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Sample records for suspected ischemic myelopathy

  1. Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyinkan Marquis, B; Capone, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    Myelopathy is an inclusive term, referring to pathology leading to a neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. The clinical diagnosis of myelopathy requires a detailed history and physical examination to define the clinical syndrome. Neuroimaging is indicated in most instances of new-onset myelopathy. It is indicated also when the worsening of a myelopathy is unexplained. Advances in neuroimaging have proved to play a vital role in diagnosis. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are dependent upon an adequate imaging evaluation to establish the presence of mechanical stability, extrinsic spinal cord compression, or an intramedullary lesion. The most frequent etiology of myelopathy is related to degenerative disease of the spine from osteophyte or extruded disc material causing compression of the spinal cord in the cervical or thoracic spine. The next common etiologies are spinal cord compression due to extradural masses caused by metastatic disease to bone or blunt trauma. In these cases, emergency imaging should be performed to assess the nature of the lesion causing the myelopathy and plan the most appropriate treatment. Also urgent imaging should be performed when an abscess in the spinal canal is suspected. Less urgent is imaging of primary neoplasms of the meninges, roots, or spinal cord, as well as noninfectious inflammatory processes, such as multiple sclerosis, and neurodegenerative, vascular, nutritional, or idiopathic disorders leading to myelopathy. Although a survey of the entire spinal cord can be performed with imaging, it is more appropriate to define from the clinical findings what levels of the spine and spinal cord should be imaged. This approach helps limit the likelihood of false-positive imaging findings that may encourage needless attempts to fix what is not broken. Similarly, the most appropriate imaging study and protocol should be selected in order to provide a timely and accurate diagnosis. To do so requires detailed knowledge

  2. Radiation myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, I.A.; Myers, S.J.

    1976-02-01

    Myelopathy secondary to radiation is a relatively uncommon entity which was reported initially in 1941 by Ahlbom. From a total of 65 patients who were seen in our spinal injury clinic during the past four years, three patients have received a diagnosis of radiation myelopathy. This is 4.6 percent of the total number. The case histories of two patients with radiation myelopathy are presented. The clinical and pathologic features are discussed. Since the three patients with this diagnosis whose cases are followed in the clinic are still alive, the second case that is reported is taken from the files of the pathology department so that autopsy and histologic data also can be presented.

  3. Stress Perfusion CMR in Patients With Known and Suspected CAD: Prognostic Value and Optimal Ischemic Threshold for Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, Gabriella; Masci, Pier Giorgio; Monney, Pierre; Rutz, Tobias; Hugelshofer, Sarah; Gaxherri, Mirdita; Muller, Olivier; Iglesias, Juan F; Eeckhout, Eric; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Pellaton, Cyril; Sierro, Christophe; Schwitter, Juerg

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to determine the ischemia threshold and additional prognostic factors that identify patients for safe deferral from revascularizations in a large cohort of all-comer patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Stress-perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is increasingly used in daily practice for ischemia detection. However, there is insufficient evidence about the ischemia burden that identifies patients who benefit from revascularization versus those with a good prognosis who receive drugs only. All patients with known or suspected CAD referred to stress-perfusion CMR for myocardial ischemia assessment were prospectively enrolled. The CMR examination included standard functional adenosine stress first-pass perfusion (gadobutrol 0.1 mmol/kg Gadovist, Bayer AG, Zurich, Switzerland) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) acquisitions. Presence of ischemia and ischemia burden (number of ischemic segments on a 16-segment model), and of scar and scar burden (number and transmurality of scar segments in a 17-segment model) were assessed. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), and late coronary revascularization (>90 days post-CMR); the secondary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death and nonfatal MI. During a follow-up of 2.5 ± 1.0 years, 86 and 32 of 1,024 patients (1,103 screened patients) experienced the primary and secondary endpoints, respectively. On Kaplan-Meier curves for the primary and secondary endpoints, patients without ischemia had excellent outcomes that did not differ from patients with <1.5 ischemic segments. In multivariate Cox regression analyses of the entire population and of the subgroups, ischemia burden (threshold: ≥1.5 ischemic segments) was consistently the strongest predictor of the primary and secondary endpoints with hazard ratios (HRs) of 7.42 to 8.72 (p < 0.001), whereas age (≥67 years), left ventricular ejection fraction (≤40%), and

  4. A new clinical tool for the quantification of myocardial CT perfusion imaging in patients with suspected Ischemic Heart Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Muñoz, A.; Dux-Santoy Hurtado, L.; Rodriguez Palomares, J.L.; Piella Fenoy, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the clinical practice, the evaluation of myocardial perfusion by using Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging is usually performed visually or semi-quantitatively. The scarcity of quantitative perfusion data not always allows a proper diagnose of patients which are suspected of suffering from some diseases, such as Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). In this work, a clinical tool for the automatic quantification of myocardial perfusion in patients with suspected IHD is proposed. Myocardial perfusion is assessed based on a combined diagnosis protocol (CT/CTP protocol) which involves the acquisition of two contrastenhanced CT images, one obtained at rest and another acquired under pharmacological stress. The clinical tool allows the automatic quantification of perfusion in different myocardial segments defined according to the 16-AHA-segmentation model of the left ventricle, by providing the mean of Hounsfield Units in those regions. Based on this analysis, the clinicians can compare the values at baseline and at hyperemia, and they can better determine hypoperfusion defects in patients with IHD. The validation of the clinical tool was performed by comparing automatic and manual perfusion measurements of 10 patients with suspected IHD who were previously assessed with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for perfusion analysis. A strong linear correlation was found between the automatic and manual results. Afterwards, perfusion defects obtained from CT/CTP protocol were compared to perfusion defects from SPECT, to assess the applicability of this clinical tool for the diagnosis of IHD. (Author)

  5. Suspected Carotid Artery Stenosis : Cost-effectiveness of CT Angiography in Work-up of Patients with Recent TIA or Minor Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tholen, Aletta T. R.; de Monye, Cecile; Genders, Tessa S. S.; Buskens, Erik; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Hunink, M. G. Myriam

    Purpose: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of state-of-the-art noninvasive diagnostic imaging strategies in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke who are suspected of having carotid artery stenosis (CAS). Materials and Methods: All prospectively evaluated

  6. Suspected carotid artery stenosis: Cost-effectiveness of CT angiography in work-up of patients with recent TIA or minor ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T.R. Tholen; C. de Monyé (Cécile); T.S.S. Genders (Tessa); E. Buskens (Erik); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); A. van der Lugt (Aad); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of state-of-the-art noninvasive diagnostic imaging strategies in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke who are suspected of having carotid artery stenosis (CAS). Materials and Methods: All prospectively

  7. Use of a Diagnostic Score to Prioritize Computed Tomographic (CT) Imaging for Patients Suspected of Ischemic Stroke Who May Benefit from Thrombolytic Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwong, Wen Yea; Bots, Michiel L; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Kappelle, L Jaap; Abdul Aziz, Zariah; Sidek, Norsima Nazifah; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A shortage of computed tomographic (CT) machines in low and middle income countries often results in delayed CT imaging for patients suspected of a stroke. Yet, time constraint is one of the most important aspects for patients with an ischemic stroke to benefit from thrombolytic therapy.

  8. Use of a Diagnostic Score to Prioritize Computed Tomographic (CT) Imaging for Patients Suspected of Ischemic Stroke Who May Benefit from Thrombolytic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Michiel L.; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Abdul Aziz, Zariah; Sidek, Norsima Nazifah; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2016-01-01

    Background A shortage of computed tomographic (CT) machines in low and middle income countries often results in delayed CT imaging for patients suspected of a stroke. Yet, time constraint is one of the most important aspects for patients with an ischemic stroke to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. We set out to assess whether application of the Siriraj Stroke Score is able to assist physicians in prioritizing patients with a high probability of having an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging. Methods From the Malaysian National Neurology Registry, we selected patients aged 18 years and over with clinical features suggesting of a stroke, who arrived in the hospital 4.5 hours or less from ictus. The prioritization of receiving CT imaging was left to the discretion of the treating physician. We applied the Siriraj Stroke Score to all patients, refitted the score and defined a cut-off value to best distinguish an ischemic stroke from a hemorrhagic stroke. Results Of the 2176 patients included, 73% had an ischemic stroke. Only 33% of the ischemic stroke patients had CT imaging within 4.5 hours. The median door-to-scan time for these patients was 4 hours (IQR: 1;16). With the recalibrated score, it would have been possible to prioritize 95% (95% CI: 94%–96%) of patients with an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging. Conclusions In settings where CT imaging capacity is limited, we propose the use of the Siriraj Stroke Score to prioritize patients with a probable ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging. PMID:27768752

  9. Use of a Diagnostic Score to Prioritize Computed Tomographic (CT Imaging for Patients Suspected of Ischemic Stroke Who May Benefit from Thrombolytic Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yea Hwong

    Full Text Available A shortage of computed tomographic (CT machines in low and middle income countries often results in delayed CT imaging for patients suspected of a stroke. Yet, time constraint is one of the most important aspects for patients with an ischemic stroke to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. We set out to assess whether application of the Siriraj Stroke Score is able to assist physicians in prioritizing patients with a high probability of having an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging.From the Malaysian National Neurology Registry, we selected patients aged 18 years and over with clinical features suggesting of a stroke, who arrived in the hospital 4.5 hours or less from ictus. The prioritization of receiving CT imaging was left to the discretion of the treating physician. We applied the Siriraj Stroke Score to all patients, refitted the score and defined a cut-off value to best distinguish an ischemic stroke from a hemorrhagic stroke.Of the 2176 patients included, 73% had an ischemic stroke. Only 33% of the ischemic stroke patients had CT imaging within 4.5 hours. The median door-to-scan time for these patients was 4 hours (IQR: 1;16. With the recalibrated score, it would have been possible to prioritize 95% (95% CI: 94%-96% of patients with an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging.In settings where CT imaging capacity is limited, we propose the use of the Siriraj Stroke Score to prioritize patients with a probable ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging.

  10. Pediatric Surfer's Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Shernaz; Padmanabhan, Pradeep; Moeller, Karen; Rominger, Anna

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of the youngest known patient diagnosed with surfer's myelopathy. Surfer's myelopathy is a rare nontraumatic myelopathy. The most likely etiology, presumably, is arterial insufficiency related to spine hyperextension. Symptoms consist of back pain, urinary incontinence or retention, paraplegia, and sensory loss. A 7-year-old girl presented with back pain, urinary retention, and lower extremity weakness after doing backbends during a cheerleading practice the day prior to presentation. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY MEDICINE PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: With the trend of children becoming increasingly active in competitive sports at a younger age, surfer's myelopathy is a diagnosis that should be considered when the symptoms are present and the history consists of hyperextending the back. As in our case, a seemingly benign trauma can lead to the diagnosis of surfer's myelopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential diagnosis of CSM. Congenital. Congenital canal stenosis, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, kyphosis, os odontoideum. Acquired. Infective. TB, empyema, syphilis, post-viral, AIDS-related myelopathy, parasitic cyst, vertebral osteomyelitis. Inflammatory. Transverse myelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple ...

  12. Predictive Value of a 4-Hour Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol in Patients with Suspected Ischemic Chest Pain Presenting to an Emergency Department

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    Mamatha P.R. Rao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Currently recommended risk stratification protocols for suspected ischemic chest pain in the emergency department (ED includes point-of-care availability of exercise treadmill/nuclear tests or CT coronary angiograms. These tests are not widely available for most of the ED’s. This study aims to prospectively validate the safety of a predefined 4-hour accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP using chest pain, ECG, and troponin T among suspected ischemic chest pain patients presenting to an ED of a tertiary care hospital in Oman.Methods: One hundred and thirty-two patients aged over 18 years with suspected ischemic chest pain presenting within 12 hours of onset along with normal or non-diagnostic first ECG and negative first troponin T (<0.010 μg/l were recruited from September 2008 to February 2009. Low-probability acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients at 4-hours defined as absent chest pain and negative ECG or troponin tests were discharged home and observed for 30-days for major adverse cardiac events (MACE (Group I: negative ADP. High-probability ACS patients at 4-hours were defined by recurrent or persistent chest pain, positive ECG or troponin tests and were admitted and observed for in-hospital MACE (Group II: positive ADP.Results: One hundred and thirty-two patients were recruited and 110 patients completed the study. The overall 30-day MACE in this cohort was 15% with a mortality of less than 1%. 30-days MACE occurred in 8/95 of group I patients (8.4% and 9/15 of the in-hospital MACE patients in group II. The ADP had a sensitivity of 52% (95% CI: 0.28-0.76, specificity of 93% (0.85-0.97, a negative predictive value of 91% (0.83-0.96, a positive predictive value of 60% (0.32-0.82, negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 (0.30-0.83 and a positive likelihood ratio of 8.2 (3.3-20 in predicting MACE.Conclusion: A 4-hour ADP using chest pain, ECG, and troponin T had high specificity and negative predictive value in predicting 30-day MACE

  13. Multidetector computed tomography angiography in clinically suspected hyperacute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation: an etiological workup in a cohort of Brazilian patients

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    Felipe Torres Pacheco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The potential of computed tomography angiography (CTA was assessed for early determination of stroke subtypes in a Brazilian cohort of patients with stroke. Method From July 2011 to July 2013, we selected patients with suspected hyperacute stroke (< 6 hours. Intracranial and cervical arteries were scrutinized on CTA and their imaging features were correlated with concurrent subtype of stroke. Results Stroke was documented in 50/106 selected patients (47.2% based on both clinical grounds and imaging follow-up (stroke group, with statistically significant arterial stenosis and vulnerable plaques on CTA. Intracranial large artery disease was demonstrated in 34% of patients in the stroke group. Partial territorial infarct prevailed (86% while artery-to-artery embolization was the most common stroke mechanism (52%. Conclusion Multidetector CTA was useful for the etiologic work-up of hyperacute ischemic stroke and facilitated the knowledge about the topographic pattern of brain infarct in accordance with its causative mechanism.

  14. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Christopher J; Angevine, Peter D; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fries, Ian Blair; Holly, Langston T; Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaqulle; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; O'Toole, John E; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; West, O Clark; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms may have a number of causative intradural and extradural etiologies, including disc degenerative diseases, spinal masses, infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular compromise, and vertebral fracture. Patients may present acutely or insidiously and may progress toward long-term paralysis if not treated promptly and effectively. Noncontrast CT is the most appropriate first examination in acute trauma cases to diagnose vertebral fracture as the cause of acute myelopathy. In most nontraumatic cases, MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the location, severity, and causative etiology of spinal cord myelopathy, and predicts which patients may benefit from surgery. Myelopathy from spinal stenosis and spinal osteoarthritis is best confirmed without MRI intravenous contrast. Many other myelopathic conditions are more easily visualized after contrast administration. Imaging performed should be limited to the appropriate spinal levels, based on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Pathophysiology and Surgical Approaches

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    Putu Eka Mardhika

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pathophysiology of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM and several surgical approaches for the treatment of CSM. CSM is a degenerative disease with severe morbidity. The pathophysiology of CSM involves static, dynamic, and ischemic factors. The management of mild CSM typically involves conservative treatments and medication; whereas, moderate and severe CSM are better treated surgically. Surgical treatments for CSM are basically classified into anterior and posterior surgeries. The common techniques are anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF, laminectomy, and laminoplasty. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we review the research papers from PubMed database to elaborate the advantages and disadvantages of each technique.

  16. Suspected carotid artery stenosis: cost-effectiveness of CT angiography in work-up of patients with recent TIA or minor ischemic stroke.

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    Tholen, Aletta T R; de Monyé, Cécile; Genders, Tessa S S; Buskens, Erik; Dippel, Diederik W J; van der Lugt, Aad; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2010-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of state-of-the-art noninvasive diagnostic imaging strategies in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke who are suspected of having carotid artery stenosis (CAS). All prospectively evaluated patients provided informed consent, and the local ethics committee approved this study. Diagnostic performance, treatment, long-term events, quality of life, and costs resulting from strategies employing duplex ultrasonography (US), computed tomographic (CT) angiography, contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography, and combinations of these modalities were modeled in a decision tree and Markov model. Data sources included a prospective diagnostic cohort study, a meta-analysis, and a review of the literature. Outcomes were costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and net health benefits (QALY-equivalents), with a willingness-to-pay threshold of euro 50,000 per QALY and a societal perspective. The strategy with the highest net health benefit was considered the most cost effective. Extensive one-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to explore the effect of varying parameter values were performed. The reference case analysis assumed that patients underwent surgery 2-4 weeks after the first symptoms, and the effect of earlier intervention was explored. The reference case analysis showed that duplex US combined with CT angiography and surgery for 70%-99% stenoses was the most cost-effective strategy, with a net health benefit of 13.587 and 15.542 QALY-equivalents in men and women, respectively. In men, the CT angiography strategy with a 70%-99% cutoff yielded slightly more QALYs, at an incremental cost of euro 71,419 per QALY, compared with duplex US combined with CT angiography. In patients with a high-risk profile, in patients with a high prior probability of disease, and when patients could be treated within 2 weeks after the

  17. Degenerative myelopathy in dogs

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    Nikolovski Goran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the chronic progressive disorders of the spinal cord in dogs is the degenerative myelopathy (DM. The most predisposed age in dog is 5 to 14 years, while rarely noted in younger, there is no gender predisposition. This disorder most commonly appears in dogs of the German shepherd breed, but it can appear in other breeds too. The main changes about this disease are degeneration of the myelin, especially in the thoracic-lumbar segments of the spinal cord and the dorsal nerve roots. The progression of the disease is slow and can last months to years. Undoubtedly, diagnosis is made by examinations of the CSF and establishing elevated level of protein segments.

  18. Ayurvedic management in cervical spondylotic myelopathy

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    Sarvesh Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The age related spondylotic changes may result in direct compressive and ischemic dysfunction of the spinal cord known as cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM. Symptoms often develop insidiously and are characterized by neck stiffness, unilateral or bilateral deep aching neck, arm and shoulder pain, and possibly stiffness or clumsiness while walking. The management available in current mainstream medicine is not satisfactory. Various Ayurvedic treatments have been in use for these manifestations. We present a case of CSM, which was treated with a combination of Panchakarma procedures and Ayurvedic oral drugs. The patient was considered suffering from Greevastambha (neck stiffness and was treated with Shalishastika pinda svedana (sudation with medicated cooked bolus of rice for one month and Mustadi yapana basti (enema with medicated milk for 16 days along with oral Ayurvedic drugs such as Brihatavata chintamani rasa 50 mg, Ekangaveer ras-250 mg, Ardhangavatari rasa-125 mg Amrita satva (dry extract of Tinospora cordifolia Willd-500 mg, Muktasukti pisti-500 mg, Ashwagandha churna (powder of Withania somnifera Dunal-500 mg Dashmool kvatha ghana (solid extract of Dashmool kvatha-500 mg, Trayodashanga guggulu-575 mg, twice a day with honey and Eranda paka-10 g twice a day with milk. Patient's condition which was assessed for symptoms of CSM and Chile's modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA score for cervical spondylotic myelopathy showed substantial improvement. This study shows that the cases of CSM may be successfully managed with Ayurvedic treatment.

  19. Myelopathy and spinal deformity: relevance of spinal alignment in planning surgical intervention for degenerative cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamji, Mohammed F; Ames, Christopher P; Smith, Justin S; Rhee, John M; Chapman, Jens R; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-10-15

    Surgical management of degenerative cervical myelopathy requires careful pathoanatomic consideration to select between various surgical options from both anterior and posterior approach. Hitherto, unexplored is the relevance of cervical deformity to the pathophysiology of such neurological disability, and whether correction of that deformity should be a surgical objective when planning for reconstruction after spinal cord decompression. Such correction could address both the static cord compression and the dynamic repetitive cord injury, while also restoring more normal biomechanics to the cervical spine. The articles in this focus issue's section on cervical spinal deformity reveal that cervical sagittal alignment is geometrically related to thoracolumbar spinal pelvic alignment and to T1 slope, and that it is further clinically correlated to regional disability and general health scores and to myelopathy severity. These conclusions are based on narrative reviews and a selection of primary research data, reflecting the nascency of this field. They further recommend for preoperative assessment of spinal alignment when significant deformity is suspected, and that correction of cervical kyphosis should be an objective when surgery is planned.

  20. Cervical Laminoplasty for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy

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    Murali Krishna Sayana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy can result from degenerative cervical spondylosis, herniated disk material, osteophytes, redundant ligamentum flavum, or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Surgical intervention for multi-level myelopathy aims to decompress the spinal cord and maintain stability of the cervical spine. Laminoplasty was major surgical advancement as laminectomy resulted in kyphosis and unsatisfactory outcomes. Hirabayashi popularised the expansive open door laminoplasty which was later modified several surgeons. Laminoplasty has changed the way surgeons approach multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

  1. Cervical Laminoplasty for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Murali Krishna Sayana; Hassan Jamil; Ashley Poynton

    2011-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy can result from degenerative cervical spondylosis, herniated disk material, osteophytes, redundant ligamentum flavum, or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Surgical intervention for multi-level myelopathy aims to decompress the spinal cord and maintain stability of the cervical spine. Laminoplasty was major surgical advancement as laminectomy resulted in kyphosis and unsatisfactory outcomes. Hirabayashi popularised the expansive open door lami...

  2. Pathobiology of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Farhana; Kotter, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a common spinal cord disease caused by chronic mechanical compression of the spinal cord. The mechanism by which mechanical stress results in spinal cord injury is poorly understood. The most common mechanisms involved in the pathobiology of DCM include apoptosis, inflammation, and vascular changes leading to loss of neurons, axonal degeneration, and myelin changes. However, the exact pathophysiologic mechanisms of DCM are unclear. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of DCM is required for the development of treatments to improve outcomes. This review highlights the mechanisms of injury and pathology in DCM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Epidemiology, Genetics, and Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Tetreault, Lindsay; Singh, Anoushka; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-06-15

    Review. To formally introduce "degenerative cervical myelopathy" (DCM) as the overarching term to describe the various degenerative conditions of the cervical spine that cause myelopathy. Herein, the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of conditions falling under this hypernym are carefully described. Nontraumatic, degenerative forms of cervical myelopathy represent the commonest cause of spinal cord impairment in adults and include cervical spondylotic myelopathy, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, ossification of the ligamentum flavum, and degenerative disc disease. Unfortunately, there is neither a specific term nor a specific diagnostic International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code to describe this collection of clinical entities. This has resulted in the inconsistent use of diagnostic terms when referring to patients with myelopathy due to degenerative disease of the cervical spine. Narrative review. The incidence and prevalence of myelopathy due to degeneration of the spine are estimated at a minimum of 41 and 605 per million in North America, respectively. Incidence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy-related hospitalizations has been estimated at 4.04/100,000 person-years, and surgical rates seem to be rising. Pathophysiologically, myelopathy results from static compression, spinal malalignment leading to altered cord tension and vascular supply, and dynamic injury mechanisms. Occupational hazards, including transportation of goods by weight bearing on top of the head, and other risk factors may accelerate DCM development. Potential genetic factors include those related to MMP-2 and collagen IX for degenerative disc disease, and collagen VI and XI for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. In addition, congenital anomalies including spinal stenosis, Down syndrome, and Klippel-Feil syndrome may predispose to the development of DCM. Although DCMs can present as separate diagnostic entities, they are highly

  4. Is "ischemic" colitis ischemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ryan M; Madoff, Robert D

    2011-03-01

    Ischemic colitis appears to be a collection of diseases rather than a single entity. On the one hand, there is the colitis that truly appears to be caused by a lack of blood flow and, on the other hand, there is the disease that is called "ischemic" for lack of a better diagnosis-the colitis that is more "idiopathic" than "ischemic." Four widely held tenets of "ischemic" colitis are wrong: 1) the colon is not particularly sensitive to ischemia; 2) ischemic colitis is rarely preceded by a period of global hypoperfusion; 3) the "watershed areas" are not disproportionately affected; and 4) colonoscopy with biopsy is not specific for the disease. The cause of "ischemic" colitis is unknown. Therefore it is, until proven otherwise, "acute idiopathic colitis."

  5. Surgical Management of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Wesley; Dorsi, Michael J.; Witham, Timothy F.

    2009-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a common degenerative condition that is a significant cause of morbidity. This review discusses the pathophysiology and natural history of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and focuses on the current literature evaluating the clinical management of these patients.

  6. Study of Anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG and IgM, and risk factors in suspected cardiac ischemic,s refered to Shahid Madany angioghraphy center, Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan Hossainzadegan

    2009-04-01

    Materials and Methods: The referred patients suspected to heart diseases were divided into the afflicted group, as well as the seemingly healthy group by angiography. The demographic and nutritional information of the studied groups were collected by a questionnaire, and the anti-Chlamydia pneumonia IgG and IgM antibodies, lipids, the rheumatoid factor, C-reactive protein, and anti-Streptolysin were measured in the serums of the patients. Data were analyzed using T-test and χ2. Results: 120 cases out of 380 were excluded from the study because of confounding information. Additionally, 169 and 91 cases of the remaining 260 studied ones were diagnosed as afflicted and seemingly healthy by angiography respectively. Moreover, 101 (70.6% and 68 (58% of the 169 patients were males and females respectively. The highest number of the patients aged between 50 to 60 years old, while the highest affliction rate was among the patients in the age range of 40 to 50 (69.8%. The highest rate of affliction with the disease was among the patients with the blood type A. One hundred percent of the referred persons were employees, as well as 75.5% of the cases were stockbreeder who suffered from the disease. There were statistically significant relationships between fruit as well as very low and high meat consumption and heart diseases in the two groups. The serology results indicated that 87.5 % of the cases with anti-Chlamydia pneumonia IgM suffered from heart diseases. Conclusion: The high frequency of the coronary artery disease in the persons that had the positive titer of anti-Chlamydia pneumonia IgM suggests a possible relation of active or recurrent infection with the disease. On the other hand, it is likely that the nutritional patterns of the studied cases also had a relationship with the coronary artery disease. Therefore, the coronary artery disease possibly had a relationship with the microbial and nutritional risk factors of the studied persons in the case group. However

  7. Spooky Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Lara

    2011-01-01

    This activity presents an option for covering biology content while engaging students in an investigation that highlights the spirit of Halloween. Students are engaged in the story line and have fun trying to solve the mystery kidnapping by using science skills to examine the evidence and eliminate some ghoulish suspects. (Contains 1 figure.)

  8. Cervical myelopathy: a clinical and radiographic evaluation and correlation to cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, James S; Naroji, Swetha; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Anderson, D Greg; Albert, Todd; Ratliff, John K; Ponnappan, Ravi K; Rihn, Jeffery A; Smith, Harvey E; Hilibrand, Alan; Sharan, Ashwini D; Vaccaro, Alexander

    2010-03-15

    Retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients treated between April 2006 and January 2008, and diagnosed with cervical degenerative disease. To determine the correlation of the clinical findings associated with cervical myelopathy to the presence of spinal cord compression or cord signal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There are numerous reports describing the radiographic features of cervical spondylosis, however, no publication specifically describes the association between the physical signs of cervical myelopathy and the presenting imaging findings. Myelopathy was defined as the presence of greater than one long-tract sign localized to the cervical spinal cord (Hoffman or Babinski signs, clonus, hyper-reflexia, crossed abductor sign, and/or gait dysfunction) on physical examination in the absence of other neurologic condition(s). The presence of these signs, MRI imaging features of spinal cord compression and hyperintense T2 intraparenchymal cord signal abnormality, and patient demographics were recorded. One hundred three patients met inclusion criteria (age >18, symptomatic cervical degenerative disease and complete neurologic assessment). Of these, 54 had clinical findings of cervical myelopathy. Radiographic features of cord compression were present in 62% of patients, and 84% had myelopathy on examination. No patients without cord compression presented with myelopathy (P myelopathy (P myelopathy increased with the presence of cord signal hyperintensity (odds ratio [OR], 11.4), sensory loss (OR, 16.9), and age (OR, 1.10 per year). The diagnosis of cervical myelopathy is based on presenting symptoms and physical examination. This analysis illustrates that radiographic cervical spinal cord compression and hyperintense T2 intraparen chymal signal abnormalities correlate with the presence of myelopathic findings on physical examination.

  9. An important cause of tetraparesis: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Göçmez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy which is a neurologicdisorder caused by degenerative changes in the cervicalspines related to narrowing in the spinal channel. Spondylosismay cause myelopathy effecting spinal cord or nerveroots in one or more segments. It is most common causeof myelopathy over the 55 years of age in developedcountries. As well as it is most commonly seen acquiredspastic paraparesis in medium and late times of life. Wediscuss diagnosis and alternative treatment options incervical spondylotic myelopathy in the current studyKey words: Myelopathy, cervical disc herniation, cervicalspondylosis, tetraparesis

  10. Clinical characterization of a familial degenerative myelopathy in Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Joan R; March, Philip A; Oglesbee, Michael; Ruaux, Craig G; Olby, Natasha J; Berghaus, Roy D; O'Brien, Dennis P; Keating, John H; Johnson, Gary S; Williams, David A

    2007-01-01

    Adult dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM) have progressive ataxia and paresis of the pelvic limbs, leading to paraplegia and euthanasia. Although most commonly reported in German Shepherd dogs, high disease prevalence exists in other breeds. Our aim was the clinical and histopathologic characterization of familial degenerative myelopathy (FDM) in Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs. Twenty-one PWCs were prospectively studied from initial diagnosis until euthanasia. Neurologic examination, blood tests, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, electrodiagnostic testing, and spinal imaging were performed. Concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-isoprostane) were measured in CSF. Routine histochemistry was used for neuropathology. Deoxyribonucleic acid and pedigrees were collected from 110 dogs. Median duration of clinical signs before euthanasia was 19 months. Median age at euthanasia was 13 years. All dogs were nonambulatory paraparetic or paraplegic, and 15 dogs had thoracic limb weakness at euthanasia. Electrodiagnostic testing and spinal imaging were consistent with noncompressive myelopathy. No significant difference was detected in 8-isoprostane concentrations between normal and FDM-affected dogs. Axonal and myelin degeneration of the spinal cord was most severe in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus. Pedigree analysis suggested a familial disease. Clinical progression of FDM in PWC dogs was similar to that observed in other breeds but characterized by a longer duration. Spinal cord pathology predominates as noninflammatory axonal degeneration. Oxidative stress injury associated with 8-isoprostane production is not involved in the pathogenesis of FDM-affected PWC dogs. A familial disease is suspected.

  11. MRI in the investigation of patients with myelopathy thought to be due to multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Gouliamos, A. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Trakadas, S. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Kalovidouris, A. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece); Sgouropoulos, P. [Neurology Dept., `Eginition` Hospital, Univ. Athens Medical School (Greece); Gatzonis, S. [Neurology Dept., `Eginition` Hospital, Univ. Athens Medical School (Greece); Vlahos, L. [CT and MRI Unit, X-Ray Dept., `Areteion` Hospital, Univ. Athens (Greece)

    1995-07-01

    The role of cerebral and spinal cord MRI was investigated in 65 patients with myelopathy suspected of having demyelinating disease. Cerebral MRI demonstrated lesions compatible with demyelination in 80% and spinal cord MRI in 68.6%. In 28.5% of our patients brain lesions were present with normal spinal cord images, but in 17% spinal cord lesions were depicted with a normal brain MRI. The combination of the two examinations demonstrated lesions in 97% of the patients. The frequency of coexistent cerebral lesions in patients with spinal cord lesions was over 85% in patients with chronic disease but only 28.5% in patients with acute myelitis. (orig.)

  12. Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic stroke is the most common type. It is usually ... are at risk for having a more serious stroke. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness ...

  13. Clinical and epidemiological profiles of non-traumatic myelopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Non-traumatic myelopathies represent a heterogeneous group of neurological conditions. Few studies report clinical and epidemiological profiles regarding the experience of referral services. Objective To describe clinical characteristics of a non-traumatic myelopathy cohort. Method Epidemiological, clinical, and radiological variables from 166 charts of patients assisted between 2001 and 2012 were compiled. Results The most prevalent diagnosis was subacute combined degeneration (11.4%, followed by cervical spondylotic myelopathy (9.6%, demyelinating disease (9%, tropical spastic paraparesis (8.4% and hereditary spastic paraparesis (8.4%. Up to 20% of the patients presented non-traumatic myelopathy of undetermined etiology, despite the broad clinical, neuroimaging and laboratorial investigations. Conclusion Regardless an extensive evaluation, many patients with non-traumatic myelopathy of uncertain etiology. Compressive causes and nutritional deficiencies are important etiologies of non-traumatic myelopathies in our population.

  14. HTLV-I associated myelopathy in salvador (northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meireles

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of tropical spastic paraparesis have confirmed the existence of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLVI in several tropical areas of the world. In order to determine the role of HTLVI as an etiologic agent of myelopathies in Salvador, we conducted a clinical and serological study in 43 patients with non-traumatic and non-tumoral myelopathies. We found 9 patients with HTLVI associated myelopathy (HAM which points to a new endemic area of HAM.

  15. Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Galbraith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications.

  16. Degenerative myelopathy in two Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A D; Barber, R; Porter, B F; Peters, R M; Kent, M; Platt, S R; Schatzberg, S J

    2009-07-01

    Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a common, slowly progressive, debilitating disease reported in several dog breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog and Pembroke Welsh Corgi. Boxer dogs present occasionally for a thoracolumbar myelopathy for which no cause is identified on MRI or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Despite a lack of a histologic description of DM in the Boxer in the veterinary literature, such dogs are presumed to have DM. Here we report 2 histologically confirmed cases of DM in the Boxer breed in which histologic studies disclosed marked degenerative changes in the spinal cord that were most prominent in the thoracic and cranial lumbar segments. Lesions consisted of myelin vacuolation and degeneration, myelophagocytosis, reactive astrocytosis, and ellipsoid formation most prominent in the lateral and ventral funiculi. We present a detailed histologic description of DM in the Boxer dog and compare it to DM in other purebred dogs.

  17. Activ C cervical disc replacement for myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L McGonagle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical disc replacement is becoming an increasingly popular treatment option for cervical myelopathy. It retains motion at the affected segment, unlike anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The aim of this study is to assess the outcomes of a series of patients who underwent Activ C disc replacement for cervical myelopathy. Materials and Methods: A series of patients at the above Trust with clinical and radiological evidence of cervical myelopathy who were suitable for cervical disc replacement from 2007 to 2009 were included. Implants were inserted by one of two consultant surgeons {IMS, MO′M}. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at six, 12 and 24 months, postoperatively, with a visual analogue score (VAS for neck and arm pain severity and frequency, the Neck Disability Index questionnaire (NDI and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression questionnaire (CES-D. Results: Ten patients underwent surgery between May 2007 and July 2009, 6 women, and 4 men. Average age was 54 years (40-64. Disc levels replaced were: four at C4-5; eight at C5-6; seven at C6-7. Three patients had one disc replaced, five patients had two discs replaced, and two patients had three discs replaced. The VAS for neck pain improved from 5.9 pre-operatively to 1.4-24 months postoperatively and the VAS arm pain improved from 5.4 to 2.6. The NDI improved from 51% preoperatively to 26.8% at 24 months postoperatively. The CES-D showed a slight increase from 19.5 preoperatively to 21.7 at 24 months, postoperatively. Conclusion: Cervical decompression and disc replacement improves pain and function in patients with cervical myelopathy. This benefit is maintained at 24 months post op, with no cases requiring revision.

  18. Operative Treatment of Cervical Myelopathy: Cervical Laminoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Braly, Brett A.; David Lunardini; Chris Cornett; Donaldson, William F

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a degenerative process which may result in clinical signs and symptoms which require surgical intervention. Many treatment options have been proposed with various degrees of technical difficulty and technique sensitive benefits. We review laminoplasty as a motion-sparing posterior decompressive method. Current literature supports the use of laminoplasty for indicated decompression. We also decribe our surgical technique for an open-door, or “hinged”, ...

  19. Operative Treatment of Cervical Myelopathy: Cervical Laminoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A. Braly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is a degenerative process which may result in clinical signs and symptoms which require surgical intervention. Many treatment options have been proposed with various degrees of technical difficulty and technique sensitive benefits. We review laminoplasty as a motion-sparing posterior decompressive method. Current literature supports the use of laminoplasty for indicated decompression. We also decribe our surgical technique for an open-door, or “hinged”, laminoplasty.

  20. Cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koakutsu, Tomoaki; Nakajo, Junko; Morozumi, Naoki; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishii, Yushin

    2011-05-01

    To investigate clinical-radiological features of cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis (DSL). A total of 448 patients were operated for cervical myelopathy at Nishitaga National Hospital between 2000 and 2003. Of these patients, DSL at the symptomatic disc level was observed in 22 (4.9%) patients. Clinical features were investigated by medical records, and radiological features were investigated by radiographs. Disc levels of DSL were C3/4 in 6 cases and C4/5 in 16 cases. Distance of anterior slippage was 2 to 5 mm (average 2.9 mm) in flexion position. Space available for the spinal cord (SAC) was 11 to 15 mm (average 12.8 mm) in flexion position and 11 to 18 mm (average 14.6 mm) in extension position; 11 cases were reducible and 11 cases were irreducible in extension position. Myelograms demonstrated compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position. Compression of spinal cord was not demonstrated in flexion position. C5-7 lordosis angle was lower than control. C5-7 range of motion (ROM) was reduced compared to controls. These alterations were statistically significant. DSL occurs in the mid-cervical spine. Lower cervical spine demonstrated restricted ROM and lower lordosis angle. Pathogenesis of cervical myelopathy due to DSL is compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position and not by reduced SAC in flexion position.

  1. Maple Syrup Urine Disease Complicated with Kyphoscoliosis and Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Woei Hou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy secondary to an enzyme defect in the catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Accumulation of their corresponding keto-acids leads to encephalopathy if not treated in time. A newborn male patient was suspected to have MSUD after tandem mass study when he presented symptoms and signs suggestive neonatal sepsis, anemia, and diarrhea. Food restriction of BCAAs was started; however, acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin eruptions occurred at age 2 months. The skin rashes resolved after adding BCAAs and adjusting the infant formula. At age 7 months, he suffered from recurrent skin lesions, zinc deficiency, osteoporosis, and kyphosis of the thoracic spine with acute angulation over the T11-T12 level associated with spinal compression and myelopathy. After supplementation of zinc products and pamidronate, skin lesions and osteopenia improved gradually. Direct sequencing of the DBT gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation [4.7 kb deletion and c.650-651insT (L217F or L217fsX223]. It is unusual that neurodegeneration still developed in this patient despite diet restriction. Additionally, brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging, bone mineral density study, and monitoring of zinc status are suggested in MSUD patients.

  2. Antemortem diagnosis and successful management of noncompressive segmental myelopathy in a Siberian-Bengal mixed breed tiger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Jennifer E; Lynch, Kate; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Welle, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Robert; Whittington, Julia K

    2013-12-01

    A 10-yr-old female spayed mixed breed tiger presented for a 9-day history of acute and nonprogressive paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion suggestive of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy with regional spinal cord edema, decreased disk signal intensity at L2-L3, and mild intervertebral disk protrusion at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed no overt evidence of infection or neoplasia. Medical therapy was instituted, including corticosteroids and gastroprotectants as well as nursing care and physical therapy. The tiger began showing clinical improvement 2 wk after initiating treatment, progressing to the point where the animal was standing and intermittently walking. Three months after diagnosis, the tiger had regained muscle strength of its hind limbs and walked regularly with improving coordination. This case is the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful medical management of suspected fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a large exotic felid.

  3. Overshunting-associated myelopathy: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jason Man-Kit; Law, Hing-Yuen; Yuen, Shing-Chau; Yam, Kwong-Yui

    2016-09-01

    The authors present 2 cases of cervical myelopathy produced by engorged vertebral veins due to overshunting. Overshunting-associated myelopathy is a rare complication of CSF shunting. Coexisting cervical degenerative disc disease may further increase the difficulty of diagnosing the condition. Neurosurgeons and others who routinely evaluate patients with intracranial shunts should be familiar with this rare but possible diagnosis.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosa, Hirofumi; Yamano, Kouichirou; Ihara, Fumitoshi; Ueda, Yoshiaki; Maekawa, Masayuki; Tokuhisa, Ginichirou; Kuwano, Tadashi; Kamo, Yoshi; Nomura, Shigeharu (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1990-03-01

    Forty-three patients operated for cervical myelopathy were examined with a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging. Cord compression was demonstrated directly on the sagittal image in cases of cervical disc herniation, cervical spondylosis and O.P. L.L. Herniated disc material was seen positive on axial image. But factors of cord compression in cases of cervical spondylosis and O.P. L.L. were not clearly confirmed, so additional examinations such as myelogram, tomogram and CT was needed. (author).

  5. The Natural History and Clinical Presentation of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester K. Yarbrough

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM refers to impaired function of the spinal cord caused by degenerative changes of the cervical spine resulting in spinal cord compression. It is the most common disorder in the United States causing dysfunction of the spinal cord. A literature review of the natural history of mild cervical myelopathy is undertaken. Clinical presentation and current concepts of pathophysiology are also discussed. While many patients with mild signs of CSM will stabilize or improve over time with conservative treatment, the clinical course of a specific individual patient cannot be predicted. Asymptomatic patients with cervical stenosis and abnormalities on electrophysiologic studies may be at higher risk for developing myelopathy.

  6. Ischemic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leiden, may increase the risk of ischemic colitis. High cholesterol, which can lead to atherosclerosis. Reduced blood flow, due to heart failure, low blood pressure and shock. Previous abdominal surgery. Scar tissue that forms after surgery may cause ...

  7. Ischemic Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supply blood to the colon are the superior mesenteric artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. Ischemic colitis occurs when blood flow to ... patterns of presentation, diagnosis, and management of colon ischemia (CI). American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2015;110:18. ...

  8. The Natural History and Clinical Presentation of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Yarbrough, Chester K.; Murphy, Rory K. J.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Stewart, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) refers to impaired function of the spinal cord caused by degenerative changes of the cervical spine resulting in spinal cord compression. It is the most common disorder in the United States causing dysfunction of the spinal cord. A literature review of the natural history of mild cervical myelopathy is undertaken. Clinical presentation and current concepts of pathophysiology are also discussed. While many patients with mild signs of CSM will stabilize or ...

  9. An Important Cause of Tetraplegia: Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Tuncay

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a neurological disorder caused by degenerative changes in the cervical spines emerging from spinal channel narrowing. This is the most common reason of spastic tetraplegia in later phases of life. In this case report, an elderly male patient with subclinical symptoms and having cervical spondylotic myelopathy causing sudden spastic tetraplegia was presented in the light of current literature.

  10. PROGRESSION OF MYELOPATHY TREATED WITH CORPECTOMY, AUTOLOGOUS GRAFT AND PLATE

    OpenAIRE

    HARO, SANTIAGO SANDOVAL; LÓPEZ, JOSÉ TOVAR; TÉLLEZ, JOSÉ MANUEL GRIMALDO; LÁMBARRI, JESÚS CISNEROS

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Cervical myelopathy is a degenerative pathology of spinal and/or root involvement. Caused by hypertrophy of the yellow ligament, osteophytes in the medullary canal and disc herniation. It affects the upper and lower motor neurons. The treatment of myelopathy diagnosed by magnetic resonance and electromyography consists of decompression by corpectomy. Methods: Autologous graft integration with cervical plate placement was evaluated in 31 patients, from January 1, 2013 ...

  11. Chronic dacryosialadenitis in HTLV I associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, L; Castillo, J L; Cea, J G; Villagra, R

    1995-02-01

    A prospective study was carried out on 48 patients with HTLV I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) to assess the association between this entity and Sjögren's syndrome. Fourteen patients (29.1%) had chronic dacryosialadenitis confirmed by a positive Schirmer's test and salivary gland biopsy. None of these patients had evidence of collagen disease and tests for Ro, La, and rheumatoid factor were negative except in one case. Therefore, the dacryosialadenitis could not be classified as either primary or secondary Sjögren's syndrome. Ten of the 14 patients (71.4%) had other systems (haematological, articular, dermatological, or respiratory) involved apart from the neurological and exocrine gland pathology. The findings suggest that the dacryosialadenitis associated with HTLV I is a disease of viral origin distinct from Sjögren's syndrome.

  12. Operative techniques for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, C

    2012-02-01

    The surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis and resulting cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy has evolved over the past century. Surgical options for dorsal decompression of the cervical spine includes the traditional laminectomy and laminoplasty, first described in Asia in the 1970\\'s. More recently the dorsal approch has been explored in terms of minimally invasive options including foraminotomies for nerve root descompression. Ventral decompression and fusion techniques are also described in the article, including traditional anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, strut grafting and cervical disc arthroplasty. Overall, the outcome from surgery is determined by choosing the correct surgery for the correct patient and pathology and this is what we hope to explain in this brief review.

  13. Exactitud diagnóstica de la gammagrafía de perfusión miocárdica en una población femenina con sospecha de cardiopatía isquémica Diagnostic accuracy of myocardial perfusion gammagraphy in a female cohort with suspected ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Pérez-Iruela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: determinar los valores diagnósticos del estudio de perfusión miocárdica con 99mTc-tetrofosmina en protocolo de un día tras estímulo farmacológico con dipiridamol en una población de mujeres. Métodos: se estudiaron, con carácter retrospectivo, 202 historias clínicas de mujeres con sospecha de cardiopatía isquémica que fueron sometidas a una prueba de perfusión miocárdica. Se consideraron las variables: tratamiento farmacológico, factores de riesgo cardiovascular, parámetros bioquímicos, electrocardiograma basal, diagnóstico definitivo y parámetros de la gammagrafía de perfusión miocárdica. Resultados: los valores diagnósticos en general para la población objeto de estudio fueron de una sensibilidad de 87,16% y una especificidad de 81,48%. Conclusiones: la prueba de perfusión miocárdica estimulación/reposo con 99mTc-tetrofosmina y dipiridamol como vasodilatador, utilizando el protocolo de un día, presenta una elevada validez diagnóstica en mujeres con sospecha de cardiopatía isquémica.Introduction and Objectives: to determine the diagnostic values of myocardial perfusion with 99mTc-tetrophosmine in a one-day protocol after pharmacological stimulation with dipyridamole in a women population. Methods: 202 medical records of women with suspected ischemic cardiopathy who underwent a myocardial perfusion test were studied. The following variables were considered: drug treatment, cardiovascular risk factors, biochemical parameters, baseline electrocardiogram, definitive diagnosis and myocardial perfusion scan parameters. Results: the diagnostic values for the studied population had in general a sensitivity of 87,16% and a specificity of 81,48%. Conclusions: The myocardial stimulation/rest perfusion test with 99mTc-tetrophosmine and dipyridamole as vasodilator using the one-day protocol, has a high diagnostic accuracy in women with suspected ischemic heart disease.

  14. Management of degenerative cervical myelopathy - An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joaquim, Andrei F; Ghizoni, Enrico; Tedeschi, Helder; Hsu, Wellington K; Patel, Alpesh A

    2016-12-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in adult patients. Patients generally present with a slow, progressive neurological decline or a stepwise deterioration pattern. In this paper, we discuss the most important factors involved in the management of DCM, including a discussion about the surgical approaches. The authors performed an extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature addressing the aforementioned objectives. Although the diagnosis is clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice to confirm stenosis and also to exclude the differential diagnosis. The severity the clinical symptoms of DCM are evaluated by different scales, but the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) and the Nürick scale are probably the most commonly used. Spontaneous clinical improvement is rare and surgery is the main treatment form in an attempt to prevent further neurological deterioration and, potentially, to provide some improvement in symptoms and function. Anterior, posterior or combined cervical approaches are used to decompress the spinal cord, with adjunctive fusion being commonly performed. The choice of one approach over the other depends on patient characteristics (such as number of involved levels, site of compression, cervical alignment, previous surgeries, bone quality, presence of instability, among others) as well as surgeon preference and experience. Spine surgeons must understand the advantages and disadvantages of all surgical techniques to choose the best procedure for their patients. Further comparative studies are necessary to establish the superiority of one approach over the other when multiple options are available.

  15. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, G

    2017-07-01

    A literature review. Our aim was to summarise the history, epidemiology, aetiological mechanism, pathological study, clinical and radiological evaluation, treatment and prognosis of subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM). Medical literature on SPAM were searched in the PubMed, Medline, Ovid and Embase databases. The cases of SPAM reported in literature were analysed, and the history, epidemiology, aetiological mechanism, pathological study, clinical and radiological evaluation, treatment and prognosis of SPAM were summarised. SPAM remains a relatively rare disorder occurring within the first few weeks after spinal cord injury (SCI). The incidence rate ranges from 0.42% to 1% among all SCI. SPAM is likely to occur in young and middle-aged male patients. Risk factors of SPAM include complete injury, low blood pressure, early postoperative mobilisation and nonsurgical treatment. SPAM is well recognised according to typical clinical manifestation and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. There is no effective therapy for this neurological deterioration. The prognosis of SPAM is poor. There is usually a slight improvement of one or more level(s) below the maximal level of deterioration. The mortality rate is approximately 10%.

  16. Severe progressive late onset myelopathy and arachnoiditis following neonatal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Christian G E L; Jardine, Philip E; Eunson, Paul; Renowden, Shelley; Sharples, Peta; Newton, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    This case series describes four children who had meningitis in the neonatal period. After a stable period of years, they developed a myelopathy caused by chronic arachnoiditis. The myelopathy was precipitated by a fall in two cases, and in two cases there was an acute deterioration after surgery. A history of neonatal meningitis should be taken into consideration before planning surgery or anaesthesia. Careful intra-operative positioning, immobilisation of the neck, and maintenance of blood pressure is important but may not prevent this complication.

  17. Anteroposterior spondyloschisis of atlas with incurving of the posterior arch causing compressive myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Bong; Yoon, Sang Hoon; Jin, Yong Jun; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2010-01-15

    A case report of a patient with a combined anterior and posterior arch anomaly of atlas leading to compressive myelopathy. To describe a rare presentation of cervical stenosis at the atlas where congenital defects of the posterior arch with an incurving portion exists. This report includes a feasible hypothesis for the development of this anomaly on the basis of previous hypotheses and surgical findings. Congenital defects of the posterior arch of atlas are uncommon and congenital symptomatic cervical stenosis is very rarely seen at this level. The congenital midline cleft of the posterior arch of an atlas has been described in patients with progressive motor symptoms and sensory deficit in extremities. An 11-year-old boy suffered from right side weakness for 1 year. His mother witnessed his awkward walking and clumsiness in using chopsticks and writing. His medical history was unremarkable, and there was no history of significant trauma. Right upper limb weakness of Grade IV/V and difficulty in hopping on right leg was checked on neurologic examination. The magnetic resonance image showed cervical canal stenosis at atlas level and high signal intensity change in the spinal cord. The computed tomography demonstrated partial defect at anterior and posterior arch of the atlas with incurving at defect site leading to cord compression. Suspecting one of craniovertebral junction anomalies, we performed a surgical resection of the posterior arch of the atlas (decompressive laminectomy). The laminectomy was done. The defect site of the posterior arch was substituted with a cartilage and there was no dural adhesion. After surgery, right lower limb weakness was improved and no instability has been observed during 1-year follow-up. We describe the association between compressive myelopathy and combined anteroposterior spondyloschisis of an atlas with incurving of the arch at defect site. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance image were required to demonstrate the

  18. Ischemic Strokes (Clots)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Infographic Stroke Hero F.A.S.T. Quiz Ischemic Strokes (Clots) Updated:Apr 26,2017 Ischemic stroke ... stroke. Let's Talk Numbers Updated Guidelines for Acute Ischemic Strokes Infographic : Attacking Brain Clots to Save Lives ...

  19. Olanzapine-induced ischemic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Sáez-González

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic colitis (IC is an uncommon adverse event associated with antipsychotic agents, more commonly found with phenothiazine drugs and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine. The risk of developing ischemic colitis increases when anticholinergic drugs are associated. Case report: We report the case of a 38-year-old woman with a history of schizoaffective disorder who had been on chronic quetiapine for 3 years, and presented to the ER because of diarrhea for 5 days. Four months previously, olanzapine had been added to her psychiatric drug regimen. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with abdominal tympanic sounds and tenderness. Emergency laboratory tests were notable for increased acute phase reagents. Tomography revealed a concentric thickening of the colonic wall in the transverse, descending and sigmoid segments, with no signs of intestinal perforation. Colonoscopy demonstrated severe mucosal involvement from the sigmoid to the hepatic flexure, with ulcerations and fibrinoid exudate. Biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of ischemic colitis. The only relevant finding in her history was the newly added drug to her baseline regimen. An adverse effect was suspected because of its anticholinergic action at the intestinal level, and the drug was withdrawn. After 6 months of follow-up clinical, laboratory and endoscopic recovery was achieved. Discussion: Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a potential cause of ischemic colitis, particularly atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine; despite being uncommon, this adverse event may result in high morbidity and mortality.

  20. HTLV-I associated myelopathy in Brazil: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Martins Castro

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary report the authors present the finding of a high prevalence (37.5% of seropositivity of antibodies to HTLV-I tested by Western blotting in a sample of 16 Brazilian patients with chronic myelopathies of undetermined origin.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in HTLV-I associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aílton Melo

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord were carried out for seventeen consecutive patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM. Eight patients had brain abnormalities and four had decreased thoracic spinal cord diameter. Brain lesions were mostly located in subcortical and periventricular areas. Our data suggest that diffuse central nervous system lesions are present in patients with HAM.

  2. [Vertebragenic cervical myelopathy as a sequel of degenerative anterolisthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, D

    1988-01-01

    The development of translatory displacement in the lower cervical spine is discussed with reference to the kinematics of the cervical motion segment. Anterior dislocation due to degenerative changes is discussed in its relation to the anatomical conditions and in its effect on the spinal cord. Three cases of cervical myelopathy due to degenerative anterolistesis are described. Operative reposition and dorsal fusion was performed.

  3. Steroids have no place in the management of cervical myelopathy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in adults in Western society. Very little has been written about it in Nigeria. This would give the impression that it is rare in Nigeria. Unfortunately, this is not the case and having seen a few patients now in Abuja, we can appreciate ...

  4. Volkmann ischemic contracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischemic contracture - Volkmann; Compartment syndrome - Volkmann ischemic contracture ... Volkmann contracture occurs when there is a lack of blood flow (ischemia) to the forearm. This occurs when there ...

  5. Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanis H. Ibrahim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia is a very rare manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, with only a few cases reported in the literature. In almost all previously reported cases, other clinical manifestations of meningitis, such as fever, headache, and neck stiffness preceded acute myelopathy. In this paper, we report a case of acute myelopathy with sudden paraplegia as the sole manifestation of meningococcal meningitis, in the absence of other clinical manifestations of meningitis.

  6. Ischemic preconditioning protects against ischemic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-meng Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we hypothesized that an increase in integrin αv ß 3 and its co-activator vascular endothelial growth factor play important neuroprotective roles in ischemic injury. We performed ischemic preconditioning with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 5 minutes in C57BL/6J mice. This was followed by ischemic injury with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 30 minutes. The time interval between ischemic preconditioning and lethal ischemia was 48 hours. Histopathological analysis showed that ischemic preconditioning substantially diminished damage to neurons in the hippocampus 7 days after ischemia. Evans Blue dye assay showed that ischemic preconditioning reduced damage to the blood-brain barrier 24 hours after ischemia. This demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning. Western blot assay revealed a significant reduction in protein levels of integrin αv ß 3, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor in mice given ischemic preconditioning compared with mice not given ischemic preconditioning 24 hours after ischemia. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning is associated with lower integrin αv ß 3 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the brain following ischemia.

  7. MRI findings in acute idiopathic transverse myelopathy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Albuquerque-Jonathan, Glenda; Hewlett, Richard [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Klipfontein Road, Cape Town (South Africa); Wilmshurst, Jo [Department of Paediatric Neurology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, University of Cape Town and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2003-09-01

    To describe the clinical and MRI findings in three children with acute idiopathic myelopathy (AIM). Retrospective review of the clinical presentation, MRI findings and outcome of three patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic transverse myelitis. Of note was the swift onset of symptoms in all patients, without any preceding illness or history of vaccination in two of the patients, and the rapid resolution of symptoms on steroid therapy in all the patients. MRI showed T2-weighted hyperintensity and patchy enhancement with gadolinium, but the extensive cord involvement did not correlate with the severity of presentation or outcome. Our findings do not support that MRI evidence alone of diffuse myelopathy is a predictor of poor outcome in childhood AIM. (orig.)

  8. Arachnoiditis Ossificans - A Rare Cause of Progressive Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Christopher J; Abrames, Erik L; O'Brien, William T

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare cause of chronic, progressive myelopathy. In contrast to the more common benign causes of meningeal calcification, arachnoiditis ossificans results in replacement of portions of the spinal arachnoid by bone as an end-stage complication of adhesive arachnoiditis. It is usually the sequela of prior trauma or interventional procedures. Prognosis and treatment options depend upon the location and degree of spinal stenosis with thoracic involvement being more common and more severe than lumbar spine involvement. The imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging may be confusing; however, the findings of intraspinal ossification on computed tomography are characteristics and diagnostic. We present a classic case of arachnoiditis ossificans in an elderly man who presented with progressive myelopathy and a recent fall, along with a review of the literature. The imaging in this case not only identified the characteristic findings of arachnoiditis ossificans but also identified secondary findings of the underlying causative etiology.

  9. Arachnoiditis Ossificans – A Rare Cause of Progressive Myelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Christopher J; Abrames, Erik L; O’Brien, William T

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoiditis ossificans is a rare cause of chronic, progressive myelopathy. In contrast to the more common benign causes of meningeal calcification, arachnoiditis ossificans results in replacement of portions of the spinal arachnoid by bone as an end-stage complication of adhesive arachnoiditis. It is usually the sequela of prior trauma or interventional procedures. Prognosis and treatment options depend upon the location and degree of spinal stenosis with thoracic involvement being more common and more severe than lumbar spine involvement. The imaging findings on magnetic resonance imaging may be confusing; however, the findings of intraspinal ossification on computed tomography are characteristics and diagnostic. We present a classic case of arachnoiditis ossificans in an elderly man who presented with progressive myelopathy and a recent fall, along with a review of the literature. The imaging in this case not only identified the characteristic findings of arachnoiditis ossificans but also identified secondary findings of the underlying causative etiology. PMID:26401174

  10. Myelopathy due to degenerative and structural spine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavee, Jinny O; Levin, Kerry H

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the current evaluation and treatment of patients with myelopathy due to cervical spondylotic disease and other structural disorders of the spine. In patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, symptom duration, severity at baseline, and possibly age have been identified as key prognostic markers of clinical course and postsurgical outcome. Other potential markers include specific MRI and EMG findings. The diagnosis and monitoring of syringomyelia is enhanced by the addition of phase contrast MRI, which evaluates CSF flow dynamics. Flexion MRI is helpful in establishing the diagnosis of Hirayama disease, which is now attributed to a tightened dural sac that is displaced anteriorly on neck flexion, compressing the cord. Advances in neuroimaging along with new insights into the pathophysiology of structural spine diseases can help guide clinical decision making and optimize patient outcomes.

