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Sample records for suspected food allergy

  1. The optimal diagnostic workup for children with suspected food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Costanzo, Mara; Troncone, Riccardo

    2011-10-01

    Food allergy is defined as an abnormal immunologic reaction to food proteins that causes an adverse clinical reaction. In addition to well-known acute allergic reactions and anaphylaxis triggered by immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated immune responses to food proteins, there is an increasing recognition of cell-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis and food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. More than 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. The diagnostic workup for a child with suspected food allergy includes a detailed medical history, physical examination, food allergy screening tests, and responses to an elimination diet and an oral food challenge. None of the screening tests, alone or in combination, can definitely diagnose or exclude a food allergy. Novel diagnostic methods including those that focus on immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes of specific proteins are under active study. Unconventional diagnostic methods are increasingly used, but they lack scientific rationale, standardization, and reproducibility. In selected cases, such as eosinophilic esophageal gastroenteropathies or food protein-induced gastroesophageal reflux disease, invasive procedures are mandatory for an accurate diagnosis. Properly done, an oral food challenge is still the gold standard in the diagnostic workup. An incorrect diagnosis is likely to result in unnecessary dietary restrictions, which, if prolonged, may adversely affect the child's nutritional status and growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of suspected food allergy on emotional distress and family life of parents prior to allergy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibb, Rebecca C; Semper, Heather

    2013-12-01

    Food allergy is associated with psychological distress in both child and parent. It is unknown whether parental distress is present prior to clinical diagnosis or whether experiences at clinic can reduce any distress present. This study aimed to assess anxiety and depression in parents and the impact of suspected food allergy on the lives of families before and after a visit to an allergy clinic. One hundred and twenty-four parents visiting an allergy clinic for the first time to have their child assessed for food allergy completed a study-specific questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; 50 parents completed these 4-6 wk later in their own home. Most parents (86.4%) reported suspected food allergy had an impact on their family life prior to clinic attendance; 76% had made changes to their child's diet. 32.5% of parents had mild-to-severe anxiety before their clinic visit; 17.5% had mild-to-moderate depression. Post-clinic, 40% had mild-to-severe anxiety; 13.1% had mild-to-moderate depression. There were no significant differences in anxiety (p = 0.34) or depression scores (p = 0.09) before and after the clinic visit. Anxiety and depression is present in a small proportion of parents prior to diagnosis of food allergy in their child and this does not reduce in the short term after the clinic visit. Identification of parents at risk of suffering from distress is needed and ways in which we communicate allergy information before and at clinic should be investigated to see if we can reduce distress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  4. Western blot analysis of sera from dogs with suspected food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Claude; Linek, Monika; Fontaine, Jacques; Beco, Luc; Rostaher, Ana; Fischer, Nina; Couturier, Nicolas; Jacquenet, Sandrine; Bihain, Bernard E

    2017-04-01

    Food allergy is often suspected in dogs with clinical signs of atopic dermatitis. This diagnosis is confirmed with an elimination diet and a subsequent challenge with regular food. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of food allergy in dogs are unreliable and/or technically difficult. Cyno-DIAL ® is a Western blot method that might assist with the selection of an appropriate elimination diet. To evaluate the performance of Cyno-DIAL ® for the selection of an elimination diet and diagnosis of food allergy. Thirty eight dogs with atopic dermatitis completed an elimination diet. Combining the results of the diet trials and the challenges, 14 dogs were classified as food allergic (FA), 22 as nonfood-allergic and two as ambiguous cases. Amongst all dogs and amongst dogs with a clinical diagnosis of FA, 3% and 7% (respectively) were positive to Royal Canin Anallergenic ® , Vet-Concept Kanguru ® or Vet-Concept Dog Sana ® ; 8% and 7% to Hill's d/d Duck and Rice ® ; 8% and 21% to Hill's z/d Ultra Allergen Free ® ; 53% and 64% to Eukanuba Dermatosis FP ® ; and 32% and 43% to a home-cooked diet of horse meat, potatoes and zucchini. The specificity and sensitivity of Cyno-DIAL ® for diagnosing food allergy were 73% and 71%, respectively. Although Cyno-DIAL ® was considered potentially useful for identifying appropriate foods for elimination diet trials, it cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of food allergy. The Cyno-DIAL ® test performed better than some previously evaluated ELISA-based tests. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Neonatal BCG has no effect on allergic sensitization and suspected food allergy until 13 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Pihl, Gitte Thybo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used in many countries as protection against tuberculosis. Studies have suggested that BCG may also have non-specific effects, reducing non-tuberculosis mortality, morbidity, and atopic manifestations. In this study we evaluated...... the effect of neonatal BCG vaccination on allergic sensitization and suspected food allergy at 13 months of age. METHODS: The Danish Calmette Study was conducted from 2012-2015 at three Danish hospitals. Within 7 days of birth, the 4262 newborns of 4184 included mothers were randomized 1:1 to BCG or to a no...... of age. RESULTS: By 13 months of age the parents and/or general practitioners of 5.6% (117/2089) of the children in the BCG group and 6.1% (126/2061) of the control group suspected food allergy, resulting in a risk ratio comparing BCG-vaccinated children with control children of 0.91 (95% CI 0.71 to 1...

  6. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  7. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  8. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. These 8 ... blood tests.Many children usually outgrow allergies to milk, eggs, soybean ... tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Can food allergies be prevented ...

  9. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sicherer SH, Lack G, Jones SM. Food allergy management. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  10. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Exploring Current and Novel Methods for the Detection and Diagnosis of Food Allergy: the Clinical Approach * Adriano Mari and Enrico Scala...

  11. Neonatal BCG has no effect on allergic sensitization and suspected food allergy until 13 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Aksel Karl Georg; Aaby, Peter; Olesen, Annette Wind; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Benn, Christine Stabell; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2017-09-01

    Vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used in many countries as protection against tuberculosis. Studies have suggested that BCG may also have non-specific effects, reducing non-tuberculosis mortality, morbidity, and atopic manifestations. In this study, we evaluated the effect of neonatal BCG vaccination on allergic sensitization and suspected food allergy at 13 months of age. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted from 2012 to 2015 at three Danish hospitals. Within 7 days of birth, the 4262 newborns of 4184 included mothers were randomized 1:1 to BCG or to a no-intervention control group. Exclusion criteria were gestational age BCG group and 6.1% (126/2061) of the control group suspected food allergy, resulting in a risk ratio comparing BCG-vaccinated children with control children of 0.91 (95% CI 0.71-1.16). Among 1370 blood samples, sensitization (Phadiatop Infant >0.35 kUA/L) was found in 55 of 743 (7.4%) children in the BCG group and 50 of 627 (8.0%) of the control group (risk ratio 0.94 [0.65-1.36]). In this randomized clinical trial, neonatal BCG had no significant effect on suspected food allergy or on sensitization at 13 months of age. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  12. Kids with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Food Allergies Allergens Peanut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Milk Allergy Egg Allergy Soy Allergy Wheat Allergy Sesame ... Lost Nutrients How To Recipe Substitutions Substitutions for ... for Peanuts and Tree Nuts Substitutions for Corn Menu Planning for the Food ...

  13. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waserman Susan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children “outgrow” allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

  14. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Allergy and Related Conditions Early Peanut Introduction: Translation to Clinical Practice (EPI) Content last reviewed on ... Report for International Grants Other Reporting Requirements for International Grants Foreign Organization System ... Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics ...

  15. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  16. Food Allergies

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of food allergies and the need to be aware if any friends or classmates have them.  Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/23/2013.

  17. The frequency study of allergy to common food allergens in children 1 to 6 years with suspected food allergy referring Imam Ali Clinic, Shahrekord

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani M; Kasiri KA; Drees F; Shirani-Bidabadi F; Lotfizadeh M

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Allergy to food substances is considered as one of global health problems particularly in developing countries and its rate, as with other allergic disorders, is growing. The aim of this study was to study frequency of common food allergens in the region. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study conducted on 230 children 1 to 6 years referring Imam Ali Clinic, Shahrekord in 2014 enrolled by convenience sampling. The children were assigned to two groups of 115 each...

  18. Circadian profiling reveals higher histamine plasma levels and lower diamine oxidase serum activities in 24% of patients with suspected histamine intolerance compared to food allergy and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzer, T C; Tietz, E; Waldmann, E; Schink, M; Neurath, M F; Zopf, Y

    2017-11-20

    Histamine intolerance is thought to trigger manifold clinical symptoms after ingesting histamine-rich food due to reduced activity of diamine oxidase (DAO). No study has hitherto systematically assessed daily fluctuations of histamine levels and DAO activities in symptomatic patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of histamine intolerance, to therefore establish day profiles of histamine levels and DAO activities, and to compare the results between patients with suspected histamine intolerance, food allergy and healthy controls. We determined day profiles of histamine plasma levels and DAO serum activities in 33 patients with suspected histamine intolerance, in 21 patients with proven food allergy and in 10 healthy control patients. Clinical symptoms, food intolerances and further clinical and laboratory chemical parameters were evaluated. Twenty-four percent (8 of 33) suspected histamine-intolerant patients showed elevated histamine levels during the day. That might be caused by constantly and significantly reduced DAO activities in these patients compared to food-allergic and control patients. The remaining 25 patients presented normal histamine levels and DAO activities, but an increased prevalence of multiple food intolerances compared to the other subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. There was no correlation between subjective complaints and serological histamine parameters in patients with suspected histamine intolerance. We determined by daily profiling that decreased DAO activities correlated with elevated histamine levels in a subgroup of suspected histamine-intolerants. This finding discriminates these patients from food intolerant individuals with similar clinical symptoms and strongly suggests the presence of histamine intolerance. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  19. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy.

  20. FOOD ALLERGY IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Balabolkin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the etiology, growth mechanisms, clinical implications, diagnostics and treatment of the infant food allergy. The author highlights the status of the allergy to the proteins of cow milk within this age group of children. Alongside the article describes the modern approaches to the diet therapy of the infants with the allergy to the proteins of cow milk.Key words: infant, food allergy, allergy to the proteins of cow milk, diet therapy.

  1. FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Santalha

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In these cases, most children had co-sensitization with other allergens, as well as another manifestation of concomitant allergy, showing the role of food allergy in allergic march. Food allergy diagnosis is extremely important, as it can be potentially serious if not prevented by food avoidance.

  2. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  3. Food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maleki, Soheila J; Burks, A. Wesley; Helm, Ricki M

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ix I. CLINICAL ASPECTS 1. Clinical Manifestations of Food Allergic Disease * Tamara T. Perry, Amy M. Scurlock, and Stacie M. Jones...

  4. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szépfalusi, Z

    2012-12-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Immunological mechanisms range between IgE-mediated (most common) and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy.

  5. Diagnosis of Food Allergy Based on Oral Food Challenge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komei Ito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of food allergy should be based on the observation of allergic symptoms after intake of the suspected food. The oral food challenge test (OFC is the most reliable clinical procedure for diagnosing food allergy. The OFC is also applied for the diagnosis of tolerance of food allergy. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology issued the 'Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Oral Food Challenge Test in Food Allergy 2009' in April 2009, to provide information on a safe and standardized method for administering the OFC. This review focuses on the clinical applications and procedure for the OFC, based on the Japanese OFC guideline.

  6. Diagnosis of food allergy based on oral food challenge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Komei; Urisu, Atsuo

    2009-12-01

    Diagnosis of food allergy should be based on the observation of allergic symptoms after intake of the suspected food. The oral food challenge test (OFC) is the most reliable clinical procedure for diagnosing food allergy. The OFC is also applied for the diagnosis of tolerance of food allergy. The Japanese Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology issued the 'Japanese Pediatric Guideline for Oral Food Challenge Test in Food Allergy 2009' in April 2009, to provide information on a safe and standardized method for administering the OFC. This review focuses on the clinical applications and procedure for the OFC, based on the Japanese OFC guideline.

  7. Asthma and Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... Food Allergies Page Content Article Body A family history of any type of allergy increases the risk ...

  8. Management of Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Maleknejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although food allergy is a major public health problem, currently there is no effective and safe treatment except to avoid the foods .But the need for new options is critical now as the number of children diagnosed with food allergies rises. Avoiding the offending allergen in the diet is the primary treatment of food allergy. Once a food to which the patient is sensitive has been identified, the food must be removed from the diet. People with severe food allergies must be prepared to treat an anaphylactic reaction. These individuals also always should carry a syringe of adrenaline (epinephrine [EpiPen], and be prepared to self-administer it if they think they are developing an allergic reaction. Several medications are available for treating the other symptoms of food allergy. For example, antihistamines can relieve gastrointestinal symptoms, hives, sneezing, and a runny nose. Bronchodilators can relieve the symptoms of asthma. They are not effective, however, in preventing an allergic reaction when taken prior to eating the food. In fact, no medication in any form is available to reliably prevent an allergic reaction to a certain food before eating that food.Novel therapeutic approaches to food allergy can be classified as food allergen-specific therapy(immunotherapy with native or modified recombinant allergens, or oral desensitization or food allergen-nonspecifictherapy (anti-IgE, traditional Chinese medicine.   Key Words: Children, Food Allergy, Management.  

  9. Patterns of suspected wheat-related allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten; Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2014-01-01

    ). All children had atopic dermatitis, and most (13/15) outgrew their wheat allergy. Most children (13/15) had other food allergies. Challenge positive patients showed significantly higher levels of sIgE to wheat and significantly more were SPT positive than challenge negative. Group 2: Eleven out of 13...... of sIgE to ω-5-gliadin. The natural course is presently unknown. CONCLUSION: Wheat allergy can manifest in different disease entities, rendering a detailed case history and challenge mandatory. Patient age, occupation, concomitant allergies (food or inhalant) and atopic dermatitis are important factors...... were examined with detailed case history, specific IgE (sIgE), Skin Prick Test (SPT) and wheat challenge (nasal or oral ± exercise). Details of the case history were extracted from the patients´ case records. RESULTS: Group 1: Twenty one of 95 patients were challenge positive (15 children, 6 adults...

  10. Food Allergy: Tips to Remember

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Food allergy TTR Share | Food Allergy For most people, celebrations are fun events. But for parents of food allergic children, or ...

  11. Immunology of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A

    2017-07-18

    Many consider food allergy as the "second wave" of the allergy epidemic following the "first wave" of respiratory allergy, i.e., asthma and allergic rhinitis, plaguing westernized countries, with up to 8% of young children and 2%-3% of adults in the United States now affected by hypersensitivity reactions to various foods. In the past decade, there have been great strides in our understanding of the underlying immunopathogenesis of these disorders, which have led to improved diagnostic techniques, management strategies, and therapeutic approaches. Here we will review the most recent understanding of basic mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergies and novel therapeutic approaches under investigation for both the prevention and treatment of IgE-mediated food allergies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilamani, Madhan; Commins, Scott; Shreffler, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Food allergy is an emerging epidemic in the United States and the Western world. The determination of factors that make certain foods allergenic is still not clearly understood. Only a tiny fraction of thousands of proteins and other molecules is responsible for inducing food allergy. In this review, the authors present 3 examples of food allergies with disparate clinical presentations: peanut, soy, and mammalian meat. The potential relationships between allergen structure and function, emphasizing the importance of cross-reactive determinants, immunoglobulin E antibodies to the oligosaccharides, and the immune responses induced in humans are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Food Allergies: How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe March 2017 Print this issue Understanding Food Allergies How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More En ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Food Allergy Symptoms Pay attention to how you feel after ...

  14. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  15. History of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  16. Chapter 23: Food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Rachel G; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2012-01-01

    The onset of IgE-mediated food allergy is usually within minutes to 2 hours of food ingestion. Risk factors for fatal food-induced anaphylaxis include presence of asthma (which is a risk factor for anaphylaxis in general), failure to use epinephrine autoinjectors promptly, history of prior severe reactions, known food allergy, denial of symptoms, and adolescent/young adult age. The most commonly implicated foods are cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, soy, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat. Allergies to peanut, tree nuts, and seafood are the most common food allergens in adults. The major food allergens are glycoproteins that are generally water soluble and stable to the effects of heat, proteases, and acids. Food proteins that escape proteolysis are taken up by intestinal epithelial cells and presented to primed T cells. This process leads to the generation of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells that produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Recent studies have found that tolerance can be acquired with >70% of children becoming tolerant to cow's milk and eggs by age 16 years. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood are frequently lifelong. Food-allergic patients or their care givers should be taught when and how to administer injectable epinephrine. In terms of prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that there is no convincing evidence that delaying the introduction of solid foods, including common allergens, beyond 4-6 months of age has a protective effect on the development of atopic disease.

  17. Multiple food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, F

    1975-02-01

    This paper is devoted to a study of multiple food allergy, here defined as sensitivity to three or more foods. The purpose of the study is to report findings obtained from a study of 250 private patients and to show what type of persons develop this condition, how it affects them, and what their common allergens are. It was found that multiple food allergy occurs in both sexes and at all ages but is more common in boys than in girls and more common in women then in men. The clinical manifestations were much like those caused by the more familiar inhalant allergy but with a much more widespread constitutional disturbance. The great majority of patients (86%) also reacted to such air-borne allergens as molds, pollens, house dust, and animal epithelials. This indicates that food allergy and inhalant allergy are fundamentally the same phenomenon. The common food allergens were such everyday foods as milk, chocolate, corn, egg, tomato, peanut, and citrus fruits.

  18. Food allergy in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Lee, Bee Wah

    2006-06-01

    Food allergy is increasing in prevalence in Western populations, but little is known about it in Asia. The perception is that the prevalence in this region is low, but is likely to increase with the global increase in allergy. Asia is unique because of the many different cultures and eating habits, with the resulting occurrence of unique food allergens. This review describes the epidemiology and clinical features of food allergy, and introduces some of the unusual food allergens in Asia. Recent studies describing the pattern of anaphylaxis and the role of food triggers show that food is an important cause of severe allergic reactions in Asia. Progress has been made on the characterization of unique food allergens from the region. Peanut and tree nuts are rarely the cause of allergic reactions in Asia. The lack of availability of epinephrine auto-injectors in many countries is an important issue that needs to be addressed. The pattern of food allergy in Asia is unique. Unfortunately, data from many parts of Asia are still lacking. Large, well-designed epidemiological studies are needed so that the scale of the problem can be understood, public awareness can be increased and important food allergens in the region can be identified.

  19. Food allergy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother’s milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of nonselective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/ or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow’s, sheep’s and goat’s milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible. The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient’s complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children “outgrow” their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies.

  20. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Traveling with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In the Know FARE on Facebook FARE on Twitter FARE on Youtube FARE on Instagram A Great Place to Start Get the free Food Allergy Field Guide, full of our best resources to help you stay safe, avoid reactions, shop smartly and live well. Dine Out Safely ...

  2. Sensitization to PR-10 proteins is indicative of distinctive sensitization patterns in adults with a suspected food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, Mark A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413636143; Knulst, André C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101112017; Knol, Edward F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090565800; Le, Thuy My|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313715882; Rockmann, Heike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304810606; Otten, Henny G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10391921X; Klemans, Rob J.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344727378

    2017-01-01

    Background: The extent of co-sensitization within and between food protein families in an adult population is largely unknown. This study aimed to identify the most frequently recognized components in the PR-10 and storage protein family, as well as patterns in (co-)sensitization, in a birch-endemic

  3. Food Allergy Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills at the Instit......Developed the content of this website in collaboration with a group of leading allergy experts from the food industry, patient organisations, clinical centres, and research institutions in Europe. This has been undertaken as part of the EuroPrevall project coordinated by Clare Mills...... at the Institute of Food Research. The InformAll database is curated by the Institute of Food Research which also maintains the website....

  4. Immunotherapy in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritus to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.

  5. Public perception of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D R; Chiaramonte, L T

    1997-11-01

    Although studies that use the double-blind placebo-controled food challenge (DBPCFC) suggest that the prevalence of food allergy is about 2%, public belief in food allergy appears to be considerably higher. The study was undertaken to determine the magnitude and features of the American public's belief in food allergy by surveying a large, demographically balanced population. A simple question about food allergy was incorporated into a broad, self-reported, mailed consumer questionnaire. Demographically representative American households (5000) were surveyed by means of quota sample in 1989, 1992, and 1993. The response rate was 79, 75, and 74%, respectively. Of responding households, 16.2, 16.6, and 13.9%, respectively, of responding households reported an average of 1.17 household members with food allergy. Individuals reported to be allergic to foods were more likely to be female, particularly adult women. Male individuals with reported food allergy tended to be young, whereas no such skew was noted among female subjects. Geographic differences were observed in reported food allergy, with the highest rate in the Pacific region. Milk and chocolate were the individual foods most frequently implicated in food allergy. Trends were consistent over the time period studied. Perceived food allergy is widespread and persistent. The characteristics and demographic patterns of this belief are not reflective of known food allergy epidemiology derived from studies in which the DBPCFC is used.

  6. Food Allergy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L

    2017-06-01

    Whilst food allergy seems to have increased significantly in many developed countries in the past few decades, quality data on the burden of food allergy in many developing countries is scanty. Until recently, South Africa had a dearth of robustly designed food allergy studies. This article summarizes some of the recent research and observations regarding food allergy from the South African setting. South Africa has recently seen two important food allergy prevalence studies in selected and unselected populations. Both show allergy rates in keeping with those in several westernized countries. The major difference between sensitization and allergy rates in these studies emphasizes the vital role of the food challenge in differentiating true food allergy from asymptomatic sensitisation in equivocal cases. Eczema, young age and living in an urban population are important risk factors for food allergy in South Africa. Egg and peanut allergy are the most common food allergies in both selected and unselected populations in South Africa. In peanut allergy, Ara h 2 is the most useful component in differentiating true allergy from tolerance in peanut-sensitized patients. Use of internationally derived 95% positive predictive values for peanut and egg allergy produced many false positives in South African studies. Studies in South Africa show a trend towards more conservative introduction of peanut in eczema patients, which needs to be addressed in the light of recent studies showing a protective effect of earlier introduction of peanut. "Novel" allergies such as galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose allergy, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and eosinophilic oesophagitis are being described with increasing frequency in South Africa. The surprisingly high prevalence of food allergy in South Africa points towards possible involvement of South Africa in the so-called "food allergy epidemic". This has major implications on the planning of health services in the allergy sector

  7. A rational clinical approach to suspected insulin allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Wittrup, M

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: Allergy to recombinant human (rDNA) insulin preparations is a rare complication of insulin therapy. However, insulin preparations contain several allergens, and several disorders can resemble insulin allergy. Studies evaluating the diagnostic procedures on suspected insulin allergy...... technique (n = 5), skin disease (n = 3) and other systemic allergy (n = 1). Nine other patients were found to be allergic to protamine (n = 3) or rDNA insulin (n = 6), and specific treatment was associated with relief in 8 patients (89%). Four patients had local reactions of unknown causes but symptom...... relief was obtained in three cases by unspecific therapy. Overall, 20 (91%) reported relief of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our standardized investigative procedure of suspected insulin preparation (IP) allergy was associated with relief of symptoms in > 90% of patients. IP allergy was diagnosed in 41...

  8. Approach to suspected food allergy in atopic dermatitis. Guideline of the Task Force on Food Allergy of the German Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) and the Medical Association of German Allergologists (ADA) and the German Society of Pediatric Allergology (GPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Thomas; Erdmann, Stephan; Fuchs, Thomas; Henzgen, Margot; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Lepp, Ute; Niggemann, Bodo; Raithel, Martin; Reese, Imke; Saloga, Joachim; Vieths, Stefan; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2009-03-01

    The following guideline of the "Arbeitsgruppe Nahrungsmittelallergie der DGAKI" (Task Force on Food Allergy of the German Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology) and the ADA ("Arzteverband Deutscher Allergologen", Medical Association of German Allergologists) and the GPA (German Society of Pediatric Allergology) summarizes the approach to be taken when food allergy is suspected in patients with atopic dermatitis (neurodermatitis, atopic eczema). The problem is clinically relevant because many patients assume that allergic reactions against foods are responsible for triggering or worsening their eczema. It is important to identify those patients who will benefit from an elimination diet but also to avoid unnecessary diets. Elimination diets (especially in early childhood) are associated with the risk of malnutrition and additional emotional stress for the patients. The gold standard for the diagnosis of food-dependent reactions is to perform placebo-controlled, double-blind oral food challenges because specific IgE, prick tests and history often do not correlate with clinical reactivity. This is particularly true in the case of delayed eczematous skin reactions. Diagnostic elimination diets should be used before an oral provocation test. If multiple sensitizations against foods are discovered in a patient, an oligoallergenic diet and a subsequent stepwise supplementation of the nutrition should be performed. If a specific food is suspected of triggering food allergy, oral provocation should be performed after a diagnostic elimination diet. As eczema-tous skin reactions may develop slowly (i. e. within one or two day), the skin be inspected the day after the provocation test and that a repetitive test be performed if the patient has not reacted to a given food on the first day of oral provocation. The guideline discusses various clinical situations for patients with atopic dermatitis to facilitate differentiated diagnostic procedures.

  9. Nutritional implications of food allergies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Invited communication: Nutritional implications of food allergies. 2010;23(1) Supplement ... disorders, or parent-selected from nutrition misinformation, cultural preferences, alternative ... epidemiology, investigation, and management of food allergic disorders, as is the inclusion of a dietitian as part of the allergy team. Good.

  10. Managing Food Allergies at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others about food allergies. Advocacy Resources Community Resources Teal Pumpkin Project Education Network Food for Thought Video ... on Twitter FARE on Youtube FARE on Instagram Teal is the New Orange® When you offer non- ...

  11. Perceptions of mothers about food allergy - A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endy P. Prawirohartono

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of food allergy on child growth and development should be properly evaluated, although the prevalence of food allergy is low. Most mothers in Indonesia still  practice food elimination if their children are suspected to suffer from food allergy. Types of food that are usually avoided are high-class protein sources such as egg, milk, beef and fish. These types of foods are important for maintaining growth and development during childhood. The aim of this study is to know the perceptions of mothers about food allergy, including its pathophysiology, clinical symptoms and signs, management, and types of foods as allergens. Among mostly 114 of medium to highly educated mothers, there were still wrong perceptions about food allergy. From 114 mothers, 48.2% of them believed that food allergy can not be inherited, egg causes furuncle (54.3%, breast milk causes atopic eczema (46.5%, and food allergy does not relate to respiratory symptoms. There was a relationship between these perceptions and mothers’ educational level. Skin manifestations were most popular among mothers, whereas only 37.7% of mothers believed that food allergy can causes respiratory symptoms. Egg, shrimp, fish, and shellfish were types of animal foods which were popular, whereas peanut, soy, banana, rice and vegetables were recognized as the major causes of food allergy among non animal products.

  12. Exclusion diets and challenges in the diagnosis of food allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An incremental oral food challenge (OFC) test consists of the gradual introduction of the suspected food under close observation.[3-6] An. OFC is preceded by a period of dietary exclusion. OFC testing is the gold standard to diagnose clinical food allergy or demonstrate tolerance. Food challenge is indicated where SPTs or ...

  13. Food allergy in the cat: a diagnosis by elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jacqueline; Frank, Linda A

    2010-11-01

    Food allergy is recognized as a cause of non-seasonal dermatologic disease and pruritus in cats, though its exact prevalence remains unknown. Feline food allergy can also be associated with gastrointestinal, neurologic, respiratory and behavioral components. There are no breed, sex or age predispositions for developing food allergy, though there is some evidence that the Siamese and its crosses may be at increased risk. Food allergy cannot be diagnosed simply on the basis of the distribution of pruritus, and many of the dermatologic reaction patterns observed in affected cats, such as miliary dermatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex and alopecia, may be seen in cats with flea allergy and atopy; in some cases, cats may have concurrent allergic conditions. The only way to definitively diagnose food allergy is to identify a causative food component through a food elimination trial. However, palatability and client compliance can each be a problem; specifically, many owners are unwilling to perform a provocation challenge, which is required to confirm a suspected food allergy. For cats in which the existence of a food allergy is confirmed, a suitable maintenance diet then needs to be fed for the remainder of the patient's life. Recent literature has revealed that there is marked variability in the clinical picture, response to treatment and outcome in food-allergic cats. This article reviews published literature and highlights clinically relevant observations pertinent to feline food allergy. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical management of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J Andrew; Lack, Gideon; Perry, Tamara T

    2015-01-01

    Food allergies are commonly seen by the practitioner, and managing these patients is often challenging. Recent epidemiologic studies report that as many as 1 in 13 children in the United States may have a food allergy, which makes this an important disease process to appropriately diagnose and manage for primary care physicians and specialists alike. Having a understanding of the basic immunologic processes that underlie varying presentations of food-induced allergic diseases will guide the clinician in the initial workup. This review will cover the basic approach to understanding the immune response of an individual with food allergy after ingestion and will guide the clinician in applying appropriate testing modalities when needed by conducting food challenges if indicated and by educating the patient and his or her guardian to minimize the risk of accidental ingestion. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Allergic rhinitis and food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwionka-Szaflarska, Mieczysława; Brazowski, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Atopic diseases are a serious problem of current medicine due to epidemiological range. It also concerns allergic rhinitis and food allergy. Associations between allergic rhinitis and food allergy is still a developing subject and literature concerning its relationship is not to numerous. A short literature review of studies and reviews concerning the above subject was performed. Differences of epidemiological data concerning the association between allergic rhinitis and food allergy were presented and pathophysiology of this correlation is not precisely known. Nevertheless conclusion can be made that in cases of allergic rhinitis with diagnostic difficulties, food allergens can be taken into consideration as possible etiologic factors. Problem of correlation between allergic rhinitis and food allergy is an open subject and there is a need for further studies.

  16. Facts and Statistics about Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are generally lifelong. Is There a Cure? There is no cure for food allergy. Food allergies are managed by avoiding the problem food(s) and learning to recognize and treat reactions ...

