obesity on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: This study comprises 6676 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction screened for entry into the Danish Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) study. At baseline, body mass.......01)]. Increasing WHR in women showed a trend of increased mortality, although this was not significant [adjusted RR=1.13 (0.95-1.34, p=0.2)]. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute myocardial infarction overall obesity as assessed by body mass index is inversely related to mortality. However, abdominal obesity appears...

  12. Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a Pig (Sus scrofa) Model with Extracellular Matrix and Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    Use additional pages If necessary.) PROTOCOL #: FDG20140039A DATE: 13 August 2015 PROTOCOL TITLE: Treatment of Chronic Myocardial Infarction in a...model developed in protocols FDG20120019A and FDG20130043A, we were able to successfully create myocardial infarctions in pigs with a high survival rate...applications.) ObJectives: The goal of this protocol was to create myocardial infarctions in miniplgs using polystyrene microspheres to Infarct a

  13. Therapeutic drugs during healing after myocardial infarction modify infarct collagens and ventricular distensibility at elevated pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugdutt, Bodh I; Idikio, Halliday; Uwiera, Richard R E

    2007-10-01

    We investigated whether therapeutic drugs given during healing following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) modify infarct collagens and left ventricular (LV) distensibility. We treated dogs with drugs from major classes (i.e., indomethacin, ibuprofen, captopril, enalapril, verapamil, amlodipine, propranolol, isosorbide dinitrate [ISDN] and digoxin) between day 2 and 6 weeks and measured hemodynamics, LV remodeling and function during healing over 6 weeks after transmural anterior AMI, and regional collagens, LV distensibility under increasing pressure, rupture threshold (RT), and topography at 6 weeks. Relative to sham, AMI controls showed infarct zone (IZ) expansion and thinning, 9.3-fold increase in IZ collagen, LV dilation and dysfunction, and no change in distensibility and RT. Relative to controls, indomethacin as well as enalapril, captopril and amlodipine decreased IZ collagen. Infarct expansion was attenuated by ibuprofen, captopril, amlodipine and ISDN but augmented by indomethacin. Infarct thinning was prevented by captopril, amlodipine and ISDN but enhanced by indomethacin. Importantly, indomethacin and enalapril enhanced LV distensibility and lowered RT. Distensibility correlated positively with IZ type III collagen and negatively with type I/III collagen ratio and pyridinoline cross-links whereas RT correlated positively with IZ type I collagen. Systolic volume and ejection fraction deteriorated with indomethacin but were improved or preserved with other therapies. The results demonstrate that different therapeutic drugs may produce different effects on IZ collagens during healing post-AMI: drugs that attenuate or adversely alter IZ collagens also enhance LV distensibility, augment adverse remodeling and lower RT, suggesting that testing for these effects post-AMI is warranted.

  14. Experimental myocardial stem cell therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens; Mygind, Naja D; Qayyum, Abbas A

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and is characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries reducing the blood supply to the heart muscle causing ischemia. IHD can result in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI...... interest in the last 10-15 years especially after STEMI. Many preclinical and clinical studies have shown encouraging results but also very diverse clinical outcomes after stem cell treatment. This diversity in results may be explained by different factors, such as cell isolation technique, infarct......), chronic IHD and heart failure. The patients suffer from chest pain (angina), dyspnea and a reduced quality of life. Common for all these conditions is loss of functional cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Stem cell therapy to regenerate injured myocardium is a new treatment option which has gained much...

  15. Experimental myocardial stem cell therapy for ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jens; Mygind, Naja D.; Qayyum, Abbas A.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and is characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries reducing the blood supply to the heart muscle causing ischemia. IHD can result in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI......), chronic IHD and heart failure. The patients suffer from chest pain (angina), dyspnea and a reduced quality of life. Common for all these conditions is loss of functional cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Stem cell therapy to regenerate injured myocardium is a new treatment option which has gained much...... interest in the last 10-15 years especially after STEMI. Many preclinical and clinical studies have shown encouraging results but also very diverse clinical outcomes after stem cell treatment. This diversity in results may be explained by different factors, such as cell isolation technique, infarct...

  16. Sex Differences in Mortality After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Viola; Parsons, Lori; Peterson, Eric D.; Rogers, William J.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Canto, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that women younger than 55 years have higher hospital mortality rates after acute myocardial infarction (MI) than age-matched men. We examined whether such mortality differences have decreased in recent years. Methods We investigated temporal trends in the hospital case-fatality rates of MI by sex and age from June 1, 1994, through December 31, 2006. The study population included 916 380 patients from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction with a confirmed diagnosis of MI. Results In-hospital mortality decreased markedly between 1994 and 2006 in all patients but more so in women than men. The mortality reduction in 2006 relative to 1994 was largest in women younger than 55 years (52.9%) and lowest in men younger than 55 years (33.3%). In patients younger than 55 years, the absolute decrease in mortality was 3 times larger in women than men (2.7% vs 0.9%). As a result, the excess mortality in younger women (<55 years) compared with men was less pronounced in 2004-2006 (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.67) than it was in 1994-1995 (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-2.24). The sex difference in mortality decrease was lower in older patients (P=.004 for the interaction among sex, age, and year). Changes in comorbidity and clinical severity features at admission accounted for more than 90% of these mortality trends. Conclusions In recent years, women, particularly younger ones, experienced larger improvements in hospital mortality after MI than men. The narrowing of the mortality gap between younger women and men is largely attributable to temporal changes in risk profiles. PMID:19858434