  11. [Cervical myelopathy from an aspect of a neurological surgeon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T

    1994-12-01

    More than 65 per cent of intramedurally tumors and intradural extramedurally tumors were located in cervical region. They enact a cause of cervical myelopathy. A special attention should be paid to solitaly intramedurally vascular malformations, when the patients show an acute progressive myelopathy. In very rare cases of syringomyelia, intramedurally tumors such as hemangioblastoma or ependymoma could be found, so that enhanced MRI or angiography should be done if necessary. In cases of a herniated disc, cervical spondylosis and OPLL, the distance between articulo-pillar line and spinolaminal line must be measured. If the distance of both lines is near or the same, that means narrow cervical canal. In rare cases the form of the vertebral body is round. This is a rare cause of a type of narrow canal.

  12. Cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, L; Merlini, L; Savini, R; Davidovits, P

    1983-09-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine may be a cause of cervical myelopathy. This ossification has often been encountered in Japan, but only sporadically among the Caucasian races. It is therefore probable that racial factors are relevant to the pathology. During the past four years, due to the routine use of computerised axial tomography (CAT) in the pre-operative study of cervical myelopathy, we were able to show that in 13 cases stenosis of the vertebral canal was due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. This was visible in the standard radiographs in only two out of these 13 cases. The clinical data, diagnostic criteria and results of treatment are reported. This is the largest series yet reported outside Japan.

  13. Reported outcome measures in degenerative cervical myelopathy: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Benjamin; McHugh, Maire; Elgheriani, Ali; Kolias, Angelos; Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Hutchinson, Peter John; Fehlings, Michael G.; Kotter, Mark Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent group of diseases. Heterogeneous reporting of trial outcomes limits effective inter-study comparison and optimisation of treatment. This is recognised in many fields of healthcare research. The present study aims to assess the heterogeneity of outcome reporting in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set. METHODS: A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, regist...

  14. POST-SURGICAL COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY

    OpenAIRE

    GUTIÉRREZ, LUIS MARIO ALTAMIRANO; NAVA, ULISES LORETO; González,Rubén Torres; LEDESMA, IVÁN RAMSÉS ÁGUILA; FLORES, ERIKA VANESSA TAPIA; SANTOS, RENÉ MORALES DE LOS; Atanasio, José Manuel Pérez; Martínez, Eulalio Elizalde

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the incidence and type of postoperative hospital complications in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) treated by anterior approach, and to describe comorbidities present in patients who had complications. Methods: Retrospective, observational, descriptive cohort study of secondary sources (medical records), over a period of 3 years. We included 180 cases treated by anterior approach, excluding revision surgeries. Results: There was an inciden...

  15. Pulmonary involvement in patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos,Kilma; Melo,Ailton; Publio,Conceição Queiroz Leandro; Peçanha-Martins,Antonio Carlos; Freitas,Virgínia; Gomes,Irenio

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement in HTLV-I patients has been identified by several authors in Africa, Japan and Brazil. The objective of this controlled study is to establish an association between HAM and lymphocytosis in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL). Thirty-five adult patients with non-traumatic and non-tumoral myelopathy filled out a detailed historical survey and underwent a neurological examination, a thoracic radiological evaluation and a CSF examination. Of the patients in this sample, 22 were...

  16. Multimodality evoked potentials in HTLV-I associated myelopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H; Kuroda, Y; Endo, C; Oda, K; Ikeda, A; Hashimoto, K

    1988-01-01

    Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) consisting of somatosensory EPs (SEPs), visual EPs (VEPs) and brainstem auditory EPs (BAEPs) were studied in 16 cases with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). Median nerve SEPs were normal in all cases. In posterior tibial nerve SEPs, the potential recorded at the 12th thoracic spinal process was normal in every case but cortical components were significantly prolonged in 10 cases, although five of these showed no sensory impairment. BAEPs were normal in ...

  17. Degenerative myelopathy in 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, P A; Coates, J R; Abyad, R J; Williams, D A; O'Brien, D P; Olby, N J; Keating, J H; Oglesbee, M

    2009-03-01

    Postmortem examination was performed on 18 Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs (mean age 12.7 years) with clinical signs and antemortem diagnostic tests compatible with a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy. Tissue sections from specific spinal cord and brain regions were systematically evaluated in all dogs. Axonal degeneration and loss were graded according to severity and subsequently compared across different spinal cord segments and funiculi. White matter lesions were identified in defined regions of the dorsal, lateral, and ventral funiculi. The dorsolateral portion of the lateral funiculus was the most severely affected region in all cord segments. Spinal cord segment T12 exhibited the most severe axonal loss. Spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves, and brain sections were within normal limits, with the exception of areas of mild astrogliosis in gray matter of the caudal medulla. Dogs with more severe lesions showed significant progression of axonal degeneration and loss at T12 and at cord segments cranial and caudal to T12. Severity of axonal loss in individual dogs positively correlated with the duration of clinical signs. The distribution of axonal degeneration resembled that reported in German Shepherd Dog degenerative myelopathy but differed with respect to the transverse and longitudinal extent of the lesions within more clearly defined funicular areas. Although these lesion differences might reflect disease longevity, they could also indicate a form of degenerative myelopathy unique to the Pembroke Welsh Corgi dog.

  18. Association of myelopathy scores with cervical sagittal balance and normalized spinal cord volume: analysis of 56 preoperative cases from the AOSpine North America Myelopathy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S; Lafage, Virginie; Ryan, Devon J; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank J; Patel, Alpesh A; Brodke, Darrel S; Arnold, Paul M; Riew, K Daniel; Traynelis, Vincent C; Radcliff, Kris; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Fehlings, Michael G; Ames, Christopher P

    2013-10-15

    Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data. Development of methods to determine in vivo spinal cord dimensions and application to correlate preoperative alignment, myelopathy, and health-related quality-of-life scores in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). CSM is the leading cause of spinal cord dysfunction. The association between cervical alignment, sagittal balance, and myelopathy has not been well characterized. This was a post hoc analysis of the prospective, multicenter AOSpine North America CSM study. Inclusion criteria for this study required preoperative cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neutral sagittal cervical radiography. Techniques for MRI assessment of spinal cord dimensions were developed. Correlations between imaging and health-related quality-of-life scores were assessed. Fifty-six patients met inclusion criteria (mean age = 55.4 yr). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scores correlated with C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (r = -0.282, P = 0.035). Spinal cord volume correlated with cord length (r = 0.472, P sagittal balance (C2-C7 SVA) to myelopathy severity. We found a moderate negative correlation in kyphotic patients of cord volume and cross-sectional area to mJOA scores. The opposite (positive correlation) was found for lordotic patients, suggesting a relationship of cord volume to myelopathy that differs on the basis of sagittal alignment. It is interesting to note that sagittal balance but not kyphosis is tied to myelopathy score. Future work will correlate alignment changes to cord morphology changes and myelopathy outcomes. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: This is the first study to correlate sagittal balance (C2-C7 SVA) to myelopathy severity. We found a moderate negative correlation in kyphotic patients of cord volume and cross-sectional area to mJOA scores. The opposite (positive correlation) was found for lordotic patients, suggesting a relationship of cord volume to myelopathy that differs on

  19. Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiguchi Yasufumi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, β-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a

  20. Ischemic Colitis in an Endurance Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Grames

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old female running the Marine Corps Marathon developed diarrhea at mile 12. After finishing the race she noted that she was covered in bloody stool. A local emergency department suspected ischemic colitis. After discharge, her primary care physician instructed her to discontinue the use of all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Her symptoms resolved and she returned to running without any complications. This paper describes the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management options.

  1. Atlas shrugged: cervical myelopathy caused by congenital atlantoaxial dislocation aggravated by child labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Roneil N; Muranjan, Mamta; Karande, Sunil; Sankhe, Shilpa

    2014-04-01

    Symptomatic atlantoaxial dislocation is common in predisposing genetic or acquired disorders. However, an isolated atlantoaxial dislocation frequently is congenital and silent unless discovered during course of evaluation for neurological symptoms of cervical spinal cord injury attributed to minor or chronic, repetitive trauma. A 12-year-old girl working as a farm laborer developed calf pain provoked by walking, which increased in severity and progressed to involve the upper limbs. It was followed by progressive ascending quadriplegia. The illness resembled acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with respiratory involvement. Presence of "claw" hands bilaterally and wasting of intrinsic muscles of the hands led to the suspicion of a cervical myelopathy. Neuroimaging confirmed a congenital atlantoaxial dislocation with basilar invagination. The absence of abnormal signals in the cervical spinal cord was unusual. The symptomatic congenital atlantoaxial dislocation was postulated to be precipitated by chronic trauma suffered while habitually carrying heavy loads on the head and leading to spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormalities. Correction via surgery was successful. Congenital atlantoaxial dislocation should be suspected in a clinical setting of neurological symptoms of cervical spinal cord injury without obvious trauma or predisposing primary diseases. Prompt cervical spine imaging reveals the correct diagnosis. Physicians in countries in which child labor is rampant should be aware of the potential complications of cervical cord injuries from child labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Copper deficiency myelopathy in the setting of advanced degenerative cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Paul S; Nazar, Ryan G; Park, Michael C; James, Robert F

    2016-08-01

    When presenting conjointly, degenerative cervical spondylosis and copper deficiency myelopathy may be difficult to differentiate providing the potential for mismanagement and unnecessary surgery. We present a case of a 69-year-old female with copper deficiency myelopathy secondary to previous bowel resection in the setting of advanced degenerative cervical spondylotic disease.

  3. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only difference between a stroke ...

  4. Pediatric glaucoma suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooner K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Karanjit Kooner,1 Matthew Harrison,1 Zohra Prasla,1 Mohannad Albdour,1 Beverley Adams-Huet21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: To report demographic and ocular features of pediatric glaucoma suspects in an ethnically diverse population of North Central Texas.Design: Retrospective cross-sectional chart review.Participants: Subjects included 75 (136 eyes pediatric glaucoma suspects. Patients with one or more of the following risk factors were included: cup-to disc (C/D ratio of ≥0.6; intraocular pressure (IOP ≥21 mmHg; family history of glaucoma; congenital glaucoma in the opposite eye; history of blunt trauma to either eye; and presence of either Sturge–Weber or Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome, or oculodermal melanocytosis.Methods: Data were extracted from electronic patient medical records. Patient records with incomplete data were excluded. The main outcome measures were race, sex, age, IOP, C/D, family history of glaucoma; and glaucoma treatment.Results: Subjects included 28 (37.3% Hispanics, 20 (26.6% African Americans, 20 (26.6% Caucasians, and seven (9.3% Asians. Forty (53.3% of the patients were male. Suspicious optic disc was seen in 57 (76%; elevated IOP in 25 (33.3%; presence of family history in 13 (17.3%, and Sturge–Weber syndrome in nine (12% patients. The average C/D ratio was 0.58±0.2. The C/D ratios of African American (0.65±0.2, Hispanic (0.63±0.2, and Asian (0.62±0.15 patients were significantly greater than those of Caucasians (0.43±0.18; P=0.0004, 0.0003, and 0.0139, respectively. Caucasian patients were the youngest (7.9±4.8 years. Eleven cases (14.7% required medication.Conclusion: Thirty-three point seven percent of patients seen in the glaucoma clinic were glaucoma suspects. The most common risk factors for suspected glaucoma were suspicious optic discs, elevated IOP, and family history

  5. Reversible Myelopathy on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Due to Cobalamin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Lee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Subacute combined degeneration (SCD is known as myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency. SCD always involves the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, with the neuropathologic change showing vacuolation of the white matter. We describe 2 patients who presented with ataxic gait, impaired proprioception over limbs, and even mental change due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine showed increased signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, and laboratory data showed low serum vitamin B12 level. The 2 patients were treated with vitamin B12 injection intramuscularly. There was clinical improvement after treatment along with normalization of the MRI.

  6. Pathological observations in HTLV-I associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, I; Ota, K; Yamamoto, K; Murakami, H; Maruyama, S; Kasajima, T; Masuda, A

    1989-12-01

    The following are the clinical and autopsy findings in a 63-year-old woman with myelopathy associated with the human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-I). HTLV-I antibody was positive in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the lower thoracic region, demyelination and the loss of axons were accompanied by a proliferation of astrocytes, and gliosis was found in the lateral columns. Perivascular and parenchymal infiltrations of macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also observed, but neither viral inclusion bodies nor atypical lymphocytes were found.

  7. Intracranial dural arterio-venous fistula presenting with progressive myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ogbonnaya, Ebere Sunny

    2011-01-01

    Spinal dural arterio-venous fistula (DAVF) is rare and usually involves the thoracic segments. The classical presentation is a slowly progressive ataxia. Clinical presentation of intracranial DAVF depends on the site of the DAVF, as well as the vessels involved. Patients may present with pulsatile tinnitus, occipital bruit, headache, dementia, visual impairment as well as neurological deterioration distant from the DAVF as a result of venous hypertension and cortical haemorrhage. The authors present a rare case of progressive myelopathy secondary to an intracranial DAVF.

  8. Pulmonary Embolism in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Dey, Sadanand; Singh, Dilip; Hill, Michael D

    2018-01-28

    Silent pulmonary embolism (PE) may be associated with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We identified 10 patients from 3,132 unique patients (3,431 CT scans). We retrospectively examined CT angiogram of patients with AIS to determine the frequency of concurrent PE in AIS. The period prevalence of PE was 0.32. Seven patients had concurrent PE, whereas three had PE diagnosed 2 days after their AIS presentation. We suspected paradoxical embolism via patent foramen ovale as the cause of stroke in three patients and thrombophilia in four patients. Seven patients had poor outcome including four deaths. CT angiogram stroke protocol images from aortic arch to vertex allows visualization of upper pulmonary arteries and PE detection in AIS.

  9. Patterns of non-traumatic myelopathies in Yaounde (Cameroon): a hospital based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekoubou Looti, Alain Zingraff; Kengne, André Pascal; Djientcheu, Vincent de Paul; Kuate, Callixte T; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2010-07-01

    The relative frequency of compressive and non-compressive myelopathies and their aetiologies have not been evaluated extensively in most sub-Saharan African countries. The case of Cameroon is studied. Admission registers and case records of patients in the neurology and neurosurgery departments of the study hospital were reviewed from January 1999 to December 2006. 224 (9.7% of all admissions) cases were non-traumatic paraplegia/paraparesis or tetraplegia/tetraparesis and 147 were due to myelopathies, representing 6.3% of all cases admitted during the study period and 65.6% of cases of paraplegia or tetraplegia; 88% were compressive myelopathies. Aetiologies were dominated by primary and secondary spinal tumours (mainly prostate carcinoma, lymphoma and liver carcinoma) that each accounted for 24.5% of cases. Other causes included spinal tuberculosis (12.9%), tropical spastic paraparesis (five positive for human T cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I and one for HTLV-II) (4.8%), spinal degenerative disease (4.1%), acute transverse myelitis (4.1%), HIV myelopathy (1.4%), vitamin B12 deficiency myelopathy and multiple sclerosis (0.7%). No aetiology was found in 21.1% of participants. Myelopathies in our setting are dominated by spinal compressions. Metastasis is a leading cause of spinal cord compression with liver carcinoma being more frequent than reported elsewhere. Infections nevertheless remain a major cause of spinal cord disease and both cancers and infections constitute public health targets for reducing the incidence of myelopathies.

  10. Cervical Fusion for Absent Pedicle Syndrome Manifesting with Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, C Rory; Desai, Atman; Khattab, Mohamed H; Elder, Benjamin D; Bydon, Ali; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul

    2016-02-01

    Absent congenital pedicle syndrome is a posterior arch defect characterized by numerous congenital and mechanical abnormalities that result from disconnection of the anterior and posterior columns of the spinal canal. Absent congenital pedicle syndrome is a rare anomaly that is most commonly diagnosed incidentally, after evaluation of minor trauma, or after complaints of chronic neck pain. We report a case of absent congenital pedicle syndrome in a patient who presented with myelopathy and lower extremity weakness and review the literature on the surgical management of this entity. A 32-year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus presented to the Neurosurgery Service with progressive weakness in her upper and lower extremities, clonus, and hyperreflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed congenital absence of the pedicles of C2, C3, C4, C5, and C6 with a congenitally narrow canal at C4-5. The patient underwent a staged anterior and posterior cervical decompression and fusion. She was placed in a halo after surgery; at the 1-year follow-up, she was ambulatory with demonstrated improvement in weakness and fusion of her cervical spine. Absent congenital pedicle syndrome is rare, and most reported cases were treated conservatively. Surgical management is reserved for patients with myelopathy or instability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Charcot arthropathy of the wrist associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Keith; Ramadorai, Uma; Abell, Brian; Devine, John

    2012-12-01

    Background Charcot arthropathy is a cascade of destructive changes that can effect joints of both the axial and appendicular skeleton. The pathogenesis of this condition centers around the accumulation of minor traumatic events after the loss of normal joint sensation. The most frequently cited cause of Charcot arthropathy of the upper extremity is syringomyelia, and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine should be obtained at presentation. Case Report A 72-year-old woman presented with a painless right wrist deformity. Radiographs demonstrated advanced destructive changes of the radiocarpal joint. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed multilevel cervical spondylotic stenosis with cord deformation, but no evidence of syringomyelia. Neurological examination confirmed the presence of myelopathy. Literature Review The most frequently cited cause of Charcot arthropathy of the upper extremity is syringomyelia, although pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, tabes dorsalis, leprosy, and other disorders affecting the nervous system have been reported to lead to this condition. Neuropathic arthropathy involving the wrist is a rare phenomenon with fewer than 20 published reports in modern literature. Clinical Relevance Charcot arthropathy of the wrist is a rare but potentially disabling condition. The diagnosis of spondylotic myelopathy should be considered when evaluating a patient with this presentation. Evaluation consisting of a detailed neurological examination and advanced imaging of the cervical spine is warranted to identify the etiology.

  12. Use of MRI in the diagnosis of cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagase, Joji; Itahashi, Takashi; Yuyama, Takuo; Lee, Motohiro; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Inoue, Schun-ichi; Arimizu, Noboru; Uematsu, Sadao; Morita, Fuminori.

    1987-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 18 cases of cervical myelopathy. They were ''disc herniation'' 8 cases, ''canal stenosis'' 5 cases, and ''ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)'' 5 cases. The midsagittal section was obtained in each cases. The pulse sequence was Spin Echo (SE) technique with both T/sub 1/-weighted SE (Tr = 400, Te = 40) and T/sub 2/-weighted SE (Tr = 2000, Te = 80). Cervical-cord compression by herniated disc, yellow ligament, OPLL, or osteophyte was shown very clealy on the T/sub 1/-weighted image. Cord compression was increased by cervical extension and decreased by flexion. MRI was very useful in detecting the involved levels and in selecting the operative procedures. T/sub 2/-weighted image was taken in 9 cases. High signal intensity area was noted at the cord which was compressed in 7 cases. The true mechanism of this phenomenon is unknown yet, but this might be a clue to solve the pathogenesis of myelopathy. MRI was performed in 9 cases in order to evaluate post-operative cord decompression. Cord decompression was confirmed in 8 cases except for one case. MRI was also useful for postoperative evaluation.

  13. Surgical management of degenerative cervical myelopathy: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Brandon D; Shamji, Mohammed F; Traynelis, Vincent C; Yoon, S Tim; Rhee, John M; Chapman, Jens R; Brodke, Darrel S; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-10-15

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), including cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, presents a heterogeneous set of variables reflecting its complex nature. Multiple studies in the past have attempted to elucidate an ideal surgical algorithm that surgeons may use when treating these patients, unfortunately all studies to date, including the rigorous systematic review used in this focus issue, have fallen short in identifying a superior approach when addressing DCM. Likely because of a superior approach being nonexistent because there are multiple pathoanatomical considerations. In addition to the multitude of variables that spine surgeons face when deciding the treatment options for patients with DCM, the previous studies that have been published, unfortunately, lack in consistent outcome and complication reporting. Therefore, synthesizing a treatment algorithm remains difficult, however, the articles in this focus issue use the GRADE system to assess the overall quality (strength) of available evidence and, where appropriate, formulate evidence-based recommendations. Factors that should be included in surgical decision making are the sagittal alignment, anatomical location of the compressive pathology, number of levels of compression, presence of absence or instability or subluxation, the type compressive pathology (e.g., spondylosis vs. ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament), neck anatomy, bone quality, and surgeon experience or preference. Fortunately, as reviewed in the accompanying articles, a number of excellent surgical options exist that can be selected on the basis of the aforementioned pathoanatomical considerations.

  14. MR findings of subacute necrotizing myelopathy: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Jip; Kim, Chong Jai; Chi, Je G. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    Subacute necrotizing myelopathy(SNM) is a rare non-tumorous disease of spinal cord characterized by subacute clinical course of progressive neurological deterioration. We report MR findings of a patient with pathologically proved SNM. 1 case of pathologically proved subacute necrotizing myelopathy. The patients was a 56-year-old man with progressive motor weakness and sensory loss of the lower extremities, and urinary and fecal incontinence for 11 months. Spine MRI revealed diffuse enlargement of the thoracic spinal cord from T2 to T7 level. Signal intensity of the expanded spinal cord was isointense relative to normal cord on T1-weighted image and hyperintense on proton-density and T2-weighted images. On contrast enhanced T1-weighted image, there was diffuse homogeneous enhancement in the expanded cord lesion. MR demonstration of stable persistence of spinal cord lesion or atrophy over months or years with clinical findings of gradual progressive neurologic deterioration may be helpful in the diagnosis of SNM.

  15. Atlantoaxial subluxation. Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging correlated to myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kojima, R.

    Twenty-nine patients with atlantoaxial subluxation (18 with rheumatoid arthritis, 2 due to trauma, 4 with os odontoideum, and one each with polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatic fever, Klippel-Feil syndrome, achondroplasia, and cause unknown) were evaluated using a 0.22 tesla resistive MRI unit. Cord compression was classified into four grades according to the degree on magnetic resonance imaging. There were 7 patients with no thecal sac compression (grade 0), 10 with a minimal degree of subarachnoid space compression without cord compression (grade 1), 7 with mild cord compression (grade 2), and 5 with severe cord compression or cord atrophy (grade 3). Although the severity of myelopathy showed poor correlation with the atlantodental interval on conventional radiography, high correlation was observed between MR grading and the degree of myelopathy. The high signal intensity foci were observed in 7 or 12 patients with cord compression (grades 2 and 3) on T2 weighted images. Other frequently observed findings in rheumatoid arthritis included soft tissue masses of low to intermediate signal intensity in the paraodontoid space, erosions of the odontoid processes, and atlanto-axial impaction on T1 and T2 weighted images.

  16. Non-traumatic myelopathy at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, South Africa--the influence of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, G; Ranchhod, J; Hari, K; Mochan, A; Modi, M

    2011-08-01

    Non-traumatic myelopathy from developing regions has been described widely. In these regions infections, mainly tuberculosis, followed by acute transverse myelitis and neoplasms, dominate. These are also regions of high HIV prevalence. In developed regions, the most prominent reported spinal cord disease in HIV/AIDS is vacuolar myelopathy (VM). Other myelopathy causes in HIV/AIDS include opportunistic infections, neoplasms, vascular lesions and metabolic disease. In developing regions, opportunistic infections are more commonly encountered with VM occurring less frequently. To determine the influence of HIV on the myelopathy spectrum in an HIV endemic region. Prospective case series. Hundred unselected consecutive in-patients admitted with myelopathy were studied. Myelopathy aetiologies were established by collating information obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, CSF and blood studies, CXR findings, non-neurological illness and response to treatment. Data were analysed in terms of two cohorts, HIV positive and HIV negative. Approximately 50% of the patients presenting and admitted to our hospital with non-traumatic myelopathy are HIV positive. The HIV positive myelopathy patients were younger (20-40 years) and had infectious aetiologies. Tuberculosis was the most frequently identified cause of myelopathy. The majority of HIV-positive patients had advanced HIV infection. Anti-retroviral treatment did not influence myelopathy aetiologies. The HIV-negative patients were older and had neoplasms, followed by degenerative spondylosis as the main myelopathy causes. HIV influences the non-traumatic myelopathy spectrum in regions with high HIV prevalence. Empiric treatment of HIV-myelopathy patients with anti-tuberculous medications where resources are severely limited has merit.

  17. Impact of dynamic alignment, motion, and center of rotation on myelopathy grade and regional disability in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shian; Lafage, Renaud; Smith, Justin S; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Lafage, Virginie C; Challier, Vincent; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Radcliff, Kris; Arnold, Paul M; Chapman, Jens R; Schwab, Frank J; Massicotte, Eric M; Yoon, S Tim; Fehlings, Michael G; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-12-01

    Cervical stenosis is a defining feature of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Matsunaga et al. proposed that elements of stenosis are both static and dynamic, where the dynamic elements magnify the canal deformation of the static state. For the current study, the authors hypothesized that dynamic changes may be associated with myelopathy severity and neck disability. This goal of this study was to present novel methods of dynamic motion analysis in CSM. A post hoc analysis was performed of a prospective, multicenter database of patients with CSM from the AOSpine North American study. One hundred ten patients (34%) met inclusion criteria, which were symptomatic CSM, age over 18 years, baseline flexion/extension radiographs, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires (modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association [mJOA] score, Neck Disability Index [NDI], the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Score [SF-36 PCS], and Nurick grade). The mean age was 56.9 ± 12 years, and 42% of patients were women (n = 46). Correlations with HRQOL measures were analyzed for regional (cervical lordosis and cervical sagittal vertical axis) and focal parameters (kyphosis and spondylolisthesis between adjacent vertebrae) in flexion and extension. Baseline dynamic parameters (flexion/extension cone relative to a fixed C-7, center of rotation [COR], and range of motion arc relative to the COR) were also analyzed for correlations with HRQOL measures. At baseline, the mean HRQOL measures demonstrated disability and the mean radiographic parameters demonstrated sagittal malalignment. Among regional parameters, there was a significant correlation between decreased neck flexion (increased C2-7 angle in flexion) and worse Nurick grade (R = 0.189, p = 0.048), with no significant correlations in extension. Focal parameters, including increased C-7 sagittal translation overT-1 (slip), were significantly correlated with greater myelopathy severity (mJOA score, Flexion R

  18. Technology and the Glaucoma Suspect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumberg, Dana M; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Garg, Reena; Chen, Cynthia; Theventhiran, Alex; Hood, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    ...), stereoscopic disc photographs, and automated perimetry as assessed by a group of glaucoma specialists in differentiating individuals with early glaucoma from suspects. Forty-six eyes (46 patients...

  19. Paroxysmal Chorea as a Relapse of Myelopathy in a Patient with Neuromyelitis Optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Soo Lee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders secondary to intrinsic spinal cord disease are rare. Paroxysmal chorea has not yet been reported in the neuromyelitis optica (NMO. We report a 43-year-old woman with relapsing-remitting cervical myelopathy who developed paroxysmal chorea during clinical exacerbation of NMO. MRI scan of the cervical spine revealed a long segmental enhancing lesion, but brain MRI did not show any responsible abnormalities. Acute exacerbation of recurrent myelopathy in NMO may be associated with transient movement disorder.

  20. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only ... TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). TIA symptoms occur rapidly and last a ...

  1. Multimodality evoked potentials in HTLV-I associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H; Kuroda, Y; Endo, C; Oda, K; Ikeda, A; Hashimoto, K

    1988-08-01

    Multimodality evoked potentials (EPs) consisting of somatosensory EPs (SEPs), visual EPs (VEPs) and brainstem auditory EPs (BAEPs) were studied in 16 cases with HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). Median nerve SEPs were normal in all cases. In posterior tibial nerve SEPs, the potential recorded at the 12th thoracic spinal process was normal in every case but cortical components were significantly prolonged in 10 cases, although five of these showed no sensory impairment. BAEPs were normal in every case whose hearing was intact, but VEPs were abnormal in two cases whose visual acuities were normal. The present results in HAM indicate predominant lesion in the thoracic cord, and might also suggest some subclinical lesion in the visual pathway.

  2. Advances in MR imaging for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Salamon, Noriko; Holly, Langston T

    2015-04-01

    To outline the pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), the correlative abnormalities observed on standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the biological implications and current status of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) as clinical tools, and future directions of MR technology in the management of CSM patients. A systematic review of the pathogenesis and current state-of-the-art in MR imaging technology for CSM was performed. CSM is caused by progressive, degenerative, vertebral column abnormalities that result in spinal cord damage related to both primary mechanical and secondary biological injuries. The T2 signal change on conventional MRI is most commonly associated with neurological deficits, but tends not to be a sensitive predictor of recovery of function. DTI and MRS show altered microstructure and biochemistry that reflect patient-specific pathogenesis. Advanced imaging techniques, including DTI and MRS, show higher sensitivity to microstructural and biochemical changes within the cord, and may aid in management of CSM patients.

  3. [Myelopathy associated with HTLV-1: clinical electrophysiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, S C; Nakasato, O; Kataoka, A; Inayoshi, S; Okajima, T

    1993-11-01

    Clinical and electrophysiological studies have been performed in 9 cases of HTLV-I associated myelopathy (7 female, 2 male). Spastic paraparesis and neurogenic bladder were present in 8; sensory disturbances were detected only in 4. The conduction velocities of the posterior tibial and sural nerves were reduced in 2 cases. Median nerve SSEP revealed a delay of N11, N13, N14, N20 peak latencies and an increase of N9-N20, N13-N14 and N13-N20 interpeak latencies. The electrophysiological studies are the most accurate indicators of the diffuse involvement not only of central motor and sensory pathways but also of the peripheral nervous system.

  4. FUNCTIONAL RESULTS OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CERVICAL SPONDYLOTIC MYELOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARVIN JESUALDO VARGAS UH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the functional outcome of surgical treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Methods: A retrospective study involving 34 patients with CSM, operated from January 2014 to June 2015. The neurological status was assessed using the Nurick and modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA scales preoperatively and at 12 months. Sex, age, time of evolution, affected cervical levels, surgical approach and T2-weighted magnetic resonance hyperintense signal were also evaluated. Results: A total of 14 men and 20 women participated. The mean age was 58.12 years. The average progression time was 12.38 months. The preoperative neurological state by mJOA was mild in 2 patients, moderate in 16 and severe in 16, with a mean of 11.44 points. The preoperative Nurick was grade II in 14 patients, grade III in 8, grade IV in 10 and grade V in 2. The T2-weighted hyperintense signal was documented in 18 patients (52.9%. The functional outcome according to the mJOA recovery rate was good in 15 patients (44.1% and poor in 19 (55.9%. The degree of Nurick recovery was good in 20 (58.8% and poor in 14 (41.2%. Conclusions: Decompressive surgery of the spinal cord has been shown to be effective in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in well-selected patients. Although it is suggested that there are certain factors that correlate with functional outcome, we believe that more prospective randomized studies should be conducted to clarify this hypothesis.

  5. Preoperative cervical sagittal alignment parameters and their impacts on myelopathy in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical sagittal alignment plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM, but there are limited studies on the cervical sagittal parameters in CSM patients and their correlations with myelopathy. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlations among the preoperative cervical sagittal alignment parameters and their correlations with the development of myelopathy in patients with CSM. Methods We retrospectively collected 212 patients with CSM who underwent surgical interventions. Gender, age, modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score (mJOA, cervical lordosis (CL, C2–C7 sagittal vertical axis (C2–C7 SVA, T1 slope (T1S, neck tilt (NT and thoracic inlet angle (TIA were collected before operation. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated for all measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC. Data were analyzed with Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and multiple linear regression analysis. Results A total of 212 patients with CSM were included in this study (male: 136, female: 76 with an average age of 54.5 ± 10.1 years old. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability for all included radiographic parameters presented good to excellent agreement (ICC > 0.7. No significant differences in demographic and radiological parameters have been observed between males and females (P > 0.05. We found statistically significant correlations among the following parameters: age with CL (r = 0.135, P = 0.049, age with T1S (r = 0.222, P = 0.001, CL with T1S (r = 0.291, P < 0.001, CL with C2-C7 SVA (r =  − 0.395, P < 0.001, mJOA with age (r =  − 0.274, P < 0.001, mJOA with C2–C7 SVA (r =  − 0.219, P < 0.001 and mJOA with T1S(r =  − 0.171, p = 0.013. Linear regression analysis showed that C2–C7 SVA was the predictor of CL (adjusted R2 = 0.152, P < 0.001 and multiple linear regression showed that age combined with C

  6. Etiological profile of noncompressive myelopathies in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Kayal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discovery of antibodies against aquaporin-4 and evolving concepts of noncompressive myelopathies in the 21st century have made a major impact on the etiological profile of these diseases, with few cases turning out to be idiopathic. Objective: To find causes of noncompressive myelopathy in a tertiary care hospital of Northeast India. Materials and Methods: An observational study was carried out in the Neurology Department of Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, from September 2013 to February 2016. Patients of noncompressive myelopathies who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the spine were segregated into two categories: acute-to-subacute myelopathy (ASM and chronic myelopathy (CM. In addition to routine blood tests, chest X-ray, urinalysis, and visual evoked potentials, investigations included MRI of the brain, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and immunological, infectious, and metabolic profile based on the pattern of involvement. Results: The study had 151 patients (96 ASM and 55 CM with a median age of 35 years and male: female ratio 1.4:1. The causes of ASM were neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (23, multiple sclerosis (MS (8, systemic lupus erythematosus (1, Hashimoto's disease (1, postinfectious acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (6, postinfectious myelitis (8, infections (9, spinal cord infarct (5, and electrocution (1. The causes of CM were MS (1, probable or possible sarcoidosis (7, mixed connective tissue disease (1, Hashimoto's disease (2, infections (9, Vitamin B12deficiency (4, folate deficiency (2, hepatic myelopathy (2, radiation (11, and paraneoplastic (1. No etiology could be found in 48 (31.8% patients (34 ASM and 14 CM. In 21/96 (21.9% patients of ASM, acute transverse myelitis was idiopathic based on current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion: Underlying etiology (demyelinating, autoimmune, infectious, vascular, metabolic disorder, or physical agent was found in 68% patients of noncompressive

  7. Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit levels in the serum of cervical compressive myelopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, So; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ohya, Junichi; Hayakawa, Kentaro; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the serum levels of the phosphorylated form of the high molecular weight neurofilament subunit (pNF-H) in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy. pNF-H is becoming increasingly recognized as a biomarker for axonal injury, however, it remains unclear whether serum pNF-H is elevated in chronic spinal cord compression. We examined 26 patients who underwent surgery for cervical compressive myelopathy. Peripheral blood samples were obtained both preoperatively and 1 week after surgery to evaluate the serum pNF-H levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A history of recent aggravation of myelopathy was also investigated. Of the 26 myelopathy patients, the preoperative serum pNF-H level was negative in 20 patients and moderately elevated in six. Patients who were positive for pNF-H were more likely to have had a recent aggravation of myelopathy compared with the pNF-H negative patients (83 versus 25%; p=0.02). All patients who were positive for pNF-H before surgery remained positive after surgery. Two patients who became positive after surgery demonstrated a neurologic deterioration associated with the surgery. In conclusion, the serum pNF-H level was negative in the majority of patients with cervical compressive myelopathy. Our results suggest that an elevated serum level of pNF-H is associated with an acute worsening of myelopathy and that a positive conversion of pNF-H after surgery is a marker of perioperative neural damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  9. Lubiprostone induced ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherid, Muhammed; Sifuentes, Humberto; Samo, Salih; Deepak, Parakkal; Sridhar, Subbaramiah

    2013-01-14

    Ischemic colitis accounts for 6%-18% of the causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is often multifactorial and more commonly encountered in the elderly. Several medications have been implicated in the development of colonic ischemia. We report a case of a 54-year old woman who presented with a two-hour history of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and bloody stool. The patient had recently used lubiprostone with close temporal relationship between the increase in the dose and her symptoms of rectal bleeding. The radiologic, colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were all consistent with ischemic colitis. Her condition improved without any serious complications after the cessation of lubiprostone. This is the first reported case of ischemic colitis with a clear relationship with lubiprostone (Naranjo score of 10). Clinical vigilance for ischemic colitis is recommended for patients receiving lubiprostone who are presenting with abdominal pain and rectal bleeding.

  10. Preterm Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna G Gopagondanahalli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is a recognizable and defined clinical syndrome in term infants that results from a severe or prolonged hypoxic ischemic episode before or during birth. However, in the preterm infant, defining hypoxic ischemic injury, its clinical course, monitoring and outcomes remains complex. Few studies examine preterm HIE, and these are heterogeneous, with variable inclusion criteria and outcomes reported. We examine the available evidence that implies that the incidence of hypoxic ischemic insult in preterm infants is probably higher than recognized, and follows a more complex clinical course, with higher rates of adverse neurological outcomes, compared to term infants. This review aims to elucidate the causes and consequences of preterm hypoxia ischemia, the subsequent clinical encephalopathy syndrome, diagnostic tools and outcomes. Finally, we suggest a uniform definition for preterm HIE that may help in identifying infants most at risk of adverse outcomes and amenable to neuroprotective therapies.

  11. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  12. Severity score system for progressive myelopathy: development and validation of a new clinical scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, R.M.; Blank, D.; Netto, C.B.O.; Souza, C.F.M.; Fernandes, L.N.T.; Schwartz, I.V.D.; Giugliani, R.; Jardim, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM), was constructed covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter-and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P myelopathies. PMID:22570090

  13. Pathomechanism of myelopathy and surgical results of laminoplasty in elderly patients with cervical spondylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Kanamori, Masahiko; Ishihara, Hirokazu; Ohmori, Kazuo; Abe, Yumiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2003-10-01

    Clinical and radiologic analyses in elderly patients with cervical myelopathy. To investigate the pathomechanism of cervical myelopathy and the surgical results of laminoplasty in elderly patients older than 70 years old. To date, there have been no reports on the pathomechanism of cervical myelopathy in elderly patients. Further, the surgical results and postoperative complications of laminoplasty have not been fully evaluated in elderly patients. Eighty-nine patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty were reviewed. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the age at the time of operation (the elderly patient group: 20 patients who were older than 70 years old, and the control group: 69 patients who were younger than 69 years old). Pre- and postoperative neurologic status (the Japanese Orthopedic Association score) and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Radiologic features were also examined. There was no statistical difference in the recovery rate of Japanese Orthopedic Association score between the elderly patient group and the control group. Activities of daily living improved in the elderly patients. Several complications, such as delirium and worsening hypertension, were found in the elderly patient group. In the preoperative radiographs, the incidence of either retrolisthesis or anterolisthesis in the elderly patient group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Retrolisthesis and anterolisthesis are often the cause of myelopathy in elderly patients. Surgical decompression for cervical myelopathy was beneficial even in elderly patients older than 70 years old. Laminoplasty achieves stability of the cervical spine, and this procedure is reasonable for the treatment.

  14. Comparative Sensitivity of Intraoperative Motor Evoked Potential Monitoring in Predicting Postoperative Neurologic Deficits: Nondegenerative versus Degenerative Myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Aaron J.; Safaee, Michael; Chou, Dean; Weinstein, Philip R.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Clark, John P.; Mummaneni, Praveen V.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design ?Retrospective review. Objective ?Intraoperative motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring in spine surgery may assist surgeons in taking corrective measures to prevent neurologic deficits. The efficacy of monitoring MEPs intraoperatively in patients with myelopathy from nondegenerative causes has not been quantified. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative MEP monitoring in patients with myelopathy caused by nondegenerative processes to patients with degenera...

  15. Progression rate of myelopathy in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habekost, Clarissa Troller; Pereira, Fernanda Santos; Vargas, Carmen Regla; Coelho, Daniella Moura; Torrez, Vitor; Oses, Jean Pierre; Portela, Luis Valmor; Schestatsky, Pedro; Felix, Vitor Torres; Matte, Ursula; Torman, Vanessa Leotti; Jardim, Laura Bannach

    2015-10-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy heterozygote women can present adult onset myeloneuropathy and little is known about its natural history. We aimed to describe the progression rate of the neurological impairment in the prospective follow-up of our cohort and to look for prognostic factors. The neurological scales Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM) were applied at baseline in 29 symptomatic carriers and in follow-up visits. Age at onset, disease duration, X inactivation pattern, determination of the allele expressed, plasma levels of the very long chain fatty acids and of the neuron-specific enolase, and somato-sensory evoked potentials, were taken at baseline. The slope of the linear regression of both JOA and SSPROM versus disease duration since the first symptom was estimated using mixed modeling. JOA and SSPROM decreased 0.42 and 1.87 points per year, respectively (p < 0.001). None of the parameters under study influenced these rates. We estimated that the number of carriers per arm needed in a future 12 month trial with 80% power and a 50% reduction in disease progression would be 225 women for JOA and 750 for SSPROM. The progression rates of the studied neurological scales were small, did not depend on any modifier factor known, and reflected the characteristically slow worsening of symptoms in X-ALD heterozygotes. Better biomarkers are still necessary for future studies.

  16. Reported Outcome Measures in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Maire; Elgheriani, Ali; Kolias, Angelos G.; Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Hutchinson, Peter J. A.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Kotter, Mark R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent group of diseases. Heterogeneous reporting of trial outcomes limits effective inter-study comparison and optimisation of treatment. This is recognised in many fields of healthcare research. The present study aims to assess the heterogeneity of outcome reporting in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set. Methods A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497) was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Full text articles in English, with >50 patients (prospective) or >200 patients (retrospective), reporting outcomes of DCM were eligible. Results 108 studies, assessing 23,876 patients, conducted world-wide, were identified. Reported outcome themes included function (reported by 97, 90% of studies), complications (reported by 56, 52% of studies), quality of life (reported by 31, 29% of studies), pain (reported by 29, 27% of studies) and imaging (reported by 59, 55% of studies). Only 7 (6%) studies considered all of domains in a single publication. All domains showed variability in reporting. Conclusions Significant heterogeneity exists in the reporting of outcomes in DCM. The development of a consensus minimum dataset will facilitate future research synthesis. PMID:27482710

  17. [Myelopathy secondary to an aneurysmal bone cyst of thoracic spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-García, Marta; Penanes, Juan Ramón; Fraga, Javier; Sola, Rafael G

    2016-02-01

    Spinal aneurysmal bone cysts are very infrequent benign osteolytic lesions consisting of blood-filled cavities that are separated by osteo-connective septa and osteoclast-type giant cells. Clinically they manifest with local pain, neurological symptoms secondary to spinal cord compression, and fractures, deformities and vertebral instability. We report a case of an aneurysmal bone cyst in the thoracic spine with neurological signs and symptoms treated by means of a full microsurgical resection, with no associated neurological sequelae. A 47-year-old woman, with no previous history of traumatic injuries, who was examined following several weeks with clinical signs and symptoms of paraesthesia in the lower limbs. Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging revealed the existence of a lytic lesion with clearly defined edges and marginal sclerosis in T4, in addition to involvement of the posterior vertebral elements and compression of the underlying spinal cord. The whole lesion was removed surgically, and the sensitive clinical symptoms disappeared after the procedure. The definite pathological diagnosis was spinal aneurysmal bone cyst. Despite their low incidence, aneurysmal bone cysts of the spine must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of spinal bone tumours as a possible cause of subacute or chronic compressive myelopathy. Full surgical removal of the tumour is considered the preferred treatment, which is often curative and is associated with a good prognosis of the patient in the long term.

  18. Canine degenerative myelopathy: a model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Taylor, Alexandra C; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-02-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (CDM) represents a unique naturally occurring animal model for human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) because of similar clinical signs, neuropathologic findings, and involvement of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation. A definitive diagnosis can only be made postmortem through microscopic detection of axonal degeneration, demyelination and astroglial proliferation, which is more severe in the dorsal columns of the thoracic spinal cord and in the dorsal portion of the lateral funiculus. Interestingly, the muscle acetylcholine receptor complexes are intact in CDM prior to functional impairment, thus suggesting that muscle atrophy in CDM does not result from physical denervation. Moreover, since sensory involvement seems to play an important role in CDM progression, a more careful investigation of the sensory pathology in ALS is also warranted. The importance of SOD1 expression remains unclear, while oxidative stress and denatured ubiquinated proteins appear to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CDM. In this updated narrative review we performed a systematic search of the published studies on CDM that may shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms of human ALS. A better understanding of the factors that determine the disease progression in CDM may be beneficial for the development of effective treatments for ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. [HTLV-I myelopathy: presentation of a new case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Guzmán, J; López-Valdés, E; Varela, J M; Ramos, A; Benito-León, J; Garcia-Saiz, A; Rodríguez-Vallejo, A

    1997-04-01

    HTLV-I is a human retrovirus which has been implicated in the genesis of tropical spastic paraparesis (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy). So far five cases of this illness have been detected in Spain, five of them in immigrants. We present a new case in Spain, with a characteristic chronic clinical picture. A 36-year-old black woman native of Ecuatorial Guinea, developed along 10 years a progressive paraparesis of asymmetric onset with important back pain, that arrives to paraplegic spastic phase at the present time. She presents distal amyotrophies, ulcers of decubitus and loss of control of sphincters, with normal mental status. Laboratory tests: blood, biochemistry and microbiologic studies: normal, or negative. She presented positive Western Blot serology for HTLV-I, confirmed by means of PCR technique. Cranial MRI: small and hyperintense subcortical lesions on T2 weighted images; spinal MRI: local atrophy at high thoracic level. A lumbar puncture was performed, with no cells, and with presence of oligoclonal bands, and a high IgG index. Urodynamic study: neurogenic spastic bladder. EMG: mild axonal polyneuropathy with prevalence in legs. In the differential diagnosis of progressive paraperesis, and mainly with epidemic antecedents, it is necessary to include a determination of HTLV-I between the diagnostic tests.

  20. Reported Outcome Measures in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin M; McHugh, Maire; Elgheriani, Ali; Kolias, Angelos G; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Hutchinson, Peter J A; Fehlings, Michael G; Kotter, Mark R N

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent group of diseases. Heterogeneous reporting of trial outcomes limits effective inter-study comparison and optimisation of treatment. This is recognised in many fields of healthcare research. The present study aims to assess the heterogeneity of outcome reporting in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set. A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497) was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Full text articles in English, with >50 patients (prospective) or >200 patients (retrospective), reporting outcomes of DCM were eligible. 108 studies, assessing 23,876 patients, conducted world-wide, were identified. Reported outcome themes included function (reported by 97, 90% of studies), complications (reported by 56, 52% of studies), quality of life (reported by 31, 29% of studies), pain (reported by 29, 27% of studies) and imaging (reported by 59, 55% of studies). Only 7 (6%) studies considered all of domains in a single publication. All domains showed variability in reporting. Significant heterogeneity exists in the reporting of outcomes in DCM. The development of a consensus minimum dataset will facilitate future research synthesis.

  1. Reported Outcome Measures in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Davies

    Full Text Available Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent group of diseases. Heterogeneous reporting of trial outcomes limits effective inter-study comparison and optimisation of treatment. This is recognised in many fields of healthcare research. The present study aims to assess the heterogeneity of outcome reporting in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set.A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497 was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Full text articles in English, with >50 patients (prospective or >200 patients (retrospective, reporting outcomes of DCM were eligible.108 studies, assessing 23,876 patients, conducted world-wide, were identified. Reported outcome themes included function (reported by 97, 90% of studies, complications (reported by 56, 52% of studies, quality of life (reported by 31, 29% of studies, pain (reported by 29, 27% of studies and imaging (reported by 59, 55% of studies. Only 7 (6% studies considered all of domains in a single publication. All domains showed variability in reporting.Significant heterogeneity exists in the reporting of outcomes in DCM. The development of a consensus minimum dataset will facilitate future research synthesis.

  2. A comparison of myelopathy associated with megavoltage irradiation and remote cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.J.; Kaga, A.R.

    1978-03-01

    Two middle-aged women with malignancy of the aerodigestive tract were treated by megavoltage irradiation. Both subsequently developed transverse myelopathy. The diagnosis of radiation myelitis was rendered in one. The other was thought to have metastatic compression of the spinal cord; in this case, evidence was such that radiation myelopathy also was appropriate. The irradiation dose-time relationships in both patients were biologically low compared to published isoeffect curves available in the literature. The first patient had injury within the irradiated region and the main neurological damage was found there. In the second patient the entire spinal cord was necrotic, clearly placing the second case outside the radiation myelopathy syndrome. Gross and microscopic examinations of the tissues of these two patients show that the remote effects of malignancy upon the central nervous system can imitate the clinical picture of radiation myelitis.

  3. Compression Myelopathy due to Proliferative Changes around C2 Pars Defects without Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Abe, Mitsunobu; Yamashita, Kazuta; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We report a case with compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects without instability. A 69-year-old man presented with progressive clumsy hands and spastic gait. Plain radiographs showed bilateral spondylolysis (pars defects) at C2 and fusion between C2 and C3 spinous processes. Dynamic views revealed mobility through the pars defects, but there was no apparent instability. Computed tomography showed proliferative changes at the pars defects, which protruded into spinal canal. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord was compressed and intramedullary high signal change was found. A diagnosis of compression myelopathy due to proliferative changes around the C2 pars defects was made. We performed posterior decompression. Postoperatively, symptoms have been alleviated and images revealed sufficient decompression and no apparent instability. In patients with the cervical spondylolysis, myelopathy caused by instability or slippage have been periodically reported. The present case involving C2 spondylolysis is extremely rare.

  4. Surgical treatment of nonrheumatoid atlantoaxial degenerative arthritis producing pain and myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Michael; Fassett, Daniel R; Apfelbaum, Ronald I

    2007-12-15

    A retrospective review. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic findings and surgical treatment outcomes for atlantoaxial osteoarthritis. Nonrheumatoid atlantoaxial osteoarthritic degeneration can occur at either the atlantodental articulation or lateral mass articulations. This condition may present with neck pain or myelopathy in the setting of a compressive degenerative pannus. There is a paucity of literature on this topic with only case reports and small case series. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients treated for C1-C2 osteoarthritis. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, neurologic examination, visual analog pain scores, radiographic findings, surgical treatment, outcomes, and complications were recorded for each patient. Twenty-six patients (18 with pannus at the atlantodental articulation and 8 primarily with lateral mass articulation arthritis; 10 men, 16 women; mean age 74 years) were surgically treated for atlantoaxial osteoarthritis. Eleven patients presented primarily with complaints related to myelopathy (all with a degenerative pannus) and 15 presented with cervicalgia only. All patients were treated with posterior atlantoaxial arthrodesis, and 13 patients with myelopathy or severe canal compromise from an irreducible subluxation also had transoral odontoidectomy. All myelopathic patients had improvement in neurologic function (10 of 11 improved 1 Ranawat grade). Neck pain improved in 93% of patients with preoperative neck pain complaints (mean visual analog score before surgery = 7.0, follow-up = 1.3). Fusion was demonstrated in all patients with adequate follow-up. Atlantoaxial osteoarthritis can result in neck pain and myelopathy. In the setting of a degenerative pannus and myelopathy, most patients will improve neurologically after transoral decompression and arthrodesis. Patients with pannus and no myelopathy were effectively treated with posterior fusion alone, although 2 with

  5. Clinical outcome of anterior vs posterior approach for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahueque Lemus, Mario Alberto; Cobar Bustamante, Andres Enrique; Ortiz Muciño, Alfredo; Caldera Hernandez, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    The aim is to demonstrate whether there is clinical difference between posterior vs anterior decompression in cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Forty-two patient database was obtained from the Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente in Mexico, those who underwent surgical treatment for cervical myelopathy with a mean 1.4 year follow-up. Patients were divided; group A (45%) anterior approach and group B (55%) posterior approach, for mJOA, group A had a lower score compare with group B. While in the Nurick score group B got a higher score compare with group A. Posterior decompression resulted in better functional outcomes (p < 0.05).

  6. Ischemic ulcers - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ulcers - self-care; Arterial insufficiency ulcer self-care; Ischemic wounds - self-care; Peripheral artery disease - ulcer; Peripheral ... arteries ( atherosclerosis ) are the most common cause of ischemic ulcers. Clogged arteries prevent a healthy supply of ...

  7. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for noncontiguous cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qizhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noncontiguous cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM is a special degenerative disease because of the intermediate normal level or levels between supra and infraabnormal levels. Some controversy exists over the optimal procedure for two noncontiguous levels of CSM. The study was to evaluate the outcomes of the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF with zero-profile devices for two noncontiguous levels of CSM. Materials and Methods: 17 consecutive patients with two noncontiguous levels of CSM operated between December 2009 and August 2012 were included in the study. There were 12 men and 5 women with a mean age of 60.7 years (range 45-75 years. Involved disc levels were C3/4 and C5/6 in 11 patients and C4/5 and C6/7 in six patients. Preoperative plain radiographs, computed tomography (CT with 3-D reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine were taken in all patients. All radiographs were independently evaluated by 2 spine surgeons and 1 radiologist. The outcomes were assessed by the average operative time, blood loss, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA score, improvement rate, neck dysfunction index (NDI, swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL score, the cervical lordosis and complications. Results: The mean followup was 48.59 months (range 24-56 months. The average operative time and blood loss was 105.29 min and 136.47 ml, respectively. The preoperative JOA score was 8.35, which significantly increased to 13.7 at the final followup ( P 0.05. Cerebrospinal fluid leak, dysphagia and radiological adjacent segment degeneration occurred in one patient, respectively. Conclusion: The ACDF with zero-profile devices is generally effective and safe in treating two noncontiguous levels of CSM.

  8. Management of degenerative cervical myelopathy – An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI F. JOAQUIM

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in adult patients. Patients generally present with a slow, progressive neurological decline or a stepwise deterioration pattern. In this paper, we discuss the most important factors involved in the management of DCM, including a discussion about the surgical approaches. Method The authors performed an extensive review of the peer-reviewed literature addressing the aforementioned objectives. Results Although the diagnosis is clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is the study of choice to confirm stenosis and also to exclude the differential diagnosis. The severity the clinical symptoms of DCM are evaluated by different scales, but the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA and the Nürick scale are probably the most commonly used. Spontaneous clinical improvement is rare and surgery is the main treatment form in an attempt to prevent further neurological deterioration and, potentially, to provide some improvement in symptoms and function. Anterior, posterior or combined cervical approaches are used to decompress the spinal cord, with adjunctive fusion being commonly performed. The choice of one approach over the other depends on patient characteristics (such as number of involved levels, site of compression, cervical alignment, previous surgeries, bone quality, presence of instability, among others as well as surgeon preference and experience. Conclusion Spine surgeons must understand the advantages and disadvantages of all surgical techniques to choose the best procedure for their patients. Further comparative studies are necessary to establish the superiority of one approach over the other when multiple options are available.

  9. [Neurological symptoms and disability in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Mesquita, H Mourao; Ribeiro, L da Silveira

    2008-03-01

    The human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is a retrovirus that causes tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Objectives. To describe neurological characteristics and the severity of disability in a sample of patients with TSP/HAM. All TSP/HAM patients consecutively admitted during 2006 at the Brasilia Sarah Hospital, neurology outpatient clinic were included in the study. HTLV-I infected patient fulfilled criteria for serological positivity at both ELISA and western blot. Ashworth spasticity scale, Barthel index of activities of daily living, kurtzke functional systems and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were applied. All patients performed electrophysiological studies (evoked potentials, electromyogram) and brain/spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Forty two of 249 paraparetic patients (16.9%; 26 females; mean age: 49.8 years) were diagnosed as having TSP/HAM. Mean time of evolution was 11.2 years. Most common neurological syndrome was a chronic progressive spastic paraparesis with hyperreflexia, ankle clonus and bilateral Babinski sign (97.7 %). Other findings were proximal muscle atrophy in lower limbs (28.6 %) , ataxia (21.4%), and peripheral neuropathy (7.1%). Half of patients were wheel-chair restricted or had a domiciliary walk. EDSS median was 6 and Barthel index mean score was 65. Most common findings on spinal cord MRI were thoracic spinal cord atrophy (66.7%) and white matter hyper-intensity areas in cerebral subcortical (42.8 %) and spinal cord (21.4%) regions. TSP/HAM is a very disabilitating disorder. Peripheral neuropathy and ataxia are other syndromes that should be included in the spectrum of HTLV-I infection.

  10. Stroke bricks - spatial brain regions to assess ischemic stroke localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Jóźwiak, Rafał; Sobieszczuk, Ewa; Przelaskowski, Artur; Skadorwa, Tymon

    2017-03-29

    Computer-aided analysis of non-contrast CT (NCCT) images for rapid diagnosis of ischemic stroke is based on the augmented visualization of evolving ischemic lesions. Computerized support of NCCT often leads to overinterpretation of ischemic areas, thus it is of great interest to provide neurologically verified regions in order to improve accuracy of subsequent radiological assessment. We propose Stroke Bricks (StBr) as an arbitrary spatial division of brain tissue into the regions associated with specific clinical symptoms of ischemic stroke. Neurological stroke deficit is formally translated into respective areas of possible ischemic lesions. StBr were designed according to formalized mapping of neurological symptoms and were attributed to the uniquely defined areas of impaired blood supply. StBr concept may be useful for an integrated radiological CT-based assessment of suspected stroke cases or can be included into computer-aided tools to optimize the evaluation of stroke site and its extent. These data in turn are appropriable for further diagnosis, predicting the therapeutic outcome as well as for patients' qualification for an appropriate form of reperfusion therapy. The usefulness of Stroke Bricks was illustrated in the case studies.

  11. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  12. Clinicopathologic correlations of HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy: an autopsy-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pan, G J; Glass, J D; McArthur, J C

    1994-11-01

    To determine the clinical correlates of HIV-1-associated vacuolar myelopathy (VM), we designed a case-control study based on 215 AIDS autopsies in which we examined the spinal cord. We defined a case as an individual dying with AIDS and with VM present at autopsy; we defined a control as an individual dying with AIDS without VM. VM was found in 100 of 215 (46.5%) autopsies, with no apparent temporal trends. A higher number of AIDS-defining illnesses was strongly associated with the likelihood of VM (trend chi-square = 26.52, p cases than in controls (odds ratio = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.73 to 7.47, p cases than in controls (odds ratio = 5.00, 95% CI = 1.35 to 18.5, p cases with VM had detailed neurologic evaluations, but only 15 (26.8%) had signs and symptoms of myelopathy. The presence of symptomatic myelopathy was related to the pathologic severity: none of 17 cases with grade 1, five of 26 with grade 2, and 10 of 13 with grade 3 had clinical features of myelopathy (trend chi-square = 21.16, p < 0.005). VM is a common neuropathologic finding that is frequently unrecognized during life. The association with the number of systemic illnesses, M avium-intracellulare infection, and P carinii pneumonia suggests that the development of VM is related to the severity of immunosuppression.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of degenerative cervical myelopathy: a review of structural changes and measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Martin, Allan R; Mikulis, David; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-06-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy encompasses a spectrum of age-related structural changes of the cervical spine that result in static and dynamic injury to the spinal cord and collectively represent the most common cause of myelopathy in adults. Although cervical myelopathy is determined clinically, the diagnosis requires confirmation via imaging, and MRI is the preferred modality. Because of the heterogeneity of the condition and evolution of MRI technology, multiple techniques have been developed over the years in an attempt to quantify the degree of baseline severity and potential for neurological recovery. In this review, these techniques are categorized anatomically into those that focus on bone, ligaments, discs, and the spinal cord. In addition, measurements for the cervical spine canal size and sagittal alignment are also described briefly. These tools have resulted collectively in the identification of numerous useful parameters. However, the development of multiple techniques for assessing the same feature, such as cord compression, has also resulted in a number of challenges, including introducing ambiguity in terms of which methods to use and hindering effective comparisons of analysis in the literature. In addition, newer techniques that use advanced MRI are emerging and providing exciting new tools for assessing the spinal cord in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy.