  17. Managing Food Allergies at College

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your food allergies. Plan ahead to avoid unnecessary risks. • Drinking alcohol can be risky because most alcoholic beverages do not have ingredient labels. Alcohol can also increase risk-taking behaviors. • You may find yourself eating at ...

  18. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... of food allergies in families with a strong history of them. Exclusive breastfeeding or breastfeeding in combination ...

  19. Food allergies in rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  20. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To guide the diagnostic and therapeutic management of severe forms of food allergy. Data sources: Search in the Medline database using the terms “severe food allergy,” “anaphylaxis and food allergy,” “generalized urticaria and food allergy,” and “food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome” in the last ten years, searching in the title, abstract, or keyword fields. Summary of data: Food allergy can be serious and life-threatening. Milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, walnuts, wheat, sesame seeds, shrimp, fish, and fruit can precipitate allergic emergencies. The severity of reactions will depend on associated cofactors such as age, drug use at the onset of the reaction, history and persistence of asthma and/or severe allergic rhinitis, history of previous anaphylaxis, exercise, and associated diseases. For generalized urticaria and anaphylaxis, intramuscular epinephrine is the first and fundamental treatment line. For the treatment in acute phase of food-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the emergency setting, prompt hydroelectrolytic replacement, administration of methylprednisolone and ondansetron IV are necessary. It is important to recommend to the patient with food allergy to maintain the exclusion diet, seek specialized follow-up and, in those who have anaphylaxis, to emphasize the need to carry epinephrine. Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food-protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Risk Management for Food Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risk Management for Food Allergy is developed by a team of scientists and industry professionals who understand the importance of allergen risk assessment and presents practical, real-world guidance for food manufacturers. With more than 12 million Americans suffering from food allergies and little...... the epidemiology of food allergy, assessing allergen thresholds and risk, specifics of gluten management and celiac disease, and much more. The practical advice on factory risk management, catering industry practices, allergen detection and measurement and regulatory controls is key for food industry professionals...... indication of what is causing that number to continue to grow, food producers, packagers and distributors need to appropriately process, label and deliver their products to ensure the safety of customers with allergic conditions. By identifying risk factors during processing as well as determining...

  2. Future therapies for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In the past two decades, food allergy has emerged as an important public health issue in countries with a western life-style. Current management of food allergy relies on dietary avoidance and there is no therapy proven to restore permanent oral tolerance to food. This review focuses on novel approaches to allergen-specific therapy for IgE-mediated food allergy. Oral immunotherapy alone or in combination with anti-IgE antibody is likely to advance into clinical practice in the more immediate future. However, these approaches have to be further validated in large clinical trials before entering clinical practice. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg for the majority of milk- and egg-allergic patients represent a safer alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for majority of milk and egg-allergic children.

  3. GASTROINTESTINAL FOOD ALLERGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana G. Makarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the prevalence  of food allergies. Pathological conditions associated  with a food intolerance are becoming an increasingly urgent problem of pediatrics. According to different researchers, allergic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract occurs in 25–50% of patients with such common pathology as an allergy to cow's milk proteins. The severity of diseases  associated  with food allergies and their prognosis  depend largely on early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Difficulties and errors  in the diagnosis  of gastrointestinal  food allergies  are associated  with both subjective  and objective  reasons,  primarily due to the fact that gastrointestinal  reactions to food are often delayed and non-IgE-mediated. The article describes clinical forms of gastrointestinal food allergy according to the existing classification. Diagnostic algorithms and modern approaches  to differential diagnosis of disease based on evidence-based  medicine and corresponding to international consensus papers are given.

  4. Managing food allergies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  5. Food allergy and food allergy attitudes among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Singer, Andrew M; Baptist, Alan P

    2009-08-01

    Little information is known about food allergy among college students. We sought to assess food allergy trends and behavioral attitudes on a large university campus. An online survey was distributed by e-mail to local university undergraduate students. Symptom severity was determined based on previously published criteria for anaphylaxis. A total of 513 individuals responded, with 57% reporting an allergic reaction to food. Of this group, 36.2% reported symptoms consistent with anaphylaxis, and these reactions frequently occurred while enrolled. Allergy to milk (P = .032), tree nut (P students who had not had a reaction while enrolled (P foods to which they were allergic. Within the group that reported intentionally consuming known allergens, there were significantly lower numbers of individuals who reported carrying SIE (P foods are occurring on college campuses. Only 39.7% of students with food allergy avoided a self-identified food allergen, and more than three fourths did not maintain SIE. Such behaviors might place these students at increased risk for adverse events.

  6. Food Intolerance vs. Food Allergy: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the difference? What's the difference between a food intolerance and a food allergy? Answers from James T C Li, ... common, but most are caused by a food intolerance rather than a food allergy. A food intolerance ...

  7. FOOD ALLERGY PREVENTION IN INFANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Makarova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with new data about food tolerance induction among the children, belonging to the high risk groups disposed to atopy. Authors show the role of gut microflora in formation of child immune system, effect of breast feeding on activation of local immune response, growth stimulation of bifid bacteria and lactic acid bacilli. The present work gives the randomized research findings, which confirm the effectiveness of prolonged breast feeding, use of highly or partially hydrolyzed mixtures and timely introduction of supplemental feeding in food allergy prevention.Key words: prevention, food allergy, children, breast feeding, hypo allergic mixtures, milk protein hydrolysates, supplemental feeding, gut microflora, probiotics.

  8. Frequency and Risk Factors of Penicillin and Amoxicillin Allergy in Suspected Patients with Drug Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Bidad, Katayoon; Shokouhi, Raheleh; Dashti, Raheleh; Nabavi, Mohammad; Movahedi, Masoud; Bemanian, Mohammad Hasan; Shafiei, Ali Reza; Kalantari, Najmoddin; Farboud, Effat Sadat; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Unconfirmed beta-lactam allergy is a significant public health problem because of the limitations it imposes in drug selection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate patients referred for beta-lactam allergy to determine the frequency of confirmed beta-lactam allergy and identify some risk factors. In a prospective cohort study, all referred patients to Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (between 2007 - 2009) who suspected to have beta-lactam allergy were entered into this study based on having the inclusion criteria. Follow-up was performed 6 - 8 years after the final diagnosis. Diagnosis of beta-lactam allergy relies on thorough history and specific IgE measurements (ImmunoCAP), skin prick testing (SPT), intradermal testing (IDT), patch testing, and oral drug challenge test. Fifty-one patients with mean age of 24.5 (±18.5) years were enrolled in this study. Based on workups, beta-lactam allergy was confirmed in 16 (31.4%) patients, suspicious in 22 (43.1%) patients and ruled out in 13 (25.5%) patients.  During the follow-up, 3 patients with suspicious drug allergy consumed the culprit drug with no reaction so allergy was finally ruled out in 16 (31.4%) patients. Age, sex, atopy and family history of drug allergies were not significantly different between the patients with confirmed or ruled-out diagnosis of penicillin and amoxicillin allergy. At least up to one-third of patients with a history of beta-lactam allergy are proven to be safe using the drug. Also, a clear protocol consists of serum sIgE assay and SPT can be helpful to the physicians in the health care system.

  9. Determinants of Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masilamani, Madhan; Commins, Scott; Shreffler, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Much has been learned by identifying the molecules that can be recognized by IgE from patients with allergies. Increasingly, by correlating patterns of sensitization with clinical features, it has become possible to distinguish molecules responsible for primary sensitization (complete allergens) from those that are more likely cross-reactive targets. In the case of animal allergens, evolutionary distance seems to be an important factor in determining allergenicity. However, until more is understood regarding the mechanistic details of primary sensitization, including the participation of molecules that stimulate innate immune responses and the repertoire of T-cell antigens, molecules that may or may not themselves be important B-cell antigens, we will not be able to explain fundamental questions, such as why peanut allergy is more severe than soy allergy or why tick exposure is associated with clinically relevant sensitization to a carbohydrate epitope. PMID:22244230

  10. Goiter and Multiple Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Leniszewski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe iodine deficiency results in impaired thyroid hormone synthesis and thyroid enlargement. In the United States, adequate iodine intake is a concern for women of childbearing age and pregnant women. Beyond this high risk group iodine deficiency is not considered to be a significant problem. This case report describes a 12-year-old male with severe iodine deficiency disorder (IDD resulting from restricted dietary intake due to multiple food allergies. We describe iodine replacement for this patient and continued monitoring for iodine sufficiency. Children with multiple food allergies, in particular those with restrictions to iodized salt and seafood, should be considered high risk for severe iodine deficiency.

  11. Camel milk for food allergies in children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shabo, Yosef; Barzel, Reuben; Margoulis, Mark; Yagil, Reuven

    2005-01-01

    .... To investigate the effect of camel milk in several children with severe food (mainly milk) allergies. We studied eight children with food allergies who did not benefit from conventional treatment...

  12. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Determinants of Food Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Masilamani, Madhan; Commins, Scott; Shreffler, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Much has been learned by identifying the molecules that can be recognized by IgE from patients with allergies. Increasingly, by correlating patterns of sensitization with clinical features, it has become possible to distinguish molecules responsible for primary sensitization (complete allergens) from those that are more likely cross-reactive targets. In the case of animal allergens, evolutionary distance seems to be an important factor in determining allergenicity. However, until more is unde...

  14. Impact of Food Allergy on Asthma in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Management » Food Allergy Library » Food Allergy Videos ... Asthma & Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , WI 53202-3823 (414) 272- ...

  15. [Food allergy. Most often conceals an inhalational allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, A

    1998-09-30

    Food allergy (hypersensitivity) is a form of adverse food reaction in which the reaction is caused by an immunological response to a food. Most immediate allergic reactions to food are IgE-mediated. The prevalence of food allergy in the general population without the oral allergy syndrome is about 1-2%. Although many foods have been described to cause an allergic reaction, only a few are responsible for the majority of hypersensitivity symptoms. Based on continuous studies by B. Wüthrich, Allergy Unit of the Dermatology Department, University Hospital, Zurich, celery (42%) followed by dairy products (16%), carrot (13%), hen's egg (12%) and fish (7%) is by far the major source of food allergy in Switzerland. In adults food hypersensitivity is mainly due to cross-reactivity between inhalative and food allergens. Pathophysiologically, IgE antibodies induced by aeroallergens recognize structurally similar components in certain foods even from taxonomically unrelated plants. Following an accurate allergological examination, oral provocation tests are considered the most conclusive procedures to establish diagnosis. The only proven form of management in food allergy is strict elimination of the offending food. Food-allergic patients must be provided with emergency medications. Identification of allergens and their characterization finally will improve our understanding for pathophysiologic mechanisms of food allergy.

  16. The prevalence of suspected and challenge-verified penicillin allergy in a university hospital population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Jacob Eli; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    -allergic. The prevalence of suspected penicillin allergy was lower than reported elsewhere. A substantial number of patients failed to recall basic information about their alleged allergy. Patients reporting penicillin allergy upon admission and labels stating penicillin allergy on medical files are ignored in almost...

  17. Nutritional implications of food allergies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diets are frequently adopted in the treatment of atopic dermatitis when the actual prevalence of cow's milk allergy in patients on milk elimination diets may be significantly lower than the number of patients prescribed such diets.2 Elimination of any major food, without considering its nutritional implications, has the potential to.

  18. Severe forms of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Sarinho

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Severe food allergy may occur in the form of anaphylaxis and food‐protein‐induced enterocolitis syndrome, which are increasingly observed in the pediatric emergency room; hence, pediatricians must be alert so they can provide the immediate diagnosis and treatment.

  19. The impact of food allergy on asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Kewalramani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anupama Kewalramani, Mary E BollingerDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Allergy/Pulmonology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Food allergy is a potentially severe immune response to a food or food additive. Although a majority of children will outgrow their food allergies, some may have lifelong issues. Food allergies and other atopic conditions, such as asthma, are increasing in prevalence in Western countries. As such, it is not uncommon to note the co-existence of food allergy and asthma in the same patient. As part of the atopic march, many food allergic patients may develop asthma later in life. Each can adversely affect the other. Food allergic patients with asthma have a higher risk of developing life-threatening food-induced reactions. Although food allergy is not typically an etiology of asthma, an asthmatic patient with food allergy may have higher rates of morbidity and mortality associated with the asthma. Asthma is rarely a manifestation of food allergy alone, but the symptoms can be seen with allergic reactions to foods. There may be evidence to suggest that early childhood environmental factors, such as the mother’s and child’s diets, factor in the development of asthma; however, the evidence continues to be conflicting. All food allergic patients and their families should be counseled on the management of food allergy and the risk of developing co-morbid asthma.Keywords: food allergy, diagnosis, treatment, asthma

  20. Food allergy and complementary feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreffler, Wayne G; Radano, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between complementary feeding and the development of atopic disease is the source of significant interest and debate in both the scientific and lay communities. A small number of early studies, which had considerable influence on recommended feeding practices, reported protective effects associated with delaying the introduction of commonly allergenic foods such as cow's milk, egg, and nuts. Despite more conservative recommendations, however, food allergy prevalence has continued to rise. Our understanding of the development of food allergy, its relationship with IgE sensitization and atopic dermatitis, and the relationship of each of these outcomes with the timing of food introduction has evolved considerably. Based on multiple observational studies, and extrapolating from immunotherapy trials and animal models of mucosal immunity, there is mounting evidence that delayed introduction or avoidance of commonly allergenic foods is at best neutral and may be detrimental with regard to atopic outcomes. There is an obvious and critical need for additional high-caliber studies to further evaluate this connection. In the meantime, multiple health considerations, not allergy alone, should be involved in decisions regarding nutritional intake, including common allergenic foods, during the period of transition to the family diet. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Going to School with Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reactions (they may say food tastes spicy, their tongue feels hot, their tongue or mouth feels itchy or funny, or their ... to Cope Egg Allergy Allergy Testing Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions Guidelines Note: ...

  2. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuille, Elizabeth; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising investigational therapy for food allergy. Clinical trials in peanut, milk, egg, and wheat allergy provide evidence that OIT can effectively desensitize a majority of individuals to a food allergen. While a portion of subjects demonstrate sustained unresponsiveness, the majority regain sensitivity with allergen avoidance. The safety and tolerability of OIT continue to limit its use in some patients. Virtually all studies report adverse reactions that are more frequent during dose escalation but may also occur during maintenance therapy. Recent studies have identified adjunctive therapies (such as omalizumab) which may mitigate adverse effects. There is a paucity of data on the long-term safety and efficacy of OIT. Further study is required before OIT is ready for routine clinical practice. This review is intended to provide the reader with an up-to-date understanding of OIT, including its mechanisms, efficacy, safety profile, and potential utility in clinical practice. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Allergic rhinitis caused by food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingi, Cemal; Demirbas, Duygu; Songu, Murat

    2010-09-01

    Food allergies occur in 1-2% of adults and in 8% of children under 6 years of age. Food-induced allergies are immunological reactions that cause a variety of symptoms affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. The reactions are mediated by both IgE- and non-IgE-dependent (cellular) mechanisms. Isolated food-induced allergic rhinitis is not common as it frequently occurs together with other food allergy symptoms such as asthma, eczema, oral allergic manifestations, urticaria, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The present paper provides an overview of food allergies and food-induced allergic rhinitis.

  4. Food allergies and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, E C

    1979-05-05

    60 migraine patients completed elimination diets after a 5-day period of withdrawal from their normal diet. 52 (87%) of these patients had been using oral contraceptive steroids, tobacco, and/or ergotamine for an average of 3 years, 22 years, and 7.4 years respectively. The commonest foods causing reactions were wheat (78%), orange (65%), eggs (45%), tea and coffee (40% each), chocolate and milk (37%) each), beef (35%), and corn, cane sugar, and yeast (33% each). When an average of ten common foods were avoided there was a dramatic fall in the number of headaches per month, 85% of patients becoming headache-free. The 25% of patients with hypertension became normotensive. Chemicals in the home environment can make this testing difficult for outpatients. Both immunological and non-immunological mechanisms may play a part in the pathogenesis of migraine caused by food intolerance.

  5. Food Allergy 101 | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current issue contents Food Allergy 101 Follow us Food Allergy 101 What is a food allergy? In a person with a food allergy, ... Sometimes the response can be life-threatening. What foods commonly cause an allergy? Foods that often cause ...

  6. Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Urisu

    2011-01-01

    Therapy for food allergy includes treatments of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity like anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be conducted only if they are inevitable because they places a burden on patients. For this purpose, it is highly important that causative foods are accurately identified. Many means to determine the causative foods are available, including history taking, skin prick test, antigen specific IgE antibodies in blood, basophil histamine release test, elimination diet test, oral food challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral food challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis.

  7. [Food allergy in atopic dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, K; Heratizadeh, A; Werfel, T

    2012-04-01

    Food allergy predominantly affects children rather than adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Early sensitization to foods has been found to be significantly associated with AD. Three different patterns of clinical reactions to food allergens in AD patients exist: i. immediate-type reaction, ii. isolated late-type reaction, iii. combined reaction (i. + ii.). While in children allergens from cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, fish, peanut or tree nuts are mostly responsible for allergic reactions, birch-pollen related food allergens seem to play a major role in adolescent and adults with AD in Central and Northern Europe. Defects of the epidermal barrier function seem to facilitate the development of sensitization to allergens following epicutaneous exposure. The relevance of defects of the gut barrier as well as genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk for food allergy remain to be further investigated. Numerous studies focus on prevention strategies which include breast-feeding or feeding with hydrolyzed milk substitute formula during the first 4 months of life.

  8. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Werfel, T; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impact negatively on quality of life, and prove costly in terms of medical care. These guidelines have been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group, building...... on previous EAACI position papers on adverse reaction to foods and three recent systematic reviews on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. While the primary audience is allergists......, this document is relevant for all other healthcare professionals, including primary care physicians, and pediatric and adult specialists, dieticians, pharmacists and paramedics. Our current understanding of the manifestations of food allergy, the role of diagnostic tests, and the effective management...

  9. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Administrators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-15

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school administrators can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/15/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2015.

  10. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Superintendents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the importance of ensuring that comprehensive school district plans are in place to manage food allergies. It also identifies some key actions school superintendents can take to support students with food allergies, and highlights CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  11. The development of a standardised diet history tool to support the diagnosis of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skypala, Isabel J.; Venter, Carina; Meyer, Rosan; deJong, Nicolette W.; Fox, Adam T.; Groetch, Marion; Oude Elberink, J. N.; Sprikkelman, Aline; Diamandi, Louiza; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.

    2015-01-01

    The disparity between reported and diagnosed food allergy makes robust diagnosis imperative. The allergy-focussed history is an important starting point, but published literature on its efficacy is sparse. Using a structured approach to connect symptoms, suspected foods and dietary intake, a

  12. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. South African food allergy consensus document 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examples include lactose intolerance and hypersensitivity to alcohol or caffeine. This document focuses on immune-mediated reactions (food allergy) only. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy is the clinical result of a type I immediate hypersensitivity reaction due to the presence of IgE antibodies to a specific food.

  14. Towards a food-allergy-free world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, G.; Bilsen, J. van; Blom, M.; Kruizinga, A.; Verhoeckx, K.

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is one of the most common health disorders in the western world. It affects about three per cent of the total population. Food allergy is potentially lethal, and its health impact is higher than that posed by all known chemicals and microbes in food. It is also higher than that of many

  15. Diagnosing food allergy in children, peanuts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, F.C. van

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has a major impact on quality of life of children and their parents. Although food allergic patients usually do not experience daily symptoms, they are faced with dietary restrictions and the risk for a severe reaction every day. A correct diagnosis of food allergy is important to

  16. Food allergy: immune mechanisms, diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wong; Freeland, Deborah M Hussey; Nadeau, Kari C

    2016-12-01

    Food allergy is a pathological, potentially deadly, immune reaction triggered by normally innocuous food protein antigens. The prevalence of food allergies is rising and the standard of care is not optimal, consisting of food-allergen avoidance and treatment of allergen-induced systemic reactions with adrenaline. Thus, accurate diagnosis, prevention and treatment are pressing needs, research into which has been catalysed by technological advances that are enabling a mechanistic understanding of food allergy at the cellular and molecular levels. We discuss the diagnosis and treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy in the context of the immune mechanisms associated with healthy tolerance to common foods, the inflammatory response underlying most food allergies, and immunotherapy-induced desensitization. We highlight promising research advances, therapeutic innovations and the challenges that remain.

  17. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines: managing patients with food allergy in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Agache, I.; Clark, A.; Sheikh, A.; Roberts, G.; Akdis, C. A.; Borrego, L. M.; Higgs, J.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Jorgensen, P.; Mazon, A.; Parmigiani, D.; Said, M.; Schnadt, S.; van Os-Medendorp, H.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Wickman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, managing patients with food allergy (FA) in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to

  18. [Food allergy from school age to adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmer-Weber, B

    2012-04-01

    In young children food allergy is mainly acquired over the gastrointestinal tract and directed to egg and milk. Patients at school age or adult patients, however, often acquire a food allergy over a primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens, in Switzerland primarily over birch pollen. This type of food allergy is directed to plant foods. Apple and hazelnut are the most prevalent allergenic foods in this age group. A birch pollen related food allergy is often accompanied by mild allergic symptoms such as the oral contact urticaria. The relevant allergens are labile to heat and are often tolerated in heat processed form. Severe up to anaphylactic symptoms, however, have been reported in birch pollen related soy allergy. Physical exercise, intake of alcohol, NSAIDs, betablocking agents or eventually antacids may aggravate the severity of a food allergic reaction.

  19. Food allergy due to olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsel, M; Ardeniz, O; Mete, N; Ersoy, R; Sin, A Z; Gulbahar, O; Kokuludag, A

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 28-year-old man who presented palatal itching and genaralized urticaria following ingestion of olive 3 years after being diagnosed with olive pollinosis. The patient did not have a history of food allergy or urticaria. The results of skin prick tests with aeroallergens including latex were positive for house dust mite and olive pollen. The results of prick tests and prick-to-prick tests for olive fruit were positive, as were those of specific immunoglobulin E tests to olive pollen and fruit. The results of prick tests to peach, pear, kiwi, melon, and nut were negative. Nasal provocation with olive pollen gave positive results. An open oral provocation test with olive oil did not cause symptoms. This case is unique in that the patient developed olive fruit allergy in the presence of olive pollinosis, and he did not experience allergic symptoms to fruits other than olive, thus enabling us to define a new pollen-food (olive-olive) syndrome.

  20. Developmental trajectories in food allergy: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DunnGalvin, A

    2009-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of the relationships between perceptions, emotions, behaviors and health has changed the way health and disease are portrayed and researched. A chronic condition may affect and\\/or interact with already existing normative demands and changes in socialization. Although the prevalence of food allergy and anaphylaxis have been reportedly increasing, the emotional and social impact of growing up with food allergy has received little emphasis. In this paper, we present current findings on the biopsychosocial impact of food allergy on children in order to gain insight into the food allergy experience, from the perspective of the child, teen, and parent living with food allergy, with particular attention to developmental aspects. Due to the scarcity of publications on the psychosocial dimensions of food allergy, we also draw on selected literature on children\\'s and parent\\'s experience of, and coping with chronic disease that may inform research into food allergy. To this end, we review some general developmental mechanisms that may underpin and explain normative age-graded shifts in patterns of coping across childhood and adolescence. We also highlight gaps in the literature and assess implications of current research in food allergy and other chronic diseases for intervention and prevention of negative short and long term outcomes.

  1. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nurses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the leadership role of school nurses in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  2. Food allergy preceded by contact urticaria due to the same food: Involvement of epicutaneous sensitization in food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inomata, Naoko; Nagashima, Mayumi; Hakuta, Amiko; Aihara, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    .... To clarify the role of epicutaneous sensitization in food allergy, we investigated the clinical characteristics of adult patients with food allergies preceded by contact urticaria due to the same foods.Methods...

  3. Towards a food allergy free world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, G.

    2016-01-01

    The international food industry appreciates the benefits of sharing its research load via collaborative programs with partners. TNO offers you the opportunity to participate in its strategic Shared Research Program (SRP) ‘Towards a Food Allergy Free World’.

  4. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines : Food allergy health-related quality of life measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muraro, A.; Dubois, Anthony; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; de Jong, N. W.; Meyer, R.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Salvilla, S.; Sheikh, A.; Worth, A.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a

  5. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of food allergy has been increasing in recent years. Food allergy can be deadly, and strict avoidance of foods containing allergenic proteins is the only effective way to prevent food-induced allergic reaction. This approach poses challenges, because allergens are not always accurately...

  6. How do teenagers manage their food allergies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, H; Gowland, M H; MacKenzie, H; Erlewyn-Lajeunesse, M; King, R; Lucas, J S; Roberts, G

    2010-10-01

    The peak incidence of deaths from anaphylaxis associated with nut allergy occurs in teenagers and young adults. During adolescence, the management of food allergy shifts from being the responsibility of parents to that of the young person. This is a group who therefore need special attention in the clinic. This study aimed to understand the practical challenges that teenagers with food allergy experience using a qualitative approach and generate potential interventions for tackling these. Teenagers aged 1118 years with food allergy completed a questionnaire about their food allergy and underwent a focused, semi-structured interview with open questions guided by a priori topic areas. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using a thematic approach. The study enrolled 18 teenagers with a median age of 15 years (10 females); the most common food allergens were peanuts and tree nuts. Three key themes emerged: avoidance of allergens, preparation for reactions and the treatment of reactions. The majority of teenagers reported eating foods labelled as 'may contain' an allergen as they perceive that they are actually very unlikely to contain an allergen. Many of the teenagers only carried their self-injectable adrenaline when they thought they are particularly at risk of a reaction. Some do not know how to appropriately treat an allergic reaction. More than half believed that educating other students at school about the seriousness of food allergies would make it easier to live with their food allergy. A significant number of teenagers demonstrate risk-taking behaviour in the management of their food allergies. Teenagers also felt it would be helpful for their peers to be educated about food allergy. This novel strategy might help them to avoid trigger foods and enable teenagers to access help more readily if they suffer a reaction. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. FOOD ALLERGY AND ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME. Part I. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Balcheva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy and intolerance are wide spread nowadays. However, the problem existed and was registered and described still by the ancients. It was fully understood and scientifically depicted in the 20th century after IgE and anaphylaxis were discovered, new diagnostic tests were initiated and the term “allergy” was introduced. There are some interesting aspects of the problem. Epidemiology is the first one – in the last two decades the number of people suffering from food allergy increased significantly and reached 4% of the population. Food allergy covers all ages, both sexes; atopic people and these with other allergic or digestive diseases are in the risk group also. There is certain influence of the eating habits as well. Etiology is rich and varied. It includes all foodstuffs of plant and animal origin, spices, honey, medicinal products - milk, eggs, meat, fish, nuts, fruits and vegetables, etc. Pathogenesis is complex.

  8. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282

  9. Food Allergies and Australian Combat Ration Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    bacterial (Salmonella, Listeria ), viral (Hepatitis A, rotavirus), parasites or toxins— and may present with similar symptoms (Lopata and Lehrer 2009...et al. (2008) The prevalence of plant food allergies: a systematic review. J Allergy Clin Immunol 121 (5) 1210-1218. DSTO-TR-2409 27

  10. Identification and treatment of patients with suspected penicillin allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Grošelj

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: We confirmed that many patients report penicillin allergy, however, the allergy is rarely confirmed by tests. Also, after tests that rule out penicillin allergy have been performed, penicillin antibiotics are still prescribed in lesser percent than other antibiotics. We found out that the vast majority of adults who come in the pharmacy with an antibiotic prescription are direct consumers of the prescribed antibiotic. Therefore, there is an opportunity to develop and implement a program of pharmaceutical care also for antibiotic treatment.

  11. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Food allergy health-related quality of life measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Dubois, A E J; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; de Jong, N W; Meyer, R; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Salvilla, S; Sheikh, A; Worth, A; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-07-01

    Instruments have been developed and validated for the measurement of health-related quality of life in patients with food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Group. It draws on a systematic review of the literature on quality of life instruments for food allergy and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE II) guideline development process. Guidance is provided on the use of such instruments in research, and the current limitations of their use in clinical practice are described. Gaps in current knowledge as well as areas of future interest are also discussed. This document is relevant to healthcare workers dealing with food-allergic patients, scientists engaging in food allergy research and policy makers involved in regulatory aspects concerning food allergy and safety. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of food allergy. Epidemiology This thesis shows that the prevalence of self-reported adverse food reactions in children and adults was high: 17-25% for all foods and 10-11% for 24 preselected, so-called priority foods. The prevalence

  13. Epidemiology of IgE-mediated food allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiology of IgE- mediated food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy varies significantly based on geographical region, allergens tested, diagnostic criteria, population age and concurrent atopic conditions.[5]. Variations in food allergy definitions and inconsistencies in study design make studies on food allergy.

  14. Exploration into the Genetics of Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    mediated symptoms on ingestion were sesame (n ¼ 10), tree nuts (n ¼ 7), fish (n ¼ 2), and soy (n ¼ 1). For reported food-triggered AD, milk , egg, peanut...biomarkers as part of the Statement of work. Seventy-three patients from 23 families were recruited. Culprit foods included milk (n -20), egg (n -10), and...peanut (n-6) for food allergy and milk (n-20) and egg (n- 7) for food-triggered AD. Odds of having had a self-reported related food allergy or food

  15. Food allergy-lessons from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bee Wah; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Gerez, Irvin Francis A; Soh, Shu E; Van Bever, Hugo P

    2008-07-01

    : This is a review on published data available on food allergy in East Asia and a discussion on the insights that it offers. : PubMed searches were made for terms food allergy and anaphylaxis, in combination with Asia. : There is a paucity of population-based prevalence studies on food allergy in Asia. Certain unique food allergens, such as buckwheat, chestnuts, chickpeas, bird's nest, and royal jelly, which are consumed extensively by certain Asian populations have resulted in clinical food allergy of little importance in other populations. Crustacean shellfish is of importance in this region relative to other common food allergens. The high consumption of these foods and possibly coupled with cross-reactive tropomyosins from dominant inhalant dust mite and cockroach allergens in this region may explain this phenomenon. In contrast, the prevalence of peanut allergy is relatively low in this region. The reasons for this difference are not apparent. However, this may be a reflection of the general reduced propensity in this region to allergic diseases as seen with asthma. : Further research on food allergy in Asia is warranted because it offers unique opportunities to further our understanding on the influence of population and environment.

