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Sample records for suspected illegal dumping

  1. Allegheny County Illegal Dump Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Illegal Dump Site dataset includes information on illegal dump sites, their type of trash, and the estimate tons of trash at each site. The information was...

  2. Construction waste generation in Malaysia construction industry: illegal dumping activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M. H. I. A.; Kasim, N.; Mohamed, I.; Zainal, R.; Sarpin, N.; Saikah, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays development of construction in Malaysia has been effect to the increasing of construction waste. Additionally, the production of construction waste from construction projects has given negative impact to the environment especially in illegal dumping activities. The increasing number of illegal dumping activities from construction projects in Malaysia gives a sign that Malaysian construction waste management needs to be concerned. To date, a comprehensive criterion for construction waste management, particularly for a construction project in developing countries is still not clearly defined. Therefore, construction waste management in Malaysia needs further research. The objectives of this paper are to explore illegal dumping activities, and discuss the contributory factors of illegal dumping activities. Hence, this research conducted an interview with expertise in the area of construction waste management in order to scrutinise illegal dumping activities in Malaysia. The data from semistructured interviews were analysed by content analysis. Findings from this research will help to find out the strategies to reduce the illegal dumping activities. The final result also expected to increase the awareness and better solution for reducing illegal dumping activities in construction projects among construction players.

  3. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A GIS-based zoning of illegal dumping potential for efficient surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Tomohiro; Kawahata, Takatsune; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Takagishi, Susumu; Morita, Akihiro; Akishima, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    To assist in the efficient surveillance against illegal dumping, this study examined and evaluated two methods to illustrate the illegal dumping potential of sites using GIS (Geographic Information System) data. One approach focused on the occurrence of illegal dumping sites; the other on the size of the illegal dumping. Both approaches to zoning were implemented for the Kanto region of Japan, utilizing seven or eight major geographical attributes most closely related to illegal dumping. The zoning results revealed the areas requiring patrols against illegal dumping. Evaluation of the zoning results using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve showed the number of illegal dumping sites detectable under certain surveillance conditions and that the size-based zoning was superior, but this superiority was insignificant for revealing sites with higher potential for large illegal dumping, for which it would be sufficient to use the occurrence-based zoning. The evaluation also showed the contribution of each geographical attribute. Finally, application of the ROC curve to the surveillance planning process was examined, which enables the total social cost of pollution by illegal dumping, rehabilitation of dumping sites, and illegal dumping surveillance to be minimized.

  5. Reclamation of the illegal dump for sustainable development the environment in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukova Maria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal dumping is dumping of any waste such as oil, furniture, appliances, trash, litter or landscaping cuttings, upon any land of state, city, village or private ownership without consent of the owner. Illegal dumping has a great negative and fatal impact on our environment and all living organisms both fauna and flora. It also exposes people to various risks of chemicals (fluids or dust and is a big threat to all under-ground and surface water resources. Illegal dumps also attract all kinds of bugs such as rodents and insects. For example, illegal dumps with waste tires provide a practically perfect place for mosquitoes to breed. Mosquitoes can multiply 100 times faster than normal in the warm, stagnant water in waste tires. Exemplary for the illegal dump in Sverdlovo of Leningrad Oblast’ the main purpose of this article is to offer a possible option for the remediation of contaminated area.

  6. Mapping Of Construction Waste Illegal Dumping Using Geographical Information System (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainun, Noor Yasmin; Rahman, Ismail Abdul; Azwana Rothman, Rosfazreen

    2016-11-01

    Illegal dumping of solid waste not only affecting the environment but also social life of communities, hence authorities should have an effective system to cater this problem. Malaysia is experiencing extensive physical developments and this has led to an increase of construction waste illegal dumping. However, due to the lack of proper data collection, the actual figure for construction waste illegal dumping in Malaysia are not available. This paper presents a mapping of construction waste illegal dumping in Kluang district, Johor using Geographic Information System (GIS) software. Information of the dumped waste such as coordinate, photos, types of material and quantity of waste were gathered manually through site observation for three months period. For quantifying the dumped waste, two methods were used which are the first method is based on shape of the waste (pyramids or squares) while the second method is based weighing approach. All information regarding the waste was assigned to the GIS for the mapping process. Results indicated a total of 12 types of construction waste which are concrete, tiles, wood, gypsum board, mixed construction waste, brick and concrete, bricks, sand, iron, glass, pavement and tiles, and concrete at 64 points locations of illegal dumping on construction waste in Kluang. These wastes were accounted to an estimated volume of 427.2636 m3. Hopefully, this established map will assist Kluang authority to improve their solid waste management system in Kluang.

  7. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Joan; Grémillet, David; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Bouten, Willem; Forero, Manuela G

    2016-01-01

    Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  8. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Navarro

    Full Text Available Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis. In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  9. Identifying areas under potential risk of illegal construction and demolition waste dumping using GIS tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Nissim; Portnov, Boris A

    2018-02-02

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste, dumped illegally in ravines and open areas, contaminates soil and can cause underground water pollution and forests fires. Yet, effective monitoring of illegal C&D waste dumping and enforcing legislation against the offenders are often a difficult task due to the large size of geographic areas that need to be monitored, and limited human and financial resources available to environmental law enforcement agencies. In this study, we use Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and geo-statistical modelling to identify the areas under potentially elevated risk of illegal C&D waste dumping in the Haifa district of Israel. As our analysis shows, locational factors, significantly associated with the accumulated amount of waste in the existing illegal C&D waste sites, include: distance to the nearest main road, depth of the ravine present at the site (pdumping for future monitoring. As we suggest, the proposed approach may be useful for environmental law enforcement authorities, by helping them to focus on specific sites for inspection, save resources, and act against the offenders more efficiently. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE ILLEGAL DUMPING AND IT’S SPATIAL AUTOREGRESSION: THE CASE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

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    Youngjae Chang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the data pertaining to the illegal dumping of municipal solid waste in the Republic of Korea for the year 2011 to check for the presence of spatial autoregression of illegal dumping among 224 basic autonomous units with reference to the “Broken Windows Theory.” We found that a pure neighborhood effect exists even after controlling for conventional variables that explain illegal dumping behavior. Interestingly, however, the neighborhood effect is largely offset by so-called relative price effect such that the number of illegal dumping reported in one region is in fact decreased as the price of vinyl bag for MSW in neighboring regions increases, which is seemingly against the implication of the “Broken Windows Theory.”

  11. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Alfredo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Neglia, Cosimo; Della Rosa, Giulia; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2015-06-16

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed), most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence). Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal) waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a) high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat) in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b) remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs) assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5-43 pg/g of fat); (c) potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d) a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators.

  12. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Alfredo; Piscitelli, Prisco; Neglia, Cosimo; Rosa, Giulia Della; Iannuzzi, Leopoldo

    2015-01-01

    The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta) has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed), most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence). Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal) waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a) high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat) in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b) remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs) assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5–43 pg/g of fat); (c) potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d) a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators. PMID:26086704

  13. Illegal Dumping of Toxic Waste and Its Effect on Human Health in Campania, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mazza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Campania (particularly Naples and Caserta has experienced an emergency in the waste management cycle during past years. Although the most critical phase has been overcome after the construction of the incineration plant in Acerra (an old-fashioned technology built up over a few months, whose impact on environment and health has not yet been assessed, most of the underlying problems have not been resolved. The illegal burning of wheels, plastics, textiles, and other industrial residuals, along with the detection of two thousand toxic substance dumping sites, still represents major concerns of environmental pollution and population health. This review summarizes the most relevant studies, which analyzed chemical contamination (primarily dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs of the air, soil, water, animals, and humans in Campania. In addition, we reviewed information on population health (i.e., mortality data, congenital malformations, and cancer incidence. Moving from a detailed mapping of (mostly illegal waste dumping sites in Campania, we have focused on recent studies which have found: (a high concentrations of dioxins (≥5.0 pg TEQ/g fat in milk samples from sheep, cows, and river buffaloes; (b remarkable contamination of dioxin and PCBs in human milk samples from those living in the Naples and Caserta areas (PCDDs+PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs assessed at 16.6 pg TEQ/g of fat; range: 7.5–43 pg/g of fat; (c potential age-adjusted standardized mortality rates associated with some specific cancer types; (d a statistically significant association between exposure to illegal toxic waste dumping sites and cancer mortality, even after adjustment by socio-economic factors and other environmental indicators.

  14. Remote sensing for illegal dumps detection: a case study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzo Angelino, Cesario; Focareta, Mariano; Meoli, Giuseppe; Piacquadio, Giovanni; Cicala, Luca; Parrilli, Sara; De Mizio, Marco

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a case study about the detection of illegal dumps from optical satellite images in a large territory falling in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, Southern Italy. This location is also known with the term "Terra dei Fuochi" because in this area is particularly widespread the phenomenon of waste burning and, over the past decades, there have been many landfills of hazardous waste of industrial origin. In addition to the potential damage caused to the environmental matrices, this situation has led to considerable concerns over the health of citizens and a serious economic impact on the agricultural sector. In order to contrast this phenomenon, the government of the Campania Region organized some prevention, monitoring and repression activities. In particular, the monitoring activities are employed by periodic inspection of sites, which are often object of illegal deposits (former quarries, illegal dumps, as well as city and country roads). The periodic inspection is usually performed by patrols of the company SMA Campania (the in-house regional company, specialized in environmental protection), and law enforcement. As part of a project, the remote sensing company MAPSAT srl and CIRA (the Italian Aerospace Research Center), have proposed to SMA Campania to support the periodic monitoring inspection of the patrols, with optical satellite acquisitions. This paper describes the proposed approach, the type of data used, the technical problems encountered and solutions introduced. The periodic monitoring with biannual satellite acquisitions, was effective for both finding new illegal spills and to follow the evolution (in terms of extension) of landfills already found in the past.

  15. Identification and analysis the illegal dumping spot of solid waste at Ciliwung segment 5 riverbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    Ciliwung River is the main river in the area of Jakarta that is divided into six segments across West Java and Jakarta. The study focuses on the fifth segment which is 30 km long, covering from Kelapa Dua Depok to Manggarai, South Jakarta. The survey of the river consists of 3 sub-segments: Lenteng Agung, Pejaten Timur and Manggarai. Objectives of the study are to describe the characteristics and typology of the residential surrounding the Ciliwung Segment 5 Riverbank, to identification the illegal dumping spot of solid waste, to measure the volume and composition of solid waste in the riverbank, to decide solid waste management for residential area surrounding river banks to control the river pollution. The study shows that there are 11 illegal dumping spot of solid waste consisting of 4.37 m3 solid waste volume. The average composition of solid waste consists of 44% organic, 14% woods, 12% papers, 11% plastics, 3% rubbers, 1% metals and 2% others. To control the river pollution efforts are restoring the function of riverbanks to become green open space area, installing the trash rack into the river, to manage domestic solid waste based on 3R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) concept.

  16. A meta-analysis of mortality data in Italian contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps

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    Lucia Fazzo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adverse effects of waste management represent a public health issue. Mortality meta-analysis in Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps is presented. Methods. 24 NPCSs include industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps. Class 1 (10 NPCSs with industrial waste landfills and Class 2 (14 NPCSs with illegal dumps were categorized. Random-effects model meta-analyses of Standardized Mortality Ratios non-adjusted (SMRs and adjusted for Deprivation (DI-SMRs computed for each CS (1995-2002 were performed for overall 24 NPCSs and the two classes. The North-Southern gradient was considered. Results. 24 CSs pooled-SMRs are significantly increased in both genders for cancer of liver (men: SMR = 1.13; women: SMR = 1.18, bladder (men: SMR = 1.06; women: SMR = 1.11, and for cirrhosis (men: SMR = 1.09; women: SMR = 1.13. In Class 2 the increase is confirmed in both genders for liver and bladder cancers and for cirrhosis and in men only for lung cancer. Congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal conditions are not increased. Conclusion. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of adverse health effects of non-adequately managed hazardous waste. Causal interpretation is not allowed, but the meta-analytic approach provides more confidence in the findings.

  17. Evaluating the effect of vehicle impoundment policy on illegal construction and demolition waste dumping: Israel as a case study.

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    Seror, Nissim; Hareli, Shlomo; Portnov, Boris A

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste dumped alongside roads and in open areas is a major source of soil and underground water pollution. Since 2006, Israeli ministry for environmental protection enacted a policy of vehicle impoundment (VI) according to which track drivers caught while dumping C&D waste illegally have their vehicles impounded. The present study attempted to determine whether the VI policy was effective in increasing the waste hauling to authorized landfill sites, thus limiting the number of illegal unloads of C&D waste at unauthorized landfill sites and in open areas. During the study, changes in the ratio between the monthly amount of C&D waste brought to authorized landfills sites and the estimated total amount of C&D waste generated in different administrative districts of Israel were examined, before and after the enactment of the 2006 VI policy. Short questionnaires were also distributed among local track drivers in order to determine the degree of awareness about the policy in question and estimate its deterrence effects. According to the study's results, in the district of Haifa, in which the VI policy was stringently enacted, the ratio between C&D waste, dumped in authorized landfill sites, and the total amount of generated C&D waste, increased, on the average, from 20% in January 2004 to 35% in October 2009, with the effect attributed to the number of vehicle impoundments being highly statistically significant (t=2.324; p0.1). The analysis of the questionnaires, distributed among the local truck drivers further indicated that the changes observed in the district of Haifa are not coincident and appeared to be linked to the VI policy's enactment. In particular, 62% of the truck drivers, participated in the survey, were aware of the policy and 47% of them personally knew a driver whose vehicle was impounded. Furthermore, the drivers estimated the relative risk of being caught for unloading C&D waste in unauthorized sites, on the average, as

  18. Abstracting of suspected illegal land use in urban areas using case-based classification of remote sensing images

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    Chen, Fulong; Wang, Chao; Yang, Chengyun; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Fan; Lin, Wenjuan; Zhang, Bo

    2008-11-01

    This paper proposed a method that uses a case-based classification of remote sensing images and applied this method to abstract the information of suspected illegal land use in urban areas. Because of the discrete cases for imagery classification, the proposed method dealt with the oscillation of spectrum or backscatter within the same land use category, and it not only overcame the deficiency of maximum likelihood classification (the prior probability of land use could not be obtained) but also inherited the advantages of the knowledge-based classification system, such as artificial intelligence and automatic characteristics. Consequently, the proposed method could do the classifying better. Then the researchers used the object-oriented technique for shadow removal in highly dense city zones. With multi-temporal SPOT 5 images whose resolution was 2.5×2.5 meters, the researchers found that the method can abstract suspected illegal land use information in urban areas using post-classification comparison technique.

  19. Definition of a multi-criteria, web-based approach to managing the illegal dumping of solid waste in Italian villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feoa, G; Cerrato, F; Siano, P; Torretta, V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to define a multi-criteria, web-based approach that can be used to manage the illegal dumping of solid waste, which is a serious environmental concern both in developing and developed countries. A simplified web-based geographic information system (SI-WEB-GIS) was designed to identify illegal dumpsites, and to allow sharing resources among authorities, technicians and citizens. A self-made multi-criteria technique was designed to establish the intervention priorities, in seven steps: (1) constructing the alternatives matrix; (2) giving a qualitative value or a combination of qualitative values to each individual dumpsite and to all criteria; (3) giving a numeric value to each qualitative value or combination of qualitative values in the alternatives matrix (three methods were adopted); (4) calculating the Average Hazard Index (AHI); (5) ranking the dumpsites of each alternatives matrix, in the order of decreasing AHI; (6) comparing the first 50% of the dumpsites in the three rankings, in order to evaluate which had the most intervention priorities and (7) performing a sensitivity analysis, giving different priorities to the four criteria adopted (relative quantity of waste, soil permeability level, pollution targets and types of solid waste). The application of the multi-criteria, web-based approach to managing the illegal dumping of solid waste allows minimizing the total social cost of pollution, rehabilitating dumpsites and monitoring illegal dumping. Although the system was applied to a village in Southern Italy, with around 14,000 inhabitants, it can easily be customized for use in similar villages in Italy and in other countries.

  20. Continuous glucose monitoring for suspected dumping syndrome in infants after Nissen fundoplication.

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    Ueda, Kazutoshi; Mizumoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hirofumi; Miyauchi, Yuya; Sato, Masahito; Hata, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Dumping syndrome is infrequently reported, but known to occur after Nissen fundoplication in children. However, it may be difficult both to diagnose and manage. Here we presented four infants who received Nissen fundoplication for severe gastroesophageal reflux disease, two of whom developed dumping syndrome whilst the other two did not. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was very useful to clearly detect large glycemic fluctuation around each feeding. CGM was also helpful to prove the effect of treatment to avoid abnormal glucose levels. We believe that dumping syndrome in children may be underdiagnosed if clinicians rely solely on the recognition of symptoms or limited frequency of blood samplings. CGM might be the most sensitive diagnostic tool. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. A needs analysis method for land-use planning of illegal dumping sites: a case study in Aomori-Iwate, Japan.

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    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru; Nagao, Yukari

    2013-02-01

    Land use at contaminated sites, following remediation, is often needed for regional redevelopment. However, there exist few methods of developing economically and socially feasible land-use plans based on regional needs because of the wide variety of land-use requirements. This study proposes a new needs analysis method for the conceptual land-use planning of contaminated sites and illustrates this method with a case study of an illegal dumping site for hazardous waste. In this method, planning factors consisting of the land-use attributes and related facilities are extracted from the potential needs of the residents through a preliminary questionnaire. Using the extracted attributes of land use and the related facilities, land-use cases are designed for selection-based conjoint analysis. A second questionnaire for respondents to the first one who indicated an interest in participating in the second questionnaire is conducted for the conjoint analysis to determine the utility function and marginal cost of each attribute in order to prioritize the planning factors to develop a quantitative and economically and socially feasible land-use plan. Based on the results, site-specific land-use alternatives are developed and evaluated by the utility function obtained from the conjoint analysis. In this case study of an illegal dumping site for hazardous waste, the uses preferred as part of a conceptual land-use plan following remediation of the site were (1) agricultural land and a biogas plant designed to recover energy from biomass or (2) a park with a welfare facility and an athletic field. Our needs analysis method with conjoint analysis is applicable to the development of conceptual land-use planning for similar sites following remediation, particularly when added value is considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences in Health Symptoms among Residents Living Near Illegal Dump Sites in Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana, Mexico: A Cross Sectional Survey

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    Wael K. Al-Delaimy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Living near landfills is a known health hazard prompting recognition of environmental injustice. The study aim was to compare self-reported symptoms of ill health among residents of four neighborhoods, living in haphazardly constructed settlements surrounded by illegal dumpsites in Tijuana, Mexico. One adult from each of 388 households located in Los Laureles Canyon were interviewed about demographics, health status, and symptoms. Distance from each residence to both the nearest dumpsite and the canyon bottom was assessed. The neighborhoods were selected from locations within the canyon, and varied with respect to proximity to dump sites. Residents of San Bernardo reported significantly higher frequencies of ill-health symptoms than the other neighborhoods, including extreme fatigue (OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.6–5.5, skin problems/irritations (OR 2.73 (95% CI 1.3–5.9, stomach discomfort (OR 2.47 (1.3–4.8, eye irritation/tears (OR 2.02 (1.2–3.6, and confusion/difficulty concentrating (OR 2.39 (1.2–4.8. Proximity to dumpsites did not explain these results, that varied only slightly when adjusted for distance to nearest dumpsite or distance to the canyon bottom. Because San Bernardo has no paved roads, we hypothesize that dust and the toxicants it carries is a possible explanation for this difference. Studies are needed to further document this association and sources of toxicants.

  3. Differences in health symptoms among residents living near illegal dump sites in Los Laureles Canyon, Tijuana, Mexico: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Larsen, Catherine Wood; Pezzoli, Keith

    2014-09-15

    Living near landfills is a known health hazard prompting recognition of environmental injustice. The study aim was to compare self-reported symptoms of ill health among residents of four neighborhoods, living in haphazardly constructed settlements surrounded by illegal dumpsites in Tijuana, Mexico. One adult from each of 388 households located in Los Laureles Canyon were interviewed about demographics, health status, and symptoms. Distance from each residence to both the nearest dumpsite and the canyon bottom was assessed. The neighborhoods were selected from locations within the canyon, and varied with respect to proximity to dump sites. Residents of San Bernardo reported significantly higher frequencies of ill-health symptoms than the other neighborhoods, including extreme fatigue (OR 3.01 (95% CI 1.6-5.5)), skin problems/irritations (OR 2.73 (95% CI 1.3-5.9)), stomach discomfort (OR 2.47 (1.3-4.8)), eye irritation/tears (OR 2.02 (1.2-3.6)), and confusion/difficulty concentrating (OR 2.39 (1.2-4.8)). Proximity to dumpsites did not explain these results, that varied only slightly when adjusted for distance to nearest dumpsite or distance to the canyon bottom. Because San Bernardo has no paved roads, we hypothesize that dust and the toxicants it carries is a possible explanation for this difference. Studies are needed to further document this association and sources of toxicants.

  4. Effects on the shore line modifications of illegal dumping of demolition material: the case of Palermo gulf

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    Ferruzza, G.; Fallo, L.; Vaccaro, F.

    2009-04-01

    Most coastal habitat now exhibits stress from human activities and thus a linkage between adverse environmental impacts and coastal development is now apparent. This linkage is complex, often not well understood, yet it is expected to increase in strength as coastal population expands. New and recent human agglomerations in the coastal zone have brought about unprecedented changes that would have been unexpected only few years ago and whose effects are now rising. The Gulf of Palermo (north Sicily) is an excellent example to observe this kind of recent coastal modifications since, especially in the last forty years, this area has suffered an extremely high human pressure. Expansion of new chaotic anthropized areas, sometimes without any city planning and without the connected black water discharge in the sea (only rarely purified), have radically changed the shoreline and the nearshore. The quality of the column water and the shore line have been mostly affected by the discharge of black water and by the direct and indirect human pressure. This paper is focused on this second aspect. Our goal was to reconstruct the recent history of the evolution of this area. This was done by using georeferenced maps and aerial photographs of the last forty years as well as sedimentological and morphological data collected on the field. We have found substantial variations mostly in the back of the shore line. They have been caused by the uncontrolled building of new houses that have covered an enormous area only few metres far from the coast.Other kind of variations are found on the shore line and are connected with the demolitions of entire quarters of Palermo during the last big war or in the sixty, seventy and eighty years, to substitute houses with buildings. The material produced by those demolitions was illegally discharged in fours big areas along the coast. The consequential effect was the creation of small hills of artificial blocs and sands that, during the last years

  5. An internationally standardized species identification test for use on suspected seized rhinoceros horn in the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Kyle M; Frankham, Greta J; McEwing, Ross; Webster, Lucy M I; Ciavaglia, Sherryn A; Linacre, Adrian M T; The, Dang Tat; Ovouthan, Kanitia; Johnson, Rebecca N

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoceros (rhino) numbers have dwindled substantially over the past century. As a result, three of the five species are now considered to be critically endangered, one species is vulnerable and one species is near-threatened. Poaching has increased dramatically over the past decade due to a growing demand for rhino horn products, primarily in Asia. Improved wildlife forensic techniques, such as validated tests for species identification of seized horns, are critical to aid current enforcement and prosecution efforts and provide a deterrent to future rhino horn trafficking. Here, we present an internationally standardized species identification test based on a 230 base pair cytochrome-b region. This test improves on previous nested PCR protocols and can be used for the discrimination of samples with The assay was designed to amplify water buffalo samples, a common 'rhino horn' substitute, but to exclude human DNA, a common contaminant. Phylogenetic analyses using this partial cytochrome-b region resolved the five extant rhino species. Testing successfully returned a sequence and correct identification for all of the known rhino horn samples and vouchered rhino samples from museum and zoo collections, and provided species level identification for 47 out of 52 unknown samples from seizures. Validation and standardization was carried out across five different laboratories, in four different countries, demonstrating it to be an effective and reproducible test, robust to inter laboratory variation in equipment and consumables (such as PCR reagents). This is one of the first species identification tests to be internationally standardized to produce data for evidential proceedings and the first published validated test for rhinos, one of the flagship species groups of the illegal wildlife trade and for which forensic tools are urgently required. This study serves as a model for how species identification tests should be standardized and disseminated for wildlife forensic

  6. Social dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    bidrag til, at OK-2010 "landes" fredeligt, fordi aftalen giver fagforeningerne en væsentlig indrømmelse i indsatsen mod social dumping. Aftalen har rigtignok til formål at imødekomme et af fagbevægelsens centrale overenskomstkrav om nye redskaber i indsatsen mod "social dumping". Men hvad er det aftalen...

  7. Health impact of leachates from illegal dumpsites: case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the perilous impact of leachate's foray on Kubwa-Abuja's environment; with the purpose to enlightening city's inhabitants from dumping refuse indiscriminately on unauthorized sites which may proactively have composite consequences on the environment and people living around the illegal dump-sites ...

  8. Learn about Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping is regulated by the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA). Learn about ocean dumping regulation including what materials can and cannot be dumped, the Ocean Dumping Management Program, and MPRSA history and accomplishments.

  9. Illegal employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mervartová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007 Labour Code contains the definition of dependent work, which can be carried out only in labour-law relations. The Amendment to Labour Code from 2012 makes the definition more precise, when it stipulates essential elements of dependent work and designates the others as conditions, under which dependent work should be carried out. The Amendment to Employment Act changes the definition of illegal work. Illegal work is a performance of dependent work by natural person except for labour-law relation, or if natural person – foreigner carries out work in conflict with issued permission to employment or without this permission. Since 2012 sanctions for illegal work were increased. Labour inspection is entitled to impose sanctions, in case of foreigners it is Customs Office. For control purposes employer is obliged to have copies of documents at the workplace proving the existence of labour-law relation. Goal of controls and high fines is to limit illegal employment of citizens of Czech Republic and foreigners as well. Illegal work has unfavourable economic impact on state budget. It comes to extensive tax evasions and also to evasions within health insurance and social security. If a concluded commercial-law relation meets the attributes of dependent work, then it stands for a concealed legal relationship. Tax Office can subsequently assess an income tax to businessman. Labour-law relationship enjoys a higher legal protection than commercial-law relationship; nonetheless it is not suitable to limit liberty of contract in cases when it is not unambiguously a dependent activity.

  10. Suspected illegal activity haunts airBaltic

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Kohtusse pöördunud Läti transpordiministeeriumil on olemas info, et airBalticu juht ja aktsionär Bertolt Flick üritas pettuse abil airBalticu aktsiate kontrollpaketti kätte saada. Lennukompaniiga toimuvast

  11. Dumping syndrome (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumping syndrome occurs when the contents of the stomach empty too quickly into the small intestine. The ... causing nausea, cramping, diarrhea, sweating, faintness, and palpitations. Dumping usually occurs after the consumption of too much ...

  12. Integrated geophysical surveys on waste dumps: evaluation of physical parameters to characterize an urban waste dump (four case studies in Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Ettore; Di Filippo, Gerardina

    2004-10-01

    Geophysical surveys were carried out on different waste dumps to evaluate key geometric and physical parameters. Depending on the dump dimensions and physical characteristics different geophysical techniques were used. Vertical electrical sounding, electrical resistivity tomography, induced polarization and seismic refraction techniques were integrated to eliminate the non-uniqueness of solutions and for a better understanding of the results. Physical parameters inside and outside the dumps were compared. The change of physical parameters such as resistivity, chargeability, and P-wave velocity allowed evaluation of waste dump geometry, leachate saturation levels, and thickness of waste. Furthermore, in illegal dumps, the size and waste type disposed could be evaluated. Calculated results were compared with plans and book-keeping from the dumps investigated.

  13. Geology beneath and beside the notorious Payatas open dump, Metro Manila, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarong, C.; Arcilla, C.; de Sales, L.; Chua, S.; Garcia, E.; Pamintuan, G.

    2003-04-01

    With a minimum of 6000 tonnes/day municipal waste output, and with NO existing operational sanitary landfill and with incineration illegal, Metro Manila has a very serious solid waste disposal problem. Unsorted municipal waste are being piled in open dumps, the most notorious of which is the Payatas open dump. A recent, tragic garbage-slide in this open dump caused dozens of deaths, news of which were broadcast internationally. Political expediency laced with a lot of corruption, rather than sound science, was the main basis for selecting this site as an open dump. As an example, this dump is situated government, a feasibility study was conducted to assess the methane generation potential of Payatas. This interdisciplinary study comprised bedrock geological studies, topographic mapping of the dump, drilling of the dump to obtain stratigraphic solid waste samples for waste characterization, laying of horizontal methane and dewatering pipes, and preliminary methane flow studies. The waste characterization has highlighted the unusually high organic (especially yard waste) component of the solid waste dumped at Payatas. Waste characterization shows that a significant portion of the waste is plastics. Several cross-sections cut across the dump show that the side slopes of the dump are on the average steeper than the pre-dump slopes. The “bedrock” of the Payatas dump are conglomerate members of the Pleistocene volcaniclastic Guadualupe Formation. Studies are still to be done on the extent of pollution on surface and groundwater in the Payatas environs.

  14. On Optimal Dumping.

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, Sajal; Sheen, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    It is generally believed that, in the absence of retaliation, a country can enhance its welfare by dumping its product on another country. Antidumping policies, in the form of countervailing duties, are usually introduced by the dumped-upon countries. In this paper, the authors show that it may in fact be in the social interest of the dumping country to introduce a "voluntary dumping restraint" policy. It is also shown that such a policy can be enacted without the government having to forbid ...

  15. Dumping syndrome after esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, A P; Emous, M; Laville, M; Tack, J

    2017-01-01

    Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and release of gastrointestinal hormones, resulting in gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Late dumping occurs 1-3 h after carbohydrate ingestion, caused by an incretin-driven hyperinsulinemic response resulting in hypoglycemia. Clinical recommendations are needed for the diagnosis and management of dumping syndrome. A systematic literature review was performed through February 2016. Evidence-based medicine was used to develop diagnostic and management strategies for dumping syndrome. Dumping syndrome should be suspected based on concurrent presentation of multiple suggestive symptoms after upper abdominal surgery. Suspected dumping syndrome can be confirmed using symptom-based questionnaires, glycemia measurements and oral glucose tolerance tests. First-line management of dumping syndrome involves dietary modification, as well as acarbose treatment for persistent hypoglycemia. If these approaches are unsuccessful, somatostatin analogues should be considered in patients with dumping syndrome and impaired quality of life. Surgical re-intervention or continuous enteral feeding may be necessary for treatment-refractory dumping syndrome, but outcomes are variable. Implementation of these diagnostic and treatment recommendations may improve dumping syndrome management. © 2016 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  16. Enforcement and illegal migration

    OpenAIRE

    Pia Orrenius

    2014-01-01

    Border enforcement of immigration laws attempts to raise the costs of illegal immigration, while interior enforcement also lowers the benefits. Border and interior enforcement therefore reduce the net benefits of illegal immigration and should lower the probability that an individual will decide to migrate. While some empirical studies find that border and interior enforcement serve as significant deterrents to illegal immigration, immigration enforcement is costly and carries significant uni...

  17. Egg dumping in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallamy, Douglas W

    2005-01-01

    Females that place eggs under the care of conspecifics have been labeled egg dumpers. Egg dumping is an effective reproductive alternative that lowers risks for, and has the potential to increase fecundity in, its practitioners. Although insect egg dumpers can be social parasites of the maternal behavior of egg recipients, dumping is more likely to be a viable reproductive alternative when the costs to egg recipients are low and thus the defense by potential hosts against egg dumping intrusions is minimal. These conditions are met in insects that guard only eggs or in insects whose eggs hatch into self-supporting precocial young that need little beyond defense from parents. When this is the case, egg dumping is favored by natural and/or kin selection as a mechanism by which dumpers can avoid parental risks and increase fecundity, and egg recipients can enhance offspring survival by diluting predation.

  18. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  19. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  20. Illegal hunting cases detected with molecular forensics in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches Alexandra; Tokumoto Paola M; Peres Wellington AM; Nunes Fernando L; Gotardi Mariana ST; Carvalho Carolina S; Pelizzon Cristiane; Godoi Tamissa G; Galetti Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Illegal hunting is one of the major threats to vertebrate populations in tropical regions. This unsustainable practice has serious consequences not only for the target populations, but also for the dynamics and structure of tropical ecosystems. Generally, in cases of suspected illegal hunting, the only evidence available is pieces of meat, skin or bone. In these cases, species identification can only be reliably determined using molecular technologies. Here, we reported an...

  1. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Illegal Drugs and Heart Disease Updated:May 17,2017 Most illegal drugs can ... www.dea.gov/druginfo/factsheets.shtml Alcohol and Heart Disease Caffeine and Heart Disease Tobacco and Heart Disease ...

  3. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  4. Spooky Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Lara

    2011-01-01

    This activity presents an option for covering biology content while engaging students in an investigation that highlights the spirit of Halloween. Students are engaged in the story line and have fun trying to solve the mystery kidnapping by using science skills to examine the evidence and eliminate some ghoulish suspects. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Premature beam dumps in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The statistical analysis of all non-programmed beam dumps during the 2011 proton run is presented. The selection criteria of fills that got considered were that the beam intensity of each of the two beams exceeded at least 1e12 particles per beam in order to exclude all probe beam dumps and most of the MPS test dumps. A distribution of beam dump causes by system is shown, as well as the time it took to re-establish injection after a non-programmed dump for fills which made it into STABLE BEAMS. This was done in an attempt to evaluate the cost of those non-programmed dumps in terms of time.

  6. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in New England, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  7. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of ocean dumping in Mid Atlantic, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  8. Dumping in a Global World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAnti-dumping actions are now the trade policy of choice of developing and transition economies. To understand why these economies have increasingly applied anti-dumping laws, we build a simple theoretical model of vertical intra-industry trade and investigate the strategic incentives of

  9. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-17

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  10. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  11. Illegal Immigration. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of illegal immigration. Contrary depictions of the aspirations and attitudes of illegal immigrants fuel…

  12. [Dangerous, illegal captivities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnik, Lidia; Lis, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    On the 21st of August 1997 the Polish legislature introduced the first animal protection law nr 724. This act however failed to specify in a clear and proper manner the problem of possession and maintenance of dangerous animals, which allows its multiple interpretations. Poland ratified the Washington Convention in 1990 restricting the trade of animals classified as endangered species. The present regulations enable illegal purchase and trade of those animals. According to the available data illegal trade of such animals, as well as the trade of products obtained from them, ranks in the third position in terms of crime generated income, only after the trade of drugs and weapons. In our country the sales of such animals have been growing at an alarming rate. The animals often get out of the control of their owners, or are abandoned by them. The presented work describes cases of reptiles being found in public places in our region. It also mentions the problem of possible dangers associated with intentional letting out of such animals in public places. The aim of the following paper is the analysis of the problem of raising of exotic animals, in particular venomous snakes and other animals, the possession of which may be dangerous not only for the owner but also for the people around. The existing laws and executive procedures have been discussed. Both, the family doctors as well as toxicologists have little knowledge as far as diagnosis and treatment of cases of stinging and biting by exotic animals is concerned. The authors suggest providing medical emergency doctors, family doctors and surgeons, with clinic toxicology programs, as well as introduction of special courses for middle medical personnel. Establishment of a central database and a database concerned with basic polyvalent serums are crucial in our country in order have the Toxicology Centers ready to face possible dangers associated with dangerous animals, and to prepare emergency solutions in cases of

  13. Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the ?Triangle of Death?

    OpenAIRE

    Triassi, Maria; Alfano, Rossella; Illario, Maddalena; Nardone, Antonio; Caporale, Oreste; Montuori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The term “triangle of death” was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy) which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great he...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1608 - Dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities. 77.1608 Section 77.1608... Haulage § 77.1608 Dumping facilities. (a) Dumping locations and haulage roads shall be kept reasonably free of water, debris, and spillage. (b) Where the ground at a dumping place may fail to support the...

  15. General Permits for Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    General permits are issued by EPA for the ocean dumping of certain materials that will have a minimal adverse environmental impact and are generally disposed of in small quantities. Information includes examples and ocean disposal sites for general permits

  16. [Dumping syndrome following gastric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Tom; Hewitt, Stephen; Høgestøl, Ingvild Kristine Dahl; Kjellevold, Kristin; Kristinsson, Jon A; Risstad, Hilde

    2015-01-27

    Dumping syndrome is the term used to describe a common set of symptoms following gastric surgery, and is characterised by postprandial discomfort which can entail nutritional problems. The condition was well known when surgery was the usual treatment for peptic ulcer disease. The increasing number of operations for morbid obesity means that the condition is once again of relevance, and health personnel will encounter these patients in different contexts. This article discusses the prevalence, symptomatology and treatment of dumping syndrome. This review article is based on a selection of articles identified in PubMed and assessed as having particular relevance for elucidating this issue, as well as on the authors' own clinical experience. Early dumping syndrome generally occurs within 15 minutes of ingesting a meal and is attributable to the rapid transit of food into the small intestine. Nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, a sensation of heat, dizziness, reduced blood pressure and palpitations are typical symptoms. Lethargy and sleepiness after meals are common. Late dumping syndrome occurs later and may be attributed to hypoglycaemia with tremors, cold sweats, difficulty in concentrating, and loss of consciousness. Dumping-related symptoms occur in between 20 and 50% of patients following gastric surgery. Early dumping syndrome is more frequent than late dumping syndrome. It is estimated that 10-20% of patients have pronounced symptoms and 1-5% have severe symptoms. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of typical symptoms. Most patients experience alleviation of the symptoms over time and with changes in diet and eating habits. Further patient evaluation and drug or surgical intervention may be relevant for some individuals. Dumping-related symptoms are common after gastric surgery. The extent of obesity surgery in particular means that health personnel should be familiar with this condition.

  17. EU Lobbying and Anti-Dumping Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2012-01-01

    of petitioning firms and Council voting in the case of anti-dumping policy. If the political position of countries in anti-dumping cases is influenced by domestic lobbying efforts, we expect that the empirical pattern of country distribution of petitioning firms in EU anti-dumping cases corresponds closely...... to the empirical pattern of EU country distribution in Council voting. Our results show a low petitioning intensity for anti-dumping investigations and a high voting intensity against anti-dumping measures in Northern Europe. Thus, it seems likely that domestic lobbying efforts have influenced the political...... position of countries in the special case of EU anti-dumping policy....

  18. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Anthropogenic Pollutants in Extracts from Maritsa Iztok Dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Maya; Milakovska, Zlatka; Marinov, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Coals are suspected for many human health problems and are an object of the new discipline - “medical geology”. Potential human health risk of organic compounds with coal/lignite provenance includes endocrine disruption, nephrotoxicity, cancer, etc. Recent investigations proved that different organic components, i.e. hydrocarbons, phenols etc. move through/release out of the dump area as a result of alteration processes of the organic matter (OM) caused by the wash-out and/or drainage processes. The timeliness of the present study is based on the scarcity of information on organic geochemistry of dump materials from open pit coal mines and weathered lignites in particular. The limited number of studies on dumps clarifies that even for the “short” time span (some tens of years) in geological point of view, processes of transformation of the extractable OM are detectable. The secondary phases, a result of the OM transformations, move through and out of the dump area and could be potential contaminants for the surface/underground waters and soils in the area. Another environmental problem comes from the air-born VOCs and products of the modern chemical industry. By GC-MS in the slightly polar fractions of the chloroform extracts of dump samples a broad set of components was determined, i.e. phthalates (dominant), i-propyl palmitate, i-propyl myristate, n-hexyl benzoates, etc. These organic contaminants could be regarded more likely as anthropogenic (originating from plasticizers, industrial pollutants, etc.). Presently, it seems that the identified compounds do not represent an acute toxic risk from an environmental viewpoint. However, some compounds could raise concerns and further attention is needed to be focused on them.

  20. Dumping in Developing and Transition Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe build a simple theoretical model to understand why developing and transition economies have increasingly applied anti-dumping laws. To that end, we investigate the strategic incentives of oligopolistic exporting firms to undertake dumping in these economies. We show that dumping may

  1. Chemical munitions dumped at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Margo; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Modern chemical warfare is a byproduct of the industrial revolution, which created factories capable of rapidly producing artillery shells that could be filled with toxic chemicals such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard agent. The trench warfare of World War I inaugurated extensive deployments of modern chemical weapons in 1915. Concomitantly, the need arose to dispose of damaged, captured or excess chemical munitions and their constituents. Whereas today chemical warfare agents (CWA) are destroyed via chemical neutralization processes or high-temperature incineration in tandem with environmental monitoring, in the early to middle 20th century the options for CWA disposal were limited to open-air burning, burial and disposal at sea. The latter option was identified as the least likely of the three to impact mankind, and sea dumping of chemical munitions commenced. Eventually, the potential impacts of sea dumping human waste were recognized, and in 1972 an international treaty, the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, was developed to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the dumping of wastes and other matter into the ocean. By the time this treaty, referred to as the London Convention, was signed by a majority of nations, millions of tons of munitions were known to have been disposed throughout the world's oceans.