  14. Cervical myelopathy in athetoid and dystonic cerebral palsy: retrospective study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Raphael; Rech, Celia; Garreau de Loubresse, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The early onset of degenerative cervical lesions has been well described in patients suffering from athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. Myelopathy can occur and aggravate of their unstable neurological status. Diagnosis and treatment are delayed and disrupted by the abnormal movements. This retrospective study was implemented to evaluate the symptoms, the anatomical findings, and the surgical management of seven patients from 20 to 56 years old suffering from cervical myelopathy and athetoid or dystonic cerebral palsy. The mean delay in diagnosis was 15 months and the mean follow-up was 33 months. The initial symptoms were spasticity, limbs weakness, paresthesias and vesico-sphinteric dysfunction. In addition to abnormal movements, imaging demonstrated disc herniation, spinal stenosis and instability. All patients were managed surgically by performing simultaneous spinal cord decompression and fusion. Two patients benefited from preoperative botulinum toxin injections, which facilitated postoperative care and immobilization. Strict postoperative immobilization was achieved for 3 months by a Philadelphia collar or a cervico-thoracic orthosis. All patients improved functionally with a mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association score gain of 1.5 points, in spite of the permanent disabilities of the myelopathy. Complications occurred with wound infection, metal failure and relapse of cervical myelopathy at an adjacent level in one case each. All the previous authors advised against isolated laminectomy but no consensus emerged from the literature analysis. Spinal fusion is usually recommended but can be complicated by degenerative adjacent deterioration. Surgical management provides good outcomes but requires a long-term follow-up.

  15. Severe Facet Joint Arthrosis Caused C7/T1 Myelopathy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimi Aizawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical myelopathy is caused by degenerative processes of the spine including intervertebral disc herniation and posterior spur usually developing at C3/4 to C5/6. C7/T1 single level myelopathy is very rare because of the anatomical characteristics. Facet joint arthrosis can be a cause of cervical myelopathy but only a few cases have been reported. The authors report an extremely rare case of C7/T1 myelopathy caused by facet joint arthrosis. A 58-year-old male presented with hand and gait clumsiness. The radiological examinations revealed severe C7/T1 facet joint arthrosis with bony spur extending into the spinal canal, which compressed the spinal cord laterally. The T1 spinous process indicated nonunion of a “clay-shoveler's” fracture, which suggested that his cervico-thoracic spine had been frequently moved, and thus severe arthrosis had occurred in the facet joints. A right hemilaminectomy of C7 and C7/T1 facetectomy with single level spinal fusion led to complete neurological improvement.

  16. Reliability of three-dimensional gait analysis in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Ailish

    2010-10-01

    Gait impairment is one of the primary symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Detailed assessment is possible using three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA), however the reliability of 3DGA for this population has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of temporal-spatial, kinematic and kinetic parameters in a CSM population.

  17. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  18. Human t-cell virus-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its geographical distribution varies with area of high prevalence in the Caribbean, southern Japan and Africa. Human T-cell lymphtropic virus-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis is more common in the tropics and present as a non-compressive, slowly progressive symmetrical paraparesis of the lower ...

  19. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the motor cortex in cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Izabela; Duggal, Neil; Bartha, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Alterations in motor function in cervical myelopathy secondary to degenerative disease may be due to local effects of spinal compression or distal effects related to cortical reorganization. This prospective study characterizes differences in metabolite levels in the motor cortex, specifically N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, myo-inositol and glutamate plus glutamine, due to alterations in cortical function in patients with reversible spinal cord compression compared with healthy controls. We hypothesized that N-acetylaspartate/creatine levels would be decreased in the motor cortex of patients with cervical myelopathy due to reduced neuronal integrity/function and myo-inositol/creatine levels would be increased due to reactive gliosis. Twenty-four patients with cervical myelopathy and 11 healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a 3.0 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Tim Trio MRI. Areas of activation from functional magnetic resonance imaging scans of a finger-tapping paradigm were used to localize a voxel on the side of greater motor deficit in the myelopathy group (n = 10 on right side and n = 14 on left side of the brain) and on each side of the motor cortex in controls. Neurological function was measured with the Neck Disability Index, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association and American Spinal Injury Association questionnaires. Metabolite levels were measured relative to total creatine within the voxel of interest. No metabolite differences were detected between the right side and left side of the motor cortex in controls. The myelopathy group had significantly decreased neurological function compared with the control group (Neck Disability Index: P myelopathy group (1.21 ± 0.07) compared with the right (1.37 ± 0.03; P = 0.01) and left (1.38 ± 0.03; P = 0.007) motor cortex in controls suggesting neuronal damage or dysfunction distal to the lesion in the spine. No difference was observed in levels of myo

  20. Severity score system for progressive myelopathy: development and validation of a new clinical scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Castilhos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM, covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P < 0.0001; EDSS: r = -0.83, P < 0.0001; Barthel: r = 0.56, P < 0.002; Osame: r = -0.94, P < 0.0001 and reliability (intra-rater: r = 0.83, P < 0.0001; inter-rater: r = 0.94, P < 0.0001 were demonstrated. The metric properties of JOA were similar to those found in SSPROM. Several clinimetric requirements were met for both SSPROM and JOA scales. Since SSPROM has a wider range, it should be useful for follow-up studies on IEM myelopathies.

  1. Global Spinal Alignment in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Go; Alzakri, Abdulmajeed; Pointillart, Vincent; Boissiere, Louis; Obeid, Ibrahim; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Vital, Jean Marc; Gille, Olivier

    2017-05-24

    Prospective radiographic analysis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) OBJECTIVE.: To clarify the pathophysiology of CSM, and use the characteristic of global spinal alignment for determining the surgical strategy. Radiographic evaluation of CSM, in general, comprises cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and regional cervical radiography, which cannot distinguish between cervical hyperlodorsis with spinopelvic compensation and cervical lordorsis with normal global alignment. Our inclusion criteria were preoperative whole spine radiography and cervical MRI and health-related quality of life scores. Global spinal alignment was characterized by cervical lordosis (CL), C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), T1 slope (T1S), thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), and knee flexion angle (KFA). Cervical alignment was characterized by O-C2, C2-4, C5-7, and C2-7 angles; cranial center of gravity (CCG) C7SVA; and C2-7 SVA. Responsible lesion determined using MRI was divided from C2/3 to C7/T1. Eighty-eight surgically treated CSM patients with EOS full spine imaging were prospectively analyzed. There were 72 normal (Type 1; SVA SVA ≥ 50 mm) global balance patients. There were significant differences in age, T1S, KFA, T1S-CL, SVA, CCG-SVA, and C2-7 SVA between Type 1 and Type 2. C3/4 lesion was more common in Type 2 than in Type 1. There was a positive correlation between global sagittal, but not regional, balance and responsible lesion. C3/4 lesion was more frequent in older, male, high SVA, large T1S-CL, large KFA, and large cranial lordosis (C2-4/C5-7 angle) patients. This study indicates the necessity for global alignment evaluation, particularly in older CSM patients because of their compensation mechanism for global malalignment. Surgical strategy for cranial type CSM should be carefully selected considering global balance. 4.

  2. Diffuse osteopenia and myelopathy in a puppy fed a diet composed of an organic premix and raw ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark B; Geiger, David A; Saker, Korinn E; Larson, Martha M

    2009-04-15

    An 8-month-old Shetland Sheepdog was evaluated because of the sudden onset of signs of neck pain, collapse, and inability to rise. A cursory diet history indicated that the dog had been fed a raw meat-based diet. Initial evaluation of the dog revealed small physical stature, thin body condition, and signs of cranial cervical myelopathy. Radiographically, diffuse osteopenia of all skeletal regions was identified; polyostotic deformities associated with fracture remodeling were observed in weight-bearing bones, along with an apparent floating dental arcade. Hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia were detected via serum biochemical analyses. The dog's diet was imbalanced in macronutrients and macrominerals. The dog received supportive care and treatment of medical complications; neurologic abnormalities improved rapidly without intervention. Dietary changes were implemented during hospitalization, and a long-term feeding regimen was established. Following discharge from the hospital, exercise restriction was continued at home. Serial follow-up evaluations, including quantitative bone density measurements, revealed that dietary changes were effective. After 7 months, the dog was clinically normal. In the dog of this report, vitamin D-dependent rickets type I and suspected nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism developed following intake of a nutritionally incomplete and unbalanced diet. The raw meat-based, home-prepared diet fed to the dog was not feed-trial tested for any life stage by the Association of American Feed Control Officials, and its gross nutrient imbalance induced severe metabolic, orthopedic, and neurologic abnormalities. Inadvertent malnutrition can be avoided through proper diet assessment and by matching nutrient profiles with patients' nutritional needs.

  3. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with standing cervical radiographs for evaluation of vertebral canal stenosis in equine cervical stenotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, J G; Garrett, K S; McQuerry, K J; Pease, A P; Williams, N M; Reed, S M; MacLeod, J N

    2014-11-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of lateral cervical radiographs to evaluate horses suspected of cervical stenotic myelopathy (CSM) are limited by the assessment being restricted to the sagittal plane. To determine whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for a more accurate identification of stenosis than lateral cervical radiographs in horses with CSM. Case control study. Nineteen Thoroughbred horses with CSM (17 males, 2 females, age 6-50 months) were compared to 9 control Thoroughbreds (6 males, 3 females, age 9-67 months). Ante mortem, the subjects had neurological examinations and standing cervical radiographs with sagittal ratios calculated from C3 to C7. Intact cervical column MRI scans and histological examinations of the spinal cord were performed post mortem. Morphometric parameters were measured on the vertebral canal, spinal cord and intervertebral foramen. Radiographic cervical canal height measurements categorised by standard minimal sagittal diameter intravertebral and intervertebral ratios produced several false positive and false negative determinations of canal stenosis as defined by spinal cord histopathology. Post mortem MRI measurements of canal area and cord canal area ratio more accurately predicted sites of cord compression in CSM cases. No differences in spinal cord measurements were observed when comparing CSM to control horses, but each of the vertebral canal parameters achieved significance at multiple sites. Vertebral canal area and cord canal area ratio are better parameters to predict the location of cervical canal stenosis compared to only the sagittal plane of canal height. Additional visual planes and measurements obtained by MRI, specifically vertebral canal area and the cord canal area ratio, will provide a more accurate method to identify regions of canal stenosis than lateral cervical radiographs. The development of MRI or computed tomography equipment capable of evaluating the cervical column of mature horses may

  4. Ischemic Amnesia: Causes and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrik; Beaud, Valérie; Eskandari, Ashraf; Maeder, Philippe; Demonet, Jean-François; Eskioglou, Elissavet

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to describe the frequency and characteristics of acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attacks presenting predominantly with amnesia (ischemic amnesia) and to identify clinical clues for differentiating them from transient global amnesia (TGA). We retrospectively analyzed and described all patients presenting with diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attacks with antero- and retrograde amnesia as the main symptom over a 13.5-year period. We also compared their clinical features and stroke mechanisms with 3804 acute ischemic stroke from our ischemic stroke registry. Thirteen ischemic amnesia patients were identified, representing 0.2% of all patients with acute ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack. In 69% of ischemic amnesia cases, amnesia was transient with a median duration of 5 hours. Ischemia was not considered in 39% of cases. Fifty-four percent of cases were clinically difficult to distinguish from TGA, including 15% who were indistinguishable from TGA. 1.2% of all presumed TGA patients at our center were later found to have ischemic amnesia. Amnesic strokes were more often cardioembolic, multiterritorial, and typically involved the posterior circulation and limbic system. Clinical clues were minor focal neurological signs, higher age, more risk factors, and stroke favoring circumstances. Although all patients were independent at 3 months, 31% had persistent memory problems. Amnesia as the main symptom of acute ischemic cerebral events is rare, mostly transient, and easily mistaken for TGA. Although clinical clues are often present, the threshold for performing diffusion-weighted imaging in acute amnesia should be low. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Upregulation of CB2 receptors in reactive astrocytes in canine degenerative myelopathy, a disease model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    María Fernández-Trapero; Francisco Espejo-Porras; Carmen Rodríguez-Cueto; Joan R. Coates; Carmen Pérez-Díaz; Eva de Lago; Javier Fernández-Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we investigated whether similar CB2 receptor upregulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, is evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM...

  6. Remote Ischemic Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Heusch, Gerd; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Przyklenk, Karin; Redington, Andrew; Yellon, Derek

    2015-01-01

    In remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) brief, reversible episodes of ischemia with reperfusion in one vascular bed, tissue or organ confer a global protective phenotype and render remote tissues and organs resistant to ischemia/reperfusion injury. The peripheral stimulus can be chemical, mechanical or electrical and involves activation of peripheral sensory nerves. The signal transfer to the heart or other organs is through neuronal and humoral communications. Protection can be transferred, ev...

  7. Reoperation Rates After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Cervical Spondylotic Radiculopathy and Myelopathy: A National Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Soo; Ju, Young-Su; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Makhni, Melvin C; Riew, K Daniel

    2016-10-15

    National population-based cohort study. To compare the reoperation rates between cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy in a national population of patients. There is an inherently low incidence of reoperation after surgery for cervical degenerative disease. Therefore, it is difficult to sufficiently power studies to detect differences between reoperation rates of different cervical diagnoses. National population-based databases provide large, longitudinally followed cohorts that may help overcome this challenge. We used the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service national database to select our study population. We included patients with the diagnosis of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy or myelopathy who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion from January 2009 to June 2014. We separated patients into two groups based on diagnosis codes: cervical spondylotic radiculopathy or cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Age, sex, presence of diabetes, osteoporosis, associated comorbidities, number of operated cervical disc levels, and hospital types were considered potential confounding factors. The overall reoperation rate was 2.45%. The reoperation rate was significantly higher in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy than in patients with cervical radiculopathy (myelopathy: P = 0.0293, hazard ratio = 1.433, 95% confidence interval 1.037-1.981). Male sex, presence of diabetes or associated comorbidities, and hospital type were noted to be risk factors for reoperation. The reoperation rate after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was higher for cervical spondylotic myelopathy than for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy in a national population of patients. 3.

  8. Myelopathy and sciatica induced by an extradural S1 root haemangioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermier, M.; Cotton, F.; Froment, J.C. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France); Saint-Pierre, G.; Jouvet, A. [Department of Neuropathology, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France); Ongolo-Zogo, P. [Department of Radiology, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France); Department of Radiology, Hopital Central, Yaounde (Cameroon); Fischer, G. [Department of Neurosurgery, Hopital Neurologique et Neurochirurgical, Lyon (France)

    2002-06-01

    Haemangioblastomas are vascular tumours which mainly involve the central nervous system and retina, often in the setting of von Hippel-Lindau disease. Haemangioblastomas occurring outside the central nervous system are uncommon. Wherever it is, recognising this tumour prior to surgery is desirable, as preoperative embolisation may be considered. We report the clinical, imaging and pathological features of a sporadic sacral root haemangioblastoma in a 58-year-old man with chronic sciatica and myelopathy. The diagnosis was questioned preoperatively because an enlarged sacral foramen, seen to be filled by a highly vascular, enhancing mass and dilated vessels. Myelopathy was attributed to the presumed high venous pressure resulting from increased flow in veins draining the vascular tumour. Microneurosurgical excision was performed after endovascular embolisation and led to persistent clinical improvement. (orig.)

  9. LoCa LoPa myelopathy: is prevention better than cure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Kamal Kishore; Razdan, Sushil; Pandita, Sarla

    2017-01-01

    Manifestations of primary hypoparathyroidism are produced by neuromuscular irritability or by extraosseous calcifications. We present a patient of primary hypoparathyroidism who had extensive calcification of brain parenchyma, and was suffering from chronic, generalised and progressive stiffness of body due to cervical compressive myelopathy, caused by calcification of posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum. By presenting this case we wanted to emphasize the usefulness of meticulous clinical examination to differentiate the stiffness caused by myelopathy from that which is caused by possible coexisting extrapyramidal disorder. This case presentation also builds the hypothesis that early diagnosis and institution of early and appropriate treatment has potential to prevent the complications arising from extraosseous calcifications in patients with primary hypoparathyroidism.

  10. Hematopoietic cell transplantation does not prevent myelopathy in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Björn M; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Verrips, Aad; Boelens, Jaap-Jan; Kemp, Stephan; Engelen, Marc

    2015-03-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a peroxisomal metabolic disorder. Male patients develop adrenocortical insufficiency (80 % before 18 years), a chronic myelopathy (adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN); all in adulthood), or progressive cerebral demyelination (cerebral ALD; 40 % before 18 years). Cerebral ALD is treated with haematopoetic cell transplantation (HCT). It is unknown if AMN still develops in patients with X-ALD that underwent HCT for cerebral ALD in childhood. A retrospective observational study was performed by selecting all adult patients with X-ALD in our cohort that underwent HCT in childhood. This retrospective study found that three out of five patients in our cohort who underwent HCT in childhood developed signs of myelopathy in adulthood. These data suggest that HCT for cerebral ALD in childhood does not prevent the onset of AMN in X-ALD in adulthood.

  11. EFFICACY OF CAGE PLACEMENT WITHOUT PLATE IN PATIENTS WITH CERVICAL MYELOPATHY WITH SINGLE-LEVEL AFFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO ZUÑIGA-MAZÓN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the efficacy of PEEK (Poly-ether-ether-ketone cage without plate for the treatment of single-level cervical spondylosis. Methods: Ten patients with cervical myelopathy data, with a single-level root condition, seen at the outpatient clinic of the Neurosurgery Service, operated in 2016, mean age 53 years, 6 (60% female, 4 (40% obese, 3 (30% smokers. The Cloward technique was used by anterior approach, discectomy, and PEEK cage placement. Results: At six months of surgery, 100% of the patients had increased intervertebral space, with a 100% reduction in osteophytes; only one patient had dysphagia, no patient had lesion of the adjacent segment and 10% had persistent root pathology. Cervical lordosis was observed in 90% of the patients and arthrodesis in 100% of the cases. Conclusions: Anterior approach arthrodesis using PEEK cage without cervical plate is effective as a treatment of cervical myelopathy in a single level.

  12. Failure in long-term treatment of chronic pain in cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Vrabec-Matković

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a disease of high variability and its progressive form leads to severe disability. This paper reports on a case of a 31-year-old woman with whiplash neck injury sustained at the age of 11, and subsequent neck pain and numbness of arms. Slow progression of symptoms led to tetraparesis, and C3C4 discherniation along with cervical myelopathy were revealed at the age of 26. Previously, she started a treatment for hypothyroidism. She underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Two additionaloperative treatments were done during the next two years due to lack of clinical improvement. Because of chronic pain the number ofmedications and the number of symptoms have gradually increased. We emphasize the problem of long-term treatment for chronic non- malignant pain and therapeutic dilemma in situations of inadequateanalgesia.

  13. Late onset cervical myelopathy secondary to fibrous scar tissue formation around the spinal cord stimulation electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, E; Kawai, H

    2010-08-01

    Case report. To report the late onset of cervical myelopathy secondary to fibrous scar tissue formation around an epidural electrode implanted for spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hoshigaoka Koseinenkin Hospital, Osaka, Japan. A 49-year-old man who had an electrode implanted for SCS 5 years ago was referred to our department on 2 March 2005, complaining of difficulty using chopsticks and walking. A computed tomography scan with myelography revealed severe spinal cord compression around the epidural electrode. Surgical removal of the electrode was not effective. Removal of fibrous scar tissue during a second surgery significantly improved his neurological symptoms. Late onset cervical myelopathy secondary to fibrous scar tissue formation around the epidural electrode should be considered a possible event associated with SCS therapy.

  14. Danazol a new perspective in the treatment of htlv-l associated myelopathy (preliminary report

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    Ailton Melo

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the efficacy of danazol treatment in eight patients with HTLV-l associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Treatment with danazol yielded clinical improvement of urinary control and gait disturbances in 7 out of the 8 patients. The improvement was noted within 15 days of danazol administration. Analysis of factors of relevance to the clinical improvement with danazol showed that the beneficial response was preferentially found in females.

  15. Prediction of surgical outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy: A novel clinicoradiological prognostic score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Anil Aggarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Preoperative severity of myelopathy, age, and duration of symptoms have been shown to be highly predictive of the outcome in compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM. The role of radiological parameters is still controversial. Aims: Define the prognostic factors in CCM and formulate a prognostic score to predict the outcome following surgery in CCM. Settings and Design: Retrospective. Materials and Methods: This study included 78 consecutive patients with CCM treated surgically. The modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA scale was used to quantify severity of myelopathy at admission and at 12-month follow-up. The outcome was defined as "good" if the patient had mJOA score ≥16 and "poor" if the score was <16. Age, sex, duration of symptoms, comorbidities, intrinsic hand muscle wasting (IHMW, diagnosis, surgical technique, Torg ratio, instability on dynamic radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI signal intensity changes were assessed. Statistics: Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS (version 20.0 was used for statistical analysis. The association was assessed amongst variables using logistic regression analysis. Parameters having a statistically significant correlation with the outcome were included in formulating a prognostic score. Results: Severity of myelopathy, IHMW, age, duration, diabetes, and instability on radiographs were predictive of the outcome with a P value <0.01. Genders, diagnosis, surgical procedure, Torg ratio, and intensity changes on MRI were not significantly related to the outcome. A 8-point scoring system was devised incorporating the significant clinicoradiological parameters, and it was found that nearly all patients (97.82% with a score below 5 had good outcome and all patients (100% with a score above 5 had poor outcome. The outcome is difficult to predict with a score of 5. Conclusions: Clinical parameters are better predictors of the outcome as compared to radiological findings

  16. The reporting of study and population characteristics in degenerative cervical myelopathy: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Benjamin; McHugh, M.; A Elgheriani; Kolias, Angelos; Tetreault, L.; Hutchinson, Peter John; Fehlings, MG; Kotter, Mark Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    OBJECT: Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent condition. Variable reporting in interventional trials of study design and sample characteristics limits the interpretation of pooled outcomes. This is pertinent in DCM where baseline characteristics are known to influence outcome. The present study aims to assess the reporting of the study design and baseline characteristics in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set. METHO...

  17. Clinical Outcome of Cervical Laminoplasty and Postoperative Radiological Change for Cervical Myelopathy With Degenerative Spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Tamai, Koji; Terai, Hidetomi; Hoshino, Masatoshi; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Shinji; Hayashi, Kazunori; Ohyama, Shoichiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    A retrospective cohort study with prospectively collected data. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and radiological outcome of cervical laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy with degenerative spondylolisthesis. The presence of spondylolisthesis is thought to represent segmental instability in spine. Cervical laminoplasty is a common decompression surgery for cervical myelopathy, but its clinical result for cervical spondylolisthesis has not been well studied. One hundred seventeen patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty for degenerative cervical myelopathy were included. Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA score) and visual analog scale of neck pain, upper arm pain and numbness were evaluated before surgery, and at scheduled time points after surgery. Spondylolisthesis was defined as more than 2 mm slip on plain radiograph, and the clinical results were compared between the patients with spondylolisthesis (group S) and without spondylolisthesis (group C). In the patients with spondylolisthesis, the slip distance and translational motion between flexion and extension was examined on plain lateral radiograph before surgery and 2 years after surgery. Degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis was found in 49 levels of 33 patients (28.2%), and the average age of group S was significantly higher than group C. JOA score and each VAS score was significantly improved after surgery in both groups. Average JOA score of group S was significantly lower than group C at every time points, but the recovery rate was similar between the two groups. In the level of spondylolisthesis, average slip distance did not changed, but average translational motion was significantly decreased in 2years after surgery. Cervical spondylolisthesis was common in elderly patients. The clinical outcome in group S was comparable with group C, and the level with spondylolisthesis has been stabilized after surgery. Thus, laminoplasty can be a treatment option even for

  18. Negative MRI findings in a case of degenerative myelopathy in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okada

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male Rough collie was submitted with paraparesis, but did not respond to medical treatment. Clinical signs worsened and the dog displayed paralysis, inability to stand and loss of voluntary bladder control, whereupon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed. No significant abnormalities were identified from MRI, blood tests, cerebrospinal fluid tests or radiography. After MRI, the dog developed dyspnoea and died. Autopsy and subsequent histopathological examination led to a diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy.

  19. Hepatic Myelopathy in a Patient with Decompensated Alcoholic Cirrhosis and Portal Colopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Premkumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrhotic or hepatic myelopathy is a rare neurological complication of chronic liver disease usually seen in adults and presents as a progressive pure motor spastic paraparesis which is usually associated with overt liver failure and a surgical or spontaneous systemic portocaval shunt. We describe the development of progressive spastic paraparesis, in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis with portal hypertension and portal colopathy who presented with the first episode of hepatic encephalopathy. The patient had not undergone any shunt procedure.

  20. The Significance of the Trömner Sign in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyamongkol, Weera; Laohawiriyakamol, Teeranan; Tangtrakulwanich, Boonsin; Tanutit, Pramot; Bintachitt, Piyawat; Siribumrungwong, Koopong

    2017-11-01

    This study is a diagnostic analysis. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of Trömner sign in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and how its presence correlates with the severity of myelopathy. A clinical presentation of myelopathy corresponding with image findings is a current standard to diagnose CSM. Trömner sign is an alternative of well-known Hoffmann sign to detect CSM. Little is known about its diagnostic accuracy and how its presence correlates with the severity of CSM. Consecutive patients with clinical diagnosis of CSM and other cervical spondylosis-related problems were enrolled in either CSM group, cervical spondylotic radiculopathy group, or axial pain group. Normal volunteers and patients without spine-related issues were used as a control. All participants were examined for the presence of myelopathic signs. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of all participants were reviewed by a radiologist. There were 85 participants included in the study. Diagnostic sensitivity was 76%, 94%, 76%, and 36% for Hoffmann sign, Trömner sign, inverted radial reflex, and Babinski sign, respectively. Trömner sign had relatively high sensitivity (95%) despite of mild degree of myelopathy. Negative predictive value was 60%, 85%, 59%, and 38% for Hoffmann sign, Trömner sign, inverted radial reflex, and Babinski sign, respectively. There were 63%-71% of patients in either axial pain group or cervical spondylotic radiculopathy group had positive Trömner sign. Most of CSM patients with cord signal changed had positive myelopathic sign. Regarding CSM patient without cord signal change, most of tests were negative except Trömner sign. High sensitivity (94%) and relatively high negative predictive value (85%) for Trömner sign indicate the usefulness of Trömner sign in ruling out CSM. High incidence of positive Trömner sign in presymptomatic cervical cord compression patients suggests Trömner sign could have a useful role in early detection of presymptomatic

  1. Myelopathy due to Spinal Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a Patient with Polycythemia Vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Ito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH occasionally occurs in patients exhibiting hematological disorders with decreased hematopoietic efficacy. EMH is rarely observed in the spinal epidural space and patients are usually asymptomatic. In particular, in the patients with polycythemia vera, spinal cord compression due to EMH is extremely rare. We report a case of polycythemia vera, in which operative therapy proved to be an effective treatment for myelopathy caused by spinal EMH.

  2. HTLV-1-associated infective dermatitis and probable HTLV-1- associated myelopathy in an adolescent female*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steglich, Raquel Bisacotti; Tonoli, Renata Elise; Souza, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Pinto, Giselle Martins; Riesgo, Rudimar dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated infective dermatitis (ID) is a chronic, severe and recurrent eczema occurring during childhood in patients vertically infected with HTLV-1. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesia (HAM/ TSP) is slow and progressive. We report the case of an adolescent female from a non-endemic area for HTLV-1 who presents ID and, most likely, associated HAM/TSP. PMID:26312674

  3. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: current state of the art and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlings, Michael G; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Wilson, Jefferson R; Skelly, Andrea C

    2013-10-15

    Narrative overview of the focus issue on cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). To provide an introduction to this special focus issue of Spine journal that deals with CSM. CSM is a progressive spine disease and the leading cause of spinal cord dysfunction worldwide. The shift in population demographics in many parts of the world has motivated the development of this focus issue. With the overall aging of the population, we can predict that global health care systems will be confronted with an increase in patients presenting with degenerative spine changes and various stages of cervical myelopathy. The articles in this issue vary in their methods-there are systematic reviews, narrative reviews, a study protocol, and 2 primary research articles. A summary of the findings of each article is provided as a table within this introduction. By way of this issue, we have summarized current knowledge gaps and limitations in the evidence to provide direction for future research and investigation. These include the need for a unified nomenclature for referring to CSM, the need to specify the incidence of myelopathy and the prevalence of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and the need to explore both the safety and efficacy of neuroprotective and neuroreparative pharmacological strategies. Further work is also required to optimize the management of patients with minimal symptoms.

  4. HTLV-1 and myelopathy in Salvador (Northeastern Brazil: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Lessa

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of the study was to determine the degree of association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that is positive for HTLV-1 and myelopathy in Salvador, Brazil. From the same hospital, twenty-eight cases of myelopathy and twenty-eight cases showing no neurological disorder were studied using blind selection matched 1:1 by age and sex. The twenty-eight pairs underwent HTLV-1 serology tests. In those with a positive result, anti-HTLV-1 antibodies were investigated in the CSF. The ELISA method was used, complemented by the Western-blot test. Myelopathy was considered associated with HTLV-1 only when the CSF was positive indicating neurotropism of the virus. The mean age of the cases was 44.6 ± 15.6 years and the control group was 43.5 ± 16.0 (p>0.05. An OR of 9.0 was detected with a reability interval (95% of 1.652-48.866 and chi-square significant at the 0.02 level. Despite a strong degree of association and considering the low level of precision, there is a need for analytical studies with larger samples which besides improving the precision will allow for greater control of the confounding variables.

  5. Effect of Cervical Sagittal Balance on Laminoplasty in Patients With Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Minori; Namikawa, Takashi; Matsumura, Akira; Konishi, Sadahiko; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective clinical study. We evaluated the relationship between cervical sagittal alignment parameters and clinical status in patients with cervical myelopathy and analyzed the effect of cervical sagittal balance on cervical laminoplasty. Patients with cervical myelopathy (n = 110) who underwent laminoplasty were included in this study. The relationship between cervical sagittal alignment parameters and clinical status was evaluated. The changes in radiographic cervical sagittal parameters and clinical status 2 years after surgery were compared between patients with preoperative C2-7 SVA ≥35 mm (group A) and those with preoperative C2-7 SVA SVA had no correlation with defined health-related quality of life evaluation scores. At 2-year follow-up, the improvement in SF-36 physical component summary was significantly lower in group A than in group B. The postoperative change of C2-7 SVA did not significantly differ in 2 groups. Patients in group A maintained cervical regional balance after laminoplasty but experienced extensive postoperative neck pain. Our patients with a C2-7 SVA of ≥35 mm maintained cervical regional balance after laminoplasty and their improvement in myelopathy was equivalent to that in patients with a C2-7 SVA of SVA of ≥35 mm experienced severe postoperative neck pain. C2-7 SVA is a parameter worth considering because it can lead to poor QOL and axial neck pain after laminoplasty.

  6. Suspected levamisole intoxication in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K R; Dwyer, C

    2016-07-01

    A group of 32 Friesian and four Hereford calves, 3-4 months old with body weights between 100-120 kg, were purchased from a weaner sale. On arrival at the property the Hereford calves were treated with a combination anthelmintic containing 2 g/L abamectin and 80 g/L levamisole hydrochloride. Shortly afterwards they developed tremors and frothing from the mouth, and two died overnight. The Friesian calves were treated with the same anthelmintic on the following day, when some showed hypersalivation and frothing from the mouth. Examination of the three most severely affected Friesian calves revealed severe nicotinic-type symptoms including hypersalivation, frothing from the mouth, muscle tremors, recumbency, rapid respiration, hyperaesthesia, and central nervous system depression. Other calves showed mild to moderate signs of intoxication including restlessness, tail switching, salivation, tremors, frequent defaecation, mild colic and jaw chomping. Two calves died shortly afterwards. An adverse drug event investigation revealed that the formulation and quality of the anthelmintic was within the correct specification, and that the drench gun was functioning correctly. Suspected levamisole intoxication due to a combination of possible overdosing, dehydration, and stress caused by transportation and prolonged yarding. Susceptibility to levamisole toxicity in New Zealand calves can be increased if factors like dehydration or stress are present. Levamisole has a narrow margin of safety, and overdosing in calves can easily occur if the dose rate is not based on their actual weight or health status.

  7. [Multicenter program for the integrated care of newborns with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult (ARAHIP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnáez, J; Vega, C; García-Alix, A; Gutiérrez, E P; Caserío, S; Jiménez, M P; Castañón, L; Esteban, I; Hortelano, M; Hernández, N; Serrano, M; Prada, T; Diego, P; Barbadillo, F

    2015-03-01

    Newborns with perinatal indicators of a potential hypoxic-ischemic event require an integrated care in order to control the aggravating factors of brain damage, and the early identification of candidates for hypothermia treatment. The application of a prospective, populational program that organizes and systematizes medical care during the first 6 hours of life to all newborns over 35 weeks gestational age born with indicators of a perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult. The program includes 12 hospitals (91,217 m(2)); two level i centers, five level ii centers, and five level iii hospitals. The program establishes four protocols: a) detection of the newborn with a potential hypoxic-ischemic insult, b) surveillance of the neurological repercussions and other organ involvement, c) control and treatment of complications, d) procedures and monitoring during transport. From June 2011 to June 2013, 213 of 32325 newborns above 35 weeks gestational age met the criteria of a potential hypoxic-ischemic insult (7.4/1000), with 92% of them being cared for following the program specifications. Moderate-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was diagnosed in 33 cases (1/1,000), and 31 out of the 33 received treatment with hypothermia (94%). The program for the Integrated Care of Newborns with Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Insult has led to providing a comprehensive care to the newborns with a suspected perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult. Aggravators of brain damage have been controlled, and cases of moderate-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy have been detected, allowing the start of hypothermia treatment within the first six hours of life. Populational programs are fundamental to reducing the mortality and morbidity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Additional Diagnostic Value of Computed Tomography Perfusion for Detection of Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Posterior Circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Hoeven, Erik J R J; Dankbaar, Jan Willem|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314079408; Algra, Ale|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07483472X; Vos, Jan Albert; Niesten, Joris M.; Van Seeters, Tom; Van Der Schaaf, Irene C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29133489X; Schonewille, Wouter J.; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/176956301

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Detection of acute infarction in the posterior circulation is challenging. We aimed to determine the additional value of tomograpy (CT) perfusion to noncontrast CT and CT angiography source images for infarct detection and localization in patients suspected of acute ischemic

  9. Thrombolysis for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, J.; Luijckx, G. J.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decennium, thrombolytic therapy has changed the management of acute ischemic stroke. Randomized clinical studies have demonstrated that intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator improves functional outcomes. Recently the time window for intravenous thrombolysis has been

  10. PROMIS Physical Function Correlation with NDI and mJOA in the Surgical Cervical Myelopathy Patient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert J; Zebala, Luke; Peters, Colleen; McAnany, Steven

    2017-08-04

    : STUDY DESIGN.: retrospective review OBJECTIVE.: To determine the correlation of PROMIS (Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) physical function with NDI (Neck Disability Index) and mJOA (Modified Japanese Orthopedic Association) scores in the surgical cervical myelopathy patient population SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Outcome measures such as NDI and mJOA are essential for analyzing treatments for cervical myelopathy. Administrative burdens impose limits on completion of these measures. The PROMIS group developed an outcome measure to improve reporting of patient symptoms and function and to reduce administrative burden. Despite early success, NDI and mJOA have not been compared with PROMIS in patients with cervical myelopathy. This study determines the correlation of NDI and mJOA with PROMIS in surgical patients with cervical myelopathy. 60 patients with cervical myelopathy undergoing surgery were included. PROMIS, NDI, and mJOA were collected preoperatively, and in the first 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between NDI, mJOA and PROMIS were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficients. Students T-tests were used to test significance. All 60 (100%) of patients completed preoperative questionnaires. 55 (92%) of patients completed initial follow up questionnaires within the first 6 months. PROMIS physical function and NDI demonstrated a strong negative correlation at baseline and in initial follow up (R = -0.69, -0.76). PROMIS and mJOA demonstrated a strong positive correlation at baseline and in initial follow up (R = 0.61, 0.72). PROMIS physical function has a strong negative correlation with NDI and a strong positive correlation with mJOA at baseline and in the early postoperative course in patients undergoing surgery for cervical myelopathy. Surgeons may factor these outcomes into the delivery and interpretation of patient reported outcome measures in this population. Use of PROMIS may improve completion of outcome

  11. Outcomes after laminoplasty compared with laminectomy and fusion in patients with cervical myelopathy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S Tim; Hashimoto, Robin E; Raich, Annie; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Rhee, John M; Riew, K Daniel

    2013-10-15

    Systematic review. To determine the effectiveness and safety of cervical laminoplasty versus laminectomy and fusion for the treatment of cervical myelopathy, and to identify any patient subgroups for whom one treatment may result in better outcomes than the other. Cervical laminoplasty and cervical laminectomy plus fusion are both procedures that treat cervical stenosis induced myelopathy by expanding the space available for the spinal cord. Although there are strong proponents of each procedure, the effectiveness, safety, and differential effectiveness and safety of laminoplasty versus laminectomy and fusion remains unclear. A systematic search of multiple major medical reference databases was conducted to identify studies that compared laminoplasty with laminectomy and fusion. Studies could include either or both cervical myelopathic spondylosis (CSM) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Randomized controlled trials and cohort studies were included. Case reports and studies with less than 10 patients in the comparative group were excluded. Japanese Orthopaedic Association, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association, and Nurick scores were the primary outcomes measuring myelopathy effectiveness. Reoperation and complication rates were evaluated for safety. Clinical recommendations were made through a modified Delphi approach by applying the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation/Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality criteria. The search strategy yielded 305 citations, and 4 retrospective cohort studies ultimately met our inclusion criteria. For patients with CSM, data from 3 class of evidence III retrospective cohort studies suggest that there is no difference between treatment groups in severity of myelopathy or pain: 2 studies reported no significant difference between treatment groups in severity of myelopathy, and 3 studies found no significant difference in pain outcomes between treatment groups. For patients

  12. Arthroplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: similar results to patients with only radiculopathy at 3 years' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Li-Yu; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Tsai, Tzu-Yun; Ko, Chin-Chu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Ching-Lan; Cheng, Henrich

    2014-09-01

    Cervical arthroplasty has been accepted as a viable option for surgical management of cervical spondylosis or degenerative disc disease (DDD). The best candidates for cervical arthroplasty are young patients who have radiculopathy caused by herniated disc with competent facet joints. However, it remains uncertain whether arthroplasty is equally effective for patients who have cervical myelopathy caused by DDD. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of arthroplasty for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and patients with radiculopathy without CSM. A total of 151 consecutive cases involving patients with CSM or radiculopathy caused by DDD and who underwent one- or two-level cervical arthroplasty were included in this study. Clinical outcome evaluations and radiographic studies were reviewed. Clinical outcome measurements included the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of neck and arm pain, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, and the Neck Disability Index (NDI) in every patient. For patients with CSM, Nurick scores were recorded for evaluation of cervical myelopathy. Radiographic studies included lateral dynamic radiographs and CT for detection of the formation of heterotopic ossification . Of the 151 consecutive patients with cervical DDD, 125 (82.8%; 72 patients in the myelopathy group and 53 in the radiculopathy group) had at least 24 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up in these patients was 36.4 months (range 24-56 months). There was no difference in sex distribution between the 2 groups. However, the mean age of the patients in the myelopathy group was approximately 6 years greater than that of the radiculopathy group (53.1 vs 47.2 years, p myelopathy group also improved significantly after surgery. In radiographic evaluations, 92.5% of patients in the radiculopathy group and 95.8% of those in the radiculopathy group retained spinal motion (no significant difference). Evaluation of CT scans

  13. Significant Predictors of Outcome Following Surgery for the Treatment of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Palubiski, Lisa M; Kryshtalskyj, Michael; Idler, Randy K; Martin, Allan R; Ganau, Mario; Wilson, Jefferson R; Kotter, Mark; Fehlings, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize important clinical predictors of outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for the treatment of degenerative cervical myelopathy. Based on the results of this article, patients with a longer duration of symptoms and more severe myelopathy are likely to have worse surgical outcomes. With respect to age, several studies have indicated that elderly patients are less likely to translate neurologic recovery into functional improvements. However, many other studies have failed to identify a significant association between age and outcomes. Finally, smoking status and presence of comorbidities may be important predictors of outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serious myelopathy due to magnetic resonance imaging-occult arteriovenous fistula: Case report of petrous ridge dural arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Choi, In Sup

    2015-10-01

    We present a case of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-occult intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) with serious cervical myelopathy and review the pathophysiological background. A 61-year-old man had suffered from progressive neurological deterioration. He had demonstrated swollen spinal cord with diffuse enhancement and no dilated vascularity on MRI. Finally, digital subtraction angiography revealed DAVF at the petrous ridge and it was successfully treated by embolization. A slow flow DAVF is not readily recognizable on MRI. Whenever a patient presents with unexplainable progressive myelopathy, a possibility of vascular origin has to be considered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Postoperative cervical sagittal imbalance negatively affects outcomes following surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguski, Marie; Benzel, Edward C.; Curran, Jill N.; Magge, Subu N.; Bisson, Erica F.; Krishnaney, Ajit A.; Steinmetz, Michael P.; Butler, William E.; Heary, Robert F.; Ghogawala, Zoher

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective observational cohort study Objective To determine if postoperative cervical sagittal balance is an independent predictor of HR-QOL outcome following surgery for CSM. Summary of Background Data Both ventral and dorsal fusion procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) are effective at reducing the symptoms of myelopathy. The importance of cervical sagittal balance in predicting overall HR-QOL outcome following ventral versus dorsal surgery for CSM has not been previously explored. Methods A prospective, nonrandomized cohort of 49 patients undergoing dorsal and ventral fusion surgery for CSM was examined. Preoperative and postoperative C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) was measured on standing lateral cervical spine radiographs. Outcome was assessed with two disease-specific measures – the mJOA scale and the Oswestry NDI- and two generalized outcome measures – the SF-36 PCS and EQ-5D. Assessments were performed preoperatively, and at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS v.9.3 (Cary, NC). Results Most patients experienced improvement in all outcome measures regardless of approach. Both preoperative and postoperative C2-C7 SVA measurements were independent predictors of clinically significant improvement in SF-36 PCS scores (p=0.03 and p=0.02). The majority of patients with C2-C7 SVA values greater than 40mm did not improve from an overall HR-QOL perspective (SF-36 PCS) despite improvement in myelopathy. The postoperative sagittal balance value was inversely correlated with a clinically significant improvement of SF-36 PCS scores in patients undergoing dorsal surgery but not ventral surgery (p=0.03 vs. p=0.93). Conclusions Preoperative and postoperative sagittal balance measurements independently predict clinical outcomes following surgery for CSM. PMID:25419682

  16. Quality of life in symptomatic cervical myelopathy after open-door laminoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Yuiti Nakao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results obtained by open-door laminoplasty using the Newbridge(r/Blackstone plate, in cases of myelopathy associated with cervical lordosis.METHODS: From December 2010 to October 2012, eight patients between the ages of 49 and 68 underwent open-door laminoplasty with the use of the Newbridge(r fixation system for maintenance and stabilization of the cervical laminoplasty. Minimum follow-up was four months. For the evaluation of quality of life the questionnaire SF-36 was applied at the following times: preoperative, one month and three months after surgery associated with the subjective assessment of the patient regarding satisfaction with the procedure and with the Nurick neurological scale applied prior to surgery and three months later.RESULTS: According to the SF-36, there was significant improvement in the domains functional ability, general health perceptions and emotional aspects over time; regarding physical limitations and social aspects there was no improvement in the first postoperative month, only in the third month. There were no statistically significant changes observed during the period covered by this study related to pain, vitality and mental health. According to Nurick scale, there was evidence of improvement in symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Based on the subjective evaluation of the patients, surprisingly, all patients were satisfied with the surgical procedure and the results.CONCLUSION: The open-door laminoplasty technique with rigid fixation to maintain the opening is useful in improving the symptoms of cervical myelopathy associated with lordosis, leading to improved quality of life and with a high degree of patient satisfaction and fewer complications.

  17. Therapeutic strategies in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2009-06-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by bilateral pyramidal tracts involvement with sphincteric disturbances. HTLV-I infects approximately 10-20 million people worldwide. There are large endemic areas in southern Japan, the Caribbean, Central and South America, the Middle East, Melanesia, and equatorial regions of Africa. Since the primary neuropathological feature of HAM/TSP is chronic inflammation caused by HTLV-I infection in the spinal cord, various treatments focusing on immunomodulatory or anti-viral effects were performed for HAM/TSP patients until now. However, there are still many of problems, such as insufficient effects, side effects and expensive costs in long-term treatments, etc., in these treatments. Therefore, an ideal therapeutic strategy against HAM/TSP is still not established yet. Although only a small proportion of HTLV-I-infected individuals develops HAM/TSP, neurological symptoms are certainly progressive once myelopathy develops, leading to deterioration of the quality of life. Therefore, we now need the therapeutic regimens to protect the development, or be able to commence the treatments as soon as possible after the development safely and inexpensively even in long-term course or lifelong course of treatment. As HTLV-I-infected CD4(+) T cells are the first responders in the immunopathogenesis of HAM/TSP, the ideal treatment is the elimination of HTLV-I-infected cells from the peripheral blood. In this article, we will review the therapeutic strategies against HAM/TSP up to now and will introduce our new therapeutic approach focusing on the targeting of HTLV-I-infected cells in HAM/TSP patients.

  18. Atlas Hypoplasia and Ossification of the Transverse Atlantal Ligament: A Rare Cause of Cervical Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakan Bokhari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelopathy at the level of the atlas is rarely encountered by the practicing spine surgeon. Due to the region's unique anatomy, compression of the cord at this level is either caused by a large compressing lesion or an abnormally stenotic canal. We describe a rare instance of a congenitally stenotic canal due to a hypoplastic intact posterior arch of atlas, coexisting with an extremely rare ossified transverse ligament of the atlas. The coexistence of these two lesions has only been documented thrice before. We describe the clinical presentation, imaging findings, and favorable response to surgery.

  19. Central motor and sensory conduction in adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy and tabes dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugawa, Y; Kohara, N; Shimpo, T; Mannen, T

    1988-08-01

    Central motor and sensory conduction was studied by percutaneous electrical stimulation of brain and spinal cord and by somatosensory evoked potential techniques respectively, in patients with adrenoleukomyeloneuropathy, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1-associated myelopathy and tabes dorsalis. The results were all consistent with clinical and neuropathological findings in these disorders. Conductions in the corticospinal tract and posterior column could be evaluated separately with these two techniques. Percutaneous electrical stimulation technique would be useful for investigating conduction in the corticospinal tract in patients with spinal cord disorders.

  20. Intermittent high-dose vitamin C therapy in patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, A; Imai, H; Inayoshi, S; Tsuda, T

    1993-11-01

    The efficacy of intermittent high-dose vitamin C therapy was evaluated in seven patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). All HAM patients responded well to this therapy without serious side effects. Grade of disability score improved at 9.7 (SD 5.8) months after the therapy from 7.1 (3.3) to 3.6 (2.0) (p < 0.01). Serum immunosuppressive acidic protein was elevated before and decreased after the therapy from 747 (316) to 398 (86) micrograms/ml (p < 0.05), suggesting favourable immunomodulatory action of vitamin C therapy in HAM patients.

  1. Acute myelopathy selectively involving lumbar anterior horns following intranasal insufflation of ecstasy and heroin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Nilo; Riva, Nilo; Morana, Paolo; Cerri, Federica; Gerevini, Simonetta; Amadio, Stefano; Formaglio, Fabio; Comi, Giancarlo; Comola, Mauro; Del Carro, Ubaldo

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient who developed acute myelopathy after intranasal insufflation of amphetamines and heroin. The functional prognosis was very poor; after 4 months, she remained paraplegic. MRI imaging showed selective T2 hyperintensity and intense enhancement confined to the spinal anterior horns and lumbar nerve roots and plexus. This unique MRI pattern, together with neurophysiological data, suggests that the pathological process at the first primary affected spinal anterior horns (SAH), conditioning motoneuron cell death, and then nerve roots and lumbar plexus as a consequence of wallerian degeneration PMID:21686691

  2. Radiation myelopathy with spinal cord swelling occurring three years after irradiation. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Bungo; Okamoto, Kensho; Tagashira, Hiroshi [Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    A 64-year-old woman developed progressive deterioration of sensations, gait, and bladder-bowel functions. The patient had suffered from malignant lymphoma in the neck, and underwent irradiation three years before admission. On admission, she exhibited cervical radiculomyelopathy including spastic tetraplegia, intrinsic muscle atrophy, sensory disturbance in the lower body, and sphincter disturbance. MRI showed diffuse high intensity in the cervical cord on T2-weighted image with Gd-enhancement on T1-weighted image. On serial MRI, swelling of the cervical cord progressed from 36 to 39 months after irradiation. Delayed swelling of the spinal cord can be associated with radiation myelopathy. (author)

  3. Risk factors and outcomes in thoracic stenosis with myelopathy: A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchon, Patrick W; Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Grossbach, Andrew J; El Tecle, Najib E; Noeller, Jennifer; He, Wenzhuan

    2016-08-01

    Identify risk factors predisposing to thoracic spinal stenosis and myelopathy (TS) and address treatment options and outcomes. A retrospective review of our center's experience with TS over 10 years. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, surgical intervention and outcomes using Frankel and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scales were collected. A total of 44 patients with TS were identified. There were 30 men and 14 women with a mean age±SD of 66±15years. Neurological performance was evaluated using the Frankel scale (A-E or 1-5), and JOA scale for myelopathy (0-11). Frankel scores (1-5) and JOA scores (0-11) on admission were 3.5±0.9 and 6.8±2.6 respectively. At follow-up, Frankel scores had improved to 4.1±0.8 (p=0.041) and JOA scores had improved to 8.3±2.4 (p=0.021). The presence on admission of increased signal from the cord on T2-weighted MRI was associated with lower Frankel and JOA scores (3.3±0.9, and 6.2±2.5 respectively) than in those with absent increased signal (4.0±0.4 and 8.6±2.1, p=0.02 and p=0.008 respectively). There were 4 complications, requiring exploration and debridement for dehiscence in 3 and an epidural hematoma in the fourth that necessitated evacuation, with a good outcome. A fifth patient underwent reoperation at the same level 18 months later for persistent stenosis. Thoracic stenosis with myelopathy should be entertained in patients with myelopathy. Over half of our patients with TS were over the age of 70, and men outnumbered women by a ratio of 2:1. Nearly half the patients with TS had concomitant cervical and/or lumbar degenerative disease warranting surgery also. Increased signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI images correlated with lower Frankel and JOA scores compared to those without. Decompression for thoracic stenosis is associated with neurological improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Breed distribution of SOD1 alleles previously associated with canine degenerative myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, R; Coates, J R; Johnson, G C; Hansen, L; Awano, T; Kolicheski, A; Ivansson, E; Perloski, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; O'Brien, D P; Guo, J; Katz, M L; Johnson, G S

    2014-01-01

    Previous reports associated 2 mutant SOD1 alleles (SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T) with degenerative myelopathy in 6 canine breeds. The distribution of these alleles in other breeds has not been reported. To describe the distribution of SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T in 222 breeds. DNA from 33,747 dogs was genotyped at SOD1:c.118, SOD1:c.52, or both. Spinal cord sections from 249 of these dogs were examined. Retrospective analysis of 35,359 previously determined genotypes at SOD1:c.118G>A or SOD1:c.52A>T and prospective survey to update the clinical status of a subset of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias. The SOD1:c.118A allele was found in cross-bred dogs and in 124 different canine breeds whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele was only found in Bernese Mountain Dogs. Most of the dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A homozygotes, but 8 dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes and had no other sequence variants in their SOD1 amino acid coding regions. The updated clinical conditions of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias suggest that SOD1:c.118A homozygotes are at a much higher risk of developing degenerative myelopathy than are SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes. We conclude that the SOD1:c.118A allele is widespread and common among privately owned dogs whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele is rare and appears to be limited to Bernese Mountain Dogs. We also conclude that breeding to avoid the production of SOD1:c.118A homozygotes is a rational strategy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Imaging findings in a case of stand up paddle surfer's myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Klontzas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stand up paddle (SUP surfing, a variant of ocean surfing, is becoming very popular because it can be performed at any level of difficulty and thus attracts athletes from a wide range of ages. Unlike ocean surfing, limited data exist on injuries related to SUP surfing. We report the first case of a 28-year-old athlete who developed myelopathy during his first SUP surfing session. Clinical examination revealed severe neurological deficit, which had not subsided fully at the 28-month follow-up.

  6. Importance of Sagittal Alignment of the Cervical Spine in the Management of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Thomas J; Buchholz, Avery L; Quinn, John C; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Smith, Justin S

    2018-01-01

    Cervical spine sagittal malalignment correlates with worse symptoms and outcomes in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), and should influence surgical management. An anterior versus posterior surgical approach may not significantly change outcomes in patients with preoperative lordosis; however, most studies suggest improved neurologic recovery among kyphotic patients after adequate correction of local sagittal alignment through an anterior or combined anterior-posterior approach. There are no comprehensive guidelines for DCM management in the setting of cervical malalignment; therefore, surgical management should be tailored to individual patients and decisions made at the discretion of treating surgeons with attention to basic principles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reversible Hypertensive Myelopathy-The Spinal Cord Variant of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocmen, Rahsan; Ardicli, Didem; Erarslan, Yasin; Duzova, Ali; Anlar, Banu

    2017-04-01

    The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a well-known clinical and radiologic entity mainly affecting the territory of the posterior cerebral circulation. Spinal cord involvement is extremely rare, and as of yet, only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The present case describes a reversible, longitudinal spinal cord lesion in a patient with high blood pressure. We discuss the differential diagnosis of longitudinal myelopathy and focus on the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of the "spinal cord variant of PRES." Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Imaging of spinal stenosis: neurogenic intermittent claudication and cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Timothy P

    2012-07-01

    Spinal stenosis in either the cervical or lumbar spinal segments is one of the most common indications for spine imaging and intervention, particularly among the elderly. This article examines the pathophysiology and imaging of the corresponding clinical syndromes, cervical spondylotic myelopathy or neurogenic intermittent claudication. The specificity fault of spine imaging is readily evident in evaluation of spinal stenosis, as many patients with anatomic cervical or lumbar central canal narrowing are asymptomatic. Imaging also may be insensitive to dynamic lesions. Those imaging features that identify symptomatic patients, or predict response to interventions, are emphasized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intravenous methylprednisolone in HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Q-C Araújo

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP is an immunomediated myelopathy induced by the HTLV-I. Some patients, specially those from Japan, seem to have a good response to steroid treatment. However, this has not been found in other regions of the world. High dose intravenous methylprednisolone has been used with success in patients with relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS, another autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. To test the effectiveness of methylprednisolone in patients with HAM/TSP, we devised an open trial in 23 patients. We found a very limited benefit of this form of treatment in these patients. Only one patient, who had the shortest disease duration (five months in the whole group, showed a sustained benefit. We speculate that those patients with a shorter history, with presumably less demye-lination and more inflammatory lesions, would show a better response to immunossupressive treatments.

  10. Degenerative myelopathy and vitamin A deficiency in a young black-maned lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maratea, Kimberly A; Hooser, Stephen B; Ramos-Vara, José A

    2006-11-01

    Degenerative myelopathy and vitamin A deficiency were diagnosed in a 1-year-old, female, black-maned lion (Panthera leo). Diffuse white matter degeneration characterized by dilated myelin sheaths, Wallerian degeneration, and reactive astrocytosis was present at all levels of the spinal cord. With luxol fast blue-resyl echt violet stain, bilaterally symmetrical demyelination was observed in the fasciculus cuneatus of the cervical spinal cord and in peripheral white matter of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar segments. Additionally, the ventral gray columns and brain stem nuclei contained rare chromatolytic neurons with abnormal neurofilament accumulation. Leptomeninges of the cervical spinal cord were focally adhered to the dura and thickened by fibrosis and osseous metaplasia. Vitamin A deficiency was diagnosed based on hepatic vitamin A concentration of 1.71 microg/g dry weight. Adequate hepatic vitamin A concentration for yearling to adult domestic animals ranges between 150 and 1000 microg/g dry weight. Lesions were distinct from those previously described in young captive lions with vitamin A deficiency, which had thickened skull bones and cerebellar herniation. The pathogenesis of vitamin A-associated myelopathy in this lion may be similar to that described in adult cattle, which is believed to result from spinal cord compression secondary to elevated pressure of cerebrospinal fluid.

  11. Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Spectrum of Related Disorders Affecting the Aging Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Goldstein, Christina L; Arnold, Paul; Harrop, James; Hilibrand, Alan; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Cervical spinal cord dysfunction can result from either traumatic or nontraumatic causes, including tumors, infections, and degenerative changes. In this article, we review the range of degenerative spinal disorders resulting in progressive cervical spinal cord compression and propose the adoption of a new term, degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). DCM comprises both osteoarthritic changes to the spine, including spondylosis, disk herniation, and facet arthropathy (collectively referred to as cervical spondylotic myelopathy), and ligamentous aberrations such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. This review summarizes current knowledge of the pathophysiology of DCM and describes the cascade of events that occur after compression of the spinal cord, including ischemia, destruction of the blood-spinal cord barrier, demyelination, and neuronal apoptosis. Important features of the diagnosis of DCM are discussed in detail, and relevant clinical and imaging findings are highlighted. Furthermore, this review outlines valuable assessment tools for evaluating functional status and quality of life in these patients and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other topics of this review include epidemiology, the prevalence of degenerative changes in the asymptomatic population, the natural history and rates of progression, risk factors of diagnosis (clinical, imaging and genetic), and management strategies.