  16. Food Allergy--Lessons from Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Objective This is a review on published data available on food allergy in East Asia and a discussion on the insights that it offers. Methods PubMed searches were made for terms food allergy and anaphylaxis, in combination with Asia. Results There is a paucity of population-based prevalence studies on food allergy in Asia. Certain unique food allergens, such as buckwheat, chestnuts, chickpeas, bird's nest, and royal jelly, which are consumed extensively by certain Asian populations have resulted in clinical food allergy of little importance in other populations. Crustacean shellfish is of importance in this region relative to other common food allergens. The high consumption of these foods and possibly coupled with cross-reactive tropomyosins from dominant inhalant dust mite and cockroach allergens in this region may explain this phenomenon. In contrast, the prevalence of peanut allergy is relatively low in this region. The reasons for this difference are not apparent. However, this may be a reflection of the general reduced propensity in this region to allergic diseases as seen with asthma. Conclusions Further research on food allergy in Asia is warranted because it offers unique opportunities to further our understanding on the influence of population and environment. PMID:23282480

  17. Natural history of food allergy in infants and children in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronov, Darit; Tasher, Diana; Levine, Arie; Somekh, Eli; Serour, Francis; Dalal, Ilan

    2008-12-01

    Knowledge about the natural history of food allergy, especially sesame, is scarce. To follow the natural history of food allergies in Israel, particularly of sesame allergy. The survey was conducted based on clinical records and a detailed questionnaire of children diagnosed as having food allergy. We found 234 children with suspected food allergy. Testing detected 283 allergies in 180 patients (77%) with confirmed diagnosis. The most common allergies were to cow's milk (n = 125), eggs (n = 71), sesame (n = 30), and soy (n = 23). Of those with milk allergy, 69% were IgE mediated (group 1) and 31% were non-IgE mediated (group 2). Group 1 was more likely to have an atopic background than was group 2 (P = .003), whereas group 2 was more likely to have resolution of the allergy (35 of 39 [90%] in group 2 compared with only 32 of 86 [37%] in group 1, P Allergy to soy was found in 23 children, of whom 87% manifested with gastrointestinal symptoms and 21 (91%) were also allergic to cow's milk. In 19 children (83%), the allergy resolved. Thirty children had allergy to sesame, and 73% of them had an atopic background. The allergy resolved in only 9 of these patients (30%) at a mean age of 2.8 years. The distribution of food allergens in Israel differs from that in other countries. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy and particularly milk and soy allergy were likely to resolve completely with time. Sesame allergy was 1 of the most frequent in this cohort, was usually IgE mediated, and tended to resolve in only a few patients.

  18. Intestinal malrotation with suspected cow’s milk allergy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuki Takuma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal malrotation is an incomplete rotation of the intestine. Failure to rotate leads to abnormalities in intestinal positioning and attachment that leave obstructing bands across the duodenum and a narrow pedicle for the midgut loop, thus making it susceptible to volvulus. One of the important differential diagnoses for malrotation is an allergy to cow’s milk. Several studies have described infants with surgical gastrointestinal diseases and cow’s milk allergy. However, to our knowledge, no study has reported infants with intestinal malrotation who have been symptomatic before surgery was performed and have been examined by allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test and food challenge tests with long-term follow-up. Case presentation The patient was a Japanese male born at 39 weeks of gestation. He was breast-fed and received commercial cow’s milk supplementation starting the day of birth and was admitted to our hospital at 6 days of age due to bilious vomiting. Plain abdominal radiography showed a paucity of gas in the distal bowel. Because we demonstrated malpositioning of the intestine by barium enema, we repositioned the bowel in a normal position by laparotomy. The patient was re-started on only breast milk 2 days post surgery because we suspected the presence of a cow’s milk allergy, and the results of an allergen-specific lymphocyte stimulation test showed a marked increase in lymphocyte response to kappa-casein. At 5 months of age, the patient was subjected to a cow’s milk challenge test. After the patient began feeding on cow’s milk, he had no symptoms and his laboratory investigations showed no abnormality. In addition, because the patient showed good weight gain and no symptoms with increased cow’s milk intake after discharge, we concluded that the present case was not the result of a cow’s milk allergy. At 1 year, the patient showed favorable growth and development, and serum allergy

  19. The 'bite' in paediatric food allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    over by allergens or inflammatory media- tors such as ... because of major changes in eating habits.1. Our Western diet ... Food allergy is a common cause, especially peanuts and tree nuts. Adapted from: .... Hearing disorder. • Wet, wheezy ...

  20. Have Food Allergies? Read the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Have Food Allergies? Read the Label Share Tweet Linkedin ... requirements. back to top "Contains" and "May Contain" Have Different Meanings If a “Contains” statement appears on ...

  1. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared...... by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and childhood...... strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The advice for all mothers...

  3. [Treatment and management of food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urisu, Atsuo

    2009-11-01

    Management for food allergy consists of treatment for hypersensitive reactions by causative foods and prophylactic control of food allergy. The former is administration of histamine H1 receptor antagonist, adrenaline and steroid. It is recommended that all patients with a history of severe reactions carry a device for self-injection of adrenaline (Epipen). The latter is avoidance of the relevant food allergens. Nutritional instruction by skillful dietitians is important to prevent the nutritional defect and improve the quality of life of food-allergic patients.

  4. Epidemiology of food allergy in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Sánchez, A

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is growing worldwide at an alarming rate. A group of eight foods account for over 90% of the reactions in Europe and the United States. However, little is known about the frequency of sensitization to these foods in Latin American, and if other native foods from this region are an important source of sensitization. The objective of this review was to analyse the epidemiological studies in Latin America about food allergy and to compare them with the studies in the United States and Europe. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Food allergy: Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2016-10-01

    Hippocrates is often credited with first recognizing that food could be responsible for adverse symptoms and even death in some individuals, but it was not until the seminal observations by Prausnitz that the investigation of food allergy was viewed on a more scientific basis. In the first half of the 20th century, there were periodic reports in the medical literature describing various food allergic reactions. In the mid- to late- 1970's, the studies of Charles May and colleagues began to penetrate the medical world's skepticism about the relevance of food allergy and how to diagnose it, since standard skin testing was known to correlate poorly with clinical symptoms. With May's introduction of the double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge, the study of food allergy became evidence-based and exponential strides have been made over the past four decades in the study of basic immunopathogenic mechanisms and natural history, and the diagnosis and management of food allergies. Today IgE- and non-IgE-mediated food allergic disorders are well characterized and efforts to treat these allergies by various immunotherapeutic strategies are well under way. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST) in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Pourreza, Alireza; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Masomi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-o...

  7. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  8. Food allergy: Stakeholder perspectives on acceptable risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Crevel, René; Chan, Chun-Han

    2010-01-01

    We have reached a point where it is difficult to improve food allergy risk management without an agreement on levels of acceptable risk. This paper presents and discusses the perspectives of the different stakeholders (allergic consumers, health professionals, public authorities and the food...... industry) on acceptable risk in food allergy. Understanding where these perspectives diverge and even conflict may help develop an approach to define what is acceptable. Uncertainty about food allergy, its consequences and how to manage them is the common denominator of the stakeholders’ views. In patients...... to all patients despite the fact that the risk to each is not identical. Regulators and the food industry struggle with the fact that the lack of management thresholds forces them to make case-by-case decisions in an area of uncertainty with penalties for under- or over-prediction. As zero risk...

  9. Nearly 4 Percent of Americans Suffer from Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shows. Approximately 4 percent of Americans have a food allergy, with women and Asians the most affected, the study found. "Recent reports suggest that food allergies are on the rise, with more food ...

  10. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth grade students from an elementary school in Yongin. A total of 437 response rate (95%) questionnaires were collected and statistically analyzed. The prevalence of food allergy among respondents was 19.7%, and the most common food allergy-related symptoms were urticaria, followed by itching, vomiting and nausea. Food allergens, other than 12 statutory food allergens, included cheese, cucumber, kiwi, melon, clam, green tea, walnut, grape, apricot and pineapple. Children with and without food allergy experience had a similar level of knowledge on food allergies. Children with food allergy experience thought that food allergy-related labeling on school menus was not clear or informative. To understand food allergies and prevent allergic reactions to school foodservice among children, schools must provide more concrete and customized food allergy education.

  11. Food allergy : Stakeholder perspectives on acceptable risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, Charlotte B.; Crevel, Rene; Chan, Chun-Han; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Gowland, M. Hazel; Hattersley, Sue; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Norhede, Pia; Pfaff, Sylvia; Rowe, Gene; Schnadt, Sabine; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.

    2010-01-01

    We have reached a point where it is difficult to improve food allergy risk management without an agreement on levels of acceptable risk. This paper presents and discusses the perspectives of the different stakeholders (allergic consumers, health professionals, public authorities and the food

  12. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... them. Eight kinds of food cause most food allergies: •Cow’s milk •Eggs •Peanuts •Wheat • Soy • Fish • Shellfish • Tree nuts Your source for more information or to find an allergist/immunologist. 02/2011 AAAAI -0111 -532

  13. Factors associated with reported food allergy tolerance among US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Lau, Claudia H; Sita, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2013-09-01

    Limited studies exist on predictors of food allergy tolerance. To describe factors associated with tolerance to 9 common food allergens based on caregiver report in a nationally representative survey. Data from children with current and outgrown food allergies were identified for analysis from a randomized, cross-sectional survey administered in US households with children from June 2009 through February 2010. Allergies were analyzed based on type of allergy, age at which allergies were outgrown, and reaction history. Adjusted models were formulated to examine the association of child and food allergy characteristics with odds of reporting an allergy as being outgrown. Of 40,104 children surveyed, 1,245 cases of outgrown food allergy were identified. The frequency of tolerance in children with food allergy was 26.6% at a mean age of 5.4 years. Children with milk (41.1%), egg (40.2%), or soy (35.7%) allergy had significantly higher frequencies of tolerance, whereas children with shellfish (13.0%), tree nut (14.3%), and peanut (15.6%) allergies had significantly lower frequencies (P allergy included a mild to moderate reaction history, being allergic to only 1 food, eczema as the sole allergy symptom, and white compared with black race (P allergy. Understanding factors associated with outgrowing an allergy can improve disease management and counseling. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The diagnosis of food allergy: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Weiser, Karla; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Rader, Tamara; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Werfel, Thomas; Muraro, Antonella; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Roberts, Graham; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-06-07

    The literature on diagnostic tests for food allergy currently lacks clear consensus regarding the accuracy and safety of different investigative approaches. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is in the process of developing its Guideline for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, and this systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management, and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform the formulation of clinical recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the diagnostic accuracy of tests aimed at supporting the clinical diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy. The following databases from inception to September 30, 2012 will be searched for studies of diagnostic tests: Cochrane Library (Wiley&Sons); MEDLINE (OVID); Embase (OVID); CINAHL (Ebscohost); ISI Web of Science (Thomson Web of Knowledge); TRIP Database (web http://www.tripdatabase.com); and Clinicaltrials.gov (NIH web). These database searches will be supplemented by contacting an international panel of experts. Studies evaluating APT, SPT, specific-IgE, and component specific-IgE in participants of any age with suspected food allergy will be included. The reference standard will be DBPCFC in at least 50% of the participants. Studies will be quality assessed by using the QUADAS-2 instrument. We will report summary statistics such as sensitivity, specificity, and/or likelihood ratios. We will use the hierarchical summary ROC (HSROC) model to summarize the accuracy of each test and to compare the accuracy of two or more tests. Decisions on which tests to use need to be guided by availability of tests, populations being cared for, risks, financial considerations and test properties. This review will examine papers from around the world, covering children and adults with

  15. Allergy to jackfruit: a novel example of Bet v 1-related food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhaar, S. T. H. P.; Ree, R.; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A. F. M.; Knulst, A. C.; Zuidmeer, L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Jackfruit allergy has been reported just once. It is unknown whether this food allergy is caused by direct sensitization or cross-sensitization to pollen allergens. OBJECTIVE: Establish whether jackfruit allergy is linked to birchpollen allergy. METHODS: Two jackfruit allergic patients

  16. Food allergy: the 10 common offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, F

    1976-02-01

    The 10 chief offenders among food allergens are cow's milk, chocolate and cola (the kola nut family), corn, eggs, the pea family (chiefly peanut, which is not a nut), citrus fruits, tomato, wheat and other small grains, cinnamon and artificial food colors. Food allergy results in a remarkable variety of clinical syndromes. Diagnois rests on an elimination and challenge process. Treatment is avoidance. Desensitization does not work.

  17. The impact of food allergy on household level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.

    2010-01-01

    Adverse reactions to food can be caused by food hypersensitivity. Prominent examples include food allergy or food intolerance. Patients suffering from food hypersensitivity have inappropriate autoimmune system reactions to potentially harmless food components. Symptoms can vary from uncomfortable

  18. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth gr...

  19. Identifying Foods causing Allergies/ Intolerances among Diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to identify the foods that caused allergies / intolerances and symptoms of reaction experienced by diabetic patients attending State Specialist Hospital, Akure. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight diabetics aged 30-80 years (30 males and 68 females) were included in the study.

  20. Understanding Food Allergy: Latest Updates from NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main content NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine NIH MedlinePlus Salud Download the Current Issue PDF [4.3 mb] ... cares about them,” says Pamela Guerrerio, M.D., Ph.D. She is chief of the Food Allergy ...

  1. Food Allergy: Review, Classification and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Cianferoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies, defined as an immune response to food proteins, affect as many as 8% of young children and 2% of adults in westernized countries, and their prevalence appears to be rising like all allergic diseases. In addition to well-recognized urticaria and anaphylaxis triggered by IgE antibody-mediated immune responses, there is an increasing recognition of cell-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis and food protein-induced enterocolitis. New knowledge is being developed on the pathogenesis of both IgE and non-IgE mediated disease. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and initiating therapy if ingestion occurs. However, novel strategies are being studied, including sublingual/oral immunotherapy and others with a hope for future.

  2. Clinical spectrum of food allergies: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Marco H-K; Wong, Wilfred H-S; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune response towards food proteins or as a form of a food intolerance associated with a hypersensitive immune response. It should also be reproducible by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Many reported that food reactions are not allergic but are intolerances. Food allergy often presents to clinicians as a symptom complex. This review focuses on the clinical spectrum and manifestations of various forms of food allergies. According to clinical presentations and allergy testing, there are three types of food allergy: IgE mediated, mixed (IgE/Non-IgE), and non-IgE mediated (cellular, delayed type hypersensitivity). Recent advances in food allergy in early childhood have highlighted increasing recognition of a spectrum of delayed-onset non-IgE-mediated manifestation of food allergy. Common presentations of food allergy in infancy including atopic eczema, infantile colic, and gastroesophageal reflux. These clinical observations are frequently associated with food hypersensitivity and respond to dietary elimination. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy includes a wide range of diseases, from atopic dermatitis to food protein-induced enterocolitis and from eosinophilic esophagitis to celiac disease. The most common food allergies in children include milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, treenut, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown, but peanut and treenut allergy tends to persist. The prevalence of food allergy in infancy is increasing and may affect up to 15-20 % of infants. The alarming rate of increase calls for a public health approach in the prevention and treatment of food allergy in children.

  3. Moral Considerations in Pediatric Food Allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shoaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies are common health problem among children. They carry a significant risk of severe allergic reactions. These disorders are chronic conditions in which the immune system becomes hypersensitive to some food products. It is estimated that 8% of children under the age of three have a type of food allergy. The common allergenic foods include cow’s milk, wheat, peanuts, egg, soy and fish.The mainstay of treatment is to eliminate the allergenic food from the patient’s diet which in case of a child mandates special behavioral and ethical problems. Considering the growing incidence of food allergy, and the risk of anaphylaxis, diverse moral-ethical challenges face parents, school administrators and health professionals. Older children have the right to keep the fact of their disease private and this is a matter of their autonomy and may be an effort to prevent stigmatization by other students followed by psychosocial discomfort.Some moral & ethical principles in implementing management guidelines for allergic children include: -Imagine if the patient was your own. What level of protection would you expect for him/her? -Do protective policies cause the child to be isolated from others? -Are medical recordings confidential? -Avoid unduly limiting the diet of these children. A certain scenario is an infant with cow milk allergy. In this condition specific consideration should be paid to the mother’s nutritional status when a dietary elimination strategy is to be implemented. Considering the costs /benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic measures in food allergic children is recommended.  

  4. The diagnosis of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares-Weiser, K; Takwoingi, Y; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    databases were searched and international experts were contacted. Two reviewers independently identified studies, extracted data, and used QUADAS-2 to assess risk of bias. Where possible, meta-analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Twenty-four (2831 participants) studies were included. For cows' milk allergy......-98), and specificities were 58% (95% CI 49-67) and 49% (40-58%) for skin prick tests and specific-IgE. For wheat, pooled sensitivities were 73% (95% CI 56-85) and 83% (95% CI 69-92), and specificities were 73% (95% CI 48-89) and 43% (95% CI 20-69%) for SPT and sIgE. For soy, pooled sensitivities were 55% (95% CI 33...

  5. Genetically modified foods and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T H; Ho, H K; Leung, T F

    2017-06-01

    2015 marked the 25th anniversary of the commercial use and availability of genetically modified crops. The area of planted biotech crops cultivated globally occupies a cumulative two billion hectares, equivalent to twice the land size of China or the United States. Foods derived from genetically modified plants are widely consumed in many countries and genetically modified soybean protein is extensively used in processed foods throughout the industrialised countries. Genetically modified food technology offers a possible solution to meet current and future challenges in food and medicine. Yet there is a strong undercurrent of anxiety that genetically modified foods are unsafe for human consumption, sometimes fuelled by criticisms based on little or no firm evidence. This has resulted in some countries turning away food destined for famine relief because of the perceived health risks of genetically modified foods. The major concerns include their possible allergenicity and toxicity despite the vigorous testing of genetically modified foods prior to marketing approval. It is imperative that scientists engage the public in a constructive evidence-based dialogue to address these concerns. At the same time, improved validated ways to test the safety of new foods should be developed. A post-launch strategy should be established routinely to allay concerns. Mandatory labelling of genetically modified ingredients should be adopted for the sake of transparency. Such ingredient listing and information facilitate tracing and recall if required.

  6. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe.Studies published...... synthesis and 42 studies in the meta-analyses. Although there were significant heterogeneity between the studies, the overall pooled estimates for all age groups of self-reported lifetime prevalence of allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish were 6.0% (95% confidence...... interval: 5.7-6.4), 2.5% (2.3-2.7), 3.6% (3.0-4.2), 0.4% (0.3-0.6), 1.3% (1.2-1.5), 2.2% (1.8-2.5), and 1.3% (0.9-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of food-challenge-defined allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was 0.6% (0.5-0.8), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.1% (0...

  7. The prevalence of suspected and challenge-verified penicillin allergy in a university hospital population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch, Jakob E; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2006-04-01

    Suspected penicillin allergy is common among hospitalised patients, but the quality of the information given by the patient is often doubtful. Alleged penicillin allergic are likely to be treated with more toxic, broad-spectrum, and more expensive antibiotics, with effects on microbial resistance patterns and public economy as a consequence. We performed a cross-sectional case-control study with two visits to all clinical departments of a large university hospital in order to find in-patients with medical files labelled "penicillin allergy" or who reported penicillin allergy upon admission. Patient histories were obtained via a questionnaire, and they were offered investigation for penicillin allergy with specific IgE, basophil histamine release, skin prick tests, intradermal tests and drug challenge tests. Finally, the pharmaco-economical consequences of the penicillin allergy were estimated. In a cohort of 3642 patients, 96 fulfilled the inclusion criteria giving a point-prevalence of alleged penicillin allergy of 5% in a hospital in-patient population. Mean time elapsed since the alleged first reaction to penicillin was 20 years. The skin was the most frequently affected organ (82.2%), maculo-papular exanthema (35.4%) and urticaria (10.4%) being the most frequently reported reactions. 25% did not recall the time of their reaction. 82.2% did not remember the name of the penicillin they reacted to. 34.8% had been treated with penicillins after suspicion of penicillin allergy had been raised. None of these reacted to penicillins. 33.3% of the patients receiving antibiotics during their current hospitalisation were prescribed penicillins. 2% developed non-severe exanthema. The average acquisition costs for antibiotics to penicillin allergic patients were euro 278, compared to euro 119 had they been non-allergic. The prevalence of suspected penicillin allergy was lower than reported elsewhere. A substantial number of patients failed to recall basic information about

  8. Does Your Child Really Have a Food Allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food allergies, according to the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology: Cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, seafood, wheat and soy. The report, published July 24 in Pediatrics , highlighted ...

  9. Fish oil in infancy protects against food allergy in Iceland - results from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Michael; Jonasson, Kristjan; Keil, Thomas; Beyer, Kirsten; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T

    2018-01-10

    Consumption of oily fish or fish oil during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy has been linked to a reduction in the development of allergic diseases in childhood. In an observational study, Icelandic children (n = 1304) were prospectively followed from birth to 2.5 years with detailed questionnaires administered at birth and at one and two years of age, including questions about fish oil supplementation. Children with suspected food allergy were invited for physical examinations, allergic sensitization tests, and a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge if the allergy testing or clinical history indicated food allergy. The study investigated the development of sensitization to food and confirmed food allergy according to age and frequency of postnatal fish oil supplementation using proportional hazards modelling. The incidence of diagnosed food sensitization was significantly lower in children who received regular fish oil supplementation (relative risk 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.82). The incidence of challenge-confirmed food allergy was also reduced, although not statistically significantly (0.57, 0.30-1.12). Children who began to receive fish oil in their first half year of life were significantly more protected than those who began later (p = 0.045 for sensitization, p = 0.018 for allergy). Indicators of allergy severity decreased with increased fish oil consumption (p = 0.013). Adjusting for parent education and allergic family history did not change the results. Postnatal fish oil consumption is associated with decreased food sensitization and food allergies in infants and may provide an intervention strategy for allergy prevention. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood food allergies: current diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Dyer, Ashley A; Jain, Namrita; Greenhawt, Matthew J

    2013-05-01

    Food allergy is a growing public health concern in the United States that affects an estimated 8% of children. Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a specific food. Nearly 40% of children with food allergy have a history of severe reactions that if not treated immediately with proper medication can lead to hospitalization or even death. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened an expert panel in 2010 to develop guidelines outlining evidence-based practices in diagnosing and managing food allergy. The purpose of this review is to aid clinicians in translating the NIAID guidelines into primary care practice and includes the following content domains: (1) the definition and mechanism of childhood food allergy, (2) differences between food allergy and food intolerance, (3) the epidemiology of childhood food allergy in the United States, (4) best practices derived from the NIAID guidelines focused on primary care clinicians' management of childhood food allergy, (5) emerging food allergy treatments, and (6) future directions in food allergy research and practice. Articles focused on childhood food allergy were considered for inclusion in this review. Studies were restricted to the English language and to those published within the past 40 years. A cross-listed combination of the following words, phrases, and MeSH terms was searched in PubMed and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles: food allergy, food hypersensitivity, child, pediatric, prevalence, and epidemiology. Additional sources were identified through the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does food allergy cause atopic dermatitis? Food challenge testing to dissociate eczematous from immediate reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Debra; Tofte, Susan J; Hanifin, Jon M

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate and diagnose, in a controlled setting, suspected food allergy causation in patients hospitalized for management of severe, unremitting atopic dermatitis (AD). Nineteen children were hospitalized at Oregon Health and Science University with atopic dermatitis from 1986 to 2003 for food restriction, then challenge, following standard recommendations. Challenges were prioritized by categories of (a) critical foods (e.g., milk, wheat, egg, soy); (b) important foods; and (c) other suspected foods. Patients were closely observed for evidence of pruritus, eczematous responses, or IgE-mediated reactions. If results were inconsistent, double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge was performed. A total of 17 children with atopic dermatitis were assessed. Two could not be fully evaluated, thus were excluded from data tabulations. Only one positive eczematous food response was observed of 58 challenges. Three children had well-documented histories of food-induced IgE-mediated anaphylactoid or urticaria reactions to seafood and/or nuts and were not challenged with those foods. Atopic dermatitis, even in the highest-risk patients, is rarely induced by foods. Undocumented assumptions of food causation detract from proper anti-inflammatory management and should be discouraged. Immediate IgE-mediated food reactions are common in atopic dermatitis patients; such reactions are rapid onset, typically detected outside the clinic, and must be distinguished from eczematous reactions. Diagnosis of food-induced eczema cannot be made without food challenge testing. Such tests can be practical and useful for dispelling unrealistic assumptions about food allergy causation of atopic dermatitis.

  12. Role of atopy patch test for diagnosis of food allergy-related gastrointestinal symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaviwat, Onsuree; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2015-12-01

    Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. However, it is a time-consuming procedure and requires onsite medical supervision and resuscitating medicines and devices on hand. The objective of this study was to compare the atopy patch test (APT) with the oral food challenge test (OFC) in children with suspected food allergy-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A prospective self-controlled study enrolled children with a history of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms. Skin prick test (SPT) and APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts for cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, and shrimp were evaluated, and OFC was performed. Thirty-nine patients (25 boys, median age 2.4 yrs) with 76 events of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms were enrolled. SPT was positive in 11/76 events (14.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratio were calculated related to the food challenge outcome. Of 41 OFC, 30 (73.2%) were positive. APT using lyophilized allergen extracts yielded high sensitivity (80%) and high positive predictive value (85.7%). APT using commercial allergen extracts yielded low sensitivity (30%) but high specificity (90%). The negative predictive value of APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts was 53.8% and 32.2%, respectively. All cases with positive APT using lyophilized allergen extracts together with positive SPT also had positive OFC. In contrast to commercial extracts, APT with lyophilized allergen extracts is reliable, safe, and maybe useful for the diagnosis of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms in children. OFC is still needed in most of the cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Food allergy in Asia: how does it compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee Wah

    2013-01-01

    Asia is a populous and diverse region and potentially an important source of information on food allergy. This review aims to summarize the current literature on food allergy from this region, comparing it with western populations. A PubMed search using strategies "Food allergy AND Asia", "Food anaphylaxis AND Asia", and "Food allergy AND each Asian country" was made. Overall, 53 articles, published between 2005 and 2012, mainly written in English were reviewed. The overall prevalence of food allergy in Asia is somewhat comparable to the West. However, the types of food allergy differ in order of relevance. Shellfish is the most common food allergen from Asia, in part due to the abundance of seafood in this region. It is unique as symptoms vary widely from oral symptoms to anaphylaxis for the same individual. Data suggest that house dust mite tropomysin may be a primary sensitizer. In contrast, peanut prevalence in Asia is extremely low compared to the West for reasons not yet understood. Among young children and infants, egg and cow's milk allergy are the two most common food allergies, with prevalence data comparable to western populations. Differences also exist within Asia. Wheat allergy, though uncommon in most Asian countries, is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in Japan and Korea, and is increasing in Thailand. Current food allergy data from Asia highlights important differences between East and West, and within the Asian region. Further work is needed to provide insight on the environmental risk factors accounting for these differences.

  14. Gastrointestinal food allergy in Ghanaian children: a case series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Food allergy is an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a given food. Food allergies are classified into three types: Ig(immunoglobulin)E mediated, mixed IgE and cell mediated and cell-mediated non IgE mediated. Gastrointestinal (GIT) food ...

  15. The prevalence of food allergy: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin; Gislason, David; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Sodergren, Eva; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T.; Lindner, Titia; Goldhahn, Klaus; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; McBride, Doreen; Madsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish, and an overall estimate of food

  16. Food allergy and its relevance to industrial food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, E N C; Breiteneder, H

    2005-09-01

    Food allergies can be defined as IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and are quite distinct from food intolerances, such as Coeliac disease, with symptoms usually appearing within a matter of minutes of exposure. Around 1-2% of adults and up to 5-7% of children suffer from some type of food allergy with foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, wheat and soy, cow's milk, egg, fish and shellfish being responsible for the majority of reactions. The macromolecules recognised by IgE (generally proteinaceous in nature) are termed allergens. A brief description of the allergenic components present in the major allergenic foods is given followed by a short discussion regarding their importance in industrial proteins in the light of recent food labelling legislation for allergens.