  2. Magnetically operated beam dump for dumping high power beams in a neutral beamline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-01-27

    It is an object of this invention to provide a beam dump system for a neutral beam generator which lowers the time-averaged power density of the beam dump impingement surface. Another object of this invention is to provide a beam dump system for a neutral particle beam based on reionization and subsequent magnetic beam position modulation of the beam onto a beam dump surface to lower the time-averaged power density of the beam dump ion impingement surface.

  3. DNA Barcoding Identifies Illegal Parrot Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Priscila F M; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Matsumoto, Tania E; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2015-01-01

    Illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. Among these questions is the identity of the species involved. Here we report a case of a man who was caught in a Brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. He claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. The embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them based on morphology. As 29% of parrot species are endangered, the identity of the species involved was important to establish a stronger criminal case. Thus, we identified the embryos' species based on the analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene [COI] and 16S ribosomal DNA). Embryonic COI sequences were compared with those deposited in BOLD (The Barcode of Life Data System) while their 16S sequences were compared with GenBank sequences. Clustering analysis based on neighbor-joining was also performed using parrot COI and 16S sequences deposited in BOLD and GenBank. The results, based on both genes, indicated that 57 embryos were parrots (Alipiopsitta xanthops, Ara ararauna, and the [Amazona aestiva/A. ochrocephala] complex), and 1 was an owl. This kind of data can help criminal investigations and to design species-specific anti-poaching strategies, and demonstrate how DNA sequence analysis in the identification of bird species is a powerful conservation tool. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Illegal immigration: a supply side analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Bandyopadhyay, S C

    1998-12-01

    "This paper analyzes the supply-side determinants of illegal immigration using a three-sector general equilibrium model of the source country. Agricultural liberalization raises illegal immigration while liberalization of the high tech sector reduces it. In contrast, capital mobility in the source country renders trade policy ineffective for controlling illegal immigration. Paradoxically, increased enforcement (by the host country) may raise source country unskilled wages, although illegal immigration falls. Finally, under capital mobility, a rise in the source country restrictions on capital inflow raises the level of illegal immigration and reduces the effectiveness of border enforcement efforts by the host country." excerpt

  5. ILLEGAL MIGRATION-CONCEPTUAL DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA FLORINA POPESCU (PANAIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Illegal migration is a mobile phenomenon, which ignores national borders, a threat that originates outside the community and extends to Western societies. This phenomenon is becoming larger and irregular migrants are often in a precarious situation and exposed to the criminals involved in various manifestations of organized crime. The future risk factors of the illegal migration are the demographic bomb, because the population is decreasing in European countries and increasing rapidly in poorer countries, droughts, floods, deforestation, that cause conflicts between climate refugees , extreme poverty, totalitarian regimes, epidemics, can trigger millions of people, the elderly and the working population imbalance which leads to the permanent import of immigrants To combat this phenomenon, states must engage and cooperate with each other. Measures taken by states must balance their integration policy for immigrants, legally residents and asylum policy to comply with international conventions. Also, states must adopt anti-immigrant policies, consisting of subordination visa policy to the interests of international security and exchange of information and, not least, to continue the Schengen process, as a value of humanitarian law applied in the field. The aim of the research is to characterize this dangerous phenomenon for the society and the goal is to identify strategies to combat illegal migration.

  6. 7 CFR 48.7 - Evidence to justify dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence to justify dumping. 48.7 Section 48.7... Dumping § 48.7 Evidence to justify dumping. Any person, receiving produce in interstate commerce or in the..., prior to such destroying, abandoning, discarding or dumping, obtain a dumping certificate or other...

  7. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean...

  8. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P

    2016-08-05

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country's economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities.

  9. Quantifying the Effect of Macroeconomic and Social Factors on Illegal E-Waste Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthymiou, Loukia; Mavragani, Amaryllis; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2016-01-01

    As illegal e-waste trade has been significantly growing over the course of the last few years, the consequences on human health and the environment demand immediate action on the part of the global community. Though it is argued that e-waste flows from developed to developing countries, this subject seems to be more complex than that, with a variety of studies suggesting that income per capita is not the only factor affecting the choice of regions that e-waste is illegally shipped to. How is a country’s economic and social development associated with illegal e-waste trade? Is legislation an important factor? This paper aims at quantifying macroeconomic (per capita income and openness of economy) and social (human development and social progress) aspects, based on qualitative data on illegal e-waste trade routes, by examining the percentage differences in scorings in selected indicators for all known and suspected routes. The results show that illegal e-waste trade occurs from economically and socially developed regions to countries with significantly lower levels of overall development, with few exceptions, which could be attributed to the fact that several countries have loose regulations on e-waste trade, thus deeming them attractive for potential illegal activities. PMID:27527200

  10. Political instability and illegal immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J E; Lien, D

    1995-01-01

    "Economic theory suggests that transnational migration results from the push-pull effect of wage differentials between host and source countries. In this paper, we argue that political instability exacerbates the migration flow, with greater instability leading to relatively larger flows. We conclude then that an optimal solution to the illegal immigration problem requires proper coordination of immigration and foreign policies by the host country. A narrow preoccupation with tougher immigration laws is wasteful and may be marginally effective." Emphasis is on the United States as a host country. excerpt

  11. DUMPING SYNDROME IN A YOUNG-CHILD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, TW; DODDEMA, JW; HEIJMANS, HSA

    We describe a 17-month-old child with dumping syndrome after plication of the right diaphragm. He presented with periods of abdominal distension and pallor, recurrent convulsions, glucosuria and refusal of Feeding. After changing the diet the symptoms disappeared. Conclusion Although dumping

  12. Orbiter Water Dump Nozzles Redesign Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Hank

    2017-01-01

    Hank Rotter, NASA Technical Fellow for Environmental Control and Life Support System, will provide the causes and lessons learned for the two Space Shuttle Orbiter water dump icicles that formed on the side of the Orbiter. He will present the root causes and the criticality of these icicles, along with the redesign of the water dump nozzles and lessons learned during the redesign phase.

  13. Illegal Immigration and Agrarian Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venancio Salcines

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyse the relation which exists between a landowner and the immigrant workers contracted illegally by this person. For this reason, a theoretical model is developed based on the interconnection between the illegal and legal labour market. The big landowner analysed exercises a monopolistic power in the contracting of illegal manual labour. The application of a tariff in two parts permits this big landowner to obtain a greater surplus from the worker.

  14. Illegal markets: Estimates of global proceeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal markets represent a phenomenon of considerable economic, political and social significance whose annual income exceeds the value of a thousand billion USD. Illegal market participants are beyond the reach of government institutions and rule of law while social connections and personal acquaintances play an important role of functional substitute. In the last decade there was a significant increase of illegal trafficking of narcotics, people, fire arms, counterfeit products and natural resources. Both selling and purchase of these as well as other kinds of products and services at illegal markets are generally characterized by high level of organization and presence of strong criminal groups and networks. Although these activities existed in the past their present scope and geographic distribution are without precedent. Measuring unlawful financial flows at illegal markets represents quite a complex task. Various estimates are the result of inexistence of uniform and generally accepted methodology. In addition to this, the special problem is also the consensus of market actors, because of which the phenomenon of illegal markets and distribution of products and services at these markets is rather hidden. The paper defines and analyzes the key features of illegal markets, the role of organized crime at illegal markets, as well as the estimates of the values of financial flows at the markets of counterfeit products, narcotics, and people as goods, or human organs and sexual services, weapons, tobacco products and dirty money.

  15. Perspectives on Illegal Routes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    region as a result of economic, social and political problems. Africans have through the ages moved .... The aim of this study is to look into perspectives on illegal routes in Nigeria as it relates to the Nigeria Immigration ... proliferation of illegal routes and ways of managing and curbing such. The data collected will assist the ...

  16. Legal and Illegal Tax Evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Suvelea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the economic and social plan, tax evasion is a reality seen in various forms, such as the keeping of not realistic accounting books; willful destruction of documents that might lead to the discovery of real product deliveries, adopted prices, fees received or paid, establishing false customs declarations for the goods import or export, preparing false tax declarations, while knowingly not mentioning but a portion of the incomes. The largest tax evasion - 60% - is generated from VAT, while social contributions generate approximately 24% of the total fiscal evasion, mainly through the phenomenon of “illegal work” (employees in the underground economy. For this purpose it is necessary a deep reform of the taxes administration, mainly in the direction of increasing the degree of tax collection. The phenomenon as a whole is very difficult to control and to quantify and to this contribute also the tax laws’ peculiarities, tax policies, corruption and the standard of living

  17. Changes in Illegal Behavior During Emerging Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiah Haffejee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging adulthood marks a critical developmental juncture during which some individuals disengage from the illegal behavior of their adolescence while others continue to use substances and commit crimes. While risk factors for delinquency during adolescence are well studied, factors that influence persisting or desisting from illegal activities during emerging adulthood have not been fully explored. This mixed methods study utilizes a sample of college students aged 18-25 (N=74 and examines factors differentiating those who abstained from illegal behaviors, desisted from illegal behaviors, and persisted in illegal behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression models indicated peers offending and hours spent studying predicted desisting and peers offending predicted persisting (compared to the abstaining group. Three qualitative themes: family and peer bonds, morals and values, and fear of consequences further explained factors influencing emerging adults’ persisting and desisting choices. Implications for social work practice are explored.

  18. Analysis of illegal peptide biopharmaceuticals frequently encountered by controlling agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhee, Celine; Janvier, Steven; Desmedt, Bart; Moens, Goedele; Deconinck, Eric; De Beer, Jacques O; Courselle, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in genomics, recombinant expression technologies and peptide synthesis have led to an increased development of protein and peptide therapeutics. Unfortunately this goes hand in hand with a growing market of counterfeit and illegal biopharmaceuticals, including substances that are still under pre-clinical and clinical development. These counterfeit and illegal protein and peptide substances could imply severe health threats as has been demonstrated by numerous case reports. The Belgian Federal Agency for Medicines and Health Products (FAMHP) and customs are striving, together with their global counterparts, to curtail the trafficking and distributions of these substances. At their request, suspected protein and peptide preparations are analysed in our Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL). It stands to reason that a general screening method would be beneficiary in the battle against counterfeit and illegal peptide drugs. In this paper we present such general screening method employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the identification of counterfeit and illegal injectable peptide preparations, extended with a subsequent quantification method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). The screening method, taking only 30 min, is able to selectively detect 25 different peptides and incorporates the proposed minimum of five identification points (IP) as has been recommended for sports drug testing applications. The group of peptides represent substances which have already been detected in illegal and counterfeit products seized by different European countries as well as some biopharmaceutical peptides which have not been confiscated yet by the controlling agencies, but are already being used according to the many internet users forums. Additionally, we also show that when applying the same LC gradient, it is also possible to quantify these peptides without the need for

  19. Solid waste dumping site suitability analysis using geographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste dumping is a serious problem in the urban areas because most solid wastes are not dumped in the suitable areas. Bahir Dar Town has the problem of solid waste dumping site identification. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites for Bahir Dar Town, ...

  20. High slope waste dumps – a proven possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Svrkota

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an overview of dumping operations on High Slope Waste Dump at Veliki Krivelj open pit copper mine, RTB Bor, Serbia. The High Slope Waste Dump in Bor is the highest single slope waste dump in the world with the slope height of 405 m. The paper gives the basics and limitations of the designed dumping technology, the redesigned technology, gives an overview of the 13 year long operation and gathered experiences and addresses the main issues of dumping operations in high slope conditions as well as the present condition of the High Slope Waste Dump.

  1. Emergencies and Emergency Permits for Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergency permits under the MPRSA are issued if disposed material poses a threat to human health. Information is provided on emergency permit examples and disposal sites. Emergencies to safeguard life at sea does not require an ocean dumping permit.

  2. Special and Research Permits for Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special permits and research permits under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act may be issued by EPA for ocean dumping. Examples and ocean disposal sites for special and research permits are provided.

  3. Dumped Munitions in the Baltic Sea - Evaluation of the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldowski, J.; Jakacki, J.; Vanninen, P.; Lang, T.

    2016-12-01

    Dumped Chemical Weapons pose an actual environmental and security hazard in the Baltic Sea Region. Their actual position is unknown, and pollution originating from corroded munitions is only roughly estimated. Several research projects were devoted to evaluate the magnitude of the problem. During three international projects, roughly 2000 km2 were surveyed, and more than 200 ROV missions were performed to investigate found objects. . Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) degradation products were found in the sediments in immediate vicinity of the objects, and sediment pollution was observed even at 40m distance. Analysis of CWA degradation products in the sediments showed widespread contamination in Bornholm Deep area, and more variable pattern of local hotspots in the Gotland and Gdansk Deeps. The latter seem to contain several contaminated areas, which identifies it rather as an unofficial dumping ground than only containing munitions originating from en-route dumping. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Spreading of CWA was modelled using POP3 hydrodynamic model augmented with sediment erosion and benthic boundary layer modules. It follows from the models, that depending on wind conditions, resuspended contaminated sediemnts may remain in the water column for several days up to few weeks, and be transported over the distances up to 15 km. Biomarkers of environmental stress were measured in fish from the dumpsites and caged mussels, and indicated environmental stress in organisms from dumpsites as compared to control. Toxicity of found CWA degradation products was examined in laboratory studies. . Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at

  4. European Anti-dumping Law and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Eeckhout

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines recent developments in the European Union's anti-dumping policy, as it is applied towards China. It concentrates on recent court cases involving dumping from China and on the basic non-market economy issue. The author essentially argues that the European Union's policy does not take account sufficiently of China's development towards a market economy, and that there are various legal flaws in the way the policy is applied.

  5. Beam dumping system and abort gap

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the beam dumping systems and the abort gap cleaning are reviewed in the context of the general machine protection system. Details of the commissioning experience and setting up, encountered equipment problems, the experience with and status of the eXternal Post Operational Checks (XPOC) and the importance of operational procedures are presented for the beam dumping system. The brief experience with the abort gap cleaning is also presented.

  6. The Knotted Sign: Poetics of Illegibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Blanco Santini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One might argue that legibility precedes any concern about poetics, because: What are the poetics of something we cannot understand? However, our interaction with digital technology constantly exposes us to the illegibility intrinsic to its operations. The aim of this essay is to reflect on illegibility from three perspectives: the definition of readability as a Eurocentric cultural regime, the exploration of the poetics of the machine-readable as opposed to the human-readable, and the proposition that we are facing an increasingly ubiquitous regime of illegibility that is not limited to writing. After this vaguely chronological review of the modern history of illegibility, I will attempt to answer: What can the unreadable mean as an expressive resource?

  7. FastStats: Illegal Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Communities Screenings Mammography Pap Tests Disability and Risk Factors Alcohol Use Illegal Drug Use Body Measurements Diet/Nutrition Disability and Functioning Exercise or Physical Activity Obesity and Overweight Smoking Injuries Accidents or Unintentional Injuries All Injuries ...

  8. Beware of Illegally Marketed Diabetes Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Information Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments - Main Page Fraud Alert for People with Diabetes Reporting Unlawful Sales ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content ...

  9. Infectious diseases and the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Andrés; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2008-12-01

    We provide a compilation of pathogens directly associated with illegally traded wildlife. We find that these pathogens span the gamut of taxonomic origins, affect most vertebrate taxa, and can have negative consequences for human and animal health and the global economy. Significantly, published health assessments of illegally traded wild animals are extremely scarce, making the results of this survey an underestimation of the true extent of the problem. Concerted action aimed at preventing further negative health effects is warranted.

  10. The Enduring Costs of Illegal Immgration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    American citizens concerns. With the attacks came the realization that tens of millions of undocumented immigrants are living within the borders of the...pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=61 (accessed April 30, 2008). Passel, Jeffrey, S. 2004. Undocumented Immigrants : Facts and Figures. Urban...Right around $4 billion tax dollars paid for the education of 315,000 illegal immigrants and U.S.-born children of illegals. III 1.4 million undocumented

  11. [Illegal abortion with misoprostol in Guadeloupe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouana, M; Kadhel, P; Koffi, A; Janky, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the typical profile, and to assess the motivations of women who underwent illegal abortion with misoprostol in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). We conducted a 1-year prospective study on women who consulted after failure or complication of an illegal abortion with misoprostol. Fifty-two cases of illegal abortion with misoprostol were recorded. The most common profile was an unemployed woman, who was unmarried, foreign-born, had no medical insurance, and a low level of education; the median age was 28 (range 17 to 40). The justifications given were that the legal procedure was considered to be too slow, the young age of the woman, the ease of the self-medication procedure, a history of illegal abortion by misoprostol in the woman's country of origin, ignorance of the legal process, and financial and/or administrative problems. The problem of illegal abortion is probably underestimated in Guadeloupe and possibly France. This description of the profile of the population concerned and the justifications for choosing illegal abortion by misoprostol provides elements allowing better focus of education concerning abortion, contraception and family planning. Access to legal abortion centers should also be improved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dumping the decelerated beams of CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanneret, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    The spent drive beam must be cleanly extracted and bent away from the decelerator axis at the end of each CLIC decelerator in order to leave space for injecting a fresh beam train in the next sector. Then the spent beam must be safely absorbed. A compact extraction system made of a single dipole is proposed. The spent beam is driven to a water dump located at 20m downstream of the extraction point and transversely 6m away of the axis of the main linac. An adequate spread of the beam impact map on the dump offers small temperature excursions in both the dump and its entrance window, allowing for reliable operation and a long lifetime of the system.

  13. ON THE SUBJECT OF ILLEGAL HUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Abdulmutalibov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The article considers a notion of subject of such crime as illegal hunting. Only a man can be a subject of this crime. The content of such crime is revealed with the help of such properties as guilt, motive and aim. The article considers different properties of a subject of crime: 1 Physical nature Illegal actions can be committed by a man directly or indirectly. If during hunting a dog without its master’s command got a wild animal, the hunter is not liable as here intentional crime is absent. Juridical entities also are not admitted a subject of crime, only their representative if he committed this crime. 2 Criminal capacity. A person is not liable for this crime if he committed it in the state of criminal incapacity (CC Art.21. If illegal hunting is committed by a person in the state of drunkenness he is admitted capable and is liable for the crime(Criminal Code art.23. 3 A definite age. According to Art.23 of RF CC criminal responsibility for illegal hunting comes from the age of 16 . Performance of art.11, 12, 13 of CC concerns citizens of Russia, foreign citizens and persons without citizenship who committed poaching on the territory of Russia. Thus, the subject of poaching is a capable physical person reached the age of 16 by the moment of committing the crime. Methods. questionnaire method was applied for finding out the predominant motive and aim of illegal hunting. Result. 82% of pollee officials of hunting supervision bodies indicated the motive of profit as a predominant in committing illegal hunting.Location. Pskovskaya, Tulskaya, Moskovskaya regions. Conclusions. 1.Illegal hunting is committed only intentionally.2.The aim of poaching is killing wild animals and further use of their meat, skin, down, and active rest3.The more spread motives of poaching are: mercenary motives (35% and hunting passion

  14. Geotechnical aspects for the optimization of dump design at Chinh Bac Mine waste dump in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchsschwanz, M.; Ziegler, M. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Ahmad, S.; Fernandez, J.B.P.; Martens, P.N. [Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering; Deissmann, G. [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Vietnam's Quang Ninh province is one of the country's most important coal producing regions. Several open pit mines are being operated in the area by Nui Beo Coal Company (NBCC). The construction of large waste dumps for overburden removed by blasting have led to environmental problems at the mining sites, including dust emissions from mining and dumping operations; ground and surface water contamination by acid mine drainage; and slope stability problems caused by heavy rainfall and dump movements. This paper discussed investigations regarding the influence of the dump layout on slope stability and erosion. The paper described the project site and ongoing activities for the development of optimized stabilization and rehabilitation concepts with a particular focus on geotechnical aspects. The site was described in terms of coal and waste rock production; Chinh Bac waste rock dump; crack mapping; material properties of dumped material; density; and settlements. Ongoing activities focus on the effect of benches on slope stability; influence of benches on erosion; and layered dumping. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  15. DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase activity and lysosomal stability in native and transplanted mussels (Mytilus edulis) in areas close to coastal chemical dumping sites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Strand, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    potentially affected by anthropogenic pollution originating from chemical dumping sites. The results indicate responses to pollution in all the biomarkers applied at the suspected areas, but the results were not consistent. Seasonal fluctuations in exposure situations at the study sites make interpretation...

  16. ATA diagnostic beam dump conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    A diagnostic beam dump, able to withstand 72,000 pulses (10 kA, 50 MeV/pulse) per shift was designed and analyzed. The analysis shows that the conceptual beam dump design consisting of 80 vitreous carbon plate-foam elements is able to withstand the thermal and mechanical stresses generated. X-rays produced by bremsstrahlung are absorbed by a three element copper plate-foam x-ray absorber. Cooling between bursts of electron pulses is provided by pressurized helium.

  17. Replacing the Beam Dump at the Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The PS Booster Dump, designed in the 1960’s to cope with beam energies in the order of 800 MeV, has been dismantled and replaced with a new one, capable of withstanding the 2 GeV beam provided by the upcoming LINAC4 at CERN. This video shows the installation of that new dump core inside a one-metre diameter cavity, surrounded by five shielding rings made of concrete and steel. It is the culmination of months of preparation, an interdisciplinary work involving several teams from the Engineering, Beams and Technology Departments, as well as the collaboration and supervision of radio-protection experts.

  18. Modernization of dump truck onboard system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M. A.; Bolshunova, O. M.; Korzhev, A. A.; Kamyshyan, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The review of the only automated dispatch system for the career dump trucks, which is presented in the domestic market, was made. A method for upgrading the loading control system and technological weighing process of the career dump was proposed. The cargo weight during loading is determined by the gas pressure in the suspension cylinders at the time of the oscillation ending and at the start of the vibration smoothing process; the smoothing speed correction is performed. The error of the cargo weighting is 2.5-3%, and of the technological weighing process during driving - 1%, which corresponds to the error level of the steady-state weighting means.

  19. Understanding illegality and corruption in forest governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Aksel

    2016-10-01

    This review synthesizes the literature studying illegality and government corruption in forest management. After discussing the theoretical connections between different types of corruption and illegal forest-related activities it describes the major trends in previous studies, examining cross-national patterns as well as local in-depth studies. Both theory and available empirical findings provide a straightforward suggestion: Bribery is indeed a "door opener" for illegal activities to take place in forest management. It then discusses the implications for conservation, focusing first on international protection schemes such as the REDD+ and second on efforts to reduce illegality and bribery in forest management. Key aspects to consider in the discussion on how to design monitoring institutions of forest regulations is how to involve actors without the incentive to engage in bribery and how to make use of new technologies that may publicize illegal behavior in distant localities. The review concludes by discussing avenues for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reliability Analysis of the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, Roberto; Ducimetière, Laurent; Goddard, Brennan; Uythoven, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The design of the Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is aimed at ensuring a safe beam extraction and deposition under all circumstances. The system includes redundancy and continuous surveillance for most of its parts. Extensive diagnostics after each beam dumping action will be performed to reduce the risk of a faulty operation upon the subsequent dump trigger. Calculations of the system’s safety and availability are presented for the beam dumping kickers and septa magnets.

  1. 30 CFR 56.19103 - Dumping facilities and loading pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities and loading pockets. 56.19103 Section 56.19103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19103 Dumping facilities and loading pockets. Dumping facilities and loading...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19103 - Dumping facilities and loading pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping facilities and loading pockets. 57.19103 Section 57.19103 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19103 Dumping facilities and loading pockets. Dumping facilities...

  3. 7 CFR 46.22 - Accounting for dumped produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for dumped produce. 46.22 Section 46.22... Market Receivers § 46.22 Accounting for dumped produce. A clear and complete record shall be maintained... justifying dumping shall be forwarded to the consignor or joint account partner with the accounting and a...

  4. Narrating Illegal Logging Across the Globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Georg; Leipold, Sina; Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade illegal logging has triggered the attention of policy makers and scholars of international forest governance. The issue is multifaceted, involving aspects of social and environmental sustainability, development, trade, access to markets and competitiveness. A vivid academic...... debate has resulted, exploring the nexus between markets and trade on one hand, and environmental and social sustainability on the other. The purpose of this paper is systematically assess the international policy discourse on illegal logging and legality verification policies in different regions...... conversations with practitioners, policy documents and a media analysis. We find striking differences across the globe in narratives about illegal logging and legality verification and conclude that these need to be considered when assessing the support for, and the current and potential effects of...

  5. EU Economic Freedoms and Social Dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Bernaciak, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    In the book, 'Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe', edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS and Tilburg University) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic

  6. EU economic freedoms and social dumping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.; Bernaciak, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the book, Market Expansion and Social Dumping in Europe, edited by Magdalena Bernaciak and published by Routledge, Jan Cremers (AIAS) contributes with a chapter called ‘EU economic freedoms and social dumping’. He demonstrates how the emphasis on the primacy of economic freedoms has negatively

  7. ISR internal beam-dumping system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Parts of the internal beam-dumping system. In the ring on the right are shown the four tanks containing the vertically deflecting magnets and in the ring on the left is the absorber block. Identical parts are on opposite sides in the other half of this intersection region.

  8. [Smuggling of illegal drugs by body suffers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksnes, Tonje Amb; Jacobsen, Dag

    2004-07-01

    Body packers are persons who smuggle illegal drugs by swallowing condoms or plastic cylinders containing such substances. Body stuffers are drug dealers or drug abusers who swallow illegal drugs in an effort to conceal evidence during an arrest or in fear of being arrested. We report four cases and discuss management. Asymptomatic body packers may be managed conservatively with laxatives and water-soluble contrast medium. This method allows an accurate follow-up with abdominal radiography. If patients develop abdominal pain or signs and symptoms of intoxication, surgical intervention should be considered. Both types of patients should be monitored carefully.

  9. DYNAMICS OF THE ROMANIAN ILLEGAL DRUG MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Caunic

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has led to an increase in commercial activities running on the illegal markets, its dynamics being largely determined by the balance between profitability and the major risks involved. Revenuesare significant, one example being those obtained from drug industry. In recent years, illicit drug trafficking has seen in Romania an unprecedented escalation, as a result of market liberalization and the movement of per sons and because of the extending the phenomenon both among producers and consumers. This article examines the size of the Romanian illegal drug markets, the countries of origin and drugtransit routes, as well as the profits made by the drug trafficking networks.

  10. La condicionalidad social como remedio al dumping = Social clause as remedy to dumping

    OpenAIRE

    D??az Pascual, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    El estudio trata de abordar las diferentes formas con las que luchar contra el dumping social. A tal fin, se analiza, en primer lugar el concepto e implicaciones del dumping social. Acto seguido, se abordan las distintas alternativas empleadas para combatirlo, empezando por la condicionalidad social en general, atendiendo a su primer origen normativo, explicando en qu?? consiste y sus posturas tanto a favor como en contra. El segundo modo para hacerle frente, o condicionalidad unilateral, vie...

  11. Pediatric glaucoma suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooner K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Karanjit Kooner,1 Matthew Harrison,1 Zohra Prasla,1 Mohannad Albdour,1 Beverley Adams-Huet21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: To report demographic and ocular features of pediatric glaucoma suspects in an ethnically diverse population of North Central Texas.Design: Retrospective cross-sectional chart review.Participants: Subjects included 75 (136 eyes pediatric glaucoma suspects. Patients with one or more of the following risk factors were included: cup-to disc (C/D ratio of ≥0.6; intraocular pressure (IOP ≥21 mmHg; family history of glaucoma; congenital glaucoma in the opposite eye; history of blunt trauma to either eye; and presence of either Sturge–Weber or Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome, or oculodermal melanocytosis.Methods: Data were extracted from electronic patient medical records. Patient records with incomplete data were excluded. The main outcome measures were race, sex, age, IOP, C/D, family history of glaucoma; and glaucoma treatment.Results: Subjects included 28 (37.3% Hispanics, 20 (26.6% African Americans, 20 (26.6% Caucasians, and seven (9.3% Asians. Forty (53.3% of the patients were male. Suspicious optic disc was seen in 57 (76%; elevated IOP in 25 (33.3%; presence of family history in 13 (17.3%, and Sturge–Weber syndrome in nine (12% patients. The average C/D ratio was 0.58±0.2. The C/D ratios of African American (0.65±0.2, Hispanic (0.63±0.2, and Asian (0.62±0.15 patients were significantly greater than those of Caucasians (0.43±0.18; P=0.0004, 0.0003, and 0.0139, respectively. Caucasian patients were the youngest (7.9±4.8 years. Eleven cases (14.7% required medication.Conclusion: Thirty-three point seven percent of patients seen in the glaucoma clinic were glaucoma suspects. The most common risk factors for suspected glaucoma were suspicious optic discs, elevated IOP, and family history

  12. [Multidisciplinary management of dumping syndromes after bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vetta, Véronique; Heller, Aline; Pralong, François; Favre, Lucie

    2017-03-22

    Dumping syndromes are a frequent complication of gastric or bariatric surgery and include early and late dumping. Early dumping is a consequence of rapid delivery of hyperosmolar nutrients into the bowel. Late dumping is the result of a reactive hypoglycemia induced by a hyperinsulinemic response. These syndromes are becoming increasingly prevalent with the rising incidence of bariatric surgery. Effective management of these complications requires multidisciplinary collaboration. First line management of early and late dumping syndrome involves specific dietary and behavioral modifications which generally improve the quality of life of patients.

  13. The charged beam dumps for the international linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R; Broome, T; Densham, C; Vincke, H

    2006-01-01

    The baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider requires 2 beam dumps per interaction region, each rated to 18MW of beam power, together with additional beam dumps for tuning purposes and machine protection. The baseline design uses high pressure moving water dumps, first developed for the SLC and used in the TESLA design, although a gas based dump is also being considered. In this paper we discuss the progress made by the international community on both physics and engineering studies for the beam dumps.

  14. Ecological studies of cancer incidence in an area interested by dumping waste sites in Campania (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Fazzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence was investigated in an area which has been affected by the illegal practices of dumping hazardous waste and setting fire to mismanaged waste. For the 35 municipalities of this area that are served by a Cancer Registry, municipal standardized incidence ratios (SIR and hierarchical Bayesian estimators (BIR were computed. Moreover, municipal spatial clustering and a Poisson regression by municipality index of waste-related exposure were performed for 10 cancer types. Increased municipality SIRs were found for some cancer types. The BIRs confirmed the increases for liver cancer in two municipalities. Statistically significant clusters were detected for liver, lung, leukaemia and soft tissue sarcomas. In the regression analysis, testis cancer showed significant trend with the index of waste-related exposure (RR = 1.18.

  15. Contacts of general practitioners with illegal immigrants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.; Verheij, R.; Herten, L. van; Bakker, D. de

    2001-01-01

    Aims: Violence and economic hardship cause many people to industrialized countries, often without obtaining an residence permit. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the factors that determine the occurrence of contacts in primary health care with such illegal immigrants. Methods: Data were

  16. Narrating Illegal Logging Across the Globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Georg; Leipold, Sina; Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade illegal logging has triggered the attention of policy makers and scholars of international forest governance. The issue is multifaceted, involving aspects of social and environmental sustainability, development, trade, access to markets and competitiveness. A vivid academic deb...

  17. Health care and the illegal immigrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether illegal immigrants should be entitled to some form of health coverage in the United States sits at the intersection of two contentious debates: health reform and immigration reform. Proponents of extending coverage argue that the United States has a moral obligation to provide health care to all those within its borders. Conversely, those against doing so argue that immigrants illegally present in the country should not be entitled to public benefits. This Article seeks to chart a middle course between these extremes while answering two questions. First, does constitutional law mandate extending health coverage to illegal immigrants? Second, even if not legally mandated, are there compelling policy reasons for extending such coverage? This Article concludes that while health coverage for illegal immigrants is not required under prevailing constitutional norms, extending coverage as a matter of policy would serve the broader interests of the United States. Extending coverage would be beneficial as a matter of economics and public health, generating spillover benefits for all US citizens and those in the US healthcare and health insurance systems.

  18. Illegal Logging: dari Persoalan Falsafati ke Penegakan Hukum

    OpenAIRE

    hermansyah,

    2009-01-01

    Banyaknya terdakwa dalam kasus illegal logging lebih dikarenakan kekacauan dan carut marutnya sistem penegakan hukum, terutama penegakan hukum dalam bidang kehutanan. Kekacauan bertambah lantaran dalam melihat illegal logging terselit cara pandang yang materialistik dan ekonomi.

  19. Labour Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  20. Labor Market Interactions Between Legal and Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper looks at the situation of legal immigrants who employ illegal immigrants to provide them with various services. This enables the legal immigrants to allocate more time to other work, thereby increasing their earnings. Illegal immigrants employed by legal immigrants may specialize in certain professions and may themselves employ other illegal immigrants. An economy is evolving whose sole purpose is the provision of services by illegal immigrants for legal immigrants.

  1. MONITORING OF UNAUTHORIZED DUMPS WITH USE OF REMOTE SENSING ON THE EXAMPLE OF VOLZHSKIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Sergiyenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the actual problems bound with quality deterioration of the natural environment is inappropriate handling of solid waste. According to the State Report on Environment in 2014, the Russian Federation accumulates about 180 million tons of solid waste. This brings an increase in area landfills by more than 5000 ha. Volumes an waste of all hazard classes have been growing year by year and exceeds the volume of their use and neutralization more than twice. Besides, we do not take into account the large amount of waste illegally dumped on to the waste-ground near cities or towns. An effective means of fighting this problem is environmental monitoring. With the development of the Internet and the increased availability of the satellite map database, it is possible to detect and catalog waste disposal sites around and within settlements. Most effective method of monitoring is the use of different-time maps to identify the dynamics of the growth of garbage dumps. Earth remote sensing and GIS tools allow municipal services and research associations to count the areas occupied by unauthorized waste storage facilities, to make timely amendments to the land cadaster, and to respond appropriately, as soon as possible, by the standards of cataloging. This research has been based on the use of high-resolution images that are publicly available, and their analysis using simple GIS tools that are accessible to the public.

  2. [Dumping syndrome: Diagnostics and therapeutic options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, F; Wierlemann, A; Bala, M; Fassnacht, M; Jurowich, C

    2015-09-01

    Dumping syndrome is a common complication after surgery of the upper gastrointestinal tract with symptoms ranging from mild gastrointestinal discomfort and moderate vasomotor disturbances, to severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Due to the increasing number of bariatric procedures being performed worldwide, bariatric surgery has become the most common cause for this disease entity. The aim of this review is to highlight the evidence for the physiological mechanisms contributing to dumping syndrome after the two most common bariatric surgery procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, to discuss technical aspects of the procedures underlying the development of the syndrome, patient-related predictive factors and other differential diagnoses, together with diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms.

  3. Patient dumping. Status, implications, and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D A; Schiff, R L

    1987-03-20

    Patient dumping, or the transfer of patients from private to public hospitals because of economic or social factors, is on the increase throughout the United States. Focusing on the dumping of patients by hospital emergency departments, the authors examine the economic, ethical, legal, and medical aspects of the problem. Although 22 states and the federal government have enacted statutes requiring hospitals to provide emergency care regardless of ability to pay and requiring that patients be stabilized before transfer to another hospital, Ansell and Schiff contend that even the best of these laws are deficient in defining such terms as "emergency" and "patient stability" and that monitoring and enforcement of existing laws and the guidelines of the American College of Emergency Physicians are inadequate. They propose a policy that no patient in need of emergency hospitalization should be denied admission or transferred for economic reasons.

  4. 28 CFR 36.209 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 36.209 Section 36... PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES General Requirements § 36.209 Illegal use of drugs. (a... discrimination against an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public...

  5. 28 CFR 35.131 - Illegal use of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illegal use of drugs. 35.131 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.131 Illegal use of drugs. (a) General. (1... an individual based on that individual's current illegal use of drugs. (2) A public entity shall not...

  6. Economic incentives exist to support measures to reduce illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Turner; J. Buongiorno; A. Katz; S. Zhu; R. Li

    2008-01-01

    Three studies of the global economic implications of eliminating illegal logging are summarized. Processors of illegally sourced wood would lose from the elimination of illegal logging through high prices for logs and decreased production of wood products. Associated with these changes could be losses in employment and income. Beyond these losses to the processing...

  7. ILLEGAL FISHING SEBAGAI KEJAHATAN KORPORASI SUATU TEROBOSAN HUKUM PIDANA MENGADILI KEJAHATAN ILLEGAL FISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Iqbal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cakupan, pengertian dan pemahaman illegal fishing yang dipahami dan dianut dalam hukum positif Indonesia adalah pencurian ikan yang berdampak dan berpengaruh besar terhadap perekonomian negara. Oleh karenanya esensi regulasi dan penindakan terhadap illegal fishing di Indonesia seharusnya dipahami pada penindakan pencurian ikan yang berskala besar, yang pada umumnya dilakukan oleh armada-armada asing, kapal-kapal asing yang illegal, yang telah pula berakibat merugikan perekonomian negara (Indonesia triliunan rupiah tiap tahunnya. Dengan model dan jenis pencurian yang berskala besar dan membahayakan perekonomian nasional tersebut, penanganan regulasinya patut diarahkan pada atau untuk mengatasi kejahatan-kejahatan berskala besar dan rumit (sophisticated, yang tergolong dalam jenis kejahatan white collar crime atau kejahatan korporasi. Mengenal dan memahami seluk beluk serta keberadaan kejahatan korporasi, bagi para penegak hukum adalah sebuah keharusan di era modern ini, oleh karenanya tulisan ini memfokuskan pada dua kata kunci (key word illegal fishing dan corporate crime. Mengetahui dan memahami konsep dan regulasi seputar illegal fishing serta kejahatan korporasi menjadi kontribusi penting dalam proses penegakan hukum. Dengan pemahaman atas illegal fishing dan kejahatan korporasi akan menjadi landasan yang kuat bagi setiap praktisi hukum, khususnya penegak hukum dalam berproses acara maupun menentukan jenis dan klasifikasi pertanggungjawaban pidana yang tepat dan benar bagi penegak hukum khususnya para hakim agar berani dan tidak ragu dalam menjatuhkan sanksi pada setiap pelaku illegal fishing atau pelaku kejahatan korporasi. Dengan hukuman yang tegas dan jelas serta pasti, para penegak hukum tidak saja menegakkan hukum dan keadilan melainkan juga telah menyelamatkan perekonomian negara, dengan mencegah potensi kehilangan kekayaan nasional, sebagai pelaksanaan dari fungsi hukum sebagai alat rekayasa sosial.   Coverage, insight, and

  8. At dumpe på FARMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Bjørn Friis

    Uddrag fra forord: "At dumpe på FARMA peger på flere centrale styrker i farmaceutuddannelsen. For det første at de studerende reelt er interesserede i farmaceutfaget når de optages på studiet, og de oplever velvilje fra underviserne. For det andet at studenterkulturen på studiet er stærk, således...

  9. Between social dumping and social protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Jul; Sandberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In a world increasingly challenged by neoliberal restructurings of labour markets within the global economy, labour organisation is continuously challenged. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Polish construction workers in Denmark, both at their place of work and in their homes in De...... flexibility and availability, and that the composition of the migrant family significantly impacts how migratory practices are made feasible and desirable. Keywords: East-West migrants, labour mobility, social dumping, migrant families, ethnographic fieldwork...

  10. Forced Displacement: Legal Versus Illegal Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Rojas, Paola Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that, in stateless regions in Colombia, the establishment of oil palm 1 plantations generates more forced migration than the introduction of coca crops. We provide a theoretical model to study this phenomenon where an agent, allied with the illegal armed group that controls a region, chooses between buying an agricultural good from peasants or producing it himself by evicting farmers from their lands. We compare two crops that differ in their labor intensity. Resul...

  11. Drugonomics : Industrial Organization of Illegal Drug Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo R., Alberto J.

    2007-01-01

    Insurgents, drug lords and anti-drug supply policies in the Andes. The United States has spent enormous resources on supply policies to decrease illegal drug production in the Andes and availability in the U.S. market. However, evidence suggests increased drug production and availability over time. Moreover, insurgent activities in the region have also increased. We present an explanation for these unexpected trends by analyzing an illicit drug market where drug lords and insurgents interact...

  12. Malaria in illegal Chinese immigrants, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteelli, A; Volonterio, A; Gulletta, M; Galimberti, L; Maroccolo, S; Gaiera, G; Giani, G; Rossi, M; Dorigoni, N; Bellina, L; Orlando, G; Bisoffi, Z; Castelli, F

    2001-01-01

    A cluster of 22 imported malaria cases, 21 caused by Plasmodium falciparum, was observed among illegal Chinese immigrants in northern Italy in the summer of 2000. The rate of severe disease was high because the patients were not immune and they sought health-care services late in their illness because of their clandestine status. Recognition of the outbreak was delayed because no regional alert system among infectious diseases hospitals was in place.

  13. Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the “Triangle of Death”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Triassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “triangle of death” was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the “triangle of death”, bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms “waste”, “Campania”, “Naples”, “triangle of death” and “human biomonitoring”. Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population.

  14. 30 CFR 56.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps and dumping...

  15. 40 CFR 228.15 - Dumping sites designated on a final basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dumping sites designated on a final... DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.15 Dumping sites designated on a final basis. (a)(1) The sites identified in this section are approved for dumping the indicated...

  16. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for ocean...