  12. A Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Introduction, Rationale, and Scope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Riew, K. Daniel; Middleton, James W.; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a progressive spine disease and the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in adults worldwide. Patients with DCM may present with common signs and symptoms of neurological dysfunction, such as paresthesia, abnormal gait, decreased hand dexterity, hyperreflexia, increased tone, and sensory dysfunction. Clinicians across several specialties encounter patients with DCM, including primary care physicians, rehabilitation specialists, therapists, rheumatologists, neurologists, and spinal surgeons. Currently, there are no guidelines that outline how to best manage patients with mild (defined as a modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score of 15-17), moderate (mJOA = 12-14), or severe (mJOA ≤ 11) myelopathy, or nonmyelopathic patients with evidence of cord compression. This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations to specify appropriate treatment strategies for these populations. The intent of our recommendations is to (1) help identify patients at high risk of neurological deterioration, (2) define the role of nonoperative and operative management in each patient population, and (3) determine which patients are most likely to benefit from surgical intervention. The ultimate goal of these guidelines is to improve outcomes and reduce morbidity in patients with DCM by promoting standardization of care and encouraging clinicians to make evidence-informed decisions. PMID:29164027

  13. Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting as myelopathy: Case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Robert; Ali, Rushna; Kole, Max; Dorbeistein, Curtis; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Khan, Muhib

    2014-12-16

    Dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare type of cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Common presenting symptoms are related to hemorrhage. However, rarely these patients may present with myelopathy. We present two cases of DAVF presenting as rapidly progressive myelopathy. Two treatment options are available: microsurgical interruption of the fistula and endovascular embolization. These treatment options of DAVFs have improved significantly in the last decade. The optimal treatment of DAVFs remains controversial, and there is an ongoing debate as to whether primary endovascular or primary microsurgical treatment is the optimal management for these lesions. However, despite treatment a high percentage of patients are still left with severe disability. The potential for functional ambulation in patients with DAVF is related to the time of intervention. This emphasizes the important of early diagnosis and early intervention in DAVF. The eventual outcome may depend on several factors, such as the duration of symptoms, the degree of disability before treatment, and the success of the initial procedure to close the fistula. The usage of magnetic resonance imaging and selective angiography has significantly improved the ability to characterize DAVFs, however, these lesions remain inefficiently diagnosed. If intervention is delayed even prolonged time in rehabilitation does not change the grave prognosis. This review outlines the presentation, classication and management of DAVF as well as discussing patient outcomes.

  14. The reporting of study and population characteristics in degenerative cervical myelopathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin M; McHugh, M; Elgheriani, A; Kolias, Angelos G; Tetreault, Lindsay; Hutchinson, Peter J A; Fehlings, Michael G; Kotter, Mark R N

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent condition. Variable reporting in interventional trials of study design and sample characteristics limits the interpretation of pooled outcomes. This is pertinent in DCM where baseline characteristics are known to influence outcome. The present study aims to assess the reporting of the study design and baseline characteristics in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set. A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497) was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Full text articles in English, with >50 patients (prospective) or >200 patients (retrospective), reporting outcomes of DCM were deemed to be eligible. A total of 108 studies involving 23,876 patients, conducted world-wide, were identified. 33 (31%) specified a clear primary objective. Study populations often included radiculopathy (51, 47%) but excluded patients who had undergone previous surgery (42, 39%). Diagnositic criteria for myelopathy were often uncertain; MRI assessment was specified in only 67 (62%) of studies. Patient comorbidities were referenced by 37 (34%) studies. Symptom duration was reported by 46 (43%) studies. Multivariate analysis was used to control for baseline characteristics in 33 (31%) of studies. The reporting of study design and sample characteristics is variable. The development of a consensus minimum dataset for (CODE-DCM) will facilitate future research synthesis in the future.

  15. A case of suspect “cyanosis”

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Antonucci; Matteo Conte; Michele Di Pumpo; Giuseppe Antonucci

    2013-01-01

    CLINICAL CASE A 70-year old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever, asthenia and a suspected stroke. Her medical history showed a congenital cardiopathy (Patent Foramen Ovale, PFO). Skin and oral mucosa pigmentation, orthostatic hypotension, hypoglycemia and hyponatriemia arose the suspect of Addison’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by the evaluation of basal levels of plasma ACTH and serum cortisol, and serum cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation. Abdominal CT scan showed...

  16. Flexible dropped head deformity following laminectomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a case series and review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnts, H.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Flexible dropped head deformity (FDHD) following laminectomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a debilitating entity. Patients need to support their head manually to look forward in standing or sitting position. Flexible dropped head deformity is different from rigid

  17. Is There a Place for the Posterior Approach in Cases of Acute Myelopathy on Thoracic Disc Hernia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauge, David; Madkouri, Rachid; Reina, Vincent; Bennis, Saad; Baussart, Bertrand; Mireau, Etienne; Aldea, Sorin; Gaillard, Stephan

    2017-11-01

    Acute myelopathy in cases of thoracic disc herniation (TDH) is an exceptional condition for which the treatment is not codified. Here we present the results of a standardized procedure in 10 patients who underwent surgery for acute myelopathy on TDH between December 2009 and December 2016. Our approach began with a cautious laminectomy without resection of the hernia on the day of admission. On subsequent days, a complementary thoracoscopic procedure was performed according to the patient's neurologic recovery and the nature of the hernia (calcified or fibrous). Outcome was assessed by the Frankel score at the last consultation. All patients had acute myelopathy, with Frankel score of C or worse and a TDH detected on magnetic resonance imaging occupying an average of 62.5 ± 18.4% of the canal. This lesion was calcified in 6 cases and soft in 4 cases. The laminectomy allowed stabilization in 1 case and a neurologic improvement in 9 cases. Complementary surgery via a thoracoscopic approach was performed in the 6 cases of calcified hernia. After an average follow-up of 44.55 ± 26.44 months, 6 patients showed complete neurologic recovery and 4 had moderate sequelae (Frankel D). Laminectomy appears to allow stabilization of the neurologic situation in rare cases of acute myelopathy on TDH. The need for complementary resection of the hernia by an anterior approach should always be discussed secondarily. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intra- and inter-observer reliability of MRI examination of intervertebral disc abnormalities in patients with cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga-Baiak, Andresa [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Post-graduation Program, Department of Radiology, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil); Shah, Anand [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Pietrobon, Ricardo [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Braga, Larissa [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); University of Nebraska Medical Center, Lincoln NE (United States); Neto, Arnolfo Carvalho [Clinica DAPI, Curitiba (Brazil); Section of Diagnostic Radiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Universidade Federal do Parana (Brazil); Cook, Chad [Center for Excellence in Surgical Outcomes, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Division of Physical Therapy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)], E-mail: chad.cook@duke.edu

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: Intervertebral cervical disc herniation (CDH) is a relatively common disorder that can coexist with degenerative changes to worsen cervicogenic myelopathy. Despite the frequent disc abnormalities found in asymptomatic populations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered excellent at detecting cervical spine myelopathy (CSM) associated with disc abnormality. The objective of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-observer reliability of MRI detection of CSM in subjects who also had co-existing intervertebral disc abnormalities. Materials and methods: Seven experienced radiologists reviewed twice the MRI of 10 patients with clinically and/or imaging determined myelopathy. MRI assessment was performed individually, with and without operational guidelines. A Fleiss Kappa statistic was used to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer agreement. Results: The study found high intra-observer percent agreement but relatively low Kappa values on selected variables. Inter-observer reliability was also low and neither observation was improved with operational guidelines. We believe that those low values may be associated with the base rate problem of Kappa. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrated high intra-observer percent agreement in MR examination for intervertebral disc abnormalities in patients with underlying cervical myelopathy, but differing levels of intra- and inter-observer Kappa agreement among seven radiologists.

  19. The modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale: establishing criteria for mild, moderate and severe impairment in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetreault, L.; Kopjar, B.; Nouri, A.; Arnold, P.; Barbagallo, G.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Qiang, Z.; Singh, A.; Zileli, M.; Vaccaro, A.; Fehlings, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine cut-offs between mild, moderate and severe myelopathy on the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score. METHODS: Between December 2005 and January 2011, 757 patients with clinically diagnosed DCM were enrolled in the prospective AOSpine North America (n =

  20. Cervical posterior fusion with wave-shaped rod under local anesthesia for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: review of 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onari, K; Toguchi, A; Kondo, S; Mihara, H; Hachiya, M; Yamada, K

    2001-11-01

    Clinical evaluation of cervical interspinous fusion under local anesthesia in elderly patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical posterior fusion with wave-shaped rods inserted under local anesthesia for elderly high-risk patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. A substantial number of patients cannot undergo surgical interventions under general anesthesia because of their general medical complications. Although such patients would become unable to walk, which might induce a worsening of their general condition, conservative treatments had been adopted as the only treatment for these patients. The authors have obtained satisfactory results by means of posterior interspinous fusion under local anesthesia even in the high-risk patients with severe cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The aims of this surgical technique were to adjust cervical alignment and to stabilize the motion segment(s) without decompression. Between May 1989 and August 1998, 12 elderly patients (3 men and 9 women) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were treated with posterior interspinous fusion using wave-shaped rods inserted under local anesthesia. The average age at the surgery was 76.9 years. The average follow-up period was 5 years 6 months. All patients were unable to walk without any assistance because of their advanced myelopathy. It was felt that all of them would be unable to accept general anesthesia because of their generally poor medical conditions. Preoperative severity of the clinical symptoms and postoperative recovery were evaluated by a scoring system proposed by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association, which had 17 points at full mark. The average duration of the surgical procedure was 122.8 minutes. The average total blood loss was 118.6 g. No instrument failures were denoted. Neither neural deterioration nor major complication was observed relating to the surgery. Radiographic bony union of the grafted bone was achieved in all

  1. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laveaucoupet, J; Audibert, F; Guis, F; Rambaud, C; Suarez, B; Boithias-Guérot, C; Musset, D

    2001-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the usefulness of fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in ischemic brain injury. We report seven cases of fetal brain ischemia prenatally suspected on ultrasound (US) and confirmed by fetal MRI. Sonographic abnormalities included ventricular dilatation (n=3), microcephaly (n=1), twin pregnancy with in utero death of a twin and suspected cerebral lesion in the surviving co-twin (n=3). MRI was performed with a 1.0 T unit using half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequences between 28 and 35 weeks of gestation. US and MRI images were compared with pathologic findings or postnatal imaging. MRI diagnosed hydranencephaly (n=1), porencephaly (n=2), multicystic encephalomalacia (n=2), unilateral capsular ischemia (n=1), corpus callosum and cerebral atrophy (n=1). In comparison with US, visualization of fetal brain anomalies was superior with MRI. The present cases demonstrate that MRI is a valuable complementary means of investigation when a brain pathology is discovered or suspected during prenatal US. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Suspected Poststroke Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Marie Biso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS can complicate acute ischemic stroke, causing significant morbidity and mortality. To date, literatures that describe poststroke acute coronary syndrome and its morbidity and mortality burden are lacking. Methods. This is a single center, retrospective study where clinical characteristics, cardiac evaluation, and management of patients with suspected poststroke ACS were compared and analyzed for their association with inpatient mortality and 1-year all-cause mortality. Results. Of the 82 patients, 32% had chest pain and 88% had ischemic ECG changes; mean peak troponin level was 18, and mean ejection fraction was 40%. The medical management group had older individuals (73 versus 67 years, p<0.05, lower mean peak troponin levels (12 versus 49, p<0.05, and lower mean length of stay (12 versus 25 days, p<0.05 compared to those who underwent stent or CABG. Troponin levels were significantly associated with 1-year all-cause mortality. Conclusion. Age and troponin level appear to play a role in the current clinical decision making for patient with suspected poststroke ACS. Troponin level appears to significantly correlate with 1-year all-cause mortality. In the management of poststroke acute coronary syndrome, optimal medical therapy had similar inpatient and all-cause mortality compared to PCI and/or CABG.

  3. Degenerative myelopathy in German Shepherd Dog: comparison of two molecular assays for the identification of the SOD1:c.118G>A mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Spalenza, Veronica; Biasibetti, Elena; Bottero, Maria Teresa; Rasero, Roberto; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Sacchi, Paola

    2014-02-01

    Degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a late-onset, slowly progressive degeneration of spinal cord white matter which is reported primarily in large breed dogs. The missense mutation SOD1:c.118G>A is associated with this pathology in several dog breeds, including the German Shepherd Dog (GSD). The aims of the present study were to develop a tool for the rapid screening of the SOD1 mutation site in dogs and to evaluate the association of the polymorphism with DM in the German Shepherd breed. Two different techniques were compared: a minisequencing test and a real-time pcr allelic discrimination assay. Both approaches resulted effective and efficient. A sample of 47 dogs were examined. Ten subjects presented the symptoms of the illness; for one of them the diagnosis was confirmed by postmortem investigations and it resulted to be an A/A homozygote. In another clinically suspected dog, heterozygote A/G, the histopathological examination of the medulla showed moderate axon and myelin degenerative changes. GSD shows a frequency of the mutant allele equal to 0.17, quite high being a high-risk allele. Because canine DM has a late onset in adulthood and homozygous mutant dogs are likely as fertile as other genotypes, the natural selection is mild and the mutant allele may reach high frequencies. A diagnostic test, easy to implement, may contribute to control the gene diffusion in populations. The SOD1:c.118G>A mutation could be a useful marker for breeding strategies intending to reduce the incidence of DM.

  4. The phenomenology of specialization of criminal suspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tumminello

    Full Text Available A criminal career can be either general, with the criminal committing different types of crimes, or specialized, with the criminal committing a specific type of crime. A central problem in the study of crime specialization is to determine, from the perspective of the criminal, which crimes should be considered similar and which crimes should be considered distinct. We study a large set of Swedish suspects to empirically investigate generalist and specialist behavior in crime. We show that there is a large group of suspects who can be described as generalists. At the same time, we observe a non-trivial pattern of specialization across age and gender of suspects. Women are less prone to commit crimes of certain types, and, for instance, are more prone to specialize in crimes related to fraud. We also find evidence of temporal specialization of suspects. Older persons are more specialized than younger ones, and some crime types are preferentially committed by suspects of different ages.

  5. Surgical management of remote, isolated type II odontoid fractures with atlantoaxial dislocation causing cervical compressive myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirankumar, Markani V; Behari, Sanjay; Salunke, Pravin; Banerji, Deepu; Chhabra, Devendra K; Jain, Vijendra K

    2005-05-01

    The remote (more than 6 mo after injury) and isolated (not associated with any other cervical spinal fractures) Type II fractures of the odontoid (RI IIO) are unique in being inherently unstable and prone to malunion or nonunion, leading to cervical compressive myelopathy. The present study discusses their surgical management. Nineteen patients with RI IIO with atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) causing compressive myelopathy were treated. Their preoperative disability was graded as Grade I: neurologically intact (presented with hyperreflexia and mild spasticity; n = 3); Grade II: independent with minor disability (n = 7); Grade III: partially dependent for daily needs (n = 6); and Grade IV: totally dependent (n = 3). They were classified as irreducible AAD caused by 1) malunited fracture of the odontoid (n = 2), 2) fixed anterolisthesis of the anterior arch of a C1-fractured odontoid complex (n = 3), and 3) fixed retrolisthesis of the anterior arch of a C1-fractured odontoid complex (n = 1); and reducible AAD caused by 1) mobile AAD (n = 11) and 2) hypermobile AAD (n = 2). The patients with irreducible AAD underwent a transoral decompression and posterior fusion; those with a malunited fracture underwent surgery immediately, whereas those with fixed anterolisthesis or retrolisthesis were initially placed in cervical traction. The patients with reducible AAD underwent a direct posterior fusion. In the patient with "hypermobile" AAD, a proper alignment of the fractured segment of the odontoid relative to the body of the axis in a neutral position of the neck was ensured before the posterior fusion was performed. At follow-up (mean, 15.37 +/- 9.67 mo), three patients in Grade I maintained their neurological status. Of the seven patients in Grade II and six in Grade III, five had improved to Grade I, and eight were in Grade II. The three patients in Grade IV improved to Grade I, II, and III, respectively. The patients with RI IIO may be divided into five groups on the

  6. Diabetes and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Natasha; Ballegaard, Søren; Holmager, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test i) whether patients having diabetes and ischemic heart disease (IHD), i.e., patients suffering from two chronic diseases, demonstrate a higher degree of chronic stress when compared with patients suffering from IHD alone, and ii) whether suffering from the two...

  7. [Ischemic stroke in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekker, M.S.; Wermer, M.J.; Riksen, N.P.; Klijn, C.J.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2016-01-01

    - In virtually all age groups, the incidence of ischemic stroke is higher in men. However, in women aged between 25-49 years the prevalence is higher than in men. Female-specific risk factors and disorders may explain this peak.- Pregnancy and the post-partum period are associated with physiological

  8. Impact of transesophageal echocardiography on management in patients with suspected cardioembolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariton, Yevgeniy; House, John A; Comer, Lynn; Coggins, Tina R; Magalski, Anthony; Skolnick, David G; Good, Thomas H; Main, Michael L

    2014-12-15

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is frequently performed in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events to exclude a cardioembolic source. We aimed to determine the clinical impact of TEE on management. This is a retrospective single-center study of 1,458 consecutive patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack who underwent TEE for evaluation of a suspected cardioembolic cause. Significant TEE findings were determined for each patient as recorded on the TEE report. The medical record was reviewed for baseline, clinical, and demographic variables and to determine whether significant management changes occurred as a result of the TEE findings. Potential significant changes in management included initiation of anticoagulation, placement of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure device, initiation of antibiotic therapy for endocarditis, surgical PFO closure, other cardiac surgery, and coil embolization of a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. A significant change in management occurred in 243 patients (16.7%); 173 (71%) underwent treatment for PFO with a percutaneous PFO closure device (n = 100), initiation of chronic systemic anticoagulation (n = 68), or surgical PFO closure (n = 5). Additional findings leading to a change in management included endocarditis (n = 20), aortic arch atheroma (n = 14), intracardiac thrombus (n = 13), pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (n = 2), aortic valve fibroelastoma (n = 2), other valve masses (n = 4), and miscellaneous causes (n = 15). In conclusion, in patients with suspected cardioembolic stroke, TEE findings led to a change in management in 16.7% of patients. Of these, most (71%) were directed at prevention of subsequent paradoxical emboli in patients with PFO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A case of suspect “cyanosis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Antonucci

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CLINICAL CASE A 70-year old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever, asthenia and a suspected stroke. Her medical history showed a congenital cardiopathy (Patent Foramen Ovale, PFO. Skin and oral mucosa pigmentation, orthostatic hypotension, hypoglycemia and hyponatriemia arose the suspect of Addison’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by the evaluation of basal levels of plasma ACTH and serum cortisol, and serum cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation. Abdominal CT scan showed atrophy and calcification of adrenal glands. CONCLUSIONS In most cases, Addison’s disease is provoked by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex; however, in our reported patient, tuberculosis could be a possible cause.

  10. Neuropathological studies of the spinal cord in early stage HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, A; Hirose, G; Ueda, Y; Nishimura, Y; Sakai, K

    1993-09-01

    Necropsy findings for a patient with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM) of 9 months clinical duration are reported. Loss of myelin sheaths and axons together with perivascular lymphocytic infiltration was seen in the lateral and posterior columns of the spinal cord from the cervical to the lumbar region where vacuolar changes caused by the splitting of myelin sheaths were prominent. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed CD8+ cytotoxic T cell infiltration predominated in the absence of HTLV-I core protein antigen bearing-cells in the brain and spinal cord. Myelin sheath damage and predominant CD8+ cytotoxic T cell infiltration are thought to be the main neuropathological findings in the spinal cord in early stage HAM.

  11. Changes in respiratory function in Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs with degenerative myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyake, Kanae; Kobatake, Yui; Shibata, Sanae; Sakai, Hiroki; Saito, Miyoko; Yamato, Osamu; Kushida, Kazuya; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Kamishina, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is characterized by progressive degeneration of the spinal cord. Although atrophic changes in the intercostal muscles were previously reported in the late stage of DM in Pembroke Welsh Corgis (PWCs), changes in respiratory function have not yet been examined. In the present study, we performed an arterial blood gas analysis and measured respiratory movements over progressive disease stages to document changes in respiratory function in DM-affected PWCs. We found that respiratory dysfunction progressed during the later stages of DM and correlated with a change in respiratory movement to the abdominal breathing pattern. These results suggested that hypoventilation occurred due to dysfunctional changes in the intercostal muscles and resulted in hypoxemia in the later stages of DM.

  12. Immunohistochemical observation of canine degenerative myelopathy in two Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mizue; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Park, Eun-Sil; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Jun; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yamato, Osamu; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess whether oxidative stress and/or denatured proteins play roles in the pathogenesis of canine degenerative myelopathy (DM). Two Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs with a homozygous mutation (c.118G>A) in the canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene were examined. The pathological features of the dogs were consistent with those of previous cases of DM in PWC. In the spinal lesions, diffuse SOD1 expression was observed in the neurons while no inclusion-like aggregates had formed, which disagreed with the findings of a previous study. A unique inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) staining pattern in reactive astrocytes and a significant increase in ubiquitin immunoreactivity in the spinal lesions were also observed. These findings indicate the involvement of oxidative stress and the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in the pathogenesis of canine DM, whereas the role of SOD1 remains unclear.

  13. Craniocervical junction spinal dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with progressive myelopathy and sudden deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Cheng Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal dura arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF is not an uncommon vascular malformation but is rare at craniocervical junction. The initial presentation is usually subarachnoid hemorrhage or cervical myelopathy caused by venous hypertension of the drainage vein. We report a male patient who has sudden onset of paraplegia, anesthesia of bilateral lower limbs, and urine retention. Cervical spinal cord edema and engorgement of posterior and anterior spinal veins were noted on magnetic resonance image study. Angiogram disclosed a SDAVF feeding by meningeal branch of the left vertebral artery and drainage inferiorly through posterior and anterior spinal vein. Complete obliteration of the fistula was achieved by transarterial embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. The muscle power of lower limbs improved after the embolization. In previous studies, functional outcome is most correlated with pretreatment condition. Early diagnosis and treatment of the lesion will prevent permanent neurological deficit.

  14. A Case of Delayed Myelopathy Caused by Atlantoaxial Subluxation without Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Takamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of delayed myelopathy caused by atlantoaxial subluxation without fracture. The patient was a 38-year-old male who became aware of weakness in extremities. The patient had a history of hitting his head severely while diving into a swimming pool at the age of 14 years old. At that time, cervical spine plain X-ray images showed no fracture, and the cervical pain disappeared after use of a collar for several weeks. At his first visit to our department, X-ray images showed an unstable atlantoaxial joint. After surgery, weakness of the extremities gradually improved. At 6 months after surgery, bone union was completed and the symptoms disappeared. This case shows that atlantoaxial ligament injuries are difficult to diagnose and may easily be missed. A high level of suspicion is important in such cases, since neurological compromise or deterioration may occur many years after the injury.

  15. Cervical Myelopathy Doubles the Rate of Dislocation and Fracture After Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, Daniel J; Klement, Mitchell R; Penrose, Colin T; Sheets, Charles Z; Bolognesi, Michael P; Seyler, Thorsten M

    2016-09-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common and underdiagnosed cause of gait dysfunction, rigidity, and falls in the elderly. Given the frequent concurrency of CSM and hip osteoarthritis, this study is designed to evaluate the relative risk of CSM on perioperative and short-term outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The Medicare Standard Analytical Files were searched from 2005 to 2012 to identify all patients undergoing primary THA and the subset of patients with preexisting CSM. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for 90-day, 1-year, and overall follow-up for common postoperative complications: periprosthetic dislocation, fracture, infection, revision THA, and wound complications. The risk ratios of all surgical complications, including dislocation, periprosthetic fractures, and prosthetic joint infection, were increased approximately 2-fold at all postoperative time points for patients. Preexisting CSM is a significant risk factor for primary THA complications including dislocation, periprosthetic fractures, and prosthetic joint infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of life in patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Pereira Martins

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of life (QoL of patients with HTLV-I-associate myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP and to correlate it with specific aspects of the disease. METHODS: Fifty-seven HAM/TSP patients completed the SF-36 QoL questionnaire. They were also asked about common complaints related to the disease, and we looked for associations between QoL and these complaints. RESULTS: Patients with HAM/TSP showed a strong negative association to QoL. Pain was the condition which most affected their QoL. The practice of physical activity is associated with better QoL in five out of eight domains of the scale. CONCLUSION: HAM/TSP leads to a poor QoL, mostly influenced by pain. Physical activity may have a positive association to QoL of these patients.

  17. [Pathophysiology, treatment and biomarkers for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Yoshihisa; Sato, Tomoo

    2013-05-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). HAM/TSP is characterized by chronic inflammation in spinal cord, leading to neurodegeneration and consequently the patients with HAM/TSP suffer from unremitting myelopathic symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, lower limb sensory disturbance, and bladder/bowel dysfunction. In the past quarter century since the discovery of this disease, significant advances have been made in the field of HAM/TSP research. Here we summarize current clinical and pathophysiological knowledge on HAM/TSP and discusses future focus areas for research on this disease.

  18. Benefit of degenerative posterior longitudinal ligament removal during anterior decompression in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cheng-Rui; Wang, Bing-Qiang; Li, Kang-Hua; Guo, Ai; Tang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    It remains controversial whether degenerative posterior longitudinal ligaments should be removed during anterior decompression procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Few data are available from studies that have compared removing and retaining the degenerative posterior longitudinal ligament. The goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the benefit of degenerative posterior longitudinal ligament removal during such operations. Clinical data on 130 patients with confirmed degenerative posterior longitudinal ligament who underwent anterior cervical decompression surgery were retrospectively reviewed. All procedures were performed by the same senior orthopedic surgeon at the authors' spinal surgery center. The degenerative posterior longitudinal ligament was removed in 62 patients (group A) and retained in 68 patients (group B). The 130 patients were followed for 36 months. The Japanese Orthopedic Association score improved from 9.0±2.7 to 14.7±1.5 in group A and from 9.4±2.6 to 14.1±1.7 in group B (P=.028). The recovery rate for spinal cord neurologic function was 66.7% in group A and 61.3% in group B (P=.031). Operating time was longer (P=.002) and the sagittal median diameter of the vertebral canal was enhanced in group A (Pdegenerative posterior longitudinal ligament in anterior decompression procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy appeared to be beneficial and provided more complete decompression and better postoperative outcomes than surgery without removal of the ligament. Although this procedure was generally safe, it required longer operating times, was more technically challenging, and required more experienced surgeons than surgery without removal of the ligament. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Kinematic MR imaging in surgical management of cervical disc disease, spondylosis and spondylotic myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, C.; Metzner, J.; Brinkmann, G.; Heller, M. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Weinert, D.; Schoen, R.; Rautenberg, E.; Mehdorn, H.M. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Falliner, A. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Orthopedics; Resnick, D. [Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-03-01

    Purpose: To estimate the clinical value and influence of kinematic MR imaging in patients with degenerative diseases of the cervical spine. Material and methods: Eighty-one patients were examined with a 1.5 T whole body magnet using a positioning device. Cervical disc disease was classified according to clinical and radiographic findings into 4 stages: stage I=cervical disc disease (n=13); stage II=spondylosis (n=42); stage III=spondylosis with restricted motion (n=11); and stage IV-cervical spondylotic myelopathy (n=15). Findings on kinematic MR images were compared to those on flexion and extension radiographs, myelography, CT-myelography and static MR imaging. Furthermore, the influence of kinematic MR imaging on surgical management and intra-operative patient positioning was determined. Results: Additional information obtained by kinematic MR imaging changed the therapeutic management in 7 of 11 (64%) patients with stage III disease, and in 13 of 15 (87%) patients with stage IV disease. Instead of an anterior approach, a posterior surgical approach was chosen in 3 of 11 patients (27%) with stage III disease and in 6 of 15 patients (40%) with stage IV disease. Hyperextension of the neck was avoided intra-operatively in 4 patients (27%) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and in 1 patient with stage II (2%) and in 1 patient with stage III (9%) disease. Kinematic MR imaging provided additional information in all patients with stages III and IV disease except in 1 patient with stage III disease, when compared to flexion and extension radiographs, myelography, CT-myelography and static MR examination. Conclusion: Kinematic MR imaging adds additional information when compared to conventional imaging methods in patients with advanced stages of degenerative disease of the cervical spine. (orig.)

  20. Electrophysiological and MRI study on poor outcome after surgery for cervical myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameyama, Osamu; Kawakita, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Ryokei [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    Occasionally, the outcome from laminoplasty for cervical spondylosis is disappointing despite an adequate operation. Before surgery, it is difficult to diagnose the pathological extent of the involvement of the spinal cord. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) for the indication of the surgery and prognosis. Retrospectively, we investigated the MEPs and the MRI of 31 patients in surgery for cervical myelopathy, involving 21 with cervical spondylosis and 10 with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligamentum, and compared the findings from those with a poor outcome (n=3l) with the findings from those with a good outcome (n=32). The MEPs from the thenar muscle and the tibialis anterior were evoked by transcranial magnetic brain stimulation. In the poor-outcome patients, the spinal canal was narrow and lumbar spinal canal stenosis was seen in 5 cases which required lumbar laminectomy. Before operation, the MEPs from the thenar muscle could not be evoked in 5 cases while there was a remarkably prolonged central motor conduction time in the other 26 cases. MRI revealed the deformed spinal cord in the involved area, and the signal intensity of the involved spinal cord in the T2 weighted image was remarkably high. The signal intensity ratio was significantly higher in the poor-outcome patients than in the good-outcome patients. This study suggested that a high signal intensity in the T2 weighted image and a prolonged conduction time or absence of MEPs largely corresponded to the clinical and other investigative features of myelopathy responsible for a poor outcome. (author).

  1. Degenerative spondylolisthesis does not influence surgical results of laminoplasty in elderly cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the comorbidity of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), in elderly cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients in our hospital, and the correlation between surgical results and preoperative DS. There are few studies on the outcome of laminoplasty for CSM with DS. A total of 49 elderly patients (>65 years old) who eventually had surgical treatment for CSM were evaluated. A slippage displacement of more than 2.5 mm at least at one level was classified to have a positive DS on flexion/extension radiographs (DS group). A slippage displacement less than 1.0 mm was considered a negative DS (non-DS group). Seventeen patients who had slippage of 1.0–2.5 mm were excluded from the study. The DS group (n = 15) included cases with DS at preoperation, while the remaining cases (n = 17) belonged to the non-DS group. The flexion/extension radiographs of the two groups were compared for range of motion and clinical results at 3 years after the operation. Of all elderly patients, 30.6% had DS. There was no significant difference between the two groups based on the clinical results. The range of motion of all cervical spines (DS group and non-DS group) was significantly limited. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. New postoperative DS appeared in four patients, of which two were from the DS group and two from the non-DS group. These data suggest that degenerative spondylolisthesis does not influence surgical results in elderly cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients. PMID:20191294

  2. Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Signs and symptoms of congenital malaria do not differ much from those of neonatal sepsis: both can co-exist, and most times very difficult to differentiate clinically. Objective: To document the prevalence, risk factors for congeni tal malar ia among neonates admitted for suspected neonatal sepsis, and ...

  3. Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the clinical feature had good sensitivity, specificity or predictive value for congenital malaria, and only 1.6% death was recorded in a baby with high parasite density. Conclusion: Congenital malaria is common in newborns with suspected neonatal sepsis. History of peripartum pyrexia, prematurity and intrauterine ...

  4. MRI for clinically suspected appendicitis during pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, L.P.; Groot, I.; Haans, L.; Blickman, J.G.; Puylaert, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether MRI can be used to accurately diagnose or exclude appendicitis in pregnant patients with clinically suspected appendicitis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that MRI is helpful in the examination and diagnosis of acute appendicitis in

  5. Biomechanical properties of keratoconus suspect eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Alain; Lteif, Yara; Azan, Elodie; Gatinel, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Measuring corneal biomechanical properties may help detect keratoconus suspect corneas and eliminate the risk of ectasia after LASIK. Data of 504 eyes separated into three groups were retrospectively reviewed: normal (n = 252), keratoconus suspect (n = 80), and keratoconus (n = 172). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with an ocular biomechanics analyzer. Mean corneal hysteresis was 10.6 +/- 1.4 (SD) mm Hg in the normal group, compared with 10.0 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the keratoconus suspect group and 8.1 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in the keratoconus group. The mean CRF was 10.6 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the normal group compared with 9.7 +/- 1.7 in the keratoconus suspect group and 7.1 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the keratoconus group. Mean CH and CRF were significantly different between the three groups (P corneas. Analyzing signal curves obtained with the biomechanics analyzer may provide additional valuable information for selecting qualified patients for refractive surgery.

  6. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  8. INTERFERON BETA-1A TREATMENT IN HTLV-1-ASSOCIATED MYELOPATHY/TROPICAL SPASTIC PARAPARESIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Maria de Castro Viana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Here a young patient (< 21 years of age with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved.

  9. Experimental HTLV-I and associated myelopathy Infecção e mielopatia experimentais associadas ao HTLV-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS M. DE CASTRO COSTA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-I infection and associated myelopathy has been reproduced experimentally in vitro and in vivo and these studies have shown the possibility of creating several lines of infective cells and of detecting minor and major clinical expressions of HTLV-I associated myelopathy in rabbits and rats.A infecção e mielopatia associada ao HTLV-I têm sido reproduzidas experimentalmente in vitro e in vivo e esses estudos têm evidenciado a possibilidade de criar várias linhas celulares infectivas e de detectar micro e macro-expressões clínicas de mielopatia associada ao HTLV-I em coelhos e ratos.

  10. Increased expression of endothelin ET(B) and angiotensin AT(1) receptors in peripheral resistance arteries of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrijevic, Ivan; Ekelund, Ulf; Edvinsson, Marie-Louise

    2009-01-01

    of arterial vasoconstrictor endothelin (ET) and angiotensin (AT) receptors. Our aim was to investigate if the arterial expressions of these receptors are changed in patients with suspected but ruled out acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Small subcutaneous arteries (diameter of 100 microm) were surgically removed......Patients who experience chest pain, in which ischemic heart disease has been ruled out, still have an increased risk of future ischemic cardiac events and premature death, possibly due to subclinical endothelial dysfunction. A feature of endothelial dysfunction is an increased expression...... group. There were no significant differences in AT(2) and ET(A) receptor expression between the groups. The results indicate that the expression of arterial smooth muscle ET(B) and AT(1) receptors are increased in patients with suspected but ruled out ACS. These receptor changes could be important...

  11. Ischemic stroke and incomplete infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Javier; Lassen, N A; Weiller, C

    1996-01-01

    The concept of selective vulnerability or selective loss o f individual neurons, with survival of glial and vascular elements as one of the consequences of a systemic ischemic-hypoxic insult (eg, transient cardiac arrest or severe hypotension), has been recognized for decades. In contrast, select......, selective neuronal death as one of the lesions that may develop in the brain after occluding an intracranial artery is an idea not readily acknowledged in the current medical literature dealing with human stroke....

  12. A 15 year prospective longitudinal study of disease progression in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Fabiola; Fedina, Alexandra; Youshya, Silva; Graham P Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: The natural history of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) has been mainly described in HTLV-1 endemic countries such as Japan, Brazil and Martinique. Objectives: We describe the natural history of the largest cohort of patients with HAM living in the UK from 1993 to 2007. Methods: Prospective, longitudinal study comparing clinical and virological outcome between first and last clinical visit. Incidence and cause of death were documented and the mortality...

  13. Axonal plasticity underpins the functional recovery following surgical decompression in a rat model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Rana S.; Parker, John; Syed, Yasir A; Edgley, Steve; Young, Adam; James W. Fawcett; Jeffery, Nick D; Franklin, Robin J.M.; Kotter, Mark R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common spinal cord disorder and a major cause of disability in adults. Improvements following surgical decompression are limited and patients often remain severely disabled. Post mortem studies indicate that CSM is associated with profound axonal loss. However, our understanding of the pathophysiology of CSM remains limited. To investigate the hypothesis that axonal plasticity plays a role in the recovery following surgical decompression, we a...

  14. Axonal plasticity underpins the functional recovery following surgical decompression in a rat model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Rana S.; Parker, John; Syed, Yasir Ahmed; Edgley, Stephen Alan; Young, Adam; James W. Fawcett; Jeffery, Nick D; Franklin, Robin James; Kotter, Mark Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common spinal cord disorder and a major cause of disability in adults. Improvements following surgical decompression are limited and patients often remain severely disabled. Post mortem studies indicate that CSM is associated with profound axonal loss. However, our understanding of the pathophysiology of CSM remains limited.To investigate the hypothesis that axonal plasticity plays a role in the recovery following surgical decompression, we ad...

  15. Cervical spine abnormalities and instability with myelopathy in warfarin-related chondrodysplasia: 17-year follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hideyuki; Smith, W.L.; Sato, Yutaka; Kao, S.C.S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa Clinics and Hospitals, 200 Hawkins Dr., F3966 JPP, Iowa City, IA 52242-1077 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A patient with warfarin embryopathy developed progressive cervical spinal myelopathy owing to bony cervical spinal damage. While there are several descriptions of warfarin embryopathy, the long-term complication of cervical spinal instability has not been reported. This cervical instability may, as in our patient, cause severe neurological dysfunction or even sudden death; therefore, it is important that pediatric radiologists should be alert to this condition. (orig.) With 5 figs., 9 refs.

  16. Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma in a patient with HTLV-I/II associated myelopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Virgínia; Gomes,Irenio; Bittencourt,Achilea; Fernandes,Dilson; Melo,Ailton

    1997-01-01

    Chronic myelopathy associated with T-lymphotropic virus type I (HAM) has been described as an endemic disease in several areas of the world, meanwhile there are few papers describing the association between HAM and adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma. We report the case of a man that, after four years of progressive spastic paraparesis and neurogenic bladder, developed a clinical picture of a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by dermal and systemic envolvement, mimicking mycosis fungoides...

  17. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Secondary to Dropped Head Syndrome: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Rahimizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dropped head syndrome (DHS is a disabling condition caused by severe weakness of the neck extensor muscles causing progressive reducible kyphosis of the cervical spine and the inability to hold the head up. Weakness can occur in isolation or in association with a generalized neuromuscular disorder. Isolated cases are owed to the late onset of noninflammatory myopathy designated as INEM, where persistent chin to chest deformity may gradually cause or aggravate preexisting degenerative changes of the cervical spine and ultimately result in myelopathy. In review of the literature, we could find only 5 cases, with no unique guidelines to address the management of these two concomitant pathologies. Herein, a 69-year-old man who had developed cervical myelopathy 2 years after being affected by isolated dropped head syndrome is presented. Chin to chest deformity and cervical myelopathy were managed through three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF combined with decompressive cervical laminectomy and stabilization with C2 to C7 pedicle screw-rod construct. At 4-month follow-up, despite recovery in patient’s neurological status, flexion deformity reappeared with recurrence of dropped head due to C7 pedicle screws pull-out. However, this was successfully managed with extension of the construct to the upper thoracic levels.

  18. The Natural History of Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy and the Rate of Hospitalization Following Spinal Cord Injury: An Updated Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay A.; Karadimas, Spyridon; Wilson, Jefferson R.; Arnold, Paul M.; Kurpad, Shekar; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2017-01-01

    Study Method: Systematic review (update). Objective: Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a degenerative spine disease and the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in adults worldwide. The objective of this study is to determine the natural history of DCM by updating the systematic review by Karadimas et al. The specific aims of this review were (1) to describe the natural history of DCM and (2) to determine potential risk factors of disease progression. Method: An updated search based on a previous protocol was conducted in PubMed and the Cochrane Collaboration library for studies published between November 2012 and February 15, 2015. Results: The updated search yielded 3 additional citations that met inclusion criteria and reported the incidence of spinal cord injury and severe disability in patients with DCM. Based on 2 retrospective cohort studies, the incidence rate of hospitalization for spinal cord injury is 13.9 per 1000 person-years in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and 4.8 per 1000 person-years in patients with myelopathy secondary to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). In a third small prospective study, the risk of being wheelchair bound or bedridden was 66.7% in DCM patients with OPLL. Conclusion: The overall level of evidence for these estimated rates of hospitalization following spinal cord injury was rated as low. PMID:29164030

  19. The Relationship Between Preoperative Clinical Presentation and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in Patients With Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Tetreault, Lindsay; Dalzell, Kristian; Zamorano, Juan J; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy encompasses a group of conditions resulting in progressive spinal cord injury through static and dynamic compression. Although a constellation of changes can present on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the clinical significance of these findings remains a subject of controversy and discussion. To investigate the relationship between clinical presentation and quantitative MRI features in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy. A secondary analysis of MRI and clinical data from 114 patients enrolled in a prospective, multicenter study was conducted. MRIs were assessed for maximum spinal cord compression (MSCC), maximum canal compromise (MCC), signal changes, and a signal change ratio (SCR). MRI features were compared between patients with and those without myelopathy symptoms with the use of t tests. Correlations between MRI features and duration of symptoms were assessed with the Spearman ρ. Numb hands and Hoffmann sign were associated with greater MSCC ( P neurological deficits. Hoffmann sign occurred more commonly in patients with a greater MSCC, MCC and SCR. The Lhermitte phenomenon presented more commonly in patients with a lower SCR and may be an early indicator of mild spinal cord involvement. Research to validate these findings is required.

  20. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  1. [Acute ischemic proctitis following an epileptic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klintmann, C.K.; Hillingso, J.G.; Glenthøj, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Acute ischemic proctitis is a rare diagnosis mainly because the rectum is supplied by an extensive arterial network. Consequently, in more than 90% of patients with ischemic colitis the rectum is spared. Previously reported cases are related to severe vascular insufficiency of the rectal...... circulation caused by systemic atherosclerosis, usually following aortic or aortoiliac operations. We report one case of acute ischemic proctitis following an epileptic attack Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  2. The evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Cindy W

    2015-05-01

    Child physical abuse is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and is associated with major physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Pediatricians are in a unique position to identify and prevent child abuse, and this clinical report provides guidance to the practitioner regarding indicators and evaluation of suspected physical abuse of children. The role of the physician may include identifying abused children with suspicious injuries who present for care, reporting suspected abuse to the child protection agency for investigation, supporting families who are affected by child abuse, coordinating with other professionals and community agencies to provide immediate and long-term treatment to victimized children, providing court testimony when necessary, providing preventive care and anticipatory guidance in the office, and advocating for policies and programs that support families and protect vulnerable children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. [Migraine and ischemic stroke: possible pathogenic relation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimi, Rocco

    2012-09-01

    Migraine, especially migraine with aura, is an established risk factor for ischemic lesions of the brain. This disorder affects about 15% of people in developed countries and is three times more common in women than in men. The risk of ischemic stroke appears to be higher in migraine with aura than in migraine without aura. An association between migraine and ischemic stroke has been observed for many years but exact mechanisms by which migraine can lead to stroke are currently still under investigation. A significant association between migraine and ischemic stroke has been demonstrated in population and case-control studies. The observation that stroke may occur during migraine attacks prompts to speculation that migraine may directly cause an ischemic event (migrainous infarct). Alternatively, as stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine, an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. Both ischemic stroke and migraine with aura might be consequences of many underlying vascular disorders. Meta-analysis also demonstrates that subjects with migraine are at higher risk of showing white matter abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance images. Ultimately, it will be important to determine whether migraine with aura is a modifiable risk factor for ischemic stroke and if preventive medications for migraine or antiplatelet therapy might reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with migraine with aura. In the present paper, I will review epidemiological studies, discuss potential mechanisms of migraine-induced stroke and comorbid ischemic stroke.

  4. Genetic variation in WRN and ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Werner syndrome, a premature genetic aging syndrome, shares many clinical features reminiscent of normal physiological aging, and ischemic vascular disease is a frequent cause of death. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in the WRN gene was associated with risk of ischemic...... for ischemic cerebrovascular disease (P=0.06). In meta-analyses including 59,190 individuals in 5 studies, the hazard ratio for ischemic stroke for C1367R TT homozygotes versus CC/CT was 1.14 (1.04-1.25; P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that common genetic variation in WRN is associated...

  5. MORPHOLOGY OF ISCHEMIC INJURY OF LIVER ALLOGRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shkalova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature data in modern transplantology concerning morphology of ischemic injury of liver allograft are analyzed in the article. Questions of pathogenesis of liver allograft ischemic injury, histological features that indicate the possibility of donor liver transplantation are discussed in detail, as well as the role of steatosis and its reverse is highlighted. We tried to systematize the morphological changes depending on severity of ischemic injury; also we focused on the questions of persistency of the ischemic injury in the liver allograft. 

  6. Characteristics of Misclassified CT Perfusion Ischemic Core in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, R.R.; Borst, J.; Lucas, M.; Boers, A.M.; Berkhemer, O.A.; Roos, Y.B.; Walderveen, M.A. van; Jenniskens, S.F.M.; Zwam, W.H. van; Dippel, D.W.; Majoie, C.B.; Marquering, H.A.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CT perfusion (CTP) is used to estimate the extent of ischemic core and penumbra in patients with acute ischemic stroke. CTP reliability, however, is limited. This study aims to identify regions misclassified as ischemic core on CTP, using infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT. We aim to

  7. Characteristics of misclassified ct perfusion ischemic core in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R.E.G. Geuskens (Ralph R.E.G.); J. Borst (Jordi); M. Lucas (Marit); A.M. Boers; O.A. Berkhemer (Olvert); B.W.E.M. Roos Yvo; M.A. van Walderveen (M.); S. Jenniskens (Sjoerd); W.H. van Zwam (Wim); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); C.B. Majoie (Charles); H. Marquering (Henk)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground CT perfusion (CTP) is used to estimate the extent of ischemic core and penumbra in patients with acute ischemic stroke. CTP reliability, however, is limited. This study aims to identify regions misclassified as ischemic core on CTP, using infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT.

  8. Characteristics of Misclassified CT Perfusion Ischemic Core in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, Ralph R. E. G.; Borst, Jordi; Lucas, Marit; Boers, A. M. Merel; Berkhemer, Olvert A.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; van Walderveen, Marianne A. A.; Jenniskens, Sjoerd F. M.; van Zwam, Wim H.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Marquering, Henk A.

    2015-01-01

    CT perfusion (CTP) is used to estimate the extent of ischemic core and penumbra in patients with acute ischemic stroke. CTP reliability, however, is limited. This study aims to identify regions misclassified as ischemic core on CTP, using infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT. We aim to assess

  9. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  10. Glaucoma suspect & Humphrey Field Analyzer a correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma originally meant "clouded", in Greek.The term glaucoma refers to a group of diseases that have in common characteristic optic neuropathy with associated visual field loss for which elevated intraocular pressure is one of the primary risk factor. The purpose of the study is to correlate the clinically diagnosed cases of glaucoma suspect with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA. Fifty cases of glaucoma suspect who attended the glaucoma clinic of Nepal Eye Hospital Tripureswor, Kathmandu, Nepal and who meets at least two criteria, among the four types of glaucoma suspects were advised for the HFA for the study. In this study out of 50 patient, 36 (72% patients had normal visual field. 14 (28% patients had thinning of the neural retinal rim (NRR in both eyes. The significant relation with thinning of neural retina rim and glaucomatous hemifield test was found in the study. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-1, 23-28 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i1.6822

  11. Tocolytics for suspected intrapartum fetal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulier, R; Hofmeyr, G J

    2000-01-01

    Prophylactic tocolysis with betamimetics and other agents has become widespread as a treatment for fetal distress. Uterine relaxation may improve placental blood flow and therefore fetal oxygenation. However there may also be adverse maternal cardiovascular effects. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of tocolytic therapy for suspected fetal distress on fetal, maternal and perinatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Date of last search: February 1999. Randomised trials comparing tocolytic therapy with no treatment or treatment with another tocolytic agent for suspected fetal distress. Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted data. Three studies were included. Compared with no treatment, there were fewer failed improvements in fetal heart rate abnormalities with tocolytic therapy (relative risk 0.26, 95% 0.13 to 0.53). Betamimetic therapy compared with magnesium sulphate showed a non-significant trend towards reduced uterine activity (relative risk 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 1.10). Betamimetic therapy appears to be able to reduce the number of fetal heart rate abnormalities and perhaps reduce uterine activity. However there is not enough evidence based on clinically important outcomes to evaluate the use of betamimetics for suspected fetal distress.

  12. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Carolin; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A.; Wiesmann, Martin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Center for Medical-IT Convergence Technology Research, Advanced Institute of Convergence Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p <.05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. (orig.)

  13. Ischemic heart disease in the emergency room: state of the art, innovation and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lippi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This opinion paper is aimed to provide an overview about the state of the art, innovation and research in ischemic heart disease in the emergency room, and is a synopsis of the lectures of the 3rd Italian GREAT Network Congress (Rome, 15-19 October 2012. The leading issues of a multidisciplinary risk stratification and diagnosis of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected ischemic heart disease will be discussed taking into consideration the variable onset of clinical signs and symptoms, the role of novel highly-sensitive troponin immunoassays, the promising use of an 80-lead electrocardiogram, echocardiography and risk stratification scores. Preliminary information will also be provided about the ongoing Italian multicentric registry on chest pain patients in emergency department, an observational prospective study aimed to collect data about patients presenting at the emergency department with typical chest pain suggesting an acute coronary syndrome.

  14. Diabetes and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Natasha; Ballegaard, Søren; Holmager, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test i) whether patients having diabetes and ischemic heart disease (IHD), i.e., patients suffering from two chronic diseases, demonstrate a higher degree of chronic stress when compared with patients suffering from IHD alone, and ii) whether suffering from the two...... chronic diseases results in an elevation in specific elements of the chronic stress concept. A total of 361 participants with IHD were included, of whom 47 suffered from concomitant diabetes. Stress was measured by pressure pain sensitivity (PPS) and by the following questionnaires: the Major Depression...

  15. Ischemic postconditioning: a clinical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Treiman, Marek; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    therapy to primary percutaneous coronary intervention, ischemic postconditioning (IPost) has been shown to be safe and to underlie cardioprotection in several clinical trials. However, there remain important issues to be settled before IPost can be used routinely in patients undergoing primary...... percutaneous coronary intervention: first, determining which IPost protocol is the most optimal in humans; second, determining the effect of IPost on clinical outcome; third, determining in which patients should IPost be applied; and fourth, determining the effect on left ventricular function. This article...... discusses these issues with a clinical perspective and looks into alternative pharmacological cardioprotection....

  16. Quantitative circumferential strain analysis using adenosine triphosphate-stress/rest 3-T tagged magnetic resonance to evaluate regional contractile dysfunction in ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masashi, E-mail: m.nakamura1230@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Kido, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiology, Saiseikai Matsuyama Hospital, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Kido, Teruhito; Tanabe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takuya; Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon-city, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Infarcted segments could be differentiated from non-ischemic and ischemic segments with high sensitivity and specificity under at rest conditions. • The time-to-peak circumferential strain values in infarcted segments were more significantly delayed than those in non-ischemic and ischemic segments. • Both circumferential strain and circumferential systolic strain rate values under ATP-stress conditions were significantly lower in ischemic segments than in non-ischemic segments. • Subtracting stress and rest circumferential strain had a higher diagnostic capability for ischemia relative to only utilizing rest or ATP-stress circumferential strain values. • A circumferential strain analysis using tagged MR can quantitatively assess contractile dysfunction in ischemic and infarcted myocardium. - Abstract: Purpose: We evaluated whether a quantitative circumferential strain (CS) analysis using adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stress/rest 3-T tagged magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can depict myocardial ischemia as contractile dysfunction during stress in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated whether it can differentiate between non-ischemia, myocardial ischemia, and infarction. We assessed its diagnostic performance in comparison with ATP-stress myocardial perfusion MR and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-MR imaging. Methods: In 38 patients suspected of having CAD, myocardial segments were categorized as non-ischemic (n = 485), ischemic (n = 74), or infarcted (n = 49) from the results of perfusion MR and LGE-MR. The peak negative CS value, peak circumferential systolic strain rate (CSR), and time-to-peak CS were measured in 16 segments. Results: A cutoff value of −12.0% for CS at rest allowed differentiation between infarcted and other segments with a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 76%, accuracy of 76%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81. Additionally, a cutoff value of 477.3 ms for time-to-peak CS at rest

  17. Fibrinogen gene variation and ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jood, K; Danielson, J; Ladenvall, C; Blomstrand, C; Jern, C

    2008-06-01

    Plasma fibrinogen level and fibrin clot structure are heritable traits that may be of importance in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. To investigate associations between variation in the fibrinogen gamma (FGG), alpha (FGA) and beta (FGB) genes, fibrinogen level, and ischemic stroke. The Sahlgrenska Academy Study on Ischemic Stroke comprises 600 cases and 600 matched population controls. Stroke subtypes were defined according to TOAST criteria. Plasma fibrinogen level was measured by an automated clot-rate assay. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture genetic variation in the FGA, FGG, and FGB genes. Plasma fibrinogen was independently associated with overall ischemic stroke and all subtypes, both in the acute stage (P FGG and FGA genes. FGB haplotypes were associated with fibrinogen level (P FGG/FGA haplotypes showed independent association to ischemic stroke but not to fibrinogen level. In an additive model with the most common FGG/FGA haplotype (A1) as reference, the adjusted odds ratios of ischemic stroke were 1.4 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-1.8], P FGG/FGA haplotypes, respectively. FGG/FGA haplotypes show association to ischemic stroke. This association is independent of fibrinogen level, thus suggesting that the association between ischemic stroke and variation at the FGG/FGA genes is mediated by qualitative rather than quantitative effects on fibrin(ogen).

  18. A case of chronic progressive radiation myelopathy; A diagnostic significance of gadolinium-DTPA enhancement MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michikawa, Makoto; Wada, Yoshiaki; Sano, Motoki; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi (Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-01-01

    A 65-year-old man had a biopsy diagnosis of right cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Post operative irradiation (4000 rads) was given to the bilateral cervical areas. Twenty five months after completion of irradiation, the patient developed muscle weakness in the right upper and lower extremities, and sensory disturbance below the C2 level in the left side, which was considered as Brown-Sequard syndrome. MRI of T1 weighted images (T1W1) showed mild swelling of the spinal cord from C1 to C6, while T2 weighted images (T2W1) revealed high intensity area at the same level. Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA injection revealed ring enhancement in the right side of the spinal cord from C1 to C2 on sagittal and axial images. The neurological symptoms improved after the administration of corticosteroid. Two weeks after the therapy, a follow-up study revealed disappearance of cervical cord swelling on T1W1 and high intensity area was remarkably diminished on T2W1. Gd-DTPA enhancement, however, showed unremarkable change. Gd-DTPA enhancement was suggested to be a sensitive and valuable diagnostic method of chronic progressive radiation myelopathy. (author).

  19. A Brazilian Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation of the modified JOA scale for myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratali, Raphael R; Smith, Justin S; Motta, Rodrigo L N; Martins, Samuel M; Motta, Marcel M; Rocha, Ricardo D; Herrero, Carlos Fernando P S

    2017-02-01

    To develop a version of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population. The well-established process of forward-backward translation was employed along with cross-cultural adaptation. Three bilingual translators (English and native Portuguese) performed the forward translation of the mJOA scale from English to Portuguese based on iterative discussions used to reach a consensus translation. The translated version of the mJOA scale was then back-translated into English by a native English-speaking translator unaware of the concepts involved with the mJOA scale. The original mJOA scale and the back-translated version were compared by a native North American neurosurgeon, and as they were considered equivalent, the final version of the mJOA scale that had been translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted was defined. To facilitate global and cross-cultural comparisons of the severity of cervical myelopathy, this study presents a version of the mJOA scale that was translated into Portuguese and cross-culturally adapted for the Brazilian population.

  20. Syringomyelia associated with cervical spondylotic myelopathy causing canal stenosis. A rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillich, Dirk; El Refaee, Ehab; Mueller, Jan-Uwe; Safwat, Amr; Schroeder, Henry W S; Baldauf, Joerg

    Although cervical spondylosis is extremely common, only few cases with associated syrinx have been reported. Depending on review of two large data bases, we report this case series. In addition, we evaluated the posterior decompression as the management option in treatment of this rare condition. Data of all cases with cervical spondylosis and canal stenosis that sought medical advice or needed decompressive laminectomy/laminoplasty between the years 2006 and 2015 were checked in manually. Perioperative data, together with follow up were reviewed. Out of five cases found in the reviewed data; four cases undergone posterior decompression (laminectomy in two cases and laminoplasty in the other). One case refused surgery. Along mean follow up period of 6.25 months; three cases improved markedly, while in one case no improvement occurred. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy can rarely cause syringomyelia. Posterior decompression would be the preferable management option with clinical improvement of most of the cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  1. Reliability of surface electromyography timing parameters in gait in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-02-01

    The aims of this study were to validate a computerised method to detect muscle activity from surface electromyography (SEMG) signals in gait in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), and to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the activation times designated by this method. SEMG signals were recorded from rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MG), during gait in 12 participants with CSM on two separate test days. Four computerised activity detection methods, based on the Teager-Kaiser Energy Operator (TKEO), were applied to a subset of signals and compared to visual interpretation of muscle activation. The most accurate method was then applied to all signals for evaluation of test-retest reliability. A detection method based on a combined slope and amplitude threshold showed the highest agreement (87.5%) with visual interpretation. With respect to reliability, the standard error of measurement (SEM) of the timing of RF, TA and MG between test days was 5.5% stride duration or less, while the SEM of BF was 9.4%. The timing parameters of RF, TA and MG designated by this method were considered sufficiently reliable for use in clinical practice, however the reliability of BF was questionable.

  2. Etanercept-Induced Myelopathy in a Pediatric Case of Blau Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Caracseghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blau syndrome is a rare autoinflammatory disorder within the group of pediatric granulomatous diseases. Mutations in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2/CARD15 are responsible for this condition, which has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and variable expressivity. The clinical picture includes arthritis, uveitis, skin rash, and granulomatous inflammation. Central nervous system involvement is seldom reported, although some isolated cases of seizures, neurosensorial hearing loss, and transient cranial nerve palsy have been described. Treatment consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive agents, among which anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-α biologic agents, such as etanercept, play an important role. Among the major adverse effects of TNF-α inhibitors, demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis, and acute transverse myelitis have been reported in adults. We describe a case of pediatric Blau syndrome affected by etanercept-induced myelopathy, manifesting as a clinical syndrome of transverse myelitis. The patient experienced rapid recovery after etanercept was discontinued. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in the literature and, possibly, the one with the latest onset, following 8 years of treatment. We discuss the etiopathogenic mechanisms of this reaction and possible explanations for the imaging findings.

  3. Etanercept-induced myelopathy in a pediatric case of blau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracseghi, Fabiola; Izquierdo-Blasco, Jaume; Sanchez-Montanez, Angel; Melendo-Perez, Susana; Roig-Quilis, Manuel; Modesto, Consuelo

    2011-01-01

    Blau syndrome is a rare autoinflammatory disorder within the group of pediatric granulomatous diseases. Mutations in nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2/CARD15) are responsible for this condition, which has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and variable expressivity. The clinical picture includes arthritis, uveitis, skin rash, and granulomatous inflammation. Central nervous system involvement is seldom reported, although some isolated cases of seizures, neurosensorial hearing loss, and transient cranial nerve palsy have been described. Treatment consists of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressive agents, among which anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-α) biologic agents, such as etanercept, play an important role. Among the major adverse effects of TNF-α inhibitors, demyelinating disease, multiple sclerosis, and acute transverse myelitis have been reported in adults. We describe a case of pediatric Blau syndrome affected by etanercept-induced myelopathy, manifesting as a clinical syndrome of transverse myelitis. The patient experienced rapid recovery after etanercept was discontinued. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in the literature and, possibly, the one with the latest onset, following 8 years of treatment. We discuss the etiopathogenic mechanisms of this reaction and possible explanations for the imaging findings.