  17. Lack of uniformity in the investigation and management of suspected β-lactam allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Ru-Xin Melanie; Logan, Kirsty; Perkin, Michael Richard; du Toit, George

    2016-08-01

    Beta-lactam allergy is commonly suspected in childhood with health implications for the individual and wider public. Diagnostic modalities include skin prick tests (SPT), specific immunoglobulin-E (sp-IgE) tests, intradermal tests (IDT) and drug provocation challenges (DPC). The aim of this research was to establish whether variation exists around the world in the investigation and management of beta-lactam allergy. Anonymized electronic questionnaire surveys were distributed over 3 months through International Allergy Societies for completion by clinicians who investigate drug allergy in children. Eighty-one clinicians, practising in 16 countries, completed the questionnaire. There is variability in the selection of diagnostic tests used by clinicians around the world and poor agreement on positive cut-off values (sp-IgE, SPT and IDT) and practical techniques used to measure SPT or IDT wheal diameters. DPC were considered the gold standard investigation with 94% of respondents undertaking DPC over the last 12 months; 64% of respondents considered DPC extremely useful for both exclusion and confirmation of beta-lactam allergy. However, there is a lack of consensus on when and how DPC should be performed. Overall, DPC are safe - only 3% of our respondents had patients who required intramuscular adrenaline and none had patients requiring admission to intensive care. There is lack of consistency amongst clinicians in different countries in the diagnosis and management of suspected beta-lactam allergy. The development of a standardized approach is a priority. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Clinical characteristics and management of infants less than 1-year-old suspected with allergy to cow's milk protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Germán; Lucero, Yalda; Ceresa, Sergio; Gonzalez, Mónica; Rossel, Maureen; Vives, Andrés

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is highly prevalent in infants (2-5%). It has a wide clinical spectrum, and confirmation through an oral food challenge (OFC) is relevant for its differential diagnosis. Information on this topic is scarce in Chile. To describe the demographic and clinical features of infants with suspected CMPA. A retrospective study of patients<1 year-old, treated for suspected CMPA between 2009 and 2011. Demographic data, symptoms of atopy, nutrition at the time of diagnosis, CMPA symptoms, diagnostic studies, and response to treatment were recorded. Diet response at least 4 weeks after milk modification, and clinical behavior when suspected foods were added back to the diet were considered standard diagnostic criteria. Descriptive statistics were performed using Epiinfo ™ software. The study included 106 infants, of whom, 51% male, 80% term newborns, 74% with≥1 atopic parent, and 34% with ≥1 parent/sibling with food allergy. The median age at onset of symptoms was 1.5 months (range 1.5-2m). Almost half (46%) were breast-feeding≥6m, with 15% receiving formula milk since the neonatal period, and 49% before the third month. Common symptoms were: vomiting (63%), colic (49%), and bleeding on passing stools (41%). No anaphylaxis was identified, and 61% had≥2 symptoms at debut. Only 34% were subjected to OFC. The most frequently requested tests were, test patch (43%), prick test (40%), and blood in stools (37%). 43% breast feeding with exclusion diet, 24% extensively hydrolysed formula, 26% amino acid formula, and 7% others. Demographic characteristics and risk factors were similar to those previously described in international literature. Clinical presentation was early in life, and digestive symptoms predominated. OFC was underused for diagnosis, and most of the tests requested did not change management. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-IgE-mediated food allergies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A clear cause-effect relationship between exposure to the suspected food and symptoms is not always possible, as symptoms develop over time and are more chronic in nature. ... Oesophageal strictures, which are a recognised complication of EoE, can be effectively managed with oesophageal dilation but this does.

  20. IgE - the main player of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broekman, Henrike C H; Eiwegger, Thomas; Upton, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy is a growing problem worldwide, presently affecting 2-4% of adults and 5-8% of young children. IgE is a key player in food allergy. Consequently huge efforts have been made to develop tests to detect either the presence of IgE molecules, their allergen binding sites or their function......Food allergy is a growing problem worldwide, presently affecting 2-4% of adults and 5-8% of young children. IgE is a key player in food allergy. Consequently huge efforts have been made to develop tests to detect either the presence of IgE molecules, their allergen binding sites...... or their functionality, in order to provide information regarding the patient's food allergy. The ultimate goal is to develop tools that are capable of discriminating between asymptomatic sensitization and a clinically relevant food allergy, and between different allergic phenotypes in an accurate and trustworthy manner...

  1. Prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    on pollen and latex cross-reactivity, systemic reactions to contact allergens and coeliac disease point to a prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in the adult European population of approximately 5%. A mild itch in the mouth and lactose intolerance are not included in this estimate which is a qualified......Discussed in this paper is the prevalence of allergy and intolerance to foods in Europe. Prevalence of allergy to food additives is not included. A fully reliable estimate of the prevalence of food allergy/intolerance does not exist. Prevalence changes with age, as does the relative importance...... of the most common food allergens. The cumulative prevalence of allergy and intolerance to cow's milk during the first year of life is approximately 2%. The total prevalence of food allergy/intolerance in children is not as well documented. In 18-month-old infants the Danish estimate is 6.5%. The high...

  2.  Gene and environmental interactions of food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Pałgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available  Food allergy is now looming as a major health issue with significant implications. In westernized countries, recent reports show a rise in allergic diseases, in particular food allergy. It affects approximately 5–8�0of children and 1–5�0of adults. Despite this, our current understanding of the immunological and biological mechanisms of food allergy is still incomplete. It is generally believed that food allergy is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. There is some evidence that epigenetic modifications may affect the prevalence of food allergies. This paper discusses the current state of knowledge regarding genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors of food allergy.

  3. Food Allergy and Quality of Life : What Have We Learned?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jantina L.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) has become an emerging focus of interest in food allergy. Food allergy is a disease characterized by low mortality and symptoms which only occur during an allergic reaction. However, food-allergic patients continuously need to be alert when eating in order to

  4. Food allergy knowledge of parents - is ignorance bliss?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Nicole J.; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; van der Meulen, Gerbrich N.; Botjes, Erna; Burgerhof, Hans G. M.; Gupta, Ruchi S.; Springston, Elizabeth E.; Smith, Bridget; Duiverman, Eric J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    Background: Food allergic children are at least partially dependent on their parents to care for their food allergy. In addition, parents are often responsible for the education of others regarding food allergy, including the family, school, neighbors, and friends. The aim of this study was to

  5. Debates in allergy medicine : food intolerance does not exist.

    OpenAIRE

    Dreborg, Sten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The term "intolerance" is not mentioned in the World Allergy Organization (WAO) document on allergy nomenclature. "Intolerance" has been used to describe some non-immunological diseases. However, pediatric gastroenterologists mix allergy and intolerance, e.g. by using the term "cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/I)", lumping together all types of mechanisms for not tolerating cow's milk. The basis for this mix is the fact that double-blind oral food challenges are time-c...

  6. The stress of food allergy issues in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniamina, Rana L; Mirosa, Miranda; Bremer, Philip; Conner, Tamlin S

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies are a growing health concern, but their implications for daily psychological functioning are unknown. This micro-longitudinal study investigated the daily frequency of food allergy issues and how this related to experiences of stress, mood and physical energy. One hundred and eight adults with physician-diagnosed food allergies completed an initial Internet survey followed by a 2-week Internet daily diary survey. The initial survey collected socio-demographic and food allergy information. The daily survey collected information about the participants' experiences of stress, mood, physical energy and food allergy issues during that day. Commonly experienced allergy issues included negative physical symptoms, higher food prices, anxiety about safety of food, trouble maintaining a healthy diet and anxiety/stress at social occasions. Furthermore, multilevel modelling analyses showed that stress and negative mood were significantly higher on days with more allergy issues. Older adults experienced lower positive mood and physical energy on days with more issues. This is the first study to incorporate near to real-time tracking to examine the frequency of food allergy issues and the implications for daily psychological functioning. Targeting the issues we identified could reduce stress in patients with food allergies and improve their overall quality of life.

  7. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: managing patients with food allergy in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Agache, I; Clark, A; Sheikh, A; Roberts, G; Akdis, C A; Borrego, L M; Higgs, J; Hourihane, J O'B; Jorgensen, P; Mazon, A; Parmigiani, D; Said, M; Schnadt, S; van Os-Medendorp, H; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Wickman, M

    2014-08-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, managing patients with food allergy (FA) in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to meet the needs of early-childhood and school settings as well as providers of non-prepackaged food (e.g., restaurants, bakeries, takeaway, deli counters, and fast-food outlets) and targets the audience of individuals with FA, their families, patient organizations, the general public, policymakers, and allergists. Food allergy is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community. Providing children and caregivers with comprehensive information on food allergen avoidance and prompt recognition and management of allergic reactions are of the utmost importance. Provision of adrenaline auto-injector devices and education on how and when to use these are essential components of a comprehensive management plan. Managing patients at risk of anaphylaxis raises many challenges, which are specific to the community. This includes the need to interact with third parties providing food (e.g., school teachers and restaurant staff) to avoid accidental exposure and to help individuals with FA to make safe and appropriate food choices. Education of individuals at risk and their families, their peers, school nurses and teachers as well as restaurant and other food retail staff can reduce the risk of severe/fatal reactions. Increased awareness among policymakers may improve decision-making on legislation at local and national level. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Food Allergy Educational Needs of Pediatric Dietitians: A Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetch, Marion E.; Christie, Lynn; Vargas, Perla A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine pediatric dietitians' self-reported proficiency, educational needs, and preferences regarding food allergy (FA) management. Design and Setting: An Internet-based, anonymous survey was distributed to the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group (PNPG) of the American Dietetic Association. Participants: Respondents (n = 311) were…

  9. Food allergy preceded by contact urticaria due to the same food: involvement of epicutaneous sensitization in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Naoko; Nagashima, Mayumi; Hakuta, Amiko; Aihara, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    There have recently been reports suggesting that sensitization to food allergens may occur outside the intestinal tract, especially through the skin. To clarify the role of epicutaneous sensitization in food allergy, we investigated the clinical characteristics of adult patients with food allergies preceded by contact urticaria due to the same foods. We investigated clinical characteristics of 15 patients (20-51 years of age; 5 men and 10 women), who had food allergies preceded by contact urticaria. Fourteen patients were contact urticaria due to the causative foods during occupationally cooking, whereas 1 patient during face pack. In the occupational group, causative foods included rice, wheat, fruits, vegetables, fish, shrimp and cuttlefish; in the fresh cucumber paste case the cause was cucumber. In the 15 patients, the causative foods were fresh, not processed, and were tolerated by most (9/15, 60%) after heating. Regarding to symptoms after ingestion of the causative foods, the most frequently induced symptoms was oral symptoms (14/15, 93.3%), followed by urticaria (4/15, 26.7%), abdominal symptoms (3/15, 20%). The duration between the start of jobs or face pack, and the onset of contact urticaria was from 1 month to 19 years (mean, 8.7 years). The duration between the onset of contact urticaria and the onset of food allergy was from a few weeks to 6 years (mean, 11 months). One sushi cook experienced severe anaphylactic shock after ingestion of fish. In the occupational group, 13 of 15 patients (86.7%) had atopic dermatitis or hand eczema, indicating that the impaired skin barrier might be a risk for food allergies induced by epicutaneous sensitization. Epicutaneous sensitization of foods could induce food allergy under occupational cooking and skin-care treatment with foods in adults. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The epidemiology of food allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    for the development or resolution of FA identified, but sex, age, country of residence, familial atopic history, and the presence of other allergic diseases seem to be important. Food allergy is a significant clinical problem in Europe. The evidence base in this area would benefit from additional studies using...... studies published from 1 January 2000 to 30 September 2012. Two independent reviewers appraised the studies and qualified the risk of bias using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Seventy-five eligible articles (comprising 56 primary studies) were included in a narrative synthesis, and 30...

  11. Prevalence of clinic-defined food allergy in early adolescence: The SchoolNuts study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Mari; Koplin, Jennifer J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Field, Michael J; Sawyer, Susan M; McWilliam, Vicki; Peters, Rachel L; Gurrin, Lyle C; Vuillermin, Peter J; Douglass, Jo; Pezic, Angela; Brewerton, Maia; Tang, Mimi L K; Patton, George C; Allen, Katrina J

    2017-07-21

    Rising rates of food-induced anaphylaxis have recently been shown in the adolescent age group, following earlier descriptions of a rise in children younger than 5 years. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of food allergy in adolescence using objective measures such as oral food challenge (OFC). We sought to determine the prevalence of food allergy among a population-based sample of 10- to 14-year-old adolescents using clinical evaluation including OFC to confirm the diagnosis. Schools were randomly selected from greater metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Students aged 10 to 14 years, and their parents, were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the adolescent's food allergy or food-related reactions. Clinic evaluation, which consisted of skin prick tests and OFC where eligible, was undertaken if students were suspected to have current food allergy from parent response. Among 9816 students assessed, 5016 had complete parent response and clinic evaluation when eligible. An additional 4800 students had student questionnaires only. The prevalence of clinic-defined current food allergy based on history, sensitization data, and OFC results was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.9-5.1), with the most common food triggers being peanut, 2.7% (95% CI, 2.3-3.2), and tree nut, 2.3% (95% CI, 1.9-2.8). Among the additional group of 4800 adolescents who had only self-reported food allergy status available, the prevalence of self-reported current food allergy was 5.5% (95% CI, 4.9-6.2), with peanut, 2.8% (95% CI, 2.3-3.3), and tree nut, 2.3% (95% CI, 1.9-2.8), the most common. Approximately 1 in 20 10- to 14-year-old school students in Melbourne has current food allergy. This high prevalence suggests that the previously reported rise in food-induced anaphylaxis in this age group may reflect an increasing prevalence of food allergy rather than simply increased reporting of anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  12. Restaurant Food Allergy Practices - Six Selected Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Taylor J; Brown, Laura G; Faw, Brenda; Hedeen, Nicole; Matis, Bailey; Perez, Priscela; Viveiros, Brendalee; Ripley, Danny

    2017-04-21

    Food allergies affect an estimated 15 million persons in the United States (1), and are responsible for approximately 30,000 emergency department visits and 150-200 deaths each year (2). Nearly half of reported fatal food allergy reactions over a 13-year period were caused by food from a restaurant or other food service establishment (3). To ascertain the prevalence of food allergy training, training topics, and practices related to food allergies, CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal agencies and state and local health departments with six sites, interviewed personnel at 278 restaurants. Fewer than half of the 277 restaurant managers (44.4%), 211 food workers (40.8%), and 156 servers (33.3%) interviewed reported receiving food allergy training. Among those who reported receiving training, topics commonly included the major food allergens and what to do if a customer has a food allergy. Although most restaurants had ingredient lists for at least some menu items, few had separate equipment or areas designated for the preparation of allergen-free food. Restaurants can reduce the risk for allergic reactions among patrons by providing food allergy training for personnel and ingredient lists for all menu items and by dedicating equipment and areas specifically for preparing allergen-free food.

  13. Food allergy and food sensitization in early childhood:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, E; Kjaer, H F; Høst, A

    2009-01-01

    . Children with AD were neither more IgE-sensitized nor had higher levels of IgE when compared with healthy children but they were more persistently sensitized. Conclusions: Sensitization to foods in young children without food allergy seems to be a normal phenomenon. The discrepancy between sensitization......Background: The prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and the relationship with atopic dermatitis (AD) is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the development of FHS and to correlate this with AD in relation to sensitization and symptoms. Methods: This study combines new data...... from birth to 18 months of age with previous published results from 3 and 6 years. The Danish Allergy Research Centre cohort, including 562 children, is a unique, population-based, prospective birth cohort, with clinical examinations at all follow-ups. All children were examined for the development...

  14. Clinical Protests Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ataei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The best recognized intestinal manifestation of food allergy is food allergic (food-sensitive enteropathy. The feature of enteropathy may include lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration, epithelial abnormality, or crypt hyperplastic villous atrophy, and impairing absorption, enterophaty continues while the food remains in the diet, remitting on an exclusion diet, and usually recurring on food challenge. Diagnosis is now usually based on histological features at initial biopsy and clinical response to antigen exclusion and challenge. Clinical findings in food allergic enteropathy include abdominal distension, loose stools, micronutrient deficiency, and rarely protein-losing enteropathy. There may be other features of allergic disease, most commonly eczema unlike coeliac disease, food allergic enteropathies are usually transient in early life, and later challenge is usually tolerated. Cow’s milk-sensitive enteropathy (CMSE was the first recognized food allergic enteropathy and remains the most common cause. The best-characterized syndrome is CMSE, classically presenting with chronic loose stools and failure to thrive, often beginning after an episode of gastroenteritis in a formula-fed infant. Other clinical features include abdominal distension, perianal erythema or napkin rash (due to malabsorbed dietary carbohydrates, and deratographia. Associated clinical features may include colic, gastroesophageal reflux, rectal bleeding, or eczema. There may be evidence of micronutrient deficiency, notably for iron and zinc. Up to 40% of infants with classic CMSE also sensitize to soy, often after an initial period when it is tolerated. The great majority however settle on extensively hydrolyzed formulate. Classic CMSE is usually self-limiting, with most children tolerating reintroduction at the age of 2 to 3 years. By contrast, some children may have persistent low-grade symptoms for a prolonged period. A proportion of children manifest additional

  15. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T

    2014-01-01

    and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used...... to set up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns...... production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between health care professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... available treatments only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments ...

  17. Clinical symptoms of food allergy/intolerance in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S

    1997-01-01

    Food allergy is principally a problem in infancy and early childhood. Food allergy/intolerance may cause a broad spectrum of symptoms and signs in children, including generalized reactions, such as anaphylactic shock. Reactions are localized mainly in the gastrointestinal tract, but food allergy....../intolerance may also cause local symptoms in other organs such as the skin and the respiratory tract. About 50-70% demonstrate cutaneous symptoms, 50-60% gastrointestinal symptoms, and 20-30% respiratory symptoms. Among young children with food allergy/intolerance the majority have two or more symptoms...... with symptoms occurring in two or more organ systems. The symptoms occur primarily within a few minutes after food exposure (immediate reactions), however delayed reactions in the skin, gastrointestinal tract and lungs may also occur. Among children with symptoms suggestive of food allergy...

  18. An exploratory investigation of food choice behavior of teenagers with and without food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Isolde; MacKenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Background - Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. Objective - To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non–food-allerg...

  19. PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED METAL IMPLANT ALLERGY: POTENTIAL CLINICAL PICTURES AND ALLERGOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review are allergic complications following insertion of metallic orthopedic implants. Such potential allergic reactions encompass eczema, impaired wound and fracture healing, infection-mimicking reactions, effusions, pain and loosening. Nickel, cobalt and chromium seem to be the predominant eliciting allergens. Allergy might be considered prior to planned orthopaedic surgery or in patients with complications following arthroplasty We recommend, that differential diagnoses - in particular infection -should always be excluded in cooperation with surgery collegues. The clinical work up of a patient suspected of suffering from metal implant allergy should include a combined evaluation of medical history, clinical findings, patch testing and histology In vitro testing, namely the lymphocyte transformation test (LTT, can indicate metal sensitization, but needs careful interpretation.

  20. Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not bother most other people. People who have allergies often are sensitive to more than one thing. Substances that often cause reactions are Pollen Dust mites Mold spores Pet dander Food Insect stings ...

  1. Sea Food Allergy | Hossny | Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (The). Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Food allergy in South African children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claudia L; Levin, Michael E; Zar, Heather J; Potter, Paul C; Khumalo, Nonhlanhla P; Volkwyn, Lucia; Fenemore, Bartha; du Toit, George

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in South Africa is unknown, but previously thought to be rare in black South Africans. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, IgE-mediated food allergy in South African children with atopic dermatitis (AD). This was a prospective, observational study in a paediatric university hospital in Cape Town. Children with AD, aged 6 months to 10 yrs, were randomly recruited from the dermatology clinic. They were assessed for sensitization and allergy by questionnaire, skin prick tests, Immuno Solid Phase Allergen Chip (ISAC) test and incremental food challenges. 100 participants (59 black Africans and 41 of mixed race) were enrolled, median age 42 months. There were high overall rates of food sensitization (66%) and food allergy (40%). Egg (25%) and peanut (24%) were the most common allergies. Black participants had comparable sensitization (69% vs. 61%) but lower allergy rates (34% vs. 46%) than mixed race participants. This was especially evident for peanut allergy (15% Blacks vs. 37% mixed race allergic to peanut, p = 0.01). Early-onset AD (children with AD, and comparable with food allergy rates in patients with AD in developed countries. There are ethnic differences, with significantly lower peanut allergy rates in Blacks compared to mixed race patients. These results are not generalizable to an unselected South African population, which requires further study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence of celiac disease in patients with severe food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, R; Ziberna, F; Badina, L; Ventura, A; Longo, G; Quaglia, S; De Leo, L; Vatta, S; Martelossi, S; Patano, G; Not, T; Berti, I

    2015-10-01

    The association between food allergy and celiac disease (CD) is still to be clarified. We screened for CD 319 patients with severe food allergy (IgE > 85 kU/l against food proteins and a history of severe allergic reactions) who underwent specific food oral immunotherapy (OIT), together with 128 children with mild allergy who recovered without OIT, and compared the prevalence data with our historical data regarding healthy schoolchildren. Sixteen patients (5%) with severe allergy and one (0.8%) with mild allergy tested positive for both genetic and serological CD markers, while the prevalence among the schoolchildren was 1%. Intestinal biopsies were obtained in 13/16 patients with severe allergy and in the one with mild allergy, confirming the diagnosis of CD. Sufferers from severe food allergy seem to be at a fivefold increased risk of CD. Our findings suggest that routine screening for CD should be recommended in patients with severe food allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Mental Health Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of school mental health professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  5. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Nutrition Professionals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-13

    This podcast highlights the role of school nutrition professionals in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/13/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/13/2015.

  6. Managing Food Allergies at School: School Transportation Staff

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of bus drivers and transportation staff in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  7. Managing Food Allergies at School: Teachers and Paraeducators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-20

    This podcast highlights the role of teachers and paraeducators in the management of food allergies in schools. It also identifies CDC food allergy resources for schools.  Created: 1/20/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/20/2015.

  8. The prevalence of plant food allergies: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; Goldhahn, Klaus; Rona, Roberto J.; Gislason, David; Madsen, Charlotte; Summers, Colin; Sodergren, Eva; Dahlstrom, Jorgen; Lindner, Titia; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T.; McBride, Doreen; Keil, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty regarding the prevalence of allergies to plant food. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of allergies to plant food according to the different subjective and objective assessment methods. METHODS: Our systematic search of population-based studies (since 1990) in the

  9. Food Allergy Education for School Nurses: A Needs Assessment Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Suzanna K.; Vargas, Perla A.; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their…

  10. Food Allergy Sensitization and Presentation in Siblings of Food Allergic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Walkner, Madeline M; Greenhawt, Matthew; Lau, Claudia H; Caruso, Deanna; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Smith, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Many parents of food allergic children have concerns about the development of food allergies in their other children. We sought to determine prevalence of food sensitization and clinical food allergy among siblings of food allergic children. Two thousand eight hundred and thirty-four children were enrolled in the Chicago Family Cohort Food Allergy study. One thousand one hundred and twenty children (ages 0-21 years) with a food allergy (defined by a reported reaction history and evidence of food-specific IgE or skin prick test) and at least 1 biological sibling were included in this study. Among siblings of children with food allergy, 33.4% had no sensitization and no clinical symptoms to food. Fifty-three percent had a positive food serum-specific IgE or skin prick test, but no reported symptoms of food allergy. Only 13.6% of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to the same food. Milk allergy was the most common allergy among siblings (5.9%), followed by egg allergy (4.4%) and peanut allergy (3.7%). In a large cohort of food allergic families, only a small proportion of siblings were both sensitized and clinically reactive to a food. Sensitization without reactivity was common among siblings. Testing for food allergy in siblings without a history of clinical reactivity appears to be unjustified. Screening may lead to negative consequences related to potential misdiagnosis and unnecessary avoidance of a food. More data are needed to determine the absolute risk of food allergy development in siblings of food allergic children. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  11. Food allergy update: more than a peanut of a problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Zain; Schwartz, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Food allergies have become a significant medical and legal concern for children worldwide, as there is a rising incidence of potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions. The most common foods implicated include cow milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut, tree nuts such as walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, and pistachios, fish and shellfish. The majority of food allergies represent an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to specific proteins found in foods. Peanut allergy, in particular, is a significant food allergy responsible for the majority of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis. Even trace quantities to food proteins in the sensitized individual can lead to fatal reactions. There is often a rapid onset of symptoms after exposure, with prominent cutaneous findings of urticaria, angioedema, or diffuse nonspecific dermatitis. The majority of children outgrow allergies to milk, soy, egg, and wheat. However, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood are usually lifelong conditions, as few outgrow it. Children with food allergies and their families should be knowledgeable of management strategies for the condition, including carrying and properly administering self-injectable epinephrine. New immunotherapeutic options are being investigated and appear promising. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. [RATIONALE FOR ELIMINATING CERTAIN FOODS IN CHILDREN WITH FOOD ALLERGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takahiro; Futamura, Masaki; Kitazawa, Hiroshi; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2015-05-01

    Some caregivers of children with food allergy may eliminate specific foods from the diet of these children without first consulting doctors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of such practice and the sensitization of the offending foods. All participants were patients aged one year or over who visited our outpatients unit with complaints of food allergy. Caregivers of the patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire to state the eliminated food items and the grounds for avoidance ("doctor's instructions", "family's judgment", and "not consumed in daily diet") of nine food items including chicken egg, cow's milk, wheat, soy bean, rice, buckwheat, peanut, sesame and shrimp. Data on food-specific IgE titers were extracted from the patients' electronic medical charts. A total of 463 subjects were included in the analyses. Prevalence of patients with specific food avoidance of each of the food item was higher in the lower age group than the higher age group. More than 83% of the patients who avoided chicken egg, cow's milk or wheat were advised by their doctors to do so, while less than 49% of patients who avoided buckwheat did so for the same reason. The percentage of the patients who showed positive sensitization to buckwheat, peanut or shrimp, and avoided it without doctor's instructions, was 46%, 48%, and 34%, respectively. While the majority of caregivers of the children who visited our outpatient unit eliminated specific foods according to doctor's instructions, a considerable proportion of them do so inappropriately without first consulting a doctor.

  13. Gastrointestinal Food Allergy in Children — Pressing Issue at Present

    OpenAIRE

    O.M. Okhotnikova; Yu. I. Hladush; Bondarenko, L.V.; Mellina, K.V.; H. M. Fedushka; T.V. Pidvyshenna; Borovyk, Yu.R.; T.L. Ukraiinska; N.V. Pidhirna; O.S. Shestakova; O.F. Zarudna; Hryshсhenko, O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the characteristics of gastrointestinal allergy in children with allergic and somatic pathology. Patients and Methods. 106 children were examined: study group — 60 patients with an allergy, comparison group — 46 children with digestive diseases alone. Clinical, laboratory (total immunoglobulin E) and endoscopic morphological methods were used. Results. Cow’s milk proteins, citrus fruits, chocolate, strawberry were the most frequent causes of food allergies. Gastr...

  14. Allergenicity in food allergy : influence of food processing and immunomodulation by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Y.M.

    2011-01-01


    Allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, atopic eczema and food allergy have become an increasing health problem world-wide, affecting between 20-30% of the total population. Peanut allergy (prevalence ~1%) is a common and persistent food allergy accounting for severe

  15. Early Life Eczema, Food Introduction, and Risk of Food Allergy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Deanna M.; Arguelles, Lester; Kim, Jennifer S.; Schroeder, Angela; Rowland, Brooke; Meyer, Katie E.; Schwarz, Kristin E.; Birne, Jennafer S.; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Xiaobin

    2010-01-01

    The effect of food introduction timing on the development of food allergy remains controversial. We sought to examine whether the presence of childhood eczema changes the relationship between timing of food introduction and food allergy. The analysis includes 960 children recruited as part of a family-based food allergy cohort. Food allergy was determined by objective symptoms developing within 2 hours of ingestion, corroborated by skin prick testing/specific IgE. Physician diagnosis of eczema and timing of formula and solid food introduction were obtained by standardized interview. Cox Regression analysis provided hazard ratios for the development of food allergy for the same subgroups. Logistic regression models estimated the association of eczema and formula/food introduction with the risk of food allergy, individually and jointly. Of the 960 children, 411 (42.8%) were allergic to 1 or more foods and 391 (40.7%) had eczema. Children with eczema had a 8.4-fold higher risk of food allergy (OR, 95% CI: 8.4, 5.9–12.1). Among all children, later (>6 months) formula and rice/wheat cereal introduction lowered the risk of food allergy. In joint analysis, children without eczema who had later formula (OR, 95% CI: 0.5, 0.3–0.9) and later (>1 year) solid food (OR, 95% CI: 0.5, 0.3–0.95) introduction had a lower risk of food allergy. Among children with eczema, timing of food or formula introduction did not modify the risk of developing food allergy. Later food introduction was protective for food allergy in children without eczema but did not alter the risk of developing food allergy in children with eczema. PMID:22375277

  16. The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish......, and an overall estimate of food allergy. We summarized the information in 5 categories: self-reported symptoms, specific IgE positive, specific skin prick test positive, symptoms combined with sensitization, and food challenge studies. We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for publications since 1990....... The meta-analysis included only original studies. They were stratified by age groups: infant/preschool, school children, and adults. Results: A total of 934 articles were identified, but only 51 were considered appropriate for inclusion. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was very high compared...

  17. Prevention of food allergy – Early dietary interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Du Toit

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy.

  18. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy.

  19. Food allergy therapy: is a cure within reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Muraro, Antonella

    2011-04-01

    There is an unmet medical need for an effective food allergy therapy; thus, development of therapeutic interventions for food allergy is a top research priority. The food allergen-nonspecific therapies for food-induced anaphylaxis include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies and Chinese herbs. The food allergen-specific therapies include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy with native food allergens and mutated recombinant proteins. Diet containing heated milk and egg may represent an alternative approach to oral immunomodulation. Oral food immunotherapy remains an investigational treatment to be further studied before advancing into clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Induction of Food Allergy in Mice by Allergen Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    whether and how inhaling egg white can sensitize for the development of egg white food allergy. Despite difficulties related to the complicated pregnancy ...finding was complicated by a failure in many experiments to reproduce our original observation that aspiration of EW-sensitized mice to develop food...airway disease or prime for food allergy. The interpretation of this negative result is complicated by the issues discussed under Aim 1, Task 1

  1. [Blastocystis hominis infection in a baby with food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, M O; Ruzhitskaia, E A; Pampura, A N; Prodeus, T V

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a rare manifestation of Blastocystis hominis infection in a 3-month-old baby with food allergy that appeared as atopic dermatitis and coloproctitis induced by food proteins (cow's milk, hen's egg). The fact that food allergy may be one of the predisposing factors in the development of clinical manifestations of B. hominis infection is discussed. The assumption that the amoeboid form of blastocysts accompanies the clinical manifestation of the infection is confirmed.