  17. Rosiglitazone and myocardial infarction in patients previously prescribed metformin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R Dormuth

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rosiglitazone was found associated with approximately a 43% increase in risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI in a two meta-analyses of clinical trials. Our objective is to estimate the magnitude of the association in real-world patients previously treated with metformin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case control study in British Columbia using health care databases on 4.3 million people. Our cohort consisted of 158,578 patients with Type 2 diabetes who used metformin as first-line drug treatment. We matched 2,244 cases of myocardial infarction (AMI with up to 4 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate matched odds ratios for AMI associated with treatment with rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and sulfonylureas. RESULTS: In our cohort of prior metformin users, adding rosiglitazone for up to 6 months was not associated with an increased risk of AMI compared to adding a sulfonylurea (odds ratio [OR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-2.10, or compared to adding pioglitazone (OR for rosi versus pio 1.41; 95% CI, 0.74-2.66. There were also no significant differences between rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and sulfonylureas for longer durations of treatment. Though not significantly different from sulfonylureas, there was a transient increase in AMI risk associated with the first 6 months of treatment with a glitazone compared to not using the treatment (OR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.07 CONCLUSIONS: In our British Columbia cohort of patients who received metformin as first-line pharmacotherapy for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, further treatment with rosiglitazone did not increase the risk of AMI compared to patients who were treated with pioglitazone or a sulfonylurea. Though not statistically significantly different compared from each other, an increased risk of AMI observed after starting rosiglitazone or sulfonylureas is a matter of concern that requires more research.

  18. [Cardiac dyssynchrony correlates with left ventricular remodeling after myocardial Infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Paul; Castro, Pablo; Gabrielli, Luigi; Verdejo, Hugo; Quintana, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez, José A; Corbalán, Ramón

    2009-11-01

    Cardiac dyssynchrony is common in advanced heart failure (HF), but the changes in cardiac synchrony after myocardial infarction (MI) have not been adequately descríbed. To study the relationship between cardiac synchrony and left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction. Forty nine patients aged 59+/-10 years (77% men) with a first episode of a ST segment elevation MI, were studied. Scintigraphic left ventricular function and synchrony analyses were performed at baseline and after a six months follow-up. Determinations were compared with 33 healthy subjects. At baseline, patients with MIhad a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and significant dyssynchrony, when compared with controls. LVEF was 36.4%+/-10%, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) 127+/-38 mL, interventricular delay (IEV) 29+/-35 miliseconds (ms), and intraventricular delay (IAV), 234+/-89 ms. After 6 months, LVEF significantly improved (38%+/-10%, p =0.042) without significant changes in LVEDV (129+/-32 mL, p =0.97), IEV (24+/-17, p =0.96) or IAV (231+/-97, p =0.34). At baseline there were significant correlations between IAV and LVEF, and between IAV and LVEDV (r =0.48, p =0.001 and r =0.41, p =0.004, respectively). These correlations remained significant after 6 months. There was a positive correlation between IAV and LVEDV changes at six months (r =0.403, p =0.04). The development of cardiac dyssynchrony correlates with adverse left ventricular remodeling after MI .

  19. Estimation of Subjective Stress in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND and AIMS: Mental stress is considered to be a precipitating factor in acute coronary events. We aimed to assess the association of subjective or 'perceived' mental stress with the occurrence of acute coronary events. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective case-control survey was carried out in a referral teaching hospital. subjects & METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and ST elevation on electrocardiogram who were admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of a referral teaching hospital were enrolled in the study as cases. Controls were unmatched and were enrolled from amongst patients with coronary artery disease who did not have recent acute coronary events. Subjective Stress Functional Classification (SS-FC for the preceding 2-4 weeks was assessed and assigned four grades from I to IV as follows: I - baseline, II - more than usual but not affecting daily routine, III - significantly high stress affecting daily routine and IV - worst stress in life. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions of different characteristics were compared using chi-square test with Yates continuity correction. Student's unpaired t test was applied for mean age. 'p' value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: SS-FC could be reliably (99% and easily assessed. Eighty (53% of the total 150 patients with acute MI reported 'high' levels of stress (stress class III and IV. This is in contrast to only 30 (20% of 150 healthy controls reporting high stress for the same period (p value < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Patients with acute myocardial infarction report a higher subjective mental stress during 2 to 4 weeks preceding the acute coronary event.