  17. Technology and the Glaucoma Suspect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumberg, Dana M; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Garg, Reena; Chen, Cynthia; Theventhiran, Alex; Hood, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    ...), stereoscopic disc photographs, and automated perimetry as assessed by a group of glaucoma specialists in differentiating individuals with early glaucoma from suspects. Forty-six eyes (46 patients...

  18. Dumping syndrome after esophageal atresia repair without antireflux surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Laurent; Sfeir, Rony; Couttenier, Frédéric; Turck, Dominique; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2010-04-01

    In childhood, the surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux is the main cause of dumping syndrome. We report the cases of 2 children with esophageal atresia who presented with dumping syndrome without any precipitating known factors, such as gastroesophageal reflux surgery or associated microgastria. Our data suggest (1) that dumping syndrome can occur after primary anastomosis of esophageal atresia without antireflux surgery and (2) that dumping syndrome should be considered in every child treated surgically for esophageal atresia presenting with digestive symptoms, malaise, failure to thrive, or refusal to eat. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Iodine Beam Dump Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Bradley, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    During the testing of electric thrusters, high-energy ions impacting the walls of a vacuum chamber can cause corrosion and/or sputtering of the wall materials, which can damage the chamber walls. The sputtering can also introduce the constituent materials of the chamber walls into an experiment, with those materials potentially migrating back to the test article and coating it with contaminants over time. The typical method employed in this situation is to install a beam dump fabricated from materials that have a lower sputter yield, thus reducing the amount of foreign material that could migrate towards the test article or deposit on anything else present in the vacuum facility.

  20. Characteristics of illegal and legal cigarette packs sold in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Rodrigo; Corral, Juan E; Monzon, Diego; Yoon, Mira; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-11-25

    Guatemala, as a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is required to regulate cigarette packaging and labeling and eliminate illicit tobacco trade. Current packaging and labeling characteristics (of legal and illegal cigarettes) and their compliance with the FCTC is unknown. We sought to analyze package and label characteristics of illegal and legal cigarettes sold in Guatemala. We visited the 22 largest traditional markets in the country to purchase illegal cigarettes. All brands registered on tobacco industry websites were purchased as legal cigarettes. Analysis compared labeling characteristics of illegal and legal packs. Most (95%) markets and street vendors sold illegal cigarettes; 104 packs were purchased (79 illegal and 25 legal). Ten percent of illegal and none of the legal packs had misleading terms. Half of the illegal packs had a warning label covering 26 to 50% of the pack surface. All legal packs had a label covering 25% of the surface. Illegal packs were more likely to have information on constituents and emissions (85% vs. 45%, p illegal nor legal cigarette packs comply with FCTC labeling mandates. Urgent implementation and enforcement of the FCTC is necessary to halt the tobacco epidemic.

  1. 78 FR 60240 - Non-Application of Previously Withdrawn Regulatory Provisions Governing Targeted Dumping in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulatory Provisions Governing Targeted Dumping in Antidumping Duty Investigations AGENCY: Import... implemented, the previously withdrawn regulatory provisions governing targeted dumping in antidumping duty... concerning the calculation of the weighted-average dumping margin and assessment rate in certain antidumping...

  2. 78 FR 58378 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Measures on Large...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Anti-Dumping and Countervailing... using the weighted average-to-transaction comparison methodology in anti-dumping investigations, administrative reviews and other segments of anti- dumping proceedings.'' Korea also challenges Commerce's...

  3. Fast Dump of the ATLAS Toroids

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, A; Volpini, Giovanni; Dudarev, Alexey; Kate, Herman Ten

    2010-01-01

    The toroidal magnet system of the ATLAS Detector at CERN consists of a Barrel Toroid (BT) and two End Cap Toroids (ECT-A and ECT-C). Each toroid is built up from eight racetrack coils wound with an aluminum stabilized NbTi conductor and indirectly cooled by forced flow liquid helium. The three toroids operate in series at 20.5 kA with a total stored energy of 1.5 GJ. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the quench protection system, series of fast dump tests have been performed first of the single toroids and finally of the entire toroidal magnet system. In this paper a model to simulate the fast dump of the ATLAS toroids in single mode operation and in full system configuration is presented. The model is validated through comparison with measured data extracted from the ramp-and-quench runs. The calculated energy dissipation in the various coils is in very good agreement (within 1-2\\%) with the enthalpy changes estimated from the temperature measurements of the different parts of the cold ...

  4. Narrating illegal logging across the globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, G.; Leipold, S.; Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade illegal logging has triggered the attention of policy makers and scholars of international forest governance. The issue is multifaceted, involving aspects of social and environmental sustainability, development, trade, access to markets and competitiveness. A vivid academic...... of the world, drawing on the concept of policy narratives. Specifically, we analyse and compare policy narratives in Australia, Cambodia, China, the EU, Indonesia, Peru and the US. Our analysis is grounded on a rich empirical basis consisting of 260 interviews conducted by various researchers, numerous...

  5. Narrating Illegal Logging Across the Globe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Georg; Leipold, Sina; Buhmann, Karin

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade illegal logging has triggered the attention of policy makers and scholars of international forest governance. The issue is multifaceted, involving aspects of social and environmental sustainability, development, trade, access to markets and competitiveness. A vivid academic...... of the world, drawing on the concept of policy narratives. Specifically, we analyse and compare policy narratives in Australia, Cambodia, China, the EU, Indonesia, Peru and the US. Our analysis is grounded on a rich empirical basis consisting of 260 interviews conducted by various researchers, numerous...

  6. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." excerpt

  7. Illegal Immigration and the Shadow Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Camacho; Fabio Mariani; Luca Pensieroso

    2015-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2015.55 - ISSN : 1955-611X; We build a general equilibrium model in which both illegal immigration and the size of the informal sector are endogenously determined and interact in a non-trivial way. We show that policy measures such as tax reduction and detection of informal activities can be used as substitutes for border enforcement, in ...

  8. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... A step- wise model has been developed using ModelBuilder for selecting an economic but effective site for dumping mine waste using suitable constraints and criteria. This has facilitated the production of suitability maps generated from the various datasets being used for mine waste dump site selection.

  9. Leachate characterization of active and closed dump sites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... such as air, soil, surface and ground water. The knowledge of the composition of leachates is important to determine the dump sites that require immediate remediation attention and their effective treatment approach. This study characterizes the leachate quality of both active and closed dump sites in Port Harcourt City.

  10. 7 CFR 48.4 - Destroying or dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destroying or dumping. 48.4 Section 48.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... dumping. Any person receiving produce in interstate commerce or in the District of Columbia for or on...

  11. 7 CFR 46.23 - Evidence of dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of dumping. 46.23 Section 46.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Receivers § 46.23 Evidence of dumping. Reasonable cause for destroying any produce exists when the commodity...

  12. Bilge dump detection from SAR imagery using local binary patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, LW

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidental or deliberate bilge dumping presents a major threat to the sea ecosystem. We present a semi automatic approach to detect bilge dumping in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The approach consist of three main parts. Firstly, areas...

  13. METAL CONTAMINATION AT DUMP SITES IN MAKURDI, NIGERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 7-31ppm for lead and 0.5-3.5ppm for cadmium. The significant difference between result obtained for refuse dump sites and the forest soil indicates that refuse dump sites most probably represent point sources of metal contamination to nearby environment. This study also examined metal mobility with 0.1M HCI solution.

  14. 30 CFR 57.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 57.9301 Section 57.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 57.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices shall...

  15. 30 CFR 56.9301 - Dump site restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dump site restraints. 56.9301 Section 56.9301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... § 56.9301 Dump site restraints. Berms, bumper blocks, safety hooks, or similar impeding devices shall...

  16. Economic Mineral Potentials Of Tailing Dumps From Alluvial Mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several tonnes of mine tailing dumps abound in the alluvial tin mining areas of the Jos Plateau. These tailings are considered low in contents of cassiterite, columbite, tantalite, zircon and other minerals normally won from tin mining. Four of these dumps in ... Keywords:Jos Plateau, Alluvial, Tin mines, Tailings, Recovery.

  17. Mineralogy of Tailings Dump around Selebi Phikwe Nickel-Copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at mineralogically characterizing the tailings dump emanating from the mining and smelting of nickel-copper (Ni-Cu) at Selebi Phikwe, Botswana, Southern Africa. Samples of tailings dump around the Selebi Phikwe Ni-Cu plant were studied using petrographic microscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction ...

  18. The simple analytics of tobacco taxation with illegal supply

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Irvine; William Sims

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of tobacco excise taxes where legal and illegal supplies coexist. The government's objective is to minimize cigarettes smoked in the economy (or to maximize revenue or to minimize illegal activity). It reacts to a competitive illegal supply in an adjoining jurisdiction. A model of consumer choice is used to demonstrate how demand response to tax changes can yield counterintuitive results. While the model mimics the Canadian market, similar situations characteriz...

  19. The use of illegally gathered evidence in the criminal trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkić Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the illegally gathered evidence in Serbian criminal trial. The paper consists of three parts: 1 the general theory of admissibility of illegally gathered evidence; 2 rules of admissibility of evidence in relation to violation of the right to privacy; 3 rules of admissibility of evidence in relation to illegal interrogations. There is also conclusion. There are four aspects from which those problems are reviewed: constitutional rules, statutory rules, court jurisprudence and law theory.

  20. The accidental criminal: Using policy to curb illegal downloading

    OpenAIRE

    Doloswala, Kalika Navin; Dadich, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Illegal downloading is a multifaceted social issue. In addition to the loss of intellectual property and revenue for copyright-holders, it can implicate perpetrators into the criminal justice system. Despite legislative attempts to curb illegal downloading, lessons to date suggest these do little to reduce the activity. Drawing on psychological literature, this paper offers an innovative approach to address illegal downloading. Attribution theory argues that the activity might be moderated by...

  1. On the Macroeconomic and Welfare Effects of Illegal Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangbo

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the macroeconomic and welfare effects of illegal immigration on the native born within a dynamic general equilibrium framework with labor market frictions. A key feature of the model is that job competition is allowed for between domestic workers and illegal immigrants. We calibrate the model to match some key statistics of the postwar U.S. economy. The model predicts that in the long run illegal immigration is a boon, but the employment opportunities of domestic worke...

  2. Biofertilizers for the revegetation of coal overburden dumps top materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikhil, K. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Group

    2001-07-01

    Adding and improving nutrient status of overburden dump top material through biofertilizer for supporting vegetation and for sustainable spoil development, a pot experiment was conducted. In this, two bio-fertilizers namely bactin and phosphin in three doses were applied on overburden dump top material kept in pots growing two grass species. The growths were compared with control on dump and soil both. Results shows that overburden dump amended with bio-fertilizer at lowest dose have significant increase in growth over the control of dump material and soil in vetiver grass but failed to shows the same result in lemon grass. This may be due to different growth behaviour of the grasses. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Dumping syndrome following gastric bypass: validation of the dumping symptom rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, Anna; Olbers, Torsten; Näslund, Ingmar; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-06-01

    There is a lack of prevalent data for dumping syndrome (DS) and methods discriminating between different symptoms of the DS. A self-assessment questionnaire, the Dumping Symptom Rating Scale (DSRS), was developed. The aim was to measure the severity and frequency of nine dumping symptoms and to evaluate the construct validity of the DSRS. Pre- and 1 and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, 47 adults and 82 adolescents completed the DSRS. Cognitive interview was performed. Reliability and construct validity were tested. Effect sizes (ES) of changes were calculated. Patients found the questionnaire relevant. A high proportion of the respondents reported no symptoms affecting them negatively at all (floor effects). However, 12 % stated, quite severe, severe, or very severe problems regarding fatigue after meal and half of them were so tired that they needed to lie down. Nearly 7 % reported quite severe, severe, or very severe problems dominated by nausea and 6 % dominated by fainting esteem. The internal consistency reliability was adequate for both severity (0.81-0.86) and frequency (0.76-0.84) scales. ES were small, since some subjects experienced symptoms already preoperatively. Although most patients reported no or mild dumping symptoms 1 and 2 years after gastric bypass surgery, around 12 % had persistent symptoms, in particular, postprandial fatigue, and needed to lie down. Another 7 % had problems with nausea and 6 % had problems with fainting esteem. The DSRS is a reliable screening tool to identify these patients.

  4. Measuring and monitoring illegal use of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Michael C; Solomon, Jennifer N; Blank, Sara G

    2010-02-01

    Illegal use of natural resources is a threat to biodiversity globally, but research on illegal activities has methodological challenges. We examined 100 studies that empirically identify targeted resources, techniques used to procure resources illegally, locations of illegal activities, characteristics of typical violators, incentives driving illegal use of resources, magnitude of the problem of illegal use (e.g., quantities used), or frequency of illegal activity. We based our evaluation of the methods used in these studies on their ability to provide these empirical data, relative labor demands, training and technology requirements, and levels of uncontrollable bias. We evaluated eight different methods: law-enforcement records, indirect observation, self-reporting, direct observation, direct questioning, randomized response technique (a survey method designed to improve accuracy of responses to sensitive questions), forensics, and modeling. Different situations favored different methods, each with distinct advantages and limitations. Six context-specific factors-location of resource use (in situ vs. ex situ), budget, technology and training capacity, ease of detection of illegal activity, scope of illegal activity (limited vs. widespread), and researchers' willingness to accept bias in results-help narrow the choice of methods. Several methodological concerns applied to any study of illegal resource use: regular monitoring can detect trends; modeling can incorporate sampling error and data uncertainties; researchers must manage levels of bias that vary between methods; triangulation of results from multiple methods can improve accuracy. No method is a panacea, but a combination of techniques can help address the lack of data on illegal activity. Researchers empirically compared results from different methods in only four studies, and no one has compared more than two methods simultaneously. Conservation would benefit from more research focused on: methods

  5. Ospar ban tightens Gordian dumping knot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snieckus, D.

    1998-08-01

    Since the Ospar (Oslo-Paris convention) ruling which bans the dumping of large offshore steel structures at sea, the North Sea oil and gas industry is having to address the issue of how these extremely heavy and large structure can be brought ashore for recycling or final disposal, and how and by whom the estimated $20 billion cost of this route of decommissioning can be met. Of the existing 123 structures in the Ospar area, only 34 weigh more than the 10,000t cutoff criterion. Other decommissioning issues covered in this series of linked articles include an evaluation of abrasive cutting for severing conductors and piles and the possibility of reopening redundant shipyards as decommissioning centres for offshore platforms. (UK)

  6. Geothermal energy for copper dump leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    This report evaluates the possibility of using geothermal energy to heat a sulfuric acid leaching solution for the purpose of faster and more efficient copper recovery from copper-containing minerals. Experimental studies reported in the literature have shown that this technique can be economically feasible for the extraction of copper from low-grade dump ores. Its main advantage appears to be the considerable reduction in long-term leaching periods; it could also be less expensive than other conventional processing operations if an economical geothermal resource were provided. However, this process has some pitfalls which might restrict the extent of geothermal energy use. Nevertheless, the process is still technologically sound, especially if groundwaters are used directly in the leaching operation.

  7. Parables and Politics: Clergy Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Mary Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The passage of a stringent immigration law in Alabama in 2011 makes relevant the juxtaposition of clergy and congregant attitudes and behaviors toward illegal immigrants as related to Biblical teachings that require charity to aliens. In order to examine the relationship between religious attitudes and illegal immigration, approximately 426…

  8. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M.; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species. PMID:25136107

  9. Effects of adding illegal storeys to structural systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A series of amnesty laws for illegal buildings (and all unauthorized construction) is always on the agenda of ... ratios, storey drifts and natural periods of a legal building are calculated and the effects of illegal and legal ... most severe earthquake zone, the ground is soft and has deep alluvial layers with a high water table.

  10. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions | van Zyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although strictly speaking no analogy can be drawn between the charging provisions for income tax and VAT, it is clear that in the determination of the taxability of illegal income, the courts applied the principle of tax neutrality. In terms of the principle of tax neutrality, taxes are not concerned with the legality or illegality of a ...

  11. Creation and demolition of illegal structures in Nigerian cities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... many landlords in the city to restructure and convert their houses into mixed uses in order to make a living. In the process many illegal structures sprang up as many landlords were not enlightened enough on planning rules. The state government demolished the illegal structures in order to create room for the expansion ...

  12. Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    1 Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America • Michael P. Atkinson: Operations Research Department, Naval...2 Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America Abstract The US invests considerable effort in searching and interdicting drug...Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) employ both maritime and air conveyances and use a variety of vessel types to transport the drugs. Examples of maritime

  13. College Students' Moral Evaluations of Illegal Music Downloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, Marc M.; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Although unauthorized music downloading is illegal, a majority of college students have downloaded music for free online. Evaluations of illegal music downloading and their association with downloading behavior were examined using social domain theory in a sample of 188 ethnically diverse college students (M[subscript age] = 19.80 years, SD =…

  14. Illegal killing for ivory drives global decline in African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittemyer, George; Northrup, Joseph M; Blanc, Julian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Omondi, Patrick; Burnham, Kenneth P

    2014-09-09

    Illegal wildlife trade has reached alarming levels globally, extirpating populations of commercially valuable species. As a driver of biodiversity loss, quantifying illegal harvest is essential for conservation and sociopolitical affairs but notoriously difficult. Here we combine field-based carcass monitoring with fine-scale demographic data from an intensively studied wild African elephant population in Samburu, Kenya, to partition mortality into natural and illegal causes. We then expand our analytical framework to model illegal killing rates and population trends of elephants at regional and continental scales using carcass data collected by a Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species program. At the intensively monitored site, illegal killing increased markedly after 2008 and was correlated strongly with the local black market ivory price and increased seizures of ivory destined for China. More broadly, results from application to continental data indicated illegal killing levels were unsustainable for the species between 2010 and 2012, peaking to ∼ 8% in 2011 which extrapolates to ∼ 40,000 elephants illegally killed and a probable species reduction of ∼ 3% that year. Preliminary data from 2013 indicate overharvesting continued. In contrast to the rest of Africa, our analysis corroborates that Central African forest elephants experienced decline throughout the last decade. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of illegal ivory harvest to date and confirm that current ivory consumption is not sustainable. Further, our approach provides a powerful basis to determine cryptic mortality and gain understanding of the demography of at-risk species.

  15. Malaria clusters among illegal Chinese immigrants to Europe through Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoffi, Zeno; Matteelli, Alberto; Aquilini, Donatella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Magnani, Giacomo; Orlando, Giovanna; Gaiera, Giovanni; Jelinek, Tomas; Behrens, Ron H

    2003-09-01

    Between November 2002 and March 2003, 17 cases of malaria (1 fatal) were observed in illegal Chinese immigrants who traveled to Italy through Africa. A further cluster of 12 was reported in August, 2002. Several immigrants traveled by air, making the risk of introducing sudden acute respiratory syndrome a possibility should such illegal immigrations continue.

  16. Toward a Structural Analysis of Illegal (Undocumented) Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Alejandro

    1978-01-01

    In this introduction to a compilation of articles that examine different aspects of illegal immigration, the guest editor situates the articles in the present context of research and policy, summarizes some of the ideas common to all, and analyzes the significance of the current administration's plan to deal with the illegal flow. (Author/EB)

  17. 8 CFR 251.2 - Notification of illegal landings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States shall inform the immigration officer in charge of the port where the illegal landing... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of illegal landings. 251.2 Section 251.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ARRIVAL AND...

  18. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: Transcultural reliability and utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommundsen, R.; van der Veer, C.G.; van Le, H.; Krumov, K.; Larsen, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University

  19. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the High Court of Appeal ruled that income 'received by' a taxpayer from illegal gains will be taxable in the hands of the taxpayer. The question arises, however, whether the decision in the MP Finance case (and other preceding cases on illegal receipts) can also be applied to determine the output VAT liability of VAT ...

  20. SPIDER beam dump as diagnostic of the particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaupa, M., E-mail: matteo.zaupa@igi.cnr.it; Sartori, E. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Dalla Palma, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The beam power produced by the negative ion source for the production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma is mainly absorbed by the beam dump component which has been designed also for measuring the temperatures on the dumping panels for beam diagnostics. A finite element code has been developed to characterize, by thermo-hydraulic analysis, the sensitivity of the beam dump to the different beam parameters. The results prove the capability of diagnosing the beam divergence and the horizontal misalignment, while the entity of the halo fraction appears hardly detectable without considering the other foreseen diagnostics like tomography and beam emission spectroscopy.

  1. [Prevalence of early and late dumping after gastric bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héraïef, R; Giusti, V

    2014-03-26

    Gastric bypass surgery is an effective treatment of obesity, bringing a significant weight loss and a major improvement of carbohydrate profile. However, in some patients, a deregulation in carbohydrate metabolism between insulin secretion and sensitivity is observed, whereupon early and late dumping happen. Their prevalence isn't well studied, although it seems that 10 to 20% of patients are affected. We've studied a cohort of 70 patients who undergone gastric bypass surgery at the CHUV. 18 (25.7%) patients have a positive anamnesis for early dumping and 10 (14.3%) for late dumping, being it superior as what is described in the literature.

  2. Beam Dump TIDV #1 - Vacuum Failure of 17 Oct. 97

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    A vacuum leak on the internal beam dump TIDV precipitated its replacement in the LSS1 on Monday the 20th of October 1997, the SPS consequently being shut down for three days. The dump had fulfilled its design function since it was installed in the SPS at the beginning of 1988. Prior to the intervention, the Vacuum Group LHC/VAC carried out a number of leak tests, which led to the decision being taken to replace the dump. After the successful intervention, normal machine operation was resumed. Out-gassing of the ten-year-old replacement was initially high, but vacuum pressure is slowly descending to the SPS standard level.

  3. Illegal Pathways to Illegal Profits: The Big Cigarette Companies and International Smuggling

    OpenAIRE

    Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling takes place on a colossal scale. Each year approximately 400 billion cigarettes, or one-third of all legally exported cigarettes, end up illegally smuggled across international borders. Cigarettes are the world’s most widely smuggled legal consumer product. Based on company documents that use these terms, this report looks at the smuggling of cigarettes manufactured by British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and R.J. Reynolds Tobacco in four representati...

  4. 30 CFR 57.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps and...

  5. TCDQ-TCT retraction and losses during asynchronous beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Chiara; Quaranta, Elena; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the The protection provided by the TCDQs in case of asynchronous beam dump depends strongly on their correct setup. They have to respect the strict hierarchy of the full collimation system and shield the tertiary collimators in the experimental regions. This MD aimed at performing asynchronous beam dump tests with different configurations, in order to assess the minimum allowed retraction between TCTs and TCDQs and, as a consequence, on the β* reach.

  6. Dumping syndrome, a cause of acquired glycogenic hepatopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Jeffrey M; Zador, Ivan; Fish, Daryl L

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy, having undergone fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease and fed by gastrostomy, presented with recurrent emesis, syncope with hypoglycemia, and persistently elevated serum liver transaminase levels. Liver biopsy revealed hepatocellular glycogenosis by light and electron microscopy. Further evaluation showed no evidence of diabetes mellitus, glycogen storage disease, or corticosteroid use. Since the hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic state of dumping syndrome would provide a mechanism for hepatocellular glycogenosis, the biopsy findings prompted consideration of dumping syndrome. Metabolic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of dumping syndrome, and appropriate dietary management led to sustained resolution of symptomatology and hypertransaminasemia. Dumping syndrome is proposed to be a cause of hepatocellular glycogenosis, the latter representing a form of acquired glycogenic hepatopathy.

  7. CBP Active Dumping and Active Countervailing (AD/CVD) Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The datasets provide information from CBP's reference files on active anti-dumping and active countervailing cases. This data includes associated case numbers (if...

  8. Social dumping and the politics of scale in civil aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Charles Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the scalar nature of social dumping in civil aviation. Through the use of documents and interviews, this thesis investigates the labor strategies of Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA. This thesis has two goals. The first is to create a deeper understanding of the concept of social dumping, a concept which lacks a common definition or understanding in the literature. This thesis provides an overview of the concept, and also provides a scalar framework of so...

  9. Geoelectrical Evaluation of Waste Dump Sites at Warri and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existing waste dump sites in Delta State were investigated without soil disturbance by using the vertical electrical sounding (VES).The soil overlying the aquifer at Ovwian-Aladja dump site has resistively values, 11.84-85.50 Ohm-m, thicknesses,21.10-31.83m and at depths less than 1m, while at Warri it has resistively ...

  10. Results from the LHC Beam Dump Reliability Run

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Carlier, E; Castronuovo, F; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Goddard, B; Magnin, N; Verhagen, H

    2008-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System is one of the vital elements of the LHC Machine Protection System and has to operate reliably every time a beam dump request is made. Detailed dependability calculations have been made, resulting in expected rates for the different system failure modes. A 'reliability run' of the whole system, installed in its final configuration in the LHC, has been made to discover infant mortality problems and to compare the occurrence of the measured failure modes with their calculations.

  11. Pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of postoperative dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jan; Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; De Wulf, Dominiek; Bisschops, Raf

    2009-10-01

    Dumping syndrome is a frequent complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery. Rapid gastric emptying, with the delivery to the small intestine of a significant proportion of solid food as large particles that are difficult to digest, is a key event in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. This occurrence causes a shift of fluid from the intravascular component to the intestinal lumen, which results in cardiovascular symptoms, release of several gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones and late postprandial hypoglycemia. Early dumping symptoms comprise both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Late dumping symptoms are the result of reactive hypoglycemia. Besides the assessment of clinical alertness and endoscopic or radiological imaging, a modified oral glucose tolerance test might help to establish a diagnosis. The first step in treating dumping syndrome is the introduction of dietary measures. Acarbose can be added to these measures for patients with hypoglycemia, whereas several studies advocate guar gum or pectin to slow gastric emptying. Somatostatin analogs are the most effective medical therapy for dumping syndrome, and a slow-release preparation is the treatment of choice. In patients with treatment-refractory dumping syndrome, surgical reintervention or continuous enteral feeding can be considered, but the outcomes of such approaches are variable.

  12. Illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J G

    1994-01-01

    "This paper develops a general equilibrium framework of a two-sector economy which incorporates illegal immigration in the presence of labor unions. It demonstrates that stricter enforcement of immigration laws, by reducing the demand for or supply of illegal aliens, benefits all legal workers in the economy. The model is used to evaluate the impact of these policy changes on national income. Results indicate that national income does not necessarily fall when immigration controls are tightened. The existence of a union mitigates the negative welfare impact of a reduction in the number of illegal immigrants." excerpt

  13. The message of 187: facing up to illegal immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, P H

    1995-01-01

    The author makes the case that the adoption of Proposition 187, the anti-illegal immigrant initiative, in California in 1994 was "an expression of public frustration with a government and civil society that seem out of touch and out of control, and with external convulsions that our borders can no longer contain." He suggests that the general public is increasingly concerned about the services provided to illegal aliens and their costs, and that responsible leadership should admit that illegal immigration, even at current levels, is not an unmitigated evil, and be prepared to set and enforce immigration limits. excerpt

  14. Inhalation Exposure Method for Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Akiko; Ogata, Akio; Tada, Yukie; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ando, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kaihoko, Fujifumi; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Suzuki, Atsuko; Uemura, Nozomi; Moriyasu, Takako; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ishihara, Kei; Usami, Takashi; Kamei, Satoru; Kohno, Yasuaki

    2017-01-01

    We developed a new inhalation exposure method to evaluate effects of synthetic cannabimimetics that are being distributed as new, unregulated drugs in the Tokyo area. We selected the commercial product "SOUTOU" containing AB-CHMINACA and 5F-AMB as the test drug and dried marshmallow (Althaea officinalis) leaves as the negative control. A half cigarette packed with dried marshmallow leaves or SOUTOU was ignited, then mainstream smoke from each was delivered to five mice in an exposure box. After the cigarettes were fully consumed, neurobehavioral observations and a catalepsy test were performed at 15, 30 and 60 min after exposure. The effluent air from the exposure box was poured into impingers containing acetonitrile (first impinger) and dimethyl sulfoxide (second impinger). The resulting solutions were analyzed to assess decomposition of the synthetic cannabimimetics. Mice exposed to SOUTOU smoke showed many excitement behaviors and some suppressive behaviors at 15, 30 and 60 min. These clearly included cannabimimetic specific pharmacological actions. Negative control mice also showed some suppressive behaviors at 15 min but these were attenuated at later times, nearly disappearing at 60 min. In addition, the behavioral effects observed in controls were less pronounced than those in SOUTOU exposed mice. The inhalation exposure method developed in our study would be effective for determining cannabinoid specific pharmacological effects of illegal drugs, as well as for assessing the presence of active compound(s) by comparing the test substance with a negative control.

  15. Injury Patterns Among Illegal Migrants from Africa in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Amotz; Radomislensky, Irina; Peleg, Kobi

    2015-08-01

    In recent years Israel has become a destination for many migrants from Africa that illegally cross the Egyptian-Israeli border. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of injuries among illegal migrants in Israel. The study was carried out retrospectively using data from 19 trauma centers that participated in the Israel National Trauma Registry between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2011. Illegal migrants from Africa were compared to the local population. Migrants were injured more often than the local population from intentional injuries (57.11 %). Migrants were also less likely than the local population (58.38 %) to sustain a minor injury (i.e., injury severity ≤8). The study also shows the hospitalization cost as a result of injuries among migrants from Africa. Preventive measures among illegal migrants from Africa should prioritize intentional injuries and industrial site injuries.

  16. Impact assessment of illegal small scale mining on construction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bogoso-Ayanfuri Highway in Ghana. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... The impact assessment presented in this paper reveals the negative effects of illegal mining on the road constructi-on project; particularly, project delivery ...

  17. Illegal markets, human trade and transnational organised crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author explores, focusing largely on the example of the Balkans, the connection between the expansion of neoliberal market economy and war, and related to it the growth of illegal markets and the shadow economy, on one hand, and the victimisation by human trafficking, on the other. By locating human trade within expanding local and global illegal markets, the author is arguing that, without taking into consideration wider social contexts, which create structural incentives for illegal markets and transnational organised crime, we can hardly understand the causes, let alone build effective strategies to combat and prevent it. Consequently, on the basis of the analyses of human trade as a form of both transnational organised crime and illegal markets, some strategies (short-term and long-term for the prevention and control of human trafficking on both the micro and macro level are suggested.

  18. Becoming less illegal: deservingness frames and undocumented migrant incorporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chauvin, S.; Garcés-Mascareñas, B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, research on unauthorized migration has departed from the equation of migrant illegality with absolute exclusion, emphasizing that formal exclusion typically results in subordinate inclusion. Irregular migrants integrate through informal support networks, the underground

  19. Illegal Immigration: Is It a Threat To National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, III, Luther B

    2006-01-01

    .... borders without benefit of government oversight or control. On the positive side illegal immigrants provided pools of unskilled and semi-skilled labor to fuel growth in the American service-based economy over the last fifteen years...

  20. Modelling reactive transport in a phosphogypsum dump, Venezia, Italia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcara, Massimo; Borgia, Andrea; Cattaneo, Laura; Bartolo, Sergio; Clemente, Gianni; Glauco Amoroso, Carlo; Lo Re, Fabio; Tozzato, Elena

    2013-04-01

    We develop a reactive-transport porous media flow model for a phosphogypsum dump located on the intertidal deposits of the Venetian Lagoon: 1. we construct a complex conceptual and geologic model from field data using the GMS™ graphical user interface; 2. the geological model is mapped onto a rectangular MODFLOW grid; 3. using the TMT2 FORTRAN90 code we translate this grid into the MESH, INCON and GENER input files for the TOUGH2 series of codes; 4. we run TOUGH-REACT to model flow and reactive transport in the dump and the sediments below it. The model includes 3 different dump materials (phosphogypsum, bituminous and hazardous wastes) with the pores saturated by specific fluids. The sediments below the dump are formed by an intertidal sequence of calcareous sands and silts, in addition to clays and organic deposits, all of which are initially saturated with lagoon salty waters. The recharge rain-water dilutes the dump fluids. In turn, the percolates from the dump react with the underlying sediments and the sea water that saturates them. Simulation results have been compared with chemical sampled analyses. In fact, in spite of the simplicity of our model we are able to show how the pH becomes neutral at a short distance below the dump, a fact observed during aquifer monitoring. The spatial and temporal evolution of dissolution and precipitation reactions occur in our model much alike reality. Mobility of some elements, such as divalent iron, are reduced by specific and concurrent conditions of pH from near-neutrality to moderately high values and positive redox potential; opposite conditions favour mobility of potentially toxic metals such as Cr, As Cd and Pb. Vertical movement are predominant. Trend should be therefore heavily influenced by pH and Eh values. If conditions are favourable to mobility, concentration of these substances in the bottom strata could be high. However, simulation suggest that the sediments tend to reduce the transport potential of

  1. Zimbabwean mine dumps and their impacts on river water quality a reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, Maideyi; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin

    Zimbabwe has a substantial number of mines and 67 minerals have been mined in the country since 1900 but at present only 30 different minerals are being mined. Exploitation of a variety of ores, in rocks of diverse composition, provides the potential for a range of pollution problems. The severity and extent of contamination differs with the type of minerals mined. This paper presents part of the results of a broad study, carried out across Zimbabwe, which assessed the potential of different mine tailings dumps to cause environmental problems. The dumps considered in the study were divided into six dump types, namely: gold-mine dumps, base-metal mine dumps (dumps associated with the mining of nickel, zinc, copper and lead), minor-metals mine dumps (dumps associated with mining of antimony, arsenic, and selenium), platinum-group metal mine dumps, chromite and asbestos mine dumps, and sulphur (pyrite) mine dumps. The elemental chemistry of the dumps and physical characteristics (pH, total dissolved solids) of the dumps, tailings’ leachates, and stream waters around the dumps were used to assess the potential of the dumps to pollute water bodies. Samples were collected in both the dry and wet seasons. The dispersion and pollution patterns were derived from Eh-pH conditions around the dumps after considering the mobility of the elements present in these dumps under different Eh-pH conditions. In this paper potential to pollute is considered as the likelihood of the elements to disperse under the prevailing conditions at the dump. The concentrations of elements, type of elements and the potential dispersion and pollution patterns from each dump were used to characterise potential risk of water pollution associated with the different dump types. The results showed a slight increase in concentrations of most elements studied in downstream waters compared to upstream waters. The dump conditions varied from acidic to alkaline, and so the elements studied have different

  2. Perception of illegal practice of medicine by Brazilian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Herbas, Suzana; Lisboa, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah; Menezes, Marta

    2014-06-01

    Illegal practice of medicine by medical students is a worldwide problem. In Brazil, information about this issue is scarce. To describe the perception of illegal practice of medicine by medical students. A cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 130 medical students in the 6th to 12th semesters from a private faculty of medicine in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil, from September to October 2011. Students responded to a standardised questionnaire about the illegal practice of medicine by medical students. Knowing medical students who practised medical activities without supervision was reported by 86% of the respondents, and 93.8% had heard about someone who performed such practices. Medical specialties most often associated with illegal practice were general medicine (78.8%) and occupational health (55.9%). Illegal practice of medicine was more common in peripheral cities/towns (83.9%) than in the State capital, Salvador City (52.4%). Only 10.5% of illegal activities were reported to the authorities. Unsupervised medical practice was more often reported in the 8th-9th semester (56.8%) and 10th-11th semester (54.4%) of medical school. Illegal practice of medicine was commonly reported by the medical students questioned. The high frequency of reported illegal practice for financial reasons highlights the need for greater availability of paid internships for medical students. Educational institutions represent the social control responsible for supervising the activities of academics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Characteristics of illegal and legal cigarette packs sold in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Arevalo, Rodrigo; Corral, Juan E.; Monzon, Diego; Yoon, Mira; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Background Guatemala, as a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is required to regulate cigarette packaging and labeling and eliminate illicit tobacco trade. Current packaging and labeling characteristics (of legal and illegal cigarettes) and their compliance with the FCTC is unknown. Methods We sought to analyze package and label characteristics of illegal and legal cigarettes sold in Guatemala. We visited the 22 largest traditional markets in the country to purchase ...

  4. Self-Interested Governments, Unionization, and Legal and Illegal Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Tapio Palokangas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines an economy with following properties. Attempts to restrain illegal immigration incur costs. Illegal workers can work only in the competitive sector. Workers and employers bargain over wages in the unionized sector and lobby the government for immigration policy and workers’ bargaining power. The main findings are as follows. If the government can determine legal immigration, then it expropriates rents from labor unions. In that case, neither workers nor employers are worse...

  5. Hepatotoxicity of illegal home-made alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökce, Hasan; Akcan, Ramazan; Celikel, Adnan; Zeren, Cem; Ortanca, Ibrahim; Demirkiran, Sumeyra

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol-related hepatotoxicity is not only caused by excessive alcohol consumption but also caused and even accelerated by hepatotoxic ingredients other than ethanol. Concentrations of hepatotoxic substances might be significantly high, particularly in illegally produced home-made alcohols. In this study we aim to analyze the hepatotoxic effects of a home-made alcohol traditionally called "bogma raki" in Turkey. Fifty Wistar albino male rats were used. Five groups were randomly formed with ten animals in each. Besides laboratory diets, groups were fed as follows: Group 1 (control group) distilled water; Group 2 bogma raki with distilled water (%44 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day); Group 3 bogma raki with distilled water (%44 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day)+walnut (10 g/kg/day); Group 4 whisky with distilled water (%40 (v/v), 9.2 ml/kg/day); Group 5 distilled water + walnut (10 g/kg/day), for 28 days. The toxicological analysis of The spirits were analyzed using Hewlett-Packard (Palo Alto, CA) GC/MS system with HP 6890 gas chromatograph, an HP 5972 mass selective detector (MSD) and an HP 6890 automatic liquid sampler GC/MS; the pressure of the carrier gas helium was 6.0 bar and the split value with a ratio of 1:100. The injection unit temperature set to 250 °C and MS quadrupole temperature set to 280 °C. The MS quadrupole detector ionization energy set to 70 eV. The initial column temperature was 60 °C (for 4 min) programmed by 6 °C/min to final temperature 160 °C and kept for 8 min at 160 °C. Utilized whisky and bogma raki samples were analyzed for the amounts of trans-anethole, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanolol, butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanolol (isobutanol) and 3-methylbutanol (isoamyl alcohol). Histopathological changes in liver tissues were graded as follows; normal = 0 (moderate = 2 (40%-70%), severe = 3 (above 70%). Chemical composition of illegally produced raki sample (%v/v) was as follows: trans-anethole %1.93, ethanol %95.70, 2-methyl-1

  6. The Value Added Tax Implications of Illegal Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP van Zyl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of MP Finance Group CC (In Liquidation v CSARS the High Court of Appeal ruled that income "received by" a taxpayer from illegal gains will be taxable in the hands of the taxpayer. This article explores whether or not the decision in the MP Finance-case (and preceding cases on the taxation of illegal receipts can be applied to determine if illegal transactions are subject to VAT and moreover if a trader in illegal goods and services should register as a VAT vendor. Although strictly speaking no analogy can be drawn between the charging provisions for income tax and VAT, it is clear that in the determination of the taxability of illegal income, the courts applied the principle of tax neutrality. In terms of the principle of tax neutrality, taxes are not concerned with the legality or illegality of a transaction, but rather with whether the transaction complies with the requirements for it to be taxed or not. That said, the European Court of Justice has a different approach in applying this principle. According to the European Court of Justice where the intrinsic nature of the goods excludes it from the commercial arena (like narcotic drugs it should not be subject to VAT, but where the goods compete with a legal market it must be subject to VAT. Charging VAT on illegal transactions might give the impression that government benefits from criminal activities. However, if illegal transactions are not subject to VAT the trader in illegal goods will benefit as his products will be 14% cheaper than his rival’s. Is this necessarily a moral dilemma? In conclusion three arguments can be deduced on the question if illegal transactions should be subject to VAT:1. Illegal transactions should not be taxed at all. Illegal goods or services fall outside the sphere of the application of the charging provision in section 7(1 of the VAT Act. Moreover, taxing illegal transactions lends a quasi-validity to the contract and gives the impression that

  7. US Labor Demand: a Discourse Analysis on the â Hidden Forceâ behind Illegal Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jeffrey T.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant ideology within the illegal immigration discourse in the US primarily faults illegal workers for the problem by highlighting the act of illegally entering the US as the origin of the problem. As the dominant ideology goes, illegal immigrants evade law enforcement at the border; they deceive employers to secure work. They disrupt labor markets by lowering wages which displaces lower class US workers. The illegal immigrants and their families abuse social services that they do no...

  8. Rational Addiction and Smoking when there are Legal and Illegal Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria

    2000-01-01

    We propose an extension of the often used rational addiction model. Our model includes both legal and illegal cigarettes. The model is tested on a Swedish data set covering the aggregate legal and illegal cigarette markets. When we treat legal and illegal cigarettes as independent demand equations, we find no addiction, but rationality for legal cigarettes, and rational addiction for illegal cigarettes. Since the demand for legal and illegal cigarettes is probably best considered as simultane...

  9. 76 FR 68809 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp and... calculated margins of dumping by ``zeroing'' so-called ``negative dumping margins.'' Based on the use of...