  2. Food allergy knowledge and attitude of restaurant personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogut, Ayhan; Kavut, Ayşe Baççıoğlu; Kartal, İbrahim; Beyhun, Ercument Nazim; Çayır, Atilla; Mutlu, Mehmet; Özkan, Behzat

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of food-induced allergic reactions is gradually increasing. Most of these allergic reactions occur in restaurants. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the awareness of restaurant personnel about food allergy. The training, knowledge levels on food allergy, and comfort level in providing safe food of 351 restaurant personnel in Erzurum Province, Turkey, were assessed through a face-to-face survey. Among the participants, 81.5% were male (mean age 28.5 ± 8.5 years). Among them, 17.1% were chefs, 11.1% managers, 5.7% owners, and 66.1% waiters. Food allergy training was reported by 17.1% of the participants. The rates of restaurant personnel who gave the correct answers to the 4 questionnaire items, "Customers with food allergies can safely consume a small amount of that food/Food allergic reaction can cause death/If a customer is having an allergic reaction, it is appropriate to immediately serve them water to 'dilute' the allergen/Removing an allergen from a finished meal (eg, taking off nuts) may be all that is necessary to provide a safe meal for an allergic customer," which measure food allergy knowledge levels, were 46.4%, 65.7%, 55.0%, and 65.7%, respectively. According to our study, there are gaps in the food allergy knowledge of restaurant personnel. Because preparing and serving safe meals to patients with food allergy in restaurants is important, the training of restaurant personnel in food allergy is necessary. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  3. Patch testing for food-associated allergies in orofacial granulomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Food-associated allergies, especially to benzoates and cinnamon-related compounds, have been associated with orofacial granulomatosis and both standard and urticarial patch testing have been used to detect such allergies. Elimination diets have also been shown to be effective in some patients.

  4. An update on food allergy: What every practitioner should know ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No commercial immunotherapy vaccines are available for clinical use for food allergy. It is important to take care with influenza or yellow fever vaccinations in egg allergy subjects. MMR by contrast, may be safely administered to egg allergic subjects for the future, novel genetically engineered proteins have a real potential ...

  5. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sting Allergy Pet Allergies Eye Allergy Drug Allergies Allergic Rhinitis Latex Allergy Mold Allergy Sinus Infection Cockroach Allergy Seasonal Allergies Type of Allergies Food Allergy Food allergies are estimated to affect 4 ...

  6. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Epithelial Gatekeeper Against Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Chia-Hui Yu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid rise of allergic disorders in developed countries has been attributed to the hygiene hypothesis, implicating that increased environmental sanitation in early childhood may be associated with higher incidence of hypersensitivity. Intestinal epithelial barriers play a crucial role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis by limiting penetration of luminal bacteria and dietary allergens, yet allowing antigen sampling via the follicle-associated epithelium for generation of tolerance. However, this intricate balance is upset in allergic intestines, whereby luminal proteins with antigenic properties gain access to the subepithelial compartment and stimulate mast cell degranulation. Recent studies demonstrated that food allergens were protected from lysosomal degradation, and were transported in large quantities across the epithelium by binding to cell surface IgE/CD23 (FceRII that prevented the antigenic protein from lysosomal degradation in enterocytes. IL-4 (a Th2-type cytokine not only increased production of IgE from B cells, but also upregulated the expression of CD23 on intestinal epithelial cells. Further studies indicated that CD23 was responsible for the bidirectional transport of IgE across epithelium. The presence of IgE/CD23 opens a gate for intact dietary allergens to transcytose across the epithelial cells, and thus foments the mast cell-dependent anaphylactic responses. The understanding of the molecular mechanism responsible for epithelial barrier defects may be helpful in designing novel therapies to treat food allergy and other allergic diseases.

  8. Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Personal Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Allergies KidsHealth > For Teens > Allergies Print A A A ... Cold or Allergies? Dealing With Allergies What Are Allergies? Allergies are abnormal immune system reactions to things ...

  9. Evaluation of food allergy in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Marcel M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Boguniewicz, Mark; Eigenmann, Philippe A

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease characterized by inflammatory, chronically relapsing and pruritic eczematous flares. Its estimated incidence is 10% to 30% in children. Food allergy has been well documented in approximately one-third of children with a moderate-to-severe AD. Cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, wheat, soy, nuts, and fish are responsible for >90% of food allergy in children with AD. The incidence and type of food can vary with age. In infants, cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, and soy and, in older children, wheat, fish, tree nuts, and shellfish are the most common food allergens. Birch-associated foods have also been described as potential triggers of AD in children as well as in adults. The diagnosis of food allergy in AD is currently based on the clinical history, skin prick tests, or blood test screening, followed by an elimination diet and/or standardized oral food challenge. Once an underlying food allergy is confirmed, the avoidance of the incriminated food is generally recommended and usually leads to an improvement of the AD. Follow-up clinical evaluation with a detailed history and tracking of the level of specific IgE to implicated foods are typically used to evaluate the development of clinical tolerance, further confirmed by an oral food challenge. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Food Allergy Trends and Epinephrine Autoinjector Presence in Summer Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellpfeffer, Natalie R; Leo, Harvey L; Ambrose, Michael; Hashikawa, Andrew N

    Pediatric campers with food allergies are at greater risk for exposure and anaphylaxis. A diagnosis of asthma increases risk for anaphylaxis. Epidemiological investigations of food-allergic children at high risk for allergic reactions requiring intervention in camp settings are lacking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of food allergies among otherwise healthy campers in summer camps throughout the United States and Canada, and to assess asthma comorbidity and determine rates of epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions present in this population. We partnered with CampDoc.com, a web-based camp electronic health record system. Deidentified data were abstracted from 170 camps representing 122,424 campers. Only food allergies with a parental report of symptoms requiring intervention or with a camp prescription for an epinephrine autoinjector were included, whereas gluten, lactose intolerance, and food dyes were excluded. Asthma status and epinephrine presence on the camp medication list were assessed. Overall, 2.5% of campers (n = 3055) had documented food allergies. Of these campers, 22% had multiple food allergies. Median age was 11 years; 52% were female. Nuts (81%), seafood (17.4%), egg (8.5%), fruit (8.1%), and seeds (7.2%) were the top 5 food allergies reported. Of food-allergic campers, 44.3% had concurrent asthma and 34.7% of those campers were taking multiple asthma medications. Less than half (39.7%) of food-allergic children brought an epinephrine autoinjector to the camp. Life-saving epinephrine is not necessarily available for food-allergic children in camp settings. A substantial proportion of food-allergic campers are at higher risk for anaphylaxis based on concurrent asthma status. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Food allergy response capabilities of mothers and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aika, Satoko; Ito, Misae; Yamamoto, Yachiyo

    2017-09-01

    A parent's ability to confidently manage a child's food allergy (i.e. food allergy response capability) is considered instrumental toward treating this disorder; however, little is known regarding this measure and associated factors. A questionnaire survey among 280 qualified participants identified the greatest food allergy response capability as "spousal collaboration", followed by "elimination diet capacity", "gathering information from medical professionals", "knowledge about food allergies", and "stress coping". These capabilities were associated with maternal and household health status, food items eliminated and their number, anaphylaxis experience, and type of medical facility used. This measure represented a predictor of maternal quality of life and health status, household health status, and overall life stress (not related to childrearing). Thus, to improve food allergy response capability, multidisciplinary cooperation and support are required from professionals, such as physicians, nurses, nutritionists, and clinical psychologists. Nurses in particular must take an interest in the situations these mothers face and in their emotions; elicit their power to cope with stress; provide knowledge about food allergies; provide individualized, specific information about elimination diets; and conduct interventions to enable spousal cooperation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kirsten Skamstrup; Khinchi, Marianne Søndergaard; Skov, Per Stahl

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open....... Therefore, oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to apple should not be considered as a main criterion for selecting patients for birch pollen immunotherapy at present....

  13. Utility of Component-Resolved Diagnostics in Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuano, Karen S; Davis, Carla M

    2015-06-01

    Allergen component-resolved diagnostic testing (CRD) is a new methodology in clinical food allergy diagnosis, improving the ability to identify specific clinical phenotypes. Instead of relying on the crude allergen extracts used in standard allergy diagnostics, CRD utilizes purified or recombinant allergens for identification of specific molecules causing sensitization or allergy. This method is able to determine risk of the severity of allergic reactions in specific cases, like soy, peanut, and hazelnut allergy. The severity of allergic reaction can be predicted in peanut allergy with Ara h 2, and clinically relevant disease in pollen-allergic patients can be identified. However, age and geographic differences affect CRD results and it should always be utilized in the context of a clinical history. In the future, clinical phenotypes may be differentiated with larger prospective studies utilizing food challenges.

  14. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... accurately predicted from the severity of past ones. Fast Facts About one in 20 children and one in every 25 adults in the United States has a food allergy. In the United States, the most common ...

  15. Communication needs and food allergy : an analysis of stakeholder views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Crevel, R.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L.J.; Grimshaw, K.; Guidonet Riera, A.; Gowland, H.; Knibb, R.; Koch, P.; Madson, C.; Mills, C.; Palkonen, S.; Pfaff, S.; Roccaldo, R.; Scholderer, J.; Ueland, O.; Valovirta, E.; Verbeke, W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract At present, the most useful approaches to communicating information about food allergy to different stakeholder groups are not understood. Stakeholders include allergic consumers, their carers, health professionals, public authorities (regulators and compliance authorities), retailers,

  16. Genes Associated with Food Allergy and Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    dysfunction including dysphagia , chest pain, abdominal pain, and food impactions (1, 2). Food impactions are related to esophageal strictures which develop...consensus recommendations for children and adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128(1):3-20. 2. Sherrill JD, Rothenberg ME. Genetic dissection of...D, Attwood SE, Bonis PA, et al. Eosinophilic esophagitis: updated consensus recommendations for children and adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128

  17. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Nutritional outcomes in infants with food allergy after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen-Yi; Xu, Zhuo-Ming; Hong, Li; Wu, Qian-Yue; Zhang, Yue-Yue

    2017-12-01

    Food allergy is a rapidly growing public health concern because of its increasing prevalence, as well as life-threatening potential. There is limited knowledge on the nutritional status for the pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD) patients with food allergy. This study investigated both clinical and nutritional outcomes according to the CHD infants with food allergy. Forty CHD infants with food allergy and 39 controls were recruited in Shanghai, China. The height and weight for age and weight for height were converted to z-scores to evaluate their effects on nutritional status before and after CHD operation. Cow's milk showed the most frequently sensitized food allergen. The WHZ in the ≥2 allergen group was different before operation and after operation (P = .040). The number of sensitized food allergens significantly correlated with the WHZ (r = -0.431, P = .001), WAZ (r = -0.465, P = .000), and HAZ (r = -0.287, P = .025). Infection and NT-BNP showing negative correlation with WHZ and WAZ of infants with food allergy. The increased number of sensitized food allergens is associated with negative effects on both short-term and long-term nutritional status in infants with CHD. Therefore, the meticulous and continuous evaluation and management of both growth and nutritional status should be considered in CHD patients with a high number of sensitized food allergens. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Food allergy and food-based therapies in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Bavelaar, Bas M; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, Sijmen Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders which occur in childhood and may persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development of ASD and ADHD. Allergic immune reactions, in prenatal and postnatal phases, are examples of these environmental factors, and adverse reactions to foods are reported in these children. In this review, we address the clinical and preclinical findings of (food) allergy in ASD and ADHD and suggest possible underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, opportunities for nutritional interventions in neurodevelopmental disorders are provided. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Immunotherapy for food allergies: a myth or a reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praticò, Andrea D; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a worldwide issue, with an estimated prevalence of 2-10%. An effective treatment is not available for people affected and the only management is the avoidance of the allergen. Oral immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy have been tested by several authors, in particular for milk, egg and peanuts allergy, with significant results in term of desensitization induction. The achievement of tolerance is by the contrary doubtful, with different results obtained. In this review, we reviewed protocols of oral and sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy published in literature, mainly against milk, egg and peanut. At present, immunotherapy does not represent the gold standard in the treatment of food allergy, even if it can desensitize patients.

  1. Seroprevalence of IgG anti-Toxocara species antibodies in a population of patients with suspected allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qualizza R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rosanna Qualizza1, Cristoforo Incorvaia2, Romualdo Grande3, Eleni Makri2, Luigi Allegra31Allergy Service, 2Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, 3IRCCS Fondazione Cà Granda, Milan, ItalyBackground: Toxocara canis is an intestinal nematode affecting dogs and cats, which causes human infection when embryonated eggs excreted in dog feces are ingested. Humans are paratenic hosts. Although the larvae do not develop into adult worms in the human body, they may migrate to various tissues and organs where they can survive for several years, giving rise to several clinical symptoms, which can present in allergy-like form.Methods: Over 5 years, we examined 9985 patients referred for suspected allergies, based on symptoms such as dermatitis, urticaria, rhinitis, asthma, and conjunctivitis; 753 patients who had allergy tests negative or unrelated to clinical history were tested for seropositivity to T. canis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or Western blotting (WB.Results: In 240 patients (31.8%, ELISA or WB or both tests were positive for T. canis immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies: in particular, 64 of them (26.7% were positive to ELISA, 110 (45.8% to WB, and 66 (27.5% to both tests. Asthma was the most common clinical presentation. Two thirds of patients underwent subsequent anthelmintic therapy and showed a complete remission of symptoms and, in 43% of patients retested by ELISA and WB, became negative to Toxocara.Conclusion: These findings strongly suggest that T. canis plays a significant role in inducing chronic symptoms presenting as suspected allergies.Keywords: suspected allergy, Toxocara canis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, anthelmintic therapy

  2. Quality of life in patients with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Manso, Luis; Caminati, Marco; de la Hoz Caballer, Belén; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Muriel, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mercedes; Barbarroja-Escudero, José; Sánchez-González, María José; Huertas-Barbudo, Beatriz; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has increased in developed countries and can have a dramatic effect on quality of life, so as to provoke fatal reactions. We aimed to outline the socioeconomic impact that food allergy exerts in this kind of patients by performing a complete review of the literature and also describing the factors that may influence, to a greater extent, the quality of life of patients with food allergy and analyzing the different questionnaires available. Hitherto, strict avoidance of the culprit food(s) and use of emergency medications are the pillars to manage this condition. Promising approaches such as specific oral or epicutaneous immunotherapy and the use of monoclonal antibodies are progressively being investigated worldwide. However, even that an increasing number of centers fulfill those approaches, they are not fully implemented enough in clinical practice. The mean annual cost of health care has been estimated in international dollars (I$) 2016 for food-allergic adults and I$1089 for controls, a difference of I$927 (95 % confidence interval I$324-I$1530). A similar result was found for adults in each country, and for children, and interestingly, it was not sensitive to baseline demographic differences. Cost was significantly related to severity of illness in cases in nine countries. The constant threat of exposure, need for vigilance and expectation of outcome can have a tremendous impact on quality of life. Several studies have analyzed the impact of food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults and children in different countries. There have been described different factors that could modify HRQL in food allergic patients, the most important of them are perceived disease severity, age of the patient, peanut or soy allergy, country of origin and having allergy to two or more foods. Over the last few years, several different specific Quality of Life questionnaires for food allergic patients have been developed and translated to different

  3. Review article: the diagnosis and management of food allergy and food intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J L; Adams, H N; Gorard, D A

    2015-01-01

    Adverse reactions to food include immune mediated food allergies and non-immune mediated food intolerances. Food allergies and intolerances are often confused by health professionals, patients and the public. To critically review the data relating to diagnosis and management of food allergy and food intolerance in adults and children. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database were searched up until May 2014, using search terms related to food allergy and intolerance. An estimated one-fifth of the population believe that they have adverse reactions to food. Estimates of true IgE-mediated food allergy vary, but in some countries it may be as prevalent as 4-7% of preschool children. The most common food allergens are cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nuts, soy, shellfish and finned fish. Reactions vary from urticaria to anaphylaxis and death. Tolerance for many foods including milk and egg develops with age, but is far less likely with peanut allergy. Estimates of IgE-mediated food allergy in adults are closer to 1-2%. Non-IgE-mediated food allergies such as Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome are rarer and predominantly recognised in childhood. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders including eosinophilic oesophagitis are mixed IgE- and non-IgE-mediated food allergic conditions, and are improved by dietary exclusions. By contrast food intolerances are nonspecific, and the resultant symptoms resemble other common medically unexplained complaints, often overlapping with symptoms found in functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. Improved dietary treatments for the irritable bowel syndrome have recently been described. Food allergies are more common in children, can be life-threatening and are distinct from food intolerances. Food intolerances may pose little risk but since functional disorders are so prevalent, greater efforts to understand adverse effects of foods in functional disorders are warranted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Growth and nutritional concerns in children with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Harshna; Groetch, Marion; Wang, Julie

    2013-06-01

    To describe the potential effect that avoidance diets for food allergy may have on nutrition and growth in children. We report here the findings from the previous studies suggesting impairment of growth and nutritional deficiencies because of elimination diets for food allergy. Feeding difficulties have also been reported, particularly in children with eosinophilic esophagitis that may further impact the nutrient intake. Food allergies are becoming more prevalent and better recognized. Treatment options typically include strict dietary elimination of major food allergens such as milk, eggs, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish. Monitoring growth and guiding food allergic patients in choosing appropriate alternatives to supply necessary nutrients becomes crucial to avoid deficiencies and retardation in growth.

  5. Epidemiology of IgE-mediated food allergy | Gray | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of food allergy in South Africa (SA) is currently being studied. The prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy in SA children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis is 40%; however, this represents a high-risk population for food allergy. Preliminary data from the South African Food Sensitisation and Food ...

  6. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  7. Food allergy: Two case reports and management challenges in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food allergy has been well described in white children, and cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) still remains the most common ... positive for egg white f1, milk f2, codfish f3, wheat f4, peanut f13 and soya bean f14. The tissue trans glutaminase (TTG) antibody test and endomysial antibodies (TTG IgA0.30(010), TTG IgG0.9(0.

  8. Malnutrition in children with food allergies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R; De Koker, C; Dziubak, R; Venter, C; Dominguez-Ortega, G; Cutts, R; Yerlett, N; Skrapak, A-K; Fox, A T; Shah, N

    2014-06-01

    The mainstay of dietary management of food allergies remains the elimination diet. However, the removal of major food groups may predispose children to an inadequate nutrient intake. We therefore set out to establish growth status in food allergic children receiving dietetic input in the UK. Dietitians were approached via the Food Allergy and Intolerance Specialist Group from the British Dietetic Association and asked to submit anthropometrical data for children with food allergies. Data collected related to the systems involved and number of foods excluded. Malnutrition was defined according to World Health Organization standards. Data from 13 different centres yielded 97 patients (51 male and 46 female) of which 66 excluded ≤2 foods and 31 excluded ≥3 foods. Data indicated that 8.5% had a weight for age ≤ -2 Z-score and, conversely, 8.5% were ≥2 Z-score. For height for age, 11.1% were ≤ -2 Z-score and, for weight for height, 3.7% were ≤ -2 Z-score and 7.5% ≥2 Z-score. Type of allergy, system involved and specific food elimination did not impact on the level of malnutrition. However, the elimination of ≥3 foods significantly impacted on weight for age (P = 0.044). The present study demonstrates that children with food allergies are more underweight than the general UK population, which appears to be linked to the number of foods excluded. However, the impact of the disease process itself should not be disregarded. Additionally, obesity can also occur in this population despite dietary elimination. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Among children with food allergy, do sociodemographic factors and healthcare use differ by severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum, Amy M; Simon, Alan E; Lukacs, Susan L

    2012-04-01

    Among children with food allergy, we aim to describe differences in allergy severity by sociodemographic characteristics and potential differences in healthcare characteristics according to food allergy severity. Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, we identified children with food allergies based on parental report (n = 4,657). Food allergic children were classified by the severity of their food allergy, as either mild (n = 2,333) or moderate/severe (n = 2,285). Using logistic regression, we estimated the odds of having moderate/severe versus mild food allergy by sociodemographic characteristics and the odds of having selected healthcare characteristics by food allergy severity. Among children with food allergy, those who were older (ages 6 through 17 years) and those who had siblings were more likely to have moderate/severe allergy compared to their younger and only-child counterparts. There were no significant differences in severity by other sociodemographic characteristics. Children with a moderate/severe food allergy were more likely to report use of an Individual Education Plan (OR = 1.88 [1.31, 2.70]) and to have seen a specialist than those with mild food allergy. Among younger children with food allergy, those with moderate/severe food allergy were more likely to require more services than is usual compared with those with mild allergy. Associations between allergy severity and health care-related variables did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity, income level, or maternal education. We report few differences in allergy severity by sociodemographic characteristics of food allergic children. In addition, we found that associations between allergy severity and use of health related services did not differ significantly by race/ethnicity or poverty status among children with food allergy. Given the importance of food allergy as an emerging public health issue, further research to confirm these findings would be useful.

  10. Epidemiology of food allergy and food-induced anaphylaxis: is there really a Western world epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplin, Jennifer J; Mills, E N Clare; Allen, Katrina J

    2015-10-01

    Food-induced anaphylaxis continues to be an important cause of hospital admissions, particularly in children. This review outlines recent advances in understanding the epidemiology of IgE-mediated food allergy and potential mechanisms for its rise in prevalence. The rise in food allergy prevalence in Western countries has happened more quickly than changes to the genome can occur; thus, environmental changes are likely to be important. Recent studies, however, suggest that genetic risk determines responses to environmental risk factors. Environmental peanut exposure has been associated with increased peanut allergy risk in individuals with filaggrin null mutations, consistently with sensitization occurring through a damaged skin barrier. Reduced microbial and vitamin D exposure is also leading candidates for risk factors for food allergy in the context of genetic susceptibility. In addition, HLA-DR and HLA-DQ gene region variants appear to play a role in peanut allergy, although no studies have yet assessed their susceptibility to environmental cues. Finally, findings from observational cohorts and the first large-scale intervention trials for food allergy prevention support early oral allergen exposure to reduce the prevalence of specific food allergies, which is informing changes in public health guidelines at the population level. Further research will be required to assess the impact of these guideline changes on the population prevalence of food allergy. New studies are providing important insights into the prevalence, causes, and mechanisms of food allergy. Recent findings are informing changes to population health guidelines in developed countries, which have the potential to halt or reverse the increase in food allergy prevalence. By contrast, food allergy in the developing world remains understudied.

  11. The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, E.N.C.; Mackie, A.R.; Burney, P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of effective management strategies to optimize the quality of life for allergic patients is currently hampered by a lack of good quality information. Estimates of how many individuals suffer from food allergy and the major foods involved vary widely and inadequacies of in vitro...

  12. Household costs associated with food allergy: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Fox, M.; Cornelisse-Vermaat, J.R.; Antonides, G.; Mugford, M.; Frewer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Food allergy has potential to affect direct, indirect and intangible economic costs experienced by food allergic individuals and their families, resulting in negative impacts on welfare and well-being. The purpose of this paper is to develop an instrument to assess these economic costs of

  13. Occupational and food allergy: focus on allergen extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is, first, the diagnostic work-up of occupational and food allergies in the absence of well-validated commercially available standardised extracts for Skin Prick Test. Second, to investigate cross-reactivity in occupational and food allergic patients. Third, the

  14. Immunologic features of infants with milk or egg allergy enrolled in an observational study (Consortium of Food Allergy Research) of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicherer, Scott H; Wood, Robert A; Stablein, Donald; Burks, A Wesley; Liu, Andrew H; Jones, Stacie M; Fleischer, David M; Leung, Donald Y M; Grishin, Alexander; Mayer, Lloyd; Shreffler, Wayne; Lindblad, Robert; Sampson, Hugh A

    2010-05-01

    Immune features of infants with food allergy have not been delineated. We sought to explore the basic mechanisms responsible for food allergy and identify biomarkers, such as skin prick test (SPT) responses, food-specific IgE levels, and mononuclear cell responses, in a cohort of infants with likely milk/egg allergy at increased risk of peanut allergy. Infants aged 3 to 15 months were enrolled with a positive SPT response to milk or egg and either a corresponding convincing clinical history of allergy to milk or egg or moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. Infants with known peanut allergy were excluded. Overall, 512 infants (67% male) were studied, with 308 (60%) having a history of a clinical reaction. Skin test responses, detectable food-specific IgE, or both revealed sensitization as follows: milk, 78%; egg, 89%; and peanut, 69%. SPT responses and food-specific IgE levels were discrepant for peanut (15% for IgE > or = 0.35 kU(A)/L and negative SPT response vs 8% for positive SPT response and IgE Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Communication needs and food allergy: An analysis of stakeholder views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, Susan; Crevel, Rene; Chryssochoidis, George

    2006-01-01

    At present, the most useful approaches to communicating information about food allergy to different stakeholder groups are not understood. Stakeholders include allergic consumers, their carers, health professionals, public authorities (regulators and compliance authorities), retailers, manufactur......At present, the most useful approaches to communicating information about food allergy to different stakeholder groups are not understood. Stakeholders include allergic consumers, their carers, health professionals, public authorities (regulators and compliance authorities), retailers......, manufacturers, caterers and the general public. Communication needs are reviewed both generally and specifically from the perspectives of different stakeholders. A stakeholder consultation was conducted to solicit the views of different stakeholders regarding what information is required. This indicated some...... common needs regarding, for example, causes and symptomology of food allergy. In addition, some specific information needs for different stakeholders were also identified. The industrial sector requires more information about clear guidelines for labelling practices, whereas the allergic consumers...

  16. Chemicals in food and allergy: fact and fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of the atopic diseases asthma, rhinitis and atopic eczema has increased in the past two to three decades. It is not unusual to read the statement that food additives and other chemicals in food increase the risk of allergy. From a theoretical standpoint chemicals in the diet may...... be able ta change the balance from tolerance to IgE production; and (iv) they may trigger non-allergic intolerance reactions. With the present knowledge of chemicals in foods, the human exposure to these chemicals, and the described trends in this exposure, there is no supportive evidence confirming...... influence allergic sensitization and elicitation in different ways: (i) they may directly cause allergy because they are allergens or haptens; (ii) they may act as adjuvants facilitating allergy to other (dietary) components; (iii) they may modulate the immune system by direct immunotoxicity and in theory...

  17. A prospective microbiome-wide association study of food sensitization and food allergy in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jessica H; Lee-Sarwar, Kathleen A; Sordillo, Joanne; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Zhou, Yanjiao; O'Connor, George; Sandel, Megan; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M; Gold, Diane R; Weiss, Scott T; Litonjua, Augusto A

    2017-06-20

    Alterations in the intestinal microbiome are prospectively associated with the development of asthma; less is known regarding the role of microbiome alterations in food allergy development. Intestinal microbiome samples were collected at age 3-6 months in children participating in the follow-up phase of an interventional trial of high-dose vitamin D given during pregnancy. At age 3, sensitization to foods (milk, egg, peanut, soy, wheat, walnut) was assessed. Food allergy was defined as caretaker report of healthcare provider-diagnosed allergy to the above foods prior to age 3 with evidence of IgE sensitization. Analysis was performed using Phyloseq and DESeq2; P-values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Complete data were available for 225 children; there were 87 cases of food sensitization and 14 cases of food allergy. Microbial diversity measures did not differ between food sensitization and food allergy cases and controls. The genera Haemophilus (log2 fold change -2.15, P=.003), Dialister (log2 fold change -2.22, P=.009), Dorea (log2 fold change -1.65, P=.02), and Clostridium (log2 fold change -1.47, P=.002) were underrepresented among subjects with food sensitization. The genera Citrobacter (log2 fold change -3.41, P=.03), Oscillospira (log2 fold change -2.80, P=.03), Lactococcus (log2 fold change -3.19, P=.05), and Dorea (log2 fold change -3.00, P=.05) were underrepresented among subjects with food allergy. The temporal association between bacterial colonization and food sensitization and allergy suggests that the microbiome may have a causal role in the development of food allergy. Our findings have therapeutic implications for the prevention and treatment of food allergy. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  18. Cytotoxic testing for food allergy: evaluation of reproducibility and correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, T E; Arkins, J A

    1976-10-01

    Cytotoxic food tests still present conflicting opinions concerning their validity. Nine atopic patients with or without a history of food allergy were studied along with 5 nonatopic patients. All tests were conducted in a double-blind fashion with 6 determinations for each of 10 food antigens. Reproducibility of the test (5/6 positive or negative) was demonstrated with wheat, milk, yeast, chocolate, and orange. In the nonatopic group, reproducible results were obtained for wheat, egg, yeast, chocolate, and chicken. Clinical correlation with 11 foods in 7 patients was demonstrated. However, there were 46 positive tests without correlation and 2 negative tests with positive histories. Therefore, there appears to be reproducibility of the tests to only 3 foods but no apparent correlation with clinical symptoms. At the present time, cytotoxic tests offer no reliable help in establishing the diagnosis of food allergy.

  19. Debates in allergy medicine: food intolerance does not exist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, Sten

    2015-01-01

    The term "intolerance" is not mentioned in the World Allergy Organization (WAO) document on allergy nomenclature. "Intolerance" has been used to describe some non-immunological diseases. However, pediatric gastroenterologists mix allergy and intolerance, e.g. by using the term "cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/I)", lumping together all types of mechanisms for not tolerating cow's milk. The basis for this mix is the fact that double-blind oral food challenges are time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, cow's milk exclusion and reintroduction is proposed to be used in primary care for the diagnosis of CMPA in children with common gastrointestinal (GI) problems such as colic and constipation. This may lead to a widespread use of hypoallergenic formulas in children without proven CMPA. In lay language, intolerance describes "not tolerating". To discuss the reasons why the term "intolerance" should not be used in the area of allergy. Presently, intolerance is not part of the allergy nomenclature. It is used by lay persons to describe "not tolerating". Pediatricians use intolerance to describe non-immunological hypersensitivity such as lactose intolerance which is acceptable. However, using the mixed term CMPA/I describing a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms in children, should be avoided. The WAO Nomenclature does not clearly distinguish between non-IgE-mediated allergy and non-allergic hypersensitivity. The term "intolerance" should not be used within the area of allergy. Intolerance should be better defined and the term restricted to some non-immunological/non-allergic diseases and not mixed with allergy, e.g. by using the term CMPA/I. A revision of the WAO nomenclature is proposed.