  20. Dose-dependent effects of atorvastatin on myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbarash O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olga Barbarash, Olga Gruzdeva, Evgenya Uchasova, Ekaterina Belik, Yulia Dyleva, Victoria KaretnikovaFederal State Budgetary Institution, Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo, the Russian Federation Background: Dyslipidemia is a key factor determining the development of both myocardial infarction (MI and its subsequent complications. Dyslipidemia is associated with endothelial dysfunction, activation of inflammation, thrombogenesis, and formation of insulin resistance. Statin therapy is thought to be effective for primary and secondary prevention of complications associated with atherosclerosis.Methods: This study examined 210 patients with Segment elevated MI (ST elevated MI who were treated with atorvastatin from the first 24 hours after MI. Group 1 (n=110 were given atorvastatin 20 mg/day. Group 2 (n=100 were given atorvastatin 40 mg/day. At days 1 and 12 after MI onset, insulin resistance levels determined by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, lipid profiles, and serum glucose, insulin, adipokine, and ghrelin levels were measured.Results: Free fatty acid levels showed a sharp increase during the acute phase of MI. Treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg/day, and especially with 40 mg/day, resulted in a decrease in free fatty acid levels. The positive effect of low-dose atorvastatin (20 mg/day is normalization of the adipokine status. Administration of atorvastatin 20 mg/day was accompanied with a statistically significant reduction in glucose levels (by 14% and C-peptide levels (by 38%, and a decrease in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index on day 12.Conclusion: Determination of atorvastatin dose and its use during the in-hospital period and subsequent periods should take into account changes in biochemical markers of insulin resistance and adipokine status in patients with MI.Keywords: myocardial infarction, statin, insulin resistance, adipokines

  1. Clinical implications of sleep disordered breathing in acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Aronson

    Full Text Available Sleep disordered breathing (SDB, characterized by nightly intermittent hypoxia, is associated with multiple pathophysiologic alterations that may adversely affect patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. This prospective study investigated whether the metabolic perturbations associated with SDB are present when these patients develop AMI and if they affect clinical outcomes.We prospectively enrolled 180 AMI patients. SDB was defined as oxygen desaturation index (ODI >5 events/hour based on a Watch Pat-100 sleep study. Blood samples were obtained for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides [PD] and serum paraoxonase-1 [PON-1] (arylesterase activity. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac dimensions and pulmonary artery systolic pressure.SDB was present in 116 (64% patients. Hs-CRP levels, PD and PON-1 were similar in patients with and without SDB. Echocardiography revealed higher left atrial dimension (4.1 ± 0.5 vs 3.8 ± 0.5 cm; P = 0.003 and a significant positive correlation between ODI and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (r = 0.41, P<0.0001. After a median follow up of 68 months, no significant differences were observed between the study groups with regard to clinical outcomes, including death, heart failure, myocardial infarction and unstable angina.There is a high prevalence of previously undiagnosed SDB among patients with AMI. SDB in the setting of AMI is associated with higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure. SDB was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

  2. Mean platelet volume is associated with poor postinterventional myocardial blush grade in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet O; Saglam, Hayrettin; Arinc, Huseyin; Kurtul, Serkan; Sivgin, Serdar; Akpek, Mahmut; Kaya, Mehmet G

    2013-06-01

    In a significant proportion of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), microvascular and myocardial reperfusion cannot be regained despite successfully restored thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grade 3 epicardial blood flow. Myocardial blush grade (MBG) is a reliable marker for microvascular patency and predicts short-term and long-term mortality after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute STEMI, independent of other variables. Mean platelet volume (MPV), a unique measure of platelet size, is an indicator of platelet reactivity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relation of admission MPV with postinterventional MBG in patients with STEMI and TIMI grade 3 flow at infarct artery after primary PCI. Three hundred and ten patients were selected as a study group among patients with STEMI and TIMI grade 3 epicardial blood flow after primary PCI. Blood samples for analysis were obtained during the initial evaluation of patients at the emergency department. MBGs of patients were classified at the end of angioplasty. Patients with MBG 0 and 1 were defined as having poor myocardial blush and patients with MBG 2 and 3 were defined as having normal myocardial blush. Patients with poor myocardial blush had higher admission MPV (10.5±1.3 to 9.1±1 fl, Padmission MPV was significantly associated with postinterventional MBG (coefficient=0.598, Padmission is significantly associated with poor postinterventional MBG in patients with STEMI and TIMI grade 3 flow at infarct artery after primary PCI.

  3. Is the time between onset of pain and restoration of patency of infarct-related artery shortened in patients with myocardial infarction? The effects of the Kielce Region System for Optimal Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    Marcin Sadowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The importance of delay in the restoration of infarct-related artery patency in patients with myocardial infarction was discussed, and actions were undertaken in the Kielce Region aimed at shortening this time within the System for Optimal Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Aim of the research: To evaluate the effectiveness of shortening time delays during transport of patients and diagnostics of myocardial infarction in the Kielce Region. Material and methods: Time delays were analysed in 5,934 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, hospitalised in cardiology wards with interventional cardiology on 24-hour duty, during the period 2008–2012. Time delays were analysed between the onset of myocardial infarction pain and undertaking treatment – T1 and T2 time – within which a patient with myocardial infarction, after admission to hospital, has intervention performed on infarct-related coronary artery. Results : During the period 2008–2012, the median T1 time was successfully shortened from 355 to 203 min, and the T2 time from 101 to 48 min. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the system was confirmed, and the necessity for further improvement of the system indicated.