  4. Accumulation and aggregate formation of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 in canine degenerative myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamae, S; Kobatake, Y; Suzuki, R; Tsukui, T; Kato, S; Yamato, O; Sakai, H; Urushitani, M; Maeda, S; Kamishina, H

    2015-09-10

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disorder that has recently been linked to mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. We generated a polyclonal antibody against canine SOD1 to further characterize the mutant SOD1 protein and its involvement in DM pathogenesis. This antibody (SYN3554) was highly specific to canine SOD1 and had the ability to reveal distinct cytoplasmic aggregates in cultured cells expressing canine mutant SOD1 and also in the spinal neurons of symptomatic homozygotes. A similar staining pattern was observed in asymptomatic homozygotes. SOD1 aggregates were not detected in the spinal neurons of heterozygotes; the accumulation of SOD1 was also detected in the reactive astrocytes of homozygotes and heterozygotes to a similar extent. Our results support the hypothesis that the cytoplasmic accumulation and aggregate formation of the mutant SOD1 protein, especially in astrocytes, are closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM. Therefore, this disease is regarded as a spontaneous large-animal model of SOD1-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in humans. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Variants within the SP110 nuclear body protein modify risk of canine degenerative myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivansson, Emma L; Megquier, Kate; Kozyrev, Sergey V; Murén, Eva; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Swofford, Ross; Koltookian, Michele; Tonomura, Noriko; Zeng, Rong; Kolicheski, Ana L; Hansen, Liz; Katz, Martin L; Johnson, Gayle C; Johnson, Gary S; Coates, Joan R; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

    2016-05-31

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a naturally occurring neurodegenerative disease with similarities to some forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Most dogs that develop DM are homozygous for a common superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) mutation. However, not all dogs homozygous for this mutation develop disease. We performed a genome-wide association analysis in the Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) breed comparing DM-affected and -unaffected dogs homozygous for the SOD1 mutation. The analysis revealed a modifier locus on canine chromosome 25. A haplotype within the SP110 nuclear body protein (SP110) was present in 40% of affected compared with 4% of unaffected dogs (P = 1.5 × 10(-5)), and was associated with increased probability of developing DM (P = 4.8 × 10(-6)) and earlier onset of disease (P = 1.7 × 10(-5)). SP110 is a nuclear body protein involved in the regulation of gene transcription. Our findings suggest that variations in SP110-mediated gene transcription may underlie, at least in part, the variability in risk for developing DM among PWCs that are homozygous for the disease-related SOD1 mutation. Further studies are warranted to clarify the effect of this modifier across dog breeds.

  6. Characterizing Thalamocortical Disturbances in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Revealed by Functional Connectivity under Two Slow Frequency Bands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Recent advanced MRI studies on cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM revealed alterations of sensorimotor cortex, but the disturbances of large-scale thalamocortical systems remains elusive. The purpose of this study was to characterizing the CSM-related thalamocortical disturbances, which were associated with spinal cord structural injury, and clinical measures.A total of 17 patients with degenerative CSM and well-matched control subjects participated. Thalamocortical disturbances were quantified using thalamus seed-based functional connectivity in two distinct low frequencies bands (slow-5 and slow-4, with different neural manifestations. The clinical measures were evaluated by Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA score system and Neck Disability Index (NDI questionnaires.Decreased functional connectivity was found in the thalamo-motor, -somatosensory, and -temporal circuits in the slow-5 band, indicating impairment of thalamo-cortical circuit degeneration or axon/synaptic impairment. By contrast, increased functional connectivity between thalami and the bilateral primary motor (M1, primary and secondary somatosensory (S1/S2, premotor cortex (PMC, and right temporal cortex was detected in the slow-4 band, and were associated with higher fractional anisotropy values in the cervical cord, corresponding to mild spinal cord structural injury.These thalamocortical disturbances revealed by two slow frequency bands inform basic understanding and vital clues about the sensorimotor dysfunction in CSM. Further work is needed to evaluate its contribution in central functional reorganization during spinal cord degeneration.

  7. Characterization of intercostal muscle pathology in canine degenerative myelopathy: a disease model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brandie R; Coates, Joan R; Johnson, Gayle C; Bujnak, Alyssa C; Katz, Martin L

    2013-12-01

    Dogs homozygous for missense mutations in the SOD1 gene develop a late-onset neuromuscular disorder called degenerative myelopathy (DM) that has many similarities to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both disorders are characterized by widespread progressive declines in motor functions, accompanied by atrophic changes in the descending spinal cord tracts. Some forms of ALS are also associated with SOD1 mutations. In end-stage ALS, death usually occurs as a result of respiratory failure from severe functional impairment of respiratory muscles. The mechanisms that lead to this loss of function are not known. Dogs with DM are euthanized at all stages of disease progression, providing an opportunity to characterize the onset and progression of any pathological changes in the respiratory muscles that may precede respiratory failure. To characterize such potential disease-related pathology, we evaluated intercostal muscles from Boxer and Pembroke Welsh Corgi dogs that were euthanized at various stages of DM disease progression. DM was found to result in intercostal muscle atrophy, fibrosis, increased variability in muscle fiber size and shape, and alteration in muscle fiber type composition. This pathology was not accompanied by retraction of the motor neuron terminals from the muscle acetylcholine receptor complexes, suggesting that the muscle atrophy did not result from physical denervation. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that likely lead to respiratory failure in at least some forms of ALS and will be useful in the development and evaluation of potential therapeutic interventions using the DM model. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Santos de Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP can impact the independence and motricity of patients. The aims of this study were to estimate the effects of physiotherapy on the functionality of patients with HAM/TSP during the stable phase of the disease using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF and to compare two methods of treatment delivery. Methods: Fourteen patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I were randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (seven patients, PNF was applied by the therapist, facilitating the functional activities of rolling, sitting and standing, walking and climbing and descending stairs. In group II (seven patients, PNF was self-administered using an elastic tube, and the same activities were facilitated. Experiments were conducted for 1h twice per week for 12 weeks. Low-back pain, a modified Ashworth scale, the functional independence measure (FIM and the timed up and go test (TUG were assessed before and after the interventions. Results: In the within-group evaluation, low-back pain was significantly reduced in both groups, the FIM improved in group II, and the results of the TUG improved in group I. In the inter-group analysis, only the tone was lower in group II than in group I. Conclusions: Both PNF protocols were effective in treating patients with HAM/TSP.

  9. A 66-Year-Old Woman with a Progressive, Longitudinally Extensive, Tract Specific, Myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth O’Keefe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old woman presented with progressive lancinating pain and sensory deficits attributable to a myelopathy of unclear etiology. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging showed a longitudinally extensive T2-hyperintense lesion of the dorsal columns. Comprehensive serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid analyses failed to identify an etiology. Empiric intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin were of no benefit and serial screens for an occult malignancy were negative. She developed dysesthesias and allodynia affecting her entire body and lost the use of her arms and legs due to severe sensory ataxia that was steadily progressive from onset. She opted against additional aggressive medical management of her condition and passed away on hospice eleven months after symptom onset. Autopsy revealed findings most consistent with polyphasic spinal cord ischemia affecting the dorsal and lateral white matter tracts and, to a lesser extent, adjacent gray matter. The underlying etiology for the progressive vasculopathy remains unknown. Spinal cord ischemia affecting the posterior spinal cord is rare and to our knowledge this case represents the only instance of a progressive spinal cord tractopathy attributable to chronic spinal cord ischemia.

  10. Cervical Anterolisthesis: A Predictor of Poor Neurological Outcomes in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Patients After Cervical Laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oichi, Takeshi; Oshima, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Yuki; Matsubayashi, Yoshitaka; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-04-01

    A retrospective cohort study. To clarify the influence of cervical spondylolisthesis on neurological outcomes in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients after cervical laminoplasty. Studies focusing on the surgical outcomes in CSM patients with cervical spondylolisthesis are limited. We retrospectively reviewed 125 CSM patients after cervical laminoplasty. Neurological outcomes were evaluated by calculating the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) recovery rate at 2 years after surgery. We defined anterolisthesis as a more than 3-mm anterior vertebral displacement in a flexion radiograph and retrolisthesis as a more than 3-mm posterior vertebral displacement in an extension radiograph. We further assessed potential risk factors for poor neurological outcomes after cervical laminoplasty, including cervical alignment, degree of spinal cord compression, duration of myelopathic symptoms, diabetes mellitus, and preoperative JOA score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the risk factors for poor outcomes (JOA recovery rate Anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis were observed in 13 and 24 patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the anterolisthesis was a significant risk factor for poor outcomes (JOA recovery rate Anterolisthesis, but not retrolisthesis, is a significant risk factor for and predictor of poor neurological outcomes after cervical laminoplasty. Cervical laminoplasty should not be considered in CSM patients with anterolisthesis. 2.

  11. Systems biology approaches reveal a specific interferon-inducible signature in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Tattermusch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a retrovirus that persists lifelong in the host. In ∼4% of infected people, HTLV-1 causes a chronic disabling neuroinflammatory disease known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is unknown and treatment remains ineffective. We used gene expression microarrays followed by flow cytometric and functional assays to investigate global changes in blood transcriptional profiles of HTLV-1-infected and seronegative individuals. We found that perturbations of the p53 signaling pathway were a hallmark of HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, a subset of interferon (IFN-stimulated genes was over-expressed in patients with HAM/TSP but not in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers or patients with the clinically similar disease multiple sclerosis. The IFN-inducible signature was present in all circulating leukocytes and its intensity correlated with the clinical severity of HAM/TSP. Leukocytes from patients with HAM/TSP were primed to respond strongly to stimulation with exogenous IFN. However, while type I IFN suppressed expression of the HTLV-1 structural protein Gag it failed to suppress the highly immunogenic viral transcriptional transactivator Tax. We conclude that over-expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes in chronic HTLV-1 infection does not constitute an efficient host response but instead contributes to the development of HAM/TSP.

  12. Cognitive event-related potentials and brain magnetic resonance imaging in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, T; Ikeda, T; Uyama, E; Uchino, M; Okabe, H; Ando, M

    1994-10-01

    Auditory and visual cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in 14 patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) and in 36 normal controls. In the HAM patients, the latencies of P300 and N200 by the auditory tone method were significantly delayed, and N100 by the auditory click method was significantly delayed in latency. No abnormal ERP components were observed with visual methods. While these auditory abnormal ERPs were present in the HAM patients, there was no evidence of visual abnormal ERPs. Abnormal lesions on the white matter were evident at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6 (75%) of 8 patients. There was no correlation between MRI lesions and the abnormalities of ERPs, but there was a significant correlation between bifrontal index on MRI and P300 amplitudes at Cz and Pz sites by auditory tone method. In one patient, atrophy of bilateral parietal lobes was seen on MRI and P300 latencies delayed using various methods. Therefore, the possibility that electrophysiological cognitive impairment in patients with HAM is related to brain atrophy rather than to white matter lesions requires attention.

  13. Risk Factor Analysis for C5 Palsy after Double-Door Laminoplasty for Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Satoshi; Ikuta, Ko; Ikeuchi, Hiroko; Shiraki, Makoto; Komiya, Norihiro; Kitamura, Takahiro; Senba, Hideyuki; Shidahara, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    A retrospective comparative study. To clarify the risk factors related to the development of postoperative C5 palsy through radiological studies after cervical double-door laminoplasty (DDL). Although postoperative C5 palsy is generally considered to be the result of damage to the nerve root or segmental spinal cord, the associated pathology remains controversial. A consecutive case series of 47 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy treated by DDL at our institution between April 2008 and April 2015 were reviewed. Postoperative C5 palsy occurred in 5 of 47 cases after DDL. We investigated 9 radiologic factors that have been reported to be risk factors for C5 palsy in various studies, and statistically examined these between the two groups of palsy and the non-palsy patients. We found a significant difference between patients with and without postoperative C5 palsy with regards to the posterior shift of spinal cord at C4/5 (p=0.008). The logistic regression analyses revealed posterior shift of the spinal cord at C4/5 (odds ratio, 12.066; p=0.029; 95% confidence interval, 1.295-112.378). For the other radiologic factors, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. In the present study, we showed a significant difference in the posterior shift of the spinal cord at C4/5 between the palsy and the non-palsy groups, indicating that the "tethering phenomenon" was likely a greater risk factor for postoperative C5 palsy.

  14. Immunopathogenesis of HTLV-1-assoaciated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzii, Hellen Thais; da Silva Dias, George Alberto; de Barros, Rodrigo Jose Saraiva; Falcão, Luiz Fabio Magno; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simoes

    2014-05-28

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Only a limited percentage of infected individuals develop disease in response to the virus while the majority remain asymptomatic, and HAM/TSP is the most common clinical manifestation of the virus. HAM/TSP is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS); however, the mechanism by which HTLV-1 induces HAM/TSP is not yet clear. CD4(+) T lymphocytes are the main reservoirs of HTLV-1 in vivo and perform an important role in the immunological response to this retrovirus. This virus-host interaction may provoke changes in the immunological response, such as the enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines and the spontaneous proliferation of T CD4(+) lymphocytes, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Possible etiologies for tropical spastic paraparesis and human T lymphotropic virus I-associated myelopathy

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    V. Zaninovic'

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM is frequently inconsistent and suggests environmental factors in the etiology of these syndromes. The neuropathology corresponds to a toxometabolic or autoimmune process and possibly not to a viral disease. Some logical hypotheses about the etiology and physiopathology of TSP and HAM are proposed. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, central distal axonopathies, cassava, lathyrism and cycad toxicity may explain most cases of TSP. The damage caused to astrocytes and to the blood-brain barrier by HTLV-I plus xenobiotics may explain most cases of HAM. Analysis of the HTLV-I/xenobiotic ratio clarifies most of the paradoxical epidemiology of TSP and HAM. Modern neurotoxicology, neuroimmunology and molecular biology may explain the neuropathology of TSP and HAM. It is quite possible that there are other xenobiotics implicated in the etiology of some TSP/HAMs. The prevention of these syndromes appears to be possible today.

  16. Prevalence of glaucoma suspects and pattern of intra-ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma is the commonest cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Some glaucoma patients start out as glaucoma suspects for years. Aim: To determine the prevalence of glaucoma suspects and pattern of intra-ocular pressure distribution in glaucoma suspects. Methods: This survey was carried out in ...

  17. Swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke

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    Gabriela Camargo Remesso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate occurrences of swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke. METHOD: This was a retrospective study on 596 medical files. The inclusion criterion was that the patients needed to have been hospitalized with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke; the exclusion criteria were the presence of associated cardiac problems and hospital stay already more than 14 days. RESULTS: 50.5% were men and 49.5% women; mean age 65.3 years (SD=±11.7 (p<0.001. Among the risk factors, 79.4% had hypertension, 36.7% had diabetes (p<0.001 and 42.7% were smokers. 13.3% of the patients died. Swallowing disorders occurred in 19.6%, among whom 91.5% had mild difficulty and 8.5% had severe difficulty. 87.1% had spontaneous recovery after a mean of 2.4 months. A lesion in the brainstem region occurred in 6.8% (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Swallowing disorders occurred in almost 20% of the population and most of the difficulty in swallowing found was mild. The predictors for swallowing disorders were older age, diabetes mellitus and lesions in the brainstem region.

  18. Nuclear Pedigree Criteria of Suspected HNPCC

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    Kładny Józef

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The criteria for the diagnosis of HNPCC established by the ICG-HNPCC are very restrictive as they do not allow for the diagnosis of a large number of "suspected HNPCC" cases - these are families which do no fulfill the strict diagnostic "Amsterdam criteria", but do present with several pedigree and clinical features characteristic for HNPCC. Several series of families suspected of harboring germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes have been studied for germline changes in DNA mismatch repair genes and a mutation rate of somewhere between 8-60% was found. Therefore a subgroup of members of the ICG-HNPCC has been working on pedigree/clinical diagnostic criteria for suspected HNPCC. Materials and methods Part I The study was based on two series of colorectal cancer (CRC cases: 1 HNPCC - this group comprised 190 patients affected by CRC from randomly selected families which fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria registered in Düsseldorf, Germany (102 cases of CRC, Denmark (18 CRCs, Leiden, Holland (23 CRCs and Szczecin, Poland (47 CRCs. 2 Consecutive CRCs - this group comprised 629 (78.0% of 806 individuals with CRC diagnosed in 1991-1997 in the city of Szczecin (ca. 400,000 of inhabitants, Poland. Nuclear pedigrees in both groups were compared for frequency of occurrence of clinical features, that have been shown to be associated with HNPCC. Part II 52 consecutive CRC cases from Szczecin, matching the criteria recognized in part I as appropriate for diagnosis of cases "suspected of HNPCC" were studied for the occurrence of germline hMSH2/hMLH1 constitutional mutations using "exon by exon" sequencing. Results The combination of features - i.e. the occurrence of an HNPCC associated cancer (CRC or cancer of the endometrium, small bowel or urinary tract in a 1st degree relative of a CRC patient; at least one of the patients being diagnosed under age of 50 - appeared to be strongly associated to HNPCC with an OR - 161. Constitutional

  19. Three-dimensional phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequencing in the evaluation of left ventricular myocardial scars in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy: Comparison to three-dimensional inversion recovery sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, Tomoyuki, E-mail: tomozo0421@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kido, Teruhito; Nakamura, Masashi; Kawaguchi, Naoto; Nishiyama, Yoshiko [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ogimoto, Akiyoshi [Department of Cardiovascular Internal Medicine, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Miyagawa, Masao; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We evaluate 3D PSIR compared with 3D IR for the detection of myocardial scars. • In image quality, there was no significant difference between IR and PSIR. • A quantitative analysis of LGE volume shows a strong correlation between PSIR and IR. • PSIR detected greater LGE volume in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients than IR. • PSIR may have a specific role in scar evaluation of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. - Abstract: Background: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful technique for detecting myocardial fibrosis. LGE images are typically acquired using the inversion recovery (IR) method. Recently, phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) technology has been developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate free-breathing 3D PSIR sequencing in comparison with breath-held 3D IR sequencing for the detection of myocardial fibrosis. Methods: One hundred twenty-three patients with suspected ischemic cardiac disease (n = 27) or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, n = 29; dilated cardiomyopathy, n = 22; sarcoidosis, n = 21; arrhythmia, n = 9; myocarditis, n = 4; amyloidosis, n = 3; and others, n = 8) were evaluated by LGE–MRI, which was performed first with the IR sequence and then with the PSIR sequence, using a 3 T MRI scanner. Image quality was scored by two independent readers using a four-point scale. The 3D LGE volume was analyzed quantitatively and compared between both sequencing methods. Results: There was no significant difference in overall image quality (p = 0.19). LGE was detected in 73 patients, who were evaluated visually. Ultimately, 58 patients with acceptable image quality were enrolled in further quantitative analyses (volume assessment). Although quantification of LGE volume revealed a strong correlation between both methods, larger LGE volumes were detected with PSIR compared to IR in patients suspected of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (39.5 ± 25.9 cm{sup 3} for

  20. Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H becomes elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acutely worsening symptoms of compression myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakajima, Arata; Sonobe, Masato; Terajima, Fumiaki; Saito, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yamada, Manabu; Watanabe, Fusako; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Yamazaki, Masashi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    It is known that the severity of compression myelopathy sometimes worsens rapidly and results in poor functional recovery because of limited axonal regeneration. Levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H (pNF-H), which indicate axonal degeneration, are elevated in other neurological disorders. To our knowledge, there has been no examination of pNF-H levels in compression myelopathy. Therefore, we conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to evaluate pNF-H levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with worsening symptoms of cervical compression myelopathy. From January 2011 to March 2013, 51 samples of CSF were collected from patients at the time of myelography before spinal surgery. The indications for surgery were acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM) in eight, chronic compression myelopathy (CM) in six, and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) in 37 patients. The pNF-H levels were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean ± standard deviation pNF-H value was 2127.1 ± 556.8 pg/ml in AM patients, 175.8 ± 67.38 pg/ml in CM patients and 518.7 ± 665.7 pg/ml in LCS patients. A significant increase in pNF-H levels was detected in the CSF of patients with AM compared with those with either CM or LCS. The clinical outcome of surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy was satisfactory in both AM and CM patients. Despite the limitations of small sample size and lack of healthy CSF control data due to ethical considerations, our results suggest that pNF-H in CSF can act as a biomarker that reflects the severity of AM. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring to reduce neurological complications in patients undergoing anterior cervical spine procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Muralidharan, Aditya; Loke, Yoon K; Habeych, Miguel; Crammond, Donald; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of reports of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and to assess the value of intraoperative monitoring (IOM), including somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial motor evoked potentials and electromyography, in anterior cervical procedures. A search was conducted to collect a small database of relevant papers using key words describing disorders and procedures of interest. The database was then shortlisted using selection criteria and data was extracted to identify complications as a result of anterior cervical procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy and outcome analysis on a continuous scale. In the 22 studies that matched the screening criteria, only two involved the use of IOM. The average sample size was 173 patients. In procedures done without IOM a mean change in Japanese Orthopaedic Association score of 3.94 points and Nurick score by 1.20 points (both less severe post-operatively) was observed. Within our sub-group analysis, worsening myelopathy and/or quadriplegia was seen in 2.71% of patients for studies without IOM and 0.91% of patients for studies with IOM. Variations persist in the existing literature in the evaluation of complications associated with anterior cervical spinal procedures. Based on the review of published studies, sufficient evidence does not exist to make recommendations regarding the use of different IOM modalities to reduce neurological complications during anterior cervical procedures. However, future studies with objective measures of neurological deficits using a specific IOM modality may establish it as an effective and reliable indicator of injury during such surgeries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Minimum Clinically Important Difference of the Modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale in Patients with Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Nouri, Aria; Kopjar, Branko; Côté, Pierre; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of the prospective AOSpine CSM-International and North America datasets and survey of AO Spine International. This study aims to define the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). The mJOA is the most frequently used clinician-administered tool to assess functional status in patients with DCM. By defining its MCID, clinicians can better evaluate treatment outcomes for this condition. Three methods were used to determine the MCID of the mJOA: (1) distribution-based, (2) anchor-based and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and (3) professional opinion. Distribution-based methods were used to estimate the MCID by computing the half standard deviation and standard error of measurement. Using anchor-based methods, mJOA at 12 months after surgery was compared between patients who were "slightly improved" on the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and those who were "unchanged." ROC analysis was performed to compute a discrete integer value for the MCID that yielded the smallest difference between sensitivity and specificity. We repeated anchor-based methods for patients with mild (mJOA: 15-17), moderate (mJOA: 12-14), and severe disease (mJOA MCID. The survey of 416 spine professionals confirmed these estimates: the mean response was 1.65 ± 0.66. The MCID significantly varied depending on myelopathy severity: ROC analysis yielded a threshold of 1 for mild, 2 for moderate, and 3 for severe patients. The MCID of the mJOA is estimated to be between 1 and 2 points and varies with myelopathy severity. This knowledge will enable clinicians to identify meaningful functional improvements in DCM patients. N/A.

  3. Prevalence of depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances in patients with myelopathy: Their relation with functional and neurological recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Nitin; Gupta, Anupam; Khanna, Meeka; Taly, Arun B; Thennarasu, K

    2016-11-01

    To observe the prevalence of fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbance in patients with myelopathy and their correlation with neurological and functional recovery. Study conducted in a university tertiary research hospital with 127 patients with myelopathy (92 males) admitted to neurorehabilitation unit between January 2010 and December 2013. Mean age was 32.71 ± 13.08 years (range 15-65 years), and mean duration of injury was 76.22 ± 82.5 days (range 14-365 days). Functional status and impairments were assessed using Barthel Index and Spinal Cord Independence Measures. Depression, fatigue, and sleep disturbances were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scales, respectively. Neurological recovery was assessed using American Spinal Injury Association's impairment scale. Forty-four out of 104 (42%) patients had borderline or confirmed depression, 36/108 (33%) had significant fatigue, and 62/106 (58%) had significant sleep disturbances at admission. Significant correlation was observed between change in fatigue and depression scores with change in functional status scores (P  0.05) between change in sleep disturbance scores and functional status score and neurological recovery (P > 0.05). Similarly, change in fatigue and depression scores had no correlation with neurological status improvement. Fatigue, depression, and sleep disturbance scores showed significant improvement, that is, admission vs. discharge scores (P < 0.05) with significant correlation between improvement in all three variables (P < 0.05). Study variables showed significant improvement in the present study with myelopathy patients but not necessarily correlating with functional and neurological recovery.

  4. Effects of radiation dose reduction in Volume Perfusion CT imaging of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed E; Brockmann, Carolin; Yang, Zepa; Kim, Changwon; Afat, Saif; Pjontek, Rastislav; Nikobashman, Omid; Brockmann, Marc A; Kim, Jong Hyo; Wiesmann, Martin

    2015-12-01

    To examine the influence of radiation dose reduction on image quality and sensitivity of Volume Perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of ischemic brain lesions. VPCT data of 20 patients with suspected ischemic stroke acquired at 80 kV and 180 mAs were included. Using realistic reduced-dose simulation, low-dose VPCT datasets with 144 mAs, 108 mAs, 72 mAs and 36 mAs (80 %, 60 %, 40 % and 20 % of the original levels) were generated, resulting in a total of 100 datasets. Perfusion maps were created and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) measurements were performed. Qualitative analyses were conducted by two blinded readers, who also assessed the presence/absence of ischemic lesions and scored CBV and CBF maps using a modified ASPECTS-score. SNR of all low-dose datasets were significantly lower than those of the original datasets (p < .05). All datasets down to 72 mAs (40 %) yielded sufficient image quality and high sensitivity with excellent inter-observer-agreements, whereas 36 mAs datasets (20 %) yielded poor image quality in 15 % of the cases with lower sensitivity and inter-observer-agreements. Low-dose VPCT using decreased tube currents down to 72 mAs (40 % of original radiation dose) produces sufficient perfusion maps for the detection of ischemic brain lesions. • Perfusion CT is highly accurate for the detection of ischemic brain lesions • Perfusion CT results in high radiation exposure, therefore low-dose protocols are required • Reduction of tube current down to 72 mAs produces sufficient perfusion maps.

  5. Subacute post-traumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM): two cases of SPAM following surgical treatment of thoracolumbar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Kamran; Kandwal, Pankaj; Gupta, Ankit

    2014-01-01

    To report two cases of traumatic paraplegia who developed Sub-acute Post-Traumatic Ascending Myelopathy (SPAM) following surgical decompression.We hereby report two cases (both 35yr old male) with traumatic paraplegia that developed ascending weakness at 3rd and 5th Post-Op day respectively following surgical decompression. Both the patients experienced remarkable improvement in Neurology after treatment with steroids. The authors conclude by emphasizing on minimum cord handling during surgical decompression of the spinal cord to avoid this potentially life threatening complication.

  6. Characteristics of Misclassified CT Perfusion Ischemic Core in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph R E G Geuskens

    Full Text Available CT perfusion (CTP is used to estimate the extent of ischemic core and penumbra in patients with acute ischemic stroke. CTP reliability, however, is limited. This study aims to identify regions misclassified as ischemic core on CTP, using infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT. We aim to assess differences in volumetric and perfusion characteristics in these regions compared to areas that ended up as infarct on follow-up.This study included 35 patients with >100 mm brain coverage CTP. CTP processing was performed using Philips software (IntelliSpace 7.0. Final infarct was automatically segmented on follow-up noncontrast CT and used as reference. CTP and follow-up noncontrast CT image data were registered. This allowed classification of ischemic lesion agreement (core on CTP: rMTT≥145%, aCBV<2.0 ml/100g and infarct on follow-up noncontrast CT and misclassified ischemic core (core on CTP, not identified on follow-up noncontrast CT regions. False discovery ratio (FDR, defined as misclassified ischemic core volume divided by total CTP ischemic core volume, was calculated. Absolute and relative CTP parameters (CBV, CBF, and MTT were calculated for both misclassified CTP ischemic core and ischemic lesion agreement regions and compared using paired rank-sum tests.Median total CTP ischemic core volume was 49.7ml (IQR:29.9ml-132ml; median misclassified ischemic core volume was 30.4ml (IQR:20.9ml-77.0ml. Median FDR between patients was 62% (IQR:49%-80%. Median relative mean transit time was 243% (IQR:198%-289% and 342% (IQR:249%-432% for misclassified and ischemic lesion agreement regions, respectively. Median absolute cerebral blood volume was 1.59 (IQR:1.43-1.79 ml/100g (P<0.01 and 1.38 (IQR:1.15-1.49 ml/100g (P<0.01 for misclassified ischemic core and ischemic lesion agreement, respectively. All CTP parameter values differed significantly.For all patients a considerable region of the CTP ischemic core is misclassified. CTP parameters significantly

  7. [Ischemic stroke related to spontaneous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamer, H; Bouzid, M A; Dufay, A; Akodad, M; Russel, S; Halna du Fretay, X; Haziza, F

    2017-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease in women is a particularly complex pathology especially in the youngest population. The clinical presentation of acute coronary syndromes is sometimes misleading and does not necessarily point to the potential presence of cardiac disease given the frequent absence of cardiovascular risks. Such complexity results in delayed diagnosis, which worsens the outcome of myocardial infarction and generates complications related to the absence of coronary revascularization. We report the case of a patient who suffered an (undiagnosed) apical myocardial infarction that went undetected and was complicated by a voluminous intraventricular thrombus with embolus migration in the cerebral circulation resulting in an ischemic accident. The combination of these two pathologies make their therapeutic management particularly difficult. As widely reported in the literature, the outcome of myocardial infarction in women is poorer than in their male counterparts for a number of reasons. We can assume that in the youngest patients, another physiopathological mechanism is often involved, namely, the occurrence of hematoma and spontaneous coronary dissection. Diagnosis is often difficult even with coronary angiography diagnosis. As shown in the case reported here, initial examination results, if not thoroughly analyzed, may be erroneously interpreted as normal. It is also likely that the presence of hematoma or coronary wall dissection without any plaque rupture may negatively influence the outcome owing to the implementation of inappropriate treatments. In conclusion, in patients presenting with an ischemic cerebral accident, meticulous cardiac examination must be performed even in young women with no cardiovascular risk factors given that the occurrence of hematoma or coronary dissection may contribute to the formation of mural thrombi in the setting of myocardial infarction. Cardiac MRI seems to be particularly effective in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction

  8. Surgery for degenerative cervical myelopathy: a patient-centered quality of life and health economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witiw, Christopher D; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Kopjar, Branko; Massicotte, Eric M; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) represents the most common cause of non-traumatic spinal cord impairment in adults. Surgery has been shown to improve neurologic symptoms and functional status, but it is costly. As sustainability concerns in the field of health care rise, the value of care has come to the forefront of policy decision-making. Evidence for both health-related quality of life outcomes and financial expenditures is needed to inform resource allocation decisions. This study aimed to estimate the lifetime incremental cost-utility of surgical treatment for DCM. This is a prospective observational cohort study at a Canadian tertiary care facility. We recruited all patients undergoing surgery for DCM at a single center between 2005 and 2011 who were enrolled in either the AOSpine Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM)-North America study or the AOSpine CSM-International study. Health utility was measured at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months following surgery using the Short Form-6D (SF-6D) health utility score. Resource expenditures were calculated on an individual level, from the hospital payer perspective over the 24-month follow-up period. All costs were obtained from a micro-cost database maintained by the institutional finance department and reported in Canadian dollars, inflated to January 2015 values. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gains for the study period were determined using an area under the curve calculation with a linear interpolation estimate. Lifetime incremental cost-to-utility ratios (ICUR) for surgery were estimated using a Markov state transition model. Structural uncertainty arising from lifetime extrapolation and the single-arm cohort design of the study were accounted for by constructing two models. The first included a highly conservative assumption that individuals undergoing nonoperative management would not experience any lifetime neurologic decline. This constraint was relaxed in the second model to permit more

  9. Electrophysiological assessments of the motor pathway in diabetic patients with compressive cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Kamei, Naosuke; Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Ujigo, Satoshi; Sumiyoshi, Norihiko; Rikita, Takanori; Takazawa, Atsushi; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of compressive cervical myelopathy (CCM) increases in adults over 50 years of age. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) is a frequent comorbidity for people of this age and may impact the severity of CCM. The authors assessed motor pathway function in diabetic patients with CCM to investigate the correlation between electrophysiological parameters and clinical symptoms. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from the abductor digiti minimi muscle (ADM) and the abductor hallucis muscle (AH) following transcranial magnetic stimulation, as were M- and F-waves following electrical stimulation of the ulnar and tibial nerves, in 22 patients with CCM and diabetes mellitus (DM) who had not experienced symptomatic diabetic neuropathy (CCM-DM group), in 92 patients with CCM alone (CCM group), and in 24 healthy adults (control group). The peripheral conduction time (PCT; measured from the ADM and AH) was calculated as follows: (M-wave latency + F-wave latency -1)/2. The central motor conduction time (CMCT; measured from the ADM and AH) was calculated by subtracting the PCT from the onset latency of the MEPs. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score for cervical myelopathy was obtained before and 1 year after surgery as a clinical outcome measure. MEP, PCT, and CMCT parameters in the CCM-DM and CCM groups were significantly longer than those in the control group (p = 0.000-0.007). The PCTs in the CCM-DM group were significantly longer than those in the CCM group (p = 0.001-0.003). No significant differences were detected in the MEP and CMCT parameters between the CCM-DM and CCM groups (p = 0.080-1.000). The JOA score before surgery in the CCM-DM group was 10.7 ± 2.0 points and was significantly lower than that in the CCM group (12.2 ± 2.5 points, p = 0.015). In the CCM-DM group, JOA scores before surgery correlated with MEP-AH (r = -0.610, p = 0.012) and PCT-AH (r = -0.676, p = 0.004) values, but not with CMCT values, while the JOA scores were

  10. Post-transplantation HTLV-1 myelopathy in three recipients from a single donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz Imirizaldu, J J; Gomez Esteban, J C; Rouco Axpe, I; Perez Concha, T; Velasco Juanes, F; Allue Susaeta, I; Corral Carranceja, J M

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports for the first time three cases of infection by HTLV-I via organ transplantation; all the organs coming from the same asymptomatic infected donor. The need is considered for the implementation of compulsory screenings for HTLV antibodies on organ donors and on blood banks. The determination of antibodies for HTLV-I/II on samples of serum and cerebral spinal fluid from the patients and the donor was performed by enzyme immunoassay and western blot. Analysis of proviral DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To detect changes in the sequence of amino acids, the tax gene was sequentiated, amplified, and compared with ATK prototype stocks. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral spinal fluid, and somatosensory evoked potential studies were carried out in all patients. All three transplanted patients developed a myelopathy within a very short period of time. In all three patients and donor the virus belonged to the Cosmopolitan A subtype. The homology of HTLV-I sequences recovered from the patients and donor was 100% in all four cases. Proviral load was high in all three patients. The factors that certainly contributed to the infection in the first place, and the development of the disease later, were on the one hand the high proviral load and their immunosuppressed condition, and on the other the virus genotype, which proved to be an aggressive variant. However, the analysis of the histocompatibility antigen showed that two of the patients carried an haplotype that has been associated with a lower risk of developing this disease. It is argued that, although in Spain and other European countries there is not compulsory screening for HTLV antibodies because of the studies that show a low seroprevalence, in view of the cases here reported, and to avoid the serious consequences that such infection has on transplanted patients, compulsory screenings, both on organ donors and on blood banks, should be implemented.

  11. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Metabolite Changes in the Primary Motor Cortex after Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksanderek, Izabela; McGregor, Stuart M K; Stevens, Todd K; Goncalves, Sandy; Bartha, Robert; Duggal, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To characterize longitudinal metabolite alterations in the motor cortex of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) by using proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy and to evaluate white matter integrity with diffusion-tensor imaging in patients who are recovering neurologic function after decompression surgery. Materials and Methods Informed written consent was obtained for all procedures and the study was approved by Western University's Health Sciences Research Ethics Board. Twenty-eight patients with CSM and 10 healthy control subjects were prospectively recruited and underwent two separate 3-T MR imaging examinations 6 months apart. Patients with CSM underwent surgery after the first examination. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), an indicator of neuronal mitochondrial function, normalized to creatine (Cr) levels were measured from the motor cortex contralateral to the greater functional deficit side in the patient group and on both sides in the control group. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were measured by means of diffusion-tensor imaging in the white matter adjacent to the motor and sensory cortices of the hand and the entire cerebral white matter. Clinical data were analyzed by using Student t tests. Results In patients with CSM, NAA normalized to Cr (NAA/Cr) levels were significantly lower 6 months after surgery (1.48 ± 0.08; P .05) between the patient and control groups in all measured regions at all time points. Conclusion NAA/Cr levels decreased in the motor cortex in patients with CSM 6 months after successful surgery. Intact white matter integrity with decreased NAA/Cr levels suggests that mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction persists after surgery. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. Effects of brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley O; Stoner, Kirsten E; Grossbach, Andrew J; Viljoen, Stephanus V; McHenry, Colleen L; Petrie, Michael A; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Grosland, Nicole M; Shields, Richard K; Howard, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the leading cause of spinal cord related disability in the elderly. It results from degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal, which causes spinal cord compression. This leads to gait instability, loss of dexterity, weakness, numbness and urinary dysfunction. There has been indirect data that implicates a genetic component to CSM. Such a finding may contribute to the variety in presentation and outcome in this patient population. The Val66Met polymorphism, a mutation in the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, has been implicated in a number of brain and psychological conditions, and here we investigate its role in CSM. Ten subjects diagnosed with CSM were enrolled in this prospective study. Baseline clinical evaluation using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale, Nurick and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were collected. Each subject underwent objective testing with gait kinematics, as well as hand functioning using the Purdue Peg Board. Blood samples were analyzed for the BDNF Val66Met mutation. The prevalence of the Val66Met mutation in this study was 60% amongst CSM patients compared to 32% in the general population. Individuals with abnormal Met allele had worse baseline mJOA and Nurick scores. Moreover, baseline gait kinematics and hand functioning testing were worse compared to their wild type counterpart. BDNF Val66Met mutation has a higher prevalence in CSM compared to the general population. Those with BDNF mutation have a worse clinical presentation compared to the wild type counterpart. These findings suggest implication of the BDNF mutation in the development and severity of CSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. State of the Art in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: An Update on Current Clinical Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jefferson R; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Kim, Jun; Shamji, Mohammed F; Harrop, James S; Mroz, Thomas; Cho, Samuel; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction that confronts clinicians on a daily basis. Research performed over the past few decades has provided improved insight into the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of this disorder. We aim to provide clinicians with an update regarding the state of the art in DCM, focusing on more recent research pertaining to pathophysiology, natural history, treatment, consideration of the minimally symptomatic patient, surgical outcome prediction, and outcome measurement. Current concepts of pathophysiology focus on the combination of static and dynamic elements leading to breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier at the site of compression resulting in local inflammation, cellular dysfunction, and apoptosis. With respect to treatment, although there is a dearth of high-quality studies comparing surgical to nonoperative treatment, several large prospective studies have recently associated surgical management with clinically and statistically significant improvement in functional, disability, and quality of life outcome at long-term follow-up. When selecting the specific surgical intervention for a patient with DCM, anterior (discectomy, corpectomy, hybrid discectomy/corpectomy), posterior (laminectomy and fusion, laminoplasty), and combined approaches may be considered as options depending on the specifics of the patient in question; evidence supporting each of these approaches is reviewed in detail. Recently developed clinical prediction models allow for accurate forecasting of postoperative outcomes, permitting enhanced communication and management of patient expectations in the preoperative setting. Finally, an overview of outcome measures recommended for use in the assessment of DCM patients is provided. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  14. Association Between Paraspinal Muscle Morphology, Clinical Symptoms, and Functional Status in Patients With Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Maryse; Dobrescu, Octavian; Courtemanche, Matthew; Sparrey, Carolyn J; Santaguida, Carlo; Fehlings, Michael G; Weber, Michael H

    2017-02-15

    A cross-sectional study. The aim of this study was to assess fatty infiltration and asymmetry of the multifidus (MF), semispinalis cervicis (SCer), semispinalis capitis (SCap), and splenius capitis (SPL) muscles in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), and evaluate their correlations with clinical symptoms and functional scores. Cervical muscle alterations have been reported in patients with chronic neck pain, but the assessment of cervical muscle morphology has been overlooked in patients with DCM. Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with DCM and spinal cord compression at C4-C5 or C5-C6 (first level of compression) were included. Cervical muscle measurements of cross-sectional area (CSA) and ratio of functional CSA (fat-free area, FCSA) to total CSA were obtained from T2-weighted axial images at the level above, same, and level below the most cranial level of spinal cord compression. Muscle fatty infiltration and asymmetry was assessed at every level and their associations with respect to clinical signs and symptoms and functional scores were investigated. There was a significant increase in fatty infiltration (decrease in FCSA/CSA ratio) of the MF (P = 0.001) and SPL (P < 0.001) muscles at the level below the spinal cord compression. A significant increase in MF CSA asymmetry was also observed at the level below the compression. Lower MF FCSA/CSA ratio was associated with longer 30-m walking test time. Lower SCer FCSA/CSA was associated with corticospinal distribution motor deficits and atrophy of the hands. Greater asymmetry in SCap CSA was associated with higher Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores, whereas lower asymmetry in MF CSA was associated with a positive Hoffman sign and weakness. A significant increase in muscle fatty infiltration and CSA asymmetry at the level below the compression was observed in patients with DCM. Our results also suggest an association between cervical muscle morphology and DCM clinical symptoms and functional

  15. Anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis of the cervical spine in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Motohiro; Tani, Toshikazu; Ushida, Takahiro; Ishida, Kenji

    2007-05-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine has received insufficient attention in contrast to that of the lumbar spine. The authors analyzed the functional significance of anterior and posterior degenerative spondylolisthesis (anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis) of the cervical spine to elucidate its role in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in the elderly. A total of 79 patients aged 65 or older who eventually had surgical treatment for CSM were evaluated radiographically. Altogether, 24 patients (30%) had displacement of 3.5 mm or more (severe spondylolisthesis group), 31 had displacement of 2.0-3.4 mm (moderate spondylolisthesis group), and 24 had less than 2.0 mm displacement (mild spondylolisthesis group). The severe spondylolisthesis group consisted of 14 patients with anterolisthesis (anterolisthesis group) and 10 patients with retrolisthesis (retrolisthesis group). Patients with severe spondylolisthesis had a high incidence (93%) of degenerative spondylolisthesis at C3/4 or C4/5 and significantly greater cervical mobility than those with mild spondylolisthesis. The anterolisthesis group, but not the retrolisthesis group, had a significantly wider spinal canal than the mild spondylolisthesis group, although the degree of horizontal displacement and cervical mobility did not differ significantly between the anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis groups. Severe cord compression seen on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and high-intensity spinal cord signals seen on T2-weighted MRI scans corresponded significantly to the levels of the spondylolisthesis. Degenerative spondylolisthesis is not a rare radiographic finding in elderly patients with CSM, which tends to cause intense cord compression that is seen on MRI scans. Greater mobility of the upper cervical segments may be a compensatory reaction for advanced disc degeneration of the lower cervical segments, leading to the development of degenerative

  16. Dorsal laminectomy for treatment of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, W H J; Witte, T H; Driver, C J; Jull, P; Whitehead, C E; Volk, H A

    2015-05-15

    An 11-year-old male breeding alpaca was evaluated for a 2-day history of lowered head carriage and lethargy. On initial examination, the alpaca had signs of lethargy and lowered carriage of the head and neck, but no specific neurologic deficits. Medical management improved the clinical signs, but 8 months later, the alpaca developed acute, progressive general proprioceptive ataxia affecting all 4 limbs and was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT identified disruption of the normal osseous architecture of C7 and T1. Medical management was attempted, but because of a lack of improvement, the patient underwent surgery 14 months after initial examination. A dorsal laminectomy of C7 and T1 via a dorsal midline approach was performed, and the spinous processes of both vertebrae were removed prior to removal of the overlying lamina. Free dorsal expansion of the spinal cord was ensured by resection of the ligamentum flavum. Six months after surgery, the alpaca had returned to successful breeding with 7 hembra bred in the first year after surgery, producing 6 crias, and 4 crias in the second year. The patient was eventually euthanized 28 months after surgery because of neurologic deterioration but was still ambulatory at that time. A good outcome with adequate alleviation of clinical signs and breeding soundness for > 2 years following dorsal laminectomy was achieved in this camelid patient. The surgical approach was similar to that in other species and was associated with mild postoperative morbidity. Veterinarians treating camelids should be aware of the initial clinical signs and treatment options for cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. In acute cases, the signs of reduced cervical mobility and pain on manipulation should prompt investigation including appropriate diagnostic imaging. Timely surgical intervention should be considered in patients that respond poorly to medical treatment to avoid irreversible spinal cord

  17. [Immunopathogenesis and treatment of the myelopathy associated to the HTLV-I virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) causes tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Immunopathogenesis and available treatments for TSP/HAM are reviewed. At least 20 million people are infected worldwide and 0.3-4% will develop TSP/HAM. Incidence in endemic areas is around 2 cases/ 100,000 inhabitants and year. The 50% of TSP/HAM patients suffer from clinical progression during their first ten years. Progression is associated with high proviral load and ager than 50 years at onset. HTLV-I proviral DNA and m-RNA load are significantly raised in TSP/HAM patients compared to asymptomatic carriers. This antigenic load activates T cells CD8+ specific for Tax-protein, which up-regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines. Corticoids, plasma-exchange, intravenous immunoglobulins, danazol, pentoxifilline, green-tea polyphenols, lactobacillus fermented milk, zidovudine, lamivudine, monoclonal antibodies (daclizumab), interferon, and valproic acid have been used in open trials in a small number of patients. Nevertheless, their clinical efficacy is limited. Interferon alpha and beta-1a have cytostatic properties and may cause a reduction in HTLV-I proviral load. High HTLV-I proviral load and an exaggerated pro-inflammatory cellular response are involved in the pathogenesis of TSP/HAM. No therapy has been conclusively shown to alter long-term disability associated with TSP/HAM. Multicentric clinical trials are necessary to assess long-term efficacy of interferon in TSP/HAM.

  18. Genetic testing of canine degenerative myelopathy in the South African Boxer dog population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM is a progressive disease process that is diagnosed late in life and mainly affects the pelvic limbs. Factors that make an ante-mortem definitive diagnosis of DM include: an insidious onset and clinical manifestation that mimics other disease processes of the pelvic limbs (hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament rupture, etc. or there may even be concurrent disease processes, old-age onset and lack of reliable diagnostic methods. Until recently, South African dog owners had to submit samples to laboratories overseas for genetic testing in order to confirm an affected dog (homozygous A/A and to aid in the ante-mortem diagnosis of DM. Only affected dogs have been confirmed to manifest the clinical signs of DM. This study aimed to verify whether genetic testing by a local genetic laboratory was possible in order to detect a missense mutation of the superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1 that is implicated in causing the clinical signs of DM. The study also aimed to detect and map the inheritance of this disease process in a local Boxer dog population where the pedigree of the sampled population was known. Venous blood collected from Boxer dogs using a simple random sampling technique. The samples were genotyped for the SOD1:c.118G>A polymorphism. Carrier and affected Boxer dogs were detected. A pedigree that demonstrated the significance of inheriting a carrier or affected state in the population was mapped. The present study concludes that genotyping of the missense mutation in Boxer dogs is possible in South Africa. There are carrier and affected Boxer dogs in the local population, making DM a plausible diagnosis in aged dogs presenting with pelvic limb pathology.

  19. Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels of Phosphorylated Neurofilament Heavy as a Diagnostic Marker of Canine Degenerative Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedebusch, C M; Bachrach, M D; Garcia, V B; Johnson, G C; Katz, M L; Shaw, G; Coates, J R; Garcia, M L

    2017-03-01

    No definitive, antemortem diagnostic test for canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is available. Phosphorylated neurofilament heavy (pNF-H) is a promising biomarker for nervous system diseases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum pNF-H is a detectable biological marker for diagnosis of canine DM. Fifty-three DM-affected, 27 neurologically normal, 7 asymptomatic at-risk, and 12 DM mimic dogs. Archived CSF and serum pNF-H concentrations were determined by a commercially available ELISA. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated with CSF values. Compared with old control dogs, median CSF pNF-H concentration was increased in all stages of DM; old dogs 5.1 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 1.4-9.3) versus DM stage 1 23.9 ng/mL (IQR 20.8-29.6; P pNF-H concentrations compared with asymptomatic, at-risk dogs (3.4 ng/mL [IQR 1.5-10.9; P pNF-H concentration >20.25 ng/mL was 80.4% sensitive (confidence interval [CI] 66.09-90.64%) and 93.6% specific (CI 78.58-99.21%) for DM. Area under the ROC curve was 0.9467 (CI 0.92-0.9974). No differences in serum pNF-H concentration were found between control and DM-affected dogs. pNF-H concentration in CSF is a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of DM. Although there was high specificity for DM in this cohort, further study should focus on a larger cohort of DM mimics, particularly other central and peripheral axonopathies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Cervical spine locking plate fixation for treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in large breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Eric J

    2009-08-01

    To describe indirect decompression by means of cervical spine locking plate (CSLP) fixation with vertebral distraction, discectomy, and cancellous block bone grafting in large breed dogs with single caudal cervical dynamic spondylotic lesions diagnosed by myelography with linear traction to the cervical spine, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Prospective clinical study. Dogs (n=12) with caudal cervical spondylotic myelopathy because of a single dynamic, traction-responsive lesion. Single, traction-responsive, caudal cervical spondylotic lesions were treated by vertebral distraction, discectomy, cancellous block bone grafting, and CSLP fixation. Follow-up was obtained by sequential recheck examination by the author or referring veterinarian or by telephone inquiries. Ten dogs had neurologic improvement after surgery. Indirect decompression by maintained distraction with cancellous block grafting and CSLP fixation was readily accomplished with less risk of blood loss or iatrogenic spinal cord injury than that associated with direct (ventral) decompression. There were no complications of graft intrusion, extrusion or subsidence, implant loosening, foraminal impingement, or end-plate failure. Two dogs that had satisfactory short-term recoveries developed clinical signs associated with adjacent segment disease and were euthanatized. At long-term follow-up, 8 dogs had satisfactory function, either a normal gait or one with slight to moderate proprioceptive deficits. CSLP fixation with cancellous block interbody grafting is an effective and perhaps safer method of treating single-level, traction-responsive cervical spondylosis in large breed dogs. CSLP fixation with interbody bone grafting is a viable alternative to other techniques for treatment of single-level, traction-responsive cervical spondylosis.

  1. Operative fusion of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: Impact of patient demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Shearwood; Marascalchi, Bryan J; Passias, Peter G; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony K; Errico, Thomas J

    2017-05-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in patients older than age 55, with operative management being a widely adopted approach. Previous work has shown that private insurance status, gender and patient race are predictive of the operative approach patients receive (anterior-only, posterior-only, combined anterior-posterior). The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2001 to 2010 was used to assess the potential role of multilevel CSM as a contributing factor in determining which operative approach CSM patients receive, as it is rare for an anterior-only approach to be sufficient for CSM patients requiring fusion of four or more involved levels. Multivariate analyses revealed that female sex (OR=3.78; 95% CI=2.08-6.89; p<0.0001), private insurance (OR=5.02; 95% CI=2.26-11.12; p<0.0001), and elective admission type (OR=4.12; 95% CI=1.65-10.32; p=0.0025) were predictive of increased receipt of a 3+ level fusion in CSM. No other variables, including patient age, race, income, or admission source were predictive of either increased or decreased likelihood of receiving fusion of at least three levels for CSM. In conclusion, female sex, private insurance status, and elective admission type are each independent predictors in CSM for receipt of a 3+ level fusion, while patient age, race and income are not. Given the propensity of fusions greater than three levels to require posterior approaches and the association between posterior CSM approaches and increased morbidity/mortality, these findings may prove useful as to which patient demographics are predictive of increased morbidity and mortality in operative treatment of CSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative Measurement of Physical Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure and describe the amount and pattern of physical activity in patients within the first week after acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack using accelerometers. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with acute is...... ischemic stroke. The method offers a low cost and noninvasive tool for future clinical interventional physiotherapeutic and early mobilization studies. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01560520....

  3. Multivariable prediction model for suspected giant cell arteritis: development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Edsel B; Lahaie Luna, Gabriela; Toren, Andrew; Ing, Royce; Chen, John J; Arora, Nitika; Torun, Nurhan; Jakpor, Otana A; Fraser, J Alexander; Tyndel, Felix J; Sundaram, Arun NE; Liu, Xinyang; Lam, Cindy TY; Patel, Vivek; Weis, Ezekiel; Jordan, David; Gilberg, Steven; Pagnoux, Christian; ten Hove, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a diagnostic prediction model for patients with suspected giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods A retrospective review of records of consecutive adult patients undergoing temporal artery biopsy (TABx) for suspected GCA was conducted at seven university centers. The pathologic diagnosis was considered the final diagnosis. The predictor variables were age, gender, new onset headache, clinical temporal artery abnormality, jaw claudication, ischemic vision loss (VL), diplopia, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and platelet level. Multiple imputation was performed for missing data. Logistic regression was used to compare our models with the non-histologic American College of Rheumatology (ACR) GCA classification criteria. Internal validation was performed with 10-fold cross validation and bootstrap techniques. External validation was performed by geographic site. Results There were 530 complete TABx records: 397 were negative and 133 positive for GCA. Age, jaw claudication, VL, platelets, and log CRP were statistically significant predictors of positive TABx, whereas ESR, gender, headache, and temporal artery abnormality were not. The parsimonious model had a cross-validated bootstrap area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.810 (95% CI =0.766–0.854), geographic external validation AUROC’s in the range of 0.75–0.85, calibration pH–L of 0.812, sensitivity of 43.6%, and specificity of 95.2%, which outperformed the ACR criteria. Conclusion Our prediction rule with calculator and nomogram aids in the triage of patients with suspected GCA and may decrease the need for TABx in select low-score at-risk subjects. However, misclassification remains a concern. PMID:29200816

  4. Outcome Factors in Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The predictive value of history, examination, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, EEG and sensory evoked potentials (SEP) in the prognosis of children with acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was evaluated at the University Hospital of Lille, France.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Renal Ischemic Conditioning Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierulf-Lassen, Casper; Nieuwenhuijs-Moeke, Gertrude J; Krogstrup, Nicoline V

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the leading cause of acute kidney injury in a variety of clinical settings such as renal transplantation and hypovolemic and/or septic shock. Strategies to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury are obviously clinically relevant. Ischemic conditioning is an inherent part...... of the renal defense mechanism against ischemia and can be triggered by short periods of intermittent ischemia and reperfusion. Understanding the signaling transduction pathways of renal ischemic conditioning can promote further clinical translation and pharmacological advancements in this era. This review...... summarizes research on the molecular mechanisms underlying both local and remote ischemic pre-, per- and postconditioning of the kidney. The different types of conditioning strategies in the kidney recruit similar powerful pro-survival mechanisms. Likewise, renal ischemic conditioning mobilizes many...

  6. Transient ischemic attack: definition and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Louis R

    2006-07-01

    The standard definition of a transient ischemic attack--"a cerebral dysfunction of an ischemic nature lasting no longer than 24 hours with a tendency to recur"--was arrived at arbitrarily and is no longer tenable. Experience shows that attacks are much briefer, usually less than an hour, and many are associated with brain infarction. A newer definition, more consonant with the data, is preferred--"transient ischemic attack is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain or retinal ischemia, with clinical symptoms typically lasting less than an hour, and without evidence of acute infarction." Patients with transient ischemic attacks require urgent evaluation that includes brain and vascular imaging, blood tests, and often cardiac investigations. Treatment will depend on the nature of the causative cervico-cranial vascular, cardiac, and hematologic abnormalities found on investigation.

  7. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and symptomatic ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Schnohr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that low plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with increased risk of symptomatic ischemic stroke in the general population. METHODS: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 10,170 individuals from the general population, the Copenhagen...... City Heart Study. During 21 years of follow-up, 1,256 and 164 persons developed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively. In a meta-analysis of ischemic stroke, we included 10 studies, 58,384 participants, and 2,644 events. RESULTS: Stepwise decreasing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations...... were associated with stepwise increasing risk of ischemic stroke both as a function of seasonally adjusted percentile categories and as a function of clinical categories of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (p for trend ≤ 2 × 10(-3) ). In a Cox regression model comparing individuals with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  8. Transient central diabetes insipidus following ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following ischemic infarction of the brain has been described as a rare presentation. Posterior pituitary ischemia has also been postulated as a possible cause of idiopathic CDI. We encountered a young male with bilateral extensive ischemic infarction sustained at high altitude, who had transient polyuria due to central diabetes insipidus, requiring desmopressin therapy. DI completely resolved during the course of his neurological recovery.

  9. Case report: MRI of decubital ischemic fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozden Sila Ulus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The MRI findings in a case of decubital ischemic fasciitis located posterolateral to the right greater trochanter, in a 72-year-old woman, are presented. Decubital ischemic fasciitis is an uncommon entity encountered mostly in debilitated, elderly patients, in the deep subcutaneous tissue, at pressure points or bony prominences. It can simulate soft-tissue sarcomas. Recognition of this lesion radiologically is important to prevent unnecessary interventions.

  10. Immunopathogenesis of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis: Recent Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineki Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. HAM/TSP is a chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by spastic paraparesis, sphincter dysfunction, and mild sensory disturbance in the lower extremities. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence from host population genetics, viral genetics, DNA expression microarrays, and assays of lymphocyte function suggests that complex virus-host interactions and the host immune response play an important role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Especially, the efficiency of an individual's cytotoxic T-cell (CTL response to HTLV-1 limits the HTLV-1 proviral load and the risk of HAM/TSP. This paper focuses on the recent advances in HAM/TSP research with the aim to identify the precise mechanisms of disease, in order to develop effective treatment and prevention.

  11. Constrictive myelopathy secondary to hypoplasia or aplasia of the thoracolumbar caudal articular processes in Pugs: 11 cases (1993-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Stephen C; Shores, Andy; Simpson, Stephen T

    2013-01-15

    To report thoracolumbar caudal articular process malformations with secondary constrictive fibrosis of the spinal cord in Pugs. Retrospective case series. 11 Pugs with neurologic dysfunction resulting from constriction of fibrous tissue secondary to thoracolumbar caudal articular process malformation and 5 Pugs with no neurologic dysfunction. Medical records of dogs with myelopathy presumably caused by constriction of fibrous tissue secondary to thoracolumbar caudal articular process malformation at 2 referral institutions between 1993 and 2009 were reviewed. Dogs were included in the study if hypoplastic or aplastic thoracolumbar caudal articular processes were present on radiographs, CT images, or MRI images. The most common neurologic examination findings were paraparesis with ataxia or paraplegia but no evidence of hyperpathia along the vertebral column. All dogs' neurologic lesion localization was to the T3-L3 spinal cord segments. Median age at examination was 7. 7 years (range, 2 to 11 years). Five of 11 dogs had a history of unrelated trauma. Four of 11 dogs had urinary or fecal incontinence. Eight of 11 dogs underwent surgical exploration. Despite surgical intervention, all dogs that survived surgery continued to have neurologic deficits. In the present study, presence of aplastic or hypoplastic articular processes in the thoracolumbar region did not always produce neurologic signs. However, fibrous constrictive myelopathy should be considered in Pugs with pelvic limb gait and postural reaction deficits and lack of hyperpathia upon palpation of the vertebral column. Additional studies are warranted to further characterize the disease process and determine the most effective means of treatment.