  10. Upgrade of the LHC Beam Dumping Protection Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Balhan, B; Borburgh, J; Goddard, B; Maglioni, C; Versaci, R

    2012-01-01

    The Beam Dumping System for the Large Hadron Collider comprises for each ring a set of horizontally deflecting extraction kicker magnets, vertically deflecting steel septa, dilution kickers and finally, a couple of hundred meters further downstream, an absorber block. A mobile diluter (TCDQ) protects the superconducting quadrupole immediately downstream of the extraction as well as the arc at injection energy and the triplet aperture at top energy from bunches with small impact parameters, in case of a beam dump that is not synchronized with the particle free gap or a spontaneous firing of the extraction kickers. Simulations have shown that an asynchronous dump of a 7 TeV nominal beam into the TCDQ absorber blocks could damage it. This paper describes the proposed changes to this device in order to maintain the protection for the downstream elements while reducing the risk of damaging the TCDQ in case of such a beam loss.

  11. Early dumping syndrome and reflux esophagitis prevention with pouch reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikic, Srdjan; Randjelovic, Tomislav; Dragojevic, Svetlana; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Granic, Miroslav; Gacic, Dragan; Zdravkovic, Darko; Stefanovic, Branislav; Djokovic, Aleksandra; Pazin, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    Total gastrectomy causes numerous disorders, such as reflux esophagitis, dumping syndrome, malabsorption, and malnutrition. To minimize the consequences, different variants of reconstruction are performed. The aim of our study is the comparison of two reconstructive methods: the standard Roux-en-Y and a new modality of pouch interposition, preduodenal-pouch interposition. This study aims to investigate the advantage of bile reflux prevention and to reduce symptoms of dumping syndrome after 3- and 6-mo follow-up. A total of 60 patients were divided in two groups: (A) 30 patients with Roux-en-Y reconstruction, and (B) 30 patients with the preduodenal-pouch (PDP) type of reconstruction. Endoscopic examination and endoluminal jejunal limb pressure measurements were performed. Scintigraphic measurements of half-emptying time were performed to evaluate meal elimination in the context of reflux esophagitis and early dumping syndrome. The Japan Society of Gastrointestinal Surgery has provided guidelines with which to classify the symptoms of early dumping syndrome. Patients were followed up for periods of 3 and 6 mo after the surgery. Our study groups did not differ with regard to the level of reflux esophagitis (P = 0.688). Average values of pressure at 10 and 15 cm below the esophago-jejunal junction were significantly lower in the PDP group (P dumping syndrome symptoms revealed a significant reduction among PDP patients after 3 and 6 mo. Our study showed significant superiority of the new pouch reconstruction over the standard Roux-en-Y approach in the treatment of early dumping syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytoremediation of spoil coal dumps in Western Donbass (Ukraine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Kharytonov, Mykola; Wiche, Oliver; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2017-04-01

    At the moment, in Ukraine about 150 thousand hectares of fertile land are occupied by spoil dumps. Moreover, this figure increases every year. According to the technology used about 1500 m3 of adjacent stratum is dumped at the surface per every 1000 tons of coal mined. Apart from land amortization, waste dumps drastically change the natural landscape and pollute air, soil and water sources as the result of water and wind erosion, as well as self-ignition processes. A serious concern exists with respect to the Western Donbass coal mining region in Ukraine, where the coal extraction is made by the subsurface way and solid wastes are represented by both spoil dumps and wastes after coal processing. Sulphides, mostly pyrite (up to 4% of waste material), are widely distributed in the waste heaps freshly removed due to coal mining in Western Donbass.The oxidation of pyrite with the presence of oxygen and water is accompanied by a sharp drop in the pH from the surface layer to the spoil dumps(from 5.2-6.2 to 3.9-4.2 in soil substrates with chernozen and from 8.3-8.4 to 6.7-7.2 in soil substrates with red-brown clay, stabilizing in dump material in both cases at 2.9-3.2). Low pH generates the transformation of a number of toxic metals and other elementspresent in waste rock (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Mo, Co, As, Cd, Bi, Pb, U) into mobile forms. To stabilize and reduce metal mobility the most resistant plants that occur naturally in specified ecosystems can be used. On coal spoil dumpsin Western Donbas the dominant species are Bromopsis inermis, subdominant Artemisia austriaca; widespread are also Festucas pp., Lathyrus tuberosus, Inula sp., Calamagrostis epigeios, Lotus ucrainicus, and Vicias pp. Identification of plants tolerant to target metals is a key issue in phytotechnology for soil restoration. It is hypothesized that naturally occurring plants growing on coal spoil dumps can be candidates for phytostabilization, phytoextraction (phytoaccumulation) and phytomining

  13. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...... using data on anti-dumping from the Global Antidumping Database and US data at the 6-digit HS product level for the elasticity of substitution from Broda and Weinstein (Q J Econ 121(2):541–585, 2006). The results in our empirical investigation support a negative relation between the elasticity...

  14. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF GOLD-ORE DUMP REPROCESSING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Samsonov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An economic projection is presented in the paper on the heap leaching technology for extracting a residual gold from the gold-ore dumps accumulated at the exploited or closed gold mines. A brief analysis is performed on the legal status of use this source of raw materials, availability and efficiency of the heap leaching method are reviewed, and the potential users of this method are assessed. An investment plan is created for involving anthropogenic dumps of gold-raw materials at one of the ore deposits in Siberia (heap complex of the North-Western flank of the Sovetskoye minefield, Krasnoyarsk region, North-Yenisey area.

  15. Illegal Serbian Structures in the Republic of Kosovo Why these structures are illegal and not paralel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar Selimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Serb structures, operating in Kosovo after the forced withdrawal under NATO intervention of Serb-Yugoslav mechanisms of power from Kosovo in June 1999 which marks the end of the war and at the same time the beginning of a new process of peace building, do not represent parallel structures, rather they represent illegal structures. This paper argues that these kinds of structures achieved to be established and being continuesly strengthened due to multi-dimensional support of the Republic of Serbia which for its interest needed them to undermine the establishment of functional governance overall in Kosovo but predominantly in the Serb enclaves, and also due to UN Interim Administration in Kosovo which’s main interest was peace and stability not functionality of governance. In this paper, it is also argued that these Serb structures do not represent the majority of Serbs living in Kosovo because they are incorporated into the constitutional institutions of the Rrepublic of Kosovo. Through comparing main domestic and international documents by which UN Interim Administration and National Institutions of Governance were established and also data gathered in the field through different reports, this paper concludes that: these structures are unconstitutional structures, and therefore illegal, rather than parallel structures; consideration of them as parallel by UN Interim Administration was a mistake which negatively affected integration, development, and democratization of a part of the Serbian community in Kosovo’s northern municipalities; they are also supported by criminal structures which seriously impede the exercise of state power, the legal system, and the development of democracy predominantly in the northern part of Kosovo; and beside of political and diplomatic efforts, a state organized force with an international support is the only answer to criminal structures.

  16. Technogenic Rock Dumps Physical Properties' Prognosis via Results of the Structure Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Sergey; Martyanov, Victor; Preis, Elena; Abay, Asmelash

    2017-11-01

    Understanding of internal structure of the technogenic rock dumps (gob dumps) is required condition for estimation of using ones as filtration massifs for treatment of mine wastewater. Internal structure of gob piles greatly depends on dumping technology to applying restrictions for use them as filtration massifs. Numerical modelling of gob dumps allows adequately estimate them physical parameters, as a filtration coefficient, density, etc. The gob dumps numerical modelling results given in this article, in particular was examined grain size distribution of determined fractions depend on dump height. Shown, that filtration coefficient is in a nonlinear dependence on amount of several fractions of rock in gob dump. The numerical model adequacy both the gob structure and the dependence of filtration coefficient from gob height acknowledged equality of calculated and real filtration coefficient values. The results of this research can be apply to peripheral dumping technology.

  17. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Kelvin; Jørgensen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet......Evaluering af, om de politiske intentioner med indsats mod social dumping i Københavns Kommune er blevet indfriet...

  18. Technogenic Rock Dumps Physical Properties' Prognosis via Results of the Structure Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of internal structure of the technogenic rock dumps (gob dumps is required condition for estimation of using ones as filtration massifs for treatment of mine wastewater. Internal structure of gob piles greatly depends on dumping technology to applying restrictions for use them as filtration massifs. Numerical modelling of gob dumps allows adequately estimate them physical parameters, as a filtration coefficient, density, etc. The gob dumps numerical modelling results given in this article, in particular was examined grain size distribution of determined fractions depend on dump height. Shown, that filtration coefficient is in a nonlinear dependence on amount of several fractions of rock in gob dump. The numerical model adequacy both the gob structure and the dependence of filtration coefficient from gob height acknowledged equality of calculated and real filtration coefficient values. The results of this research can be apply to peripheral dumping technology.

  19. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  20. Illegal Migration and Human Smuggling in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Futo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The analytical and statistical services of border management organizations in Central and Eastern European countries have registered and accumulated a vast body of knowledge on the demographics and mechanisms of illegal migration over the last one-and-a-half decade. This paper attempts to tap this resource by summarising the results of a yearly survey among border guards of 17 countries. A set of quantitative indicators of illegal migration is developed, presented and interpreted, based on the answers of the border services to a series of quantitative and qualitative questions. This empirical material is used to evaluate the dynamics and pattern of illegal migration in Central and Eastern Europe on the one hand, and to examine the development of border management strategies on the other. The impacts of legal and institutional reforms are investigated in light of the temporal and spatial variations of border apprehension statistics. The interdependence of the two processes is reviewed from the point of view of national border management authorities, perhaps the most authoritative source of information on the issue. The results of the authors’ annual survey indicate that the progressive development of migration control mechanisms at national and international levels seems to have a significant impact on irregular migration flows as most indicators of illegal migration have significantly decreased after the turn of the century. At the same time, the geographical distribution of illegal migration flows in Central and Eastern European countries has become more complex over the years.

  1. 76 FR 52045 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Diamond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures... (``WTO Agreement'') concerning anti-dumping measures regarding diamond sawblades and parts thereof from... request dated February 28, 2001 regarding anti-dumping measures on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...

  2. Dumping syndrome after esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery : pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, A. P.; Emous, M.; Laville, Maurice; Tack, Johannes

    Background: Dumping syndrome, a common complication of esophageal, gastric or bariatric surgery, includes early and late dumping symptoms. Early dumping occurs within 1 h after eating, when rapid emptying of food into the small intestine triggers rapid fluid shifts into the intestinal lumen and

  3. 77 FR 19745 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States; Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States; Anti- Dumping Measures... order would be likely to lead to the continuation or recurrence of dumping, Certain Frozen Warmwater... methodology for determining margins of dumping in administrative reviews; (8) the practice of requiring...

  4. 75 FR 33708 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... typographical error in the Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal... amended by revising paragraphs (n)(3) and (n)(4) to read as follows: Sec. 228.15 Dumping sites designated...

  5. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086. Form...

  6. 75 FR 36106 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This is a proposed.... Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB...

  7. 78 FR 36560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). This request for... concerning the following information collection: Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset...

  8. 78 FR 55280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (ADPs). This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic...

  9. 76 FR 5518 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings AGENCY: Import... regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate in... regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment rate in...

  10. 75 FR 81533 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Weighted Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings AGENCY: Import... comments regarding the calculation of the weighted average dumping margin and antidumping duty assessment... calculated the weighted average margins of dumping using transaction-to-transaction comparisons, the...

  11. 77 FR 8101 - Antidumping Proceedings: Calculation of the Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Weighted-Average Dumping Margin and Assessment Rate in Certain Antidumping Duty Proceedings; Final... its methodology regarding the calculation of the weighted-average dumping margins and antidumping duty... for Reviews, the Department will calculate weighted- average margins of dumping and antidumping duty...

  12. Determination of heavy metals in soils from dump site of tanneries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals were determined in soil samples at the dump site, Challawa town, Karfi Irrigation site and farmlands near the dump site by flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that soil at the dump site contains significant amount of toxic elements. Hence remediation processes were ...

  13. Effects of an open Waste dump-site on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the quality of groundwater around an open dump-site was carried out using borehole water samples collected from two points each, close to the dump-site and a ... The dump-site can be said to have had effects on its surrounding groundwater with, increased levels of iron, THC, Nitrate, coliform, and EC.

  14. 7 CFR 58.228 - Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. 58.228... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.228 Dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors. The product contact surfaces of dump hoppers, screens, mixers and conveyors which are used in the process of transferring dry...

  15. Scope of illegal tobacco products sales in Kazan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananjeva, G.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilot assessment of illegal tobacco sales was conducted in Kazan city. The revealed law violations include placement of tobacco sales points within 100 meters around educational institutions, single cigarette sales and cigarette sales to minors. Single cigarettes were more likely to be sold in two of five types of sales outlets – pavilions and kiosks, those placed closer to educational institutions, and where larger part of the storefront was dedicated to cigarette packs. Points of sales with similar characteristics were more likely to sell to minors as well. Placement of notes regarding ban of cigarette sales to minors does not influence the levels of illegal sales. Measures to curb the levels of illegal cigarette sales were recommended. (Full text is in Russian

  16. Insect vectors of pathogens in selected undisposed refuse dumps in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence and abundance of these vectors suggests that vector-borne disease transmission is prevalent in Kaduna metropolis. The health implications of the presence of these insects and their role in disease transmission are highlighted. Proper disposal of refuse dumps is recommended to avoid public health ...

  17. Environmental assessments of sea dumped chemical warfare agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderson, Hans; Fauser, Patrik

    This is a report on the information gathered during work related to sea dumped chemical warfare agents. It mainly reviews the work conducted in relation to the installation of the two Nord Stream gas pipeline from 2008-2012. The focus was on the weight-of-evidence risk assessment of disturbed CWA...

  18. [Severe hypoglycaemia and dumping syndrome after bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Joan Bach; Møller, Dorthe; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2014-04-22

    In parallel with the increasing incidence of obesity there has been an increase in the number of bariatric surgery procedures performed, and as a consequence we have seen an increasing prevalence of medical and nutritional complications in recent years. Some of the important complications are dumping syndrome and reactive hypoglycaemia, and these conditions are described in this case report.

  19. Post-Fundoplication Dumping Syndrome: A Frequent "Rare" Complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Rahul; Linn, Sandar; Malik, Zubair; Abbas, Abbas E; Parkman, Henry; Schey, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Gastroparesis, caused by delayed emptying of the stomach, has been shown to be associated with Nissen fundoplication. However, symptomatic rapid emptying of the stomach is rare after Nissen fundoplication, and its treatment is often challenging. We report 2 patients with dumping-like syndrome post-fundoplication with marked improvement of symptoms after dietary management and medical treatment.

  20. Sperm dumping as a defense against meiotic drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Tom; Lewis, Zenobia; Wedell, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sperm from Drosophila simulans that carry a sex-ratio distorter is preferentially lost from females' sperm-storage organs. This suggests that sperm dumping is a major factor affecting sperm competition in this species, and may have evolved in response to sex-ratio distorters. PMID:19216726

  1. Selecting Suitable Sites for Mine Waste Dumps Using GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research used the ModelBuilder tool and several GIS spatial analyst tools to select suitable sites for mine waste dump. The weighted overlay technique was adopted by first determining the necessary criteria and constraints and subsequently developing attributes for each criterion. The criteria used were grouped into a ...

  2. Results of evaluation of tailing dumps dust intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masloboev V. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A set of most acceptable and well-known methods of dust intensity evaluation has been defined and tested (dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme based on the analysis of exiting approaches (deserts, tailing dumps, etc.. The description of the chosen methods has been given. The determination of dynamic velocity u* and velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface u10 which are necessary to evaluate the dust intensity has been demonstrated. The method is based on two-dimensional numerical model of atmosphere aerodynamics in the area of "tailing dumps of ANOF-2 ‒ the town of Apatity". The study provides calculations of horizontal velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface at the wind speed varying from 5 to 23 m/sec. The work also suggests the results of graphical data processing related to tailing grain size distribution from the surface of the firmly established surface of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2. Comparative analysis has been given and the peculiarities of interval (based on grains sizes dust intensity of the tailing dumps of ANOF-2 have been shown using the dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme within the wind speed range. The received values of dust intensity at the lower range limit are close to the "maximum specific dust off" value which is used by project specialists for documentation development

  3. Effect of Waste Dumps on Groundwater in Choba using Geophysical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquire data in two locations namely; at the dumpsite and at University Demonstration Secondary School adjudged to be free from dumps which served as a control. The result of the survey interpreted by 1P12 win and offix softwares shows two characteristic curve types: - Type A curve at the dumpsite and Type H curve at ...

  4. 45 CFR 152.28 - Preventing insurer dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-EXISTING CONDITION INSURANCE PLAN PROGRAM Oversight § 152.28 Preventing insurer dumping. (a) General rule... any medical expenses incurred by the PCIP with respect to the individual. (b) Procedures and criteria... will be billed for the medical expenses incurred by the PCIP. The issuer or group health plan also will...

  5. Extraction of Gold from Dump Material by Agitation | Stoyanov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of poor extraction of gold from slimes a new approach-mechanical agitation of dump material was explored. Several tests have been done. In the agitation test work the following parameters have been investigated: impeller speed; cyanide concentration; CaO concentration; liquid-solid ratio; lead nitrate dosage ...

  6. Particulate Matter and Noise Impact Studies of Waste Rock Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adansi Gold Company Limited identified an economically viable gold deposit at Nkran in the Amansie West District of Ghana. Mining of this deposit requires the disposal of waste rock materials at a proposed waste rock dump near Nkran and Koninase communities. Since particulates and noise emissions from the ...

  7. Baby dumping and evolving baby factories in Nigeria: their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baby dumping and evolving baby factories in Nigeria: their implication for child right and social protection. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... a society-based approach which involves a thorough overhaul of our rigid social orientation which will create room for a conducive environment for child rights and social ...

  8. Acid Mine Drainage Potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) potential of the Coral Snake Waste Dump located close to the Enkansu and Kaw streams in Obuasi. Ten water and fifty rock samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) determinations using static methods were employed to ...

  9. Studies on Municipal Solid Wastes Dumping on Soil Anions, Cations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly dumpsite soil nitrate level, percentage organic carbon, organic matter, sulphate and phosphate ions were significantly (P<0.05) increased with increased waste dumping. All the exchangeable cations and trace metals concentrations investigated were higher (P<0.05) than control levels. However, while the ...

  10. On financing the internal enforcement of illegal immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, G A; Tenorio, R

    1996-02-01

    "We introduce a government budget constraint into an illegal immigration model, and show that the effect of increasing internal enforcement of immigration laws on the host country's disposable national income depends on the mix of employer fines and income taxation used to finance the added enforcement. These issues are addressed under alternative assumptions about (a) the ability of host country employers to discern between legal and illegal workers, and (b) host country labor market conditions. Empirical evidence for the United States indicates that the employer sanctions program may have had a negative impact on disposable national income." excerpt

  11. Developing attitude statements toward illegal immigration: transcultural reliability and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommundsen, Reidar; van der Veer, Kees; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Larsen, Knud S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report on the utility of a scale measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in two samples from nations that have more people moving out of the country than moving into the country. The Attitude toward Illegal Immigrants Scale was administered to 219 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria, and 179 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam. Results yielded a scale with no sex differences, and acceptable alpha coefficients. Item analysis identified the most contributory and least contributory items, with considerable overlap in the two samples. A principal component analysis with varimax rotation was carried out to examine the structure.

  12. Egg forensics: an appraisal of DNA sequencing to assist in species identification of illegally smuggled eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Megan L; White, Nicole E; Parkinson, Liza; Haile, James; Spencer, Peter B S; Bunce, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Psittaciformes (parrots and cockatoos) are charismatic birds, their plumage and capacity for learning make them highly sought after pets. The illegal trade in parrots and cockatoos poses a serious threat to the viability of native populations; in addition, species transported to non-endemic areas may potentially vector disease and genetically 'pollute' local native avifauna. To reduce the logistical difficulties associated with trafficking live birds, smugglers often transport eggs. This creates a problem for authorities in elucidating accurate species identification without the laborious task of incubation and hand rearing until a morphological identification can be made. Here, we use 99 avian eggs seized from carriers coming into and within Australia, as a result of suspected illegal trade. We investigate and evaluate the use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to accurately identify eggs to family, genus or species level. However, Identification of a species based on percentage mtDNA similarities is difficult without good representations of the inter- and intra-levels of species variation. Based on the available reference database, we were able to identify 52% of the eggs to species level. Of those, 10 species from eight genera were detected, all of which belong to the parrot (Psittacidae) and cockatoo (Cacatuidae) families. Of the remaining 48%, a further 36% of eggs were identified to genus level, and 12% identified to family level using our assignment criteria. Clearly the lack of validated DNA reference sequences is hindering our ability to accurately assign a species identity, and accordingly, we advocate that more attention needs to be paid to establishing validated, multi locus mtDNA reference databases for exotic birds that can both assist in genetic identifications and withstand legal scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Database Dump - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us fRNAdb Database Dump Data detail Data name Database Dump DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00452-002 De... data (tab separeted text) Data file File name: Database_Dump File URL: ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/frnadb/LATEST/Database_Dump File size: 673 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition...s. Data analysis method - Number of data entries 4 files - About This Database Database Description Download... License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Database Dump - fRNAdb | LSDB Archive ...

  14. Large-scale investigation into dumping syndrome after gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, Shinji; Sano, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Kenji; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Ehara, Kazuhisa; Saka, Makoto; Hara, Kazuo; Fukagawa, Takeo; Udagawa, Harushi; Katai, Hitoshi

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate early and late dumping syndromes in a large number of patients after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Responses to questions on a visual analogue scale survey completed by 1,153 gastrectomy patients were analyzed for associations between clinical factors and occurrence of dumping syndrome. Types of gastrectomy included distal gastrectomy with Billroth I or with Roux-Y reconstruction, pylorus preserving gastrectomy, proximal gastrectomy, and total gastrectomy. Based on the visual analogue scale rating of symptomatic discomfort, patients were categorized into 1 of 2 groups: symptom-free or symptomatic. Incidences of early or late dumping syndrome in all patients were 67.6% and 38.4%, respectively. Patients in whom early dumping syndrome developed were significantly more likely to experience late dumping syndrome than those in whom it did not develop (p dumping syndrome were reduced weight loss (p dumping syndrome were reduced weight loss (p = 0.03), being male (p dumping syndrome in multivariate analyses. Substantially more patients suffered from early dumping syndrome than late dumping syndrome after gastrectomy. Two clinical factors, surgical procedures and amount of body weight loss, associated significantly with the occurrence of both early and late dumping syndrome. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Symptoms suggestive of dumping syndrome after provocation in patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzovaras, George; Papamargaritis, Dimitris; Sioka, Eleni; Zachari, Eleni; Baloyiannis, Ioannis; Zacharoulis, Dimitris; Koukoulis, George

    2012-01-01

    Dumping syndrome is a well-known complication after upper gastrointestinal (GI) surgery. There are scarce data in the literature about the incidence of dumping after bariatric operations but, certainly no relation between this syndrome and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has been attempted. We conducted a prospective clinical study in order to evaluate the potential presence, incidence and severity of Dumping syndrome after LSG. Thirty one non-diabetic morbidly obese patients (eight male, 23 female) eligible for LSG were evaluated. Median age was 38 (22-58 years) and mean body mass index (BMI) was 45.55 (± 5.37). The diagnosis of dumping syndrome was based on clinical provocation of signs and symptoms using an oral glucose challenge before and 6 weeks after the operation. The Sigstad's dumping score was estimated in order to separate dumpers from non-dumpers, and the Arts questionnaire was completed to distinguish between early and late dumping. Moreover, blood glucose levels during the oral glucose challenge were measured. No patient had symptoms of dumping after provocation preoperatively, whereas after LSG 9 patients (29%) experienced definite dumping and other 5 patients (16%) symptoms suggestive of dumping syndrome. Arts' questionnaire demonstrated that dumping occurrence after LSG was associated with early symptoms. Late hypoglycaemia occurred in one patient. A significant proportion of patients after LSG experienced dumping syndrome upon provocation. It seems that LSG should no longer be considered as a pure restrictive procedure, and it might be an option for heavy sweeters by changing their food tolerance patterns.

  16. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  17. Screening of illegal intracorporeal containers ("body packing"): is abdominal radiography sufficiently accurate? A comparative study with low-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Canel, Laurent; Becker, Christoph D; Wolff, Hans; Elger, Bernice; Lock, Eric; Sarasin, François; Bonfanti, Monica S; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Perneger, Thomas; Platon, Alexandra

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of abdominal radiography in the detection of illegal intracorporeal containers (hereafter, packets), with low-dose computed tomography (CT) as the reference standard. This study was approved by the institutional ethical review board, with written informed consent. From July 2007 to July 2010, 330 people (296 men, 34 women; mean age, 32 years [range, 18-55 years]) suspected of having ingested drug packets underwent supine abdominal radiography and low-dose CT. The presence or absence of packets at abdominal radiography was reported, with low-dose CT as the reference standard. The density and number of packets (≤ 12 or >12) at low-dose CT were recorded and analyzed to determine whether those variables influence interpretation of results at abdominal radiography. Packets were detected at low-dose CT in 53 (16%) suspects. Sensitivity of abdominal radiography for depiction of packets was 0.77 (41 of 53), and specificity was 0.96 (267 of 277). The packets appeared isoattenuated to the bowel contents at low-dose CT in 16 (30%) of the 53 suspects with positive results. Nineteen (36%) of the 53 suspects with positive low-dose CT results had fewer than 12 packets. Packets that were isoattenuated at low-dose CT and a low number of packets (≤12) were both significantly associated with false-negative results at abdominal radiography (P = .004 and P = .016, respectively). Abdominal radiography is mainly limited by low sensitivity when compared with low-dose CT in the screening of people suspected of carrying drug packets. Low-dose CT is an effective imaging alternative to abdominal radiography. © RSNA, 2012.

  18. environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. O. M. Adesope

    destruction of wildlife habitat, disruption of water cycle and loss of medicinal plant species. Youth empowerment ... brackish and tidal fresh water are noted for organisms that depend on the diurnal tidal cycle. Most of the flora and fauna ... petroleum products; this is the origin of 'illegal refineries' in the Niger Delta. All known.

  19. Environmental impact of illegal refineries on the vegetation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activities of illegal refineries severely impacted biodiversity, aesthetic scenery of the forest, regeneration of plant species and destruction of wildlife habitat, disruption of water cycle and loss of medicinal plant species. Youth empowerment, through vocational training and environmental education can ameliorate the ...

  20. exploring differences among illegal activities in the ugalla game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biology Laptop

    ABSTRACT. Conservation efforts in Tanzania rarely assess the extent to which different resource user activities are related. This study aimed to explore the differences among various illegal activities occurring in Ugalla Game Reserve, western Tanzania. The study used a combination of ranger–collected data, from 2003 to ...

  1. Summarizing the evidence on the international trade in illegal wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gail Emilia; Smith, Katherine F

    2010-08-01

    The global trade in illegal wildlife is a multi-billion dollar industry that threatens biodiversity and acts as a potential avenue for invasive species and disease spread. Despite the broad-sweeping implications of illegal wildlife sales, scientists have yet to describe the scope and scale of the trade. Here, we provide the most thorough and current description of the illegal wildlife trade using 12 years of seizure records compiled by TRAFFIC, the wildlife trade monitoring network. These records comprise 967 seizures including massive quantities of ivory, tiger skins, live reptiles, and other endangered wildlife and wildlife products. Most seizures originate in Southeast Asia, a recently identified hotspot for future emerging infectious diseases. To date, regulation and enforcement have been insufficient to effectively control the global trade in illegal wildlife at national and international scales. Effective control will require a multi-pronged approach including community-scale education and empowering local people to value wildlife, coordinated international regulation, and a greater allocation of national resources to on-the-ground enforcement.

  2. 50 CFR 22.12 - What activities are illegal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What activities are illegal? 22.12 Section 22.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...) You may not sell, purchase, barter, trade, import, or export, or offer for sale, purchase, barter, or...

  3. Exploring differences among illegal activities in the Ugalla Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation efforts in Tanzania rarely assess the extent to which different resource user activities are related. This study aimed to explore the differences among various illegal activities occurring in Ugalla Game Reserve, western Tanzania. The study used a combination of ranger–collected data, from 2003 to 2010, and ...

  4. Reducing Illegal Bushmeat Hunting in Tanzania: An Opportunity for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illegal exploitation of wildlife for bushmeat – non-domesticated terrestrial mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians harvested for food and income – is a matter of increasing concern for Africa's wildlife areas. In Tanzania, the problem is intensifying, and research has already established that wildlife populations across ...

  5. Illegal Immigration: Causes, Consequences, and National Security Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Countries, Globalization , Economy, Climate Change, Xenophobia, Unemployment, Welfare, Poverty , Stability, Exclusion, Enforcement, Wages, Visa...Destination, Transit, Source Countries, Globalization , Economy, Climate Change, Xenophobia, Unemployment, Welfare, Poverty , Stability, Exclusion...the emergence of globalization which emphasized the regional disparities. Consequences of illegal immigration fluctuate from beneficial to

  6. The Enforceability of Illegal Employment Contracts according to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... engages in illegal gambling activities as an employee to promote gambling against the relevant legislation. In the case of a dismissal or unfair labour practice dispute ensuing between such an employee and his or her employer, should the CCMA nevertheless assume jurisdiction to resolve the dispute ...

  7. Illegible handwriting and other prescription errors on prescriptions at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Brits

    Preventable medication errors affect more than 1.5 million. Americans annually. These errors are caused by unclear abbreviations and doses, and illegible handwriting. Therefore a plea has been made for doctors to use digital notes and prescriptions to prevent these errors.3 However, some research studies have indicated ...

  8. Madagascar rosewood, illegal logging and the tropical timber trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although deforestation rates in the tropics are reportedly slowing, the loss of both forest area and forest quality remains a significant issue for many countries. This is particularly true of Madagascar, where recent government instability has enabled a significant increase in the incidence of illegal logging of Dalbergia species ...

  9. Battle Continues over In-State Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Ten states now offer in-state college tuition rates to illegal immigrant students. Others are struggling to enact similar policies. But while many advocates want to open the doors to higher education for undocumented students, critics say the laws granting in-state tuition discriminate against other low-income students and legal residents of the…

  10. Methods of Analysis of Illegal Immigration into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Vernon M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Existing data on illegal immigration in the U.S. is inadequate. The limited availability of macrodata on the size of the annual flows and of the accumulated stock of individuals as well as of microdata on their influence on selected labor markets has been used to forestall policy reform efforts. (Author/RDN)

  11. The new illegal immigration in Japan, 1980-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, K; Sassen, S

    1994-01-01

    "This article presents some of the latest available figures on illegal immigration in Japan, a process that did not assume significant proportions until the mid-1980s. It also discusses briefly the latest developments around 'immigration' policy--more precisely, the law on the entry and exit of aliens." excerpt

  12. Beyond informal citizenship: the new moral economy of migrant illegality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chauvin, S.; Garcés-Mascareñas, B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, citizenship studies have explored in detail the various forms of social and civic integration achieved by otherwise illegal residents in contemporary immigration countries. While a great deal of analysis has tended to rest on a dichotomy between formal exclusion on the one

  13. Suspected levamisole intoxication in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K R; Dwyer, C

    2016-07-01

    A group of 32 Friesian and four Hereford calves, 3-4 months old with body weights between 100-120 kg, were purchased from a weaner sale. On arrival at the property the Hereford calves were treated with a combination anthelmintic containing 2 g/L abamectin and 80 g/L levamisole hydrochloride. Shortly afterwards they developed tremors and frothing from the mouth, and two died overnight. The Friesian calves were treated with the same anthelmintic on the following day, when some showed hypersalivation and frothing from the mouth. Examination of the three most severely affected Friesian calves revealed severe nicotinic-type symptoms including hypersalivation, frothing from the mouth, muscle tremors, recumbency, rapid respiration, hyperaesthesia, and central nervous system depression. Other calves showed mild to moderate signs of intoxication including restlessness, tail switching, salivation, tremors, frequent defaecation, mild colic and jaw chomping. Two calves died shortly afterwards. An adverse drug event investigation revealed that the formulation and quality of the anthelmintic was within the correct specification, and that the drench gun was functioning correctly. Suspected levamisole intoxication due to a combination of possible overdosing, dehydration, and stress caused by transportation and prolonged yarding. Susceptibility to levamisole toxicity in New Zealand calves can be increased if factors like dehydration or stress are present. Levamisole has a narrow margin of safety, and overdosing in calves can easily occur if the dose rate is not based on their actual weight or health status.

  14. International movements, post-apartheid dispensations and illegal immigration into South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wotela, K; Letsiri, C

    2015-01-01

    Arising from the supposed negative impact of illegal immigration, including security threats as well as recent xenophobic violence, the South African Government would like to counter illegal immigration. To do this, it needs to understand the root causes of illegal immigration into the country. This article, therefore, seeks to explain and interpret why illegal immigrants make South Africa their ideal choice of destination. To provide a context, the article begins with a discus...

  15. Determinants of Illegal Mexican Immigration into the US Southern Border States

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Buehn; Stefan Eichler

    2013-01-01

    We model illegal immigration across the US-Mexico border into Arizona, California, and Texas as an unobservable variable applying a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model. Using state-level data from 1985 to 2004, we test the incentives and deterrents influencing illegal immigration. Better labor market conditions in a US state and worse in Mexico encourage illegal immigration while more intense border enforcement deters it. Estimating the state-specific inflow of illegal Mexican immigrant...

  16. Dumping syndrome: an unusual cause of severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in neurologically impaired children with gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, C; Cervoni, M; Crea, F; Cutrera, R; Schiavino, A; Schiaffini, R; Cappa, M

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia during bolus enteral feeding in two neurologically impaired children. Both children were affected by dysphagia with swallowing difficulties; caloric intake was inadequate. For these reasons, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy had been positioned during the first months of life. In one patient due to persisting vomiting, after a few months, a gastrojejunal tube (PEG-J) was inserted. Hypoglycemia was revealed by routine blood tests, without evidence of specific symptoms. Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring showed wide glucose excursions, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. Extremely high levels of insulin were detected at the time of hypoglycemia. A diagnosis of dumping syndrome (DS) was suspected in both children. In the child with PEG, the tip of the gastrostomy catheter was found to be lying in the bulbus duodeni. Once this had been pulled back, hypoglycemic episodes disappeared. The child with PEG-J needed continuous enteral feeding to reach a normal glucose balance. DS is a relatively common complication in children with gastrostomy, but extremely irregular glucose levels, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia, and increased insulin secretion had not been previously demonstrated. The incidence of DS is probably underestimated in children receiving enteral feeding for neurological impairment. In these patients intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels should be performed to calibrate meals. Repeated underestimated hypoglycemic episodes could worsen neurological damage and cause a deterioration in clinical conditions.

  17. Search for Dark Matter with LHC proton Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) comprising particles in the mass range of a few MeV to GeV is waiting to be explored, given the many theoretical models accommodating cosmological abundance. We hereby propose an experiment with the LHC proton beam of 7 TeV striking onto the beam dump target, emitting neutrinos and possibly, Dark Matter candidates. This experiment would also permit to observe signatures involving elastic and inelastic processes involving DM candidates, electrons and strongly interacting particles present in nuclei of the dump target. There will be residual neutrino background present in each of these signatures, hence the proposed experimental detector sub-systems would be such that they would involve as final states, elastically or inelasticity scattered, standard model particles. The bump or the excess in the tail of the kinematic distributions will eventually give us glimpse of presence of new particles which could possibly be Dark Matter candidates. Given the parameters of the LHC machine, the sensitivity...

  18. Reliability Issues on the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Uythoven, J

    2004-01-01

    The Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider, presently under construction at CERN, must function with utmost reliability to protect the personnel, minimize the risk of severe damage to the machine and avoid undue impact to the environment. The dumping action must be synchronized with the particle free gap and the field of the extraction and dilution elements must be well adjusted to the beam energy. The measures taken to arrive at a reliable and safe system will be described, like the adoption of fault tolerant design principles and other safety related features as comprehensive monitoring, diagnostics and protection facilities. These issues will be discussed in the general framework of the IEC standard recommendations for safety critical systems. Some examples related to the most critical functions will be included.

  19. Reclamation of coalmine overburden dump through environmental friendly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshi, Anfal

    2017-02-01

    Coal mine spoils (-the previous overburden of coal seams, inevitable by-product in the mining process) which are usually unfavorable for plant growth have different properties according to dumping years. The reclamation of overburden dumps (OBDs) through plantation by using efficient microbes with suitable bio-inoculants is an environmental friendly microbial technique for significant improvement in fertility status and biological activities of the OBD soil. A systematic greenhouse pot experiment program followed by field trial was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and NFB on the performance of plant growth which have resulted in the development of environmental friendly bio-inoculant package for soil reclamation of abandoned mine land by revegetation.

  20. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  1. Possible criticality of marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden, J.M.; Mount, M.; Lynn, N.M.

    1997-05-01

    The largest inventory of radioactive materials dumped in the Kara Sea by the former Soviet Union comes from the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of seven marine reactors. Using corrosion models derived for the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP), the possibility of some of the SNF achieving criticality through structural and material changes has been investigated. Although remote, the possibility cannot at this stage be ruled out.

  2. Assessment of the mercury emissions from burning mining waste dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Białecka

    2016-04-01

    occur and to which the environment and local inhabitants can be exposed, it is important to define the size of the emission of mercury compounds from these objects. Despite the potential threats so far no measurements of mercury concentration which would a llow quantifying this phenomenon have been done. The analyses presented in this article fill this gap. Additionally, initial calculation of annual mercury emissions from burning coal mining waste dumps in Poland is presented.

  3. Design of a Compact Dump Resistor System for LCD Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2010-01-01

    In this technical note we suggest a possible solution for the choice of the detector magnet dump resistor. The push-pull scenario for Linear Collider Detectors imposes new solutions for magnet powering and protection lines, else than what developed for LHC detectors. The magnet dump resistor is the protecting equipment that has the function of extracting a significant amount of magnetic stored energy, from the coil winding to a dump. The LCD magnet has to move with the experiment from the garage to the beam position, so it has to be compact and reliable at the same time. We make here a proposal for a passive water-cooled dumper, we calculate the minimum amount of water required, the resistor hot-spot temperature, the overall mechanical design. The electrical part is not covered by this note, as it can be assumed that the solutions adopted by LHC detector magnets, in terms of quench instrumentation, energy extraction and maximum voltage, are not significantly affected by the push-pull scenario.

  4. Detailed mechanical design of the LIPAc beam dump radiological shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomen, Oriol, E-mail: onomen@irec.cat [IREC, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); CDEI-UPC, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Martínez, José I.; Arranz, Fernando; Iglesias, Daniel; Barrera, Germán; Brañas, Beatriz [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Ogando, Francisco [UNED, Madrid (Spain); Molla, Joaquín [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Sanmartí, Manel [IREC, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Mechanical design of the IFMIF LIPAc beam dump shielding has been performed. ► Lead shutter design performed to shield radiation from beam dump when LIPAc is off. ► External loads, working and dismantling conditions, included as design constraints. -- Abstract: The LIPAc is a 9 MeV, D{sup +} linear prototype accelerator for the validation of the IFMIF accelerator design. The high intensity, 125 mA CW beam is stopped in a copper cone involving a high production of neutrons and gamma radiation and activation of its surface. The beam stopper is surrounded by a shielding to attenuate the resulting radiation so that dose rate values comply with the limits at the different zones of the installation. The shielding includes for that purpose polyethylene rings, water tanks and gray cast iron rings. A lead shutter has also been designed to shield the gamma radiation that comes through the beam tube when the linear accelerator is not in operation, in order to allow access inside the building for maintenance tasks. The present work summarizes the detailed mechanical design of the beam dump shielding and the lead shutter taking into account the design constraints, such as working conditions and other external loads, as well as including provisions for dismantling.

  5. Phytoremediation of coal mine spoil dump through integrated biotechnological approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juwarkar, A.A.; Jambhulkar, H.P. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2008-07-15

    Field experiment was conducted on mine spoil dump on an area of 10 ha, to restore the fertility and productivity of the coal mine spoil dump using integrated biotechnological approach. The approach involves use of effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), as an organic amendment, biofertilizers and mycorrihzal fungi along with suitable plant species. The results of the study indicated that amendment with effluent treatment plant sludge (ETP sludge), at 50 ton/ha improved the physico-chemical properties of coal mine spoil. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in mine spoil improved greatly. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of ETP sludge helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as chromium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese lead, nickel and cadmium, which were significantly reduced to 41%, 43%, 37%, 37%, 34%, 39%, 37% and 40%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the ETP sludge and its alkaline pH (8.10-8.28), at which the metals gets immobilized and translocation of metals is arrested. Thus, amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant on coal mine spoil dump.