  20. [Food allergy in oral medicine. A review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, G; Di Liberto, C

    2003-01-01

    The increased finding of patients with oral signs and symptoms, probably due to allergic reactions to food, seems to require clarifying on the role and variants of food allergy in oral medicine. Over the last 20 years, studies in general on food allergies, have investigated related signs and symptoms as well as allergens and mediators involved in the mechanisms of reaction on a considerable scale. So, it has been possible to divide adverse reactions to food into toxic and non-toxic (allergies or non-immunologic intolerance). In particular, the allergic reactions have been divided into IgE-mediated, the most frequent, and non IgE-mediated, the latter along with mechanisms of cellular-mediated hypersensitivity or immuno-complex, until now, not so well identified. In the present review, the authors investigated the adverse reactions to food involving the oral mucosa, and illustrated the several pictures and clinical variants reported in the literature, in relation to the different allergens and mechanisms. The evidence of the most frequent involvement of IgE-mediated components in food oral allergy, should represent a diagnostic guideline in ruling-out some oral mucosal lesions and in planning prevention and therapy protocols. Finally, investigating the role of the IgE-mediated component in patients with unspecified burning oral symptoms could be interesting and provides useful information.

  1. Epinephrine autoinjector availability among children with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuth, Karen A; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. Delay in administration of epinephrine is a known risk factor for food allergy reaction-related mortality; however, individuals with food allergy may not have epinephrine readily available. This study was designed to determine the percent of food-allergic children that have an epinephrine autoinjector readily available and factors associated with epinephrine autoinjector carriage rates. Parents completed a questionnaire on food allergy and food allergy preparedness. Staff recorded whether an epinephrine autoinjector and medical alert bracelet was immediately available in clinic. Parental responses from 63 food-allergic children were included. Fifty-nine percent (37/63) had an epinephrine autoinjector present in the clinic, and 79% (50/63) reported receiving training in epinephrine autoinjector use. There was no correlation between epinephrine autoinjector presence in the clinic and parental report of having an epinephrine autoinjector available at all times (phi = 0.21). Epinephrine autoinjector training was associated with increased odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector immediately available (adjusted odds ratio, 8.74 [1.69, 45.04]). Fewer school aged children (≥5 years old) reportedly had their epinephrine autoinjector with them when eating lunch (25% [8/32] versus 42% [13/31]; p = 0.002) or snacks (28% [9/32] versus 37% [13/31]; p = 0.005) when compared with those importance of having an epinephrine autoinjector easily accessible, especially when eating, is important.

  2. Is mealworm or shrimp allergy indicative for food allergy to insects?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, H.C.H.P.; Knulst, A.C.; Jong, G. de; Gaspari, M.; Hartog Jager, C.F. den; Houben, G.F.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: The growing world population is a key driver for the exploration of sustainable protein sources to ensure food security. Mealworm and other insects are promising candidates. Previously we found that shrimp allergic patients are at risk for mealworm allergy, and that mealworm can induce a

  3. An exploratory investigation of food choice behavior of teenagers with and without food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Isolde; Mackenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Taraneh

    2014-05-01

    Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non-food-allergic teenagers. One focus group discussion with non-food-allergic teenagers (n = 11) and 14 semistructured interviewers (7 with food-allergic and 7 with non-food-allergic teenagers) were performed (age range, 12-18 years). The focus group discussion and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Teenagers from both groups (food-allergic and non-food-allergic) named sensory characteristics of foods as the main reason for choosing them. Some food-allergic teenagers downplayed their allergy and frequently engaged in risk-taking behavior in terms of their food choices. However, they reported difficulties in trying new foods, especially when away from home. Parental control was experienced as protective by those with food allergies, whereas non-food-allergic teenagers felt the opposite. Most teenagers, including food-allergic ones, expressed the wish to eat similar foods to their friends. Other themes did not vary between the 2 groups. Food-allergic teenagers strive to be able to make similar food choices to their friends, although differences to non-food-allergic teenagers exist. It is important to address these differences to improve their dietary management. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Asthma and food allergy management in Chicago Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Rivkina, Victoria; DeSantiago-Cardenas, Lilliana; Smith, Bridget; Harvey-Gintoft, Blair; Whyte, Stephanie A

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize asthma and food allergy reporting and management in Chicago Public Schools. Demographic and health data for students who have asthma and food allergy were extracted from the Chicago Public Schools database. Demographic and geographic variability and the existence of school health management plans were analyzed, and multiple logistic regression models were computed. Home addresses were geocoded to create maps of case counts per community area. Approximately 18,000 asthmatic and 4000 food allergic students were identified. Of asthmatic students, 9.3% had a food allergy; of food allergic students, 40.1% had asthma. Asthma odds were significantly higher among black and Hispanic students (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3 and 1.3, respectively), whereas food allergy odds were significantly higher among black students (OR = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.3) and significantly lower among Hispanic students (OR = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9). Only 24.3% of students who had asthma and 50.9% of students who had food allergy had a school health management plan on file. Odds of having a school health management plan were significantly higher among students with both conditions, but the likelihood of having a plan on file was significantly lower among racial/ethnic minority and low-income students, regardless of medical condition. Only 1 in 4 students who have asthma and half of food allergic students have health management plans in schools, with lower numbers among minority and low-income students. Improving chronic disease reporting and access to school health management plans is critical. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and Hospitalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Food Allergy Among U.S. Children: Trends in Prevalence and ... Four out of every 100 children have a food allergy. In 2007, an estimated 3 million children ...

  6. The role of food allergy in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) affects ∼10% of children. Food allergy is a known provoking cause of AD in a subset of affected children. A literature search of PubMed and Medline was conducted to review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AD, with special focus on the role of food allergy in the development of AD, its management, and its long-term preventive strategies. A literature search of PubMed and Medline was conducted. Food allergens readily provoke AD in ∼35% of patients, as proven through double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge studies. Milk, egg, wheat, soy, and peanut account for 75% of the cases of food-induced AD. However, the positive predictive values of the parental history, skin-prick tests, or serum tests for detecting food-specific IgE are low, making these unsuitable for use as single diagnostic modalities. Therefore, the use of a food challenge test is very helpful in objectively confirming the history or positive tests. Elimination diets are often helpful in challenge-proven cases, but care must be taken to evaluate the nutritional status of the child. There are few effective long-term strategies to prevent the development of food allergen-induced AD. Early onset of AD has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of other allergic diseases, including other food allergy/sensitization, as part of the atopic march. Treatment of other causes of AD, such as barrier dysfunction and cutaneous infection, are of equal importance to food allergen avoidance. Food allergy is an important provoking cause of AD, but it is only relevant in ∼35% of affected individuals.

  7. The prevalence of plant food allergies: A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuidmeer, Laurian; Goldhahn, Klaus; Rona, Roberto J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty regarding the prevalence of allergies to plant food. Objective: To assess the prevalence of allergies to plant food according to the different subjective and objective assessment methods. Methods: Our systematic search of population-based studies (since 1990......) in the literature database MEDLINE focused on fruits, vegetables/legumes, tree nuts, wheat, soy, cereals, and seeds. Prevalence estimates were categorized by food item and method used (food challenges, skin prick test, serum IgE, parent/self-reported symptoms), complemented by appropriate meta-analyses. Results: We...... included 36 studies with,data from a total of over 250,000 children and adults. Only 6 studies included food challenge tests with prevalences ranging from 0.1% to 4.3% each for fruits and tree nuts, 0.1% to 1.4% for vegetables, and...

  8. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, S; Arasi, S.

    2017-01-01

    -effectiveness of AIT in the management of food allergy. Methods: We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis that involved searching nine international electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRS). Eligible studies were independently assessed by two reviewers...... not confirm sustained unresponsiveness (RR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 1.13). Only one study reported on disease-specific quality of life (QoL), which reported no comparative results between OIT and control group. Meta-analyses revealed that the risk of experiencing a systemic adverse reaction was higher in those......Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated Food Allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we sought to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost...

  9. Development of a Food Allergy Knowledge Test for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amy L; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Hoehn, Jessica L; Elizabeth Bollinger, Mary

    2017-06-01

    To create a measure of food allergy (FA) knowledge for parents of children with FA. The food allergy knowledge test (FAKT) was developed following rigorous test-construction guidelines. The preliminary 110-item pool content was developed in consultation with FA experts. After cognitive interviews and revisions, an 88-item preliminary version was administered to 370 parents of children with FA who were recruited online and from an allergy clinic. After item difficulty, discrimination, item-scale correlations analyses, and assessment of internal consistency, a revised 57-item version was administered to a new clinic-based sample (77 parents). The revised FAKT was highly reliable (α =.86). Validity analyses revealed positive correlations ( r = .23-.57) between FAKT scores and parent age, education, insurance status, access to FA information, and auto-injector use. The FAKT was determined to have strong psychometrics and be appropriately reliable and valid, with clinical and research applications.

  10. Quality of life in food allergy : valid scales for children and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to give an overview of how health-related quality of life (HRQL) can be measured in food allergy and to explore recent findings on how food allergy might impact HRQL. Recent findings In addition to the more familiar burdens of having a food allergy,

  11. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  12. Development and validation of the self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Hourihane, Jonathan O.'Brien; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Food allergy can affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire for adolescents with food allergy exists. We sought to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Teenager Form (FAQLQ-TF) in the

  13. Development and validation of a self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Vlieg - Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; Duiverman, E. J.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Having a food allergy may affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). Currently, no validated, self-administered, disease-specific HRQL questionnaire exists for children with food allergy. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Child Form

  14. Diagnosis of food allergy: History, examination and in vivoand in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mouth breathing, allergic mannerisms, nasal congestion, dental abnormalities and post-nasal drip are ... Floppiness, change in level of consciousness, anxiety, sleepiness. • Cyanosis, loss of .... Assessment of Food Allergy in Children and Young People in Primary Care and Community Settings. London: National Institute ...

  15. Food allergy: What do we learn from animal models?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Wijk, F. van; Penninks, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes selected articles on animal models of food allergy published in 2003. The research areas that are covered include mechanistic studies, the search for new therapies, as well as screening models for hazard identification of potential allergens. Recent findings

  16. Food allergy: Definitions,prevalence,diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk

    2015-01-01

    disease) and non-immune (e.g., lactose intolerance) nature. To reliably diagnose food allergy, a careful history (immediate-type reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge. Co-factors such as exercise, medication...

  17. Gastrointestinal food allergy in Ghanaian children: a case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child Health, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, 3Paediatric Surgery Unit, Department of Paediat- ric Surgery, Korle Bu ... Conclusion: Gastrointestinal food allergy is not uncommon in children in Ghana. A high index of suspicion is re- .... A diagnosis of rickets with severe malnutrition as a re- sult of probable allergic ...

  18. Food allergy: Two case reports and management challenges in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report on two cases of children with multiple food allergies. The first patient presented with chronic diarrhoea following the introduction and use of several infant formulas, while the second patient had more severe allergic reactions following ingestion of milk, egg and wheat. Elimination of identified triggers from the diet ...

  19. Food Allergy Concerns in Primary Classrooms: Keeping Children Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Peggy; Cameron, Elizabeth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Food-allergy awareness and management have only lately come to the forefront in early childhood settings, although advocacy organizations have been working on the issue for more than a decade. A national poll (C.S. Mott Children's Hospital 2009) asked parents with children in early education settings if they were aware of what their program does…

  20. Profiling families enrolled in food allergy immunotherapy studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DunnGalvin, Audrey

    2009-09-01

    Little is known about specific psychological factors that affect parents\\' decisions to take part in clinical studies. We examined factors, related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL), that may influence parents\\' decision to allow their children to participate in research on clinical food allergy.

  1. Developmental pathways in food allergy: a new theoretical framework.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    DunnGalvin, A

    2009-04-01

    To date, there is no model of psychosocial development based on empirical food allergy (FA) research. This limits the ability of clinicians, researchers and policy-makers to predict and evaluate the real impact of FA on the child, with implications for prevention, treatment, intervention and health policy.

  2. Communication needs and food allergy: a summary of stakeholder views

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miles, S.; Valovirta, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to elicit information about the specific information needs of different stakeholders and end-users. An essential part of food allergy prevention includes the development of effective communication strategies to all stakeholders and end-users of this

  3. [Determination of lactose intolerance frequency in children with food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutyra, Tomasz; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2008-10-01

    Lactose malabsorption and lactose intolerance symptoms are the most common alimentary tract disorders in children. Lactose intolerance is a result of lactase deficiency or lack of lactase and lactose malabsorption. Hypersensitivity in food allergy is connected with the presence of specific IgE (specific antibodies against some allergens) or lymphocytes. Lactose intolerance and food allergy may coexist in the same patient. The aim of this study was determination of lactose intolerance frequency in children with food allergy who were below and above 5 years of age. The number of 87 children with food allergy aged from 0.7 to 18 years were included in the study (48 boys and 39 girls). 51 patients above 5 years of age and 36 patients below 5 years of age were studied. Lactose intolerance symptoms, hydrogen breath test, activity of lactase and villous atrophy were investigated. Decreased absorption of lactose in hydrogen breath test was observed in 28% of children above 5 years of age and in 5% in younger children. Positive result of biological trial in hydrogen breath test was observed in 10% of patients who were below 5 years of age and in 26% patients above 5 years. There was no statistically significant difference in lactose intolerance frequency and in decreased activity of lactase in intestinal mucosa between these two groups. Frequent partial villous atrophy was observed in younger patients (41,38%) than in children above 5 years of age (17.86%). Lactose intolerance was observed in 10% patients who were below 5 years of age and in 26% patients above 5 years of age with food allergy. There was no statistically significant difference between these two groups.

  4. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated Food Allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we sought to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost...... potentially relevant papers from which we selected 31 eligible studies, comprising of 25 RCTs and six NRS, studying a total of 1259 patients. Twenty-five trials evaluated oral immunotherapy (OIT), five studies investigated sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) and one study evaluated epicutaneous immunotherapy...

  5. Safety, clinical, and immunologic efficacy of a Chinese herbal medicine (Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2) for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie; Jones, Stacie M; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Song, Ying; Yang, Nan; Sicherer, Scott H; Makhija, Melanie M; Robison, Rachel G; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sampson, Hugh A; Li, Xiu-Min

    2015-10-01

    Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is a 9-herb formula based on traditional Chinese medicine that blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model. In phase I studies FAHF-2 was found to be safe and well tolerated. We sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FAHF-2 as a treatment for food allergy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study 68 subjects aged 12 to 45 years with allergies to peanut, tree nut, sesame, fish, and/or shellfish, which were confirmed by baseline double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenges (DBPCFCs), received FAHF-2 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 22). After 6 months of therapy, subjects underwent DBPCFCs. For those who demonstrated increases in the eliciting dose, a repeat DBPCFC was performed 3 months after stopping therapy. Treatment was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. By using intent-to-treat analysis, the placebo group had a higher eliciting dose and cumulative dose (P = .05) at the end-of-treatment DBPCFC. There was no difference in the requirement for epinephrine to treat reactions (P = .55). There were no significant differences in allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 levels, cytokine production by PBMCs, or basophil activation between the active and placebo groups. In vitro immunologic studies performed on subjects' baseline PBMCs incubated with FAHF-2 and food allergen produced significantly less IL-5, greater IL-10 levels, and increased numbers of regulatory T cells than untreated cells. Notably, 44% of subjects had poor drug adherence for at least one third of the study period. FAHF-2 is a safe herbal medication for subjects with food allergy and shows favorable in vitro immunomodulatory effects; however, efficacy for improving tolerance to food allergens is not demonstrated at the dose and duration used. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring Perceptions and Experiences of Food Allergy among New Canadians from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Stephanie K; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as "high" compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies). In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population.

  7. Exploring Perceptions and Experiences of Food Allergy among New Canadians from Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as “high” compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies. In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population.

  8. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, H.-Y

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk {beta}-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

  9. The frequency of food allergy in Australia and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D J; Hosking, C S; Zhie, C Y; Leung, R; Baratwidjaja, K; Iikura, Y; Iyngkaran, N; Gonzalez-Andaya, A; Wah, L B; Hsieh, K H

    1997-11-01

    A review of the development of food allergy in a birth cohort of 620 Australian infants at high risk for development of atopic disease has recently been completed. Extrapolating to a random community population showed that at the age of two, egg appears the most frequent food allergen (3.2%), while cow milk (2.0%), and peanut are of similar frequency (1.9%). The prevalence of hypersensitivity to wheat and soy appears similar to sesame seed, cashew nut, hazelnut and walnut, but allergy to fish, brazil nut and shell fish are uncommon. Despite a different methodology, reports from several Asian centres suggest a similar frequency of hypersensitivity to these foods in young children although hypersensitivity to shellfish and seafood was more common than for nuts, peanut and wheat, if seafoods are part of the staple infant diet. Rice hypersensitivity was rare in both Australia and Asian countries.

  10. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation of applied kinesiology muscle testing findings with serum immunoglobulin levels for food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, W H; Leisman, G

    1998-12-01

    The pilot study attempted to determine whether subjective muscle testing employed by Applied Kinesiology practitioners, prospectively determine those individuals with specific hyperallergenic responses. Seventeen subjects were found positive on Applied Kinesiology (A.K.) muscle testing screening procedures indicating food hypersensitivity (allergy) reactions. Each subject showed muscle weakening (inhibition) reactions to oral provocative testing of one or two foods for a total of 21 positive food reactions. Tests for a hypersensitivity reaction of the serum were performed using both a radio-allergosorbent test (RAST) and immune complex test for IgE and IgG against all 21 of the foods that tested positive with A.K. muscle screening procedures. These serum tests confirmed 19 of the 21 food allergies (90.5%) suspected based on the applied kinesiology screening procedures. This pilot study offers a basis to examine further a means by which to predict the clinical utility of a given substance for a given patient, based on the patterns of neuromuscular response elicited from the patient, representing a conceptual expansion of the standard neurological examination process.

  12. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Cochard, Marie-Madeleine; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Newman, Christopher J.; Hofer, Michael; Eigenmann, Philippe A.

    To cite this article: Wassenberg J, Cochard M-M, DunnGalvin A, Ballabeni P, Flokstra-de Blok BMJ, Newman CJ, Hofer M, Eigenmann PA. Parent perceived quality of life is age-dependent in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23: 412419. Abstract Background: Food allergy in children

  13. Artificial sweeteners and mixture of food additives cause to break oral tolerance and induce food allergy in murine oral tolerance model for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, H; Matsuhara, H; Miotani, S; Sako, Y; Matsui, T; Tanaka, H; Inagaki, N

    2017-09-01

    Processed foods are part of daily life. Almost all processed foods contain food additives such as sweeteners, preservatives and colourants. From childhood, it is difficult to avoid consuming food additives. It is thought that oral tolerance for food antigens is acquired during early life. If tolerance fails, adverse immune responses to food proteins may occur. We hypothesized that food additives prevent acquisition of oral tolerance and aimed to verify the safety of food additives. We induced experimental oral tolerance in mice for ovalbumin (OVA), a food antigen, by previous oral treatment with OVA before sensitization with OVA injections. Food additives were administered at the induction of oral tolerance, and food allergy was induced by repeated administration of OVA. Symptoms of food allergy were defined as a change in body temperature and allergic diarrhoea. Saccharin sodium and a mixture of food additives inhibited acquisition of oral tolerance. Hypothermia and allergic diarrhoea with elevation of OVA-specific IgE were induced in the murine model of oral tolerance. Analyses of antigen-presenting cells in mesenteric lymph nodes showed that food additives affected their manner of migration. Additionally, food additives decreased the proportion of CD25hi regulatory T cells among CD4+ T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. A large amount of food additives may prevent acquisition of oral tolerance. Intake of food additives in early life may increase the risk of food allergies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plan Hot Topics Flu Facts Arrhythmias Abuse Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A A ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  15. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References Wheat allergy. American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.acaai.org/allergist/allergies/Types/food- ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/wheat-allergy/basics/definition/CON-20031834 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions ...

  16. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergies in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Careaga, Manuel; Kerner, John A

    2005-10-01

    Foods that account for 90% of allergic reactions in children are cow's milk protein, eggs, peanut, soy, tree nuts, fish, and wheat. Food allergy can manifest as urticaria/angioedema, anaphylaxis, atopic dermatitis, respiratory symptoms, or a gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. GI allergic manifestations can be classified as immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated (immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome); "mixed" GI allergy syndromes (involving some IgE components and some non-IgE or T-cell-mediated components) include eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Non-IgE-mediated or T-cell-mediated allergic GI disorders include dietary protein enteropathy, protein-induced enterocolitis, and proctitis. All these conditions share a common denominator: the response of the immune system to a specific protein leading to pathologic inflammatory changes in the GI tract. This immunological response can elicit symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, dysphagia, constipation, or GI blood loss, symptoms consistent with a GI disorder. The detection of food allergies can be accomplished by the use of radioallergosorbent (RAST) testing and skin prick tests in helping to assess the IgE-mediated disorders. Patch tests may help evaluate delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Treatment of GI allergic disorders ranges from strict dietary elimination of offending food(s), use of protein hydrolysates, and use of L-amino acid-based formula when protein hydrolysates fail. Treatment with topical (for eosinophilic esophagitis) or systemic steroids is used if all dietary measures are unsuccessful. Maternal breast feeding or the use from birth of hydrolysate formulas (extensive or partial hydrolysates) may be efficacious in the prevention of atopic disease in "high-risk" families (with at least 1 parent or sibling with a history of atopic disease).

  17. Food allergy and anaphylaxis in pediatrics: update 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2012-12-01

    This review highlights the progress made in food allergy (FA) and anaphylaxis research in pediatrics published in the journal Pediatric Allergy and Immunology since 2010. Putative risk factors for FA are as follows: a family history of allergic disease, particularly in the mother, low birth order, season of birth, and severe atopic eczema. Obstetric practices, antibiotic use, and home environment are factors deserving further research. Diagnostic decision levels and component-specific IgE are useful in the diagnosis of FA; however, oral food challenges remain the gold standard and may also be a means to reduce parental anxiety and to improve education. Oral immunotherapy studies show promise in increasing the threshold of reactivity of allergic patients and therefore improving their quality of life. In single-nut-allergic patients, introduction of other nuts allows broadening the diet and thus reducing the psychological impact of allergen avoidance. Nutritional deficiencies are not uncommon in food-allergic children and should be specifically assessed. The prescription of injectable adrenaline is still insufficient and not consistent among practitioners, requiring improved training and implementation of guidelines. Current research into the epidemiology and immunological mechanisms of FA and tolerance will enable us to devise strategies to both prevent and treat food allergies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Electronic dental anesthesia in a patient with suspected allergy to local anesthetics: report of case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F; Quinn, C L

    1988-01-01

    A 56-year-old patient with alleged allergy to local anesthetics required restorative dental treatment. Electronic dental anesthesia was used successfully, in lieu of injectable local anesthetics, to manage intraoperative pain associated with the restoration of vital mandibular teeth.

  19. Social media as a tool for the management of food allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Perea, A; Cabrera-Freitag, P; Fuentes-Aparicio, V; Infante, S; Zapatero, L; Zubeldia, J M

    2018-02-07

    Food allergy heavily impairs quality of life. Avoiding the offending food requires extensive patient education. Social media have been proven a useful source of information for other chronic conditions. Our aim was to describe how pediatric patients with food allergy and their families are using social media. We performed a cross-sectional study in the Pediatric Allergy Unit of a third-level hospital. Patients with food allergy were surveyed about their disease and the use of social media. Patients over 13 years filled in the survey themselves, while parents or guardians did in the case of younger patients. We included 193 patients (162 guardians, 31 adolescents). Social media was used by 109 guardians (67.3%) and 29 adolescents (90.3%), of which 30.3% and 6.9%, respectively, used them for food allergy-allergy related purposes. Most popular websites were Facebook™ for guardians (52.2%) and YouTube™ among teenagers (80.6%). Having cow's milk and/or egg allergy was the only feature related to using social media for food allergy. Utilizing social media for food allergy information, did not correlate with the frequency of recent reactions, self-scored knowledge about food allergy or the opinion on evidence-based or alternative therapies for their disease. Most patients and guardians of patients with food allergy used social media. However, only a small portion accessed them for increasing the knowledge of their disease.

  20. Food Consumption and Prevalence of Asthma & Allergies Symptoms in Children

    OpenAIRE

    M. Karimi; M Mirzaeei; Akhondi, R

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased significantly over the last 30 years. Genetic factors cannot explain this prevalence and a number of studies have been performed to determine the Environmental factors especially dietary factors which are effective in the incidence of these diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the food consumption and the subsequent development of asthma and other allergic disorder symptoms in 2003 of childre...

  1. An update on the impact of food allergy on anxiety and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Marcus S; Schwartz, Jonathan; Ferguson, Morgan

    2017-08-01

    Food allergies have become more common, and management involves dietary avoidance that can impair quality of life. Patients and families must manage the daily risk of anaphylaxis at each meal. The purpose of this review is to describe the impact of food allergies on quality of life and to provide an update on new developments in food allergy management, particularly peanut allergy. Food allergy requires careful avoidance of common and ubiquitous dietary allergens. Living with food allergy is associated with annual economic costs in excess of $4000 per child, in addition to risks of anxiety and depressive symptoms. An expert panel sponsored by the 2017 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases published addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy, which suggest three separate approaches to peanut protein introduction for infants at various levels of risk. Clinicians must be aware of underappreciated burdens faced by children and families with food allergies. Management involves a partnership between primary and specialty care. Mitigation strategies to improve quality of life for patients include efforts to avoid overdiagnosis in synergy with balanced counseling about the risks of food allergies. Experimental food allergen desensitization can improve quality of life but remains investigational at this time. For patients with significant anxiety, interdisciplinary management involving professional counseling may be helpful. Risk stratification and early introduction of peanut protein can help prevent the development of peanut allergy.

  2. Approaches to risk assessment in food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Hattersley, S.; Buck, J.

    2009-01-01

    A workshop was organised to investigate whether risk assessment strategies and methodologies used in classical/conventional toxicology may be used for risk assessment of allergenic foods. to discuss the advantages and limitations of different approaches and to determine the research needed to move...... the area forward. Three possible approaches to safety assessment and risk assessment for allergenic foods were presented and discussed: safety assessment using NOAEL/LOAEL and uncertainty factors, safety assessment using Benchmark Dose and Margin of Exposure (MoE), and risk assessment using probabilistic...... models. The workshop concluded that all the three approaches to safety and risk assessment of allergenic foods should continue to be considered. A particular strength of the MoE and probabilistic approaches is that they do not rely on low-dose extrapolations with its inherent issues. Probabilistic...

  3. Seasonal variation in food allergy to apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...

  4. Lifetime Increased Risk of Adult Onset Atopic Dermatitis in Adolescent and Adult Patients with Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu-Sheng Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy can result in life-threatening anaphylaxis. Atopic dermatitis (AD causes intense itching and impaired quality of life. Previous studies have shown that patients with classical early-onset AD tend to develop food allergy and that 10% of adults with food allergies have concomitant AD. However, it is not known whether late-onset food allergy leads to adult-onset AD, a recently recognized disease entity. Using an initial cohort of one-million subjects, this study retrospectively followed-up 2851 patients with food allergy (age > 12 years for 14 years and compared them with 11,404 matched controls. While 2.8% (81 of the 2851 food allergy patients developed AD, only 2.0% (227 of the 11,404 controls developed AD. Multivariate regression analysis showed that food allergy patients were more likely to develop AD (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.49, p < 0.0001. Controls had a 1.99% risk of developing AD, while food allergy patients had a significantly higher risk (7.18% and 3.46% for patients with ≥3 and <3 food allergy claims, respectively of developing adult-onset AD. This is the first study to describe the chronological and dose-dependent associations between food allergy in adolescence and the development of adult-onset AD.

  5. Prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among adults in India: the EuroPrevall INCO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahesh, P. A.; Wong, Gary W. K.; Ogorodova, L.; Potts, J.; Leung, T. F.; Fedorova, O.; Holla, Amrutha D.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Kummeling, I.; Versteeg, S. A.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Burney, P.

    2016-01-01

    Data are lacking regarding the prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among general population in India. We report the prevalence of sensitization and probable food allergy to 24 common foods among adults from general population in Karnataka, South India. The study was conducted

  6. Growth comparison in children with and without food allergies in 2 different demographic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Harshna; Ramesh, Manish; Feuille, Elizabeth; Groetch, Marion; Wang, Julie

    2014-10-01

    To examine the effects of food avoidance on the growth of children with food allergies. A retrospective chart review was performed for children with and without food allergies followed at 2 New York City general pediatric practices. Charts were selected based on codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, for well child visit, food allergy, anaphylaxis, and/or epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions. Heights and weights were obtained to calculate body mass index, height, and weight z-scores. Of the 9938 children seen, 439 (4.4%) were avoiding one or more foods. Of those with commercial insurance, children with food allergies were significantly shorter (mean height z-score = 0.06; P = .01) and weighed less (mean weight z-score -0.1; P = .006) than children without food allergies (mean height z-score = 0.42; mean weight z-score = 0.07). In contrast, children with food allergies and state insurance were not smaller in height or weight compared with children without food allergies. Among white subjects, there was a significant effect of food allergies on height and weight (ANOVA for height P = .012, for weight P = .0036) that was not observed for Hispanic/Latino, black, or Asian subjects. Children with allergies to milk weighed significantly less than children without milk allergies (P = .0006). Children with food allergies and commercial insurance have significant impairment in growth compared with those without food allergies. Additionally, children avoiding all forms of milk are shorter and weigh less than matched counterparts. Therefore, height and weight measurements should be assessed routinely in children with food allergies because there is risk for growth impairment in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The 'bite' in paediatric food allergy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    The prevalence of atopic disease is increasing worldwide for reasons that are not clear. Our Western diet has changed from traditional freshly cooked meals, in many cases, to prepacked, sterilised sub- stitutes. Many children's lunch boxes now contain foods with 'empty calories'. The famous 'gut barrier' is often crossed.