  4. Depressive symptoms are associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

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    Jingkai Wei

    Full Text Available Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI, and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI.We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men age 38-60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task, and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS, obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores.There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30, p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56, p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress.Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological stress.

  5. Photoacoustic tomography of ex vivo mouse hearts with myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holotta, Markus; Grossauer, Harald; Kremser, Christian; Torbica, Pavle; Völkl, Jakob; Degenhart, Gerald; Esterhammer, Regina; Nuster, Robert; Paltauf, Günther; Jaschke, Werner

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the applicability of ex vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) on small animal organs. We used photoacoustic tomography (PAT) to visualize infarcted areas within murine hearts and compared these data to other imaging techniques [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography] and histological slices. In order to induce ischemia, an in vivo ligation of the left anterior descending artery was performed on nine wild-type mice. After varying survival periods, the hearts were excised and fixed in formaldehyde. Samples were illuminated with nanosecond laser pulses delivered by a Nd:YAG pumped optical parametric oscillator. Ultrasound detection was achieved using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) working as an integrating line detector. The voxel data were computed using a Fourier-domain based reconstruction algorithm, followed by inverse Radon transforms. The results clearly showed the capability of PAI to visualize myocardial infarction and to produce three-dimensional images with a spatial resolution of approximately 120 μm. Regions of affected muscle tissue in PAI corresponded well with the results of MRI and histology. Photoacoustic tomography utilizing a MZI for ultrasound detection allows for imaging of small tissue samples. Due to its high spatial resolution, good soft tissue contrast and comparatively low cost, PAT offers great potentials for imaging.

  6. Temporal Effects of Catalase Overexpression on Healing Following Myocardial Infarction

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    Pendergrass, Karl D.; Varghese, Susan T.; Maiellaro-Rafferty, Kathryn; Brown, Milton E.; Taylor, W. Robert; Davis, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), contribute to progression of dysfunction following myocardial infarction (MI). However, chronic overexpression studies do not agree with acute protein delivery studies. The purpose of the present study was to assess the temporal role of cardiomyocyte-derived H2O2 scavenging on cardiac function after infarction using an inducible system. Methods and Results We developed a tamoxifen-inducible, cardiomyocyte-specific catalase overexpressing mouse. Catalase overexpression was induced either 5 days pre or post-MI. Mice exhibited a 3-fold increase in cardiac catalase activity that was associated with a significant decrease in H2O2 levels at both 7 and 21 days. However, cardiac function improved only at the later time point. Pro-inflammatory and fibrotic genes were acutely upregulated after MI, but catalase overexpression abolished the increase, despite no acute change in function. This led to reduced overall scar formation, with lower levels of Collagen 1A and increased contractile Collagen 3A expression at 21 days. Conclusions In contrast to prior studies, there were no acute functional improvements with physiological catalase overexpression prior to MI. Scavenging of H2O2 however, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and altered cardiac collagen isoforms, associated with an improvement in cardiac function after 21 days. Our results suggest that sustained H2O2 levels, rather than acute levels immediately following MI, may be critical in directing remodeling and cardiac function at later time points. PMID:20971939

  7. Medication adherence among persons with post-acute myocardial infarction

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    Rapin Polsook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was to test a model explaining the influence of financial status, education, social support, symptom severity, barriers, knowledge, depression, and self-efficacy on medication adherence among persons with post-acute myocardial infarction. The use of multi-stage cluster sampling method involved 348 patients from 9 regional hospitals in Thailand. The results revealed the hypothesized model fit to the empirical data and explained 20% of the variance of medication adherence (χ2 = 5.87, df = 5, p < .43, Chi-square/df = 0.97, GIF = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.065, AGFI = 0.97. Depression was the most influential factor affecting medication adherence, and had a negative direct effect (-.40, p < .05, followed by self-efficacy and barriers (.17 and .10, p < .05, respectively. These findings suggest that nurses should understand that depression, barrier, and selfefficacy are important factors to be considerate to improve medication adherence and improve the quality of life of Thai postmyocardial infarction patients.

  8. Effects of erythropoietin on angiogenesis after myocardial infarction in porcine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Keisuke; Iso, Yoshitaka; Sato, Takatoshi; Wakabayashi, Kohei; Kobayashi, Youichi; Takeyama, Youichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has recently been shown to confer cardioprotective effects via angiogenesis and antiapoptosis. The administration of EPO after myocardial infarction (MI) reduces infarct size and improves cardiac function in small animals. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effects of EPO in porcine MI. Each animal in the EPO group received four injections of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO; 6000 U per injection) at 2-day intervals, starting after coronary occlusion. Animals in the control group received saline. Left ventriculography was performed just after coronary occlusion and at 28 days. Time-course changes in serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) were measured. The number of vessels was calculated, and the mRNA expressions of VEGF and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) were examined. Left ventricular function was similar between the groups. The numbers of cells positive for anti-α-smooth muscle actin, von Willebrand factor, and c-kit were significantly higher in the EPO group than in the controls (P porcine MI.