  6. American Material Culture: Investigating a World War II Trash Dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory: An Historical Trash Trove Historians and archaeologists love trash, the older the better. Sometimes these researchers find their passion in unexpected places. In this presentation, the treasures found in a large historic dump that lies relatively untouched in the middle of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will be described. The U.S. military used the central portion of the INL as one of only six naval proving grounds during World War II. They dumped trash in dry irrigation canals during and after their wartime activities and shortly before the federal government designated this arid and desolate place as the nation’s nuclear reactor testing station in 1949. When read critically and combined with memories and photographs, the 60-year old trash provides a glimpse into 1940s’ culture and the everyday lives of ordinary people who lived and worked during this time on Idaho’s desert. Thanks to priceless stories, hours of research, and the ability to read the language of historic artifacts, the dump was turned from just another trash heap into a treasure trove of 1940s memorabilia. Such studies of American material culture serve to fire our imaginations, enrich our understanding of past practices, and humanize history. Historical archaeology provides opportunities to integrate inanimate objects with animated narrative and, the more recent the artifacts, the more human the stories they can tell.

  7. The IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator beam dump design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, D.; Arranz, F.; Arroyo, J.M.; Barrera, G. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Branas, B., E-mail: beatriz.branas@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Casal, N. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M.; Lopez, D. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martinez, J.I. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mayoral, A.; Ogando, F. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Parro, M.; Oliver, C.; Rapisarda, D. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J.; Sauvan, P. [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica, UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    The IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator will be a 9 MeV, 125 mA cw deuteron accelerator prototype for verifying the validity of the 40 MeV accelerator design for IFMIF. A beam dump designed for maximum power of 1.12 MW will be used to stop the beam at the accelerator exit. The conceptual design for the IFMIF-EVEDA accelerator beam dump is based on a conical beam stop made of OFE copper. The cooling system uses an axial high velocity flow of water pressurized up to 3.4 x 10{sup 5} Pa to avoid boiling. The design has been shown to be compliant with ASME mechanical design rules under nominal full power conditions. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to take into account the possible margin on the beam properties at the beam dump entrance. This analysis together with the study of the maintenance issues and the mounting and dismounting operations has led to the complete design definition.

  8. Personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the personality characteristics of victims of illegal attacks on the Internet. We used methods as follow: 16 factors Cattell personality questionnaire, subjective control level, life-style index, Buss-Perry questionnaire, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, a COPE inventory. 78 internet users were divided into two groups of 38 persons: the main group included people falling victim to illegal attacks on the Internet, the control group participants were not attacked on the internet. We identified specific aggregated symptoms of individual psychological characteristics of internet attack victims and show that victims of "non-forced" and "forced" offenses have different levels of situational and personal anxiety, aggression and locus of control.

  9. Transaction Costs: Prosecuting child trafficking for illegal adoption in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A McCarthy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As primary implementers of laws on human trafficking, law enforcement helps construct how these laws are understood and applied. This article examines how this process has unfolded in Russia by looking at the phenomenon of and debates surrounding child trafficking for illegal adoption. It argues that pre-existing experience with trafficking laws and cultural narratives surrounding adoption have led law enforcement to focus on uncovering evidence of monetary transactions rather than exploitation when prosecuting trafficking cases. This construction of the meaning of trafficking comes with important trade-offs. While the emphasis on transactions helps law enforcement to be successful at prosecuting cases involving selling children for illegal adoption, a focus on transactions rather than exploitation results in a de facto prosecution policy that ignores the many forms of exploitation that occur in other trafficking cases.

  10. Illegal traficking of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarić Milana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the problem of used and discarded electrical and electronic devices is increasingly in the focus of governments', NGOs' and the media's attention. In addition to concerns about the volume of waste and the potential risks to human health and the environment from improper management, a topic that has caused the most concern is the cross-border movement of discarded electrical and electronic equipment and their placement in underdeveloped countries and developing countries. This attention has resulted in regulations at the local, national, regional and international levels, including provisions relating to the collection, treatment and export of electronic products. Illegal trade and disposal is particularly dangerous if it is taken into account that these illegal activites are often linked to organized crime in connection with other serious crimes against health, environment and economy.

  11. Analysis of illegal peptide drugs via HILIC-DAD-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Steven; De Sutter, Evelien; Wynendaele, Evelien; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Vanhee, Celine; Deconinck, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Biopharmaceuticals have established themselves as highly efficient medicines, and are still one of the fastest growing parts of the health-product industry. Unfortunately, the introduction of these promising new drugs went hand in hand with the creation of a black market for illegal and counterfeit biotechnology drugs. Particularly popular are the lyophilised peptides with a molecular weight of less than 5kDa. Most of them are meant for subcutaneous injection and are easily accessible via the internet. In recent years, different methods based on reversed phase liquid chromatography have been developed to detect and quantify these peptides. The emerging of more polar peptides however requires the introduction of other separation techniques. Therefore, we set out to develop and validate an analytical method based on hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) to identify and quantify the most frequently encountered illegal peptides on the European market. For this objective, five different HILIC columns were selected and screened for their chromatographic performance. Among those columns, the ZIC HILIC column showed the best performance under the tested screening conditions in terms of resolution and symmetry factor for the targeted peptide set. Hence, the operational conditions were further optimised for the identification of illegal preparations via mass spectrometry (MS) and quantification via UV. Validation was performed via accuracy profiles based on the ISO 17025 guideline. The obtained validated HILIC-method allows for the detection and quantification of the most frequently encountered illegal peptides on the internet in a total run time of 35min including post gradient equilibration and online cleaning step. Combined with a previously developed RPLC-method, the ZIC HILIC system allows for the detection and quantification of a wide spectrum of illicit peptide drugs available on the internet. Furthermore, the developed method could also be envisaged

  12. Illegal Immigration, Deportation Policy, and the Optimal Timing of Return

    OpenAIRE

    Vinogradova, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Countries with strict immigration policies often resort to deportation measures to reduce their stocks of illegal immigrants. Many of their undocumented foreign workers, however, are not deported but rather choose to return home voluntarily. This paper studies the optimizing behavior of undocumented immigrants who continuously face the risk of deportation, modeled by a stochastic process, and must decide how long to remain in the host country. It is found that the presence of uncertainty with...

  13. The big crossing: illegal boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Dourgnon, Paul

    2014-08-01

    This article explores illegal migration routes and groups across North Africa to Europe. We describe sub-Saharan and cross-Mediterranean routes, and how they changed during the years. We propose an analytical framework for the main factors for these migrations, from local to international and regulatory context. We then describe sea-migrants' nationalities and socio-economic and demographic characteristics, from studies undertook in Tunisia and Morocco. While boat migration represents only a fraction of illegal migration to Europe, it raises humanitarian as well as ethical issues for European and North African (NA) countries, as a non-negligible amount of them end up in death tolls of shipwrecks in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, existing statistics show that illegal trans-Mediterranean migration is growing exponentially. Ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are likely to prompt even larger outflows of refugees in the near future. This should induce NA countries to share closer public policy concerns with European countries. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Party Identification, Contact, Contexts, and Public Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Timothy B.

    2016-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a contentious issue on the American policy agenda. To understand the sources of public attitudes toward immigration, social scientists have focused attention on political factors such as party identification; they have also drawn on theories of intergroup contact to argue that contact with immigrants shapes immigration attitudes. Absent direct measures, contextual measures such as respondents’ ethnic milieu or proximity to salient geographic features (such as borders) have been used as proxies of contact. Such a research strategy still leaves the question unanswered – is it contact or context that really matters? Further, which context, and for whom? This article evaluates the effects of party identification, personal contact with undocumented immigrants, and contextual measures (county Hispanic population and proximity to the US–Mexico border) on American attitudes toward illegal immigration. It finds that contextual factors moderate the effects of political party identification on attitudes toward illegal immigration; personal contact has no effect. These findings challenge the assumption that contextual measures act as proxies for interpersonal contact. PMID:27257305

  15. Party Identification, Contact, Contexts, and Public Attitudes toward Illegal Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Timothy B

    2016-01-01

    Illegal immigration is a contentious issue on the American policy agenda. To understand the sources of public attitudes toward immigration, social scientists have focused attention on political factors such as party identification; they have also drawn on theories of intergroup contact to argue that contact with immigrants shapes immigration attitudes. Absent direct measures, contextual measures such as respondents' ethnic milieu or proximity to salient geographic features (such as borders) have been used as proxies of contact. Such a research strategy still leaves the question unanswered - is it contact or context that really matters? Further, which context, and for whom ? This article evaluates the effects of party identification, personal contact with undocumented immigrants, and contextual measures (county Hispanic population and proximity to the US-Mexico border) on American attitudes toward illegal immigration. It finds that contextual factors moderate the effects of political party identification on attitudes toward illegal immigration; personal contact has no effect. These findings challenge the assumption that contextual measures act as proxies for interpersonal contact.

  16. Discursive Representations of Asylum Seekers and Illegal Immigrants in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Burroughs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Migrants are often referred to as an all encompassing group of people and the “many faces of migration”, the variety of people, legalities and complexities involved, can be overlooked. The same can be said for non-EU migrants in the Irish context. Non-EU migrants (or those that are not Caucasian are generally viewed to be a distinct cohort of comparable migrants. Indeed, these migrants are often portrayed in a broadly negative way by key Irish institutions (such as the parliament or the media, and these representations impact upon how Irish society views non-EU migration and indeed migration in general. While Ireland is by no means the only European country in which this type of practice occurs, this paper aims to draw attention to generalized, inaccurate and misleading representations of non-EU migrants in Ireland, by specifically examining representations of asylum seekers and illegal immigrants. There can be an overlap in how these “types” of migrants are conceptualized and this paper therefore aims to develop an understanding of the implications involved for migrants categorized as an “asylum seeker” or an “illegal immigrant.” Furthermore, these topics are under-researched within the Irish context, yet they receive much political and public attention. At the same time however, this paper aims to challenge the labels assigned to non-EU migrants and the terminology that is used to define their identity so concretely. In the Irish context there is much confusion in relation to the multiple “faces” of non-EU migration, as a range of terminology is used to refer to them. This terminology is often used in an interchangeable manner, in an array of societal contexts. There is a consistent (whether this happens intentionally or unintentionally is debatable misuse of categories and migration terminology in Irish institutional discourses. Quite often those seeking asylum are referred to as illegal immigrants and vice versa

  17. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland – their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  18. Groundwater Quality Deterioration due to Municipal Solid Waste Dumping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswari, Kaliyaperumal; Karunakaran, Krishnasamy

    2011-07-01

    Groundwater is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural India. The demand for water has increased over the years and this has led to water scarcity. The scarcity situation, especially in urban areas, is aggravated by the problem of water pollution or contamination by solid waste dumping. In many urban centers in India, the quality of groundwater is getting severely affected because of the widespread pollution, due to the discharge of untreated waste water in water bodies and leachate from the unscientific disposal of solid wastes. It is necessary to realize the importance of groundwater and preserve its quality through careful monitoring and remediation. This study focuses on the magnitude of groundwater pollution due to improper solid waste dumping practices prevailing in the southern part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The Perungudi dumpsite, a solid waste dumping site in the periphery of Chennai city, India, has been chosen for this study. The chemical characteristic of solid waste and leachate has been studied, and the groundwater samples from various locations around the dumpsite were collected and analyzed. Samples were analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, total hardness, sodium, potassium, BOD, and COD. Heavy metals such as lead, iron, and zinc have been analyzed. The study reveals that most of the groundwater samples do not conform to drinking water quality standards. The study also indicates that groundwater remediation techniques and proper groundwater quality monitoring on a regular basis are of utmost importance in the study area. A few in-situ groundwater remediation technologies have been suggested to improve the present water quality.

  19. A case of suspect “cyanosis”

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Antonucci; Matteo Conte; Michele Di Pumpo; Giuseppe Antonucci

    2013-01-01

    CLINICAL CASE A 70-year old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever, asthenia and a suspected stroke. Her medical history showed a congenital cardiopathy (Patent Foramen Ovale, PFO). Skin and oral mucosa pigmentation, orthostatic hypotension, hypoglycemia and hyponatriemia arose the suspect of Addison’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by the evaluation of basal levels of plasma ACTH and serum cortisol, and serum cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation. Abdominal CT scan showed...

  20. Results of evaluation of tailing dumps dust intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Masloboev V. A.; Baklanov A. A.; Amosov P. V.

    2016-01-01

    A set of most acceptable and well-known methods of dust intensity evaluation has been defined and tested (dependence of Westphal D. L. et al. and DEAD scheme) based on the analysis of exiting approaches (deserts, tailing dumps, etc.). The description of the chosen methods has been given. The determination of dynamic velocity u* and velocity at the height of +10 m above the dusting surface u10 which are necessary to evaluate the dust intensity has been demonstrated. The method is based on two-...

  1. ASPECTS OF REHABILITATION OF WASTE DUMPS USING HERBACEOUS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Smaranda Masu; Maria Popa; Florica Morariu

    2015-01-01

    There are many arguments that underlie research on rehabilitation of large areas of land that were set aside from the agricultural circuit and became heaps of storage for inert waste materials like bottom and boiler slag and fly ash. On the other hand result of biological materials with potential for land recycling i.e. sewage sludge. On the dumps of boiler slag composed of particles of 2-3 mm was gradually installed a layer of grass with the help of sewage sludge as a fertilizing agent and m...

  2. Beam dumps, stoppers and Faraday cups at the SLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, D.R.; McFarlane, A.; Lewandowski, E.

    1989-04-01

    This presentation features most of the beam dumps and stoppers necessary to absorb and dissipate SLC e/sup +-/ beams with transverse sizes from several tens to a few hundred microns (..mu..m). Solutions are based on electromagnetic cascade shower calculations for N = 5 /times/ 10/sup 10/ e/bunch and momenta ranging from 1.2 GeV/c in the damping ring transport systems to 50 GeV/c in the arcs matching sections and the Final Focus region. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  3. International movements, post-apartheid dispensations and illegal immigration into South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambidima Wotela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arising from the supposed negative impact of illegal immigration, including security threats as well as recent xenophobic violence, the South African Government would like to counter illegal immigration. To do this, it needs to understand the root causes of illegal immigration into the country. This article, therefore, seeks to explain and interpret why illegal immigrants make South Africa their ideal choice of destination. To provide a context, the article begins with a discussion on the research setting, that is, the South African international boundaries. Thereafter, the article discusses the concept of illegal immigration from the South African context before reviewing literature on the number of illegal immigrants in South Africa and the supposed impact. The article then explores literature on international movements and discusses established migration frameworks that explain and interpret these movements. Lastly, to confirm some facts arising from the review, we interviewed officials that manage illegal immigration as well as detained immigrants. We establish that four migration streams that have created a blended society in Southern Africa sparked illegal immigration into South Africa. The article conclude that the problem of illegal immigration into South Africa is perpetuated by deep-rooted migration networks. Therefore, if the South African Government wants to avert illegal immigration, its policy-makers should examine these roots and take them into account to arrive at a solution that is in sync with the root causes of the problem.

  4. Illegal births and legal abortions – the case of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viisainen Kirsi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China has a national policy regulating the number of children that a woman is allowed to have. The central concept at the individual level application is "illegal pregnancy". The purpose of this article is to describe and problematicize the concept of illegal pregnancy and its use in practice. Methods Original texts and previous published and unpublished reports and statistics were used. Results By 1979 the Chinese population policy was clearly a policy of controlling population growth. For a pregnancy to be legal, it has to be defined as such according to the family-level eligibility rules, and in some places it has to be within the local quota. Enforcement of the policy has been pursued via the State Family Planning (FP Commission and the Communist Party (CP, both of which have a functioning vertical structure down to the lowest administrative units. There are various incentives and disincentives for families to follow the policy. An extensive system has been created to keep the contraceptive use and pregnancy status of all married women at reproductive age under constant surveillance. In the early 1990s FP and CP officials were made personally responsible for meeting population targets. Since 1979, abortion has been available on request, and the ratio of legal abortions to birth increased in the 1980s and declined in the 1990s. Similar to what happens in other Asian countries with low fertility rates and higher esteem for boys, both national- and local-level data show that an unnaturally greater number of boys than girls are registered as having been born. Conclusion Defining a pregnancy as "illegal" and carrying out the surveillance of individual women are phenomena unique in China, but this does not apply to other features of the policy. The moral judgment concerning the policy depends on the basic question of whether reproduction should be considered as an individual or social decision.

  5. The making of Amerexico: (mis)handling illegal immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, P

    1994-01-01

    The border and social policies that the United States shares with Mexico have had only a modest impact on the level of illegal immigration. Alternative methods could reduce the social backlash against Mexican immigrants in US states of destination. Federal Relief Aid to states affected by new arrivals would ameliorate hostility. Although economic stagnation may depress the flow of immigrants or job opportunities, legal or illegal, economic recovery is dependent on the hard work of immigrants. The political solution has been to tighten border controls. Other options are possible. There should be pressure placed on multilateral institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to incorporate immigration issues in economic policy decisions. Many market reforms have contributed to greater emigration. The US has the option to use both supply and demand side options. Enforcement of workplace rules on minimum wages and health and safety standards would make it more difficult to exploit immigrant workers and would decrease the incentive to hire illegal workers. In a deregulated market stricter work standards were considered difficult to attain. A 1993 opinion poll revealed that 65% thought immigration was not beneficial. Border apprehension rates have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. The most recent policies aim to encourage the mobility of capital and trade through the NAFTA free trade agreement while trying to discourage human resource mobility. The push factors in Mexico are identified as high levels of poverty and unemployment, overpopulation, and economic stagnation. NAFTA and prior economic development efforts have not addressed the push factors. Disruption of traditional ways and changes toward greater industrialization spur emigration. The US program to develop border export industry encouraged migration from the interior of Mexico to border areas. Recent Mexican policies have changed the incentives for small farmers to stay on

  6. Games of corruption: how to suppress illegal logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung-Hun; Sigmund, Karl; Dieckmann, Ulf; Iwasa, Yoh

    2015-02-21

    Corruption is one of the most serious obstacles for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. In particular, more than half of the loss of forested area in many tropical countries is due to illegal logging, with corruption implicated in a lack of enforcement. Here we study an evolutionary game model to analyze the illegal harvesting of forest trees, coupled with the corruption of rule enforcers. We consider several types of harvesters, who may or may not be committed towards supporting an enforcer service, and who may cooperate (log legally) or defect (log illegally). We also consider two types of rule enforcers, honest and corrupt: while honest enforcers fulfill their function, corrupt enforcers accept bribes from defecting harvesters and refrain from fining them. We report three key findings. First, in the absence of strategy exploration, the harvester-enforcer dynamics are bistable: one continuum of equilibria consists of defecting harvesters and a low fraction of honest enforcers, while another consists of cooperating harvesters and a high fraction of honest enforcers. Both continua attract nearby strategy mixtures. Second, even a small rate of strategy exploration removes this bistability, rendering one of the outcomes globally stable. It is the relative rate of exploration among enforcers that then determines whether most harvesters cooperate or defect and most enforcers are honest or corrupt, respectively. This suggests that the education of enforcers, causing their more frequent trialing of honest conduct, can be a potent means of curbing corruption. Third, if information on corrupt enforcers is available, and players react opportunistically to it, the domain of attraction of cooperative outcomes widens considerably. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conceptual Design of the Linac4 Main Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Leitao, I V; Maglioni, C

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is the new CERN linear accelerator intended to replace the ageing Linac2 as the injector to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) for increasing the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). By delivering a 160MeV H- beam, Linac4 will provide the necessary conditions to double the brightness and intensity of the beam extracted from the PSB. This paper describes the conceptual design of the Linac4 Main Dump, where two different concepts relying respectively on water and air cooling were compared and evaluated. Based on the application of analytical models for the energy deposited by the beam, heat conduction and cooling concepts, a parametric study was performed. This approach allowed the identification of the “optimal” configuration for these two conceptual geometries and their relative comparison. Besides giving the theoretical guidelines for the design of the new dump, this work also contributes to the development of analytical tools to allow a better understanding of the influence of the se...

  8. Performance Studies for Protection Against Asynchronous Dumps in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system has to safely dispose all beams in a wide energy range of 450 GeV to 7 TeV. A 3 ms abort gap in the beam structure for the switch-on of the extraction kicker field ideally allows a loss-free extraction under normal operating conditions. However, a low number of asynchronous beam aborts is to be expected from reliability calculations and from the first year's operational experience with the beam dump kickers. For such cases, MAD-X simulations including all optics and alignment errors have been performed to determine loss patterns around the LHC as a function of the position of the main protection elements in interaction region six. Special attention was paid to the beam load on the tungsten collimators which protect the triplets in the LHC experimental insertions, and the tracking results compared with semi-analytical numerical estimates. The simulations are also compared to the results of beam commissioning of these protection devices.

  9. ASPECTS OF REHABILITATION OF WASTE DUMPS USING HERBACEOUS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many arguments that underlie research on rehabilitation of large areas of land that were set aside from the agricultural circuit and became heaps of storage for inert waste materials like bottom and boiler slag and fly ash. On the other hand result of biological materials with potential for land recycling i.e. sewage sludge. On the dumps of boiler slag composed of particles of 2-3 mm was gradually installed a layer of grass with the help of sewage sludge as a fertilizing agent and microbial activity stimulating agent, based on an extract of brown seaweed EKO GEA Slovenia. In the second year the amount of biomass harvested was 2 to 2.9 times higher than in the first year of cultivation. Moreover plants not harvested in the second year of culture bore fruit. Also, the root network strongly stabilized the slag and boiler ash particles against land spreading. Rapid and effective rehabilitation of the landscape destroyed was achieved with the use of herbaceous crops of the species Lolium perenne. Monitoring bioaccumulation of heavy metals i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ni, Zn, etc. in aerial plant tissue was needed to decide the sector where the biomass harvested from inert waste dump covered with vegetation.

  10. Adolescent Girls with illegally Induced Abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Mchumvu, Y

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on a study of induced abortion among adolescent girls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who were admitted to a district hospital in Dar es Salaam because of an illegally induced abortion in 1997. In the quantitative part of the study, 197 teenage girls (aged 14-19) were asked...... that gave them the right to seek family planning services and in practice these services are not being provided. There is a need for youth-friendly family planning services and to make abortion safe and legal, in order to reduce unwanted pregnancies and abortion-related complications and deaths among...

  11. Multi-colorimetric sensor array for detection of illegal materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostesha, Natalie; Boisen, Anja; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen

    2012-01-01

    The detection of low pressure illegal compounds is an important analytical problem which requires reliable, selective and sensitive detection methods which provide the highest level of confidence in the result. Therefore, to contribute in the successful development of the recognition technology...... and signal processing enhancements to sensing methods, recognition ability, data acquisition time and data processing algorithms are necessary. In this research we work towards the development of a rapid, easy in use, highly sensitive, specific (minimal false positives) sensor based on a colorimetric sensing...

  12. Aloittavan yrityksen markkinointi sosiaalisessa mediassa : Case: Illegal Alien Studios

    OpenAIRE

    Kaipainen, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on markkinointi sosiaalisessa mediassa pienyrityksen näkökulmasta. Opinnäytetyössä tehdään toimiva markkinointiympäristö toimeksiantavalle yritykselle. Toimeksiantaja yritys on Tamperelainen start-up -yritys Illegal Alien Studios. Yritys toimii pääsääntöisesti mobiilipeliyrityksenä, mutta tekee myös asiakaslähtöistä sovelluskehitystä. Yrityksessä työntekijöinä toimii neljä opiskelijaa, joilla on koulutuspohjaa niin ohjelmistotuotannon, ...

  13. Militarization of the border and illegal immigration: Tamaulipas laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tamaulipas presents a long tradition of rural migration to the United States in search of farm employment. Until the eighties Tamaulipas’ undocumented workers crossed the border easily. However, from the nineties, as a result of a restrictive migration policy centered exclusively on the “supply–side” to cross the border has become intricate. As a result, most part of immigrants is using the services of “smuggles”. This paper analyses the impact of the militarization of the frontier on the emigration of Tamaulipas’ illegal rural workers seeking for farm jobs in the United States.

  14. Judgments about illegal performance-enhancing substances: reasoned, reactive, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Stock, Michelle; Litt, Dana

    2013-07-01

    This study applied aspects of the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Prototype/Willingness model to understand cognitions associated with the use of illegal performance-enhancing substances. There were two study objectives. One was to investigate whether the illegal-is-effective heuristic (i.e. belief that illegal performance-enhancing substances are more effective than legal performance-enhancing substances) affects willingness to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The second was to examine whether attitudes, norms, and prototypes influence the willingness and intentions to use illegal performance-enhancing substances. The illegal-is-effective heuristic was a significant predictor of willingness but was not a significant predictor of intentions. Implications for future research and prevention efforts are discussed.

  15. Acute toxicity of sea-dumped chemical munitions: Luminating the environmental toxicity of legacy compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed Abdullah Christensen, Ilias; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the disarmament of Germany after the Second World War, 65,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped in the Baltic Sea. Approximately 13,000 tons containing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) of which 11,000 tons were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. This paper addresses...

  16. Octreotide improves early dumping syndrome potentially through incretins: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Morino, Katsutaro; Ohashi, Natsuko; Ueda, Emi; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hideka; Ugi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Araki, Shinichi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Dumping syndrome, or rapid gastric emptying, is a frequent complication after gastric surgery. In this case, the patient was a 47-year-old woman who 10 years previously had undergone distal gastrectomy with Billroth I reconstruction for early-stage gastric cancer. She presented with symptoms of weakness, headache, palpitation, sweating, dizziness and significant fatigue between one and two hours after a meal. Because a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (75 g-OGTT) induced both acute postprandial tachycardia (within 1 hour) and postprandial hypoglycemia, we diagnosed this patient with early and late dumping syndrome. Dietary measures and acarbose improved symptoms of late dumping syndrome but did not prevent the symptoms of early dumping syndrome such as postprandial tachycardia, weakness, headache, palpitation, and dizziness. We therefore used the somatostatin analogue octreotide, which has been reported as an effective therapy for early dumping syndrome. Octreotide prevented the symptoms of early dumping syndrome, especially postprandial tachycardia, but caused postprandial hyperglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were completely suppressed during the 75 g-OGTT following subcutaneous injection of octreotide. No change was observed in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which is the gastrointestinal peptide hormone generally responsible for early dumping syndrome, suggesting possible contribution of incretins in early dumping syndrome of this patient.

  17. Prevalence of early dumping syndrome after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, Ragnhild; Emous, Marloes; Wolthuis, Albert; Totté, Erik; Van Beek, André

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although early dumping syndrome is a well-known complication after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), data on the long-term prevalence are limited and inconclusive. This study aims to describe the prevalence of early dumping syndrome in patients 3 to 6 years after primary RYGB, using 3

  18. Soil contamination by brominated flame retardants in open waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifimi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Rouch Seang; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-03-01

    In Asian developing countries, large amounts of municipal wastes are dumped into open dumping sites each day without adequate management. This practice may cause several adverse environmental consequences and increase health risks to local communities. These dumping sites are contaminated with many chemicals including brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). BFRs may be released into the environment through production processes and through the disposal of plastics and electronic wastes that contain them. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the status of BFR pollution in municipal waste dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Soil samples were collected from six open waste dumping sites and five reference sites in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Vietnam from 1999 to 2007. The results suggest that PBDEs are the dominant contaminants in the dumping sites in Asian developing countries, whereas HBCD contamination remains low. Concentrations of PBDEs and HBCDs ranged from ND to 180 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 1.4 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the reference sites and from 0.20 to 430 μg/kg dry wt and ND to 2.5 μg/kg dry wt, respectively, in the dumping sites. Contamination levels of PBDEs in Asian municipal dumping sites were comparable with those reported from electronic waste dismantling areas in Pearl River delta, China. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peroral endoscopic anastomotic reduction improves intractable dumping syndrome in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Lautz, David B; Thompson, Christopher C

    2010-01-01

    Dumping syndrome is a well-described consequence of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Although the condition can benefit some patients with morbid obesity, a subset will develop intractable dumping syndrome characterized by symptomatic episodes with most meals. We describe the first series of patients successfully treated endoscopically for intractable dumping syndrome. Endoscopic gastrojejunal anastomotic reduction was performed in patients with intractable dumping syndrome after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass using a combination of argon plasma coagulation, endoscopic suturing, and fibrin glue. The technical feasibility of endoscopic anastomotic reduction and the clinical improvement in dumping symptoms were assessed by clinical follow-up. Endoscopic anastomotic reduction was technically successful in 6 consecutive patients with a dilated gastrojejunal anastomosis and intractable dumping syndrome. One patient reported hematemesis 2 days after the procedure that was treated endoscopically. No other significant complications occurred. Complete and persistent resolution of the dumping symptoms was achieved in all patients, with a median follow-up of 636 days. Endoscopic anastomotic reduction appears technically feasible and safe and might be a minimally invasive treatment option for patients who experience intractable dumping symptoms after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Additional studies are needed to determine the long-term efficacy of this procedure. 2010 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 19 CFR 159.58 - Dumping and countervailing duties; action by port director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dumping and countervailing duties; action by port director. 159.58 Section 159.58 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Dumping and countervailing duties; action by port director. (a) Antidumping matters. Upon receipt of...

  1. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes submitted to banded gastric bypass: greater incidence of dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel; Galvão Neto, Manoel; Moretto, Myriam; Barancelli, Fabiano; Schroer, Caroline Eckerdt; Mottin, Cláudio Corá

    2009-11-01

    Dumping syndrome is one of ten most common complications in morbidly obese patients operated. Recent studies in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) in patients submitted to gastric bypass led us to examine the different outcomes in this group of patients. Our objective was to determine the difference in the prevalence of dumping syndrome in patients with DM2 submitted to gastric bypass. In this retrospective study, 49 diabetic and 54 non-diabetic morbidly obese patients were submitted to gastric bypass and followed up at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The occurrence of dumping was determined by the patient's medical chart, where it was considered positive if recorded in at least one of three evaluations. The 103 patients evaluated had a mean BMI of 49.5 +/- 9.3 kg/m(2) and mean age of 38 +/- 9.7 years, with 75.7% being women. The prevalence of dumping syndrome in this population was 24.3%. The prevalence of dumping was greater in patients with DM2 (44.9%) when compared to the control group (5.6%; p dumping syndrome. Dumping syndrome is a common postoperative complication in gastric bypass. Patients with DM2 show a greater postoperative prevalence of dumping.

  2. 75 FR 33747 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and Designation...

  3. 77 FR 61818 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping and...-dumping and countervailing duties on certain automobiles from the United States. That request may be found...

  4. Risk assessment predictions of open dumping area after closure using Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi, Nur Irfah Mohd; Radhi, Mohd Shahril Mat; Omar, Husaini

    2017-10-01

    Currently, there are many abandoned open dumping areas that were left without any proper mitigation measures. These open dumping areas could pose serious hazard to human and pollute the environment. The objective of this paper is to determine the risk assessment at the open dumping area after they has been closed using Monte Carlo Simulation method. The risk assessment exercise is conducted at the Kuala Lumpur dumping area. The rapid urbanisation of Kuala Lumpur coupled with increase in population lead to increase in waste generation. It leads to more dumping/landfill area in Kuala Lumpur. The first stage of this study involve the assessment of the dumping area and samples collections. It followed by measurement of settlement of dumping area using oedometer. The risk of the settlement is predicted using Monte Carlo simulation method. Monte Carlo simulation calculates the risk and the long-term settlement. The model simulation result shows that risk level of the Kuala Lumpur open dumping area ranges between Level III to Level IV i.e. between medium risk to high risk. These settlement (ΔH) is between 3 meters to 7 meters. Since the risk is between medium to high, it requires mitigation measures such as replacing the top waste soil with new sandy gravel soil. This will increase the strength of the soil and reduce the settlement.

  5. Waste Dump Closure and Cost Estimates at AngloGold Ashanti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2017-12-02

    Dec 2, 2017 ... AngloGold Ashanti Iduapriem Mine is a surface gold mine which produces waste rock in its operations. The waste rock forms waste dumps which grow over the years, and will ultimately need to be closed down when they are filled to the maximum capacity. The mine has closure plans for the waste dumps ...

  6. The EU Anti-dumping Policy towards China: Challenges for Chinese and Foreign Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. It is based on the EU anti-dumping cases since 1990 and especially since July 1998. (Since then Chinese firms have been able to apply for market economy status). Based on this analysis, the paper presents some practical...

  7. Københavns Kommunes indsats mod social dumping - målopfyldelsesevaluering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Baadsgaard, Kelvin

    2017-01-01

    Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model......Evaluering af indsatsen i Københavns Kommune for at imødegå social dumping ved hjælp af målopfyldelses-model...

  8. 78 FR 29687 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation...) Atchafalaya-West Ocean Disposal Site (ODMDS-West) as a permanent MPRSA Section 102(c) ocean dredged material... Management and Monitoring Plan E. Ocean Dumping Site Designation Criteria --General Selection Criteria...

  9. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF PROCESSING OF DUMP SAND-CLAY MIXES BY THE CENTRIFUGAL AND SHOCK CRUSHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vorobev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental research of processing of centrifugal and shock crushing of dump sandy-clay mixes are given. Use of products of processing of received mixes in foundry production and in production of asphalt concrete mixes allows to exclude transportation of the mix to dumping.

  10. Geophysical Investigation of Effect of Aba-Eku Public Refuse Dump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical method was used to investigate the effect of Aba-Eku (N 070 19.551' E 0030 59.027') public refuse dump site in Ibadan on groundwater quality. Four vertical electrical sounding (VES) data from the vicinity of the dump site and one VES from the control point were acquired using Schlumberger electrode ...

  11. Joint Norwegian-Russian mission to investigate dumped atomic waste in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    In autumn 2012, a joint Norwegian-Russian mission will visit areas in the Kara Sea where spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste have been dumped. The purpose of the mission is to obtain new, up-to-date information about radioactive pollution in these areas and about the condition of the dumped items (Author)

  12. The mathematical model of vertical solt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. Yevhrashkina,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On the based theory of physical-chemical hydrodynamics of porous media offer a range of mathematical models of vertical salt transfer on mine dumps Western Donbass. designed several variants of dumps free overgrowth for the optimal performance for transpiration of wild plants.

  13. Proactive methods against illegal downloading : A study within the music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Johan; Fällman, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the proactive methods against illegal downloading. This study will look into the new implemented IPRED law that could be seen as one attempt to prevent the illegal downloading. Furthermore, this study investigates how new services such as Spotify can be a legal alternative to the illegal downloading and also how the music industry has handled the transition from CD sales to the new digital media.   Our research consists of both qualitative and quantitative study where a ...

  14. Consumer Responses to Legal Music Download Services that Compete with Illegal Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Clement; Arvind Rangaswamy; Srikant Vadali

    2012-01-01

    Several legal music download services, including some that are free (e.g., Spotify), are now available to consumers. These services may be viewed as "new service interventions" that could potentially change the mental models of consumers toward illegal file sharing and result in fewer downloads of illegal music files. We apply the theories of planned behavior and cognitive dissonance to articulate hypotheses regarding how such new services would change mental models of consumers for illegal m...

  15. Winning the war on drugs in Mexico? Toward an integrated approach to the illegal drug trade

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Garces, Alfonso.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The illegal drug trade has been present in Mexico since the beginning of the twentieth century when prohibition of the opium trade started. Since then, the social harm of the illegal drug trade in all its forms has been constantly increasing. Today, the most obvious example of the social harm of the illegal drug trade in Mexico is drug-related crime. As a result, Mexican authorities have launched a frontal attack against the drug cartels ...

  16. The phenomenology of specialization of criminal suspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tumminello

    Full Text Available A criminal career can be either general, with the criminal committing different types of crimes, or specialized, with the criminal committing a specific type of crime. A central problem in the study of crime specialization is to determine, from the perspective of the criminal, which crimes should be considered similar and which crimes should be considered distinct. We study a large set of Swedish suspects to empirically investigate generalist and specialist behavior in crime. We show that there is a large group of suspects who can be described as generalists. At the same time, we observe a non-trivial pattern of specialization across age and gender of suspects. Women are less prone to commit crimes of certain types, and, for instance, are more prone to specialize in crimes related to fraud. We also find evidence of temporal specialization of suspects. Older persons are more specialized than younger ones, and some crime types are preferentially committed by suspects of different ages.

  17. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selyukov Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  18. Treatment with acarbose in severe hypoglycaemia due to late dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congcong; Pang, Shuguang; Jiang, Qiang; Duan, Guanglan; Sun, Yongmei; Li, Mei

    2013-12-01

    Dumping syndrome is a serious complication that may occur after gastric surgery in approximately 10% of patients in the 1990s. With the increasing number of patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the incidence of dumping syndrome is likely to increase in recent years. It is necessary for clinicians to recognize the syndrome and master its management. We present a case of recurrent loss of consciousness, which was finally accurately diagnosed as late dumping syndrome twelve years after subtotal gastrectomy and successfully treated with acarbose. A 66-year old lean male was found unconscious repeatedly within one year, oral glucose tolerance tests performed before and after acarbose treatment verified the diagnosis of late dumping syndrome. Hypoglycaemia can damage the body in acute and chronic form. Acarbose can be used as a successful treatment modality for reactive hypoglycaemia due to late dumping syndrome by influencing the release of hormone.

  19. Efficiency of Low-Profile External Dumping at Open Pit Coal Mining in Kemerovo Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyukov, Alexey; Ermolaev, Vyacheslav; Kostinez, Irina

    2017-11-01

    Kemerovo region is one of the largest industrial regions of Russia, with a raw material specialization. The rapid growth of the coal industry in recent years has been greatly facilitated by the expansion and development of open pit mining for coal seams extraction, accompanied by an increase in the volumes of overburden and the height of the dumps. There are about 400 objects in the Russian Federation Government Register of Waste Disposal Facilities 80% of which are dumps. Approaches both to external dumping and to the technical stage of reclamation currently contribute to the growth of geomorphic system's instability. Thus, it is proposed to slightly change the approaches to external dumping: the essence consists in the formation of an external dump of overburden, which in future would represent a favorable landscape unit of a flat surface relief used for subsequent differently directed purposes.

  20. Assessment of impact on health of children working in the garbage dumping site in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiry, Gargy; Rahman, Tania; Hasan, A K M Mahbub; Dutta, Alak K; Arif, Md; Howlader, Zakir H

    2011-12-01

    Waste dumping is one of the major causes of environment pollution in Bangladesh. This study was designed to assess the impact on health of children working in one of the garbage dumping sites in Dhaka. Blood samples were collected from exposed (n = 20, aged: 8-15 years, exposed to dumped garbage from 6 months to 6 years) and control subjects (n = 15, age matched and never worked in the garbage dumping site). Oxidative stress markers like lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl content were measured. Alkaline comet assay was performed to assess the possible damage in DNA. To check the consequences of possible toxic exposure, we performed liver function tests of the study subjects. Oxidative stress-mediated damage of macromolecules was found to be significantly increased in the exposed children. Liver function tests were found normal. Thus, the children working in garbage dumping site are in severe health risk.

  1. Cryptic female choice via sperm dumping favours male copulatory courtship in a spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, A V; Eberhard, W G

    2010-02-01

    Males of many animals perform 'copulatory courtship' during copulation, but the possible reproductive significance of this behaviour has seldom been investigated. In some animals, including the spider Physocyclus globosus (Pholcidae), the female discards sperm during or immediately following some copulations. In this study, we determined which of several variables associated with copulation correlated with paternity success in P. globosus when two males mate with a single female. Then, by determining which of these variables also correlated with sperm dumping, we inferred which variables may affect paternity via the mechanism of sperm dumping. Male abdomen vibration (a copulatory courtship behaviour) and male genitalic squeezing both correlated with both paternity and sperm dumping; so, these traits may be favoured by biased sperm dumping. Biased sperm dumping may also be the mechanism by which possible cryptic female choice favours another male trait that was the subject of a previous study, responsiveness to female stridulation.

  2. Patient dumping, outlier payments, and optimal healthcare payment policy under asymmetric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Tsuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    We analyze a rationale for official authorization of patient dumping in the prospective payment policy framework. We show that when the insurer designs the healthcare payment policy to let hospitals dump high-cost patients, there is a trade-off between the disutility of dumped patients (changes in hospitals' rent extraction due to low-severity patients) and the shift in the level of cost reduction efforts for high-severity patients. We also clarify the welfare-improving conditions by allowing hospitals to dump high-severity patients. Finally, we show that if the efficiency of the cost reduction efforts varies extensively and the healthcare payment cost is substantial, or if there are many private hospitals, the patient dumping policy can improve social welfare in a wider environment.

  3. Design of Air-Cooled Beam Dump for Extraction Line of PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Perillo-Marcone, A; Venturi, V; Antonakakis, T; Vlachoudis, V; Nowak, E; Mason, G; Battistin, M; Czapski, M; Sgobba, S

    2013-01-01

    A new beam dump has been designed, which withstands the future proton beam extracted from the Proton Syncrotron Booster (PSB) at CERN, consisting of up to 1E14 protons per pulse at 2 GeV after its upgrade in 2018/2019. In order to be able to efficiently release the deposited heat, the new dump will be made out of a single cylindrical block of a copper alloy and cooled by forced ventilation. In order to determine the energy density distribution deposited by the beam in the dump, Monte Carlo simulations were performed using FLUKA, and thermomechanical analyses carried out by importing the energy density into Ansys. In addition, CFD simulations of the airflow were carried out in order to accurately estimate the heat transfer convection coefficient on the surface of the dump. This paper describes the design process and highlights the constraints of integrating a new dump for increased beam power into the existing facility.