  8. Non-IgE-mediated food allergies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeding disorders, reflux symptoms, vomiting, dysphagia and food impaction.[1,6] The variety of symptoms is experienced mostly after eating. In children, the age of presentation influences the complex of symptoms. Very young children present with feeding difficulties and failure to thrive, older children present with vomiting ...

  9. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-06-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying.

  10. Food-specific serum immunoglobulin E measurements in children presenting with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Maryse R; Khoury, Jane C; Assa'ad, Amal H

    2014-02-01

    In children with food allergy, multiple food-specific serum IgE levels to common food allergens are frequently measured. To compare food-specific serum IgE measurements among common food allergens in children with food allergy to determine the characteristics of the measurements, their ability to discriminate between foods associated and not associated with a presenting clinical reaction, and their change over time. A retrospective analysis was conducted of food-specific serum IgE to cow's milk, egg white and yolk, peanuts, almond, and soy, for up to 3 subsequent measurements, in 291 children with food allergy. A food-specific serum IgE level lower than 0.35 kU/L was considered a negative measurement. The correlation of IgE measurements with presenting symptoms was conducted for each food in 172 children. Of 1,312 food-specific serum IgE measurements, 69.8% were positive. The median (interquartile range) IgE level for foods associated with the presenting complaint was 7.3 kU/L (2.7-31) and that for foods not associated with a clinical complaint was 2.2 kU/L (0.38-13). The difference was statistically significant (P = .01) only for cow's milk. Specific IgE levels were highest for peanuts, followed by cow's milk, eggs, soy, and almonds, and trended upward over time. In children presenting with clinical symptoms of a reaction to a food allergen, measurements of food-specific serum IgE to other common food allergens are commonly positive. An increase in food-specific serum IgE occurs over time. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  12. Dietary resveratrol prevents the development of food allergy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yui Okada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Resveratrol is a bioactive polyphenol enriched in red wine that exhibits many beneficial health effects via multiple mechanisms. However, it is unclear whether resveratrol is beneficial for the prevention of food allergy. This study investigated whether resveratrol inhibited the development of food allergy by using a mouse model of the disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice fed standard diet or standard diet plus resveratrol were sensitized by intragastric administration of ovalbumin (OVA and mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT. Several manifestations of food allergy were then compared between the mice. The effects of resveratrol on T cells or dendritic cells were also examined by using splenocytes from OVA-specific T cell-receptor (TCR transgenic DO11.10 mice or mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs in vitro. We found that mice fed resveratrol showed reduced OVA-specific serum IgE production, anaphylactic reaction, and OVA-induced IL-13 and IFN-ã production from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs and spleens in comparison to the control mice, following oral sensitization with OVA plus CT. In addition, resveratrol inhibited OVA plus CT-induced IL-4, IL-13, and IFN-ã production in splenocytes from DO11.10 mice associated with inhibition of GATA-3 and T-bet expression. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed the OVA plus CT-induced CD25 expression and IL-2 production in DO11.10 mice-splenocytes in association with decreases in CD80 and CD86 expression levels. Finally, resveratrol suppressed CT-induced cAMP elevation in association with decreases in CD80 and CD86 expression levels in BMDCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ingestion of resveratrol prevented the development of a food allergy model in mice. Given the in vitro findings, resveratrol might do so by inhibiting DC maturation and subsequent early T cell activation and differentiation via downregulation of CT-induced cAMP activation in mice. These results suggest that

  13. Food allergy and atopic dermatitis: how are they connected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heratizadeh, Annice; Wichmann, Katja; Werfel, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Food allergy predominantly affects children rather than adults with atopic dermatitis (AD). Early food sensitization has been found to be significantly associated with AD. Three different patterns of clinical reactions to food allergens in AD patients have been identified: 1) immediate-type symptoms, 2) isolated eczematous late-type reactions, and 3) combined reactions. Whereas in children, allergens from cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, fish, peanut, or tree nuts are primarily responsible for allergic reactions, birch pollen-related food allergens seem to play a major role in adolescent and adults with AD in Central and Northern Europe. Defects in the epidermal barrier function seem to facilitate the development of sensitization to allergens following epicutaneous exposure. The relevance of defects in the gut barrier as well as genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk of food allergy remain to be further investigated. Many studies focus on sufficient strategies of prevention, which actually include breastfeeding or feeding with hydrolyzed formula during the first 4 months of life.

  14. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Kianifar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST, food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9% and skin (48.8%. 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusions: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  15. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST) in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Pourreza, Alireza; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Masomi, Fatemeh

    2016-04-01

    Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9%) and skin (48.8%). 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  16. Assessing the readiness of a school system to adopt food allergy management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Christina; Patterson, Leslie; White, Brenda; Schellhase, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of potentially fatal food allergies in school-aged children is rising. It is important for schools to have a food allergy management policy and an emergency action plan for each affected student. To examine the current status of food allergy guideline and/or policy implementation and adoption in a large school system in southeastern Wisconsin. A 24-item anonymous electronic survey was developed and completed by school principals and administrators in the Archdiocese of Milwaukee School System (approximately 125 schools) in southeastern Wisconsin. One in 4 responding schools reported no guidelines or policy. Schools that reported having students with special needs due to food allergy were more likely to have a local food allergy policy compared to schools that did not report having students with food allergy special needs (OR 6.3, 1.5-26, P = 0.01). Schools with food allergy guidelines/policies were 3.5 times more likely to require student individual action plans than schools with no guidelines or policies (OR 3.5, 1.00-12.2, P = 0.05). Gaps in evidence-based food allergy policy implementation were found in this school system. Schools with food-allergic children with special needs were more likely to have guidelines/policy, however, they were not more likely to require emergency action plans. The majority of schools (66, 90%) reported interest in receiving further information or training on food allergy management.

  17. Food allergies and its influence on nutrition of contemporary Czech family

    OpenAIRE

    Vanišová, Barbora

    2014-01-01

    TITLE: Food allergies and its influence on nutrition of contemporary Czech family AUTHOR: Barbora Vanišová DEPARTMENT: Department of Education SUPERVISOR: PaedDr. Eva Marádová, CSc. ABSTRACT: This bachelor thesis deals with the issue of food allergies and their effect on the nutrition of contemporary czech family, along with the possibilities how to handle the negative impact that allergies could have on the composition of the diet. The theoretical part predominantly concentrates on the food ...

  18. Nannies' knowledge, attitude, and management of food allergies of children: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiwe, Justin C; Pazheri, Fouseena; Schroer, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Rates of food allergies in children as well as the rate of families who employ nannies have increased dramatically over the past decade. It is essential that nannies have the knowledge and tools necessary to recognize and treat food allergy reactions. To identify gaps in knowledge in the nanny population with regard to food allergy in children. A Web-based survey was sent by e-mail to 709 nannies. A total of 153 nannies (22%) completed the online survey: 26% of respondents had formal educational training at a nanny school; 99% recognized food allergy as a potentially fatal event; 37% reported caring for a child with food allergies. Of these, 71% had food allergy action plans, and 63% had epinephrine available. A total of 71% reported training on administering epinephrine. The nannies' major concerns included accidental ingestion and discomfort in administering epinephrine. A total of 36% were uncomfortable with recognizing a food allergy emergency, whereas 46% were uncomfortable administering epinephrine; 6% thought that a sensitized child could safely eat a small amount of allergenic food, whereas 14% believed that dilution with water might reduce an allergic reaction. A total of 66% desired additional information about recognizing food allergies, and 71% agreed that food allergy training should be required for all nannies. Nannies demonstrated gaps in knowledge with regard to food allergy in children, which reflects the need for more stringent training and education. Increased communication among parents, nannies, and physicians is needed to protect children with food allergy. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a preliminary questionnaire to assess parental response to children's food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovidge, Jennifer S; Stone, Kelly D; Twarog, Frank J; Raiselis, Susan Warren; Kalish, Leslie A; Bailey, Evan P; Schneider, Lynda C

    2006-03-01

    Food allergy affects up to 8% of children. Unintentional exposure may result in minor to potentially fatal episodes. Management of allergies depends on strict allergen avoidance and emergency preparedness. The demands of allergy management and concerns for the child's safety may place parents at risk of developing emotional distress or difficulties in coping. To develop a brief condition-specific measure to evaluate parental adjustment to and coping with children's food allergy. A total of 221 parents of children 18 year or younger with food allergy were recruited from a private allergy practice and local food allergy support groups. Parents completed an 18-item questionnaire, the Food Allergy Parent Questionnaire (FAPQ), that assessed parental coping with a child's food allergy and questions related to their child's food allergy diagnosis and course. Factor analysis of the items on the FAPQ suggested 4 factors that accounted for 53.6% of the variance: parental anxiety/distress, psychosocial impact of allergies, parental coping/competence, and family support. Medical variables (greater number of food allergies, positive history of anaphylaxis) were associated with higher scores on the anxiety/distress and psychosocial impact subscales. Internal consistency was good for the anxiety/distress and psychosocial impact subscales (Cronbach alpha = .80 and .77, respectively) but lower for the parental coping/competence and family support subscales (alpha = .57 and .32, respectively). Although further psychometric data for the FAPQ is needed, preliminary findings suggest that the measure may be useful in screening for parental anxiety, perceived impact of food allergies, level of family support, and coping skills.

  20. Beyond skin testing: state of the art and new horizons in food allergy diagnostic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-02-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 1% to 10.8% of the general population, and its prevalence seems to be increasing. An accurate diagnosis is particularly important because a misdiagnosis could lead to life-threatening reactions or to unnecessary restrictive diets. However, allergy tests currently used in clinical practice have limited accuracy, and an oral food challenge, considered as the gold standard, is often required to confirm or exclude a food allergy. This article reviews several promising novel approaches for the diagnosis of food allergy, such as new molecular diagnostic technologies and functional assays, along with their potential clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parenting children with food allergy: preliminary development of a measure assessing child-rearing behaviors in the context of pediatric food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A; Parra, Gilbert R; Elkin, T David

    2009-08-01

    Food allergy affects up to 8% of children and is increasingly common. Although adult caregivers initially assume the primary role in children's daily allergy management activities, as children approach school age they assume greater responsibility for the prevention of allergic exposures. The ways that parents prepare children for this transition are likely to influence children's subsequent risk for allergic exposures, yet few studies have examined parent behaviors in the context of pediatric food allergy. To develop a brief measure to evaluate specific parenting practices related to caring for a child with food allergy. A total of 292 primary caregivers of food-allergic children completed an Internet-based survey that included the Parenting Children with Food Allergy (PCFA) questionnaire. Factor analysis of the PCFA items suggested 3 factors that accounted for 98% of the variance: autonomy support, protection/monitoring, and emergency education. Internal consistencies for the 3 scales were acceptable (alpha = .79, .73, and .82, respectively). Child age and medical variables (history of emergency epinephrine use, perceived severity of worst allergic reaction, and number of different food allergies) were associated with parenting practices. Although additional psychometric data for the PCFA are needed, preliminary findings suggest that this measure may be useful in evaluating parenting within the context of pediatric food allergy.

  2. Occupational inhalant allergy to pork followed by food allergy to pork and chicken: sensitization to hemoglobin and serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Swiontek, K; Hentges, F; Donnay, C; de Blay, F; Pauli, G

    2010-01-01

    Animal-derived proteins are implicated in primary food allergies, but also in inhalant allergies with secondary food allergy symptoms. The objective of this study was to define the allergen(s) implicated in a case of food allergy to chicken meat, which developed in a person previously sensitized to pork after occupational exposure. A 42-year-old female with a history of occupational inhalant allergy to pork reported rhinitis, asthma, dysphonia and conjunctivitis 30 min after ingestion of chicken. Skin tests were positive to chicken meat. Protein extracts were prepared from chicken meat. Allergens were characterized by IgE immunoblotting, N-terminal sequencing and ELISA. The patient showed specific IgE binding to chicken meat proteins at 12, 14, 26, 55 and 65 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified the 12- and 14-kDa proteins as the alpha- and beta-chain of hemoglobin. ELISA and immunoblot showed specific IgE binding to hemoglobin purified from chicken blood. IgE antibodies to chicken serum albumin were detected by ELISA. Inhibition studies with chicken and porcine hemoglobin as well as with serum albumins demonstrated cross-reactive IgE antibodies. We report a case of confirmed occupational inhalant allergy due to pork followed by food allergy to pork and 3 years later by food allergy to chicken. Porcine and chicken hemoglobin were found to be cross-reactive allergens. Cross-reactivity between porcine and chicken serum albumin was possibly linked to a prior sensitization to cat serum albumin. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Parental confidence in managing food allergy: development and validation of the Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Scale for Parents (FASE-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibb, R C; Barnes, C; Stalker, C

    2015-11-01

    Food allergy is often a life-long condition that requires constant vigilance to prevent accidental exposure and avoid potentially life-threatening symptoms. Parents' confidence in managing their child's food allergy may relate to the poor quality of life anxiety and worry reported by parents of food-allergic children. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the first scale to measure parental confidence (self-efficacy) in managing food allergy in their child. The Food Allergy Self-Efficacy Scale for Parents (FASE-P) was developed through interviews with 53 parents, consultation of the literature and experts in the area. The FASE-P was then completed by 434 parents of food-allergic children from a general population sample in addition to the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden Scale (FAQL-PB), the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Food Allergy Impact Measure (FAIM). A total of 250 parents completed the retest of the FASE-P. Factor and reliability analysis resulted in a 21-item scale with five subscales. The overall scale and subscales have good to excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.63-0.89), and the scale is stable over time. There were low to moderate significant correlations with the GSES, FAIM and GHQ-12 and strong correlations with the FAQL-PB, with better parental confidence relating to better general self-efficacy, better quality of life and better mental health in the parent. Poorer self-efficacy was related to egg and milk allergy; self-efficacy was not related to severity of allergy. The FASE-P is a reliable and valid scale for use with parents from a general population. Its application within clinical settings could aid provision of advice and improve targeted interventions by identifying areas where parents have less confidence in managing their child's food allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Food Consumption and Prevalence of Asthma & Allergies Symptoms in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has increased significantly over the last 30 years. Genetic factors cannot explain this prevalence and a number of studies have been performed to determine the Environmental factors especially dietary factors which are effective in the incidence of these diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between the food consumption and the subsequent development of asthma and other allergic disorder symptoms in 2003 of children in yazd. Methods: We performed a Descriptive cross-sectional study of selected children in primary and secondary schools in Yazd. Standardized questionnaire(ISAAC that was developed based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood were distributed to parents of 2768 children aged 6-7 years and 3201 children aged 13-14 years which randomly selected. The data was analyzed by Epi6.04 and SPSS softwares. Results: The prevalence of asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema symptoms in children 6-7 years old was 10.9%, 15.5% and 7.3% and in children 13-14 years old was 20.3 %, 42.7% and 14.8% respectively. High intake of butter-fat, chocolate, sweet and Sausage were associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis in children 6-7 years old. High intake of chocolate, Chips, egg were associated with an increased risk of wheeze and in children 13-14 years old. Conclusion: Dietary factors are associated with asthma and allergies symptoms. Fast foods, chocolates, junk foods & sausage may increase wheezing and allergic rhinitis & eczema symptoms in childhood

  5. Extracellular vesicle-derived protein from Bifidobacterium longum alleviates food allergy through mast cell suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Seong-Hoon; Jang, Min Seong; Lee, Eun-Jung; Moon, Sook Jin; Yun, Chang Ho; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Jeong, Seok-Geun; Park, Beom-Young; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Seoh, Ju-Young; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Oh, Sung-Jong; Ham, Jun-Sang; Yang, Bo-Gie; Jang, Myoung Ho

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of food allergies has increased dramatically during the last decade. Recently, probiotics have been studied for the prevention and treatment of allergic disease. We examined whether Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563 and Enterococcus faecalis KACC 91532 have the capacity to suppress food allergies. B longum KACC 91563 and E faecalis KACC 91532 were administered to BALB/c wild-type mice, in which food allergy was induced by using ovalbumin and alum. Food allergy symptoms and various immune responses were assessed. B longum KACC 91563, but not E faecalis KACC 91532, alleviated food allergy symptoms. Extracellular vesicles of B longum KACC 91563 bound specifically to mast cells and induced apoptosis without affecting T-cell immune responses. Furthermore, injection of family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein, a main component of extracellular vesicles, into mice markedly reduced the occurrence of diarrhea in a mouse food allergy model. B longum KACC 91563 induces apoptosis of mast cells specifically and alleviates food allergy symptoms. Accordingly, B longum KACC 91563 and family 5 extracellular solute-binding protein exhibit potential as therapeutic approaches for food allergies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. INTRODUCTION OF COMPLEMENTARY FOODS AND FOOD ALLERGIES: NEW STUDIES AND MODERN CLINICAL GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla S. Namazova-Baranova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted  to the issues  of introducing  complementary  foods  as prevention  of atopy  and diet therapy in children with food allergy. Food sensibilization,  as a rule, is the initial link of allergy manifestations.  It represents  the first step of the so-called atopic  march,  followed  by  possible  development  of more  severe,  including  respiratory,  manifestations.  Considering  the  fact  that allergic diseases  are currently one of the most common pathologies with a growing tendency,  the correct choice of foods and the timely introduction of complementary foods are relevant, especially for children with hereditary tainted allergies. These products should be as safe as possible, should not cause sensibilization and at the same time should provide the child with the necessary macroand micronutrients. The publication provides an overview of the most relevant studies conducted in this field as well as a modern approach based on evidence-based  medicine and presented in the clinical guidelines on food allergy in children developed and approved by the professional association «Union of Pediatricians of Russia».

  7. Food-Related Symptoms and Food Allergy in Swedish Children from Early Life to Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Vetander, Mirja; Kull, Inger; Hedlin, Gunilla; van Hage, Marianne; Wickman, Magnus; Bergström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for persistence of food-related symptoms (FRS) and food allergy (FA) from early life to adolescence are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for FRS and FA in adolescence amongst children with FRS or FA in the first four years of life (early life). In children enrolled in a Swedish birth cohort and followed to 16 years (n = 2572), we defined children with early life FRS in the absence of FA, and FA. Corresponding phenotypes were defined at 16 years. Associations between potential risk factors at 4 years and FRS and FA at 16 years were investigated using logistic regression. Early life FRS and FA prevalences were 12.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Amongst children with early life FRS, 35.7% had FRS or FA at 16 years, whereas 74.3% of the children with early life FA had FA at 16 years. For each of the early life phenotypes, parental allergy, early life allergic multimorbidity, early life reactions to peanuts/tree nuts and IgE reactivity at 4 years were statistically significantly associated with FRS or FA at 16 years. In contrast, male sex was associated with an increased risk of FA at 16 years among children with early life FA only. In early life, food-related symptoms are twice as common as food allergy. Unlike food allergy, food-related symptoms often remit by adolescence. Yet, these phenotypes have many common risk factors for persistence to adolescence.

  8. Temporal Regulation by Innate Type 2 Cytokines in Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michelle T; Andorf, Sandra; Spergel, Jonathan M; Chatila, Talal A; Nadeau, Kari C

    2016-10-01

    Food allergies (FAs) are a growing epidemic in western countries with poorly defined etiology. Defined as an adverse immune response to common food allergens, FAs present heterogeneously as a single- or multi-organ response that ranges in severity from localized hives and angioedema to systemic anaphylaxis. Current research focusing on epithelial-derived cytokines contends that temporal regulation by these factors impact initial sensitization and persistence of FA responses upon repeated food allergen exposure. Mechanistic understanding of FA draws insight from a myriad of atopic conditions studied in humans and modeled in mice. In this review, we will highlight how epithelial-derived cytokines initiate and then potentiate FAs. We will also review existing evidence of the contribution of other atopic diseases to FA pathogenesis and whether FA symptoms overlap with other atopic diseases.

  9. [Allergic transfusion reactions in a patient with multiple food allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, E; Schöniger, M; Münz, M; Hiefinger-Schindlbeck, R

    2012-07-01

    A 13-year-old girl with an osteosarcoma was treated by surgery and chemotherapy. During three transfusions of apheresis platelet concentrates allergic reactions occurred, partly in spite of premedication with an antihistamine and a corticoid. As the patient declared to be allergic to some foods, in-vitro tests for allergen-specific IgE antibodies were performed and showed markedly positive results for specific IgE to carrot and celery, less so to hazelnut, peanut and a lot of other food antigens. The donor of one of the unsuitable platelet concentrates remembered when questioned, that he had eaten carrots and chocolate with hazelnuts during the evening before platelet donation. Two washed platelet concentrates were transfused without any problem. Furthermore, transfusions of nine red blood cell concentrates and one unit of virus-inactivated frozen pooled plasma were well tolerated. Patients should be asked for allergies previous to transfusions to be alert to allergic reactions in patients with a positive history of food or drug allergies. If premedication with antihistamines does not prevent severe allergic transfusion reactions, transfusion of washed platelet concentrates and of virus-inactivated frozen pooled plasma can be considered. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Primary prevention of food allergy in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Halken, S

    2014-01-01

    with extensively or partially hydrolyzed whey or casein formulas for infants at high risk for the first 4 months. Soy milk and delaying the introduction of solid foods beyond 4 months did not have preventive benefits in those at high or normal risk. There was very little evidence about strategies for preventing...... or breastfeeding women should change their diet or take supplements to prevent allergies in infants at high or normal risk. There were mixed findings about the preventive benefits of breastfeeding for infants at high or normal risk, but there was evidence to recommend avoiding cow's milk and substituting...

  11. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    al., The prevalence, severity, and distribution of childhood food allergy in the United States. Pediatrics 128, e9-17 (2011). 2. S. H. Sicherer, H. A...Peyer’s patch (PP), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen, lung, or liver (Figure 1I). Together, these results suggest an association of Lin IL-9...of Intestinal b7hi MCP Recruitment from Bone Marrow Results in the Failure of MMC9 Induction Detection and frequency of donor-derived MMC9s (LinGFP

  12. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Katz, Yitzhak; Mehr, Sam Soheil; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2015-05-01

    Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food-induced allergic disorders (non-IgE-GI-FAs) account for an unknown proportion of food allergies and include food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE). Non-IgE-GI-FAs are separate clinical entities but have many overlapping clinical and histologic features among themselves and with eosinophilic gastroenteropathies. Over the past decade, FPIES has emerged as the most actively studied non-IgE-GI-FA, potentially because of acute and distinct clinical features. FPIAP remains among the common causes of rectal bleeding in infants, while classic infantile FPE is rarely diagnosed. The overall most common allergens are cow's milk and soy; in patients with FPIES, rice and oat are also common. The most prominent clinical features of FPIES are repetitive emesis, pallor, and lethargy; chronic FPIES can lead to failure to thrive. FPIAP manifests with bloody stools in well-appearing young breast-fed or formula-fed infants. Features of FPE are nonbloody diarrhea, malabsorption, protein-losing enteropathy, hypoalbuminemia, and failure to thrive. Non-IgE-GI-FAs have a favorable prognosis; the majority resolve by 1 year in patients with FPIAP, 1 to 3 years in patients with FPE, and 1 to 5 years in patients with FPIES, with significant differences regarding specific foods. There is an urgent need to better define the natural history of FPIES and the pathophysiology of non-IgE-GI-FAs to develop biomarkers and novel therapies. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Propofol Use in Pediatric Patients With Food Allergy and Eosinophilic Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pooja; Sundaram, Shikha S; Furuta, Glenn T; Pan, Zhaoxing; Atkins, Dan; Markowitz, Scott

    2017-04-01

    Propofol is a safe, well-tolerated anesthetic that is labeled as contraindicated in patients with egg or soy allergy. This contraindication has become increasingly problematic given the rising incidence of food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). To address this issue, we studied practice patterns of propofol use for esophagogastroduodenoscopies in children with EoE and food allergies at our institution. A retrospective observational study of 1365 esophagogastroduodenoscopies from January 2013 to June 2014 was performed. Data were analyzed using Student t tests, chi square tests, Fisher exact tests, and multivariable logistic regression. We found that propofol was used significantly less in patients with egg or soy allergy, and in patients with EoE, even after adjusting for the presence of food allergy. There was no difference in complication rates relative to propofol use. Propofol was used safely in pediatric patients with EoE and food allergy in this limited single-center review.

  14. Food Allergy and Anxiety and Depression among Ethnic Minority Children and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Rodgin, Sandra; Goldman, Rachel; Rodriguez, Juliana; deVos, Gabriele; Serebrisky, Denise; Feldman, Jonathan M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between food allergy and symptoms of anxiety and depression among ethnic minority, low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their caregivers. Pediatric patients ages 4-12 years with and without food allergy and their caregivers were recruited from urban pediatric outpatient clinics. Statistical analyses were used to examine the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients and their caregivers with and without food allergy, adjusting for asthma. Eighty patients ranging from ages 4 to 12 years, with a mean age of 8.1 years, and their caregivers participated in the study. Food allergy was associated with significantly higher t scores on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) Total (P = .007), MASC Humiliation Rejection, (P = .02) and MASC Social Anxiety (P = .02) among pediatric patients, adjusting for asthma. Food allergy was not associated with child depression symptoms, nor was there a significant difference in anxiety or depression symptoms among caregivers of patients with and without food allergy. Food allergy appears to be associated with increased symptoms of social anxiety and higher levels of anxiety overall, but not depression, in ethnic minority children of lower socioeconomic status. This finding was not due to confounding by asthma. Food allergy was not associated with higher levels of depression or anxiety symptoms among caregivers of pediatric patients with food allergy. Future studies should investigate potential pathways between food allergy and anxiety that may be unique to children in underserved populations, and develop interventions to reduce anxiety in children with food allergy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Food, risk and place: agency and negotiations of young people with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjerna, Marie-Louise

    2015-02-01

    Potentially life-threatening food allergies are increasing among children in the Western world. Informed by childhood studies, this article explores young people's management of food allergy risk and highlights their agency in relation to food, eating and place. Drawing on individual interviews with 10 young people who took part in a larger multi-method study of young people's experiences of food allergies, the findings demonstrate that the management of health risks means, to some extent, trying to control the uncontrollable. A reaction can occur at any time and to experience a severe reaction entails a temporarily loss of control. The strategies the young people develop to avoid allergic reactions can be understood both as responses to this uncertainty and as manifestations of their agency. Their risk experiences vary with place; at school and in other public places they face social as well as health risks. What we see is not agency as a voluntary choice but that young people with food allergies experience tensions between their own competence to manage different types of risks and their dependence on others to adjust to their needs. Thus, the relational aspects of young people's agency come to the fore. © 2015 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Association between timing of food introduction in on first year old and the prevalence of allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael San Mauro-Martín; Patricia Bodega-Villanueva; Elena Romero-Caamaño; Victor Micó-Moreno; Elena Garicano-Vilar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is an abnormal response after ingestion of an allergen in a food where there is a proven immune mechanism. During the period of breastfeeding, infants are introducing new foods in small quantities and separately for possible allergies. All in relation to the suggested timetable for the introduction of different food groups suggested by the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition. Our project focused on studying the possible relationship between the variability ...

  17. Food allergy: system immunologic and main food involved
    Alergia alimentar: sistema imunológico e principais alimentos envolvidos

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Beltrão Lessa Constant; Suelane Medeiros Moura; Ana Carolina da Silva Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Food allergy can be defined as an adverse reaction to a food antigen mediated by fundamentally immunological mechanisms. It is a nutritional problem that has shown an increase in the last decades probably due to the population’s exposure to a higher number of available food allergens. It has become a health problem worldwide being associated to a significant negative impact on life quality. The foods most cited as those which cause food allergy are: milk, eggs, peanuts, nuts, shrimps, fish an...

  18. Early introduction of allergenic foods for the prevention of food allergy from an Asian perspective-An Asia Pacific Association of Pediatric Allergy, Respirology & Immunology (APAPARI) consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Elizabeth Huiwen; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Van Bever, Hugo Ps; Vichyanond, Pakit; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Wong, Gary Wk; Lee, Bee Wah

    2017-10-25

    Emerging evidence for the early introduction of allergenic foods for the prevention of food allergies, such as peanut allergy in Western populations, has led to the recent publication of guidelines in the USA and Europe recommending early peanut introduction for high-risk infants with severe eczema or egg allergy. Peanut allergy is, however, much less prevalent in Asia compared to the West. Varying patterns of food allergy are seen even within Asian countries-such as a predominance of wheat allergy in Japan and Thailand and shellfish allergy in Singapore and the Philippines. Customs and traditions, such as diet and infant feeding practices, also differ between Asian populations. Hence, there are unique challenges in adapting guidelines on early allergenic food introduction to the Asian setting. In this paper, we review the evidence and discuss the possible approaches to guide the timely introduction of allergenic food in high-risk infants in Asia. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  19. What do asthmatics have to fear from food and additive allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, A; Douglass, Jo A

    2010-09-01

    International studies report marked increases in the prevalence of food allergy, along with increases in hospital admissions and emergency presentations for severe allergic reactions due to foods. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy is common, but generally exceeds that which can be verified from challenge studies, although nut allergies appear to be an important exception to this rule. Studies examining food allergy deaths suggest that those who die of food allergy usually have co-existent asthma. Adolescents and young adults are at most risk, and adrenaline auto-injectors are sub-optimally used. Food chemical sensitivity is very commonly reported but not usually verified by challenge testing. However, the exception to this is sulphite sensitivity, which can elicit reproducible reactions in some. The increasing prevalence of severe food allergies and awareness of its risk in those with asthma demands an especially rigorous approach to the diagnosis and management of co-existent food allergy and asthma, especially in young people who appear to be at most risk from death from severe food allergy.