  9. Thrombus age, clinical presentation, and reperfusion grade in myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Antoni; Bernet, Mariana; Curós, Antoni; Rodríguez-Leor, Oriol; Serra, Jordi; Fernández-Nofrerías, Eduard; Mauri, Josepa; Bayes-Genís, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Autopsy studies show that dynamic coronary thrombosis leads to infarction. We studied intracoronary thrombus age in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and its relationship with clinical presentation and epicardial reperfusion grade. Intracoronary thrombectomy was performed in 131 STEMI patients within 24 h after symptom onset, and material sufficient for pathological analysis was retrieved from 81 patients. Thrombus age was classified as fresh (5days). A fresh thrombus was found in 48 patients (60%), whereas the thrombus showed lytic or organized changes in 33 patients (40%). Both thrombus and plaque material were aspirated in 40% of cases. Lytic or organized thrombi were aspirated in one third of the cases early (thrombi were also aspirated in one third of STEMI of>12h evolution. In multivariable analysis, fresh thrombus was associated with both persistent ST-segment elevation (even after 12 h of onset) during percutaneous coronary intervention [odds ratio (OR) 4.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-17.42, P=.042) and a previous history of ischemic heart disease (OR 4.54, 95% CI 1.41-14.64, P=.011). There were no associations between thrombus composition and epicardial reperfusion grade or the presence of the no-reflow phenomenon. Plaque components were found in all cases of distal embolization (5%). Intracoronary thrombi aspirated in STEMI frequently show more than one stage of maturation. Fresh thrombi predominate in patients with known ischemic heart disease or persistent ST-segment elevation. In STEMI, thromboaspiration revealed thrombi at different stages of maturation, supporting a dynamic process of rupture and repair of the atherosclerotic plaque. Fresh thrombi were present more frequently within 12 h of infarction onset but also in patients with symptoms beyond 12 h. When containing plaque material, thrombi were often associated with macroscopic distal embolization during angioplasty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyperbaric Oxygenation, Antihypoxant and Antioxidative Therapy for Acute Myocardial Infarction

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    G. G. Zhdanov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains information on the currently available methods for intensive care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI, by using hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO, antihypoxants, and antioxidants. The presented information is based on the data available in the literature and on the results of the authors’ own studies made in 428 patients with AMI, in whom the time course of changes was determined in blood gas and in the biochemical parameters characterizing energy metabolism and free radical lipid peroxidation. Along with the conventional treatment (thrombolysis, restriction of a necrotic area, myocardial hemodynamic unloading, Labori mixture, anticoagulants, disaggregants, etc., multimodality therapy for AMI used HBO sessions and antioxidants. The studies have provided evidence that it is possible and expedient to effectively and safely use HBO in AMI. Criteria for selecting the patients to undergo HBO, the time of its use, the choice of barotherapy regimes, and the nature of concomitant therapy are given. The application of the currently available methods for intensive care for hypoxia in AMI (HBO in combination with antihypoxants and antioxidants can reduce the length of stay at hospital and in resuscitative and intensive care units and considerably decrease mortality rates.

  11. Complement factor 5 blockade reduces porcine myocardial infarction size and improves immediate cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Soeren E; Gustavsen, A; Orrem, H L; Egge, K H; Courivaud, F; Fontenelle, H; Despont, A; Bongoni, A K; Rieben, R; Tønnessen, T I; Nunn, M A; Scott, H; Skulstad, H; Barratt-Due, A; Mollnes, T E

    2017-05-01

    Inhibition of complement factor 5 (C5) reduced myocardial infarction in animal studies, while no benefit was found in clinical studies. Due to lack of cross-reactivity of clinically used C5 antibodies, different inhibitors were used in animal and clinical studies. Coversin (Ornithodoros moubata complement inhibitor, OmCI) blocks C5 cleavage and binds leukotriene B4 in humans and pigs. We hypothesized that inhibition of C5 before reperfusion will decrease infarct size and improve ventricular function in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. In pigs (Sus scrofa), the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded (40 min) and reperfused (240 min). Coversin or placebo was infused 20 min after occlusion and throughout reperfusion in 16 blindly randomized pigs. Coversin significantly reduced myocardial infarction in the area at risk by 39% (p = 0.03, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining) and by 19% (p = 0.02) using magnetic resonance imaging. The methods correlated significantly (R = 0.92, p infarcted area at risk by coversin treatment. Coversin ablated plasma C5 activation throughout the reperfusion period and decreased myocardial C5b-9 deposition, while neither plasma nor myocardial LTB4 were significantly reduced. Coversin substantially reduced the size of infarction, improved ventricular function, and attenuated interleukin-1β and E-selectin in this porcine model by inhibiting C5. We conclude that inhibition of C5 in myocardial infarction should be reconsidered.