  4. Energy deposition profile for modification proposal of ISOLDE’s HRS Beam Dump, from FLUKA simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vlachoudis, V

    2014-01-01

    The current ISOLDE HRS beam dump has been found to be unsuitable on previous simulations, due to thermomechanical stresses. In this paper a proposal for modifying HRS dump is studied using FLUKA. The energy deposited in this modified beam dump and the amount of neutrons streaming to the tunnel area are scored and compared with the simulation of current dump. Two versions of the modification have been assessed, determining which of them is more desirable in terms of influence of radiation on ISOLDE’s tunnel. Finally, a rough estimate of temperature raise in the modified dump is shown. Further conclusions on the adequacy of these modifications need to include the thermomechanical calculations’ results, based on those presented here.

  5. Analysis of underground and surface waters of the dump of the solid communal waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almášová Kristína

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the contamination of underground and surface waters in the surroundings of the dump of the solid communal waste at the locality Cemjata in the East Slovakia,as well as with the development of the contamination in the surrounding of the dump depending on the time on the basis of the analysisof samples withdrawn from the net of drillholes in the observed area. In the area investigated there is described geological, geomorphological, climatic and hydrogeological situation, as well as the dump itself. The results acquired show that the contamination of the area brought about by medium size industrial and agricultural activity in the vicinity of the dump of the solid communal waste and inside the area investigated is comparable with the dangerous effects of the dump of the solid communal waste.

  6. Do immigrants working illegally reduce the natives' legal employment? Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines how immigrants working illegally in the shadow economy affect the legal employment of native and foreign workers in the official economy of Italy. The data set used was provided by the Central Statistical Office and includes information regarding the units of labor employed both in official production and in underground production; employment in the latter is subdivided into native workers and foreign workers. Estimates were then made as to how "legal employment" has reacted to changes in "illegal employment", with special reference to the effect of the foreign component of "illegal labor". The results of the cross sector-time series analysis of the demand for legal labor in the Italian economy from 1980 to 1995 showed that the increase of illegal units of labor produces a reduction in the use of legal labor, albeit a very limited one. An analysis by sectors shows that the competitive effects of illegal foreign workers is not homogeneous and is strongest in the agricultural sector while complementarity between the two categories of labor is evident in the nontradable services sector. When comparing the number of effects of illegal foreign and illegal native workers, illegal native workers are lower than the illegal foreign workers. Despite regularization in Italy and the lack of flexibility in the labor market, neither regular nor nonregular foreign workers have begun to openly displace native workers.

  7. The main characteristics of the Romanian illegal drug markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MAFTEI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics of the Romanian illegal drug marketsAbstract: Narcotics trade has known a real transformation over time, which is also due to the great influence of globalization. Placed among the most profitable businesses in the world, the illegal drugs market has evolved very much on the Romanian territory in the last years. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the current situation of Romanian illicit drugs market, the symbiosis between supply and demand, the general prices of the main drugs, as well as the consumption problem and transit routes. Based on theoretical aspects, on recent surveys and investigation launched by UNODC, EMCDDA and ANA, the article provides some relevant answers regarding the Romanian illicit drugs market. Compared to the European countries, Romania remains a small costumer, cannabis and SNPP being the most consumed drugs among young people. Despite the political and economic situation, Romanian authorities are better prepared, a position that may help in dealing with further drug changes.

  8. Tobacco industry allegations of "illegal lobbying" and state tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, S A; Fox, B J; Glantz, S A

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the perceived effect of tobacco industry allegations of "illegal lobbying" by public health professionals on policy interventions for tobacco control. Structured interviews were conducted with state health department project managers in all 17 National Cancer Institute-funded American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) states. Documentation and media records related to ASSIST from the National Cancer Institute, health advocates, and the tobacco industry were analyzed. The tobacco industry filed formal complaints of illegal lobbying activities against 4 ASSIST states. These complaints had a temporary chilling effect on tobacco control policy interventions in those states. ASSIST states not targeted by the tobacco industry developed an increased awareness of the industry's tactics and worked to prepare for such allegations to minimize disruption of their activities. Some self-reported self-censorship in policy activity occurred in 11 of the 17 states (65%). Public health professionals need to educate themselves and the public about the laws that regulate lobbying activities and develop their strategies, including their policy activities, accordingly.

  9. 75 FR 20670 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Use of Zeroing in Anti-Dumping Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...-Dumping Measures Involving Products From Korea AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative.... Department of Commerce (``Commerce'') of what Korea describes as ``the practice of `zeroing' negative dumping margins in calculating overall weighted average margins of dumping'' in the final and amended final...

  10. 40 CFR 256.26 - Requirement for schedules leading to compliance with the prohibition of open dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the prohibition of open dumping. 256.26 Section 256.26 Protection of Environment... compliance with the prohibition of open dumping. In implementing the section 4005(c) prohibition on open dumping, the State plan shall provide that any entity which demonstrates that it has considered other...

  11. 75 FR 32533 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures... Tariffs and Trade 1994 (the Anti-Dumping Agreement); Article XVI:4 of the WTO Agreement; part I.2 of... applying so-called ``zeroing'' in the determination of the margins of dumping in the proceedings identified...

  12. 75 FR 8177 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures... procedures and methodology employed by the United States to determine dumping margins in administrative... on Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (the Anti-Dumping...

  13. 78 FR 16754 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures... with respect to certain respondents requesting such revocation; the imposition of anti- dumping duties... Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam insofar as it did not revoke the anti-dumping duty...

  14. 76 FR 12400 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Duties on Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Countervailing and Anti-Dumping... countervailing and anti-dumping duties on Grain Oriented Flat-rolled Electrical Steel (``GOES'') from the United... measures imposing countervailing duties and anti-dumping duties on GOES from the United States are...

  15. 19 CFR 351.106 - De minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. 351.106 Section 351.106 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE... minimis net countervailable subsidies and weighted-average dumping margins disregarded. (a) Introduction... practice of disregarding net countervailable subsidies or weighted-average dumping margins that were de...

  16. A case of suspect “cyanosis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Antonucci

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CLINICAL CASE A 70-year old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever, asthenia and a suspected stroke. Her medical history showed a congenital cardiopathy (Patent Foramen Ovale, PFO. Skin and oral mucosa pigmentation, orthostatic hypotension, hypoglycemia and hyponatriemia arose the suspect of Addison’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by the evaluation of basal levels of plasma ACTH and serum cortisol, and serum cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation. Abdominal CT scan showed atrophy and calcification of adrenal glands. CONCLUSIONS In most cases, Addison’s disease is provoked by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex; however, in our reported patient, tuberculosis could be a possible cause.

  17. AUTOMATIC URBAN ILLEGAL BUILDING DETECTION USING MULTI-TEMPORAL SATELLITE IMAGES AND GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khalili Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the unprecedented growth of urban population and urban development, we are faced with the growing trend of illegal building (IB construction. Field visit, as the currently used method of IB detection, is time and man power consuming, in addition to its high cost. Therefore, an automatic IB detection is required. Acquiring multi-temporal satellite images and using image processing techniques for automatic change detection is one of the optimum methods which can be used in IB monitoring. In this research an automatic method of IB detection has been proposed. Two-temporal panchromatic satellite images of IRS-P5 of the study area in a part of Tehran, the city map and an updated spatial database of existing buildings were used to detect the suspected IBs. In the pre-processing step, the images were geometrically and radiometrically corrected. In the next step, the changed pixels were detected using K-means clustering technique because of its quickness and less user’s intervention required. Then, all the changed pixels of each building were identified and the change percentage of each building with the standard threshold of changes was compared to detect the buildings which are under construction. Finally, the IBs were detected by checking the municipality database. The unmatched constructed buildings with municipal database will be field checked to identify the IBs. The results show that out of 343 buildings appeared in the images; only 19 buildings were detected as under construction and three of them as unlicensed buildings. Furthermore, the overall accuracies of 83%, 79% and 75% were obtained for K-means change detection, detection of under construction buildings and IBs detection, respectively.

  18. Economics of Illegal Work and Illegal Workers (Immigrants: Are They Protected under South African Labour Law and the Constitution, 1996?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashele Rapatsa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses whether prostitution (illegal work and illegal immigrants have access to the protective ambits of statutory framework regulating employment relations. Its objective is to examine the scope of labour law, considerate of ever changing trends in the modern world of work. It utilizes the two notable precedents founded in Kylie v CCMA and Discovery Health v CCMA. This is considerate of inherent dynamics in contemporary labour relations where the majority of workers have been displaced into grey areas that offer little or no protection, thus rendering workers vulnerable to exploitation. The article highlights a rising tension arising out of exploitative labour practices and socio-economic factors, and the need for labour law to respond. It has been found that courts have creatively invented strategic methods that have successfully aided efforts of protecting vulnerable workers engaged in economic activities under precarious circumstances. This is to the extent that the Constitution, 1996 and the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995 have been interpreted in a manner that enhances worker protection, which fulfils the purpose for which labour law was enacted.

  19. THE ZOO-ECONOMIC CHALLENGES OF FISCAL DUMPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA LUMINIŢA SÂRBOVAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In United Europe, the economic policy proves common goals of prosperity and development, still each country is administrating its own policy mix in order to reshape the fiscal pressure and to safeguard the economic body of the society. The fiscal dumping is a feature of the market competition concerning the non-cooperating actions taken among the economic agents targeted to increase the fiscal appealing of their (home-land territory by instrument of apparently favoring fiscal policies. In Romania this disguised tool of the policy promotion is mixed with an explicit expectation of rural and agriculture subvention, abundant in SMEs and rural fields, in line with the local needs of increasing the foreign investments and consolidating growth.

  20. Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Signs and symptoms of congenital malaria do not differ much from those of neonatal sepsis: both can co-exist, and most times very difficult to differentiate clinically. Objective: To document the prevalence, risk factors for congeni tal malar ia among neonates admitted for suspected neonatal sepsis, and ...

  1. Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the clinical feature had good sensitivity, specificity or predictive value for congenital malaria, and only 1.6% death was recorded in a baby with high parasite density. Conclusion: Congenital malaria is common in newborns with suspected neonatal sepsis. History of peripartum pyrexia, prematurity and intrauterine ...

  2. MRI for clinically suspected appendicitis during pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, L.P.; Groot, I.; Haans, L.; Blickman, J.G.; Puylaert, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether MRI can be used to accurately diagnose or exclude appendicitis in pregnant patients with clinically suspected appendicitis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that MRI is helpful in the examination and diagnosis of acute appendicitis in

  3. Biomechanical properties of keratoconus suspect eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Alain; Lteif, Yara; Azan, Elodie; Gatinel, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Measuring corneal biomechanical properties may help detect keratoconus suspect corneas and eliminate the risk of ectasia after LASIK. Data of 504 eyes separated into three groups were retrospectively reviewed: normal (n = 252), keratoconus suspect (n = 80), and keratoconus (n = 172). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with an ocular biomechanics analyzer. Mean corneal hysteresis was 10.6 +/- 1.4 (SD) mm Hg in the normal group, compared with 10.0 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the keratoconus suspect group and 8.1 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in the keratoconus group. The mean CRF was 10.6 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the normal group compared with 9.7 +/- 1.7 in the keratoconus suspect group and 7.1 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the keratoconus group. Mean CH and CRF were significantly different between the three groups (P corneas. Analyzing signal curves obtained with the biomechanics analyzer may provide additional valuable information for selecting qualified patients for refractive surgery.

  4. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  5. Design and construction of a resistive energy dump device for bipolar superconducting magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, M. J.

    1977-05-01

    When superconducting magnets quench, the resistance of the conductor material rises rapidly to its normal value. This increase in resistance can result in catastrophic heating in the magnet unless stored field energy is quickly removed from the system. Phase inversion is the normal mode of energy removal. SCR's in the power supply are phased back, the output of the supply is inverted, and magnetic field energy is directed back into the utility grid. Under certain conditions, however, the power supply may fail to invert properly, and an alternate energy removal scheme must protect the superconducting magnet system. Composed of an isolation switch, a semiconductor switching module, and a dump resistor, the resistive dump device provides a viable protection scheme. Operationally, several conditions are capable of activating the isolation switch and triggering the bipolar SCR switching module. Manual dump commands, for instance, permit the operator to dump field energy in the event of observed abnormalities. A special voltage tap quench detector senses the aforementioned abnormal power supply output inversion and also fires the dump circuit. Regardless of the nature of the trigger input, however, activation of the energy dump device diverts coil current through the dump resistor. I/sup 2/R losses over time then safely dissipate stored magnetic field energy.

  6. Efficacy of the long-acting repeatable formulation of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in postoperative dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Joris; Caenepeel, Philip; Bisschops, Raf; Dewulf, Dominiek; Holvoet, Lieselot; Piessevaux, Hubert; Bourgeois, Stefan; Sifrim, Daniel; Janssens, Jozef; Tack, Jan

    2009-04-01

    Several studies have established symptomatic and mechanistic benefits of the somatostatin analogue octreotide in patients with dumping syndrome, but clinical use is hampered by the requirement for subcutaneous administration 3 times daily. We compared the efficacy of subcutaneous octreotide with that of the long-acting repeatable (LAR) octreotide formulation, which is administered monthly, in patients with dumping syndrome. The study included 30 consecutive patients with postoperative dumping, evidenced by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results and insufficient response to dietary measures. OGTT, dumping severity score (summary of scores 0-3 for 8 early and 6 late dumping symptoms), and quality-of-life data were evaluated at baseline, after 3 days of subcutaneous administration of octreotide (0.5 mg), and then after 3 monthly intramuscular injections of octreotide LAR (20 mg). Both formulations of octreotide significantly reduced total dumping severity scores (21.7 +/- 1.6 at baseline, 11.2 +/- 1.2 for subcutaneous and 14.0 +/- 1.8 for LAR formulations; P dumping.

  7. Formation of Mesoherpetobionts Communities on a Reclamated Coal Open Pit Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzyanin, Sergey; Eremeeva, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    The structure of the mesoherpetobionts arthropod communities of the reclamated dump of the Krasnobrodsky coal pit (Kemerovo region, Russia) has been studied. It was established that the pioneer grouping of mesoherpetobionts arthropod represented by classes of Chilopoda, Arachnida and Insecta-Ectognatha has been formed on the dump for two years after the soil deposition. From the Arachnida, the species of the order Aranei are the most active in the stocking of the dumps. From the class Chilopoda, the species of Lithobiomorpha appear the first on the dump. Insects from the following three orders, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera and especially Coleoptera take the main part in the expansion of dumps and the formation of primary communities. Among the Coleoptera, the beetles of the family of Carabidae (44 species, dynamic density 22.9 specimens/10 trapped per day) dominate. From them, small or medium-sized species are mainly involved in stocking the dumps. There are significant differences in the complexes of ground dump carabid beetles in comparison with the control group, differing in species composition of dominant species, species richness and species diversity parameters

  8. Northwest Russia and the Dumping of Radioactive Waste: The London Convention Implemented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokke, Olav Schram

    1997-12-31

    The `Polar Oceans and the Law of the Sea Project`, POLOS, is a three-year international research project in international law and international relations. This report is one of the publications under POLOS. The subject is the Soviet dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas. The most intensely radioactive waste is a number of submarine reactors still containing high-level spent fuel. Some of this dumping violated Soviet commitments to the 1972 London Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, and this is the starting point of the report. The discussion focuses on how international regimes may affect the domestic implementation in member states, that is, how international agreements can be converted into behavioural adaptation on the part of target groups. Soviet and later Russian management of nuclear waste in the north has been significantly influenced by regulations and programmes generated under international dumping instruments. These international programmes have been supported by the active participation of the Navy itself in the belief that they would lead to transfer of technology and financial resources to Russia from the West. Inspection of military nuclear waste management is largely left to the Northern Fleet. As for monitoring, measurements were for a long time not taken near the dumping sites. As for regulations, the Northern Fleet continued dumping long into the 1990s without permission. Regarding compliance stimulation, foreign support has helped the Northern Fleet avoid dumping. 113 refs.

  9. Monitoring of Thermal and Gas Activities in Mining Dump Hedvika, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surovka, D.; Pertile, E.; Dombek, V.; Vastyl, M.; Leher, V.

    2017-10-01

    The negative consequences of mining of the black coal is occurrence of extractive waste storage locations - mining dumps. The mining activities carried out within the area of Ostrava are responsible for at least six mine dumps of loose materials arising as wastes from mining of mineral resources, many of which show presence of thermal processes. The thermal activity in dumps is responsible for many hazardous substances that pollute the environment and harm human health in the surroundings. This paper deals with the results of the first phase of project CZ.11.4.120/0.0/0.0/15_006/0000074 TERDUMP, on exploration of thermally active mining dumps are published in the article. As a first studied thermally active dump was a Hedvika dump. To localize of hot spots with hot gas emission was used a thermovision scanning by drone. The place with high temperature (49.8 °C) identified natural gas emission through natural cracks. Analysing the occurring pollutants in Hedvika Dump using the GC-MS or HPLC, respectively and the inert gases (CO2, CO and SO2) were determined by ion chromatography. The pollutants were determined in five sampling points during two measurements executed from July to August 2017.

  10. D0 Superconducting Solenoid Quench Data and Slow Dump Data Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1998-06-09

    This Dzero Engineering note describes the method for which the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid Fast Dump and Slow Dump data are accumulated, tracked and stored. The 2 Tesla Solenoid has eleven data points that need to be tracked and then stored when a fast dump or a slow dump occur. The TI555(Texas Instruments) PLC(Programmable Logic Controller) which controls the DC power circuit that powers the Solenoid, also has access to all the voltage taps and other equipment in the circuit. The TI555 constantly logs these eleven points in a rotating memory buffer. When either a fast dump(dump switch opens) or a slow dump (power supply turns off) occurs, the TI555 organizes the respective data and will down load the data to a file on DO-CCRS2. This data in this file is moved over ethernet and is stored in a CSV (comma separated format) file which can easily be examined by Microsoft Excel or any other spreadsheet. The 2 Tesla solenoid control system also locks in first fault information. The TI555 decodes the first fault and passes it along to the program collecting the data and storing it on DO-CCRS2. This first fault information is then part of the file.

  11. Flora and vegetation on dumps of uranium mining in the southern part of the former GDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Sänger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1946 to 1990 an intensive uranium mining had been carried out with underground mining and also with opencast mining by the Wismut enterprise in the southern part of the former GDR. The mining activity lead also in the surroundings of Ronneburg to a permanent growth of devastated areas, among others in the form of dumps and tailings. These areas form by reason of mining-specific contaminations, extrem biotops which demand high claims on the pioneer organisms during the phase of natural first settlement. From 1990 to 1992 vegetation mappings were carried out on 15 dumps of the Thuringia mining area according to Braun-Blanquet (1964. The utilization of the computer programm Flora _D (Frank and Klotz 1990 enabled the ecological characterisation of the dumps. On the 15 investigated dumps found were 498 higher plants, belonging to 65 families. One hundred species are species with a high dominance. The number of species per dump fluctuates between 1 I and 282. Pioneer plants occur on the berms mostly in the second year after stoppage of the dumping, on the slopes after five to ten years. After nearly ten years the first step of settlement seems to be finished. Among the mechanisms of spreading dominate wind- and burdock spread. According to the form of life forms the dump species are predominantly hemicryptophytes, further therophytes, geophytes and phanerophytes.

  12. Feasibility of In-Situ Aeration of Old Dumping Ground for Land Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan Tong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dumping grounds are characterized by the absence of engineering controls such as base liners and cover layer. Consequently, these dumping grounds present risks for surrounding resources such as soil, groundwater and air. The concern for groundwater contamination by leachate from tropical dumping grounds is heightened due to the greater amounts of rainfall and subsequent infiltration and percolation through the waste mass. The emergent demand for old dumping grounds reclamation drives the need to employ remediation technologies. Generally, in-situ aeration is a remediation method that promotes aerobic conditions in the later stage of dumping ground. It accelerates carbon transfer, reduces remaining organic load, and generally shortens the post closure period. However, high rainfall in tropical areas straitens this technique. For example, pollutants could be easily flushed out and more energy should be required to overcome hydrostatic pressure. Although heavy rainfall could supply sufficient water to the substrate and accelerate degradation of organic matter, it may inhibit aerobic activities due to limited air transfer. The waste characterization from Lorong Halus Dumping Ground (closed dumping ground in Singapore showed that the waste materials were stabilized after 22 years closure. According to the Waste Acceptance Criteria set by European Communities Council, the waste materials could be classified as inert wastes. One interesting finding was that leachate layer detected was about of 5 - 8 meter depth, which entirely soaked the waste materials. Hence, the reclamation design and operation should be carefully adjusted according to these characters. Lorong Halus Dumping Ground case study can provide a guideline for other tropical closed landfills or dumping grounds.

  13. A Spring without Water: The Conundrum of Anti-Dumping Duties in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Vinti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Agreement on the Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1994 (Anti-Dumping Agreement permits the imposition of anti-dumping duties for as long and to the extent necessary to counteract dumping which is causing injury, subject to the proviso that they must be terminated after five years unless a sunset review has been initiated. A sunset review has the purpose of either permitting or terminating the continuation of an anti-dumping duty. This is significant because if the sunset review is not initiated prior to the expiry of the five-year period, the anti-dumping duties will be terminated. Therefore, this places an emphasis on the determination of the precise date of commencement of the anti-dumping duties. This is because an incorrect determination of the date of the imposition of the anti-dumping duty has obvious financial implications for the interested parties. The Supreme Court of Appeal in South Africa has delivered two salient judgments in this regard: firstly, in Progress Office Machines CC v SARS 2008 2 SA 13 (SCA (POM, and then more recently, in Association of Meat Importers v ITAC 2013 4 All SA 253 (SCA (AMIE. This paper contends that these two judgments are in conflict and are riddled with inconsistencies. Secondly, the paper contends that the SCA has in the recent AMIE case virtually rewritten its earlier judgment of Progress Office Machines. Lastly, the paper shows that the approach of South African courts to whether the Anti-Dumping Agreement is binding on South African law is fraught with uncertainty and ambivalence. The case analysis also reflects on the impact of the newly minted but yet to be implemented Customs Duty Act with a view to assessing the impact of the new legislation on the issues currently plaguing the anti-dumping regime of South Africa.

  14. Global governance approaches to addressing illegal logging: uptake and lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Cashore; K. McGinley; S. Leipold; P.O. Cerutti; G. Bueno; S. et al. Carodenuto

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the results of the fifth global scientific assessment undertaken by the GFEP initiative. The report set out to gain deeper understanding of the meaning of illegal logging and related timber trade, its scale, drivers and consequences. It provides a structured synthesis of available scientific and expert knowledge on illegal logging and associated...

  15. Uncovering the illegal wildlife trade : Inside the world of poachers, smugglers and traders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on four years of PhD research on the illegal trade in wildlife by the criminologist Daan van Uhm. In this study the author explores the nature of the illegal wildlife trade. Wildlife confiscations over a ten-year period in the European Union were analysed and presented by graphics

  16. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A.V.; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little

  17. An Efficient and Examinable Illegal Fallow Fields Detecting Method with Spatio-Temporal Information Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Hao; Chu, Tzu-How

    2017-04-01

    To control the rice production and farm usage in Taiwan, Agriculture and Food Agency (AFA) has published a series of policies to subsidize farmers to plant different crops or to practice fallow science 1983. Because of no efficient and examinable mechanism to verify the fallow fields surveyed by township office, illegal fallow fields were still repeated each year. In this research, we used remote sensing images, GIS data of Fields, and application records of fallow fields to establish an illegal fallow fields detecting method in Yulin County in central Taiwan. This method included: 1. collected multi-temporal images from FS-2 or SPOT series with 4 time periods; 2. combined the application records and GIS data of fields to verify the location of fallow fields; 3. conducted ground truth survey and classified images with ISODATA and Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC); 4. defined the land cover type of fallow fields by zonal statistic; 5. verified accuracy with ground truth; 6. developed potential illegal fallow fields survey method and benefit estimation. We use 190 fallow fields with 127 legal and 63 illegal as ground truth and accuracies of illegal fallow field interpretation in producer and user are 71.43% and 38.46%. If township office surveyed 117 classified illegal fallow fields, 45 of 63 illegal fallow fields will be detected. By using our method, township office can save 38.42% of the manpower to detect illegal fallow fields and receive an examinable 71.43% producer accuracy.

  18. Reality Television Programs Are Associated With Illegal Drug Use and Prescription Drug Misuse Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Shlivko, Alexander

    2016-01-02

    Reality television watching and social media use are popular activities. Reality television can include mention of illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. To determine if reality television and social media use of Twitter are associated with either illegal drug use or prescription drug misuse. Survey of 576 college students in 2011. Independent variables included watching reality television (social cognitive theory), parasocial interaction (parasocial interaction theory), television hours watched (cultivation theory), following a reality television character on Twitter, and demographics. Outcome variables were illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Watching reality television and also identifying with reality TV program characters were each associated with greater odds for illegal drug use. Also, following a reality TV character on Twitter had greater odds for illegal drug use and also in one analytical model for prescription drug misuse. No support was seen for cultivation theory. Those born in the United States had greater odds for illegal drug use and prescription drug misuse. Women and Asians had lower odds for illegal drug use. African Americans and Asians had lower odds for prescription drug misuse. Physicians, psychologists, and other healthcare practitioners may find it useful to include questions in their clinical interview about reality television watching and Twitter use. Physician and psychology groups, public health practitioners, and government health agencies should consider discussing with television broadcasting companies the potential negative impact of including content with illegal drugs and prescription drug misuse on reality television programs.

  19. A decade of illegal fishing in Table Mountain National Park (2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illegal fishing activities are reported to be on the increase in South Africa, including in its marine protected areas (MPAs). Research is presented on the nature and the scale of illegal fishing in Table Mountain National Park (TMNP) by analysing the numbers of abalone Haliotis midae and West Coast rock lobster Jasus ...

  20. Forensic timber identification: It's time to integrate disciplines to combat illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor E. Dormontt; Markus Boner; Birgit Braun; Gerhard Breulmann; Bernd Degen; Edgard Espinoza; Shelley Gardner; Phil Guillery; John C. Hermanson; Gerald Koch; Soon Leong Lee; Milton Kanashiro; Anto Rimbawanto; Darren Thomas; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Yafang Yin; Johannes Zahnen; Andrew J. Lowe

    2015-01-01

    The prosecution of illegal logging crimes is hampered by a lack of available forensic timber identification tools, both for screening of suspectmaterial and definitive identification of illegally sourcedwood. Reputable timber traders are also struggling to police their own supply chains and comply with the growing requirement for due diligence with respect to timber...

  1. Doping Attitudes and the Use of Legal and Illegal Performance-Enhancing Substances among Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio; Zelli, Arnaldo; Violani, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    Using retrospective self-reporting, rates of illegal and legal performance-enhancing substance (PES) use in the past three months among more than 3,400 Italian high school adolescents were obtained and estimated. The study focused on the extent to which these sociodemographic characteristics and illegal PES use were associated with adolescents'…

  2. 22 CFR 127.6 - Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal... REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES § 127.6 Seizure and forfeiture in attempts at illegal exports. (a) An attempt to export from the United States any defense articles in violation of the provisions of this...

  3. A computable general equilibrium assessment of the impact of illegal immigration on the Greek economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, A H; Zografakis, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the impact of illegal immigrants on the small type economy of Greece by using the multisectoral computable general equilibrium model. The theoretical analysis utilizes a model showing that there is no equivocal case for illegal immigration leading to the decline in the real wages of unskilled labor and increases in the real wages of skilled labor. The empirical analysis uses an applied general equilibrium model for Greece, showing that the inflow of illegal immigrants has resulted in declines of the real disposable incomes of two classes of households, namely, those headed by an unskilled person, and those belonging to the poor and middle class income bracket. The results, on the other hand, showed that the large increase in the influx of illegal immigrants is macroeconomically beneficial, having significant adverse distribution implications when flexible wage adjustment is assumed in various labor markets. It appears that unskilled and hired agricultural workers are among those that are severely affected by the inflow of illegal workers. The results also appear to be fairly sensitive with respect to the elasticities of labor supply and demand, while they appear to be quite insensitive to the elasticity of substitution in import demand and export supply. Furthermore, it is also insensitive to the various parameters concerning the structure of the illegal labor market such as the amount of wage differential between illegal and domestic unskilled labor as well as the monetary amounts that illegal laborers remit abroad.

  4. Illegal Immigration and the Colonization of the American Labor Market. Center for Immigration Studies Paper 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Philip L.

    This paper finds that the ready availability of illegal-immigrant workers from Mexico in major industries in the Southwest region of the United States is having far-reaching and often unanticipated consequences for patterns of investment, employment, and business competition. It reviews the displacement of U.S. workers by illegal immigrants in…

  5. Illegal immigration and local labour markets: the case of northern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lianos, T P; Sarris, A H; Katseli, L T

    1996-01-01

    "The purpose of the present study is to enhance knowledge on the impact of illegal immigrants in Greece from both Eastern European and other developing countries. Our analysis is based on direct survey information from the four regions in Greece which employ considerable numbers of illegal aliens." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  6. The Role of Family Experiences for Adolescents' Readiness to Use and Participate in Illegal Political Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Terese; Dahl, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This study used reactance theory as a starting point to explain what role a perceived undemocratic and controlling family has for adolescents' readiness to use illegal political activity. Additionally, we examined whether adolescents' readiness to use illegal political means was related to actual political behaviour, which has been lacking in…

  7. Trends and status of illegal timber logging in three forest districts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in three Forest Districts of the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana, with the objective of finding out the occurrences of illegal timber logging. Data for the study include secondary data on illegal operations from the monthly offence report files and range report files of the Districts and data for the study ...

  8. Illegal and Unsustainable Wildlife Hunting and Trade in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zahler

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports and studies document dramatic declines in a wide variety of wildlife species in Mongolia. The prime driver in these declines appears to be illegal and unsustainable hunting, both for local trade and consumption and for the international market. While data on these declines are sparse, comparisons of survey reports since the 1980s present evidence that some species may have declined by up to 90% in recent years. We outline the situation for eight major species of wildlife in Mongolia (saiga antelope, Mongolian gazelle, red deer , musk deer , ar gali, brown bear , Siberian marmot, and saker falcon. We then review the existing legal conditions and government efforts to control this situation, and suggest specific changes and actions that Mongolia should take to halt these dramatic declines in wildlife populations and avoid what may soon become an extinction crisis.

  9. Firearm retailers' willingness to participate in an illegal gun purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen

    2010-09-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or "straw" purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun's use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well.

  10. [Auto-intoxication with an illegal slimming product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenbrink, Bastiaan V C; van den Hoek, Hester L; Nowitzky, Ralph J M; Wilms, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    Dexaprine is an illegal slimming product with known serious adverse cardiac effects. Despite warnings from the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Dexaprine is still readily available online. A 29-year-old woman was brought into the emergency room after a suicide attempt with 29 Dexaprine tablets. The symptoms on admission were agitation, nausea and vomiting, hypotension, atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia and hypothermia. Extensive drug screening revealed that Dexaprine contains caffeine, amphetamine and theophylline, explaining the symptoms. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for supportive therapy overnight before being discharged. In contrast to the advertised composition, Dexaprine contains several pharmacologically active substances including caffeine, amphetamine and theophylline. In intoxications caused by products of unknown composition, additional toxicological screening is invaluable to determine the extent and severity of intoxication. In this case, the patient's symptoms were due to theophylline intoxication. Ultimately, the theophylline levels did not indicate additional treatment such as haemodialysis.

  11. Zoonotic viruses associated with illegally imported wildlife products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine M Smith

    Full Text Available The global trade in wildlife has historically contributed to the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. The United States is the world's largest importer of wildlife and wildlife products, yet minimal pathogen surveillance has precluded assessment of the health risks posed by this practice. This report details the findings of a pilot project to establish surveillance methodology for zoonotic agents in confiscated wildlife products. Initial findings from samples collected at several international airports identified parts originating from nonhuman primate (NHP and rodent species, including baboon, chimpanzee, mangabey, guenon, green monkey, cane rat and rat. Pathogen screening identified retroviruses (simian foamy virus and/or herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and lymphocryptovirus in the NHP samples. These results are the first demonstration that illegal bushmeat importation into the United States could act as a conduit for pathogen spread, and suggest that implementation of disease surveillance of the wildlife trade will help facilitate prevention of disease emergence.

  12. Destruction of illegal things and devices to contrast the counterfeiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement of goods illegal and counterfeit in the circuit of the economy and the labor market, has put in place of criminal policy internal supranational and a primary need of confiscation and destruction in relation to safety issues transnational linked to all forms of counterfeiting, piracy agro-food to fraud in industrial brands of high fashion et similia: from here the major node of the procedure of destruction of goods illegal and counterfeit subject to seizure and confiscation and respect of guarantees communities of the criminal process, especially in the light of the amendment of art. 260, co. 3 bis and ter, c.p.p. with the d.l. 23-5-2008, n. 92 and subsequent amendments (so-called Safety Package. In line with the criminal policy of ''security'', in l. 23-7-2009, n. 99, the so-called Decree Development, between the ''darrangements for the development and the internationalization of enterprises, as well as in the field of energy'' and  wanted to redesign, with analytical provisions of particular edge, the perimeter of the criminal-law protection ''Dei property rights industrial'' through the introduction of four new hypothesis of offenses of counterfeiting (artt. 473, 474, 474 b and c, 517 b and c, c.p. and related hypothesis of obligatory confiscation (art. 474 bis and 517 ter c.p., with implications concerning the regime differentiated penitentiary (art. 4 bis, co. 1 ter, ord. penit. in relation to the cases of belonging to criminal association aimed to commit new offenses referred to in articles 473-474 c.p. (arts. 416 bis, 6º Co., c.p. and 51, co. 3 bis, c.p.p., as well as the regulatory body containing the so-called ''responsability of administrative entities'', within the meaning of art. 19, d.lg. 8-6-2001, n. 231.

  13. [Abortion in unsafe conditions. Concealment, illegality, corruption and negligence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Ortega, A

    1993-01-01

    "Abortion practiced under conditions of risk" is a phrase used to refer to illegal abortion. The phrase does not highlight the disappearance of risk when legislation changes. Rather, it calls attention to the fact that legal restrictions significantly increase dangers while failing to discourage women determined to terminate pregnancies. The International Planned Parenthood Federation defines abortion under conditions of risk as the use of nonoptimal technology, lack of counseling and services to orient the woman's decision and provide postabortion counseling, and the limitation of freedom to make the decision. The phrase encompasses concealment, illegality, corruption, and negligence. It is designed to impose a reproductive health perspective in response to an unresolved social conflict. Steps have been developed to improve the situation of women undergoing abortion even without a change in its legal status. Such steps include training and purchase of equipment for treatment of incomplete abortions and development of counseling and family planning services. The central difficulty of abortion induced in conditions of risk derives from the laws imposing the need for secrecy. In Mexico, the abortion decision belongs to the government and the society, while individual absorb the consequences of the practice of abortion. Public decision making about abortion is dominated by the concept that the female has an obligation to carry any pregnancy to term. Women who interfere with male descendency and practice a sexuality distinct from reproduction are made to pay a price in health and emotional balance. Resolution of the problem of abortion will require new concepts in terms of legal status, public health issues, and the rights of women. The problem becomes more pressing as abortion becomes more common in a country anxious to advance in the demographic transition. Only a commitment to the reproductive health of women and the full development of their rights as citizens will

  14. Feasibility of abdominal plain film images in evaluation suspected drug smuggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sormaala, Markus J., E-mail: markus.sormaala@welho.com [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Salonen, Hanna-Mari, E-mail: hanna-mari.salonen@hus.fi [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Mattila, Ville M., E-mail: ville.mattila@uta.fi [Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Trauma, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere (Finland); Kivisaari, Arto, E-mail: arto.kivisaari@hus.fi [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Autti, Taina, E-mail: taina.autti@hus.fi [Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: Drug smuggling in the gastrointestinal tract has soared within the last 20 years. Though illegal substances in the gastrointestinal tract can be visualized with ultrasound, MRI and CT, the abdominal radiograph has by far remained the most frequently used way of detecting smuggled drugs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the inter-radiologist interpretation error and the reliability of the abdominal radiograph in detecting smuggled drugs. Materials and methods: A total of 279 abdominal radiographs of suspected smugglers were classified by three radiologists as clearly positive or negative for drug smuggling. All available information about the cases was collected from the customs officers and police. Results: Out of these cases 203 (73%) were interpreted as negative and 35 (13%) as positive by all three radiologists. In 86% of the cases there was, therefore, an inter-radiological agreement in interpreting the images. In 41 (14%) cases, however, there was an inter-radiologist disagreement. Kappa-value for inter-observer variability was 0.70. Conclusions: In up to a seventh of the abdominal radiographs the interpretation can be challenging even for an experienced radiologist. False positive interpretation can lead to innocent passengers being detained in vain. As negatively interpreted images usually result in releasing of the suspect, there is no way of knowing how many false negative occur. This makes the abdominal radiograph a suboptimal examination, and low dose CT should be considered as the screening modality for gastrointestinal drug smugglers.

  15. The specification of documentation for anti-dumping investigation in metallurgy using ABC costing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janovská

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s globalized market economy, business companies are active both in domestic and in foreign markets, thus increasing the importance of observing the international rules providing guidelines for mutual trade among countries within the global trading system. Metallurgical materials and products are among the products in case of which anti-dumping duty is often imposed. As far as the decisions on possible dumping and its amount are concerned, the market with metallurgical products and the methodology used for calculating the dumping range have certain specific features, as stated in the article.

  16. Analysis of Geodynamical Conditions of Region of Burning Coal Dumps Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batugin, Andrian; Musina, Valeria; Golovko, Irina

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal dumps and their impact on the environment of mining regions remain important environmental problem, in spite of the measures that are being taken. The paper presents the hypothesis, which states that the location of coal dumps at the boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks promotes the appearance of conditions for their combustion. At present geodynamically active crust faults that affect the operating conditions of engineering facilities are observed not only in the areas of tectonic activity, but also on platforms. According to the concept of geodynamical zoning, geodynamically dangerous zones for engineering structures can be not only large, well-developed crust faults, but also just formed fractures that appear as boundaries of geodynamically impacting and hierarchically ordered crust blocks. The purpose of the study is to estimate the linkage of burning dumps to boundaries of geodynamically active crust blocks (geodynamically dangerous zones) for subsequent development of recommendations for reducing environmental hazard. The analysis of 27 coal dumps location was made for one of the Eastern Donbass regions (Russia). Nine of sixteen burning dumps are located in geodynamically dangerous zones, which, taking into account relatively small area occupied by all geodynamically dangerous zones, results that there is a concentration (pcs/km2) of burning dumps, which is 14 times higher than the baseline value. While the probability of accidental obtaining of such a result is extremely low, this can be considered as the evidence of the linkage of burning dumps to geodynamically dangerous zones. Taking into account the stressed state of the rock massif in this region, all geodynamically dangerous zones can be divided into compression and tension zones. The statistic is limited, but nevertheless in tension zones the concentration of burning dumps is 2 times higher than in compression zones. Available results of thermal monitoring of

  17. The Effects of Polyvictimization and Quality of Caregiver Attachment on Disclosure of Illegal Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Megan E; Alexander, Apryl A; Morais, Hugo B; Burkhart, Barry R

    2017-07-01

    The current study examined the relationship among self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors and two conceptually relevant constructs in psychotherapy: childhood polyvictimization (i.e., cumulative types of victimization experienced during childhood) and caregiver attachment. Participants consisted of 63 adolescent males participating in mandated treatment for illegal sexual behavior. Childhood polyvictimization and caregiver attachment were expected to predict self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors. Quality of caregiver attachment was also expected to mediate the relationship between polyvictimization and disclosure. Consistent with our main hypothesis, results indicate that quality of caregiver attachment mediated the relationship between childhood polyvictimization and self-disclosure of illegal sexual behaviors in psychotherapy. The current findings highlight the impact of polyvictimization on important therapeutic processes as well as the importance of assessing for multiple types of victimization in adolescents who engage in illegal sexual behavior. Further clinical implications regarding the use of trauma-informed approaches during sex offender treatment are discussed.

  18. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jose M.C.; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Amazon is the world’s largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs) to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. Methods We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. Results We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%), followed by illegal fishing (27.30%) and hunting activities (18.20%). The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. Discussion These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity. PMID:29038758

  19. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico E. Kauano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The Brazilian Amazon is the world’s largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. Methods We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. Results We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%, followed by illegal fishing (27.30% and hunting activities (18.20%. The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. Discussion These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity.