  12. The Ischemic Stroke Genetics Study (ISGS Protocol

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    Rich Stephen S

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular basis for the genetic risk of ischemic stroke is likely to be multigenic and influenced by environmental factors. Several small case-control studies have suggested associations between ischemic stroke and polymorphisms of genes that code for coagulation cascade proteins and platelet receptors. Our aim is to investigate potential associations between hemostatic gene polymorphisms and ischemic stroke, with particular emphasis on detailed characterization of the phenotype. Methods/Design The Ischemic Stroke Genetic Study is a prospective, multicenter genetic association study in adults with recent first-ever ischemic stroke confirmed with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients are evaluated at academic medical centers in the United States and compared with sex- and age-matched controls. Stroke subtypes are determined by central blinded adjudication using standardized, validated mechanistic and syndromic classification systems. The panel of genes to be tested for polymorphisms includes β-fibrinogen and platelet glycoprotein Ia, Iba, and IIb/IIIa. Immortalized cell lines are created to allow for time- and cost-efficient testing of additional candidate genes in the future. Discussion The study is designed to minimize survival bias and to allow for exploring associations between specific polymorphisms and individual subtypes of ischemic stroke. The data set will also permit the study of genetic determinants of stroke outcome. Having cell lines will permit testing of future candidate risk factor genes.

  13. Muscular weakness represents the main limiting factor of walk, functional independence and quality of life of myelopathy patients associated to HTLV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Caiafa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT HTLV-1-associated myelopathy is a progressive disabling disease associated with gait abnormalities. Objective To identify and quantify the main muscles affected by weakness and spasticity, their impact on gait, functional capacity and on quality of life of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients. Method We evaluated lower limbs muscular strength according to the Medical Research Council scale, spasticity according to the modified Ashworth scale, daily activities according to the Barthel Index and quality of life according to the Short-Form Health Survey-36 of 26 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients. Results The muscles most affected by weakness included the dorsal flexors and knee flexors. Spasticity predominated in the hip adductor muscles and in plantar flexors. Assistance for locomotion, minimal dependence in daily activities, limitations in functional capacity and physical aspects were the most common findings. Conclusion The impairment of gait, functional dependence and quality of life were predominantly a consequence of intense muscle weakness in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients.

  14. A Global Perspective on the Outcomes of Surgical Decompression in Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: Results From the Prospective Multicenter AOSpine International Study on 479 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehlings, M.G.; Ibrahim, A.; Tetreault, L.; Albanese, V.; Alvarado, M.; Arnold, P.; Barbagallo, G.; Bartels, R.H.; Bolger, C.; Defino, H.; Kale, S.; Massicotte, E.; Moraes, O.; Scerrati, M.; Tan, G.; Tanaka, M.; Toyone, T.; Yukawa, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Zileli, M.; Kopjar, B.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter international cohort. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes of surgical decompression for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) at a global level. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: CSM is a degenerative spine disease and the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction

  15. Does age affect surgical outcomes in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy? Results from the prospective multicenter AOSpine International study on 479 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakashima, H.; Tetreault, L.A.; Nagoshi, N.; Nouri, A.; Kopjar, B.; Arnold, P.M.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Defino, H.; Kale, S.; Zhou, Q.; Fehlings, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In general, older patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) are felt to have lower recovery potential following surgery due to increased degenerative pathology, comorbidities, reduced physiological reserves and age-related changes to the spinal cord. This study aims to

  16. Mielopatía Degenerativa canina: signos clínicos, diagnóstico y terapéutica (Canine degenerative myelopathy: clinical signs, diagnosis and therapy)

    OpenAIRE

    Suraniti, A.P; LR Mira, G; Fidanza, M; Guerrero, J.; Marina, ML; M. Mercado; Gilardoni, LR; Mundo, S.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenLa mielopatía degenerativa canina es una enfermedad neurológica progresiva autoinmune que afecta principalmente a caninos adultos de talla grande sin predilección de sexo.SummaryCanine degenerative myelopathy is a progressive neurological autoimmune disease that primarily affects large size adult dogs and no sex predilection.

  17. Analysis of Patients with Myelopathy due to Benign Intradural Spinal Tumors with Concomitant Lumbar Degenerative Diseases Misdiagnosed and Erroneously Treated with Lumbar Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kang; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Yang, Chih-Hui; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Chen, Po-Yuan; Chye, Cien-Leong; Wang, Kuo-Wei; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Chen, Han-Jung

    2017-09-01

    When a cervical or thoracic benign intradural spinal tumor (BIST) coexists with lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD), diagnosis can be difficult. Symptoms of BIST-myelopathy can be mistaken as being related to LDD. Worse, an unnecessary lumbar surgery could be performed. This study was conducted to analyze cases in which an erroneous lumbar surgery was undertaken in the wake of failure to identify BIST-associated myelopathy. Cases were found in a hospital database. Patients who underwent surgery for LDD first and then another surgery for BIST removal within a short interval were studied. Issues investigated included why the BISTs were missed, how they were found later, and how the patients reacted to the unnecessary lumbar procedures. Over 10 years, 167 patients received both surgeries for LDD and a cervical or thoracic BIST. In 7 patients, lumbar surgery preceded tumor removal by a short interval. Mistakes shared by the physicians included failure to detect myelopathy and a BIST, and a hasty decision for lumbar surgery, which soon turned out to be futile. Although the BISTs were subsequently found and removed, 5 patients believed that the lumbar surgery was unnecessary, with 4 patients expressing regrets and 1 patient threatening to take legal action against the initial surgeon. Concomitant symptomatic LDD and BIST-associated myelopathy pose a diagnostic challenge. Spine specialists should refrain from reflexively linking leg symptoms and impaired ability to walk to LDD. Comprehensive patient evaluation is fundamental to avoid misdiagnosis and wrong lumbar surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke: Our institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Narayana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke is intravenous (IV rtPA for patients who can reach the hospital within 3 to 4.5 h. There are case reports, where IA thrombolysis has helped patients in case an IV thrombolysis has failed. We report 14 cases of acute ischemic stroke treated by intra-arterial (IA thrombolysis. Materials and Methods: We have retrospectively analyzed 14 cases of acute ischemic stroke treated at our department between December 2008 and October 2011 by intra-arterial thrombolysis. The patients with suspected large vessel occlusion (11 patients and patients not responding to IV rtPA (3 patients were considered for the IA thrombolysis. Results: We achieved complete recanalization (TIMI 3 in 11 patients. One patient had a bleed following the procedure but recovered well during the hospital stay. All the patients were followed up to 90 days. Majority of them have good functional outcome. Conclusions: Our study suggests that intra-arterial thrombolysis is a feasible option in the subgroup of patients with large vessel occlusion. However, there is a need for a randomized multi-centric study to support our results.

  19. Physiologically based model of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Vincent; Chabaud, Sylvie; Girard, Pascal; Cucherat, Michel; Hommel, Marc; Boissel, Jean Pierre

    2002-08-01

    In the treatment of acute ischemic stroke most of the clinical trials have failed, contrasting with promising results in the preclinical stages. This continuing discrepancy suggests some misconceptions in the understanding of acute ischemic stroke. One possible method for identifying the shortcomings of present-day approaches is to integrate all the available knowledge into a single mathematical model and to subject that model to challenges via simulations with available experimental data. As a first stage, then, the authors developed a simplified model, defining the structure and the different parameters that represent the phenomena that occur during the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke. First, the different critical points of the evolution of ischemic stroke, based on the available evidence on the pathophysiology of stroke, were identified. Those key steps were then related to the quantitative data obtained by magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography scan. These two techniques allow the measurement of diverse key markers of cerebral metabolism: cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction factor, cerebral metabolism rate of oxygen, and the apparent diffusion coefficient of water, among others. Those markers were organized together through mathematical equations, and changed over time in order to describe the evolution of an acute ischemic stroke. At each time during the evolution of stroke those parameters are summarized in a parameter called survival delay. This parameter made possible the definition of three different states for tissues-functional, infarcted, salvageable-as end point. Once the model was designed, simulations were performed to explore its internal validity. Simulation results were consistent with the reality of acute ischemic stroke and did not reveal any major drawbacks in the use of the model. The more rapid the decrease in CBF, the larger is the final infarcted area. The model also allowed for the characterization of two

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of suspected atrial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegus, M A; Greenberg, M A; Spindola-Franco, H; Fayemi, A

    1992-05-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography has become the standard technique for evaluation of cardiac and paracardiac mass lesions. We have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an independent assessment of cardiac-associated masses in patients with echocardiograms demonstrating sessile atrial tumors. MRI was performed in seven patients, ages 33 to 84, whose echocardiographic diagnoses included left atrial mass (five), right atrial mass (one), and interatrial mass (one). In four of the patients with a diagnosis of left atrial mass, MRI showed extracardiac compression of the atrium, simulating a tumor (hiatal hernia, tortuous descending aorta, bronchogenic cyst). MRI was entirely normal in one patient with an apparent left atrial mass. MRI elucidated extension of an extracavitary mass into the interatrial septum in two patients. One of these patients with an echocardiographic right atrial mass had extension of a lipoma into the interatrial septum without atrial tumor. MRI confirmed the echocardiographic diagnosis of an interatrial mass in the other patient. We conclude that MRI, because of its ability to define anatomic relationships and tissue characteristics, is a powerful noninvasive tool for evaluating suspected cardiac mass lesions. Although echocardiography remains the primary screening test for the detection of cardiac masses, MRI is a more specific modality for precise diagnosis. Correct MRI interpretation may obviate the need for invasive studies or surgery.

  1. The ischemic preconditioning effect of adenosine in patients with ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berglund Margareta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In vivo and in vitro evidence suggests that adenosine and its agonists play key roles in the process of ischemic preconditioning. The effects of low-dose adenosine infusion on ischemic preconditioning have not been thoroughly studied in humans. Aims We hypothesised that a low-dose adenosine infusion could reduce the ischemic burden evoked by physical exercise and improve the regional left ventricular (LV systolic function. Materials and methods We studied nine severely symptomatic male patients with severe coronary artery disease. Myocardial ischemia was induced by exercise on two separate occasions and quantified by Tissue Doppler Echocardiography. Prior to the exercise test, intravenous low-dose adenosine or placebo was infused over ten minutes according to a randomized, double blind, cross-over protocol. The LV walls were defined as ischemic if a reduction, no increment, or an increment of Results PSV increased from baseline to maximal exercise in non-ischemic walls both during placebo (P = 0.0001 and low-dose adenosine infusion (P = 0.0009. However, in the ischemic walls, PSV increased only during low-dose adenosine infusion (P = 0.001, while no changes in PSV occurred during placebo infusion (P = NS. Conclusion Low-dose adenosine infusion reduced the ischemic burden and improved LV regional systolic function in the ischemic walls of patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia, confirming that adenosine is a potential preconditioning agent in humans.

  2. Cervical corpectomy with preserved posterior vertebral wall for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a randomized control clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Zhang; Xinwei, Wang; Jing, Zhang; Shengming, Xu; Bitao, Lv; Tao, Zhang; Wen, Yuan

    2007-06-15

    Cervical corpectomy with preserved posterior vertebral wall (CPW) had been performed by the senior author (Y.W.) since 1999. A prospective study had been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of CPW since 2001. To validate the clinical outcome of CPW against conventional corpectomy (CC). Anterior surgical managements of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) include discectomy and corpectomy. Both have significant disadvantages, including low fusion rates and residual symptoms. A procedure incorporating multilevel discectomy, corpectomy with preserved posterior vertebral wall, autograft and plating was described. By keeping the posterior vertebral wall (PW), infringement of the vein plexus and spinal canal was avoided and more fusion site was available. From March 2001 to March 2004, 178 cases of CSM were randomized to undergo CPW (n = 89) or CC (n = 89). Arthrodesis was done with autogenous iliac bone graft or titanium cage supplemented with anterior self-lock plates in both groups. Operation time, blood loss, days of hospitalization, the numbers and types of complications, and preoperative and postoperative JOA scores were recorded. Fusion rate, segmental lordosis, and disc height were assessed by roentgenography. Three-dimensional reconstructions of CT scan were used to confirm fusion evidence. Average operation time and blood loss decreased significantly in the CPW group (98.06 +/- 19.42 minutes, and 131.69 +/- 62.41 mL) as compared with those in the CC group (108.45 +/- 22.35 minutes, and 181.57 +/- 82.10 mL) (P < 0.05). There were 2 cases of epidural bleeding and 1 case of CSF leak in the CC group. Other complications were minor. JOA improvement scores were similar in both groups. Roentgenograms showed that the fusion rate was 100% at 6 months postoperatively in both groups. CT scans showed that PW fused with grafts and bone dust in cages. Improvement in segmental lordosis and disc height was similar in both groups. CPW is a feasible procedure for anterior

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of soluble CD27 in HTLV-I associated myelopathy and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzen, R Q; Paty, D; Oger, J

    1999-06-01

    Stimulation of T lymphocytes via the T cell receptor strongly enhances CD27 membrane expression and induces the release of a soluble 32 kDa form of CD27 (sCD27). CD27 is a member of the TNF receptor family, a group of molecules that have important roles in lymphocyte differentiation and survival. Raised concentrations of sCD27 have been reported in various immunopathological conditions and there is evidence that this molecule can serve as a marker of T cell activation in vivo. Concentrations of sCD27 in CSF were compared between patients with T cell mediated neurological disease and non-inflammatory controls. Also, the relation of CSF-sCD27 concentrations with clinical disease activity was investigated in patients with multiple sclerosis. Four groups were studied: (1) eight patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparisis (HAM)/TSP), (2) eight HTLV-I carriers, (3) 41 patients with multiple sclerosis, and (4) 43 patients with other neurological disease (OND). Concentrations of CSF-sCD27 were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Quantification of CSF-sCD27 differentiates patients with HAM/TSP from HTLV-I carriers (p<0.01) and from patients with OND (p<0.001). Moreover, the multiple sclerosis patient group was different from the OND group (p<0.0001). In patients with multiple sclerosis, CSF-sCD27 concentrations were higher in 24 patients with clinically active disease than in 17 with clinically stable disease. In addition, most of the patients with multiple sclerosis with high sCD27 concentrations showed an increase in EDSS, whereas none of the patients with low sCD27 had an EDSS increase. As a reliable marker of immunological disease activity in inflammatory white matter disease is still not available, it is proposed that quantification of CSF-sCD27 concentrations is a good candidate. Also, it may serve as a tool to stratify neurological diseases in inflammatory and non-inflammatory states.

  4. A systematic review of clinical and surgical predictors of complications following surgery for degenerative cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Côté, Pierre; Singh, Anoushka; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Although generally safe and effective, surgery for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is associated with complications in 11%-38% of patients. Several predictors of postoperative complications have been proposed but few are used to detect high-risk patients. A standard approach to identifying "at-risk" patients would improve surgeons' ability to prevent and manage these complications. The authors aimed to compare the complication rates between various surgical procedures used to treat CSM and to identify patient-specific, clinical, imaging, and surgical predictors of complications. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature and searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1948 to September 2013. Cohort studies designed to evaluate predictors of complications and intervention studies conducted to compare different surgical approaches were included. Each article was critically appraised independently by 2 reviewers, and the evidence was synthesized according to the principles outlined by the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. A total of 5472 citations were retrieved. Of those, 60 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. These studies included 36 prognostic cohort studies and 28 comparative intervention studies. High evidence suggests that older patients are at a greater risk of perioperative complications. Based on low evidence, other clinical factors such as body mass index, smoking status, duration of symptoms, and baseline severity score, are not predictive of complications. With respect to surgical factors, low to moderate evidence suggests that estimated blood loss, surgical approach, and number of levels do not affect rates of complications. A longer operative duration (moderate evidence), however, is predictive of perioperative complications and a 2-stage surgery is related to an increased

  5. Familial clusters of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nozuma

    Full Text Available HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs and some genetic factors are reported to be associated with the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. However, there are very few reports on HAM/TSP having family history. We aimed to define the clinical features and laboratory indications associated with HAM/TSP having family history.Records of 784 HAM/TSP patients who were hospitalized in Kagoshima University Hospital and related hospitals from 1987 to 2012 were reviewed. Using an unmatched case-control design, 40 patients of HAM/TSP having family history (f-HAM/TSP were compared with 124 patients suffering from sporadic HAM/TSP, who were admitted in series over the last 10 years for associated clinical features.Of the 784 patients, 40 (5.1% were f-HAM/TSP cases. Compared with sporadic cases, the age of onset was earlier (41.3 vs. 51.6 years, p<0.001, motor disability grades were lower (4.0 vs. 4.9, p = 0.043 despite longer duration of illness (14.3 vs. 10.2 years, p = 0.026, time elapsed between onset and wheelchair use in daily life was longer (18.3 vs. 10.0 years, p = 0.025, cases with rapid disease progression were fewer (10.0% vs. 28.2%, p = 0.019, and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were significantly lower in f-HAM/TSP cases (29.9 vs. 42.5 mg, p<0.001. There was no difference in HTLV-1 PVLs, anti-HTLV-1 antibody titers in serum and CSF, or cell number and neopterin levels in CSF. Furthermore, HTLV-1 PVLs were lower in cases with rapid disease progression than in those with slow progression in sporadic cases [corrected]We demonstrated that HAM/TSP aggregates in the family, with a younger age of onset and a slow rate of progression in f-HAM/TSP cases compared with sporadic cases. These data also suggested that factors other than HTLV-1 PVLs contribute to the disease course of HAM/TSP.

  6. Increased expression of endothelin ET(B) and angiotensin AT(1) receptors in peripheral resistance arteries of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrijevic, Ivan; Ekelund, Ulf; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    in an abdominal biopsy from 12 patients suspicious of ACS (susp ACS), admitted to the medical telemetry unit for chest pain. The vessels were analyzed for their receptor protein expression by quantitative immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies directed against ET(A), ET(B), AT(1), and AT(2) receptors......Patients who experience chest pain, in which ischemic heart disease has been ruled out, still have an increased risk of future ischemic cardiac events and premature death, possibly due to subclinical endothelial dysfunction. A feature of endothelial dysfunction is an increased expression...... of arterial vasoconstrictor endothelin (ET) and angiotensin (AT) receptors. Our aim was to investigate if the arterial expressions of these receptors are changed in patients with suspected but ruled out acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Small subcutaneous arteries (diameter of 100 microm) were surgically removed...

  7. Detection of Rabies antigen in brains of suspected Rabid dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detect the presence of rabies antigen in brains of suspected rabid dogs. Materials and Methods: Ninety six (96) brain specimens from suspected rabid dogs were examined for the presence of rabies antigen using Seller's staining technique and enzyme immunoassay. Results: The two techniques were both ...

  8. 48 CFR 803.806 - Processing suspected violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Limitation on the Payment of Funds to Influence Federal Transactions 803.806 Processing suspected violations. A VA employee must report suspected violations of 31 U.S.C. 1352, Limitation on Use of Appropriated Funds to Influence Certain Federal...

  9. The clinical course of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, E. J.; Kuijer, P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Brandjes, D. P.; Bossuyt, P. M.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism is known to a limited extent only. OBJECTIVE: To address this limited knowledge in a cohort in whom pulmonary embolism was proved or ruled out. METHODS: Consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism underwent

  10. Thrombophilia And Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Abrishamizadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke (IS is a common cause of morbidity and mortality with significant socioeconomic impact especially when it affects young patients. Compared to the older adults, the incidence, risk factors, and etiology are distinctly different in younger IS. Hypercoagulable states are relatively more commonly detected in younger IS patients. Thrombophilic states are disorders of hemostatic mechanisms that result in a predisposition to thrombosis .Thrombophilia is an established cause of venous thrombosis. Therefore, it is tempting to assume that these disorders might have a similar relationship with arterial thrombosis. Despite this fact that 1-4 % of ischemic strokes are attributed to Thrombophillia, this   alone rarely causes arterial occlusions .Even in individuals with a positive thrombophilia screen and arterial thrombosis, the former might not be the primary etiological factor. Thrombophilic   disorders can be broadly divided into inherited or acquired conditions. Inherited thrombophilic states include deficiencies of natural anticoagulants such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin III (AT III deficiency, polymorphisms causing resistance to activated protein C(Factor V Leiden mutation, and disturbance in the clotting balance (prothrombin gene 20210G/A variant. Of all the inherited  thrombophilic disorders, Factor V Leiden mutation is perhaps the commonest cause. On the contrary, acquired thrombophilic disorders are more common and include conditions such as the antiphospholipid syndrome, associated with lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies. The more useful and practical approach of ordering various diagnostic tests for the uncommon thrombophilic states tests should be determined by a detailed clinical history, physical examination, imaging studies and evaluating whether an underlying hypercoagulable state appears more likely. The laboratory thrombophilia   screening should be comprehensive and avoid missing the

  11. Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchgessner Annette

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, therapeutic options remain limited. Only recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA for thrombolysis is currently approved for use in the treatment of this devastating disease. However, its use is limited by its short therapeutic window (three hours, complications derived essentially from the risk of hemorrhage, and the potential damage from reperfusion/ischemic injury. Two important pathophysiological mechanisms involved during ischemic stroke are oxidative stress and inflammation. Brain tissue is not well equipped with antioxidant defenses, so reactive oxygen species and other free radicals/oxidants, released by inflammatory cells, threaten tissue viability in the vicinity of the ischemic core. This review will discuss the molecular aspects of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischemic stroke and potential therapeutic strategies that target neuroinflammation and the innate immune system. Currently, little is known about endogenous counterregulatory immune mechanisms. However, recent studies showing that regulatory T cells are major cerebroprotective immunomodulators after stroke suggest that targeting the endogenous adaptive immune response may offer novel promising neuroprotectant therapies.

  12. Ischemic Tolerance of the Brain and Spinal Cord: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Masatoshi; Kanda, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Uneda, Atsuhito; Hirashita, Koji; Yoshino, Kimihiro

    2017-11-15

    Ischemic tolerance is an endogenous neuroprotective phenomenon induced by sublethal ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the first discovered form of ischemic tolerance, is widely seen in many species and in various organs including the brain and the spinal cord. Ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord is less familiar among neurosurgeons, although it has been reported from the viewpoint of preventing ischemic spinal cord injury during aortic surgery. It is important for neurosurgeons to have opportunities to see patients with spinal cord ischemia, and to understand ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord as well as the brain. IPC has a strong neuroprotective effect in animal models of ischemia; however, clinical application of IPC for ischemic brain and spinal diseases is difficult because they cannot be predicted. In addition, one drawback of preconditioning stimuli is that they are also capable of producing injury with only minor changes to their intensity or duration. Numerous methods to induce ischemic tolerance have been discovered that vary in their timing and the site at which short-term ischemia occurs. These methods include ischemic postconditioning (IPoC), remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) and remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPoC), which has had a great impact on clinical approaches to treatment of ischemic brain and spinal cord injury. Especially RIPerC and RIPoC to induce spinal cord tolerance are considered clinically useful, however the evidence supporting these methods is currently insufficient; further experimental or clinical research in this area is thus necessary.

  13. Ischemic Tolerance of the Brain and Spinal Cord: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    YUNOKI, Masatoshi; KANDA, Takahiro; SUZUKI, Kenta; UNEDA, Atsuhito; HIRASHITA, Koji; YOSHINO, Kimihiro

    2017-01-01

    Ischemic tolerance is an endogenous neuroprotective phenomenon induced by sublethal ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the first discovered form of ischemic tolerance, is widely seen in many species and in various organs including the brain and the spinal cord. Ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord is less familiar among neurosurgeons, although it has been reported from the viewpoint of preventing ischemic spinal cord injury during aortic surgery. It is important for neurosurgeons to have opportunities to see patients with spinal cord ischemia, and to understand ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord as well as the brain. IPC has a strong neuroprotective effect in animal models of ischemia; however, clinical application of IPC for ischemic brain and spinal diseases is difficult because they cannot be predicted. In addition, one drawback of preconditioning stimuli is that they are also capable of producing injury with only minor changes to their intensity or duration. Numerous methods to induce ischemic tolerance have been discovered that vary in their timing and the site at which short-term ischemia occurs. These methods include ischemic postconditioning (IPoC), remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC) and remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPoC), which has had a great impact on clinical approaches to treatment of ischemic brain and spinal cord injury. Especially RIPerC and RIPoC to induce spinal cord tolerance are considered clinically useful, however the evidence supporting these methods is currently insufficient; further experimental or clinical research in this area is thus necessary. PMID:28954945

  14. Seasonal variation among tuberculosis suspects in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabaera, Biggie; Naranbat, Nymadawa; Katamba, Achilles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze monthly trends across a calendar year in tuberculosis suspects and sputum smear-positive cases based on nationally representative samples of tuberculosis laboratory registers from Moldova, Mongolia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Out of the 47 140 suspects registered...... in the tuberculosis laboratory registers, 13.4% (6312) were cases. The proportion varied from country to country, Moldova having the lowest (9%) and Uganda the highest (21%). From the monthly proportion of suspects and cases among total suspects and cases, seasonal variations were most marked in Mongolia which, among...... attendance to diagnostic laboratory services, evidenced by the contrasting findings of Mongolia (extreme continental northern climate) compared to Uganda (equatorial climate). A combination of external and possibly endogenous factors seems to determine whether tuberculosis suspects and cases present...

  15. The approach of ischemic colitis case followed by the lower gastrointesitnal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUKSEL ALTINEL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Colonic vascular ischemia is commonly seen in the descending colon and causes malnutrition and is to be commensurate with the duration of clinical myocardial ischemia. History of cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, with coronary hearth disease, 68-year-old female patient was followed for about 2 weeks with the occasional massive gastrointestinal bleeding complaint. After ceasing oral intake, fluid and electrolyte replacement and a broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was established. Abdomen bowel wall thickening of the colon in continuity in the CT results were observed with the open SMA SMV. Follow-up colonoscopy was performed from the dentate line at 5 cm starting hemorrhagic and ischemic segments was seen as an area of ​​about 40 cm long. After hemodynamic deterioration she was underwent emergency surgery because of abdominal sensitivity increase. Hartman procedure was performed. Postop pneumonia and pulmonary embolism were suspected. Candida was observed in urine infection. The sudden improving of the patient's postoperative bleeding from the rectal stump where the staple line was, has evolved on the 7th day. The sponges with the adrenaline stopped the bleeding and the hemodynamic support was stabilized with it. The minimal fluid in pelvis was also monitored by ultrasound . The colostomy was fine following the blood supply to the bowel. Later oral intake was started, the general condition of the patient was improved. But on the postoperative day 12 she had suddenly respiratory and cardiac arrest . Finally, the histopathological examination revealed that the ischemic necrosis and purulent some areas could be selected as a morphologic ischemic and necrotic (the intraoperative peritoneal reflection of the level of false membrane formation at the perforation focus off ischemic colitis. Approximately 20% of similar cases were followed with the clinical practice under medical treatment and surgical approach. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 74-76

  16. Short Telomere Length and Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madrid, Alexander Scheller; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short telomeres are associated with aging and have been associated with a high risk of ischemic heart disease in observational studies; however, the latter association could be due to residual confounding and/or reverse causation. We wanted to test the hypothesis that short telomeres...... are associated with high risk of ischemic heart disease using a Mendelian randomization approach free of reverse causation and of most confounding. METHODS: We genotyped 3 genetic variants in OBFC1 (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding fold containing 1), TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase), and TERC...... (telomerase RNA component), which code for proteins and RNA involved in telomere maintenance. We studied 105 055 individuals from Copenhagen; 17 235 of these individuals were diagnosed with ischemic heart disease between 1977 and 2013, and 66 618 had telomere length measured. For genetic studies, we further...

  17. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Kidney Tissue Ischemic Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demos, S G; Fitzgerald, J T; Michalopoulou, A P; Troppmann, C

    2004-03-11

    Noninvasive evaluation of tissue viability of donor kidneys used for transplantation is an issue that current technology is not able to address. In this work, we explore optical spectroscopy for its potential to assess the degree of ischemic damage in kidney tissue. We hypothesized that ischemic damage to kidney tissue will give rise to changes in its optical properties which in turn may be used to asses the degree of tissue injury. The experimental results demonstrate that the autofluorescence intensity of the injured kidney is decreasing as a function of time exposed to ischemic injury. Changes were also observed in the NIR light scattering intensities most probably arising from changes due to injury and death of the tissue.

  18. Cardiac magnetic resonance determinants of functional mitral regurgitation in ischemic and non ischemic left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Golfín, Covadonga; De Agustin, Alberto; Manzano, M Carmen; Bustos, Ana; Sánchez, Tibisay; Pérez de Isla, Leopoldo; Fuentes, Manuel; Macaya, Carlos; Zamorano, José

    2011-04-01

    Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is frequent in left ventricular (LV) dilatation/dysfunction. Echocardiographic predictors of FMR are known. However, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) predictors of FMR have not been fully addressed. The aim of the study was to evaluate CMR mitral valve (MV) parameters associated with FMR in ischemic and non ischemic LV dysfunction. 80 patients with LV ejection fraction below 45% and/or left ventricular dilatation of ischemic and non ischemic etiology were included. Cine-MR images (steady state free-precession) were acquired in a short-axis and 4 chambers views where MV evaluation was performed. Delayed enhancement was performed as well. Significant FMR was established as more than mild MR according to the echocardiographic report. Mean age was 59 years, males 79%. FMR was detected in 20 patients (25%) Significant differences were noted in LV functional parameters and in most MV parameters according to the presence of significant FMR. However, differences were noted between ischemic and non ischemic groups. In the first, differences in most MV parameters remained significant while in the non ischemic, only systolic and diastolic interpapillary muscle distance (1.60 vs. 2.19 cm, P = 0.001; 2. 51 vs. 3.04, P = 0.008) were predictors of FMR. FMR is associated with a more severe LV dilatation/dysfunction in the overall population. CMR MV parameters are associated with the presence of significant FMR and are different between ischemic and non ischemic patients. CMR evaluation of these patients may help in risk stratification as well as in surgical candidate selection.

  19. MRI-pathological correlate of brain lesions in a necropsy case of HTLV-I associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, A; Nagashima, K; Tashiro, K; Miyakawa, A; Mikuni, C

    1993-02-01

    A postmortem case of HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) with a history of remission and exacerbation of neurological signs and symptoms, resembling those of multiple sclerosis is reported. MRI analysis revealed lesions in the periventricular white matter in addition to atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord, characteristic of HAM/TSP. The cerebral periventricular areas consisted of ill-defined paucity of myelin sheaths with astrocytic gliosis and hyaline thickening of blood vessels. The poorly demarcated white matter lesions found in both brain and spinal cord were different from plaques found in multiple sclerosis. It is suggested that, in some cases of HAM/TSP, inflammatory lesions that destroy myelin can involve not only the spinal cord but also the cerebral periventricular white matter.

  20. HTLV-I associated myelopathy in patients from Brazil and Iran: neurological manifestations and cerebrospinal fluid findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Puccioni-Sohler

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We analysed sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 20 cases of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type (HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP from Brazil and Iran and as controls, 16 Brazilian HTLVI seronegative individuals afflicted with other neurological diseases. It was observed in the HAM/TSP patients that: 1 all had an inflammatory reaction within the central nervous system (CNS; 2 95% (19/20 showed oligoclonal bands reflecting intrathecal IgG synthesis; 3 85% (17/20 presented a local synthesis of HTLVI antibodies; 4 35% (7/20 had a measurable immunoglobulin (Ig synthesis within the CNS. The CSF parameters of the HAM/TSP were compared with the clinical data (age at onset, duration of disease and disability level. Our data prove that CSF analysis is important for the diagnosis of HAM/TSP. There is no association between the severity of the disease and CSF findings.

  1. Comparative evaluation of surgical alternatives in the treatment of acute cervical myelopathy and in the decompression of cervical spinal canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Czigléczki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of cervical myelopathy are caused by the compression of the cervical spinal cord in the narrowed spinal canal. Several techniques including less invasive and minimally invasive methods have been developed with the aim of decompressing the cervical spinal canal, preserving posterior motion segments and paraspinal muscles as much as possible, reducing iatrogenic consequences and promoting faster recoveries of patients. The purpose of this article is to summarize these procedures and evaluate their efficacy with comparing them to each other. The applicable methods are presented shortly but the differences between them are discussed in details. Comprehensive examination did not reveal the proven superiority of any techniques and in most cases the less invasive or minimally invasive treatment choices should be individually determined, considering the location and extension of pathology and the familiarity of surgeon with techniques.

  2. An unusual case of rapidly progressed cervical compression myelopathy caused by overnight inappropriate usage of Smartphone device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen-Ya; Wang, Jia-Chi

    2017-05-01

    A 38-year-old man was healthy before presenting to our clinic with pain and marked weakness in the right upper extremity. He stated that the symptoms developed the day after he accidentally fell asleep while playing with his Smartphone half-lying on his back with two thick pillows supporting his upper back. Physical examination revealed significant increase in deep tendon reflexes in the lower extremities and clonus. Hoffman's sign was positive in the left upper extremity. Magnetic resonance image showed high signal change on T2-weighted images of the left spinal cord at the C4-5 level, which was indicative of compression myelopathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Axonal plasticity underpins the functional recovery following surgical decompression in a rat model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Rana S; Parker, John; Syed, Yasir A; Edgley, Steve; Young, Adam; Fawcett, James W; Jeffery, Nick D; Franklin, Robin J M; Kotter, Mark R N

    2016-08-23

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common spinal cord disorder and a major cause of disability in adults. Improvements following surgical decompression are limited and patients often remain severely disabled. Post mortem studies indicate that CSM is associated with profound axonal loss. However, our understanding of the pathophysiology of CSM remains limited.To investigate the hypothesis that axonal plasticity plays a role in the recovery following surgical decompression, we adopted a novel preclinical model of mild to moderate CSM. Spinal cord compression resulted in significant locomotor deterioration, increased expression of the axonal injury marker APP, and loss of serotonergic fibres. Surgical decompression partially reversed the deficits and attenuated APP expression. Decompression was also associated with axonal sprouting, reflected in the restoration of serotonergic fibres and an increase of GAP43 expression. The re-expression of synaptophysin indicated the restoration of functional synapses following decompression. Promoting axonal plasticity may therefore be a therapeutic strategy for promoting neurological recovery in CSM.

  4. A Case of Delayed Radiation Myelopathy of the Thoracic Vertebrae Following Low Dose Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nozaki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM is a rare disorder that rapidly leads to disabilities, and the median incubation period was reported to be about 2 years (from 6 months to a few years. In this report, we describe a 61-year-old woman who presented with rapid progressive numbness and weakness in both legs 22 months after palliative radiation therapy with 39 Gy in 3 Gy fractions. She was diagnosed with DRM of the thoracic vertebrae and was treated sequentially with corticosteroids, heparin, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. However, they were not effective, and complete paralysis of the legs occurred in 3 months.

  5. "Numb, clumsy hands" and tactile agnosia secondary to high cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a clinical and electrophysiological correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M H; Liao, K K; Cheung, S C; Kong, K W; Chang, S P

    1992-12-01

    Four patients presented with a distinctive syndrome of "numb, clumsy hand" and tactile agnosia. Myelography and computed tomographic myelography (CTM) of the cervical spine documented major spondylotic compressive lesions mainly between the C3 and C5 levels. The cortical responses of dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials (DSEPs) revealed progressively prolonged peak latencies and progressively decreased amplitudes of early components from C6 to C8 dermatomal stimulation. In comparison, the C5 and L2 DSEPs were affected to a lesser extent. This finding suggests that high cervical cord compression may produce dysfunction of the dorsal column caudal to the direct compressive sites. In other words, the funiculus cuneatus of C6-8 cord is most affected in high cervical myelopathy. Moreover, the funiculus cuneatus is within the border zone susceptible to an overall reduction in blood flow. We conclude therefore, that ischemia secondary to cord compression is the pathophysiology resulting in this unique syndrome of "numb, clumsy hands" and tactile agnosia.

  6. Myeloperoxidase Inhibition Increases Neurogenesis after Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyeonJu; Wei, Ying; Lee, Ji Yong; Wu, Yue; Zheng, Yi; Moskowitz, Michael A; Chen, John W

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between inflammation and neurogenesis in stroke is currently not well understood. Focal ischemia enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the neurogenic regions, including the subventricular zone (SVZ), dentate gyrus, as well as the non-neurogenic striatum, and cortex in the ischemic hemisphere. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a potent oxidizing enzyme secreted during inflammation by activated leukocytes, and its enzymatic activity is highly elevated after stroke. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of MPO activity by a specific irreversible inhibitor, 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide (ABAH) (MPO(-/-) mice) can increase neurogenesis after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. ABAH administration increased the number of proliferating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells expressing markers for neural stems cells, astrocytes, neuroprogenitor cells (Nestin), and neuroblasts (doublecortin) in the ischemic SVZ, anterior SVZ, striatum, and cortex. MPO inhibition also increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (Ser133), acetylated H3, and NeuN to promote neurogenesis in the ischemic SVZ. ABAH treatment also increased chemokine CXC receptor 4 expression in the ischemic SVZ. MPO-deficient mice treated with vehicle or ABAH both showed similar effects on the number of BrdU(+) cells in the ischemic hemisphere, demonstrating that ABAH is specific to MPO. Taken together, our results underscore a detrimental role of MPO activity to postischemia neurogenesis and that a strategy to inhibit MPO activity can increase cell proliferation and improve neurogenesis after ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Anticoagulant Therapy In Ischemic Stroke Or TIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Mehrvar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of disability and the third leading cause of death  . Anticoagulants   have been used to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke for many years. Despite their widespread use, the usefulness of emergency anticoagulation is a subject of debate. Disagreements exist about the best agent to administer, the route of administration, the use of a bolus dose to start treatment, the level of anticoagulation required, and the duration of treatment. There are 2 types of anticoagulants: Parenteral and oral. Heparin is an anticoagulant that used parenteral. Oral anticoagulants are including Warfarin and new anticoagulants such as Dabigatrn,Rivaroxaban ,Apixaban and other newer drugs. In patients with noncardioembolic  ischemic stroke or TIA antiplatelet agents are treatment of choice and preferred to anticoagulants. In cardioembolic  ischemic stroke or TIA with high risk of reembolization  anticoagulants  are considered as preferred treatment.  Warfarin, apixaban10mg/d ,Rivaroxaban20mg/d, and dabigatran 150 mg/d are all indicated for the prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF, whether paroxysmal or permanent.Also anticoagulant therapy is recommended for ischemic stroke or TIA patients in the setting of acute MI, atrial or ventricular thrombosis or dilated and restricted cardiomyopathy. Some valvular heart diseases are other indication for anticoagulant therapy in ischemic stroke or TIA patients. Ischemic  Stroke or TIA in patients with Cerebral vein thrombosis and  known hypercoagulable state specially anti phospholipid antibody syndrome are other indications for anticoagulant treatment.

  8. [Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of ischemic stroke--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Men with a nonfasting triglyceride level 5 mmol/l had a multivariable, adjusted...... hazard ratio for ischemic stroke of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8) compared with men with a nonfasting triglyceride level triglycerides is associated with risk of ischemic stroke Udgivelsesdato...

  9. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Reshma; Shrivastava, Saurabh; Deshpande, Shrikant; Patkar, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever is caused by a flavivirus. This infection is endemic in the tropics and warm temperate regions of the world. Ocular manifestations of dengue fever include subconjunctival, vitreous, and retinal haemorrhages; posterior uveitis; optic neuritis; and maculopathies, haemorrhage, and oedema. However anterior ischemic optic neuropathy is a rare presentation. Optic nerve ischemia most frequently occurs at the optic nerve head, where structural crowding of nerve fibers and reduction of the vascular supply may combine to impair perfusion to a critical degree and produce optic disc oedema. Here we present a case of anterior ischemic optic neurapathy associated with dengue fever.

  10. History of transient ischemic attack definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jay P

    2014-01-01

    Transient ischemic attacks have been recognized as a clinical entity for well over a century. Efforts before the availability of modern imaging to establish a diagnosis of inferred ischemic stroke led to acceptance of too long a time period (>24 h) compared with the actual typical events lasting <24 min (usually 5-15 min). Revision of the time period has improved diagnostic yield and discovered many whose image-documented acute infarct is associated with a short clinical course. Copyright © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Daher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk.

  12. The Role of Gait Analysis in the Evaluation of Patients with Cervical Myelopathy: A Literature Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siasios, Ioannis D; Spanos, Savvas L; Kanellopoulos, Asimakis K; Fotiadou, Aggeliki; Pollina, John; Schneider, Daniel; Becker, Alexander; Dimopoulos, Vassilios G; Fountas, Kostas N

    2017-05-01

    Gait analysis represents one of the newest methodologies used in the clinical evaluation of patients with cervical myelopathy (CM). To describe the role of gait analysis in the clinical evaluation of patients with CM, as well as its potential role in the evaluation of the functional outcome of any surgical intervention. A literature review was performed in the PubMed, OVID, and Google Scholar medical databases, from January 1995 to August 2016, using the terms "analysis," "anterior," "cervical myelopathy," "gait," "posterior," and "surgery." Clinical series comparing the gait patterns of patients with CM with healthy controls, as well as series evaluating gait and walk changes before and after surgical decompression, were reviewed. Case studies were excluded. Nine prospective and 3 retrospective studies were found. Most of the retrieved studies showed the presence of characteristic, abnormal gait patterns among patients with CM, consisting of decreased gait speed, cadence, step length, stride length, and single-limb support time. In addition, patients with CM routinely present increased step and stride time, double-limb support time, and step width, and they have altered knee and ankle joint range of motion, compared with healthy controls. Moreover, gait and walk analysis may provide accurate functional assessment of the functional outcome of patients with CM undergoing surgical decompression. Gait analysis may well be a valuable and objective tool along with other parameters in the evaluation of functionality in patients with CM, as well as in the assessment of the outcome of any surgical intervention in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of Suspect Location Based on Spatiotemporal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Duan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of suspect location enables proactive experiences for crime investigations and offers essential intelligence for crime prevention. However, existing studies have failed to capture the complex social location transition patterns of suspects and lack the capacity to address the issue of data sparsity. This paper proposes a novel location prediction model called CMoB (Crime Multi-order Bayes model based on the spatiotemporal semantics to enhance the prediction performance. In particular, the model groups suspects with similar spatiotemporal semantics as one target suspect. Then, their mobility data are applied to estimate Markov transition probabilities of unobserved locations based on a KDE (kernel density estimating smoothing method. Finally, by integrating the total transition probabilities, which are derived from the multi-order property of the Markov transition matrix, into a Bayesian-based formula, it is able to realize multi-step location prediction for the individual suspect. Experiments with the mobility dataset covering 210 suspects and their 18,754 location records from January to June 2012 in Wuhan City show that the proposed CMoB model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for suspect location prediction in the context of data sparsity.

  14. Enlarged laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation for multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy associated with kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-ze; Ding, Wen-yuan; Ren, Long-xi

    2014-01-01

    Either an anterior approach or a posterior approach, which aims to decompress the spinal cord and restore the sagittal alignment, has been adopted to treat multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy (CDM) associated with kyphosis. However, there is controversy on the optimal surgical strategy for the treatment of multilevel CDM with kyphotic deformity because of the complications of each surgical approach. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical efficacy of enlarged laminectomy (removing the inside edge of facet joints and decompressing the nerve foramina) and lateral mass screw fixation for the treatment of multilevel CDM associated with kyphosis. A retrospective radiographic and clinical study to access the efficacy of enlarged laminectomy with lateral mass screw fixation in the treatment of multilevel CDM related to kyphosis. A total of 43 patients (28 men and 15 women; average age, 59.6 years) with multilevel CDM correlated to kyphosis were obtained in the study. All radiological data were recorded on computer-based measurement from preoperative or postoperative X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography. All neurological parameters were accessed in each patient. Analysis consisted of: Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, recovery rate, curvature index (CI), the expansion degree and drift-back distance of the spinal cord, axial symptom severity, and C5 root palsy. The recovery rate based on the JOA score was calculated for each patient. Cervical CI as well as the expansion degree and drift-back distance of the spinal cord was measured using MRI. Axial symptom severity was quantified by a visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical analysis was performed using paired t test with significance set at p<.05. Enlarged laminectomy was performed over a mean of 3.97 levels (range, 3-5 levels). Follow-up information was obtained at a mean of 2.8 years (range, 1.5-5 years) after surgery. Analysis of the final follow-up data

  15. Detection of atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kishore, Amit; Vail, Andy; Majid, Arshad; Dawson, Jesse; Lees, Kennedy R; Tyrrell, Pippa J; Smith, Craig J

    2014-01-01

    .... We therefore undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the frequency of newly detected AF using noninvasive or invasive cardiac monitoring after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack...

  16. Sonographic and Endoscopic Findings in Cocaine-Induced Ischemic Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Thomas; Wilkens, Rune; Bonderup, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine-induced ischemic colitis is a recognized entity. The diagnosis is based on clinical and endoscopic findings. However, diagnostic imaging is helpful in the evaluation of abdominal symptoms and prior studies have suggested specific sonographic findings in ischemic colitis. We report...... sonographic and endoscopic images along with abdominal computed tomography in a case of cocaine-induced ischemic colitis....

  17. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  18. Blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease, and longevity in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Sillesen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity.......Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity....

  19. Long-term impact of diabetes in patients hospitalized with ischemic and non-ischemic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Pecini, Redi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Diabetes mellitus (DM) in combination with heart failure (HF) is associated with a high risk of death, but it is uncertain whether the prognosis differs in ischemic and non-ischemic HF groups. Design. One thousand, three hundred and six patients with ischemic HF and 1315 pati...

  20. ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, α-Lipoic acid, Cerebral infarct area, Edema, Antioxidants,. Inflammatory markers. Tropical Journal of ... live births, of which ~55 % of the affected premature children die by the age of 2 years ..... severe complications, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, motor impairment, and delayed.

  1. Ischemic Stroke Penumbra and Extracorporeal Ozone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, G.

    2013-01-01

    The course of events in ischemic strokes is normally seen from a point in which the penumbra is already in place. Since there is no known treatment for edema reduction, mainstream medicine focuses on re-opening the occluded vessel. Here we show that reducing the penumbra saves neuronal units from undergoing apoptosis. PMID:23859279

  2. Ischemic Stroke during Pregnancy and Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Del Zotto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke during pregnancy and puerperium represents a rare occurrence but it could be a serious and stressful event for mothers, infants, and also families. Whenever it does occur, many concerns arise about the safety of the mother and the fetus in relation to common diagnostic tests and therapies leading to a more conservative approach. The physiological adaptations in the cardiovascular system and in the coagulability that accompany the pregnant state, which are more significant around delivery and in the postpartum period, likely contribute to increasing the risk of an ischemic stroke. Most of the causes of an ischemic stroke in the young may also occur in pregnant patients. Despite this, there are specific conditions related to pregnancy which may be considered when assessing this particular group of patients such as pre-eclampsia-eclampsia, choriocarcinoma, peripartum cardiomiopathy, amniotic fluid embolization, and postpartum cerebral angiopathy. This article will consider several questions related to pregnancy-associated ischemic stroke, dwelling on epidemiological and specific etiological aspects, diagnostic issue concerning the use of neuroimaging, and the related potential risks to the embryo and fetus. Therapeutic issues surrounding the use of anticoagulant and antiplatelets agents will be discussed along with the few available reports regarding the use of thrombolytic therapy during pregnancy.

  3. Ischemic Stroke and Neuroprotection | Onwuekwe | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries of the world. Greater understanding of the pathophysiology of neuronal damage in ischemic stroke has generated interest in neuroprotection as a management strategy. This paper aims to review the current concept and place of ...

  4. ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, α-Lipoic acid, Cerebral infarct area, Edema, Antioxidants,. Inflammatory markers. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, ...

  5. Remote ischemic preconditioning: the surgeon's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, Matthias; Wendt, Daniel; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Price, Vivien; Dohle, Daniel-Sebastian; Pasa, Susanne; Kottenberg, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Since cardiac surgery began, surgeons have aimed to find methods of minimizing myocardial injury resulting from ischemia and reperfusion. The concept of somehow conditioning the heart in order to attenuate ischemia and reperfusion-related injury has evolved in cardiovascular research over decades, from ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning to, more recently, remote ischemic preconditioning (and postconditioning). Although many strategies have proven to be beneficial in the experimental arena, a few have been successfully translated into clinical practice. Remote ischemic preconditioning, with the use of brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion of vascular territories remote from the heart, has been shown convincingly to decrease myocardial injury. To date, the translation of this powerful innate mechanism of myocardial and/or multiorgan protection from the animal lab to the operating theatre, using transient occlusion of blood flow to the upper limb with a blood-pressure cuff before cardiac surgery, has shown promising results, with several proof-of-principle and first randomized controlled clinical trials reporting benefits for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. If the efficacy of remote ischemic preconditioning can be conclusively proven, the clinical applications in cardiac surgery could be almost infinite, providing multiorgan protection in various surgical scenarios.

  6. Volkmann's Ischemic Contracture Treatment: Our Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Volkmann's Ischemic Contracture (VIC) follows treatment of limb fractures by traditional bone setters in our environment and usually present for treatment of the deformity. Objectives: This study highlights the result of treatment by tendon elongation and subsequent physiotherapy. Methods: All patients ...

  7. Atrial fibrillation in patients with ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Sandra Kruchov; Frost, Lars; Eagle, Kim A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. However, the prognostic impact of atrial fibrillation among patients with stroke is not fully clarified. We compared patient characteristics, including severity of stroke and comorbidity, quality of in-hospital care and o...

  8. Hyperglycemia Increases Susceptibility to Ischemic Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lévigne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients are at risk for spontaneous foot ulcers, chronic wounds, infections, and tissue necrosis. Current theories suggest that the development and progression of diabetic foot ulcers are mainly caused by arteriosclerosis and peripheral neuropathy. Tissue necrosis plays a primordial role in the progression of diabetic foot ulcers but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia per se on the susceptibility of ischemic tissue to necrosis, using a critical ischemic hind limb animal model. We inflicted the same degree of ischemia in both euglycemic and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by resecting the external iliac, the femoral, and the saphenous arteries. Postoperative laser Doppler flowmetry of the ischemic feet showed the same degree of reduction in skin perfusion in both hyperglycemic and euglycemic animals. Nevertheless, we found a significantly higher rate of limb necrosis in hyperglycemic rats compared to euglycemic rats (71% versus 29%, resp.. In this study, we revealed that hyperglycemia per se increases the susceptibility to limb necrosis in ischemic conditions. Our results may help to better understand the physiopathology of progressive diabetic wounds and underline the importance of strict glycemic control in patients with critical limb ischemia.

  9. hyperfibrinogenemia and ischemic stroke in young adul

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imran Imran

    2014-11-07

    Nov 7, 2014 ... Abstract Background: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) А148C/T which is located in b- fibrinogen gene (FGB) promoter has correlation with fibrinogen levels; however, the association of SNP А148C/T and ischemic stroke in young adult patients is contradictory. Aim: To determine the association of ...

  10. Molecular Mechanisms of Renal Ischemic Conditioning Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierulf-Lassen, Casper; Nieuwenhuijs-Moeke, Gertrude J.; Krogstrup, Nicoline V.; Oltean, Mihai; Jespersen, Bente; Dor, Frank J. M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the leading cause of acute kidney injury in a variety of clinical settings such as renal transplantation and hypovolemic and/or septic shock. Strategies to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury are obviously clinically relevant. Ischemic conditioning is an inherent part

  11. Metabolically Healthy Obesity and Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Netterstrom, Marie K.; Johansen, Nanna B.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Recent studies have suggested that a subgroup of obese individuals is not at increased risk of obesity-related complications. This subgroup has been referred to as metabolically healthy obese. Objective: To investigate whether obesity is a risk factor for development of ischemic heart...

  12. Stopping and Questioning Suspected Shoplifters Without Creating Civil Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jack R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)

  13. ALGORITHM OF MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED BLUNT CARDIAC TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Gilarevsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Contemporary algorithm of diagnostic examination of patients with suspected blunt cardiac trauma is presented. General aspects of monitoring and treatment of such patients are also discussed. 

  14. Suspect confession of child sexual abuse to investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Tonya; Cross, Theodore P; Jones, Lisa; Walsh, Wendy

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the number of suspects who give true confessions of sexual abuse serves justice and reduces the burden of the criminal justice process on child victims. With data from four communities, this study examined confession rates and predictors of confession of child sexual abuse over the course of criminal investigations (final N = 282). Overall, 30% of suspects confessed partially or fully to the crime. This rate was consistent across the communities and is very similar to the rates of suspect confession of child sexual abuse found by previous research, although lower than that from a study focused on a community with a vigorous practice of polygraph testing. In a multivariate analysis, confession was more likely when suspects were younger and when more evidence of abuse was available, particularly child disclosure and corroborative evidence. These results suggest the difficulty of obtaining confession but also the value of methods that facilitate child disclosure and seek corroborative evidence, for increasing the odds of confession.

  15. Ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack after head and neck radiotherapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Chris; Henderson, Robert D; O'Sullivan, John D; Read, Stephen J

    2011-09-01

    Cerebrovascular disease can complicate head and neck radiotherapy and result in transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke. Although the incidence of radiation vasculopathy is predicted to rise with improvements in median cancer survival, the pathogenesis, natural history, and management of the disease are ill defined. We examined studies on the epidemiology, imaging, pathogenesis, and management of medium- and large-artery intra- and extra-cranial disease after head and neck radiotherapy. Controlled prospective trials and larger retrospective trials from the last 30 years were prioritized. The relative risk of transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is at least doubled by head and neck radiotherapy. Chronic radiation vasculopathy affecting medium and large intra- and extra-cranial arteries is characterized by increasing rates of hemodynamically significant stenosis with time from radiotherapy. Disease expression is the likely consequence of the combined radiation insult to the intima-media (accelerating atherosclerosis) and to the adventitia (injuring the vasa vasorum). Optimal medical treatment is not established. Carotid endarterectomy is confounded by the need to operate across scarred tissue planes, whereas carotid stenting procedures have resulted in high restenosis rates. Head and neck radiotherapy significantly increases the risk of transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke. Evidence-based guidelines for the management of asymptomatic and symptomatic (medium- and large-artery) radiation vasculopathy are lacking. Long-term prospective studies remain a priority, as the incidence of the problem is anticipated to rise with improvements in postradiotherapy patient survival.

  16. CT findings in isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Walter; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Ji, Hoon; Khurana, Bharti; Ros, Pablo R. [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Glickman, Jonathan N. [Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the CT features of ischemic proctosigmoiditis in correlation with clinical, laboratory, endoscopic, and histopathologic findings. Our study included seven patients with isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis. Patients were identified by a retrospective review of all histopathologic records of colonoscopic biopsies performed during a time period of 4 years. All patients presented with left lower abdominal quadrant pain, bloody stools, and leukocytosis, and four patients had fever at the time of presentation. Four of seven patients suffered from diarrhea, one of seven was constipated and two of seven had normal stool consistency. The CT examinations were reviewed by two authors by consensus and compared with clinical and histopathologic results as well as with the initial CT diagnosis. The CT showed a wall thickening confined to the rectum and sigmoid colon in seven of seven patients, stranding of the pararectal fat in four of seven, and stranding of the perisigmoidal fat in one of seven patients. There were no enlarged lymph nodes, but five of seven patients showed coexistent diverticulosis and in three of these patients CT findings were initially misinterpreted as sigmoid diverticulitis. Endoscopies and histopathologic analyses of endoscopic biopsies confirmed non-transmural ischemic proctosigmoiditis in all patients. Isolated ischemic proctosigmoiditis often presents with unspecific CT features and potentially misleading clinical and laboratory findings. In an elderly patient or a patient with known cardiovascular risk factors the diagnosis of ischemic proctosigmoiditis should be considered when wall thickening confined to the rectum and sigmoid colon is seen that is associated with perirectal fat stranding. (orig.)

  17. Successful conservative treatment of rheumatoid subaxial subluxation resulting in improvement of myelopathy, reduction of subluxation, and stabilisation of the cervical spine. A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    van Oostveen, J.; van de Laar, M. A. F. J.; Geelen, J.; Graaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the efficacy of conservative treatment with cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest, in two consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.
METHODS—Description of neurological symptoms and signs and findings in plain radiography (PR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine before and after treatment of the subaxial subluxation by traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest duri...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1- associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Zemorshidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis is a chronic progressive neurologic disease which might be associated by brain and spinal cord atrophy and lesions. Here we systematically reviewed the brain and spinal cord abnormalities reported by using magnetic resonance imaging modality on HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients. Methods: PubMed was searched for all the relevant articles which used magnetic resonance imaging for patients with human HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis disease. Included criteria were all the cohort and case series on with at least 10 patients. We had no time limitation for searched articles, but only English language articles were included in our systematic review. Exclusion criteria were none-English articles, case reports, articles with less than 10 patients, spastic paraparesis patients with unknown etiology, and patients with HTLVII. Results: Total of 14 relevant articles were extracted after studying title, abstracts, and full text of the irrelevant articles. Only 2/14 articles, reported brain atrophy incidence. 5/14 articles studied the brain lesions prevalence. Spinal cord atrophy and lesions, each were studied in 6/14 articles.Discussion: According to the extracted data, brain atrophy does not seem to happen frequently in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. None-specific brain lesions identified in articles are indicative of low specificity of magnetic resonance imaging technique despite its high sensitivity. Conclusion: Prevalence of spinal cord lesions and atrophy in these patients might be due to the degenerative processes associated with aging phenomenon. Further larger studies in endemic areas can more accurately reveal the specificity of magnetic resonance imaging for these patients.

  19. Suspect aggression and victim resistance in multiple perpetrator rapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2013-11-01

    Several research studies have reported an elevated level of aggression in rapes committed by multiple perpetrators compared to rapes committed by lone suspects. Several factors that have been linked to elevated aggression in generic samples of rape were examined for the first time with a sample of multiple perpetrator rapes. Factors that might be associated with victim resistance were also investigated. Victim and offender characteristics, as well as the behaviors displayed by victims and offenders, were extracted from the police files of 89 multiple perpetrator stranger rapes perpetrated against female victims in the United Kingdom. These behaviors were rated for their level of suspect (non-sexual) aggression and victim resistance, respectively. Degree of victim resistance was significantly and positively associated with suspect aggression. Older victims were the recipients of significantly higher levels of suspect aggression. Victims who were incapacitated from drugs and/or alcohol were less likely to be the recipients of suspect aggression. Group leaders displayed more aggression towards the victim than the followers in the groups. The number of perpetrators was significantly related to the degree of resistance displayed by the victim with offences perpetrated by fewer suspects being characterized by more victim resistance. Research regarding cognitive appraisal during criminal interactions and the respective roles of offenders is referred to in considering these relationships.