  12. Microvascular effect of intracoronary eptifibatide in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Adrian; Ober, Camelia; Bondor, Cosmina Ioana; Cadiş, Horaţiu

    2012-01-01

    In this prospective, randomized trial in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) admitted for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), loaded with 600 mg clopidogrel, we hypothesized that eptifibatide administered downstream of the coronary occlusion leads to a lower degree of microvascular obstruction compared with no additional eptifibatide. Fifty patients with AMI, loaded with 600 mg of clopidogrel at the first hospital contact, with occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), were randomized to an eptifibatide group (EG) or a control group (CG). In both groups, stenting was performed after thrombus aspiration. Microvascular reperfusion was assessed by angiography, electrocardiography, and transthoracic Doppler ultrasonography of the LAD. TIMI myocardial perfusion grade 2-3 was not different between the EG (72%) and the CG (84%) (p = 0.31). ST segment resolution >70% was similarly detected in both groups (32 vs. 40%; p = 0.56). The mean diastolic deceleration time did not differ significantly between the CG (856.36 ± 397.88 ms) and the EG (935.72 ± 252.22 ms) (p = 0.41). Multivariate logistic regression revealed no significant influence of the treatment with eptifibatide on ST segment resolution (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.11-2.10, p = 0.32), TIMI myocardial perfusion (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.10-2.59, p = 0.42), and diastolic deceleration time (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.03-1.51, p = 0.12). In AMI patients loaded with 600 mg of clopidogrel undergoing PPCI, intracoronary administration of eptifibatide does not clearly improve microvascular obstruction. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. New electrocardiographic criteria to differentiate acute pericarditis and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossello, Xavier; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Alguersuari, Joan; Bardají, Alfredo; Worner, Fernando; Sutil, Mario; Ferrero, Andreu; Cinca, Juan

    2014-03-01

    Transmural myocardial ischemia induces changes in QRS complex and QT interval duration but, theoretically, these changes might not occur in acute pericarditis provided that the injury is not transmural. This study aims to assess whether QRS and QT duration permit distinguishing acute pericarditis and acute transmural myocardial ischemia. Clinical records and 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) at ×2 magnification were analyzed in 79 patients with acute pericarditis and in 71 with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). ECG leads with maximal ST-segment elevation showed longer QRS complex and shorter QT interval than leads with isoelectric ST segment in patients with STEMI (QRS: 85.9 ± 13.6 ms vs 81.3 ± 10.4 ms, P = .01; QT: 364.4 ± 38.6 vs 370.9 ± 37.0 ms, P = .04), but not in patients with pericarditis (QRS: 81.5 ± 12.5 ms vs 81.0 ± 7.9 ms, P = .69; QT: 347.9 ± 32.4 vs 347.3 ± 35.1 ms, P = .83). QT interval dispersion among the 12-ECG leads was greater in STEMI than in patients with pericarditis (69.8 ± 20.8 ms vs 50.6 ± 20.2 ms, P pericarditis, show prolongation of QRS complex and shortening of QT interval in ECG leads with ST-segment elevation. These new findings may improve the differential diagnostic yield of the classical ECG criteria. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarkar, Zohreh; Jafarnejad, Majid; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary Artery Disease is known as the main cause of death in industrialized countries. Relation between this disease and some infections such as Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) has been shown in several studies. The purpose of this study was to dermine the relationship between Hypylori and mycardical infarctions. Methods: Seventy-three myocardial infarction patients and 78 individuals with no history of this disease were compared. Patients and control matched for age and sex person to person by the match method. Levels of serum IgA and IgG antibodies against H. pylori were measured by Elisa method. Also, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, HDL measured in both groups and data were compared between two groups in terms of relation with cardiac risk factors. Results: From 151 participants, 73 were patients and 78 were control subjects. The percentage of IgG positive cases against H. pylori was 57.5% in the case group and 32.1% in the control group (p=0.002, OR: 2.87 CI: 95%; 1.5-5.6). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in IgA positive cases between the two groups (42.5% and 48.7% in the case and control groups, respectively) (p=0.44; OR: 0.78 95% CI; 0.41-1.48). The study showed 74.2% of cases in the case group and 45.2% in the control group were positive for both IgG and IgA (p=0.01; OR: 3.5 95% CI; 1.3-9.5). No significant differences were found between two groups in terms of relation between H. pylori related antibodies level and heart disease classic risk factors (smoking, hypertension,…), sex, and age, but between dyslipidemia and H. pylori related antibodies was significant differences in case group (p=0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, it seems there is a relation between H. pylori infection and myocardial infarction. Also, between dislipidemia and H. Pylori antibodies in case group were significant difference. Therefore, H. pylori can be a new risk factor for atherosclerosis or can be exacerbate effect of other risk factors