  20. Spatiotemporal trends of illegal activities from ranger-collected data in a Ugandan national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, R; Plumptre, A J; Driciru, M; Rwetsiba, A; Stokes, E J; Tumwesigye, C; Wanyama, F; Beale, C M

    2015-10-01

    Within protected areas, biodiversity loss is often a consequence of illegal resource use. Understanding the patterns and extent of illegal activities is therefore essential for effective law enforcement and prevention of biodiversity declines. We used extensive data, commonly collected by ranger patrols in many protected areas, and Bayesian hierarchical models to identify drivers, trends, and distribution of multiple illegal activities within the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area (QECA), Uganda. Encroachment (e.g., by pastoralists with cattle) and poaching of noncommercial animals (e.g., snaring bushmeat) were the most prevalent illegal activities within the QECA. Illegal activities occurred in different areas of the QECA. Poaching of noncommercial animals was most widely distributed within the national park. Overall, ecological covariates, although significant, were not useful predictors for occurrence of illegal activities. Instead, the location of illegal activities in previous years was more important. There were significant increases in encroachment and noncommercial plant harvesting (nontimber products) during the study period (1999-2012). We also found significant spatiotemporal variation in the occurrence of all activities. Our results show the need to explicitly model ranger patrol effort to reduce biases from existing uncorrected or capture per unit effort analyses. Prioritization of ranger patrol strategies is needed to target illegal activities; these strategies are determined by protected area managers, and therefore changes at a site-level can be implemented quickly. These strategies should also be informed by the location of past occurrences of illegal activity: the most useful predictor of future events. However, because spatial and temporal changes in illegal activities occurred, regular patrols throughout the protected area, even in areas of low occurrence, are also required. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauano, Érico E; Silva, Jose M C; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is the world's largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs) to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%), followed by illegal fishing (27.30%) and hunting activities (18.20%). The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity.

  2. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  3. The Immigration Challenge: The Use of U.S. Military Force to Control Illegal Immigration from Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grissom, Bruce

    1997-01-01

    Controlling illegal immigration into the United States has become a major issue in U.S. politics. A February 1997 report released by the INS estimates that there are currently 5 million illegal aliens in the United States...

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  5. Chemical composition of fragmental products fractions of rock dumps and tailing dump as basis for potential geoecological danger estimation in the areas of mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovina Ol’ga Konstantinovna

    Full Text Available Negative consequences of deposit development on the environment are well know. They manifest themselves most intensively in case of open-cut mining of ore minerals, which is related to the increase of rock dumps masses. The material of rock dumps and tailing dumps actively influence the state of the environment transforming the natural landscapes, first of all, as a reason of migration of waters changed as a result of their contact with mining waste. The authors give their estimation of the consequences of apatite-nephelinic ore crop in Khibini Ore District by the company “Apatit”, which includes the influence on the natural waters. The unique natural conditions of the area are the reason for high-level potential geoecological danger. The mobility of lots of toxic elements is raised because of ligand-ion OH in the waters of alkali rocks of Khibini soil.

  6. The evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Cindy W

    2015-05-01

    Child physical abuse is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and is associated with major physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Pediatricians are in a unique position to identify and prevent child abuse, and this clinical report provides guidance to the practitioner regarding indicators and evaluation of suspected physical abuse of children. The role of the physician may include identifying abused children with suspicious injuries who present for care, reporting suspected abuse to the child protection agency for investigation, supporting families who are affected by child abuse, coordinating with other professionals and community agencies to provide immediate and long-term treatment to victimized children, providing court testimony when necessary, providing preventive care and anticipatory guidance in the office, and advocating for policies and programs that support families and protect vulnerable children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  8. Price strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese exporters in the light of anti-dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. It is based on the EU anti-dumping cases since 1990. Based on this analysis, the paper presents practical advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. Firstly, the CELEX database may...... give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU in order to avoid anti-dumping measures. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important, if market economy status with its lower duties, is wanted. Wholly owned foreign companies or joint ventures...... is decisive. Fourthly, if an anti-dumping investigation seems to be against the interests of the company, it should make an offer to the EU Commission to raise its export prices instead of paying duty. Fifthly, the paper also shows that the circumvention and absorption of duties often do not pay....

  9. Estimation of spatial variability of lignite mine dumping ground soil properties using CPTu results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagińska Irena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with application of CPTu test results for the probabilistic modeling of dumping grounds. The statistical measures use results from 42 CPT test points located in the lignite mine dumping ground from the region of Central Europe. Both the tip resistance qc as well as local friction fs are tested. Based on the mean values and standard deviations of measured quantities the specific zones in the dumping site profile are distinguished. For three main zones standard deviations of linearly de-trended functions, distributions of normalized de-trended values for qc and fs are examined. Also the vertical scales of fluctuation for both measured quantities are estimated. The obtained result shows that lignite mine dumping site can be successfully described with the Random Field Theory. Additional use of fs values introduces supplementary statistical information.

  10. The Puzzle of Simultaneous Anti-Dumping and Anti-Subsidy Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Hansen, Jørgen Drud

    Quite frequently an anti-subsidy investigation in the EU is paired with an anti-dumping investigation against the same non-EU producers. The final outcome may be a two-component duty where one duty addresses the ‘unfairness’ of the subsidy and the other the dumping behavior. The procedure may...... be a surprise, as the same total level of protection may be obtained by using the anti-dumping procedure exclusively. When calculating the two duties in the EU the outcome depends on whether the subsidies are export subsidies or domestic subsidies and this may also cause surprise. This paper addresses......’ competition completely and because a parallel investigation may increase the probability of a successful outcome for the petitioners. In contrast, we find that the different assumptions about the effect of export subsidies and domestic production subsidies on the dumping margin in the EU dual anti...

  11. Using an active contour method to detect bilge dumps from SAR imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, Lizwe W

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available as potential bilge dump events. The automated approach was investigated using SENTINEL-1A and ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) where the proposed approach showed promising results....

  12. Glaucoma suspect & Humphrey Field Analyzer a correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma originally meant "clouded", in Greek.The term glaucoma refers to a group of diseases that have in common characteristic optic neuropathy with associated visual field loss for which elevated intraocular pressure is one of the primary risk factor. The purpose of the study is to correlate the clinically diagnosed cases of glaucoma suspect with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA. Fifty cases of glaucoma suspect who attended the glaucoma clinic of Nepal Eye Hospital Tripureswor, Kathmandu, Nepal and who meets at least two criteria, among the four types of glaucoma suspects were advised for the HFA for the study. In this study out of 50 patient, 36 (72% patients had normal visual field. 14 (28% patients had thinning of the neural retinal rim (NRR in both eyes. The significant relation with thinning of neural retina rim and glaucomatous hemifield test was found in the study. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-1, 23-28 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i1.6822

  13. Tocolytics for suspected intrapartum fetal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulier, R; Hofmeyr, G J

    2000-01-01

    Prophylactic tocolysis with betamimetics and other agents has become widespread as a treatment for fetal distress. Uterine relaxation may improve placental blood flow and therefore fetal oxygenation. However there may also be adverse maternal cardiovascular effects. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of tocolytic therapy for suspected fetal distress on fetal, maternal and perinatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Date of last search: February 1999. Randomised trials comparing tocolytic therapy with no treatment or treatment with another tocolytic agent for suspected fetal distress. Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted data. Three studies were included. Compared with no treatment, there were fewer failed improvements in fetal heart rate abnormalities with tocolytic therapy (relative risk 0.26, 95% 0.13 to 0.53). Betamimetic therapy compared with magnesium sulphate showed a non-significant trend towards reduced uterine activity (relative risk 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 1.10). Betamimetic therapy appears to be able to reduce the number of fetal heart rate abnormalities and perhaps reduce uterine activity. However there is not enough evidence based on clinically important outcomes to evaluate the use of betamimetics for suspected fetal distress.

  14. 15 CFR 764.7 - Activities involving items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. 764.7 Section 764.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade... items that may have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya. (a) Introduction. As set forth in... have been illegally exported or reexported to Libya before the comprehensive embargo on Libya ended...

  15. Mathematical model of vertical mass transport in the mine dumps Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevhrashkina T.P.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The multivariate mathematical models of the recultivated, recultivated and dumping with dry system, recultivated in systematically irrigation conditions and free of overgrowth by wild plants are proposed, designed and quantified. The theory of physico-chemical hydrodynamics of pore space using analytical and numerical methods for solving the equations of motion and mass conservation of matter all models are based on. The adequacy of built models and man-maid processes that proceed inside the mine dumps is proved.

  16. 77 FR 2119 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Anti-Dumping and Countervailing... Anti-dumping Agreement; Articles 10, 12.3, 12.4.1, 12.7, 12.8, 15.1, 15.2, 15.4, 15.5, 16.1, 19.4, 22.3...

  17. Anti-Dumping with Heterogeneous Firms: New Protectionism for the New-New Trade Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes anti­-dumping (AD) policies in a two-country model with heterogeneous firms in monopolistic competition. Effective AD legislation in one country imposes a no-dumping condition on firms exporting from the other country, altering their pricing both domestically and abroad. Some firms with intermediate productivities cease export activity, and entry shifts towards the AD protected country, which has now become relatively more attractive. Protecting firms with AD therefore inc...

  18. Analysis Of The EU Anti-dumping Policy In Terms Of The Revealed Comparative Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issabekov Nurlybek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-dumping policy is an important instrument of trade policy as far as protecting markets against dishonest practices of foreign suppliers is concerned and it is compliant with international regulations such as e.g. these set by the World Trade Organisation. Generally, dumping concerns exporting commodities at lower prices than a selling price of commodities (so-called normal value. Antidumping policy uses appropriate preventive means against dishonest practices in a situation when:

  19. BIO-PEDO-GEOGRAPHYCAL REGARDS ON GARBAGE DUMPS FROM TOMEŞTI - IAŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Secu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The garbage dump from Tomeşti (Iaşi represents a water and soil pollution source, as well as a peril for the population’s health. The study has pursued the analysis of some indicators of water quality (which have evidenced exceeds of the currently admitted values, the identification of the plant species from the garbage dump perimeter (table 1 and the presentation of the general geographical landscape.

  20. Geophysical exploration of historical mine dumps for the estimation of valuable residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tina; Knieß, Rudolf; Noell, Ursula; Hupfer, Sarah; Kuhn, Kerstin; Günther, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Within the project ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105) the economic potential of different abandoned dump sites for mine waste in the Harz Mountains was investigated. Two different mining dumps were geophysically and mineralogically analysed in order to characterize the mine dump structure and to estimate the volume of the potential recycling material. The geophysical methods comprised geoelectrics, radar, and spectral induced polarization (SIP). One about 100-year old mining dump containing residues from density separated Ag- and Sb-rich Pb (Zn)-gangue ores was investigated in detail. Like most small-scale mining waste disposal sites this investigated dump is very heterogeneously structured. Therefore, 27 geoelectrical profiles, more than 50 radar profiles, and several SIP profiles were measured and analysed. The results from the radar measurements, registered with the GSSI system and a shielded 200 MHz antenna, show the near surface boundary layer (down to 3-4 m beneath surface) of the waste residuals. These results can be used as pre-information for the inversion process of the geoelectrical data. The geoelectrical results reveal the mineral residues as layers with higher resistivities (> 300 Ohm*m) than the surrounding material. The SIP method found low phase signals (geoelectrical profile and interpolated between the single profiles using the BERT algorithm. Taking into account the wooded areas of the mine dump and other parameters we get a first estimate for the volume of the residues but the economical viability and the environmental impact of the reworking of the dump still needs to be evaluated in detail. The results of the second mine dump, an abandoned Cu and Zn-rich slag heap, show that the slag residues are characterized by higher resistivities and higher phases. A localization of the slag residues which are covered by organic material could be realized applying these geophysical methods.

  1. Effect of illegal on-street parking on travel times in urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morillo Carbonell, C.; Magin Campos Cacheda, J.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the on-street illegal parking on the commercial travel time of the vehicles in the area. The effect of the illegal parking in the travel time of the vehicles in the zone is analyzed in an urban scenario in order to quantify the negative impact that illegal parking implies to this, by itself, congested areas. To achieve the objective of the paper, a 3x3 street model has been designed and evaluated for different situations. In this sense, based on a traffic microsimulation model a bunch of scenarios have been considered in function of parameters referred to intensity of vehicles, illegal on street parking level and location of the illegals. Based on the scenarios mentioned, it has been analyzed the effect that the different parameters have on the commercial speed of the vehicles in order to have a first set of information that permits how to act to reduce the effect of illegal on street parking. The results obtained in this article will be able to be used in next steps in order to define direct and indirect reduction strategies referred to illegal on street parking effect. (Author)

  2. Toward a new understanding of the links between poverty and illegal wildlife hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Rosaleen; St John, Freya A V; Büscher, Bram; Brockington, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Conservation organizations have increasingly raised concerns about escalating rates of illegal hunting and trade in wildlife. Previous studies have concluded that people hunt illegally because they are financially poor or lack alternative livelihood strategies. However, there has been little attempt to develop a richer understanding of the motivations behind contemporary illegal wildlife hunting. As a first step, we reviewed the academic and policy literatures on poaching and illegal wildlife use and considered the meanings of poverty and the relative importance of structure and individual agency. We placed motivations for illegal wildlife hunting within the context of the complex history of how wildlife laws were initially designed and enforced to indicate how hunting practices by specific communities were criminalized. We also considered the nature of poverty and the reasons for economic deprivation in particular communities to indicate how particular understandings of poverty as material deprivation ultimately shape approaches to illegal wildlife hunting. We found there is a need for a much better understanding of what poverty is and what motivates people to hunt illegally. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Influence of illegal gold mining on mercury levels in fish of north Sulawesi's Minahasa Peninsula, (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambey, J L; Farrell, A P; Bendell-Young, L I

    2001-01-01

    North Sulawesi's Minahasa Peninsula currently is experiencing intense illegal gold mining activity. It has been estimated that 200 t of mercury are used annually in Indonesia in the recovery of gold from the illegal mines. To date no study has assessed the environmental impact of this illegal activity on the nearby aquatic biota. To address this concern, we compared tissue mercury levels from several sites, including a reference site and a site near an illegal mine. Fish from the region of the illegal mine contained 30 times the mercury content of fish at the reference site. Moreover, whole fish tissue levels were four times those recommended by the World Health Organization for consumption restrictions and often two-fold higher than recommended for total restriction on fish consumption. The environmental and human health implications of these levels are of grave concern; citizen education programmes are required to alert indigenous peoples of the risks associated with mercury exposure and fish consumption guidelines put into place. A more comprehensive effort to identify major sources and effects are required. Such information can be used to determine the correct course of action that needs to be taken to close existing illegal mines and prevent future illegal mining activities.

  4. The net national costs of illegal immigration into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, D L

    1995-04-01

    "This article examines the major economic pros and cons of illegal immigration and answers the question: what, if any, are the public and private costs of illegal immigration in the United States? In brief, the article finds that between four and 5.4 million illegal immigrants reside here.... The article also finds that illegal immigrants and their own citizen children cost taxpayers an additional $12 to $16.2 billion annually for education, public services, and incarceration after deducting all local, state, and federal taxes paid in by them. In the private sector, illegal aliens are found to save their employers and owners of capital about $1.5 billion more than U.S. workers lose due to wage depression. The article also considers what legal and enforcement reforms would be necessary to dramatically slow the current flow of 300,000 illegals yearly and concludes that, although improvements in the system are now being proposed, the actual reforms will be insufficient to more than stem the currently rising tide of illegals due to economic instability in Mexico and the Third World." excerpt

  5. [Analysis of the dumping syndrome on morbid obese patients submitted to Roux en Y gastric bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Angelo Bustani; de Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto; Pitombo, Cid Araújo; Milcent, Marcel; Madureira, Fernando Athaíde Veloso

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the real prevalence and characteristics of dumping syndrome in a series of cases submitted to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. We assessed dumping symptoms in 34 patients who had undergone that procedure; they filled a questionnaire, which included the dumping clinical diagnosis score proposed by Sigstad. regarding patients' complaints, dumping prevalence was 44%. This number increased to 76% when applying the Sigstad's score. The most frequent symptoms were 'need for lying down' (88%), fatigue (69%) and sleepiness (69%). Only 28% of the dumpers felt incapable of performing everyday activities. There was no difference in weight loss percentage between dumpers and non-dumpers. The Sigstad score is an usefull tool for the diagnostic of dumping, but a critic vision must be adopted when using in patients submitted to the Roux en Y gastric bypass. The dumping syndrome was frequent in this group, although usually under-diagnosed; it neither hampers patients' everyday activities considerably, nor helps in the weight-loosing process.

  6. Simulation of the Beam Dump for a High Intensity Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Doebert, S; Lefevre, T; Pepitone, K

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC Drive Beam is a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. A test facility for the Drive Beam electron gun will soon be commissioned at CERN. In this contribution we outline the design of a beam dump / Faraday cup capable of resisting the beam’s thermal load. The test facility will operate initially up to 140 keV. At such low energies, the electrons are absorbed very close to the surface of the dump, leading to a large energy deposition density in this thin layer. In order not to damage the dump, the beam must be spread over a large surface. For this reason, a small-angled cone has been chosen. Simulations using Geant4 have been performed to estimate the distribution of energy deposition in the dump. The heat transport both within the electron pulse and between pulses has been modelled using finite element methods to check the resistance of the dump at high repetition rates. In addition, the possibility of using a moveable dump to measure the beam profile and emittance is discussed.

  7. Use of a garbage dump by some mammal species in the Majella massif (Abruzzo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Martina

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In several previous works the presence of urban solid wastes in the feeding habits of some animal species has been documented. This study was carried out to discover which species visit a rubbish dump located in an area of the Majella massif. Monthly nightime direct observations, from September 1990 to May 1992, revealed the presence of dogs Canis [lupus] familiaris, domestic cats Felis [silvestris] catus, wolves Canis lupus and red foxes Vulpes vulpes. The fox was the most frequently observed species. Fox visits to the dump were distributed more continuously during the entire period of the study then the other species. An "asymmetry analysis" was carried out to find out the animals' favourite time to use the dump. The analysis produced time lag values of 02:00 A.M. to 05:00 A.M. The wolf was observed the least. During the monthly observations a similar trend between the cat and wolf came to light. The two species also visited the dump at similar times (wolf: 07:00-11:00 P.M.; cat: 05:00-10:00 P.M.. Dog visits to the dump were less continuous in comparison with other species: no preferred time was revealed. Some environmental factors, related to the geographical area and management of the dump limited waste availability. This probably had an effect on the presence of the animals.

  8. Did Anti-dumping Duties Really Restrict Import?: Empirical Evidence from the US, the EU, China, and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakgyoon Choi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the effects of anti-dumping measures on the imports to investigate whether the trade restriction effect of an anti-dumping duty is dominant. Our results indicate that a 1% increase in the anti-dumping duties decreases the import of the targeted product by about 0.43~0.51%. The actual statistics, however, show that the total import of the targeted products increased by about 30 percent while an anti-dumping duty was in force. That indicates that an anti-dumping duty is just a temporary import relief. This paper also investigated whether an anti-dumping duty is terminated in the case that the injury would not be likely to continue or recur if the duty were removed. The hazards model estimates show that increase in market share, MFN tariff rate, and dumping margin decrease the hazard of termination of an anti-dumping duty, but the increase in value added increases the hazard of termination. Generally speaking, this result indicates that the WTO member countries have regulated the overuse of an anti-dumping measure. The findings of this paper show that there is a country- and industry-wise heterogeneous characteristic in the effect as well as termination of an anti-dumping duty.

  9. Merits of partial shielding in dumping sediment spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jacob Hjelmager; Saremi, Sina; Jimenez, Carlos; Hadjioannou, Louis

    2015-12-15

    The commonly adopted method of dumping dredge spoil at sea using split-hull barges leads to considerable sediment loss to the water column and a subsequent dispersion of fine material that can pose a risk to sensitive "downstream" habitats such as coral reefs. Containing sediment loads using stitched closed geotextile bags is practiced for minimizing loss of contaminated sediment, but is expensive in terms of operational efficiency. Following promising observations from initial laboratory trials, the plunging of partially shielded sediment loads, released on open sea, was studied. The partial shielding was achieved with rigid, open containers as well as flexible, open bags. The loss of sediment from these modes of shielding was measured, and it was observed that even limited and unstitched shielding can be effective in debilitating the entrainment of water into the descending load. In particular, long-sleeved flexible bags practically self-eliminated the exposure of the load and thus losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Complications of bariatric surgery: dumping syndrome, reflux and vitamin deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jan; Deloose, Eveline

    2014-08-01

    Bariatric surgical procedure are increasingly and successfully applied in the treatment of morbid obesity. Nevertheless, these procedures are not devoid of potential long-term complications. Dumping syndrome may occur after procedures involving at least partial gastric resection or bypass, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy. Diagnosis is based on clinical alertness and glucose tolerance testing. Treatment may involve dietary measures, acarbose and somatostatin analogues, or surgical reintervention for refractory cases. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) can be aggravated by vertical banded gastroplasty and sleeve gastrectomy procedures, but pre-existing GERD may improve after RYGB and with adjustable gastric banding. Nutrient deficiencies constitute the most important long-term complications of bariatric interventions, as they may lead to haematological, metabolic and especially neurological disorders which are not always reversible. Malabsorptive procedures, poor postoperative nutrient intake, recurrent vomiting and poor compliance with vitamin supplement intake and regular follow-up are important risk factors. Preoperative nutritional assessment and rigourous postoperative follow-up plan with administration of multi-vitamin supplements and assessment of serum levels is recommended in all patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The Labor Market Effects of Reducing the Number of Illegal Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Andri Chassamboulli; Giovanni Peri

    2015-01-01

    A controversial issue in the US is how to reduce the number of illegal immigrants and what effect this would have on the US economy. To answer this question we set up a two-country model with search in labor markets and featuring legal and illegal immigrants among the low skilled. We calibrate it to the US and Mexican economies during the period 2000-2010. As immigrants, especially illegal ones, have a worse outside option than natives their wages are lower. Hence their presence r...

  12. Structure of attitudes toward illegal immigration: development of cross-national cumulative scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Kees; Ommundsen, Reidar; Larsen, Knud S; Le, Hao Van; Krumov, Krum; Pernice, Regina E; Romans, Gerardo Pastor

    2004-06-01

    This research examined the possibility of developing Mokken cumulative scales measuring attitudes toward illegal immigrants in a 9-nation sample. A total of 1,407 respondents primarily from national and regional universities participated in the surveys including the 20-item Illegal Immigration Scale. The scales displayed acceptable reliability with coefficients alpha ranging from .79 to .93. A Procrustes analysis yielded coefficients of congruence with the previously established three-factor solution. The amount of variance accounted for varied between 33.1 and 54.7%, supporting the presence of other factors in attitudes toward illegal immigrants. Mokken scale analysis yielded robust and economical scales in two clusters of national samples.

  13. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomen, A T

    1997-01-01

    "On September 30, 1996, President Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (1996 Act), Pub. L. No. 104-208, 110 Stat. 3009. After an intense lobbying effort by the business community, most provisions relating to legal immigration were omitted from the final bill. Instead, the 1996 Act focuses on illegal immigration reform and includes some of the toughest measures ever taken against illegal immigration." Aspects considered include border enforcement, penalities against alien smuggling and document fraud, deportation and exclusion proceedings, employer sanctions, welfare provisions, and changes to existing refugee and asylum procedures. excerpt

  14. The Fight against Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stanciu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The international community have been of aware of IUU fishing for over a decade. As a result, the FAO adopted anInternational Plan of Action in 2001 which called upon all its members to take actions against these illegal practices.The EC adopted a Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing on 29 September 2008. It will enter intoforce on 1 January 2010 and is inspired by the FAOs International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUUfishing (2001. The Proposal for a Regulation to fight IUU fishing was a result from a public consultation held inJanuary 2007. It constitutes one of the most serious threats to the sustainable exploitation of living aquatic resourcesand marine biodiversity, causes depletion of fish stocks and future stock growth, damages the marine environment byover fishing and irresponsible fishing practices and techniques. The depletion of fish stocks reduces the size ofcatches which in turn contributes to lower turnover and eventually job losses. It contributes to unfair competitionamong those operators who abide by the rules and those who do not and it causes serious overall consequences forcoastal communities and in particular those in developing countries who rely to a large extent on fisheries

  15. The Illegal Economy: from the Perspective of Socioeconomic Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rigoberto López Ramírez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As with painting a picture, perspective is one element in the composition of an image. There are first, second and third plane, the focal point and vanishing point, the latter element providing perspective and depth. That is the point where all the lines that make up an image meet. In this picture of base crime, the foreground consists of the state and market that are also the focal point, the most visible elements of the formal world responsible for public safety. The background is composed of the informal sector and the third level, in the background but drawing attention to itself, is the illegal-criminal sector, which also lies at the vanishing point: socioeconomic reproduction. This element adds depth to the entire image. All lines of the planes mentioned above are directed to and from it. It would seem that it is a major hub that explains the composition of the whole, and that is where the crux of the matter liesDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1363

  16. Firearm Retailers’ Willingness to Participate in an Illegal Gun Purchase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or “straw” purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99–21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun’s use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11524-010-9489-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20803095

  17. A conceptual framework for understanding illegal killing of large carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Neil H; López-Bao, José Vicente; Bruskotter, Jeremy T; Gore, Meredith; Chapron, Guillaume; Johnson, Arlyne; Epstein, Yaffa; Shrestha, Mahendra; Frank, Jens; Ohrens, Omar; Treves, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    The growing complexity and global nature of wildlife poaching threaten the survival of many species worldwide and are outpacing conservation efforts. Here, we reviewed proximal and distal factors, both social and ecological, driving illegal killing or poaching of large carnivores at sites where it can potentially occur. Through this review, we developed a conceptual social-ecological system framework that ties together many of the factors influencing large carnivore poaching. Unlike most conservation action models, an important attribute of our framework is the integration of multiple factors related to both human motivations and animal vulnerability into feedbacks. We apply our framework to two case studies, tigers in Laos and wolverines in northern Sweden, to demonstrate its utility in disentangling some of the complex features of carnivore poaching that may have hindered effective responses to the current poaching crisis. Our framework offers a common platform to help guide future research on wildlife poaching feedbacks, which has hitherto been lacking, in order to effectively inform policy making and enforcement.

  18. Identifying Demand Responses to Illegal Drug Supply Interdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Scott; Finlay, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Successful supply-side interdictions into illegal drug markets are predicated on the responsiveness of drug prices to enforcement and the price elasticity of demand for addictive drugs. We present causal estimates that targeted interventions aimed at methamphetamine input markets ('precursor control') can temporarily increase retail street prices, but methamphetamine consumption is weakly responsive to higher drug prices. After the supply interventions, purity-adjusted prices increased then quickly returned to pre-treatment levels within 6-12 months, demonstrating the short-term effects of precursor control. The price elasticity of methamphetamine demand is -0.13 to -0.21 for self-admitted drug treatment admissions and between -0.24 and -0.28 for hospital inpatient admissions. We find some evidence of a positive cross-price effect for cocaine, but we do not find robust evidence that increases in methamphetamine prices increased heroin, alcohol, or marijuana drug use. This study can inform policy discussions regarding other synthesized drugs, including illicit use of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Reconstruction of the inner structure of small scale mining waste dumps by combining GPR and ERTdata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniess, Rudolf; Martin, Tina

    2015-04-01

    Two abandoned small waste dumps in the west of the Harz mountains (Germany) were analysed using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Aim of the project (ROBEHA, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (033R105)) is the assessment of the recycling potential of the mining residues taking into account environmental risks of reworking the dump site. One task of the geophysical prospection is the investigation of the inner structure of the mining dump. This is important for the estimation of the approximate volume of potentially reusable mining deposits within the waste dump. The two investigated dump sites are different in age and therefore differ in their structure. The older residues (< 1930) consist of ore processing waste from density separation (stamp mill sand). The younger dump site descends from comprises slag dump waste. The layer of fine grained residues at the first dump site is less than 6 m thick and the slag layer is less than 2 m thick. Both sites are partially overlain by forest or grassland vegetation and characterized by topographical irregularities. Due to the inhomogeneity of the sites we applied electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) for detailed investigation. Using ERT we could distinguish various layers within the mining dumps. The resistivities of the dumped material differ from the bedrock resistivities at both sites. The GPR measurements show near surface layer boundaries down to 3 - 4 m. In consecutive campaigns 100 MHz and 200 MHz antennas were used. The GPR results (layer boundaries) were included into the ERT inversion algorithm to enable more precise and stable resistivity models. This needs some special preprocessing steps. The 3D-Position of every electrode from ERT measurement and the GPR antenna position on the surface require an accuracy of less than 1cm. At some points, the layer boundaries and radar wave velocities can be calibrated

  20. Prevalence of glaucoma suspects and pattern of intra-ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma is the commonest cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Some glaucoma patients start out as glaucoma suspects for years. Aim: To determine the prevalence of glaucoma suspects and pattern of intra-ocular pressure distribution in glaucoma suspects. Methods: This survey was carried out in ...

  1. Nuclear Pedigree Criteria of Suspected HNPCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kładny Józef

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The criteria for the diagnosis of HNPCC established by the ICG-HNPCC are very restrictive as they do not allow for the diagnosis of a large number of "suspected HNPCC" cases - these are families which do no fulfill the strict diagnostic "Amsterdam criteria", but do present with several pedigree and clinical features characteristic for HNPCC. Several series of families suspected of harboring germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes have been studied for germline changes in DNA mismatch repair genes and a mutation rate of somewhere between 8-60% was found. Therefore a subgroup of members of the ICG-HNPCC has been working on pedigree/clinical diagnostic criteria for suspected HNPCC. Materials and methods Part I The study was based on two series of colorectal cancer (CRC cases: 1 HNPCC - this group comprised 190 patients affected by CRC from randomly selected families which fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria registered in Düsseldorf, Germany (102 cases of CRC, Denmark (18 CRCs, Leiden, Holland (23 CRCs and Szczecin, Poland (47 CRCs. 2 Consecutive CRCs - this group comprised 629 (78.0% of 806 individuals with CRC diagnosed in 1991-1997 in the city of Szczecin (ca. 400,000 of inhabitants, Poland. Nuclear pedigrees in both groups were compared for frequency of occurrence of clinical features, that have been shown to be associated with HNPCC. Part II 52 consecutive CRC cases from Szczecin, matching the criteria recognized in part I as appropriate for diagnosis of cases "suspected of HNPCC" were studied for the occurrence of germline hMSH2/hMLH1 constitutional mutations using "exon by exon" sequencing. Results The combination of features - i.e. the occurrence of an HNPCC associated cancer (CRC or cancer of the endometrium, small bowel or urinary tract in a 1st degree relative of a CRC patient; at least one of the patients being diagnosed under age of 50 - appeared to be strongly associated to HNPCC with an OR - 161. Constitutional

  2. Contribution to the study of the illegal export of artworks during The Spanish Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Colorado Castellary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The illegal trafficking of works of art abroad during the Spanish Civil War has not yet been studied systematically due in part to the evident difficulties for research given the scarce, dispersed and, in many cases, unreliable documentation in archives. The purpose of this article is to establish research parameters in order to confront these difficulties, based mainly on unpublished primary sources. The first task lies in clearly differentiating between official shipments of artworks to save them from the dangers of war, and other illegal shipments, taking into account that for the Franco regime everything was the product of the “theft of the reds”. The second task is to establish who were those mainly responsible for this illegal trafficking, their means and procedures. The final purpose is to analyze the actions taken by both governments to fight the illegal export of artworks.

  3. Detection of whitening agents in illegal cosmetics using attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O

    2014-09-01

    Cosmetic products containing illegal whitening agents are still found on the European market. They represent a considerable risk to public health, since they are often characterised by severe side effects when used chronically. The detection of such products at customs is not always simple, due to misleading packaging and the existence of products containing only legal components. Therefore there is a need for easy to use equipment and techniques to perform an initial screening of samples. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics, was evaluated for that purpose. It was found that the combination of ATR-IR with the simple chemometric technique k-nearest neighbours gave good results. A model was obtained in which a minimum of illegal samples was categorised as legal. The correctly classified illegal samples could be attributed to the illegal components present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid discrimination of slimming capsules based on illegal additives by electronic nose and flash gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenzhen; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-02-01

    The discrimination of counterfeit and/or illegally manufactured medicines is an important task in the pharmaceutical industry for pharmaceutical safety. In this study, 22 slimming capsule samples with illegally added sibutramine and phenolphthalein were analyzed by electronic nose and flash gas chromatography. To reveal the difference among the different classes of samples, principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were employed to analyze the data acquired from electronic nose and flash gas chromatography, respectively. The samples without illegal additives can be discriminated from the ones with illegal additives by using electronic nose or flash gas chromatography data individually. To improve the performance of classification, a data fusion strategy was applied to integrate the data from electronic nose and flash gas chromatography data into a single model. The results show that the samples with phenolphthalein, sibutramine and both can be classified well by using fused data. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Economic and ecosystem impacts of illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU) fishing in Northern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pascoe, Sean; Okey, Tomas A; Griffiths, Shane

    2008-01-01

    .... In this article, an ecosystem model developed in the Ecopath with Ecosim framework is used to estimate the impacts of illegal shark fishing on the remaining system, and the potential economic impacts on commercial fisheries in the region.

  6. Illegibility and lack of information in medical prescriptions: risk factors related to medication errors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geysa Aguiar; Lourival Alves da Silva Júnior; Marco Antônio Magalhães Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    .... They have multiple causes, amongst them, the prescriptions’ illegibility and lack of information. A study of medical prescriptions was conducted in order to analyze the frequency of risk factors related to medication errors...

  7. The Illegal Employment in Ukraine: What More Is to Be Done to Overcome It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchetinina Ludmila V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers consequences of proliferation of the illegal employment in Ukraine, which are classified by the levels of administration – international, macro, meso, micro, and personal level, further by the public institutions – the State employment service, system of compulsory social insurance, pension system, judiciary, trade unions etc. The article analyzes the legislative documents as to their contribution to unshadowing the employment and legalization of wages. It has been determined that employers that provide illegal employment can be subject to administrative responsibility, criminal liability, and penalties. But, despite the available demotivators towards the illegal employment in the national legislation, its volume remains significant. Therefore we suggest the following activities to be necessary: informing citizens about the legal liability for illegal employment, activation of bodies of the State supervision and monitoring of violations of labor laws as well as working groups on legalization of the payment of wages and employment.

  8. In God's name: violent youth, primitive accumulation and power wars in Nigeria's illegal and legal economies.

    OpenAIRE

    Ifeka, Caroline; Works in Progress Seminars Series

    2014-01-01

    A Works in Progress Seminar Series lecture entitled: In God's name - violent youth, primitive accumulation and power wars in Nigeria's illegal and legal economies. This lecture is delivered by Dr Caroline Ifeka.

  9. The role of dumping syndrome in weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ambar; Ding, Yi; Mikami, Dean J; Needleman, Bradley J

    2013-05-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of morbid obesity in the US. Dumping syndrome is an expected and desired part of the behavior modification caused by gastric bypass surgery; it can deter patients from consuming energy-dense food. In this study we assessed the role dumping has in weight loss and its relationship with the patient's eating behavior. Fifty patients who underwent gastric bypass between January 2008 and June 2008 were enrolled. Two questionnaires, the dumping syndrome questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), were used to record the patients' responses. The diagnosis of dumping syndrome was based on the Sigstad scoring system, where a score of 7 and above was considered positive. TFEQ evaluated the patients' eating behavior under three scales: cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. The results were analyzed with descriptive and parametric statistics where applicable. The prevalence of dumping syndrome was 42 %, with 66.7 % of the subjects being women. The nondumpers were observed to have a greater mean decrease in body mass index than the dumpers at 1 and 2 years (18.5 and 17.8 vs. 14.4 and 13.7 respectively). There was no definite relationship between the presence of dumping syndrome and the eating behavior of the patient. However, the cognitive restraint scores, greater than 80 %, were associated with an average decrease in BMI of 19 and 20.8 at 1 and 2 years compared with 14.6 and 12.4 in those with scores less than 80 % (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). The presence of dumping syndrome after gastric bypass does not influence weight loss, though eating behaviors may directly influence it.

  10. A Review On Dump Slope Stabilization By Revegetation With Reference To Indigenous Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Ranjan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The waste sub-grade ROM and Fines dumps are characterized by high rock fragment contents low moisture retention capacity higher bulk density low nutrients lower pH and elevated metal concentrations. Use of suitable revegetation programme that require the selection of right type of plants to be used vis--vis the site condition and characteristics can enhance the long term stability both mechanical and ecological of dumps waste sub-grade ROM and fines through providing vegetative cover to control soil erosion amp gully formation consolidation of dump top amp side surfaces binding the loose particles through intricate roof system etc. This paper overviews the roles of Revegetation programme that can be used where vegetation is considered to be the long term answer to slope protection and erosion control. Various revegetation processes like Coir matting Lemmon Grass Vetiver Grass and Indigenous plant etc. may find a wide range of usage in Iron ore mines for dump stabilization.Miyawaki method of plantation is more effective than the conventional method of plantation. This will lead to co-existence of plants and as a matter of fact each plant draws from the other vital nutrients and they grow to become strong and healthy. The Miyawaki Plantation technique aim at Survival at fittest the area undergone such plantation have an ecology of their own. The Indigenous Plant has good binding capacity and helps to control soil erosion as well as improve the dump stability. Indigenous plant species like as Shorea robusta Sal CROTON ROXBURGHII Dal-bergia Sisoo SHISHAM KARANJ Azadirachta NEEM etc. The growth of indigenous plants is depending upon the soil quality as well as the organic matter of the dump material. The leaf debris plays important role for improving the organic matter of dump material for successfully implementation of revegetation programme.

  11. Restoration of fly ash dump through biological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Jambhulkar, Hemlata P

    2008-04-01

    Field experiment on 10 ha area of fly ash dump was conducted to restore and revegetate it using biological interventions, which involves use of organic amendment, selection of suitable plant species along with specialized nitrogen fixing strains of biofertilizer. The results of the study indicated that amendment with farm yard manure at 50 t/ha improved the physical properties of fly ash such as maximum water holding capacity from 40.0 to 62.42% while porosity improved from 56.78 to 58.45%. The nitrogen content was increased by 4.5 times due to addition of nitrogen fixing strains of Bradyrhizobium and Azotobacter species, while phosphate content was increased by 10.0 times due to addition of VAM, which helps in phosphate immobilization. Due to biofertilizer inoculation different microbial groups such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter and VAM spores, which were practically absent in fly ash improved to 7.1 x 10(7), 9.2 x 10(7) CFU/g and 35 VAM spores/10 g of fly ash, respectively. Inoculation of biofertilizer and application of FYM helped in reducing the toxicity of heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, nickel and lead which were reduced by 25, 46, 48 and 47%, respectively, due to the increased organic matter content in the fly ash which complexes the heavy metals thereby decreasing the toxicity of metals. Amendment of fly ash with FYM and biofertilizer helped in profuse root development showing 15 times higher growth in Dendrocalamus strictus plant as compared to the control. Thus amendment and biofertilizer application provided better supportive material for anchorage and growth of the plant.

  12. Ranking criteria for assessment of municipal solid waste dumping sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khalid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Priority wise channelization of resources is the key to successful environmental management, especially when funds are limited. The study in hand has successfully developed an algorithmic criterion to compare hazardous effects of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW dumping sites quantitatively. It is a Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA that has made use of the scaling function to normalize the data values, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP for assigning weights to input parameters showing their relevant importance, and Weighted Linear Combination (WLC for aggregating the normalized scores. Input parameters have been divided into three classes namely Resident’s Concerns, Groundwater Vulnerability and Surface Facilities. Remote Sensing data and GIS analysis were used to prepare most of the input data. To elaborate the idea, four dumpsites have been chosen as case study, namely Old-FSD, New-FSD, Saggian and Mahmood Booti. The comparison has been made first at class levels and then class scores have been aggregated into environmental normalized index for environmental impact ranking. The hierarchy of goodness found for the selected sites is New-FSD > Old-FSD > Mahmood Booti > Saggian with comparative scores of goodness to environment as 36.67, 28.43, 21.26 and 13.63 respectively. Flexibility of proposed model to adjust any number of classes and parameters in one class will be very helpful for developing world where availability of data is the biggest hurdle in research based environmental sustainability planning. The model can be run even without purchasing satellite data and GIS software, with little inaccuracy, using imagery and measurement tools provided by Google Earth.

  13. Resilience Analysis of Face Slopes and Internal Dumps and Causes of their Instability at “Mugunsky” Opencast Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagibalov, A. V.; Okhotin, A. L.; Volokhov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the problems of initiation and consequences of landslide processes registered in the internal dumps at Mugunsky lignite opencast mine. Water cutting at the internal dump base, availability of clay rocks in the dump bottom, and the bottom incline towards the working face are revealed to be the sources of the landslide process. Some measures are recommended to prevent deformation processes that are possible to take place in the run of mine development.

  14. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs and Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Indrati, Dina; Prasetyo, Herry

    2011-01-01

    Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing setting and ...

  15. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs And Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Indrati; Herry Prasetyo

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  16. A review of methods for the simultaneous detection of illegal ingredients in food supplements

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Michael J; Naughton, Declan P; Deshmukh, Nawed; Burns, D Thorburn

    2016-01-01

    Food supplements are at risk from contamination with illegal ingredients on a global scale. To date, the official food control laboratory system in the UK does not appear to have been particularly active in the analytical control of illegal ingredients in food supplements. From a survey of notifications (2009 to 2016) to the European Union rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF) food supplements are shown to be adulterated with a complex range of compounds and substances. These include p...