  20. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) Early Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the Early Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. Early and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for eliciting admissions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Successful conservative treatment of rheumatoid subaxial subluxation resulting in improvement of myelopathy, reduction of subluxation, and stabilisation of the cervical spine. A report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostveen, J.; van de Laar, M. A F J; Geelen, J.; de Graaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report the efficacy of conservative treatment with cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest, in two consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.
METHODS—Description of neurological symptoms and signs and findings in plain radiography (PR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine before and after treatment of the subaxial subluxation by traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest during four months.
RESULTS—During four months of traction and immobilisation neurological examination showed a considerable improvement of the signs and symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Afterwards PR and MRI of the cervical spine showed reduction of the subaxial subluxation. Eventually firm stabilisation was obtained in both patients without surgery of the cervical spine.
CONCLUSION—Cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest can be considered as an independent conservative treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients with cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.

 Keywords: rheumatoid arthrits; rheumatoid subaxial subluxation PMID:10343530

  2. Upper cervical myelopathy due to arachnoiditis and spinal cord tethering from adjacent C-2 osteomyelitis. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpal, Sharad; Chanbusarakum, Krisada; Deshmukh, Praveen R

    2007-01-01

    Myelopathy caused by a spinal cord infection is typically related to an adjacent compressive lesion such as an epidural abscess. The authors report a case of progressive high cervical myelopathy from spinal cord tethering caused by arachnoiditis related to an adjacent C-2 osteomyelitis. This 70-year-old woman initially presented with a methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis involving the C-2 odontoid process. She was treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy but, over the course of 4 weeks, she developed progressive quadriparesis. A magnetic resonance image revealed near-complete resolution of the C-2 osteomyelitis, but new ventral tethering of the cord was observed at the level of the odontoid tip. She subsequently underwent open surgical decompression and cord detethering. Postoperatively she experienced improvement in her symptoms and deficits, which continued to improve 1 year after her surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of progressive upper cervical myelopathy due to arachnoiditis and cord tethering from an adjacent methicillin-sensitive S. aureus C-2 osteomyelitis.

  3. Presumed prevalence analysis on suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in São Paulo using BIRADS® criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Milani

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer screening programs are critical for early detection of breast cancer. Early detection is essential for diagnosing, treating and possibly curing breast cancer. Since there are no data on the incidence of breast cancer, nationally or regionally in Brazil, our aim was to assess women by means of mammography, to determine the prevalence of this disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study protocol was designed in collaboration between the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI, Institute of Diagnostic Imaging (IDI and São Paulo Municipal Health Program. METHODS: A total of 139,945 Brazilian women were assessed by means of mammography between April 2002 and September 2004. Using the American College of Radiology (ACR criteria (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, BIRADS®, the prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast lesions were determined. RESULTS: The prevalence of suspected (BIRADS® 4 and highly suspected (BIRADS® 5 lesions increased with age, especially after the fourth decade. Accordingly, BIRADS® 4 and BIRADS® 5 lesions were more prevalent in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh decades. CONCLUSION: The presumed prevalence of suspected and highly suspected breast cancer lesions in the population of São Paulo was 0.6% and it is similar to the prevalence of breast cancer observed in other populations.

  4. Comparison of Fentanyl and Morphine in the Prehospital Treatment of Ischemic Type Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Erin R; Ariano, Robert E; Grierson, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, reduction of sympathetic stress and catecholamine release is an important therapeutic goal. One method used to achieve this goal is pain reduction through the systemic administration of analgesia. Historically, morphine has been the analgesic of choice in ischemic cardiac pain. This randomized double-blind controlled trial seeks to prove the utility of fentanyl as an alternate first-line analgesic for ischemic-type chest pain in the prehospital setting. Successive patients who were treated for suspected ischemic chest pain in the emergency medical services system were considered eligible. Once chest pain was confirmed, patients received oxygen, aspirin, and nitroglycerin therapy. If the ischemic-type chest pain continued the patient was randomized in a double-blinded fashion to treatment with either morphine or fentanyl. Pain scale scores, necessity for additional dosing, and rate of adverse events between the groups were assessed every 5 minutes and were compared using t-testing, Fisher's Exact test, or Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) where appropriate. The primary outcome of the study was incidence of hypotension and the secondary outcome was pain reduction as measured by the visual analog score and numeric rating score. A total of 207 patients were randomized with 187 patients included in the final analysis. Of the 187 patients, 99 were in the morphine group and 88 in the fentanyl group. No statistically significant difference between the two groups with respect to hypotension was found (morphine 5.1% vs. fentanyl 0%, p = 0.06). Baseline characteristics, necessity for additional dosing, and other adverse events between the two groups were not statistically different. There were no significant differences between the changes in visual analog scores and numeric rating scale scores for pain between the two groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.15, respectively). This study supports that fentanyl and morphine are comparable in

  5. Endogenous Agmatine Induced by Ischemic Preconditioning Regulates Ischemic Tolerance Following Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jae Young; Jung, Jin Young; Lee, Yong Woo; Lee, Won Taek; Huh, Seung Kon; Lee, Jong Eun

    2017-12-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is one of the most important endogenous mechanisms that protect the cells against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that changes in the level of agmatine were correlated with ischemic tolerance. Changes in brain edema, infarct volume, level of agmatine, and expression of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS; inducible NOS [iNOS] and neural NOS [nNOS]) were analyzed during I/R injury with or without IP in the rat brain. After cerebral ischemia, brain edema and infarct volume were significantly reduced in the IP group. The level of agmatine was increased before and during ischemic injury and remained elevated in the early reperfusion phase in the IP group compared to the experimental control (EC) group. During IP, the level of plasma agmatine was increased in the early phase of IP, but that of liver agmatine was abruptly decreased. However, the level of agmatine was definitely increased in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere of brain during the IP. IP also increased the expression of ADC-the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of endogenous agmatine-before, during, and after ischemic injury. In addition, ischemic injury increased endogenous ADC expression in the EC group. The expression of nNOS was reduced in the I/R injured brain in the IP group. These results suggest that endogenous increased agmatine may be a component of the ischemic tolerance response that is induced by IP. Agmatine may have a pivotal role in endogenous ischemic tolerance.

  6. Current state of the art cardiovascular MR imaging techniques for assessment of ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is increasingly being used to evaluate patients with known or suspected ischemic heart disease, because of its ability to acquire images in any orientation and the wide variety of sequences available to characterize normal and abnormal structure and function. Substantial improvements have been made in the hardware and software used to perform CMR, resulting in better and more consistent image quality. There has been a greater emphasis recently in developing and validating quantitative CMR techniques. This article reviews advances in CMR techniques for assessing cardiac function, myocardial perfusion, late gadolinium enhancement, and tissue characterization with T1 and T2 mapping sequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Histopathological and immunohistochemical assessment of acquired ichthyosis in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagres, S P; Sanches, J A; Milagres, A C P; Valente, N Y S

    2003-10-01

    Patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy frequently display cutaneous alterations such as acquired ichthyosis. Elucidation of the pattern of acquired ichthyosis in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Skin fragments from 10 patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy presenting with acquired ichthyosis were assessed by histopathological and immunohistochemical tests. We used anticytokeratin antibodies related to normal keratinization (K1/K10), and others related to cutaneous conditions such as activation, migration and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes (K6/K16), and involucrin, a precursor protein in the formation of the protein envelope in keratinocytes. For quantification of the proliferating basal and parabasal cells the anti-Ki-67 antibody was employed. On light microscopy, all skin specimens displayed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and hypogranulosis. Three of them presented focal parakeratosis. A slight to moderate perivascular infiltrate of mononuclear lymphocytes was observed in seven cases, three of which showed discrete spongiosis with epidermotropism of lymphocytes. All fragments displayed coexpression of K1, K10 and K16 in the suprabasal layers. Expression of involucrin was also observed in all cases, in the upper spinous and granular layers. Focal expression of K6 was observed in three cases, under a parakeratotic area. The mean number of Ki-67+ basal and parabasal cells was 3.5 cells per mm, similar to that in control skin. In acquired ichthyosis related to HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, histopathology revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate of mononuclear lymphocytes, with areas of parakeratosis and foci of epidermotropism in rare cases. The expression profiles of K1, K10 and involucrin were similar to those in normal skin. The diffuse coexpression of K16 with K1 and K10 throughout the analysed epidermis, as well as the occurrence of restricted areas of parakeratosis

  8. Protection of retinal function by sulforaphane following retinal ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrecht, Lindsay A; Perlman, Jay I; McDonnell, James F; Zhai, Yougang; Qiao, Liang; Bu, Ping

    2015-09-01

    Sulforaphane, a precursor of glucosinolate in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower, has been shown to protect brain ischemic injury. In this study, we examined the effect of systemic administration of sulforaphane on retinal ischemic reperfusion injury. Intraocular pressure was elevated in two groups of C57BL/6 mice (n = 8 per group) for 45 min to induce retinal ischemic reperfusion injury. Following retinal ischemic reperfusion injury, vehicle (1% DMSO saline) or sulforaphane (25 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally daily for 5 days. Scotopic electroretinography (ERG) was used to quantify retinal function prior to and one-week after retinal ischemic insult. Retinal morphology was examined one week after ischemic insult. Following ischemic reperfusion injury, ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes were significantly reduced in the control mice. Sulforaphane treatment significantly attenuated ischemic-induced loss of retinal function as compared to vehicle treated mice. In vehicle treated mice, ischemic reperfusion injury produced marked thinning of the inner retinal layers, but the thinning of the inner retinal layers appeared significantly less with sulforaphane treatment. Thus, sulforaphane may be beneficial in the treatment of retinal disorders with ischemic reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prognostic value of 18F-FDG PET in monosegmental stenosis and myelopathy of the cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floeth, Frank W; Stoffels, Gabriele; Herdmann, Jörg; Eicker, Sven; Galldiks, Norbert; Rhee, Sascha; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Langen, Karl-Josef

    2011-09-01

    MRI offers perfect visualization of spondylotic stenosis of the cervical spine, but morphologic imaging does not correlate with clinical symptoms and postoperative recovery after decompression surgery. In this prospective study, we investigated the role of (18)F-FDG PET in patients with degenerative stenosis of the cervical spinal cord in relation to postsurgical outcome. Twenty patients with monosegmental spondylotic stenosis of the middle cervical spine (C3/C4 or C4/C5) showing intramedullary hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI and clinical symptoms of myelopathy (myelopathic patients) were investigated by (18)F-FDG PET. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)) were measured at all levels of the cervical spine (C1-C7). Decompression surgery and anterior cervical fusion were performed on all patients, and clinical status (Japanese Orthopedic Association [JOA] score) was assessed before and 6 mo after surgery. The (18)F-FDG data of 10 individuals without cervical spine pathology were used as a reference (controls). The myelopathic patients showed a significant decrease in (18)F-FDG uptake in the area of the lower cervical cord, compared with the control group (C7 SUV(max), 1.49 ± 0.18 vs. 1.71 ± 0.27, P = 0.01). Ten myelopathic patients exhibited focally increased (18)F-FDG uptake at the level of the stenosis (SUV(max), 2.27 ± 0.41 vs. 1.75 ± 0.22, P = 0.002). The remaining 10 patients showed inconspicuous (18)F-FDG uptake at the area of the stenosis. Postoperatively, the patients with focally increased (18)F-FDG accumulation at the level of stenosis showed good clinical recovery and a significant improvement in JOA scores (13.6 ± 2.3 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5, P = 0.001), whereas no significant improvement was observed in the remaining patients (JOA score, 12.0 ± 2.4 vs. 11.6 ± 2.5, not statistically significant). Multiple regression analysis identified the presence of focally increased (18)F-FDG uptake at the level of the stenosis as an independent predictor of

  10. Imaging spinal cord atrophy in progressive myelopathies: HTLV-I-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Shila; Nair, Govind; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Charlip, Emily; Vellucci, Ashley; Cortese, Irene; Dwyer, Jenifer; Billioux, B Jeanne; Thomas, Chevaz; Ohayon, Joan; Reich, Daniel S; Jacobson, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Previous work measures spinal cord thinning in chronic progressive myelopathies, including human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative measurements of spinal cord atrophy are important in fully characterizing these and other spinal cord diseases. We aimed to investigate patterns of spinal cord atrophy and correlations with clinical markers. Spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured in individuals (24 healthy controls [HCs], 17 asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-1 (AC), 47 HAM/TSP, 74 relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], 17 secondary progressive MS [SPMS], and 40 primary progressive MS [PPMS]) from C1 to T10. Clinical disability scores, viral markers, and immunological parameters were obtained for patients and correlated with representative spinal cord cross-sectional area regions at the C2 to C3, C4 to C5, and T4 to T9 levels. In 2 HAM/TSP patients, spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured over 3 years. All spinal cord regions are thinner in HAM/TSP (56 mm2 [standard deviation, 10], 59 [10], 23 [5]) than in HC (76 [7], 83 [8], 38 [4]) and AC (71 [7], 78 [9], 36 [7]). SPMS (62 [9], 66 [9], 32 [6]) and PPMS (65 [11], 68 [10], 35 [7]) have thinner cervical cords than HC and RRMS (73 [9], 77 [10], 37 [6]). Clinical disability scores (Expanded Disability Status Scale [p = 0.009] and Instituto de Pesquisas de Cananeia [p = 0.03]) and CD8+ T-cell frequency (p = 0.04) correlate with T4 to T9 spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP. Higher cerebrospinal fluid HTLV-1 proviral load (p = 0.01) was associated with thinner spinal cord cross-sectional area. Both HAM/TSP patients followed longitudinally showed thoracic thinning followed by cervical thinning. Group average spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP and progressive MS show spinal cord atrophy. We further hypothesize in HAM/TSP that is possible that neuroglial loss from a thoracic inflammatory process

  11. Evaluation of T Regulatory Lymphocytes Transcription Factors in HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezeldasht, Sanaz Ahmadi; Sadeghian, Hamed; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Shamsian, Seyyed Ali Akbar; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdolrahim

    2017-08-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an aggressive neurological disease. The CD4+CD25+ T cell population plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and prevention of such autoimmune diseases. In the current study, proviral load (PVL), factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) gene expression and regulatory T cells (Tregs) counts of 21 HAM/TSP patients and 16 HTLV-1 healthy carriers (ACs) were measured using real-time PCR, TaqMan method, and flow cytometry. The demographic, history of disease, and severity of myelopathy were assessed by a checklist and the Osame motor disability score (OMDS). The mean OMDS for HAM/TSP was 4.82 ± 2.37 which had no significant correlation with Treg count or the expression of Foxp3, GITR, and PVL. The CD4+CD25+ cell counts had no significant differences between HAM/TSP and ACs. Findings revealed a higher PVL in HAM/TSPs (313.36 copies/104) compared to ACs (144.93 copies/104, p = 0.035). The Foxp3 and GITR mRNA levels were lower in HAM/TSP patients (11.78 and 13.80, respectively) than those in healthy carriers (18.44 and 21.00, p = 0.041 and 0.03, respectively). There was a significant correlation between Treg frequency and Foxp3 gene expression (R = 0.67, p = 0.006) and GITR and Foxp3 (R = 0.84, p = 0.042) in HAM/TSP patients. Furthermore, the transcription factors have strong correlations with CD4+CD25+ T cell frequencies. These findings suggest that HTLV-1 infection can modify the expression of main functional transcription factors, FOXP3 and GITR, which may lead to immune response deterioration of Tregs and consequently HAM/TSP manifestation.

  12. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  13. Limb-shaking transient ischemic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb shaking Transient Ischemic Attack is a rare manifestation of carotid-occlusive disease. The symptoms usually present with seizure like activity and often misdiagnosed as focal seizures. Only on careful history the important clinical clues-which may help in differentiating from seizure-are revealed: Lack of Jacksonian march or aura; precipitation by maneuvers that lead to carotid compression. We present the case of an elderly gentleman with recurrent limb shaking transient ischemic attacks that was initially diagnosed as a case of epilepsy. His symptoms responded to optimization of blood pressure. The case report highlights the importance of accurate diagnosis as the treatment of the associated carotid artery occlusion may not only abolish the attacks but also reduce the risk of future stroke.

  14. Ischemic stroke related to anabolic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, Rodrigo Daniel; Besocke, Ana Gabriela; Romano, Lucas Martin; Ioli, Pablo Leonardo; Gonorazky, Sergio Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse increased in recent years, and it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Few reports on ischemic stroke related to anabolic steroid abuse have been published. We report a case of a 26-year-old male amateur athlete who suffered a posterior territory ischemic stroke. No abnormalities were found in angiography and echocardiography studies, neither in hemostatic profile. His only significant risk factor was nonmedical use of stanozolol, an anabolic steroid. Anabolic steroids are capable of increasing vascular tone, arterial tension, and platelet aggregation; therefore, they are prone to produce atherothrombotic phenomena. Because of young people's widespread use of anabolic steroids, physicians should be aware of this kind of complication.

  15. Aspirin resistant patients with recent ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Navas-Alcántara, M S; Fernández-Moreno, M C

    2014-04-01

    Some patients with a recent ischemic stroke who are being treated with aspirin as an antiaggregant suffer a new ischemic stroke. These patients (15-25%) have been called unresponsive to aspirin or aspirin resistant. The aspirin-resistant patients have a four-time greater risk of suffering a stroke. Furthermore, these strokes are generally more severe, with increased infarct volume and greater risk of recurrence. There is currently no ideal laboratory test to detect the resistance to the antiaggregant effect of aspirin. The study of resistance to aspirin would only be indicated in selected cases. In these patients, one should first rule out any "pseudo-resistance" to aspirin (lack of compliance, concomitant treatments that interfere with the action of the aspirin). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Ischemic gastritis: a rare but lethal consequence of celiac territory ischemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, J P; Bianchini, A; Massouille, D; Perot, C; Lancelevée, J; Zerbib, P

    2012-10-01

    Ischemic gastritis is poorly known by physicians and is often fatal if not correctly diagnosed. Here, we report on the clinical, endoscopic and imaging features and treatment outcomes for five ischemic gastritis patients. This was a retrospective, single-centre study of patients treated for ischemic gastritis between January 2009 and April 2012. All patients underwent transluminal angioplasty or open revascularization surgery. Five patients (4 men, 1 female) were included in the present study. The condition was diagnosed in two cases of peritonitis with gastric or duodenal perforation, two cases of acute epigastric pain and one case of gastric bleeding, profuse vomiting and hypovolemic shock. Three of the five patients had endoscopically proven gastric ulcerations or necrosis. A computed tomography scan contributed to the diagnosis in all cases. The symptoms resolved in all cases after gastric revascularization via an aortohepatic bypass (N.=1), a renohepatic bypass (N.=1), a retrograde iliosuperior mesenteric bypass (N.=2) with associated celiac artery angioplasty (N.=1) and celiac and superior mesenteric artery angioplasty (N.=1). During follow-up, three patients died of starvation due to short bowel syndrome (N.=1) or metastatic lung cancer (N.=2). Ischemic gastritis is a component of celiac territory ischemia syndrome and is closely associated with chronic or acute mesenteric ischemia. Computed tomography always informs the diagnosis. The rapid healing observed here after revascularization confirmed the ischemic nature of the condition and the inappropriateness of gastric resection in this context.

  17. Ischemic Colitis as a Complication of Medication Use: An Analysis of the Federal Adverse Event Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    More than one decade ago, rising cases of ischemic colitis (IC) prompted the Federal Drug Administration to revoke alosetron's approval as treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to identify medical therapies associated with development of IC. The Federal Adverse Event Reporting System was queried for the time between January 2004 and September 2015. We identified reports listing IC as treatment complication and extracted suspected causative and concomitantly administered drugs, indications for their use and outcomes. After eliminating duplicates, we found 2811 cases of IC (68.4 % women; 59.4 ± 0.4 years). Patients with IBS accounted for 3.9 % of the cases, mostly attributed to tegaserod or alosetron. Chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressive drugs, sex hormones, and anticoagulants were the most commonly suspected causes. Bisphosphonates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antipsychotics, triptans, interferon therapy, and laxative use prior to colonoscopy were among the more commonly listed treatments. In 8 %, the adverse event contributed to the patient's death with male sex and older age predicting fatal outcomes. Beyond confirming known risks of IC, the results identified several potential culprits of ischemic colitis. This information may not only explain the development of this serious adverse event, but could also guide treatment decisions, cautioning healthcare providers when considering these agents in persons with known risk factors or other drugs that may increase their risk of IC.

  18. Molecular chaperones and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE is a disease that occurs when the brain is subjected to hypoxia, resulting in neuronal death and neurological deficits, with a poor prognosis. The mechanisms underlying hypoxic-ischemic brain injury include excitatory amino acid release, cellular proteolysis, reactive oxygen species generation, nitric oxide synthesis, and inflammation. The molecular and cellular changes in HIE include protein misfolding, aggregation, and destruction of organelles. The apoptotic pathways activated by ischemia and hypoxia include the mitochondrial pathway, the extrinsic Fas receptor pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced pathway. Numerous treatments for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury caused by HIE have been developed over the last half century. Hypothermia, xenon gas treatment, the use of melatonin and erythropoietin, and hypoxic-ischemic preconditioning have proven effective in HIE patients. Molecular chaperones are proteins ubiquitously present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. A large number of molecular chaperones are induced after brain ischemia and hypoxia, among which the heat shock proteins are the most important. Heat shock proteins not only maintain protein homeostasis; they also exert anti-apoptotic effects. Heat shock proteins maintain protein homeostasis by helping to transport proteins to their target destinations, assisting in the proper folding of newly synthesized polypeptides, regulating the degradation of misfolded proteins, inhibiting the aggregation of proteins, and by controlling the refolding of misfolded proteins. In addition, heat shock proteins exert anti-apoptotic effects by interacting with various signaling pathways to block the activation of downstream effectors in numerous apoptotic pathways, including the intrinsic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum-stress mediated pathway and the extrinsic Fas receptor pathway. Molecular chaperones play a key role in neuroprotection in HIE. In

  19. Neutrophil extracellular traps in ischemic stroke thrombi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laridan, Elodie; Denorme, Frederik; Desender, Linda; François, Olivier; Andersson, Tommy; Deckmyn, Hans; Vanhoorelbeke, Karen; De Meyer, Simon F

    2017-08-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been shown to promote thrombus formation. Little is known about the exact composition of thrombi that cause ischemic stroke. In particular, no information is yet available on the presence of NETs in cerebral occlusions. Such information is, however, essential to improve current thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). This study aimed at investigating the presence of neutrophils and more specifically NETs in ischemic stroke thrombi. Sixty-eight thrombi retrieved from ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment were characterized by immunostaining using neutrophil markers (CD66b and neutrophil elastase) and NET markers (citrullinated histone H3 [H3Cit] and extracellular DNA). Neutrophils and NETs were quantified. In addition, extracellular DNA was targeted by performing ex vivo lysis of retrieved thrombi with DNase 1 and t-PA. Neutrophils were detected extensively throughout all thrombi. H3Cit, a hallmark of NETs, was observed in almost all thrombi. H3Cit-positive area varied up to 13.45% of total thrombus area. Colocalization of H3Cit with extracellular DNA released from neutrophils confirmed the specific presence of NETs. H3Cit was more abundant in thrombi of cardioembolic origin compared to other etiologies. Older thrombi contained significantly more neutrophils and H3Cit compared to fresh thrombi. Interestingly, ex vivo lysis of patient thrombi was more successful when adding DNase 1 to standard t-PA. Neutrophils and NETs form important constituents of cerebral thrombi. Targeting of NETs with DNase 1 might have prothrombolytic potential in treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Ann Neurol 2017;82:223-232. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  20. Hydrophilic Polymer-associated Ischemic Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Jesus A; Chen, Wei; Frankel, Wendy L; Arnold, Christina A

    2017-02-01

    Hydrophilic polymer coating of medical devices serves to lubricate the device and prevent device-related complications. The coating can be mechanically disrupted and result in downstream injury via presumed thromboembolism. This process has been reported in the brain, heart, lung, and skin, and has been replicated through animal studies and in vitro histologic processing of the polymer coating. We report the first description of hydrophilic polymer-associated ischemic enterocolitis in a series of 7 specimens (small bowel=2, colon=4, aortic thrombus=1) from 3 patients. We report a 4% incidence among all patients with an ischemic bowel resection between April 29, 2014 and August 8, 2016. All patients developed bowel ischemia within 1 day of aortic repair, and all bowel resection specimens showed polymers, mainly in the submucosal vessels in areas of extensive ischemia. The polymers appeared as basophilic, intravascular, serpiginous structures. In a patient who developed acute paralysis after the aortic repair, identical polymers were identified in the aortic thrombus and the ischemic bowel segment. We demonstrate that the polymers display an altered morphology over time and with various graft types, and that the degrading polymers are associated with a foreign body giant cell reaction. Special stains can aid in diagnosis, with the polymers turquoise on a colloidal iron stain, pink on von Kossa and mucicarmine stains, and pale blue on trichrome. Clinical follow-up was available up to 115 weeks: 1 patient died, and 2 are alive and well. In summary, we report a new diagnostic entity to be considered in the differential diagnosis of iatrogenic ischemic injuries in the gastrointestinal tract. Awareness of this entity is important to elucidate the cause of ischemia and to prevent misdiagnosis of the polymers and their associated giant cell reaction as a parasitic infection, granulomatous vasculitis, sarcoidosis, and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Periprocedural management of acute ischemic stroke intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlov, Nicholas; Nien, Yih Lin; Zaidat, Osama O; Nguyen, Thanh N

    2012-09-25

    Periprocedural medical management is an important aspect in optimizing the outcome of patients who undergo endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Blood pressure, fluid hydration, and antithrombotics are some of the elements that need to be tailored carefully to the patient according to the patency of his or her cerebral vasculature, the extent of his or her infarct, and the potential for hemorrhagic transformation. This article reviews the medical care of acute stroke patients before and after endovascular therapy.

  2. Cardiac Complications in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Lewandowski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To characterize cardiac complications in acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients admitted from an urban emergency department (ED. Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional study evaluating AIS patients admitted from the ED within 24 hours of symptom onset who also had an echocardiogram performed within 72 hours of admission. Results: Two hundred AIS patients were identified with an overall in-hospital mortality rate of 8% (n¼ 16. In our cohort, 57 (28.5% of 200 had an ejection fraction less than 50%, 35 (20.4% of 171 had ischemic changes on electrocardiogram (ECG, 18 (10.5% of 171 presented in active atrial fibrillation, 21 (13.0% of 161 had serum troponin elevation, and 2 (1.1% of 184 survivors had potentially lethal arrhythmias on telemetry monitoring. Subgroup analysis revealed higher in-hospital mortality rates among those with systolic dysfunction (15.8% versus 4.9%; P ¼ 0.0180, troponin elevation (38.1% versus 3.4%; P , 0.0001, atrial fibrillation on ECG (33.3% versus 3.8%; P ¼ 0.0003, and ischemic changes on ECG (17.1% versus 6.1%; P ¼ 0.0398 compared with those without. Conclusion: A proportion of AIS patients may have cardiac complications. Systolic dysfunction, troponin elevation, atrial fibrillation, or ischemic changes on ECG may be associated with higher inhospital mortality rates. These findings support the adjunctive role of cardiac-monitoring strategies in the acute presentation of AIS. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:414–420.

  3. Ischemic Colitis after Weight-Loss Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Comay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous weight-loss medications have received cautious support due to their association with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. However, newer drugs are increasingly being recommended as potentially safer and more efficacious. We report a case of ischemic colitis possibly linked to the use of a weight-loss drug, and review the literature to highlight an important latent consequence of these medications.

  4. Bright vessel appearance on arterial spin labeling MRI for localizing arterial occlusion in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Roh-Eul; Yun, Tae Jin; Rhim, Jung Hyo; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Kang, Koung Mi; Choi, Seung Hong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Han, Moon Hee

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether bright vessel appearance on arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI can help localize arterial occlusion sites in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Patients who underwent MRI for suspected acute ischemic stroke, as identified by an area of restricted diffusion, were included. All images were visually analyzed for the presence or absence of (1) arterial occlusion on time-of-flight MR angiography, (2) bright vessel appearance on ASL images, and (3) susceptibility vessel sign. McNemar 2-tailed test was used to compare the sensitivities of ASL and susceptibility-weighted imaging for the detection of arterial occlusion, using MR angiography as the reference standard. ASL bright vessel appearance was significantly more common in the group with occlusion than in the group without occlusion (94% [33 of 35] versus 21% [17 of 82], respectively; Pappearance, when present, was seen proximal or distal to the occlusion site. The bright vessel appearance had a significantly higher sensitivity for the detection of occlusion than the susceptibility vessel sign (94% [33 of 35] versus 66% [23 of 35], respectively; P=0.002). In cases with negative MR angiography, the bright vessel appearance helped identify more additional arterial occlusions than the susceptibility vessel sign (21% [17 of 82] versus 10% [8 of 82], respectively; P=0.012). The bright vessel appearance on ASL imaging can provide an important diagnostic clue for the detection and localization of arterial occlusion sites in patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Anti-ischemic therapy and stress testing: pathophysiologic, diagnostic and prognostic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicari, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    Anti-ischemic therapy, in particular beta-blockers, is the most commonly employed drug for the control of myocardial ischemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Its widespread use also in patients with suspected coronary artery disease has important practical, clinical diagnostic and prognostic implications because diagnostic tests are heavily influenced by its effects. In the present review, the pathophysiological mechanisms of ischemia protection by antianginal therapy are described. Not all stressors are created equal in front of the different classes of antianginal drugs and on their turn the different classes of drugs exert different levels of protection on inducible ischemia. Several clinical implications can be drawn: From the diagnostic viewpoint antianginal therapy decreases test sensitivity, offsetting the real ischemic burden for a too high percentage of false negative tests. From the prognostic viewpoint test positivity in medical therapy identifies a group of subjects at higher risk of experiencing cardiac death and positivity on medical therapy can be considered a parameter of ischemia severity. Nonetheless in patients with known coronary artery disease the ability of antianginal therapy to modify the ischemic threshold at stress testing represent a powerful means to assess therapy efficacy. From a practical viewpoint, the use of antianginal therapy at time of testing has advantages and disadvantages which are largely dependent on the purpose a test is performed: if the purpose of testing is to diagnose ischemia, it should be performed in the absence of antianginal medications. If the purpose of testing is to assess the protective effects of antianginal therapy, the test should be performed on medications. PMID:15320951

  6. BNP was Associated with Ischemic Myocardial Scintigraphy and Death in Patients at Chest Pain Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jader Cunha de, E-mail: jadercazevedo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Universitário de Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Reis, Bruno Cezario Costa; Barreto, Nathalia Monerat P.B. [Centro Universitário de Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); F, Diogenes S. Junior; Prezotti, Lais S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Procaci, Victor Rebelo; Octaviano, Vivian Werneck [Centro Universitário de Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Volschan, Andre [Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Pró-Cardíaco, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Recent studies have suggested that B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) is an important predictor of ischemia and death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Increased levels of BNP are seen after episodes of myocardial ischemia and may be related to future adverse events. To determine the prognostic value of BNP for major cardiac events and to evaluate its association with ischemic myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). This study included retrospectively 125 patients admitted to the chest pain unit between 2002 and 2006, who had their BNP levels measured on admission and underwent CPM for risk stratification. BNP values were compared with the results of the MPS. The chi-square test was used for qualitative variables and the Student t test, for quantitative variables. Survival curves were adjusted using the Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by using Cox regression. The significance level was 5%. The mean age was 63.9 ± 13.8 years, and the male sex represented 51.2% of the sample. Ischemia was found in 44% of the MPS. The mean BNP level was higher in patients with ischemia compared to patients with non-ischemic MPS (188.3 ± 208.7 versus 131.8 ± 88.6; p = 0.003). A BNP level greater than 80 pg/mL was the strongest predictor of ischemia on MPS (sensitivity = 60%, specificity = 70%, accuracy = 66%, PPV = 61%, NPV = 70%), and could predict medium-term mortality (RR = 7.29, 95% CI: 0.90-58.6; p = 0.045) independently of the presence of ischemia. BNP levels are associated with ischemic MPS findings and adverse prognosis in patients presenting with acute chest pain to the emergency room, thus, providing important prognostic information for an unfavorable clinical outcome.

  7. Left atrial catheter ablation and ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, Karl Georg; Kirchhof, Paulus; Endres, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Left atrial catheter ablation (LACA) has become an established therapy to abolish drug-refractory symptomatic paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation. Restoring sinus rhythm by LACA may help to prevent atrial fibrillation-related strokes, but presently there is no evidence from randomized clinical trials to support this notion. This review summarizes the current knowledge and uncertainties regarding LACA and procedure-related ischemic stroke. In fact, most patients who undergo LACA have a rather low annual stroke risk even when left untreated, whereas LACA imposes a risk of procedure-related stroke of ≈0.5% to 1%. In addition, LACA may cause cerebral microemboli, resulting in ischemic lesions. These cerebral lesions, detectable by high-resolution MRI, could contribute to neuropsychological deficits and cognitive dysfunction. Furthermore, recurrent atrial fibrillaton episodes can be detected up to years after LACA and might cause ischemic strokes, especially in those patients in whom therapeutic anticoagulation was discontinued. Further prospective multicenter trials are needed to identify procedure-dependent risk factors for stroke and to optimize postprocedural anticoagulation management.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea in ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Tosun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with ischemic stroke and to evaluate the effectiveness of nasal continuous positive airway pressure treatment. METHODS: Overnight polysomnography was performed by a computerized system in 19 subjects with ischemic stroke. Patients with an apnea-hypopnea index > 5 were considered to have obstructive sleep apnea. The appropriate level of continuous positive airway pressure for each patient was determined during an all-night continuous positive airway pressure determination study. Attended continuous positive airway pressure titration was performed with a continuous positive airway pressure auto-titrating device. RESULTS: Obstructive sleep apnea prevalence among patients with ischemic stroke was 73.7%. The minimum SaO2 was significantly lower, and the percent of total sleep time in the wake stage and stage 1 sleep was significantly longer in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In two patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea, we observed a decrease in the apnea-hypopnea index, an increase in mean wake time, mean SaO2, and minimum SaO2, and alterations in sleep structures with continuous positive airway pressure treatment. CONCLUSION: As the diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is of particular importance in secondary stroke prevention, we suggest that the clinical assessment of obstructive sleep apnea be part of the evaluation of stroke patients in rehabilitation units, and early treatment should be started.

  9. TOWARD THE QUESTION OF ISCHEMIC MYOCARDIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kalyuzhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the review have analyzed papers published on the problem of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. They begin with a definition of the term “ischemia” (derived from two Greek words: ischō, meaning to hold back, and haima, meaning blood - a condition at which the arterial blood flow is insufficient to provide enough oxygen to prevent intracellular respiration from shifting from the aerobic to the anaerobic form. The poor rate of ATP generation from this process causes a decrease in cellular ATP, a concomitant rise in ADP, and ultimately, to depression inotropic (systolic and lusitropic (diastolic function of the affected segments of the myocardium. But with such simplicity of basic concepts, the consequences of ischemia so diverse. Influence of an ischemia on myocardial function so unequally at different patients, which is almost impossible to find two identical cases (as in the case of fingerprints. It depends on the infinite variety of lesions of coronary arteries, reperfusion (time and completeness of restoration of blood flow and reactions of a myocardium which, apparently, has considerable flexibility in its response. Ischemic myocardial dysfunction includes a number of discrete states, such as acute left ventricular failure in angina, acute myocardial infarction, ischemic cardiomyopathy, stunning, hibernation, pre- and postconditioning. There are widely differing underlying pathophysiologic states. The possibility exists that several of these states can coexist.

  10. Stroke severity may predict causes of readmission within one year in patients with first ischemic stroke event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Lin, Huey-Juan; Hu, Ya-Han; Sung, Sheng-Feng

    2017-01-15

    Readmissions after stroke are costly. Risk assessment using information available upon admission could identify high-risk patients for potential interventions to reduce readmissions. Baseline stroke severity has been suspected to be a factor in readmission; however, the exact nature of the impact has not been adequately understood. Hospitalized adult patients with first-ever ischemic stroke were identified from a nationwide administrative database. Stroke severity was assessed using a validated claims-based stroke severity index. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the relationship between stroke severity and first readmission within one year. Of the 10,877 patients, 4295 (39.5%) were readmitted in one year. The cumulative risk of readmission was 34.1%, 44.7%, and 62.9% in patients with mild, moderate, and severe stroke, respectively. Patients with greater stroke severity had a significantly higher adjusted risk of first readmission for infection, metabolic disorders, neurological sequelae, and pulmonary diseases, whereas those with lesser stroke severity were prone to first readmission due to accidents. Stroke severity did not affect the risk of first readmission for recurrent stroke/transient ischemic attack, other cardiovascular events, malignancy, ulcers/upper gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney diseases, and others. Stroke severity in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke not only predicts readmission but also relates to the cause of readmission. Our results might provide important information for tailoring discharge planning to prevent readmissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetically elevated C-reactive protein and ischemic vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    in CRP levels of up to 64%, resulting in a theoretically predicted increased risk of up to 32% for ischemic heart disease and up to 25% for ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, these genotype combinations were not associated with an increased risk of ischemic vascular disease. In contrast......, apolipoprotein E genotypes were associated with both elevated cholesterol levels and an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in the CRP gene are associated with marked increases in CRP levels and thus with a theoretically predicted increase in the risk of ischemic vascular disease....... However, these polymorphisms are not in themselves associated with an increased risk of ischemic vascular disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10/30...

  12. Impaired mitochondrial function in chronically ischemic human heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stride, Nis Ottesen; Larsen, Steen; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ischemic heart disease is associated with myocardial hypoperfusion. The resulting hypoxia potentially inflicts damage upon the mitochondria, leading to a compromised energetic state. Furthermore, ischemic damage may cause excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), producing.......05), and the levels of antioxidant protein expression was lower. Diminished mitochondrial respiration capacity and excessive ROS production demonstrate an impaired mitochondrial function in ischemic human heart muscle. No chronic ischemic preconditioning effect was found......., and finally to assess myocardial antioxidant levels. Mitochondrial respiration in biopsies from ischemic and nonischemic regions from the left ventricle of the same heart was compared in nine human subjects. Maximal oxidative phosphorylation capacity in fresh muscle fibers was lower in ischemic compared...

  13. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs among DUI suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Haukka, Jari; Lintonen, Tomi; Joukamaa, Matti; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2015-10-01

    The study seeks to increase understanding of the use of psychoactive prescription drugs among persons suspected of driving under the influence (DUI). We studied whether the use of prescribed psychoactive medication was associated with DUI, and examined the difference in the use of prescription drugs between DUI recidivists and those arrested only once. In this register-based study, persons suspected of DUI (n=29470) were drawn from the Register of DUI suspects, and an age- and gender-matched reference population (n=30043) was drawn from the Finnish general population. Data on prescription drug use was obtained by linkage to the National Prescription Register. The associations of DUI arrest and use of psychoactive prescription drugs in different DUI groups (findings for alcohol only, prescription drugs, prescription drugs and alcohol, illicit drugs) were estimated by using mixed-effect logistic regression. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs and DUI appeared to be strongly associated, with DUI suspects significantly more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to the reference population. Gender differences existed, with the use of benzodiazepines being more common among female DUI suspects. Moreover, DUI recidivists were more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to those arrested only once. In addition to alcohol and/or illicit drug use, a significant proportion of DUI suspects were using psychoactive prescription drugs. When prescribing psychoactive medication, especially benzodiazepines, physicians are challenged to screen for possible substance use problems and also to monitor for patients' alcohol or illicit drug use while being medicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Book Review: Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nash

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shavers, B. (2013. Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Waltham, MA: Elsevier, 290 pages, ISBN-978-1-59749-985-9, US$51.56. Includes bibliographical references and index.Reviewed by Detective Corporal Thomas Nash (tnash@bpdvt.org, Burlington Vermont Police Department, Internet Crime against Children Task Force. Adjunct Instructor, Champlain College, Burlington VT.In this must read for any aspiring novice cybercrime investigator as well as the seasoned professional computer guru alike, Brett Shaver takes the reader into the ever changing and dynamic world of Cybercrime investigation.  Shaver, an experienced criminal investigator, lays out the details and intricacies of a computer related crime investigation in a clear and concise manner in his new easy to read publication, Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard. Using Digital Forensics and Investigative techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Shaver takes the reader from start to finish through each step of the investigative process in well organized and easy to follow sections, with real case file examples to reach the ultimate goal of any investigation: identifying the suspect and proving their guilt in the crime. Do not be fooled by the title. This excellent, easily accessible reference is beneficial to both criminal as well as civil investigations and should be in every investigator’s library regardless of their respective criminal or civil investigative responsibilities.(see PDF for full review

  15. Fractal analysis of the ischemic transition region in chronic ischemic heart disease using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michallek, Florian; Dewey, Marc

    2017-04-01

    To introduce a novel hypothesis and method to characterise pathomechanisms underlying myocardial ischemia in chronic ischemic heart disease by local fractal analysis (FA) of the ischemic myocardial transition region in perfusion imaging. Vascular mechanisms to compensate ischemia are regulated at various vascular scales with their superimposed perfusion pattern being hypothetically self-similar. Dedicated FA software ("FraktalWandler") has been developed. Fractal dimensions during first-pass (FDfirst-pass) and recirculation (FDrecirculation) are hypothesised to indicate the predominating pathomechanism and ischemic severity, respectively. Twenty-six patients with evidence of myocardial ischemia in 108 ischemic myocardial segments on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were analysed. The 40th and 60th percentiles of FDfirst-pass were used for pathomechanical classification, assigning lesions with FDfirst-pass ≤ 2.335 to predominating coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) and ≥2.387 to predominating coronary artery disease (CAD). Optimal classification point in ROC analysis was FDfirst-pass = 2.358. FDrecirculation correlated moderately with per cent diameter stenosis in invasive coronary angiography in lesions classified CAD (r = 0.472, p = 0.001) but not CMD (r = 0.082, p = 0.600). The ischemic transition region may provide information on pathomechanical composition and severity of myocardial ischemia. FA of this region is feasible and may improve diagnosis compared to traditional noninvasive myocardial perfusion analysis. • A novel hypothesis and method is introduced to pathophysiologically characterise myocardial ischemia. • The ischemic transition region appears a meaningful diagnostic target in perfusion imaging. • Fractal analysis may characterise pathomechanical composition and severity of myocardial ischemia.

  16. Suspected Rhinolithiasis Associated With Endodontic Disease in a Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kevin; Fiani, Nadine; Peralta, Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Rhinoliths are rare, intranasal, mineralized masses formed via the precipitation of mineral salts around an intranasal nidus. Clinical signs are typically consistent with inflammatory rhinitis and nasal obstruction, but asymptomatic cases are possible. Rhinoliths may be classified as exogenous or endogenous depending on the origin of the nidus, with endogenous rhinoliths reportedly being less common. This case report describes a suspected case of endogenous rhinolithiasis in a cat which was detected as an incidental finding during radiographic assessment of a maxillary canine tooth with endodontic disease. Treatment consisted of removal of the suspected rhinolith via a transalveolar approach after surgical extraction of the maxillary canine tooth.

  17. Cholescintigraphy and ultrasonography in patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, K B; Sommer, W; Hahn, L

    1988-01-01

    The diagnostic power of combined cholescintigraphy and ultrasonography was tested in 67 patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis; of these, 42 (63%) had acute cholecystitis. The predictive value of a positive scintigraphy (PVpos) was 95% and that of a negative (PVneg) was 91% (n = 67...... that in patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis cholescintigraphy should be the first diagnostic procedure performed. If the scintigraphy is positive, additional ultrasonographic detection of gallstones makes the diagnosis almost certain. If one diagnostic modality is inconclusive, the other makes a fair...

  18. Symptomatic Patency Capsule Retention in Suspected Crohn's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjørn; Nathan, Torben; Jensen, Michael Dam

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation of capsule endoscopy is the risk of capsule retention. In patients with suspected Crohn's disease, however, this complication is rare, and if a small bowel stenosis is not reliably excluded, small bowel patency can be confirmed with the Pillcam patency capsule. We present two...... patients examined for suspected Crohn's disease who experienced significant symptoms from a retained patency capsule. Both patients had Crohn's disease located in the terminal ileum. In one patient, the patency capsule caused abdominal pain and vomiting and was visualized at magnetic resonance enterography...

  19. Psychiatric comorbidities in a young man with subacute myelopathy induced by abusive nitrous oxide consumption: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancke F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Falk Mancke,1,2,* Gintare Kaklauskaite,1,* Jennifer Kollmer,3 Markus Weiler1 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of General Psychiatry, Center for Psychosocial Medicine, 3Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Nitrous oxide (N2O, a long-standing anesthetic, is known for its recreational use, and its consumption is on the rise. Several case studies have reported neurological and psychiatric complications of N2O use. To date, however, there has not been a study using standardized diagnostic procedures to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a patient consuming N2O. Here, we report about a 35-year-old male with magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subacute myelopathy induced by N2O consumption, who suffered from comorbid cannabinoid and nicotine dependence as well as abuse of amphetamines, cocaine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and ketamine. Additionally, there was evidence of a preceding transient psychotic and depressive episode induced by synthetic cannabinoid abuse. In summary, this case raises awareness of an important mechanism of neural toxicity, with which physicians working in the field of ­substance-related disorders should be familiar. In fact, excluding N2O toxicity in patients with recognized substance-related disorders and new neurological deficits is compulsory, as untreated for months the damage to the nervous system is at risk of becoming irreversible. Keywords: addictive disorders, laughing gas, subacute combined degeneration, substance use disorder, vitamin B12 deficiency

  20. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: the clinical phenomenon and the current pathobiology of an increasingly prevalent and devastating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Fehlings, Michael G

    2013-08-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common disorder involving chronic progressive compression of the cervical spinal cord due to degenerative disc disease, spondylosis, or other degenerative pathology. CSM is the most common form of spinal cord impairment and causes functional decline leading to reduced independence and quality of life. Despite a sound understanding of the disease process, clinical presentation and management, a universal definition of CSM and a standardized index of severity are not currently used universally. Work is required to develop a definition and establish clinical predictors of progression to improve management of CSM. Despite advances in decompressive and reconstructive surgery, patients are often left with residual disability. Gaps in knowledge of the pathobiology of CSM have limited therapeutic advances to complement surgery. Although the histopathologic and pathophysiologic similarities between CSM and traumatic spinal cord injury have long been acknowledged, the unique pathomechanisms of CSM remain unexplored. Increased efforts to elucidate CSM pathobiology could lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for human CSM and other spinal cord diseases. Here, the natural history of CSM, epidemiology, clinical presentation, and current methods of clinical management are reported, along with the current state of basic scientific research in the field.

  1. Lhermitte sign and myelopathy after irradiation of the cervical spinal cord in radiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, V E M; de Jong, J M A; Murrer, L H P; van den Ende, P L A; Houben, R M A; Lacko, M; Lambin, P; Baumert, B G

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work was to examine toxicity and risk factors after irradiation of the cervical spinal cord. A total of 437 patients irradiated for a laryngeal and oropharyngeal carcinoma were eligible (median follow-up 27 months). Spinal cord contouring was defined differently over time as anatomically defined spinal cord area (SCA) and the spinal cord on CT (SC) with a margin of 3 or 5 mm (SCP3/SCP5). None developed chronic progressive radiation myelopathy (CPRM) (maximum spinal dose 21.8-69 Gy); 3.9% (17/437) developed a Lhermitte sign (LS) with a median duration of 6 months (range 1-30 months) and was reversible in all patients. Risk factors for developing LS were younger age (52 vs. 61 years, p < 0.001), accelerated RT (12/17 patients, p < 0.005), and dose-volume relationships for SCA with ≥ 45 Gy of 14.15 cm(3) and 7.9 cm(3) for patients with and without LS, respectively. LS is more frequently observed in younger patients and in patients treated with accelerated radiotherapy. A dose-volume relationship was seen for V45 in the case of SCA. For higher doses, no clear dose-volume relationships were observed.

  2. HTLV-I associated myelopathy with multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Yasuo; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Shirou; Tarui, Seiichiro

    1988-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of urinary incontinence and gait disturbance, both of which had progressed slowly without any sign of remission. Family history was not contributory. Neurologically, extreme spasticity was recoginized in the lower limbs. Babinski sign was positive bilaterally. Flower-like atypical lymphocytes were seen in blood. Positive anti-HTLV-I antibody was confirmed in serum and spinal fluid by western blot. She was diagnosed as having HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM). CT reveald calcification in bilateral globus pallidus, and MRI revealed multiple spotty areas in cerebral white matter and brain stem, but no spinal cord lesion was detectable. Electrophysiologically, brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) suggested the presence of bilateral brain stem lesions. Neither median nor posterior tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials were evoked, a finding suggesting the existence of spinal cord lesion. In this case, the lesion was not confined to spinal cord, it was also observed in brain stem and cerebral white matter. Such distinct lesions in cerebral white matter and brain stem have not been reported in patients with HAM. It is suggested that HTLV-I is probably associated with cerebral white matter and brain stem.

  3. Lhermitte sign and myelopathy after irradiation of the cervical spinal cord in radiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mul, V.E.M. [Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. Radiation-Oncology; Univ. Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. Radiation-Oncology; Jong, J.M.A. de; Murrer, L.H.P.; Ende, P.L.A. van den; Houben, R.M.A.; Lambin, P.; Baumert, B.G. [Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. Radiation-Oncology; Lacko, M. [Maastricht Univ. Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery

    2012-01-15

    The goal of this work was to examine toxicity and risk factors after irradiation of the cervical spinal cord. Patients and methods A total of 437 patients irradiated for a laryngeal and oropharyngeal carcinoma were eligible (median follow-up 27 months). Spinal cord contouring was defined differently over time as anatomically defined spinal cord area (SCA) and the spinal cord on CT (SC) with a margin of 3 or 5 mm (SCP3/SCP5). Results None developed chronic progressive radiation myelopathy (CPRM) (maximum spinal dose 21.8-69 Gy); 3.9% (17/437) developed a Lhermitte sign (LS) with a median duration of 6 months (range 1-30 months) and was reversible in all patients. Risk factors for developing LS were younger age (52 vs. 61 years, p < 0.001), accelerated RT (12/17 patients, p < 0.005), and dose-volume relationships for SCA with {>=} 45 Gy of 14.15 cm{sup 3} and 7.9 cm{sup 3} for patients with and without LS, respectively. Conclusion LS is more frequently observed in younger patients and in patients treated with accelerated radiotherapy. A dose-volume relationship was seen for V45 in the case of SCA. For higher doses, no clear dose-volume relationships were observed. (orig.)

  4. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Katia N; Macêdo, Maíra C; Andrade, Rosana P; Mendes, Selena D; Martins, José V; Baptista, Abrahão F

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord - HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis - and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions.

  5. Clinical pathophysiology of human T-lymphotropic virus-type1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa eYamano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, a human retrovirus, is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disease termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. HAM/TSP is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is characterized by unremitting myelopathic symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, lower limb sensory disturbance, and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Approximately 0.25%–3.8% of HTLV-1-infected individuals develop HAM/TSP, which is more common in women than in men. Since the discovery of HAM/TSP, significant advances have been made with respect to elucidating the virological, molecular, and immunopathological mechanisms underlying this disease. These findings suggest that spinal cord invasion by HTLV-1-infected T cells triggers a strong virus-specific immune response and increases proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, leading to chronic lymphocytic inflammation and tissue damage in spinal cord lesions. However, little progress has been made in the development of an optimal treatment for HAM/TSP, more specifically in the identification of biomarkers for predicting disease progression and of molecular targets for novel therapeutic strategies targeting the underlying pathological mechanisms. This review summarizes current clinical and pathophysiological knowledge on HAM/TSP and discusses future focus areas for research on this disease.

  6. Clinical features of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeibi, Ali; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Azarpazhooh, Amir; Mokhber, Naghme; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Amin; Hashemi, Peyman; Foroghipour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Reza Farid; Bazarbachi, Ali; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to introduce clinical manifestations of patients in northeast Iran with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and describe the epidemiological features, as well as risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of HTLV-1 infected cases and HAM/TSP patients referred by outpatient neurology clinics as well as Mashhad Blood Transfusion Center from 2005 to 2010. The study comprises 513 cases, including 358 healthy carriers (HCs) and 145 HAM/TSP patients. The majority of carriers were male (73.5%), whereas 67.6% of HAM/TSP sufferers were female (P TSP patients and HCs was 45.9 ± 13.6 and 39.5 ± 11.58 years, respectively (P TSP patients than the HCs (P TSP patients (72.4%). This research develops an HTLV-1 data registry in an endemic area such as Mashhad which can serve useful purposes, including evaluation of clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients and epidemiological data of HTLV-1-infected cases.

  7. Ischemic Preconditioning of One Forearm Enhances Static and Dynamic Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Rasmussen, Mads Reinholdt; Jattu, Timo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ischemic preconditioning enhances ergometer cycling and swimming performance. We evaluated whether ischemic preconditioning of one forearm (four times for 5 min) also affects static breath hold and underwater swimming, whereas the effect of similar preconditioning on ergometer rowing...... oxygenation decreased from 66% ± 7% to 33% ± 14% (P swimming distance from 110 ± 16 to 119 ± 14 m (P ....05). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that while the effect of ischemic preconditioning (of one forearm) on ergometer rowing was minimal, probably because of reduced muscle oxygenation during the warm-up, ischemic preconditioning does enhance both static and dynamic apnea, supporting that muscle ischemia is an important...

  8. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in the assessment of patients presenting with chest pain suspected for acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Massimo; Capasso, Raffaella

    2016-07-01

    Acute chest pain is an important clinical challenge and a major reason for presentation to the emergency department. Although multiple imaging techniques are available to assess patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), considerable interest has been focused on the use of non-invasive imaging options as coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). According to several recent evidences, CCTA has been shown to represent a useful tool to rapidly and accurately diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with low to intermediate cardiovascular risk. CCTA examination has the unique ability to non-invasively depict the coronary anatomy, not only allowing visualization of the lumen of the arteries in order to detect severe stenosis or occlusion responsible of myocardial ischemia, but also allows the assessment of coronary artery wall by demonstrating the presence or absence of CAD. However, routine CCTA is not able to differentiate ischemic from non-ischemic chest pain in patients with known CAD and it does not provide any functional assessment of the heart. Conversely, CMR is considered the gold standard in the evaluation of morphology, function, viability and tissue characterization of the heart. CMR offers a wide range of tools for diagnosing myocardial infarction (MI) at least at the same time of the elevation of cardiac troponin values, differentiating infarct tissue and ischemic myocardium from normal myocardium or mimicking conditions, and distinguishing between new and old ischemic events. In high-risk patients, with acute and chronic manifestations of CAD, CMR may be preferable to CCTA, since it would allow detection, differential diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and management of MI.

  9. PMS2 Involvement in Patients Suspected of Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, Renee C.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Westers, Helga; Jager, Paul O. J.; Rozeveld, Dennie; Bos, Krista K.; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Hollema, Harry; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    It is well-established that germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 cause Lynch syndrome. However, mutations in these three genes do not account for all Lynch syndrome (suspected) families. Recently, it was shown that germline mutations in another mismatch repair gene,

  10. Faecal Calprotectin in Suspected Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degraeuwe, Pieter L. J.; Beld, Monique P. A.; Ashorn, Merja; Canani, Roberto Berni; Day, Andrew S.; Diamanti, Antonella; Fagerberg, Ulrika L.; Henderson, Paul; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Van de Vijver, Els; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Wilson, David C.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.

    Objectives: The diagnostic accuracy of faecal calprotectin (FC) concentration for paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well described at the population level, but not at the individual level. We reassessed the diagnostic accuracy of FC in children with suspected IBD and developed an

  11. Stabilization of the spine in patients with suspected cervical spine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization of the spine in patients with suspected cervical spine injury in Mulago Hospital. BM Ndeleva, T Beyeza. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eaoj.v5i1.67487 · AJOL African Journals ...

  12. Talking heads : interviewing suspects from a cultural perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, K.

    2009-01-01

    Although the literature on the interviewing of suspects has increased over the past decade, research on the use and effectiveness of police strategies and their boundary conditions is very rare. The present dissertation aims to fill this void by identifying behaviors that appeal to and persuade

  13. Nonreferral of Nursing Home Patients With Suspected Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamaker, Marije E.; Hamelinck, Victoria C.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Bastiaannet, Esther; Smorenburg, Carolien H.; Achterberg, Wilco P.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: People with suspected breast cancer who are not referred for diagnostic testing remain unregistered and are not included in cancer statistics. Little is known about the extent of and motivation for nonreferral of these patients. Methods: A Web-based survey was sent to all elderly care

  14. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  15. Cognitive Linguistic Performances of Multilingual University Students Suspected of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…

  16. Differential Diagnosis of Children with Suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Heard, Robert; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The gold standard for diagnosing childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is expert judgment of perceptual features. The aim of this study was to identify a set of objective measures that differentiate CAS from other speech disorders. Method: Seventy-two children (4-12 years of age) diagnosed with suspected CAS by community speech-language…

  17. A suspected case of Addison’s disease in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Lambacher, Bianca; Wittek, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A 4.75-year old Simmental cow was presented with symptoms of colic and ileus. The clinical signs and blood analysis resulted in the diagnosis of suspected primary hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s disease). Although Addison’s disease has been frequently described in other domestic mammals, to our knowledge, this disease has not previously been reported in cattle.

  18. Is extended biopsy protocol justified in all patients with suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the significance of an extended 10-core transrectal biopsy protocol in different categories of patients with suspected prostate cancer using digital guidance. Materials and Methods: We studied 125 men who were being evaluated for prostate cancer. They all had an extended 10-core digitally guided ...

  19. Correlates and Suspected Causes of Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates and suspected causes of the intractable condition obesity are complex and involve environmental and heritable, psychological and physical variables. Overall, the factors associated with and possible causes of it are not clearly understood. Although there exists some ambiguity in the research regarding the degree of happiness in…

  20. Medical Evaluation of Suspected Child Sexual Abuse: 2011 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Joyce A.

    2011-01-01

    The medical evaluation of children with suspected sexual abuse includes more than just the physical examination of the child. The importance of taking a detailed medical history from the parents and a history from the child about physical sensations following sexual contact has been emphasized in other articles in the medical literature. The…

  1. Selective screening in neonates suspected to have inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) have a high morbidity and mortality in neonates. Unfortunately, there is no nationwide neonatal screen in Egypt, so several cases may be missed. Objective: The aim of this work was to detect the prevalence of IEM among neonates with suspected IEM, and to diagnose IEM as ...