  15. Scintigraphic assessment of sympathetic innervation after transmural versus nontransmural myocardial infarction

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    Dae, M.W.; Herre, J.M.; O' Connell, J.W.; Botvinick, E.H.; Newman, D.; Munoz, L. (University of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1991-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of detecting denervated myocardium in the infarcted canine heart, the distribution of sympathetic nerve endings using I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was compared with the distribution of perfusion using thallium-201, with the aid of color-coded computer functional map in 16 dogs. Twelve dogs underwent myocardial infarction by injection of vinyl latex into the left anterior descending coronary artery (transmural myocardial infarction, n = 6), or ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (nontransmural myocardial infarction, n = 6). Four dogs served as sham-operated controls. Image patterns were compared with tissue norepinephrine content and with histofluorescence microscopic findings in biopsy specimens. Hearts with transmural infarction showed zones of absent MIBG and thallium, indicating scar. Adjacent and distal regions showed reduced MIBG but normal thallium uptake, indicating viable but denervated myocardium. Denervation distal to infarction was confirmed by reduced norepinephrine content and absence of nerve fluorescence. Nontransmural myocardial infarction showed zones of wall thinning with decreased thallium uptake and a greater reduction or absence of MIBG localized to the region of the infarct, with minimal extension of denervation beyond the infarct. Norepinephrine content was significantly reduced in the infarct zone, and nerve fluorescence was absent. These findings suggest that (1) MIBG imaging can detect viable and perfused but denervated myocardium after infarction; and (2) as opposed to the distal denervation produced by transmural infarction, nontransmural infarction may lead to regional ischemic damage of sympathetic nerves, but may spare subepicardial nerve trunks that course through the region of infarction to provide a source of innervation to distal areas of myocardium.

  16. Scintigraphic assessment of sympathetic innervation after transmural versus nontransmural myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dae, M W; Herre, J M; O'Connell, J W; Botvinick, E H; Newman, D; Munoz, L

    1991-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of detecting denervated myocardium in the infarcted canine heart, the distribution of sympathetic nerve endings using I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was compared with the distribution of perfusion using thallium-201, with the aid of color-coded computer functional map in 16 dogs. Twelve dogs underwent myocardial infarction by injection of vinyl latex into the left anterior descending coronary artery (transmural myocardial infarction, n = 6), or ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (nontransmural myocardial infarction, n = 6). Four dogs served as sham-operated controls. Image patterns were compared with tissue norepinephrine content and with histofluorescence microscopic findings in biopsy specimens. Hearts with transmural infarction showed zones of absent MIBG and thallium, indicating scar. Adjacent and distal regions showed reduced MIBG but normal thallium uptake, indicating viable but denervated myocardium. Denervation distal to infarction was confirmed by reduced norepinephrine content and absence of nerve fluorescence. Nontransmural myocardial infarction showed zones of wall thinning with decreased thallium uptake and a greater reduction or absence of MIBG localized to the region of the infarct, with minimal extension of denervation beyond the infarct. Norepinephrine content was significantly reduced in the infarct zone, and nerve fluorescence was absent. These findings suggest that 1) MIBG imaging can detect viable and perfused but denervated myocardium after infarction; and 2) as opposed to the distal denervation produced by transmural infarction, nontransmural infarction may lead to regional ischemic damage of sympathetic nerves, but may spare subepicardial nerve trunks that course through the region of infarction to provide a source of innervation to distal areas of myocardium.

  17. Post-myocardial infarction mortality in patients with ventricular premature depolarizations. Canadian Amiodarone Myocardial Infarction Arrhythmia Trial Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, J A; Connolly, S J; Gent, M; Roberts, R

    1991-08-01

    Among survivors of acute myocardial infarction, frequent and repetitive ventricular premature depolarizations (VPDs) detected on ambulatory monitoring contribute independently to the risk of all-cause mortality and sudden death. Apart from the beta-blockers, no antiarrhythmic drug has been reliably demonstrated to reduce mortality among patients with VPDs. A pilot study was undertaken to gather data to aid in the design of a multicenter trial of amiodarone for the reduction of mortality from cardiac arrhythmias in such patients. Seventy-seven patients with acute myocardial infarction within the previous 6-30 days and 10 or more VPDs/hr or one or more runs of ventricular tachycardia on 24-hour electrocardiographic recording were randomized in a double-blind fashion in a 2:1 amiodarone-to-placebo ratio. The loading dose was 10 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. The maintenance dose was 300-400 mg/day with reductions at 4-month intervals in response to VPD suppression, excessive plasma levels, or toxicity. VPD suppression at 1 week and 2 weeks was 63% and 85%, respectively, on amiodarone and 17% and 27%, respectively, on placebo. Apart from thyroid-stimulating hormone elevation and skin reactions, no side effects occurred more frequently with amiodarone. The study drug was stopped for side effects or noncompliance in 35% of amiodarone patients and 34% of placebo patients. Patients were followed for a maximum of 2 years (mean, 20 months). Arrhythmic death or resuscitated ventricular fibrillation occurred in two of 48 amiodarone patients (6%) and four of 29 placebo patients (14%), whereas the rates of all-cause mortality were five of 48 (10%) and six of 29 (21%), respectively. Amiodarone, in moderate loading and maintenance dosages with adjustments in response to plasma levels, VPD suppression, and side effects, results in effective VPD suppression and acceptable levels of toxicity.