  17. Legal Drugs Are Good Drugs and Illegal Drugs Are Bad Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Indrati, Dina; Prasetyo, Herry

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : Labelling drugs are important issue nowadays in a modern society. Although it is generally believed that legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs, it is evident that some people do not aware about the side effects of drugs used. Therefore, a key contention of this philosophical essay is that explores harms minimisation policy, discuss whether legal drugs are good drugs and illegal drugs are bad drugs and explores relation of drugs misuse in a psychiatric nursing s...

  18. Effects of legal and illegal use of benzodiazepines at acute admission to a psychiatric acute department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaaler Arne E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the psychiatric acute and emergency services patients present in severe crisis often complicated by behavioral problems, substance use, and multiple axis 1 diagnoses. In these clinical settings both legal and illegal use of benzodiazepines are difficult to evaluate since benzodiazepines could in some patients be regarded as first line treatment and in other patients as the cause of the acute psychiatric condition. The aims of this study were to evaluate the frequency and clinical effects of both legal and illegal use of benzodiazepines at admittance to a psychiatric acute department. Methods All patients acutely admitted to a Norwegian acute psychiatric university department serving a catchment area were asked about use of benzodiazepines, other medications and substances before admission. Patients were asked to give urine samples for analyses of benzodiazepines and substances. Results In 227 consecutive admissions there was legal use of benzodiazepines before admission in 39%, illegal use in 13% and no use in 48%. Patients with legal use of benzodiazepines were older, used more often antidepressants and a higher number of prescribed psychotropic medications. Illegal users of benzodiazepines more often used other illegal substances, were evaluated as clinically affected by a substance at admittance and were diagnosed with a substance use disorder. Patients with psychoses or major affective disorders treated with adequate medication (antidepressants, antipsychotics or mood-stabilizers before admission more often received benzodiazepines than patients without adequate medication. Conclusions The patients using benzodiazepines at admittance to psychiatric acute departments could be divided in illegal and legal users. The illegal users were young, used illegal substances and were more often regarded clinically affected by substances at admittance. The legal users were older, did not use other substances and were not regarded

  19. An investigation of illegal direction change behavior of road users using behavioral models

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tu Anh; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Illegal direction change is accounted the highest ratio for road accident causes in Hochiminh City, Vietnam. Illegal direction change is examined through separate behavioral models such theory of planned behavior, health belief model and integrated behavior model. Integrated behavior model including health belief model, theory of planned behavior variables and extended socio-cognitive variables is identified to be one of the best model (with the highest percentage of total variance) that is f...

  20. Out of View but in Plain Sight: The Illegal Sale of Single Cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Frances A. Stillman; Bone, Lee R.; Milam, Adam J.; Ma, Jiemin; Hoke, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The practice of selling single cigarettes (loosies) through an informal economy is prevalent in urban, low socioeconomic (low SES) communities. Although US state and federal laws make this practice illegal, it may be occurring more frequently with the recent increase in taxes on cigarettes. This investigation provides information concerning the illegal practice of selling single cigarettes to better understand this behavior and to inform intervention programs and policymakers. A total of 488 ...

  1. Suitability of hazard rating systems for air contamination from municipal solid waste dumps and improvements to enhance performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, R.K; Kumar, Amit; Nema, Arvind K; Datta, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    .... The hazard rating systems, considered useful in prioritizing these sites for remediation, are investigated for their suitability to assess air contamination of municipal solid waste (MSW) dumps...

  2. Early dumping syndrome is not a complication but a desirable feature of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenius, A; Engström, M

    2016-10-01

    Early dumping syndrome after gastric bypass surgery due to rapid delivery of hyperosmolar nutrients into the bowel causing intense symptoms is often described as a complication. Twelve patients, mean age 47 years, were interviewed approximately 9 years post-operation. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, followed by an inductive content analysis to reveal patients' experience of the dumping syndrome. The core category 'Dumping syndrome is a positive consequence of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and a tool to control food intake' was identified based on the following four sub-categories: (i) 'The multidimensional emergence and effects of dumping syndrome', (ii) 'Dumping syndrome as something positive although unpleasant', (iii) 'Developing coping mechanisms and ingenious strategies' and (iv) 'My own fault if I expose myself to dumping syndrome'. From the patients' perspective, dumping syndrome gives control over food intake; although the symptoms were unpleasant, patients considered dumping syndrome as a positive protection against over-consumption. Hence, healthcare professionals should not present dumping syndrome as a complication but rather as an aid to control eating behaviour and excessive food intake. © 2016 World Obesity.

  3. Elevated blood lead levels associated with illegally distilled alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegues, D A; Hughes, B J; Woernle, C H

    1993-06-28

    Whiskey produced in illegal stills (ie, "moonshine") remains an important and underappreciated source of lead toxicity in some rural counties of the Southeast. From March 5 through October 26, 1991, eight adult patients with elevated blood lead levels were identified at a rural county hospital in Alabama and were reported to the Alabama Department of Public Health notifiable disease surveillance system. A case-patient was defined as any person 17 years of age or more who presented to the hospital from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 1991, and had a blood lead level of 0.72 mumol/L or more (15 micrograms/dL or more). To identify cases and potential sources of lead exposure, we reviewed medical and laboratory records from the hospital, interviewed patients with elevated blood lead levels, and determined the lead content of moonshine samples. Nine patients met the case definition, including one patient who was not reported to the state. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 62 years; blood lead values ranged from 0.77 to 12.50 mumol/L (16 to 259 micrograms/dL). The most frequent signs of possible lead toxicity included seizures (six), microcytic anemia (five), and encephalopathy (two); one patient died. The only identified source of lead exposure for the nine patients was moonshine ingestion. Moonshine samples available from local stills contained sufficient amounts of lead (340 to 4600 mumol/L) to result in the observed blood lead levels. This investigation emphasizes the adverse health effects and ongoing public health impact of moonshine ingestion.

  4. Analysis of methanol and its derivatives in illegally produced alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem; Aydin, Zeki; Akcan, Ramazan; Dokuyucu, Recep; Keten, Alper; Cekin, Necmi

    2015-07-01

    Illegal alcohol production remains as a common issue worldwide. Methanol poisoning mostly occurs because of the methanol used in production of counterfeit alcohol instead of ethyl alcohol due to its low price or by drinking the liquids containing methyl alcohol. Pectolytic enzymes results in an increase of methanol levels in many fermentation products such as ciders or wines. Methanol poisonings are infrequently encountered in forensic medicine practice. However, sporadic cases due to methanol intoxication as well as epidemic cases have been reported. In this study, we aimed to identify existence of methanol and its metabolites in illegally produced alcoholic beverages used in Antakya region. Twelve legally produced alcohol samples and Fifty-six different illegally produced alcohol samples were collected from the markets and local producers. Existence of methanol, formic acid, methyl amine, methyl formate and trioxan were determined using GC-MS method in these samples. Fifty-six different illegal alcohol samples were analyzed in this study and methanol was detected in 39 (75%) of samples. Formic acid was detected in 3, formamide in 1, methyl amine in 6, methyl formate in 10 and trioxan in 2 samples. Overwhelming majority of illegal alcoholic beverages was detected to contain methanol. Interestingly this study also revealed the presence of trioxane, which has not previously reported among toxic agents in illegal alcohol samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-sanctioning of illegal tackles in South African youth community rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J

    2017-10-23

    The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (preferees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An econometric study of illegal electricity connections in the urban favelas of Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimmi, Luisa M. [Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA), World Bank (United States); Ecer, Sencer [LECG, Georgetown University Public Policy Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The data from the project Conviver, launched in 2006 in Belo Horizonte (Brazil), provides a unique opportunity to study illegal electricity connections. Based on an original dataset of 15,279 low-income households, this paper studies the incidence and determinants of illegality in the context of low-income urban favelas. The probability of engaging in illegal behavior is explained not just by low income, but by a combination of concurring factors: sub-standard energy provision and equipment; inefficient/incorrect use of domestic electric appliances and running an informal in-house business. These recurrent issues in the urban favelas aggravate a sense of exclusion from growth, which is generally recognized as a trigger of illegality. The impact of energy demand on energy-related illegality is carefully analyzed, and different empirical strategies adopted to circumvent some simultaneity problem between both decision processes. The effectiveness of consumption-based energy subsidies is also explored. In spite of some contrary arguments in the literature, in the context of peri-urban slums, such measures may exert a positive impact in mitigating illegal access and use of energy. Effectiveness will be enhanced by accompanying measures such as: perceivable improvements of equipment, metering and maintenance, promotion of beneficiaries' awareness of energy usage, and energy-saving behaviors. (author)

  7. Environmental impact and recovery at two dumping sites for dredged material in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Ariese, F.; Hattum, B. van; Postma, J.F.; Kluijver, M. de; Besten, P.J. den; Bergman, M.J.N.; Daan, R.; Murk, A.J.; Vethaak, A.D

    2003-07-01

    Marine benthic resources near dumping sites are adversely affected by physical disturbances, but a causal link to contaminant damage could not be found. - The environmental impact and recovery associated with the long and uninterrupted disposal of large volumes of moderately contaminated dredged material from the port of Rotterdam was studied at nearby dumping sites in the North Sea. Observations were made on sediment contamination, ecotoxicity, biomarker responses and benthic community changes shortly after dumping at the 'North' site had ceased and at the start of disposal at the new dumping site 'Northwest'. During the period of dumping, very few benthic invertebrates were found at the North site. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in the fine sediment fraction (<63 {mu}m) from this site were 2-3 times higher than at the reference site. In four different bioassays with marine invertebrates the sediments showed no acute toxic effects. In tissue (pyloric caeca) of resident starfish Asterias rubens, residual levels of mercury, zinc, PCBs and dioxin-like activity were never more than twice those at the reference site. Four different biomarkers (DNA integrity, cytochrome P450 content, benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition) were used on the starfish tissues, but no significant differences were found between North and the reference site. Minor pathological effects were observed in resident dab Limanda limanda. One year after dumping had ceased at the North site, a significant increase in the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates and a concomitant decrease in the fine sediment fraction of the seabed were observed. After 8.2 million m{sup 3} of moderately contaminated dredged material had been dumped at the new dumping site Northwest, the species richness and abundance of benthic invertebrates declined over an

  8. Metropolitan garbage dumps: possible winter migratory raptor monitoring stations in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Winter raptor migration and movement is poorly documented for peninsular India, mainly due to the lack of geographical bottlenecks. We describe, for the first time, the use of a garbage dump in a metropolitan city as an alternative visual winter raptor monitoring station. The daily count, adult to juvenile ratios and species composition of three migratory raptor species, Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis, Black-eared Kite Milvus migrans lineatus and Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax are presented. Ground temperatures at the garbage dump site and surrounding area, and the wing beat rate of migratory raptors before and after arrival in the early morning were measured. A total of 355 raptors migrating over a period of six observation days with 250 adults and 105 juveniles were recorded. The temperature of the garbage dump was significantly higher than the surrounding area, while the wing flapping rate was significantly lower over the garbage dump area. It is possible that migrating raptors use garbage dump thermals in the early morning to save energy with soaring and gliding flight (versus flapping flight. We propose that such sites may be used as visual winter migration monitoring stations in metropolitan cities in peninsular India.

  9. First Operational Experience with the LHC Beam Dump Trigger Synchronisation Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Magnin, N; Juteau, P; Voumard, N

    2011-01-01

    Two LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS) remove the counter-rotating beams safely from the collider during setting up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. Dump requests can come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system in emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These dump requests are synchronized with the 3 μs beam abort gap in a fail-safe redundant Trigger Synchronization Unit (TSU) based on a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL), locked onto the LHC beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. The synchronized trigger pulses coming out of the TSU are then distributed to the high voltage generators of the beam dump kickers through a redundant fault-tolerant trigger distribution system. This paper describes the operational experience gained with the TSU since its commissioning with beam in 2009, and highlights the improvements, which have been implemented f...

  10. Acarbose promotes remission of both early and late dumping syndromes in post-bariatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadegiani, Flavio A; Silva, Osvalmir Sá

    2016-01-01

    Acarbose is a glucosidase inhibitor that slows carbohydrate digestion. It could thus be effective to promote remission of dumping syndrome (DS). Previous studies associating acarbose and late dumping, although not early dumping, have been reported. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of acarbose in dumping syndrome prevention and treatment and in resistive exercises resistance in bariatric subjects. Bariatric patients with DS and complete adherence to diet plan and resistive exercises were included (n=25). Number of early and late episodes, self-referred intensity of each episode, and ability to increase intensity of resistive exercise were evaluated, on a 0-10 scale. Acarbose was administered orally (50 mg) for 6 months, 4-5 times a day before meals. Acarbose administration was associated with a decrease in the number of early (2.18-0.31) and late (2.79-0.12) episodes per week and intensity of each episode (6.10-1.65) and an increase in the ability to perform resistive exercises (3.03-7.12). Complete remission of DS was seen in 21 patients (84%), which persisted for 6 months with the use of acarbose. Acarbose prevented dumping in almost all studied subjects and helped improve exercise capacity.

  11. A pilot study of the effects of the somatostatin analog pasireotide in postoperative dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, E; Bisschops, R; Holvoet, L; Arts, J; De Wulf, D; Caenepeel, P; Lannoo, M; Vanuytsel, T; Andrews, C; Tack, J

    2014-06-01

    Dumping syndrome is characterized by distinct pathophysiological features such as postprandial increase in hematocrit (HT) and pulse rate (PR) and delayed hypoglycemia (HG). Treatment is based on dietary measures and somatostatin analogs (SA), but current SAs have incomplete efficacy, possibly through limited affinity for various somatostatin receptor subtypes. We evaluated the effect of pasireotide, a novel SA with high affinity for 4/5 human somatostatin receptors, on pathophysiological events and symptoms in dumping. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study of nine patients (six women, 47 ± 4 years) with postoperative dumping. Baseline measurements included oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), abdominal ultrasound, and dumping symptom severity score (DSSS). Patients were treated for 2 weeks with placebo or pasireotide 300 μg s.c. t.i.d. with a 1-week wash-out in a randomized fashion. On day 13 and 14 of each treatment OGTT, DSSS, and solid and liquid gastric emptying (GE) were obtained. Baseline OGTT was pathological in all patients based on PR (n = 5), HT (n = 1) or HG (n = 7). Compared to placebo, pasireotide suppressed the increase in PR (17.1 ± 2.8 vs 8.2 ± 3.5 bpm; p dumping syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Development and Optimization of a Novel Prolonged Release Formulation to Resist Alcohol-Induced Dose Dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Chaitanya Yogananda; Rallabandi, Balaramesha Chary; Gannu, Ramesh; Deulkar, Vallabh Subashrao

    2016-04-01

    Alcohol-induced dose dumping is a serious concern for the orally administered prolonged release dosage forms. The study was designed to optimize the independent variables, propylene glycol alginate (PGA), Eudragit RS PO (ERS) and coating in mucoadhesive quetiapine prolonged release tablets 200 mg required for preventing the alcohol-induced dose dumping. Optimal design based on response surface methodology was employed for the optimization of the composition. The formulations are evaluated for in vitro drug release in hydrochloric acid alone and with 40% v/v ethanol. The responses, dissolution at 120 min without alcohol (R1) and dissolution at 120 min with alcohol (R2), were statistically evaluated and regression equations are generated. PGA as a hydrophilic polymeric matrix was dumping the dose when dissolutions are carried in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid containing 40% v/v ethanol. ERS addition was giving structural support to the swelling and gelling property of PGA, and thus, was reducing the PGA erosion in dissolution media containing ethanol. Among the formulations, four formulations with diverse composition were meeting the target dissolution (30-40%) in both the conditions. The statistical validity of the mathematical equations was established, and the optimum concentration of the factors was established. Validation of the study with six confirmatory runs indicated high degree of prognostic ability of response surface methodology. Further coating with ReadiLycoat was providing an additional resistance to the alcohol-induced dose dumping. Optimized compositions showed resistance to dose dumping in the presence of alcohol.

  13. Studying bio-thermal effects at and around MSW dumps using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Khalid; Batool, Syeda Adila; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz

    2016-09-01

    Estimating negative impacts of MSW dumps on its surrounding environment is the key requirement for any remedial measures. This study has been undertaken to map bio-thermal effects of MSW dumping at and around dumping facilities (non-engineered) using satellite imagery for Faisalabad, Pakistan. Thirty images of Landsat 8 have been selected after validation for the accuracy of their observational details from April 2013 to October 2015. Land Surface Temperature (LST), NDVI, SAVI and MSAVI have been derived from these images through Digital Image Processing (DIP) and have been subjected to spatio-temporal analysis in GIS environment. MSW dump has been found with average temperature elevation of 4.3K and 2.78K from nearby agriculture land and urban settlement respectively. Vegetation health has been used as the bio-indicator of MSW effects and is implemented through NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI. Spatial analyses have been used to mark boundary of bio-thermally affected zone around dumped MSW and measure 700m. Seasonal fluctuations of elevated temperatures and boundary of the bio-thermally affected zones have also been discussed. Based on the direct relation found between vegetation vigor and the level of deterioration within the bio-thermally affected region, use of crops with heavy vigor is recommended to study MSW hazard influence using bio-indicators of vegetation health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal, mechanical and fluid flow aspects of the high power beam dump for FRIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilov, Mikhail; Aaron, Adam; Amroussia, Aida; Bergez, Wladimir; Boehlert, Carl; Burgess, Thomas; Carroll, Adam; Colin, Catherine; Durantel, Florent; Ferrante, Paride; Fourmeau, Tiffany; Graves, Van; Grygiel, Clara; Kramer, Jacob; Mittig, Wolfgang; Monnet, Isabelle; Patel, Harsh; Pellemoine, Frederique; Ronningen, Reginald; Schein, Mike

    2016-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University is based on a 400 kW heavy ion accelerator and uses in-flight production and separation to generate rare isotope beams. The first section of the fragment separator houses the rare isotope production target, and the primary beam dump to stop the unreacted primary beam. The experimental program will use 400 kW ion beams from 16O to 238U. After interaction with the production target, over 300 kW in remaining beam power must be absorbed by the beam dump. A rotating water-cooled thin-shell metal drum was chosen as the basic concept for the beam dump. Extensive thermal, mechanical and fluid flow analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the high power density in the beam dump shell and in the water. Many properties were optimized simultaneously, such as shell temperature, mechanical strength, fatigue strength, and radiation resistance. Results of the analyses of the beam dump performance with different design options will be discussed. For example, it was found that a design modification to the initial water flow pattern resulted in a substantial increase in the wall heat transfer coefficient. A detailed evaluation of materials for the shell is in progress. The widely used titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V (wt%), is presently considered as the best candidate, and is the subject of specific tests, such as studies of performance under heavy ion irradiation.

  15. Plant species from coal mine overburden dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Novianti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Coal mine overburden (OB materials were nutrient-poor, loosely adhered particles of shale, stones, boulders, and cobbles, also contained elevated concentration of trace metals. This condition cause OB substrate did not support plants growth. However, there were certain species that able to grow on overburden dumping site. This investigation sought to identify plants species that presence on coal mine overburden. The research was conducted on opencast coal mine OB dumping site in Satui, South Kalimantan. Vegetation sampling was carried out on six different ages of coal mine OB dumps (7, 10, 11, 42, 59 and 64 month using line transect. Species identification used information from local people, AMDAL report of PT Arutmin Indonesia-Satui mine project, and website. There were 123 plant species, consisted of 79 herbs (Cyperaceae, Poaceae and Asteraceae, 10 lianes, bryophyte, 9 ferns, 10 shrubs, and 14 trees. A number of Poaceae, i.e., Paspalumconjugatum, Paspalumdilatatum, and Echinochloacolona generally present among the stones, boulders, and cobbles. While Cyperaceae such as Fimbristylis miliaceae, Cyperus javanicus, Rhyncospora corymbosa and Scleria sumatrensis most often foundinand around thebasin/pond with its smooth and humid substrate characteristics. Certain species of shrubs and trees present on the 7 month OB dumping site. They wereChromolaena odorata, Clibadium surinamense, Melastoma malabathricum, Trema micrantha, and Solanum torvum (Shrubs, Ochroma pyramidale and Homalanthus populifolius (trees. This plant species could be used for accelerating primary succession purpose on coal mine overburden dumping site. Nevertheless, species selection was needed to avoid planting invasive species.

  16. Thermal, mechanical and fluid flow aspects of the high power beam dump for FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avilov, Mikhail [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Aaron, Adam [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Amroussia, Aida [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bergez, Wladimir [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse University, CNRS, Allée Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France); Boehlert, Carl [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Burgess, Thomas; Carroll, Adam [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Colin, Catherine [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Toulouse University, CNRS, Allée Camille Soula, 31400 Toulouse (France); Durantel, Florent [Centre des recherches sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN, BP 5133, 14070 CAEN CEDEX 5 (France); Ferrante, Paride; Fourmeau, Tiffany [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Graves, Van [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Grygiel, Clara [Centre des recherches sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN, BP 5133, 14070 CAEN CEDEX 5 (France); Kramer, Jacob [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Mittig, Wolfgang [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Monnet, Isabelle [Centre des recherches sur les Ions, les Materiaux et la Photonique (CIMAP) CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCN, BP 5133, 14070 CAEN CEDEX 5 (France); Patel, Harsh [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); and others

    2016-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) under construction at Michigan State University is based on a 400 kW heavy ion accelerator and uses in-flight production and separation to generate rare isotope beams. The first section of the fragment separator houses the rare isotope production target, and the primary beam dump to stop the unreacted primary beam. The experimental program will use 400 kW ion beams from {sup 16}O to {sup 238}U. After interaction with the production target, over 300 kW in remaining beam power must be absorbed by the beam dump. A rotating water-cooled thin-shell metal drum was chosen as the basic concept for the beam dump. Extensive thermal, mechanical and fluid flow analyses were performed to evaluate the effects of the high power density in the beam dump shell and in the water. Many properties were optimized simultaneously, such as shell temperature, mechanical strength, fatigue strength, and radiation resistance. Results of the analyses of the beam dump performance with different design options will be discussed. For example, it was found that a design modification to the initial water flow pattern resulted in a substantial increase in the wall heat transfer coefficient. A detailed evaluation of materials for the shell is in progress. The widely used titanium alloy, Ti–6Al–4V (wt%), is presently considered as the best candidate, and is the subject of specific tests, such as studies of performance under heavy ion irradiation.

  17. Jatibarang Final Solid Waste Dumping Site of Semarang City and Its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarto Edhisono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste is big problem in most cities in Indonesia. The problem which often raises, is the difficulty to find the land for solid waste dumping site. The local inhabitants could not accept if the dumping site location is closed to their residential. Therefore, the existing final dumping site is pushed to accommodate and receive solid waste from the entire of the city, although really the service time of the facility is over.This situation is occured on the Jatibarang Final Solid Waste Dumping Site (TPA Jatibarang of Semarang City, recently.The Municipal of Semarang City, has no other choice for final dumping site exept extending the service time of the TPA Jatibarang. Beside this, the TPA Jatibarang has specific  situation, because its location is closed to the Kreo River, one of the tributaries of Garang River, which at the down stream of this river is located intake of the city water supply treatment plant.The leachate of the solid waste is discharged into the Kreo River, which treated by using ordinary aeration method. Of course, this situation is the disadvantage of the TPA Jatibarang. This paper describes the condition of TPA Jatibarang, and its problems and how the efforts of the Municipal of Semarang to overcome this situation.

  18. Vetiver Grass: a potential tool for phytoremediation of iron ore mine site spoil dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mukherjee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mining has lead to the generation of a large amount of spoil dumps that has become dangerous to human health, wildlife and biodiversity. Thus it is essential that the post mining areas and waste land generated need to be rapidly vegetated. Vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Roberty is a tropical plant which grows naturally in various soil conditions and is well known for its ability to resist DNA damage while growing on typically polluted soil conditions. The spoil dumps from the iron mine site is unstable and inhospitable for plant growth due to presence of various toxic heavy metals like - Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd etc. Vetiver system is an efficient bio-engineering tool for reclaiming such spoil dumps. There are 12 known species of Vetiver grass, and many hundreds of different cultivars that are exploited by users depending on need. In the present study we selected the polyploid infertile variety of vetiver and carried pot experiments. Vetiver plants grown on the iron ore mine spoil dump show distinct differences in their growth with fewer numbers of tillers, reduced chlorophyll content, upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and increased proline content. To investigate the level of DNA damage incurred and change in the genetic stability Comet assay and RAPD analysis were performed. Results confirmed that Vetiver grass can serve as a model species for phytoremediating the iron ore mine spoil dumps.

  19. Coal Mining and Post-Metallurgic Dumping Grounds and Their Connections with Exploitation of Raw Materials in the Region of Ruda Śląska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczy, Iwona; Gawor, Łukasz

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of mining and metallurgical waste dumps in Ruda Śląska was presented in this article. Special attention was paid to the relationship of waste material accumulated on the dumps with resources exploited on studied area. The possibilities of dumps management were also traced and two directions were indicated. The first one is associated with forming a biological covering on the dumps and the second one - with the dumps liquidation and with recovery areas now occupied by the dumps and thus with the secondary use of material collected on them.

  20. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  1. Dependability analysis of a safety critical system the LHC beam dumping system at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the dependability study of the Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high energy particle accelerator to be commissioned at CERN in summer 2007. There are two identical, independent LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS), one per LHC beam, each consisting of a series of magnets that extract the particle beam from the LHC ring into the extraction line leading to the absorbing block. The consequences of a failure within the LBDS can be very severe. This risk is reduced by applying redundancy to the design of the most critical components and on-line surveillance that, in case of a detected failure, issues a safe operation abort, called false beam dump. The system has been studied applying Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and reliability prediction. The system failure processes have been represented with a state transition diagram, governed by a Markov regenerative stochastic process, and analysed for different operational scenarios for one year of operati...

  2. Price Strategy in the EU: Suggestions to Chinese Exporters in the Light of Anti-Dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. Based on this analysis, the paper presents practical advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. Firstly, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate...... a price policy for exports to the EU in order to avoid anti-dumping measures. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important, if market economy status with its lower duties, is wanted. Wholly owned foreign companies or joint ventures with a majority of foreign capital seem to have the biggest...... probability of achieving market economy status. Generally, evidence of independence of the Chinese public authorities is important. Thirdly, owner structure also counts in relation to getting individual treatment; here especially freedom in exporting is decisive. Fourthly, if an anti-dumping investigation...

  3. LHC beam dump design study; part 2, thermal analysis; implications for abort repetition and cooling system

    CERN Document Server

    Péraire, S

    1996-01-01

    This second part of the LHC beam dump design study is devoted to transient and steady state nonlinear heat transfer analysis. Heat generation loads are imported from Part - I: simulation of energy deposition in the graphite by particle cascades induced by the LHC primary protons, and superposition of identical energy distribution from each bunch along positions defined by the beam sweep profile on the upstream face of the core. A parametric finite element model of the dump including graphite core, aluminium frame, base plate with cooling channels, and shielding blocks, is elaborated and resolved by means of the ANSYS Engineering System, providing the transient evolution of internal temperature fields. Steady state analysis is then performed, by means of numerical approximations using a limited number of ANSYS results as an interpolation -- extrapolation base. Only periodic aborts are considered. The first conclusion is that the dump requires several hours of cooling after each beam abort. Influence of natural...

  4. Analysis the Purposes of Land Use Planning on the Hard Coal Tailing Dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zástĕrová, Petra; Niemiec, Dominik; Marschalko, Marian; Durd'ák, Jan; Duraj, Miloš; Yilmaz, Işik; Drusa, Marian

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this publication is to analyse the purposes of land use planning on hard coal tailing dumps. This issue is very topical because there are 46 tailing dumps and 281 reservoirs in the Ostrava-Karvina Mining District. They significantly affect the landscape of this region. A major problem is solving problems of reclamation of these geological environment. This means that it is necessary to think about it and start to solve it. It is clear that such reclamation is not simple both economic as well as environmental point of view. It is necessary to think carefully about what purpose would be tailing dump or reservoirs to utilize in a given location.

  5. A Large Diameter Entrance Window for the LHC Beam Dump Line

    CERN Document Server

    Presland, Andrew; Jiménez, J M; Ramos, D; Veness, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The graphite LHC beam dump block TDE has to absorb the full LHC beam intensity at 7 TeV. The TDE vessel will be filled with inert gas at atmospheric pressure, and requires a large diameter entrance window for vacuum separation from the beam dumping transfer line. The swept LHC beam must traverse this window without damage for regular operation of the beam dump dilution system. For dilution failures, the entrance window must survive most of the accident cases, and must not fail catastrophically in the event of damage. The conceptual design of the entrance window is presented, together with the load conditions and performance criteria. The FLUKA energy deposition simulations and ANSYS stress calculations are described, and the results discussed.

  6. Radioactivity of dumps in mining areas of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorda J.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal mining is associated with large quantities of gangue. In the past, the majority of gangue was not utilized but was placed in the vicinity of the coalmines forming cone-shaped dumps. Some of them contained even millions of tons of rock. Nowadays, environmental precautions extort larger utilization of any kind of waste materials, for example in road construction, civil engineering or as stowing in underground abandoned workings. Examination of the composition of waste dumps, including radioactivity, is thus an important issue. The paper presents results of a radiological survey carried out in several dumps located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in the south of Poland. Measurements of samples were carried out with the use of a gamma-ray spectrometer. Activity concentration results for the uranium and thorium decay chains are discussed.

  7. R dump converter without DC link capacitor for an 8/6 SRM: experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Pasumalaithevan; Umamaheswari, Bhaskaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of 8/6 switched reluctance motor (SRM) when excited with sinusoidal voltage. The conventional R dump converter provides DC excitation with the help of capacitor. In this paper the converter used is the modified R dump converter without DC link capacitor providing AC or sinusoidal excitation. Torque ripple and speed ripple are investigated based on hysteresis current control. Constant and sinusoidal current references are considered for comparison in both DC and AC excitation. Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations are made to bring out the merits and demerits of AC versus DC excitation. It is shown that the constructionally simple SRM can be favorably controlled with simple R dump converter with direct AC excitation without need for DC link capacitor. A 4-phase 8/6 0.5 kW SRM is used for experimentation.

  8. R Dump Converter without DC Link Capacitor for an 8/6 SRM: Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasumalaithevan Kavitha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of 8/6 switched reluctance motor (SRM when excited with sinusoidal voltage. The conventional R dump converter provides DC excitation with the help of capacitor. In this paper the converter used is the modified R dump converter without DC link capacitor providing AC or sinusoidal excitation. Torque ripple and speed ripple are investigated based on hysteresis current control. Constant and sinusoidal current references are considered for comparison in both DC and AC excitation. Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations are made to bring out the merits and demerits of AC versus DC excitation. It is shown that the constructionally simple SRM can be favorably controlled with simple R dump converter with direct AC excitation without need for DC link capacitor. A 4-phase 8/6 0.5 kW SRM is used for experimentation.

  9. A magnetized Einzel lens electron dump for the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Kronberger, M; Lettry, J; Pereira, H; Scrivens, R

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator which will inject negative hydrogen ions (H−) into CERN’s Proton Synchrotron Booster, a required upgrade to improve the beam brightness in the LHC injector chain. A volume production RF ion source, based on the design of the DESY RF source was implemented, but showed considerable electron dump ablation during operation at 45 keV beam energy. To reduce the electron beam power density in the dump, a magnetized Einzel lens is designed that reduces the beam energy to 10 keV before permanentmagnets dump the electrons on a tungsten surface. Presented in this paper are simulations of the design using IBSimu, the tunable range of parameters depending on the extracted H− and electron current, as well as details of the implementation, the choice of pulsed power converters and the electrode alignment system. In addition, simulations of proton extraction from this source will be shown.

  10. An alternative residual ion dump for the ITER neutral beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzen, P. E-mail: peter.franzen@ipp.mpg.de; Sielanko, J.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E

    2001-10-01

    An alternative concept of the residual ion dump for the ITER NBI system is presented. The incentive is to avoid the inherent risk of the in-line electrostatic ion removal concept, which is presently foreseen in the NBI design: beam-blocking by enhanced reionization losses and potential amplification of electron currents by electrostatic acceleration. It is proposed to use instead a conventional magnetic ion removal system with remote ion dumps. This method of removing the residual ions has been proven in almost all injection systems world-wide over the last two decades. First calculations show that the maximum power load can be kept below 15 MW/m{sup 2}, sufficiently low to use conventional dump plate designs.

  11. R Dump Converter without DC Link Capacitor for an 8/6 SRM: Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Pasumalaithevan; Umamaheswari, Bhaskaran

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of 8/6 switched reluctance motor (SRM) when excited with sinusoidal voltage. The conventional R dump converter provides DC excitation with the help of capacitor. In this paper the converter used is the modified R dump converter without DC link capacitor providing AC or sinusoidal excitation. Torque ripple and speed ripple are investigated based on hysteresis current control. Constant and sinusoidal current references are considered for comparison in both DC and AC excitation. Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations are made to bring out the merits and demerits of AC versus DC excitation. It is shown that the constructionally simple SRM can be favorably controlled with simple R dump converter with direct AC excitation without need for DC link capacitor. A 4-phase 8/6 0.5 kW SRM is used for experimentation. PMID:25642452

  12. Soil liquefaction issues at mining dumps at the Lausitz; Bodenverfluessigungsprobleme bei Bergbaukippen in der Lausitz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, Wolfram [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau; Weissbach, Joerg; Szczyrba, Sebastian [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    For more than 100 years in the Lausitz brown coal is dismantled in open-cast mining. During this time, land with an ara of several 100 km{sup 2} was left as a dump or open-cast mining lakes. These areas are redeveloped by the Lausitz and Central-German Mining Administration Company (Senftenberg, Federal Republic of Germany). The authors of the contribution under consideration report on soil liquefaction issues in mining dumps in the Lausitz. This contribution focuses on a renovation to prevent the sudden transitions from a solid to a liquefied state since 1990 as well as on soil liquefaction on interior dumps at Lausitz. Furthermore, the reasons of the increase in soil pore water pressure and the boundary conditions for liquefaction are described.

  13. Pregnancy and Dumping Syndrome post-bariatric surgery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edawati, D E; Abigail, J; Mardiana, K; Ming-Cheng, C; Harris, N S

    2017-04-01

    This case report discusses dumping syndrome in the postbariatric mother. Diagnostically a challenge, the symptoms of postprandial hypoglycaemia mimic common early gestation complaints and may go undiagnosed, thus requiring a high index of suspicion. As weight-loss surgery gains traction, it is pertinent to note at booking and followups. The pregnancy is at-risk and multidisciplinary team management is central. The mainstay of management remains diet modification. There have been case reports of successful medical treatment of dumping syndrome in pregnancy with good maternal and fetal outcomes. However, more data is needed regarding the usage of these medical treatments in pregnancy.

  14. A case report: Liraglutide as a novel treatment option in late dumping syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Sonja; Stier, Christine

    2017-03-01

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, known as late dumping syndrome, is a rare but often misdiagnosed complication after gastric surgery. The pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood and the treatment of this syndrome is challenging. New-onset postsurgical late dumping syndrome after Toupet fundoplication. Sigstad Score, OGTT, CGM. Daily subcutaneous injection of liraglutide (0.6 mg and 1.2 mg). Reduction in fasting and postprandial peak insulin level with improvement in symptomatic hypoglycemic events. Liraglutide may be a novel treatment option for postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after gastric surgery.

  15. Mobilization and transport of pollutants in an abandoned dump in tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinson, Natalia; Shinzato, Marjolly; Wendland, Edson

    2017-04-01

    The valuation and treatment techniques of municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries are not sufficiently developed, and therefore, the volume of waste destined for disposal still presents significant amounts. In Brazil, the more common practice of final destination is the deposition on the soil, due to its simple operation and low cost compared to other techniques. One of the most serious negative environmental impacts in the irregular disposal of solid waste is the contamination of soil and groundwater by waste leachates. The final disposal in dumps is forbidden by Brazilian law since 2010, nevertheless, the public administration is not prepared to monitor waste disposal areas and the risk of contamination of water. In this sense, a research has been developed in an abandoned dump installed over an outcrop of the Botucatu Formation, which is part of the Guarani Aquifer System (SAG) and therefore, is an area of high water vulnerability. In this dump, an old gully was used as a final waste disposal area for urban, construction and demolition, medical and industrial waste from 1980 to 1996. Since the end of the deposition, the waste body is kept with inefficient hydraulic control. The water infiltration due to rainfall promotes the mobility of contaminant in the deposit. The present water quality in the dump has been monitored through physical and chemical analysis of samples collected in the unsaturated zone (inside the waste mass using vacuum lysimeters) and in the saturated zone (monitoring wells). The rainfall variation observed in the years 2014 (dry year) and 2015 (wet year) contributed significantly to evaluate the mobilization of pollutants within the dump. The reduction of the water volume that infiltrates the waste mass affected the quality of the leachate collected in the lysimeters. The groundwater collected in monitoring wells outside the dump area presents low turbidity values (1000 µS.cma-1 in leachate) and chlorides values (>800 mg.L-1

  16. Creaming, skimping and dumping: provider competition on the intensive and extensive margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R P

    1998-10-01

    Reimbursement incentives influence both the intensity of services and who is treated when patients differ in severity of illness. The social optimum is compared to the private Cournot-Nash solution for three provider strategies: creaming--over-provision of services to low severity patients; skimping--under-provision of services to high severity patients; and dumping--the explicit avoidance of high severity patients. Cost-based reimbursement results in overprovision of services (creaming) to all types of patients. Prospectively paid providers cream low severity patients and skimp high severity ones. If there is dumping of high severity patients, then there will also be skimping.

  17. Medical indigency and inner city hospital care: patient dumping, emergency care and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, M F

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the growing lack of private for-profit hospital care for the medically indigent. The issues of patient dumping and emergency care are examined from both judicial and public policy perspectives. The paper concludes by noting that dumping may be viewed as a most serious form of neglect and more comprehensive laws and court decisions are needed to require all hospitals, regardless of ownership, to treat all patients who arrive at their doors if they have the appropriate medical staff and facilities.

  18. Data on coal dumps retrieving in petroşani basin using sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea BRASOVAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents data on the sea buckthorn (Hippöphae rhamnoides, with focus on its value on coal dumps retrieving in the Petroşani Basin. Due to its peculiar roots exposing a lot of nodules, this plant has an important role in fixing the atmospheric azoth and soil genesis. It is very adaptable to any kind of soil and has wide climatic exigencies, but is depending on light intensity. It has a large dissemination capacity, due to its light and numerous seeds. Besides its utilization on dump retrieving, sea buckthorn is used in medicine and pharmacy, as well as in organic fuel production.

  19. Study of Energy Deposition and Activation for the LINAC4 Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Cerutti, F; Mauro, E; Mereghetti, A; Silari, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    This document provides estimates of energy deposition and activation for the dump of the future LINAC4 accelerator. Detailed maps of power density deposited in the dump are given, allowing to perform further thermo mechanical studies. Residual dose rates at a few cooling times for different irradiation scenarios have been calculated. Moreover, the air activation has been evaluated and doses to the reference population group and to a worker intervening in the cave at the shutdown have been predicted. Calculations were performed with the Monte Carlo particle transport and interaction code FLUKA.

  20. Geochemical Characterization of the Waste Rock Dump at the abandoned Geo-pung Mine, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Lee, H.; Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.; Park, H.

    2008-05-01

    To propose basic data for the establishment of the reclamation plan of the mine waste rock dumps, the geochemical studies including Acid-Base Accounting (ABA) test, water quality analyses of leachate and run-off waters, metal extraction test, and pot test were performed at the abandoned Geo-pung mine, located in the middle part of Korea. The acid generation capacities of the Geo-pung mine waste rocks (samples from ten points at the waste dump) showed high acid forming potential except for one point (G7). The maximum value of NAPP (Net Acid Producing Potential), which calculated by total sulfur (MPA, Maximum Potential Acidity, kg H2SO4/t) and ANC (Acid Neutralizing Capacity), was 80.94 kg H2 SO4/t. The results of the chemical analysis showed that the leachate from the waste rock dump have high concentration of Al (56 mg/l), Mn (39 mg/l), Cu (26.3 mg/l), Zn (155.3 mg/l), SO42- (1430 mg/l) and low pH (3.19). Run-off waters (surface flow of waste dump when rain) were, although partly different, showed high concentration of Al (1.7 ~ 20.2 mg/l), Cu (1.8 ~ 14.7 mg/l), Zn (2.4 ~ 26.5 mg/l) and low pH (3.08 ~ 4.07). From the metal extraction test, concentration of zinc was showed high level, from 579 mg/kg to 3,934 mg/kg. The upper parts of the Geo-pung mine waste dump have very low nutrient which needed for plant growth. The organic content was 9 g/kg, bioavailable phosphate was 0.1 mg/kg, and the exchangeable cation (K, Na, Mg) content also under the limit value (1 mg/kg) for the plant growth. The result of pot test also showed that this waste dump is unsuitable for media for plant growth due to lack of nutrient components. So when establish the reclamation plan of the Geo- pung mine waste dump, the cover system which have the function of prevention of sulfide oxidation and provision of nutrient with neutralize materials for revegetation must be considered. key words : Abandoned Mine, Waste Rock Dump, Acid-Base Accounting, Cover System