  2. Sexual Health Before Treatment in Women with Suspected Gynecologic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretschneider, C Emi; Doll, Kemi M; Bensen, Jeannette T; Gehrig, Paola A; Wu, Jennifer M; Geller, Elizabeth J

    2017-08-22

    Sexual health in survivors of gynecologic cancer has been studied; however, sexual health in these women before treatment has not been thoroughly evaluated. The objective of our study was to describe the pretreatment characteristics of sexual health of women with suspected gynecologic cancer before cancer treatment. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of women with a suspected gynecologic cancer, who were prospectively enrolled in a hospital-based cancer survivorship cohort from August 2012 to June 2013. Subjects completed the validated Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Sexual Function and Satisfaction Questionnaire. Pretreatment sexual health was assessed in terms of sexual interest, desire, lubrication, discomfort, orgasm, enjoyment, and satisfaction. Of 186 eligible women with suspected gynecologic cancer, 154 (82%) completed the questionnaire pretreatment. Mean age was 58.1 ± 13.3 years. Sexual health was poor: 68.3% reported no sexual activity, and 54.7% had no interest in sexual activity. When comparing our study population to the general U.S. population, the mean pretreatment scores for the subdomains of lubrication and vaginal discomfort were similar, while sexual interest was significantly lower and global satisfaction was higher. In a linear regression model, controlling for cancer site, age remained significantly associated with sexual function while cancer site did not. Problems with sexual health are prevalent in women with suspected gynecologic malignancies before cancer treatment. Increasing awareness of the importance of sexual health in this population will improve quality of life for these women.

  3. Use of budesonide Turbuhaler in young children suspected of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Nikander, K

    1994-01-01

    The question addressed in this study was the ability of young children to use a dry-powder inhaler, Turbuhaler. One hundred and sixty five children suspected of asthma, equally distributed in one year age-groups from 6 months to 8 yrs, inhaled from a Pulmicort Turbuhaler, 200 micrograms budesonid...

  4. Doppler ultrasound in the assessment of suspected intra-uterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    obesity with hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.[3] In this review, a brief discussion about the ultrasound diagnosis of suspected IUGR, and thereafter about the use of Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of IUGR, will be ... before that, all fetuses have relatively larger heads, which will mask the brain-.

  5. Candida meningitis in a suspected immunosuppressive patient - A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida meningitis in a suspected immunosuppressive patient - A case report. EO Sanya, NB Ameen, BA Onile. Abstract. No Abstract. West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 25 (1) 2006: pp.79-81. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Ajmaline challenge in young individuals with suspected Brugada syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgente, A.; Sarkozy, A.; Asmundis, C. de; Chierchia, G.B.; Capulzini, L.; Paparella, G.; Henkens, S.; Brugada, P.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical characteristics and the results of ajmaline challenge in young individuals with suspected Brugada syndrome (BS) have not been systematically investigated. METHODS: Among a larger series of patients included in the BS database of our Department, 179 patients undergoing

  7. A Diagnostic Program for Patients Suspected of Having Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigt, Jos A.; Uil, Steven M.; Oostdijk, Ad H.; Boers, James E.; van den Berg, Jan-Willem K.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In 297 patients suspected of having lung cancer, invasive diagnostic procedures followed positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) on the same day. For patients with a diagnosis of malignancy (215/297), investigations were finalized on 1 day in 85%, and bronchoscopy was performed in

  8. Use of Chest Radiography In Patients Suspected of Pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be rushed into treatfng all cases of cough, fever and weight loss with negative sputums as PTB, and other diagnoses may be overlooked. A cheaper, quicker way of screening TB suspects would help con- siderably in this common problem. In Febuary 1991, the Norwegian Government do- nated two Odelka camer;l,s to ...

  9. Opioid analgesic administration in patients with suspected drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreling, Maria Clara Giorio Dutra; Mattos-Pimenta, Cibele Andrucioli de

    2017-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of patients suspected of drug use according to the nursing professionals' judgement, and compare the behavior of these professionals in opioid administration when there is or there is no suspicion that patient is a drug user. A cross-sectional study with 507 patients and 199 nursing professionals responsible for administering drugs to these patients. The Chi-Square test, Fisher's Exact and a significance level of 5% were used for the analyzes. The prevalence of suspected patients was 6.7%. The prevalence ratio of administration of opioid analgesics 'if necessary' is twice higher among patients suspected of drug use compared to patients not suspected of drug use (p = 0.037). The prevalence of patients suspected of drug use was similar to that of studies performed in emergency departments. Patients suspected of drug use receive more opioids than patients not suspected of drug use. Identificar a prevalência de pacientes com suspeita de uso de drogas conforme opinião de profissionais de enfermagem e comparar a conduta desses profissionais na administração de opioides quando há ou não suspeita de que o paciente seja usuário de drogas. Estudo transversal com 507 pacientes e 199 profissionais de enfermagem responsáveis pela administração de medicamentos a esses pacientes. Para as análises foram utilizados os testes de Qui-Quadrado, Exato de Fisher e um nível de significância de 5%. A prevalência de pacientes suspeitos foi 6,7%. A razão de prevalência de administração de analgésicos opioides "se necessário" é duas vezes maior entre os pacientes suspeitos em relação aos não suspeitos (p=0,037). A prevalência de suspeitos foi semelhante à de estudos realizados em departamentos de emergência. Os suspeitos de serem usuários de drogas recebem mais opioides do que os não suspeitos.

  10. The use of routine EEG in acute ischemic stroke patients without seizures: generalized but not focal EEG pathology is associated with clinical deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marc E; Ebert, Anne D; Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios

    2017-05-01

    Specialized electroencephalography (EEG) methods have been used to provide clues about stroke features and prognosis. However, the value of routine EEG in stroke patients without (suspected) seizures has been somewhat neglected. We aimed to assess this in a group of acute ischemic stroke patients in regard to short-term prognosis and basic stroke features. We assessed routine (10-20) EEG findings in 69 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients without seizures. Associations between EEG abnormalities and NIHSS scores, clinical improvement or deterioration as well as MRI stroke characteristics were evaluated. Mean age was 69 ± 18 years, 43 of the patients (62.3%) were men. Abnormal EEG was found in 40 patients (58%) and was associated with higher age (p = 0.021). The most common EEG pathology was focal slowing (30; 43.5%). No epileptiform potentials were found. Abnormal EEG in general and generalized or focal slowing in particular was significantly associated with higher NIHSS score on admission and discharge as well as with hemorrhagic transformation of the ischemic lesion. Abnormal EEG and generalized (but not focal) slowing were associated with clinical deterioration ( p = 0.036, p = 0.003). Patients with lacunar strokes had no EEG abnormalities. Abnormal EEG in general and generalized slowing in particular are associated with clinical deterioration after acute ischemic stroke. The study demonstrates the value of routine EEG as a simple diagnostic tool in the evaluation of stroke patients especially with regard to short-term prognosis.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging versus bone scintigraphy in suspected scaphoid fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiel-van Buul, M.M.C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roolker, W. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbeeten, B.W.B. Jr. [Dept. of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Broekhuizen, A.H. [Dept. of Traumatology, Academic Medical Center, Univ. of Amsredam (Netherlands)

    1996-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful in the evaluation of musculoskeletal problems, including those of the wrist. In patients with a wrist injury, MRI is used mainly to assess vascularity of scaphoid non-union. However, the use of MRI in patients in the acute phase following carpal injury is not common. Three-phase bone scintigraphy is routinely performed from at least 72 h after injury in patients with suspected scaphoid fracture and negative initial radiographs. We evaluated MRI in this patient group. The bone scan was used as the reference method. Nineteen patients were included. Bone scintigraphy was performed in all 19 patients, but MRI could be obtained in only 16 (in three patients, MRI was stopped owing to claustrophobia). In five patients, MRI confirmed a scintigraphically suspected scaphoid fracture. In one patient, a perilunar luxation, without a fracture, was seen on MRI, while bone scintigraphy showed a hot spot in the region of the lunate bone, suspected for fracture. This was confirmed by surgery. In two patients, a hot spot in the scaphoid region was suspected for scaphoid fracture, and immobilization and employed for a period of 12 weeks. MRI was negative in both cases; in one of them a scaphoid fracture was retrospectively proven on the initial X-ray series. In another two patients, a hot spot in the region of MCP I was found with a negative MRI. In both, the therapy was adjusted. In the remaining six patients, both modalities were negative. We conclude that in the diagnostic management of patients with suspected scaphoid fracture and negative initial radiographs, the use of MRI may be promising, but is not superior to three-phase bone scintigraphy. (orig.)

  12. Tranexamic Acid Does Not Influence Cardioprotection by Ischemic Preconditioning and Remote Ischemic Preconditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Caster, Patrick; Eiling, Sandra; Boekholt, Yvonne; Behmenburg, Friederike; Dorsch, Marianne; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Huhn, Ragnar

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested that the antifibrinolytic drug aprotinin increases the infarct size after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and attenuates the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Aprotinin was replaced by tranexamic acid (TXA) in clinical practice. Here, we investigated whether TXA

  13. Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy for Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansberg, Maarten G.; O’Donnell, Martin J.; Khatri, Pooja; Lang, Eddy S.; Nguyen-Huynh, Mai N.; Schwartz, Neil E.; Sonnenberg, Frank A.; Schulman, Sam; Vandvik, Per Olav; Spencer, Frederick A.; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Guyatt, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article provides recommendations on the use of antithrombotic therapy in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods: We generated treatment recommendations (Grade 1) and suggestions (Grade 2) based on high (A), moderate (B), and low (C) quality evidence. Results: In patients with acute ischemic stroke, we recommend IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) if treatment can be initiated within 3 h (Grade 1A) or 4.5 h (Grade 2C) of symptom onset; we suggest intraarterial r-tPA in patients ineligible for IV tPA if treatment can be initiated within 6 h (Grade 2C); we suggest against the use of mechanical thrombectomy (Grade 2C) although carefully selected patients may choose this intervention; and we recommend early aspirin therapy at a dose of 160 to 325 mg (Grade 1A). In patients with acute stroke and restricted mobility, we suggest the use of prophylactic-dose heparin or intermittent pneumatic compression devices (Grade 2B) and suggest against the use of elastic compression stockings (Grade 2B). In patients with a history of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA, we recommend long-term treatment with aspirin (75-100 mg once daily), clopidogrel (75 mg once daily), aspirin/extended release dipyridamole (25 mg/200 mg bid), or cilostazol (100 mg bid) over no antiplatelet therapy (Grade 1A), oral anticoagulants (Grade 1B), the combination of clopidogrel plus aspirin (Grade 1B), or triflusal (Grade 2B). Of the recommended antiplatelet regimens, we suggest clopidogrel or aspirin/extended-release dipyridamole over aspirin (Grade 2B) or cilostazol (Grade 2C). In patients with a history of stroke or TIA and atrial fibrillation we recommend oral anticoagulation over no antithrombotic therapy, aspirin, and combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel (Grade 1B). Conclusions: These recommendations can help clinicians make evidence-based treatment decisions with their patients who have had strokes. PMID:22315273

  14. Ethanol abolishes ischemic preconditioning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli, Giampaolo; Altamura, Luca; Fabretti, Alessandro; Lanza, Gaetano A; Biasucci, Luigi M; Rebuzzi, Antonio G; Leone, Antonio Maria; Porto, Italo; Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Crea, Filippo

    2008-01-22

    This study sought to assess the effect of acute alcohol intake on ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in humans using the clinical model of 2 sequential balloon inflations during a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Ischemic preconditioning is the most potent form of endogenous myocardial protection from irreversible ischemic injury. Experimental observations suggest that acute ethanol administration might abolish IPC. We studied 30 consecutive patients (22 men, mean age 65 years) undergoing elective coronary angioplasty who were randomized to receive an oral dose of 40 g ethylic alcohol (administered as 149 ml of Gordon's Gin) or 149 ml of water 30 min before PCI. Intracoronary electrocardiogram was continuously monitored to assess the greatest ST-segment elevation or depression from baseline. In placebo-treated patients, the change of ST-segment shift during the second inflation was significantly smaller than that during the first inflation (19.3 +/- 9.1 vs. 15.7 +/- 8.7, p = 0.005). In contrast, in gin-treated patients, the change of ST-segment shift during the second inflation was significantly greater than that during the first inflation (18.7 +/- 7.2 vs. 22 +/- 10, p = 0.03). The group-inflation interaction for ST-segment changes was highly significant (p < 0.001). This randomized, prospective study in humans shows that administration of a moderate dose of ethanol abolishes IPC occurring during sequential episodes of myocardial ischemia and is associated with worsening ischemia. Based on our study, intake of moderate to high doses of alcoholic beverages should be avoided in patients at high risk of acute myocardial infarction.

  15. Pulmonary involvement in patients with HTLV-I associated myelopathy Comprometimento pulmonar em pacientes com mielopatia associada ao HTLV-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilma Mattos

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement in HTLV-I patients has been identified by several authors in Africa, Japan and Brazil. The objective of this controlled study is to establish an association between HAM and lymphocytosis in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL. Thirty-five adult patients with non-traumatic and non-tumoral myelopathy filled out a detailed historical survey and underwent a neurological examination, a thoracic radiological evaluation and a CSF examination. Of the patients in this sample, 22 were diagnosed with HTLV-I associated myelopathy and 13 had myelopathies with other etiologies. Lymphocytosis in the BAL fluid was detected in 18 (82% of the HAM patients and in 2 (15% of non-HAM patients. We concluded that the lung represents an important organ in the pathogenesis of HAM.A frequência do comprometimento pulmonar em pacientes com doença neurológica associada ao primeiro vírus linfotrópico humano de células T (HTLV-I tem sido demonstrado por vários autores na África, Ásia e América Latina. Com o objetivo de estudar o envolvimento pulmonar em pacientes com mielopatia por HTLV-I (HAM estudamos o lavado bronco-alveolar (LBA de 22 pacientes com HAM e 13 pacientes com mielopatias de outras etiologias. A contagem diferencial das células do LBA de pacientes com HAM demonstrou percentual de linfócitos maior que 20 em 18 (82% dos pacientes enquanto aqueles com mielopatias de outra natureza mostraram linfocitose no LBA em apenas 2 (15%. Concluímos que o pulmão se constitui em importante órgão para a patogênese de HAM.

  16. Canine degenerative myelopathy: biochemical characterization of superoxide dismutase 1 in the first naturally occurring non-human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Matthew J; Beckett, Jeffrey; Coates, Joan R; Miller, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Mutations in canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) have recently been shown to cause canine degenerative myelopathy, a disabling neurodegenerative disorder affecting specific breeds of dogs characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and paralysis until death, or more common, euthanasia. This discovery makes canine degenerative myelopathy the first and only naturally occurring non-human model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), closely paralleling the clinical, pathological, and genetic presentation of its human counterpart, SOD1-mediated familial ALS. To further understand the biochemical role that canine SOD1 plays in this disease and how it may be similar to human SOD1, we characterized the only two SOD1 mutations described in affected dogs to date, E40K and T18S. We show that a detergent-insoluble species of mutant SOD1 is present in spinal cords of affected dogs that increases with disease progression. Our in vitro results indicate that both canine SOD1 mutants form enzymatically active dimers, arguing against a loss of function in affected homozygous animals. Further studies show that these mutants, like most human SOD1 mutants, have an increased propensity to form aggregates in cell culture, with 10-20% of cells possessing visible aggregates. Creation of the E40K mutation in human SOD1 recapitulates the normal enzymatic activity but not the aggregation propensity seen with the canine mutant. Our findings lend strong biochemical support to the toxic role of SOD1 in canine degenerative myelopathy and establish close parallels for the role mutant SOD1 plays in both canine and human disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Clinical Prediction Rule for Functional Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Analysis of an International Prospective Multicenter Data Set of 757 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Kopjar, Branko; Côté, Pierre; Arnold, Paul; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-12-16

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a progressive spinal condition that is often managed surgically. Knowledge of important predictors of surgical outcome can provide decision support to surgeons and enable them to effectively manage their patients' expectations. The purpose of this study was to identify the most important clinical predictors of surgical outcome in patients with CSM using data from two multinational prospective studies. A total of 757 patients treated surgically for CSM participated in either the CSM-North America or the CSM-International study. The model was designed to distinguish between patients who achieved a modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) score of ≥16 at the one-year follow-up and those who did not (mJOA myelopathy, and older age. The final model consisted of six significant and clinically relevant predictors: baseline severity score (relative risk [RR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.15), impaired gait (RR, 0.76 [ref. = absence]; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.88), age (RR, 0.91 per decade; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96), comorbidity score (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.98), smoking status (RR, 0.78 [ref. = non-smoking]; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.93), and duration of symptoms (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99). Patients were more likely to achieve a score of ≥16 (indicating minimal impairment) if they were younger, had milder preoperative myelopathy, did not smoke, had fewer and less severe comorbidities, did not present with impaired gait, and had shorter symptom duration. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  18. Lessons From Recruitment to an Internet-Based Survey for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: Comparison of Free and Fee-Based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Kotter, Mark

    2018-02-05

    Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy (DCM) is a syndrome of subacute cervical spinal cord compression due to spinal degeneration. Although DCM is thought to be common, many fundamental questions such as the natural history and epidemiology of DCM remain unknown. In order to answer these, access to a large cohort of patients with DCM is required. With its unrivalled and efficient reach, the Internet has become an attractive tool for medical research and may overcome these limitations in DCM. The most effective recruitment strategy, however, is unknown. To compare the efficacy of fee-based advertisement with alternative free recruitment strategies to a DCM Internet health survey. An Internet health survey (SurveyMonkey) accessed by a new DCM Internet platform (myelopathy.org) was created. Using multiple survey collectors and the website's Google Analytics, the efficacy of fee-based recruitment strategies (Google AdWords) and free alternatives (including Facebook, Twitter, and myelopathy.org) were compared. Overall, 760 surveys (513 [68%] fully completed) were accessed, 305 (40%) from fee-based strategies and 455 (60%) from free alternatives. Accounting for researcher time, fee-based strategies were more expensive ($7.8 per response compared to $3.8 per response for free alternatives) and identified a less motivated audience (Click-Through-Rate of 5% compared to 57% using free alternatives) but were more time efficient for the researcher (2 minutes per response compared to 16 minutes per response for free methods). Facebook was the most effective free strategy, providing 239 (31%) responses, where a single message to 4 existing communities yielded 133 (18%) responses within 7 days. The Internet can efficiently reach large numbers of patients. Free and fee-based recruitment strategies both have merits. Facebook communities are a rich resource for Internet researchers.

  19. An approach of patients with ischemic stroke to primary and secondary stroke prevention in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, Przemysław; Porebska, Agata; Bajer-Czajkowska, Anna; Zywica, Adrian; Koziarska, Dorota; Podbielski, Jarosław

    2007-01-01

    The stroke mortality rate in the Polish population is significantly higher than the average stroke mortality in Western Europe. It may prove a poor "initial" health condition of the Polish population which is afflicted with many life-threatening diseases which are at the same time the major risk factors for both: first ever and recurrent stroke. The aim of our study was to evaluate what is an attitude of Polish people with first-ever or recurrent stroke to keeping under control the most important risk factors for ischemic stroke. 1282 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were examined and categorized as individuals with first ever (group I - 980 patients) and recurrent stroke (group II - 302 patients). The data on the patients' previous history of stroke and vascular modifiable risk factors diagnosed before the onset of stroke: arterial hypertension (AH), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), ischemic heart disease (IHD), atrial fibrillation (AF), cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were determined. The treatment with antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants was also taken into account. More than one-third ofpatients, irrespective of group admitted that they had treated AH unsystematically or not treated at all. Based on initial blood pressure, it may be suspected, that also individuals declaring systematic AH treatment, did not do it effectively. It also concerned the type 2 DM - glycemic control remained unsatisfactory within the period preceding first-ever and recurrent stroke. After first stroke, the patients haven't changed their habits considering tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. The anticoagulants were used relatively seldom in relation to recommendations in both group of patients. The main risk factors for ischemic stroke are poorly controlled by Polish patients before first ever stroke. After the first cerebrovascular event they usually don't change their habits, which lead to recurrent stroke. In Poland the educational strategies regarding

  20. Volkmann's ischemic contracture of the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botte, M J; Keenan, M A; Gelberman, R H

    1998-08-01

    Upper extremity deformity of ischemic contracture usually includes elbow flexion, forearm pronation, wrist flexion, thumb flexion and adduction, digital metacarpophalangeal joint extension, and interphalangeal joint flexion. Treatment of mild contractures consists of either nonoperative management with a comprehensive rehabilitation program (to increase range of motion and strenght) or operative management consisting of infarct excision or tendon lengthening. Treatment of moderate-to-severe contractures consists of release of secondary nerve compression, treatment of contractures (with tendon lengthening or recession), tendon or free-tissue transfers to restore lost function, and/or salvage procedures for the severely contracted or neglected extremity.

  1. ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND RENAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Belyalov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ischemic heart disease (IHD with comorbid kidney dysfunction has more severe course and worse prognosis, regardless of the chosen therapeutic strategy for the treatment of coronary disease. Traits of diagnosis and treatment of IHD in patients with renal dysfunction, including end-stage kidney disease, are discussed. The analysis of the studies showed increasing difficulties in the diagnosis of IHD, and decrease in the effectiveness of drug and invasive treatment.Results of large randomized and observational studies can help to treat patients with IHD and comorbid renal dysfunction more effectively and safe. 

  2. Mitochondrial adaptations within chronically ischemic swine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFalls, Edward O; Sluiter, Wim; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Manintveld, Olivier C; Lamers, Jos M J; Bezstarosti, Karel; van Beusekom, Heleen M; Sikora, Joseph; Ward, Herbert B; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2006-12-01

    Experimental evidence has emerged that myocardial ischemic preconditioning can prime the mitochondria into a "stress-resistant state", so that cell death is reduced following prolonged severe ischemia and reperfusion. Using a swine model of chronically ischemic myocardium, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondria within the ischemic territory have also acquired a protective phenotype. Eleven swine underwent a left thoracotomy with placement of an external constrictor around the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery. By 10 weeks, a severe stenosis of the LAD artery was documented by quantitative coronary angiography (92 +/- 2%). Animals were sacrificed and myocardium was extracted from the LAD and remote regions. Mitochondria were isolated from subendocardium and subepicardium from LAD and remote regions and state 2 (substrate alone) and state 3 (+ADP) respiration were assessed with a Clark electrode. Within the LAD subendocardium, the respiratory control index was 2.68 +/- 0.17 and was lower than the remote subendocardium (3.64 +/- 0.08; P < 0.05). When exposed to 20 min anoxia with reoxygenation, the LAD region demonstrated a more preserved state 3 respiration compared with the remote region (99 +/- 14 versus 65 +/- 9 nmol O2/mg, respectively; P < 0.05). In parallel mitochondrial experiments, chemiluminescence was detected with the probe coelenterazine and superoxide generation in the LAD region in the presence of antimycin A was 574 +/- 108 RLU/30 s/microg and was nearly 50% lower than the remote region (979 +/- 175 RLU/30 s/microg; P < 0.05). Within the mitochondria, the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 by western gels was 20% higher in the LAD region compared with the remote region (P < 0.05) with no differences noted in UCP-3. In this swine model of chronic myocardial ischemia, isolated mitochondria from the ischemic tissue demonstrate preserved state 3 respiration following anoxia/reoxygenation, consistent with a stress-resistant state

  3. [New pharmacological approaches to ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddino, Riccardo; Della Pina, Paolo; Gorga, Elio; Brambilla, Giulio; Regazzoni, Valentina; Gavazzoni, Mara; Dei Cas, Livio

    2012-10-01

    Major steps have been made in the treatment of ischemic heart disease from the discovery of nitrates as antianginal medication to the techniques of percutaneous angioplasty. This incredible therapeutic progress has resulted in a reduced incidence of ischemic heart disease and related mortality and morbidity. However, statistical and epidemiological data indicate that in ischemic heart disease, despite the achievement of great success, there is a necessity for a further step toward treatment, considering the fact that the characteristics of this population are changing (increased prevalence of subendocardial infarction compared with classic transmural infarction, especially in the elderly population). Furthermore, the need for alternative therapeutic approaches to traditional ones is recognized. Ranolazine is a selective inhibitor of Na channels that prevents pathological extension of late Na current developing in the ischemic myocardial cell. This current is responsible for calcium overload, with consequent impairment of diastolic relaxation. Ranolazine reduces Na overload induced by calcium and improves diastolic relaxation and coronary subendocardial flow, without affecting hemodynamic parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, or inotropic state of the heart, avoiding undesirable side effects. Efficacy of ranolazine has been evaluated in several trials, using clinical and instrumental endpoints (MARISA and CARISA) or, more recently, using endpoints such as mortality and reinfarction (ERICA and MERLIN-TIMI 36). Ivabradine acts through the inhibition of late Na current (also known as If), which controls the spontaneous diastolic depolarization of sinus node cells. The partial inhibition of these channels reduces the frequency of sinus node action potential initiation, resulting in decreased heart rate without effects on contractility, atrio-ventricular conduction, or repolarization. The BEAUTIFUL trial has tested whether the effect of ivabradine in lowering

  4. Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Ischemic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuusuke Mitsuka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is extremely poor with a mean survival time of 12 months. The initial symptoms are poor and atypical. Because of its rare entity and little knowledge of its treatments, there are few reports of long-term survival. We encountered a very unique case with strong impression on radiological findings of malignant peritoneal methothelioma. We had misdiagnosed it because of the findings and because the time course was similar to that of ischemic colitis. The radiological findings on CT and enema disappeared within one week after antibiotic therapy.

  5. Psychometric properties of the 30-m walking test in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy: results from two prospective multicenter cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Parker E; Fehlings, Michael G; Kopjar, Branko; Tetreault, Lindsay A; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Anderson, Karen K; Arnold, Paul M

    2017-02-01

    The timed 30-m walking test (30MWT) is used in clinical practice and in research to objectively quantify gait impairment. The psychometric properties of 30MWT have not yet been rigorously evaluated. This study aimed to determine test-retest reliability, divergent and convergent validity, and responsiveness to change of the 30MWT in patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). A retrospective observational study was carried out. The sample consisted of patients with symptomatic DCM enrolled in the AOSpine North America or AOSpine International cervical spondylotic myelopathy studies at 26 sites. Modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (mJOA), Nurick scale, 30MWT, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short-Form-36 (SF-36v2) physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) were the outcome measures. Data from two prospective multicenter cohort myelopathy studies were merged. Each patient was evaluated at baseline and 6 months postoperatively. Of 757 total patients, 682 (90.09%) attempted to perform the 30MWT at baseline. Of these 682 patients, 602 (88.12%) performed the 30MWT at baseline. One patient was excluded, leaving601 in the analysis. At baseline, 81 of 682 (11.88%) patients were unable to perform the test, and their mJOA, NDI, and SF-36v2 PCS scores were lower compared with those who performed the test at baseline. In patients who performed the 30MWT at baseline, there was very high correlation among the three baseline 30MWT measurements (r=0.9569-0.9919). The 30MWT demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. It was moderately correlated with the Nurick (r=0.4932), mJOA (r=-0.4424), and SF-36v2 PCS (r=-0.3537) (convergent validity) and poorly correlated with the NDI (r=0.2107) and SF-36v2 MCS (r=-0.1984) (divergent validity). Overall, the 30MWT was not responsive to change (standardized response mean [SRM]=0.30). However, for patients who had a baseline time above the median value of 29 seconds, the SRM was 0.45. The 30MWT

  6. Spinal subarachnoid and subdural hematoma presenting as a Brown-Séquard-like myelopathy following minor trauma in a patient on dabigatran etexilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen R. Wolfe, MD, MPH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dabigatran etexilate is a relatively new anticoagulant from the class of direct thrombin inhibitors which is administered orally and does not require routine blood work monitoring. Dabigatran may be attractive to both clinicians and patients because of both its convenience and efficacy; however, clinical complications are still being elucidated. Here, we present a previously unreported case of spinal subarachnoid and subdural hematoma presenting as a Brown-Séquard-like myelopathy in a patient after minor trauma in the setting of Dabigatran anticoagulation.

  7. Nonfasting glucose, ischemic heart disease, and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; McCarthy, Mark I

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether elevated nonfasting glucose levels associate with and cause ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI).......The purpose of this study was to test whether elevated nonfasting glucose levels associate with and cause ischemic heart disease (IHD) and myocardial infarction (MI)....

  8. Arterial hypertension, microalbuminuria, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    2000-01-01

    Albumin excretion in urine is positively correlated with the presence of ischemic heart disease and atherosclerotic risk factors. We studied prospectively whether a slight increase of urinary albumin excretion, ie, microalbuminuria, adds to the increased risk of ischemic heart disease among...

  9. Changes of resting cerebral activities in subacute ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the difference in resting cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants, define the abnormal site, and provide new evidence for pathological mechanisms, clinical diagnosis, prognosis prediction and efficacy evaluation of ischemic stroke. At present, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies focus on the motor dysfunction and the acute stage of ischemic stroke. This study recruited 15 right-handed ischemic stroke patients at subacute stage (15 days to 11.5 weeks and 15 age-matched healthy participants. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was performed on each subject to detect cerebral activity. Regional homogeneity analysis was used to investigate the difference in cerebral activities between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants. The results showed that the ischemic stroke patients had lower regional homogeneity in anterior cingulate and left cerebrum and higher regional homogeneity in cerebellum, left precuneus and left frontal lobe, compared with healthy participants. The experimental findings demonstrate that the areas in which regional homogeneity was different between ischemic stroke patients and healthy participants are in the cerebellum, left precuneus, left triangle inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus and anterior cingulate. These locations, related to the motor, sensory and emotion areas, are likely potential targets for the neural regeneration of subacute ischemic stroke patients.

  10. A Mobitz type II atrioventricular block in multicentric ischemic stroke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Mobitz type II atrioventricular block in multicentric ischemic stroke. Utku Murat Kalafat, Canan Akman, Turker Karaboga, Tarik Ocak. Abstract. Cardiac and cerebrovascular illnesses are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Thromboembolisms, which are the result of cardiac arrhythmia, are important causes of ischemic ...

  11. A Mobitz type II atrioventricular block in multicentric ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, Utku Murat; Akman, Canan; Karaboga, Turker; Ocak, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac and cerebrovascular illnesses are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Thromboembolisms, which are the result of cardiac arrhythmia, are important causes of ischemic stroke. In this study, we present a rare case of multicentric ischemic stroke induced by Mobitz type II atrioventricular block. PMID:28154620

  12. The Neuroprotective Effect Of Electro-Acupuncture Against Ischemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through these mechanisms, electro-acupuncture may reduce the neural damages associated with stroke. Conclusion: An awareness of the benefits of acupuncture might lead more patients into accepting acupuncture therapy for the management of patients with ischemic stroke and patients with high risk of ischemic stroke.

  13. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke: presentation, risk factors, evaluation, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Laura L; Rivkin, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is as common as large vessel arterial ischemic stroke in adults and leads to significant morbidity. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is the most common identifiable cause of cerebral palsy and can lead to cognitive and behavioral difficulties that are amortized over a lifetime. The literature on perinatal arterial ischemic stroke was reviewed and analyzed. Risk factors for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke include those that are maternal, neonatal, and placental. The most common clinical signs at presentation are seizures and hemiparesis. Evaluation should begin with thorough history acquisition and physical examination followed by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, with consideration of magnetic resonance angiography of the head and neck, echocardiogram, and thrombophilia evaluation. Treatment beginning early to include physical, speech, and occupational therapies including constraint-induced movement therapy and close cognitive and developmental follow-up may be beneficial. Future treatments may include transcranial magnetic stimulation, hypothermia, and erythropoietin. Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke comprises a group of arterial ischemic injuries that can occur in the prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal periods in term and preterm infants with different types of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke having different clinical presentations, risk factors, and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Takayasu Arteritis Presenting with Ischemic Stroke: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergane Memmodova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Takayasu arteritis is a rare vasculitic disease characterized with inflamation of vessels. It commonly results stenosis and dilatations of aort and aortic branches. Ischemic Cerebrovascular Disease is one of the major complications of Takayasu arteritis. In this report we concluded two Takayasu arteritis cases in the light of current data whom presented with ischemic stroke clinical symptoms.

  15. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a case presenting with acute ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Joseph R H; Sabagh, Tarek; Barde, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) consists of the pentad of thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, fever, neurologic abnormalities, and renal disease. We present a case report of acute TTP following a bout of ischemic colitis. This report reminds the clinician that ischemic colitis can be an atypical presentation of TTP. The prompt recognition and treatment of this disease process resulted in a good prognosis for our patient.

  16. Ischemic priapism in South‑East Nigeria: Presentation, management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-04

    Sep 4, 2015 ... Context: Ischemic priapism is the more common variety of priapism and often presents late. Outcome is largely dependent on the duration of ischemia. Aims: To determine the etiology, presentation, management, and outcome of ischemic priapism. Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis of consecutive ...

  17. Complications of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke : a CT perfusion evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankbaar, J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314079408

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis the use of CT-perfusion (CTP) imaging in the evaluation of the most severe complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)) and ischemic stroke was explored. These complications are delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after SAH and damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after ischemic

  18. Trans fat, aspirin, and ischemic stroke in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaemsiri, Sirin; Sen, Souvik; Tinker, Lesley; Rosamond, Wayne; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; He, Ka

    2012-11-01

    To examine the associations between dietary fat intake and ischemic stroke among postmenopausal women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 87,025 generally healthy postmenopausal women (age, 50-79 years) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Repeated and validated dietary assessments were done using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of ischemic stroke based on quintiles of the cumulative average of fat intake. We documented 1,049 incident cases of ischemic stroke over 663,041 person-years of follow-up. Women in the highest quintile of trans fat intake had a significantly higher incidence of ischemic stroke (HR, 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.79; p-trend = 0.048) compared with women in the lowest quintile, while controlling for multiple covariates. The observed association was modified by aspirin use (p-interaction = 0.02). The HR was 1.66 (95% CI, 1.21-2.36; p-trend fat and ischemic stroke or any ischemic stroke subtypes. In this large cohort of postmenopausal women, higher intake of trans fat was associated with incident ischemic stroke independent of major lifestyle/dietary factors. Aspirin use may attenuate the potential adverse effect of trans fat intake on ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2012 American Neurological Association.

  19. Hospital costs of ischemic stroke and TIA in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, Leander R.; Tan, Siok Swan; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Redekop, William K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives:There have been no ischemic stroke costing studies since major improvements were implemented in stroke care. We therefore determined hospital resource use and costs of ischemic stroke and TIA in the Netherlands for 2012.Methods:We conducted a retrospective cost analysis using individual

  20. Intra‐arterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhemer, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with current issues in the field of acute ischemic stroke. The main objective has been to proof the effectiveness and safety of intra-arterial treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. MR CLEAN was the first study to proof the safety and effectiveness of intra-arterial

  1. Prognostic Factors and Outcome of Management of Ischemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the nuances of management, prognostic factors, and outcome of ischemic priapism in patients seen at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied the case notes of all patients managed for ischemic ...

  2. Neurotherapeutic effect of mangiferin against hypoxic–ischemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in perinatal condition is highly associated with mortality and several neurological disabilities. The present experiment was blueprinted to ascertain the protective efficacy of mangiferin (MF) against hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. Materials and Methods: ...

  3. A 15-year prospective longitudinal study of disease progression in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Fabiola; Fedina, Alexandra; Youshya, Silva; Taylor, Graham P

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) has been mainly described in HTLV-1 endemic countries such as Japan, Brazil and Martinique. The authors describe the natural history of the largest cohort of patients with HAM living in the UK from 1993 to 2007. Prospective, longitudinal study comparing clinical and virological outcome between first and last clinical visit. Incidence and cause of death were documented and the mortality calculated. 48 patients were included: 79.2% were female, 79.2% were of Afro-Caribbean origin, and 83.3% acquired HTLV-1 through breastfeeding or unprotected heterosexual intercourse. The mean age of onset was 46 years. The median durations from onset of symptoms to diagnosis and to last follow-up were 2 and 11.6 years. The median time of follow-up was 3.8 years. The most common first recalled symptom was unilateral leg weakness. The median times from onset to unilateral, bilateral walking aid and frame or a wheelchair were 11, 11.2, 11.3 and 18 years. The overall average deterioration in timed walk in patients whose need for aid did not change was 2 s/10 m/year. Three patients progressed rapidly and were unable to walk within 2 years. Six patients were slow/non-progressors. The mortality was 2.4/100 person year follow-up. The median HTLV-1 viral load remained unchanged at 14%. HAM is a slowly progressing chronic disease. Timed walk deteriorates by 2 s/10 m/year, and patients remain ambulant for 10 years but become wheelchair-dependent a decade later. HTLV-1 viral load remains high and unchanged over time regardless of clinical progression.

  4. A treatable cause of myelopathy and vision loss mimicking neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: late-onset biotinidase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sanem; Serin, Mine; Canda, Ebru; Eraslan, Cenk; Tekin, Hande; Ucar, Sema Kalkan; Gokben, Sarenur; Tekgul, Hasan; Serdaroglu, Gul

    2017-06-01

    Biotinidase deficiency is characterized by severe neurological manifestations as hypotonia, lethargy, ataxia, hearing loss, seizures and developmental retardation in its classical form. Late-onset biotinidase deficiency presents distinctly from the classical form such as limb weakness and vision problems. A 14-year-old boy presented with progressive vision loss and upper limb weakness. The patient was initiated steroid therapy with a preliminary diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder due to the craniospinal imaging findings demonstrating optic nerve, brainstem and longitudinally extensive spinal cord involvement. Although the patient exhibited partial clinical improvement after pulse steroid therapy, craniocervical imaging performed one month after the initiation of steroid therapy did not show any regression. The CSF IgG index was <0.8 (normal: <0.8), oligoclonal band and aquaporin-4 antibodies were negative. Metabolic investigations revealed a low biotinidase enzyme activity 8% (0.58 nmoL/min/mL; normal range: 4.4 to 12). Genetic testing showed c.98-104delinsTCC and p.V457 M mutations in biotinidase (BTD) gene. At the third month of biotin replacement therapy, control craniospinal MRI demonstrated a complete regression of the lesions. The muscle strength of the case returned to normal. His visual acuity was 7/10 in the left eye and 9/10 in the right. The late-onset form of the biotinidase deficiency should be kept in mind in all patients with myelopathy with or without vision loss, particularly in those with inadequate response to steroid therapy. The family screening is important to identify asymptomatic individuals and timely treatment.

  5. The functional relevance of diffusion tensor imaging in comparison to conventional MRI in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy

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    Yang, Young-Mi; Oh, Jae-Keun; Song, Ji-Sun [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Spine Center, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Woo-Kyoung [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Hallym Institute for Translational Genomics and Bioinformatics, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Je Hyun; Kwak, Yoon Hae [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Department of Orthopaedic surgery, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Woo [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Spine Center, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Department of Orthopaedic surgery, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the functional relevance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and conventional MRI (signal intensity change in T2, compression ratio) by measuring the correlation of these parameters with clinical outcome measured by the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score. A total of 20 cervical myelopathy (CM) patients participated in this prospective cohort study. The severities of CM were assessed using the mJOA score. Conventional MRIs (T2-weighted images) measuring the signal changes of spinal cords and the degree of compression at the lesion level and DTI metrics [fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)] at each lesion and below each lesion (C7/T1) level were acquired using a 3-T Achieva MRI. These parameters were correlated with the mJOA scores to determine the functional relevance. Ninety percent of CM patients showed signal changes and 30 % of patients noted a more than 40% canal compression ratio in conventional MRIs at the lesion level; however, these findings were not correlated with the mJOA score (p < 0.05). In contrast, FA values on DTI showed high sensitivity to CM (100%), which was well correlated with the mJOA score (p = 0.034, r = 0.475) below the lesion level (C7/T1). This study showed a meaningful symptomatic correlation between mJOA scores and FA values below the lesion levels in CM patients. It could give us more understanding of the pathological changes in spinal cords matched with various clinical findings in CM patients than the results from conventional MRI. (orig.)

  6. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives

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    Sá KN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Katia N Sá,1 Maíra C Macêdo,1 Rosana P Andrade,2 Selena D Mendes,1 José V Martins,3 Abrahão F Baptista1,4 1Neuromusculoskeletal Research Group, Bahian School of Medicine and Human Health, Salvador, Brazil; 2Edgard Santos University Hospital, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, 3Deolindo Couto Institute of Neurology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 4Biomorphology Department, Health Sciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil Abstract: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1 infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord – HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis – and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions. Keywords: HTLV-1, HAM/TSP, physical therapy modalities, quality of life, pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, urinary symptoms

  7. Upregulation of CB2 receptors in reactive astrocytes in canine degenerative myelopathy, a disease model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    María Fernández-Trapero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of the CB2 receptor results in neuroprotection in the SOD1G93A mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. The neuroprotective effects of CB2 receptors are facilitated by their upregulation in the spinal cord of the mutant mice. Here, we investigated whether similar CB2 receptor upregulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, is evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM, caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1. We used well-characterized post-mortem spinal cords from unaffected and DM-affected dogs. Tissues were used first to confirm the loss of motor neurons using Nissl staining, which was accompanied by glial reactivity (elevated GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity. Next, we investigated possible differences in the expression of endocannabinoid genes measured by qPCR between DM-affected and control dogs. We found no changes in expression of the CB1 receptor (confirmed with CB1 receptor immunostaining or NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes. In contrast, CB2 receptor levels were significantly elevated in DM-affected dogs determined by qPCR and western blotting, which was confirmed in the grey matter using CB2 receptor immunostaining. Using double-labelling immunofluorescence, CB2 receptor immunolabelling colocalized with GFAP but not Iba-1, indicating upregulation of CB2 receptors on astrocytes in DM-affected dogs. Our results demonstrate a marked upregulation of CB2 receptors in the spinal cord in canine DM, which is concentrated in activated astrocytes. Such receptors could be used as a potential target to enhance the neuroprotective effects exerted by these glial cells.

  8. Expression of Autophagy-Related Proteins in the Spinal Cord of Pembroke Welsh Corgi Dogs With Canine Degenerative Myelopathy.

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    Ogawa, M; Uchida, K; Yamato, O; Mizukami, K; Chambers, J K; Nakayama, H

    2015-11-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease frequently found in Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) dogs, and it has clinical and pathologic similarities to human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Autophagy is a major intracellular protein degradation system. Abnormalities of autophagy--resulting in cell death through mechanisms called type II programmed cell death--have recently been reported to occur in various neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Thus, the distribution and expression levels of proteins involved in autophagy were examined in the spinal cords of 8 PWC dogs suffering from DM with superoxide dismutase mutation, 5 non-DM PWC dogs, and 6 Beagle dogs without neurologic signs. There was no significant difference in the ratio of neurons with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-positive somata relative to those that were LC3 negative among the 3 groups, whereas the number of LC3-positive neurites was significantly increased in DM dogs. Punctate LC3 immunoreactivity did not colocalize with a lysosome marker, LAMP2 (lysosome-associated membrane protein 2). NBR1 (neighbor of BRCA gene 1) was localized mostly in reactive astrocytes, whereas there were p62 (p62/A170/SQSTM1)-positive foci in the neuropil of the spinal cord of DM dogs. Western blotting revealed in DM dogs the decreased expression of Beclin1 and Atg16 L, which are molecules involved in formation of the isolation membrane. These findings suggest that altered autophagosome degradation may result in LC3 and p62 accumulation in the DM spinal cord, whereas the early stage of membrane formation is likely to be downregulated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Predictors of outcome in patients with degenerative cervical spondylotic myelopathy undergoing surgical treatment: results of a systematic review.

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    Tetreault, Lindsay A; Karpova, Alina; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature to determine important clinical predictors of surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Selected articles were evaluated using a 14-point modified SIGN scale and classified as either poor (<7), good (7-9) or excellent (10-14) quality of evidence. For each study, the association between various clinical factors and surgical outcome, evaluated by the (modified) Japanese Orthopaedic Association scale (mJOA/JOA), Nurick score or other measures, was defined. The results from the EXCELLENT studies were compared to the combined results from the EXCELLENT and GOOD studies which were compared to the results from all the studies. The initial search yielded 1,677 citations. Ninety-one of these articles, including three translated from Japanese, met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and were graded. Of these, 16 were excellent, 38 were good and 37 were poor quality. Based on the excellent studies alone, a longer duration of symptoms was associated with a poorer outcome evaluated on both the mJOA/JOA scale and Nurick score. A more severe baseline score was related with a worse outcome only on the mJOA/JOA scale. Based on the GOOD and EXCELLENT studies, duration of symptoms and baseline severity score were consistent predictors of mJOA/JOA, but not Nurick. Age was an insignificant predictor of outcome on any of the functional outcomes considered. The most important predictors of outcome were preoperative severity and duration of symptoms. This review also identified many other valuable predictors including signs, symptoms, comorbidities and smoking status.

  10. CSF CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin as candidate prognostic biomarkers for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

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    Tomoo Sato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 -associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a rare chronic neuroinflammatory disease. Since the disease course of HAM/TSP varies among patients, there is a dire need for biomarkers capable of predicting the rate of disease progression. However, there have been no studies to date that have compared the prognostic values of multiple potential biomarkers for HAM/TSP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1-infected control subjects were obtained and tested retrospectively for several potential biomarkers, including chemokines and other cytokines, and nine optimal candidates were selected based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Next, we evaluated the relationship between these candidates and the rate of disease progression in HAM/TSP patients, beginning with a first cohort of 30 patients (Training Set and proceeding to a second cohort of 23 patients (Test Set. We defined "deteriorating HAM/TSP" as distinctly worsening function (≥3 grades on Osame's Motor Disability Score (OMDS over four years and "stable HAM/TSP" as unchanged or only slightly worsened function (1 grade on OMDS over four years, and we compared the levels of the candidate biomarkers in patients divided into these two groups. The CSF levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin were well-correlated with disease progression, better even than HTLV-1 proviral load in PBMCs. Importantly, these results were validated using the Test Set. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As the CSF levels of CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin were the most strongly correlated with rate of disease progression, they represent the most viable candidates for HAM/TSP prognostic biomarkers. The identification of effective prognostic biomarkers could lead to earlier detection of high-risk patients, more patient-specific treatment

  11. Measuring Surgical Outcomes in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion: Assessment of Minimum Clinically Important Difference

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    Auffinger, Brenda M.; Lall, Rishi R.; Dahdaleh, Nader S.; Wong, Albert P.; Lam, Sandi K.; Koski, Tyler; Fessler, Richard G.; Smith, Zachary A.

    2013-01-01

    Object The concept of minimum clinically important difference (MCID) has been used to measure the threshold by which the effect of a specific treatment can be considered clinically meaningful. MCID has previously been studied in surgical patients, however few studies have assessed its role in spinal surgery. The goal of this study was to assess the role of MCID in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Data was collected on 30 patients who underwent ACDF for CSM between 2007 and 2012. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative Neck Disability Index (NDI), Visual-Analog Scale (VAS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) Component Summary PRO scores were collected. Five distribution- and anchor-based approaches were used to calculate MCID threshold values average change, change difference, receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), minimum detectable change (MDC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). The Health Transition Item of the SF-36 (HTI) was used as an external anchor. Results Patients had a significant improvement in all mean physical PRO scores postoperatively (pMCID approaches yielded a range of values for each PRO: 2.00–8.78 for PCS, 2.06–5.73 for MCS, 4.83–13.39 for NDI, and 0.36–3.11 for VAS. PCS was the most representative PRO measure, presenting the greatest area under the ROC curve (0.94). MDC values were not affected by the choice of anchor and their threshold of improvement was statistically greater than the chance of error from unimproved patients. Conclusion SF-36 PCS was the most representative PRO measure. MDC appears to be the most appropriate MCID method. When MDC was applied together with HTI anchor, the MCID thresholds were: 13.39 for NDI, 3.11 for VAS, 5.56 for PCS and 5.73 for MCS. PMID:23826290

  12. Cervical myelopathy due to single level disc herniation presenting as intramedullary mass lesion: What to do first?

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    Murat Sakir Eksi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical myelopathy (CM is mostly a degenerative process ending in myelopathic and/or radiculopathic syndromes. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, CM appears as a hyperintense area near the spondylotic spine. This high intensity signal depends on the impact of outer forces and their duration. It also determines the prognosis of the surgical candidate. A 40-year-old male patient admitted to our clinic with right upper extremity weakness and hypoesthesia that had started 2 months earlier. On neurological examination there was 2/5 motor weakness of right biceps brachii, and hypoesthesia over right C6 dermatome. Right upper extremity deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive, but lower ones were hyperactive. After clinical and radiological work-up, preliminary diagnosis was directed to a spinal intramedullary tumor. Total resection of the herniated cervical disc fragment and the mass lesion was managed. Pathology of the mass lesion was compatible with subacute infarct tissue and inflammatory response. Final diagnosis was CM under effect of cervical disc herniation. Contrast-enhanced spinal cord myelopathic lesions are very rare and resemble much more tumors and inflammatory processes. However, the principal treatment approach totally differs depending on pathology. When there are both a disc herniation and a high clinical suspicion; biopsy should be delayed. The most probable solution will be surgery for the disc disease with thorough preoperative scanning of vascular malformations; clinical and radiological close follow-up after surgery. Biopsy or surgical resection can be performed if patient deteriorates despite the primary surgery.

  13. Increased low-frequency oscillation amplitude of sensorimotor cortex associated with the severity of structural impairment in cervical myelopathy.

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    Fuqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Decreases in metabolites and increased motor-related, but decreased sensory-related activation of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC have been observed in patients with cervical myelopathy (CM using advanced MRI techniques. However, the nature of intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC, and the relationship between cerebral function and structural damage of the spinal cord in patients with CM are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to assess intrinsic neuronal activity by calculating the regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI, and correlations with clinical and imaging indices. Nineteen patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent rs-fMRI scans. ALFF measurements were performed in the SMC, a key brain network likely to impaired or reorganized patients with CM. Compared with healthy subjects, increased amplitude of cortical low-frequency oscillations (LFO was observed in the right precentral gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and left supplementary motor area. Furthermore, increased z-ALFF values in the right precentral gyrus and right postcentral gyrus correlated with decreased fractional anisotropy values at the C2 level, which indicated increased intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC corresponding to the structural impairment in the spinal cord of patients with CM. These findings suggest a complex and diverging relationship of cortical functional reorganization and distal spinal anatomical compression in patients with CM and, thus, add important information in understanding how spinal cord integrity may be a factor in the intrinsic covariance of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations of BOLD signals involved in cortical plasticity.

  14. Ciclosporin A proof of concept study in patients with active, progressive HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

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    Fabiola Martin

    Full Text Available Patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP become progressively impaired, with chronic pain, immobility and bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Tested antiretroviral therapies have not been effective and most patients are offered a short course of corticosteroids or interferon-α, physiotherapy and symptomatic management. Pathogenesis studies implicate activated T-lymphocytes and cytokines in tissue damage. We therefore tested the hypothesis that inhibition of T-cell activation with ciclosporin A would be safe and clinically beneficial in patients with early and/or clinically progressing HAM/TSP.Open label, proof of concept, pilot study of 48 weeks therapy with the calcineurin antagonist, ciclosporin A (CsA, in seven patients with 'early' (50% deterioration in timed walk during the preceding three months HAM/TSP. Primary outcomes were incidence of clinical failure at 48 weeks and time to clinical failure.All patients completed 72 weeks study participation and five showed objective evidence of clinical improvement after 3 months treatment with CsA. Two patients exhibited clinical failure over 6.4 person-years of follow-up to week 48. One patient had a >2 point deterioration in IPEC (Insituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas disability score at weeks 8 and 12, and then stopped treatment. The other stopped treatment at week 4 because of headache and tremor and deterioration in timed walk, which occurred at week 45. Overall pain, mobility, spasticity and bladder function improved by 48 weeks. Two patients recommenced CsA during follow-up due to relapse.These data provide initial evidence that treatment with CsA is safe and may partially reverse the clinical deterioration seen in patients with early/progressive HAM/TSP. This trial supports further investigation of this agent's safety and effectiveness in larger, randomised controlled studies in carefully selected patients with disease progression.

  15. 162 Tobacco Smoking and Outcomes of Surgical Decompression in Patients With Symptomatic Degenerative Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Paul M; Kopjar, Branko; Tetreault, Lindsay; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco smoking has been associated with poor outcomes following surgery for cervical radiculopathy. However, the impact of tobacco smoking on outcomes following surgery for degenerative cervical spondylotic myelopathy (DCSM) has not been extensively evaluated. This study analyzed prospectively collected data from 2 large multicenter international cohort studies. Outcome measures were preoperative smoking status, modified Japanese Orthopedic Association scale (mJOA), Nurick score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), Short Form 36v2 (SF-36v2"!), and the 30-m walk test (30MWT). Analysis of covariance was used to evaluate differences in outcomes at 12 months between smokers and nonsmokers while controlling for relevant baseline characteristics. Seven hundred forty-nine patients with symptomatic DCSM underwent surgical decompression at 24 international sites. There were 547 (73%) nonsmokers and 202 (27%) smokers. After imputation of missing 12-month scores, 694 (92.66%) subjects had 12-month data. Smokers were younger (average 53.40 vs 57.42 years) and had worse preoperative NDI, SF-36v2 Physical Component Score (PCS) and SF-36v2 Mental Component Score (MCS) (P disease severity, or complication or reoperation rates. At 12 months, improvements in mJOA, NDI, and SF-36v2 PCS outcomes were 15.59%, 31.61%, and 28.57% lower in smokers than in nonsmokers. Following adjustment for confounders, these differences remained significant. Preoperative tobacco smoking is strongly associated with suboptimal clinical, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes in patients undergoing surgery for DCSM. Although both nonsmokers and smokers benefited from surgical decompression, the extent of improvement was higher in nonsmokers than smokers.

  16. Multiple Silent Lacunes Are Associated with Recurrent Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Due; Skjøth, Flemming; Yavarian, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    ackground: Silent lacunes are a common finding on brain imaging in ischemic stroke patients, but the prognostic significance of these lesions is uncertain. We aimed at investigating the association of silent lacunes and the risk of ischemic stroke recurrence, death, and cardiovascular events...... in a cohort of patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: We included 786 patients (mean age 59.5 (SD 14.0); 42.9% females) in a registry-based, observational cohort study on patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. On brain MRI we assessed the number of silent lacunes...... further adjusted for white matter hyperintensities. Patients were followed up until death or recurrence of ischemic stroke. Results: In 81 (10.3%) patients, a single silent lacune was present, and in 87 (11.1%) patients, multiple silent lacunes were present. Patients with at least one silent lacune were...

  17. Biomarkers of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns

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    Martha V. Douglas-Escobar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As neonatal intensive care has evolved, the focus has shifted from improving mortality alone to an effort to improve both mortality and morbidity. The most frequent source of neonatal brain injury occurs as a result of hypoxic-ischemic injury. Hypoxic-ischemic injury occurs in about 2 of 1,000 full-term infants and severe injured infants will have lifetime disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays. Most recently, remarkable efforts toward neuroprotection have been started with the advent of therapeutic hypothermia and a key step in the evolution of neonatal neuroprotection is the discovery of biomarkers that enable the clinician-scientist to screen infants for brain injury, monitor progression of disease, identify injured brain regions, and assess efficacy of neuroprotective clinical trials. Lastly, biomarkers offer great hope identifying when an injury occurred shedding light on the potential pathophysiology and the most effective therapy. In this article, we will review biomarkers of HIE including S100b, neuron specific enolase, umbilical cord IL-6, CK-BB, GFAP, myelin basic protein, UCHL-1, and pNF-H. We hope to contribute to the awareness, validation and clinical use of established as well as novel neonatal brain injury biomarkers.

  18. Psoriasis and ischemic coronary artery disease.

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    Mahiques-Santos, L; Soriano-Navarro, C J; Perez-Pastor, G; Tomas-Cabedo, G; Pitarch-Bort, G; Valcuende-Cavero, F

    2015-03-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with an increased risk of ischemic coronary artery disease (CAD) in some populations. We aimed to determine the association between these 2 diseases in our geographic area. We performed a cross-sectional study of patient records between 2005 and 2012 in the database (Abucacis, Datamart) that contains all medical case histories in the province of Castellón, Spain. Patients diagnosed with psoriasis were compared with a control group of patients diagnosed with melanocytic nevus. The prevalence of CAD and the presence or absence of the main cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed in each group. A total of 9181 patients with psoriasis and 21925 with melanocytic nevus were studied. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that CAD was significantly associated with psoriasis, age (in years), sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity (P<.05). On adjustment for age, sex, and the other cardiovascular risk factors, multivariate regression analysis established that psoriasis was independently associated with CAD (P<.029). Our findings in a large sample of patients in a Mediterranean area support the hypothesis that patients in this population have an increased risk of ischemic CAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. Hyperglycemia, Acute Ischemic Stroke and Thrombolytic Therapy

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    Bruno, Askiel; Fagan, Susan C.; Ergul, Adviye

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of disability and is considered now the 4th leading cause of death. Many clinical trials have shown that stroke patients with acute elevation in blood glucose at onset of stroke suffer worse functional outcomes, longer in-hospital stay and higher mortality rates. The only therapeutic hope for these patients is the rapid restoration of blood flow to the ischemic tissue through intravenous administration of the only currently proven effective therapy, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, even this option is associated with the increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms through which hyperglycemia (HG) and tPA worsen the neurovascular injury after stroke are not fully understood. Accordingly, this review summarizes the latest updates and recommendations about the management of HG and co-administration of tPA in a clinical setting while focusing more on the various experimental models studying: 1. the effect of HG on stroke outcomes; 2. the potential mechanisms involved in worsening the neurovasular injury; 3. the different therapeutic strategies employed to ameliorate the injury, and finally; 4. the interaction between HG and tPA. Developing therapeutic strategies to reduce the hemorrhage risk with tPA in hyperglycemic setting is of great clinical importance. This can best be achieved by conducting robust preclinical studies evaluating the interaction between tPA and other therapeutics in order to develop potential therapeutic strategies with high translational impact. PMID:24619488

  20. Normobaric oxygen for cerebral ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhua; Cui, Haimeng; Li, Zihe; Wang, Ruifeng; Zhou, Changman

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen inhalation has been shown to increase oxygen supply to tissues after cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury, protecting injured neural cells. However, hyperbaric oxygen may aggravate oxidative stress. By contrast, normobaric oxygen has the rapid and non-invasive characteristics and may have therapeutic effects on ischemic/hypoxic disease. Rats inhaled normobaric oxygen (95% O2) for 6 consecutive days, and then a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia was established. Nissl and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining revealed that normobaric oxygen pretreatment improved neurological deficits and reduced infarct volume. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot assay revealed that the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, Notch-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and erythropoietin were increased. Behavioral studies also verified that neurological deficit scores increased. The hypoxia-inducible factor inhibitor 2-methoxyestradiol treatment at 1 hour before administration of normobaric oxygen could suppress the protective effect of normobaric oxygen. Given these observations, normobaric oxygen pretreatment may alleviate cerebral ischemic injury via the hypoxia-inducible factor signal pathway. PMID:25206609