  18. Protective Effects of Ticagrelor on Myocardial Injury After Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilahur, Gemma; Gutiérrez, Manuel; Casani, Laura; Varela, Lourdes; Capdevila, Antoni; Pons-Lladó, Guillem; Carreras, Francesc; Carlsson, Leif; Hidalgo, Alberto; Badimon, Lina

    2016-11-29

    The P2Y12 receptor antagonist ticagrelor has been shown to be clinically superior to clopidogrel. Although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, ticagrelor may exert off-target effects through adenosine-related mechanisms. We aimed to investigate whether ticagrelor reduces myocardial injury to a greater extent than clopidogrel after myocardial infarction (MI) at a similar level of platelet inhibition and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Pigs received the following before MI induction: (1) placebo-control; (2) a loading dose of clopidogrel (600 mg); (3) a loading dose of ticagrelor (180 mg); or (4) a loading dose of ticagrelor followed by an adenosine A1/A2-receptor antagonist [8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline, 4 mg/kg intravenous] to determine the potential contribution of adenosine in ticagrelor-related cardioprotection. Animals received the corresponding maintenance doses of the antiplatelet agents during the following 24 hours and underwent 3T-cardiac MRI analysis. Platelet inhibition was monitored by ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In the myocardium, we assessed the expression and activation of proteins known to modulate edema formation, including aquaporin-4 and AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream effectors CD36 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Clopidogrel and ticagrelor exerted a high and consistent antiplatelet effect (68.2% and 62.2% of platelet inhibition, respectively, on challenge with 20 μmol/L ADP) that persisted up to 24 hours post-MI (P<0.05). All groups showed comparable myocardial area-at-risk and cardiac worsening after MI induction. 3T-Cardiac MRI analysis revealed that clopidogrel- and ticagrelor-treated animals had a significantly smaller extent of MI than placebo-control animals (15.7 g left ventricle and 12.0 g left ventricle versus 22.8 g left ventricle, respectively). Yet, ticagrelor reduced infarct size to a significantly greater extent than clopidogrel (further 23.5% reduction; P

  19. Influence of acute glycaemic level on measures of myocardial infarction in non-diabetic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemar, Sarah S; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Iversen, Kasper K; Engstrøm, Thomas; Honge, Jesper L; Tønder, Niels; Vejlstrup, Niels; Idorn, Manja; Ekström, Kathrine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of experiencing myocardial infarction. The influence of the prevailing plasma glucose level on infarction and mortality after acute ischaemia is however unknown. The aim was to study the effect of the acute plasma glucose level on the myocardial infarction size in a closed-chest pig model. 38 non-diabetic pigs were randomised to hypoglycaemic (1.8-2.2 mmol/l; n = 15), normoglycaemic (5-7 mmol/l; n = 12) or hyperglycaemic glucose clamping (22-23 mmol/l; n = 11). After 30 min within glucose target myocardial infarction was induced for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. Hereafter the heart was double-stained to delineate infarction from viable tissue within the area at risk. Mean infarction size was 201 ± 35 mm(2) (mean ± SEM) in the hypoglycaemic group, 154 ± 40 mm(2) in the normoglycaemic group and 134 ± 40 mm(2) in the hyperglycaemic group, with no differences in infarction size, infarct/area at risk ratio or troponin T levels between the groups. There was no difference in incidence of ventricular fibrillation or mortality between the groups. No statistically significant associations were observed between the acute glycaemic level and measures of myocardial infarction, rates of ventricular fibrillation and subsequent premature death in the setting of acute ischaemia and reperfusion.

  20. Resistance training after myocardial infarction in rats: its role on cardiac and autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grans, Camilla Figueiredo; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Abssamra, Marcos Elias Vergilino; Rocha, Leandro Yanase; Carrozzi, Nicolle Martins; Mostarda, Cristiano; Figueroa, Diego Mendrot; Angelis, Kátia De; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Although resistance exercise training is part of cardiovascular rehabilitation programs, little is known about its role on the cardiac and autonomic function after myocardial infarction. To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training, started early after myocardial infarction, on cardiac function, hemodynamic profile, and autonomic modulation in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control, trained control, sedentary infarcted and trained infarcted rats. Each group with n = 9 rats. The animals underwent maximum load test and echocardiography at the beginning and at the end of the resistance exercise training (in an adapted ladder, 40% to 60% of the maximum load test, 3 months, 5 days/week). At the end, hemodynamic, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic modulation assessments were made. The maximum load test increased in groups trained control (+32%) and trained infarcted (+46%) in relation to groups sedentary control and sedentary infarcted. Although no change occurred regarding the myocardial infarction size and systolic function, the E/A ratio (-23%), myocardial performance index (-39%) and systolic blood pressure (+6%) improved with resistance exercise training in group trained infarcted. Concomitantly, the training provided additional benefits in the high frequency bands of the pulse interval (+45%), as well as in the low frequency band of systolic blood pressure (-46%) in rats from group trained infarcted in relation to group sedentary infarcted. Resistance exercise training alone may be an important and safe tool in the management of patients after myocardial infarction, considering that it does not lead to significant changes in the ventricular function, reduces the global cardiac stress, and significantly improves the vascular and cardiac autonomic modulation in infarcted rats.