  20. A retrospective chart review to identify perinatal factors associated with food allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpa Kelly

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gut flora are important immunomodulators that may be disrupted in individuals with atopic conditions. Probiotic bacteria have been suggested as therapeutic modalities to mitigate or prevent food allergic manifestations. We wished to investigate whether perinatal factors known to disrupt gut flora increase the risk of IgE-mediated food allergies. Methods Birth records obtained from 192 healthy children and 99 children diagnosed with food allergies were reviewed retrospectively. Data pertaining to delivery method, perinatal antibiotic exposure, neonatal nursery environment, and maternal variables were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between variables of interest and subsequent food allergy diagnosis. Results Retrospective investigation did not find perinatal antibiotics, NICU admission, or cesarean section to be associated with increased risk of food allergy diagnosis. However, associations between food allergy diagnosis and male gender (66 vs. 33; p=0.02 were apparent in this cohort. Additionally, increasing maternal age at delivery was significantly associated with food allergy diagnosis during childhood (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.017 to 1.105; p=0.005. Conclusions Gut flora are potent immunomodulators, but their overall contribution to immune maturation remains to be elucidated. Additional understanding of the interplay between immunologic, genetic, and environmental factors underlying food allergy development need to be clarified before probiotic therapeutic interventions can routinely be recommended for prevention or mitigation of food allergies. Such interventions may be well-suited in male infants and in infants born to older mothers.

  1. Relating microarray component testing and reported food allergy and food-triggered atopic dermatitis: a real-world analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Irene; Kim, Jennifer S; Spergel, Jonathan M

    2013-03-01

    High epitope diversity has been associated with increased IgE-mediated food allergy severity. To characterize associations between results from an automated microarray system and self-reported food allergy and food-triggered atopic dermatitis (AD). Families with food allergic children were identified from a Jewish community in Lakewood, New Jersey, with immediate family members without food allergy or food-triggered AD serving as controls for the identified children. Sets of microarray components analyzed were to milk (Bos d 4, Bos d 5, Bos d 8, Bos d lactoferrin), egg (Gal d 1, Gal d 2, Gal d 3, Gal d 5), and peanut (Ara h 1, Ara h 2, Ara h 3, Ara h 6). Seventy-three patients from 23 families were recruited. Culprit foods included milk (n = 20), egg (n = 10), and peanut (n = 6) for food allergy and milk (n = 10) and egg (n = 7) for food-triggered AD. Odds of having had a self-reported related food allergy or food-triggered AD reaction significantly increased with a higher number of detectable microarray components to that food. Ara h 1, Ara h 2, and Ara h 6 were individually associated with reported peanut allergy, and Bos d 4 was individually associated with reported milk allergy. The number of egg components significantly increased the odds of having related food-triggered AD. High diversity of food allergen components relates well to self-reported history of food allergy and food-associated AD. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Prevalence of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric Patients with IgE-Mediated Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David A; Dudley, Jesse W; Spergel, Jonathan M

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease that is triggered by food allergens and characterized by progressive esophageal dysfunction. Recently, EoE has been identified in patients who underwent oral immunotherapy (OIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy, suggesting an association. We sought to ascertain whether significant associations exist between IgE-mediated food allergies and EoE. Using the analysis of electronic medical record data and manual chart review, we examined our subspecialty care network of 35,528 children and adolescents to identify and characterize patients with IgE-mediated and EoE food allergy. The most common food allergens were defined, and the prevalence of EoE in patients with IgE-mediated food allergy was determined. Logistic regression was used to measure the extent to which IgE-mediated food allergy to specific foods is associated with EoE. The most common causes of EoE were milk, soy, egg, grains, and meats, an allergen pattern that is distinct from that of IgE-mediated food allergy. The prevalence of EoE in patients with IgE-mediated food allergy was higher than that reported in the general population (4.7% vs 0.04%). The distribution of IgE-mediated food allergens in patients with EoE was similar to that of the general population, and IgE-mediated allergy to egg (2.27; 1.91-2.64), milk (4.19; 3.52-4.97), or shellfish (1.55; 1.24-1.92) was significantly associated with an EoE diagnosis. Our findings support a clinical association between these conditions that has implications for the management of children with food allergy, and particular relevance to patients undergoing OIT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents with food-allergic children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Springston, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Kim, Jennifer S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin; Holl, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Parents of food-allergic children are responsible for risk assessment and management of their child's condition. Such practices are likely informed by parental knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of food allergy. Our objective was to characterize food allergy knowledge and perceptions among parents with food-allergic children. Parents were recruited nationally between January 2008 and 2009 to complete the validated, web-based Chicago Food Allergy Research Survey for Parents of Children with Food Allergy. Findings were analyzed to provide composite/itemized knowledge scores, describe attitudes and beliefs, and examine the effects of participant characteristics on response. A sample of 2945 parents was obtained. Participants had an average knowledge score of 75% correct (range 19-100%). Strengths were observed in each content domain; e.g., 95% of participants accurately identified the signs of a milk-induced reaction. Weaknesses were limited to items assessing food allergy triggers/environmental risks and perceptions of susceptibility/prevalence; e.g., 52% of parents incorrectly believed young children are at higher risk for fatal anaphylaxis than adolescents. Parental attitudes/beliefs were diverse, although 85% agreed children should carry an EpiPen at school and 91% felt schools should have staff trained in food allergy. One in four parents reported food allergy caused a strain on their marriage/relationship, and 40% reported experiencing hostility from other parents when trying to accommodate their child's food allergy. In conclusion, parents in our study exhibited solid baseline knowledge although several important misconceptions were identified. While a broad spectrum of parental perceptions was observed, a large proportion of parents reported that their child's food allergy had an adverse impact on personal relationships and also agreed on certain policies to address food allergy in schools. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Usefulness of antigen-specific IgE probability curves derived from the 3gAllergy assay in diagnosing egg, cow's milk, and wheat allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakura Sato

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Measurements of sIgE against egg, milk, and wheat as determined by 3gAllergy may be used as a tool to facilitate the diagnosis of food allergy in subjects with suspected food allergies. However, these probability curves should not be applied interchangeably between different assays.

  5. Food allergy in Catalonia: Clinical manifestations and its association with airborne allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-López, J; Gázquez, V; Rubira, N; Valdesoiro, L; Guilarte, M; Garcia-Moral, A; Depreux, N; Soto-Retes, L; De Molina, M; Luengo, O; Lleonart, R; Basagaña, M

    Food allergy affects around 6% of the European population and its prevalence worldwide has been increasing in the last decades, but studies focused on investigating food allergy epidemiology in Europe are lacking. The Cibus project was created to register the main culprit foods and their clinical manifestations in food allergic patients in Catalonia. A specific online database was designed. Allergists from eight different Catalan hospitals registered the new diagnoses of food allergy. 618 food allergic patients were included. Egg and milk were the main elicitors in the early ages, while fruits and nuts were the most frequent in patients >14 years old. Fish was more frequent in children, while seafood and Anisakis allergy were more frequent in the >14-year-old group. Overall, peach was the most prevalent food eliciting an allergic reaction (10%). Food allergy diagnosis was reached using compatible clinical history and positive skin prick test to the involved food in 98% of cases. Globally, urticaria was the most frequently reported manifestation in our population (48.2%), followed by oral allergy syndrome (25.6%) and anaphylaxis (24.8%). The Cibus project gives a full overview of the profile of food allergic patients in Catalonia and reinforces the predominance of plant food allergies in the Mediterranean area. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute and long-term management of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, D; Geromi, M; Panesar, S S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic reactions to food can have serious consequences. This systematic review summarizes evidence about the immediate management of reactions and longer-term approaches to minimize adverse impacts. METHODS: Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September...... 30, 2012, for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-and-after and interrupted time series studies. Experts were consulted for additional studies. There was no language or geographic restrictions. Two...... management for non-life-threatening reactions. H1-antihistamines may be of benefit, but this evidence was in part derived from studies on those with cross-reactive birch pollen allergy. Regarding long-term management, avoiding the allergenic food or substituting an alternative was commonly recommended...

  7. [Epidemiological characteristics of patients with food allergy assisted at Regional Center of Allergies and Clinical Immunology of Monterrey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ortiz, Pablo Gabriel; Muñoz-Mendoza, Diana; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Herrera-Castro, Dayanara; Vidaurri-Ojeda, Alma Catalina

    2009-01-01

    Food allergy is an abnormal immunologic response to food allergens. Prevalence varies between 2% and 8%, although it could vary according to age and ethnicity. Clinical manifestations are diverse among systems. There is few information about this issue. To know epidemiologic features in patients with food allergy attended at Monterrey University Hospital. An observational, transversal and retrospective study was done, identifying 60 patients with food allergy diagnosis attended in our service from June 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008. Epidemiologic and clinical data were registered. Data was processed with statistical program SPSS v16.0 for windows with descriptive statistic. The frequency of food allergy reported in first time medical consultation was 2.67%, 51% of the patients were under 5 years of age. Most frequent foods were: dairy products, egg, fish, shrimp, beans, soy, chili, mango, cacao, and strawberry. Main symptoms were cutaneous in 58% of the patients, followed by gastrointestinal and respiratory. Most common concomitant diseases were: urticarial angioedema (38%), allergic rhinitis (20%), atopic dermatitis (15%), and asthma (6.6%). Average time for diagnosis was 1.45 years. Most common foods with positive Prick test results were dairy products, egg and fish. Despite the variability of the clinical manifestations, cutaneous and gastrointestinal manifestations are the most frequent; however, the diagnosis depends on the suspicion as well.

  8. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy : protocol for a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Pajno, Giovanni Battista; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Muraro, Antonella; Roberts, Graham; Akdis, Cezmi; Alvaro-Lozano, Montserrat; Beyer, Kirsten; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Burks, Wesley; du Toit, George; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eigenmann, Philippe; Knol, Edward; Makela, Mika; Nadeau, Kari Christine; O'Mahony, Liam; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Poulsen, Lars; Sackesen, Cansin; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra; van Ree, Ronald; Timmermans, Frans; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated food allergy. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in IgE-mediated food

  9. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field. PMID:24351744

  10. The potential link between gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L K; Ward, Alister C; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-12-16

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field.

  11. Primary prevention of food allergy in children and adults : systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Silva, D.; Geromi, M.; Halken, S.; Host, A.; Panesar, S. S.; Muraro, A.; Werfel, T.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Roberts, G.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Poulsen, L. K.; Van Ree, R.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Agache, I.; Grimshaw, K.; O'Mahony, L.; Venter, C.; Arshad, S. H.; Sheikh, A.

    Background Food allergies can have serious physical, social, and financial consequences. This systematic review examined ways to prevent the development of food allergy in children and adults. Methods Seven bibliographic databases were searched from their inception to September 30, 2012, for

  12. Clinical and laboratorial investigation in patients with suspected drug allergy in a tertiary hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Mabel Ferreira Vasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    Allergic drug reactions account for 6.5% of hospital admissions, prolonged hospitalization 15.1% of patients and are severe in 6.7% of patients. There are difficulties in understanding the immune mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of patients. Therefore, such reactions are considered a Public Health problem. The objective of this study was to describe the cases of patients with suspected allergic hypersensitivity to drugs and to evaluate the response of individuals to skin tests. A total of ...

  13. Lettuce Allergy Is a Lipid Transfer Syndrome-Related Food Allergy With a High Risk of Severe Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, E; Luengo-Sánchez, O; Moreno-Pérez, N; Cuesta-Herranz, J; Pastor-Vargas, C; Cardona, V

    Lipid transfer protein (LTP) sensitization is the most common cause of food allergy in the Mediterranean area, with peach allergy acting as the primary sensitizer in most cases. Lettuce has been described as a common offending food in patients with LTP syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and clinical expression of LTP syndrome in a sample of lettuceallergic patients. We determined specific IgE to Pru p 3 and lettuce in a sample of 30 patients with a diagnosis of lettuce allergy. Symptoms elicited by other LTP-containing plant-derived foods and the presence of cofactors were assessed. The clinical symptoms of lettuce allergy were frequently severe, with 18 of the 30 patients experiencing anaphylaxis. All the patients had allergic reactions to other plant foods. Cofactors were involved in the clinical reactions of 13 of the 30 patients. Sensitization to pollens was found in 90% of patients. Lettuce allergy is found not as an isolated condition but in the context of LTP syndrome and it is characterized by severe reactions and frequent cofactor association.

  14. Precision Medicine in Allergic Disease - Food Allergy, Drug Allergy, and Anaphylaxis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Castells, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI...... underlying the disease. Although significant progress has been made in defining endotypes for asthma, definitions of endotypes for food and drug allergy or for anaphylaxis lag behind. Progress has been made in discovery of biomarkers to guide a precision medicine approach to treatment of food and drug...... allergy, but further validation and quantification of these biomarkers is needed to allow their translation into practice in the clinical management of allergic disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  15. Oral food challenges in children with a diagnosis of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, David M; Bock, S Allan; Spears, Gayle C; Wilson, Carla G; Miyazawa, Naomi K; Gleason, Melanie C; Gyorkos, Elizabeth A; Murphy, James R; Atkins, Dan; Leung, Donald Y M

    2011-04-01

    To assess the outcome of oral food challenges in patients placed on elimination diets based primarily on positive serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoassay results. This is a retrospective chart review of 125 children aged 1-19 years (median age, 4 years) evaluated between January 2007 and August 2008 for IgE-mediated food allergy at National Jewish Health and who underwent an oral food challenge. Clinical history, prick skin test results, and serum allergen-specific IgE test results were obtained. The data were summarized for food avoidance and oral food challenge results. Depending on the reason for avoidance, 84%-93% of the foods being avoided were returned to the diet after an oral food challenge, indicating that the vast majority of foods that had been restricted could be tolerated at discharge. In the absence of anaphylaxis, the primary reliance on serum food-specific IgE testing to determine the need for a food elimination diet is not sufficient, especially in children with atopic dermatitis. In those circumstances, oral food challenges may be indicated to confirm food allergy status. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majamaa, H; Isolauri, E

    1997-02-01

    The gastrointestinal microflora is an important constituent of the gut mucosal defense barrier. We have previously shown that a human intestinal floral strain, Lactobacillus GG (ATCC 53103), promotes local antigen-specific immune responses (particularly in the IgA class), prevents permeability defects, and confers controlled antigen absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and immunologic effects of cow's milk elimination without (n = 14) and with (n = 13) the addition of Lactobacillus GG (5 x 10(8) colony-forming units/gm formula) in an extensively hydrolyzed whey formula in infants with atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. The second part of the study involved 10 breast-fed infants who had atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. In this group Lactobacillus GG was given to nursing mothers. The severity of atopic eczema was assessed by clinical scoring. The concentrations of fecal alpha 1- antitrypsin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and eosinophil cationic protein were determined as markers of intestinal inflammation before and after dietary intervention. The clinical score of atopic dermatitis improved significantly during the 1-month study period in infants treated with the extensively hydrolyzed whey formula fortified with Lactobacillus GG. The concentration of alpha 1-antitrypsin decreased significantly in this group (p = 0.03) but not in the group receiving the whey formula without Lactobacillus GG (p = 0.68). In parallel, the median (lower quartile to upper quartile) concentration of fecal tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreased significantly in this group, from 709 pg/gm (91 to 1131 pg/gm) to 34 pg/gm (19 to 103 pg/gm) (p = 0.003), but not in those receiving the extensively hydrolyzed whey formula only (p = 0.38). The concentration of fecal eosinophil cationic protein remained unaltered during therapy. These results suggest that probiotic bacteria may promote endogenous barrier mechanisms in patients with atopic dermatitis and food allergy

  17. Atopy patch test (APT) in the diagnosis of food allergy in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Soloni Afra Pires; Dortas Junior, Sergio Duarte; Pires, Andrea Huguenim Silva; Abe, Augusto Tiaqui; Valle, Solange Oliveira Rodrigues; Coelho, Vilma Perez; Hahnstadt, Ludwig Ruppert; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Atopic Dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Food allergens are important in the pathogenesis in 1/3 of the cases. Several mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis. Immediate reactions are identified by both measurement of specific IgE and skin prick test. Atopy Patch Test seems to be relevant in the investigation of patients with suspected delayed-type reactions. To evaluate the standardization of this method concerning allergen concentration, occlusion time and interpretation, and determine the specificity and sensitivity of the Atopy Patch Test according to the skin prick test and specific IgE levels in food allergy diagnosis in children with Atopic Dermatitis. Seventy-two children, aged 2-12 years were selected and followed at the allergy clinic of the Hospital São Zacharias. Skin prick test, specific IgE and food Atopy Patch Test (cow's milk, egg, soy and wheat) were carried out. Three groups were submitted to the Atopy Patch Test: (1) Atopic Dermatitis with or without Rhinitis and Asthma; (2) Rhinitis and or Asthma without AD; (3) Healthy individuals. In group 1, 40% of the patients presented positive reactions. The longer the exposure time (48h and 72h), the higher the sensitivity. In group 2, the test was more specific than sensitive for all the extracts, with increased sensitivity the longer the time of exposure (72h). In group 3, 8.3% presented positive tests. APT evidenced a great diagnostic value in late-phase reactions to food, with high specificity. It showed to be a specific and reliable tool in comparison with the healthy group's results.

  18. The prevalence and characteristics of food allergy in urban minority children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Black, Sarah; Wang, Julie

    2012-12-01

    Urban minority children are known to have high rates of asthma and allergic rhinitis, but little is known about food allergy in this population. To examine the prevalence and characteristics of food allergy in an urban pediatric population. A retrospective review of electronic medical records from children seen in the hospital-based general pediatric clinic at Mount Sinai Hospital serving East Harlem, NY, between July 1, 2008 and July 1, 2010 was performed. Charts for review were selected based on diagnosis codes for food allergy, anaphylaxis, or epinephrine autoinjector prescriptions. Of 9,184 children seen in this low-income, minority clinic, 3.4% (313) had a physician-documented food allergy. The most common food allergies were peanut (1.6%), shellfish (1.1%), and tree nuts (0.8%). Significantly more black children (4.7%) were affected than children of other races (2.7%, P Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Development of a Clinical Decision Support System for the Management of Pediatric Food Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Alana K; Dyer, Ashley A; Warren, Christopher M; Walkner, Madeline; Smith, Bridget M; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2017-06-01

    Pediatricians are often first-line providers for children with food allergy. Food allergy management guidelines have been developed but are cumbersome and confusing, and significant variation exists in pediatricians' management practices. We therefore consolidated the guidelines into 5 key steps for pediatricians caring for patients with food allergy and used rapid-cycle improvement methods to create a clinical decision support system to facilitate the management of food allergy in the primary care setting. This report details the development of the Food Allergy Support Tool (FAST), its pilot testing in 4 primary care pediatric practices, and our ongoing efforts to improve its utility and ease of use. Key themes identified during these processes include the importance of both initial and ongoing provider education as well as the limitations of a tool that must be actively initiated by providers.

  20. Health economic analysis of allergen immunotherapy for the management of allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and venom allergy: A systematic overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaria, M.; Dhami, S.; van Ree, R.; Gerth van Wijk, R.; Muraro, A.; Roberts, G.; Sheikh, A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing guidelines for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, IgE-mediated food allergy and venom allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we

  1. Exploring quality of life in families of children living with and without a severe food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Althea Z; Knibb, Rebecca C

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to explore the impact of food allergy on quality of life in children with food allergy and their primary caregivers, compared to a healthy non-food allergy comparison group. Food allergy children (n=34) and control children (n=15), aged 8-12, and their respective primary caregivers (n=30/n=13), completed generic quality of life scales (PedsQL™ and WHOQOLBREF) and were asked to take photographs and keep a diary about factors that they believed enhanced and/or limited their quality of life, over a one-week period. Questionnaire analysis showed that parents of children with food allergy had significantly lower quality of life in the social relationships domain and lower overall quality of life than the comparison parents. In contrast, children with food allergy had similar or higher quality of life scores compared to comparison children. Content analysis of photograph and diary data identified ten themes that influenced both child and parental quality of life. It was concluded that although food allergy influenced quality of life for some children, their parent's quality of life was hindered to a greater extent. The variability in findings highlights the importance of assessing quality of life in individual families, considering both children with allergies and their primary caregivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A brief intervention to improve food allergy knowledge among US pediatricians: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springston, Elizabeth E; Lau, Claudia H; Patel, Parav; Warrier, Manoj R; Sohn, Min-Woong; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate a brief educational tool for pediatricians developed to address known gaps in food allergy knowledge. Pre- and post-assessments were administered to a convenience sample of 61 US pediatricians completing the Food Allergy Comprehension Tool between February and March of 2010. McNemar's and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine whether clinical knowledge of food allergy and level of comfort in caring for food-allergic children increased significantly after reviewing the tool. Logistic regression models were used to measure the association of participant characteristics with increased knowledge and comfort. Sixty-one percent of surveyed physicians answered more knowledge questions correctly after reviewing the tool. Significantly more participants correctly indicated that anaphylaxis poses the greatest threat to teenagers rather than young children, and correctly rejected chronic nasal problems as a symptom of food allergy (p Comfort in caring for food-allergic children increased significantly on all items post-intervention (p comfort were significantly higher among pediatricians without previous training in food allergy. The Food Allergy Comprehension Tool is a rapid way to address known knowledge gaps among pediatricians and to identify areas in need of further intervention. We recommend integration of the tool with current food allergy guidelines. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Analysis of food allergy in atopic dermatitis patients - association with concomitant allergic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Celakovská

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A few reports demonstrate the comorbidity of food allergy and allergic march in adult patients. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate, if there is some relation in atopic dermatitis patients at the age 14 years and older who suffer from food allergy to common food allergens to other allergic diseases and parameters as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, duration of atopic dermatitis, family history and onset of atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Complete dermatological and allergological examination was performed; these parameters were examined: food allergy (to wheat flour, cow milk, egg, peanuts and soy, the occurrence of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, duration of atopic dermatitis, family history and onset of atopic dermatitis. The statistical evaluation of the relations among individual parameters monitored was performed. Results: Food allergy was altogether confirmed in 65 patients (29% and these patients suffer significantly more often from bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Persistent atopic dermatitis lesions and positive data in family history about atopy are recorded significantly more often in patients with confirmed food allergy to examined foods as well. On the other hand, the onset of atopic dermatitis under 5 year of age is not recorded significantly more often in patients suffering from allergy to examined foods. Conclusion: Atopic dermatitis patients suffering from food allergy suffer significantly more often from allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, persistent eczematous lesions and have positive data about atopy in their family history.

  4. Food allergy to Paracentrotus lividus (sea urchin roe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Virginia; Bartolomé, Borja; Armisén, Margarita; Vidal, Carmen

    2007-04-01

    Sea urchins are increasingly used as culinary products in Japanese and Korean cuisine throughout the world. To investigate a possible IgE-mediated allergy in a patient who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating sea urchin roe and mussels. A 40-year-old man experienced generalized pruritus and urticaria, shortness of breath, and wheezing 10 minutes after eating steamed mussels and boiled sea urchin roe. Investigations included skin prick tests, serum specific IgE determinations, oral challenge tests, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and immunoblotting. Results of skin prick tests with common aeroallergens were negative. Positive prick test responses were obtained with boiled and raw sea urchin extracts, boiled and raw sea urchins themselves, and boiled sea urchin water. Results of an oral challenge test with steamed mussels were negative. Five minutes after the oral mucosa contacted the boiled sea urchin extract, lip pruritus was present. Specific IgE concentrations to boiled sea urchin water and boiled and raw sea urchins surpassed the criterion for a positive result (1.1, 0.6, and 0.4 kU/L, respectively). In boiled sea urchin extract, a 118-kDa band appeared as the unique relevant IgE-binding antigen. In this patient with IgE-mediated food allergy to sea urchin roe, a 118-kDa protein seemed to be the antigen responsible for the reaction.

  5. Food Allergy and Increased Asthma Morbidity in a School-Based Inner-City Asthma Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, James L.; Sheehan, William J.; Baxi, Sachin N.; Kopel, Lianne S.; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Ozonoff, Al; Fu, Chunxia; Gold, Diane R.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with asthma have increased prevalence of food allergies. The relationship between food allergy and asthma morbidity is unclear. Objective We aimed to investigate the presence of food allergy as an independent risk factor for increased asthma morbidity using the School Inner-City Asthma (SICAS), a prospective study evaluating risk factors and asthma morbidity among urban children. Methods We prospectively surveyed 300 children from inner-city schools with physician-diagnosed asthma, followed by clinical evaluation. Food allergies were reported including symptoms experienced within one hour of food ingestion. Asthma morbidity, pulmonary function, and resource utilization were compared between children with food allergies and without. Results Seventy-three (24%) of 300 asthmatic children surveyed had physician- diagnosed food allergy, and 36 (12%) had multiple food allergies. Those with any food allergy independently had increased risk of hospitalization (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30–4.24, p=0.005), and use of controller medication (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.06–3.74, p=0.03). Those with multiple food allergies also had an independently higher risk of hospitalization in the past year (OR: 4.10 95% CI: 1.47–11.45, p=0.007), asthma-related hospitalization (OR: 3.52, 95% CI: 1.12–11.03, p=0.03), controller medication use (OR: 2.38 95% CI: 1.00–5.66, p=0.05), and more provider visits (median 4.5 versus 3.0, p=0.008). Furthermore, lung function was significantly lower (% predicted FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratios) in both food allergy category groups. Conclusions Food allergy is highly prevalent in inner-city school-aged children with asthma. Children with food allergies have increased asthma morbidity and health resource utilization with decreased lung function, and this association is stronger in those with multiple food allergies. PMID:24058900

  6. Dealing with food allergies in babies and children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joneja, Janice M. Vickerstaff

    2007-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 CHAPTER 14 CornAllergy ...243 CHAPTER 15 SeafoodAllergy ...253 CHAPTER 16 The Top Ten Allergens: Avoidance of Milk, Egg, Wheat, Corn, Peanuts, Soy, Tree Nuts...

  7. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes of Restaurant Managers and Staff: An EHS-Net Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Taylor J; Brown, Laura G; Hoover, E Rickamer; Faw, Brenda V; Reimann, David; Wong, Melissa R; Nicholas, David; Barkley, Jonathan; Ripley, Danny

    2016-09-01

    Dining outside of the home can be difficult for persons with food allergies who must rely on restaurant staff to properly prepare allergen-free meals. The purpose of this study was to understand and identify factors associated with food allergy knowledge and attitudes among restaurant managers, food workers, and servers. This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal, state, and local environmental health specialists working to understand the environmental factors associated with food safety issues. EHS-Net personnel collected data from 278 randomly selected restaurants through interviews with restaurant managers, food workers, and servers. Results indicated that managers, food workers, and servers were generally knowledgeable and had positive attitudes about accommodating customers' food allergies. However, we identified important gaps, such as more than 10% of managers and staff believed that a person with a food allergy can safely consume a small amount of that allergen. Managers and staff also had lower confidence in their restaurant's ability to properly respond to a food allergy emergency. The knowledge and attitudes of all groups were higher at restaurants that had a specific person to answer food allergy questions and requests or a plan for answering questions from food allergic customers. However, food allergy training was not associated with knowledge in any of the groups but was associated with manager and server attitudes. Based on these findings, we encourage restaurants to be proactive by training staff about food allergies and creating plans and procedures to reduce the risk of a customer having a food allergic reaction.

  8. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of food allergies among food handlers in the state of Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, A A; Azman, A W

    2015-09-01

    Food handler's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding food allergies are important to prevent debilitating and sometimes fatal reactions. This study aimed to assess their food allergy knowledge, attitude and practice, which could help to maintain the safety and hygiene of food consumed by the public. Cross-sectional survey. A cross-sectional survey involving 121 conveniently sampled (81.76% response rate) respondents among the food handlers in the state of Penang, Malaysia, was conducted using a validated self-administered questionnaire. Their knowledge, attitude and work practice were captured using a 37-item questionnaire that elicited their responses using a mixture of closed-ended and Likert scale techniques. The mean knowledge score for respondents was 50.23 (SD = 14.03), attitude score was 54.26 (SD = 11.67) and practice score was 45.90 (SD = 24.78). Only 1.79% of the respondents were considered to have excellent knowledge, 21.37% had a low risk practice and 4.27% had positive attitudes towards food allergies. Most of the respondents (70%) knew about food allergies and their seriousness. There was a statistically significant correlation between the attitude and practice of respondents (r = 0.51). The type of establishment was the only characteristic significantly associated (P knowledge, attitude and practice. More than half of food handlers in Penang have moderate levels of food allergy knowledge, practice and attitude. Only a small proportion of them have excellent food allergy knowledge, practice and attitude. Integration of food allergy training into compulsory food safety training programmes is needed to reduce food allergy risks and prevent fatal allergic reactions to food among their customers. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex Disparity in Food Allergy: Evidence from the PubMed Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergies are potentially fatal immune-mediated disorders that are growing globally. The relationship between sex and food allergy remains incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that, should sex influence the clinical response to food allergens, this would be reflected by a sex disparity in published studies of food allergy. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed literature for IgE-mediated allergy to 11 allergenic foods of international regulatory importance. No date restriction was used and only articles in English were considered. Of the 4744 articles retrieved, 591 met the inclusion criteria representing 17528 subjects with food allergies. Whereas among children with food allergies, 64.35% were males and 35.65% were females (male/female ratio, 1.80, among adults 34.82% were males and 65.18% were females (male/female ratio, 0.53. Consequently, these data argue that there is need for further investigation to define the role of sex in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  10. Differences in Caregiver Food Allergy Quality of Life Between Tertiary Care, Specialty Clinic, and Caregiver-Reported Food Allergic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Claire; Greenhawt, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is associated with diminished caregiver quality of life (QoL), but the heterogeneity of this effect is unknown. The objective of this study was to explore potential differences in caregiver QoL between self-selected caregivers reporting a child with food allergy (SS) and caregivers with children followed at a food allergy referral center clinic (RC). The Food Allergy Quality of Life Parental Burden (FAQL-PB) index and screening questions regarding the child's most severe food reaction were administered to caregivers of milk, egg, peanut, or tree nut allergic children. SS were recruited via the email and/or social media networks of 2 large national food allergy advocacy groups, and RC from a tertiary referral center specialty clinic. Among 2003 SS and 305 RC, the mean total FAQL-PB QoL score was 2.67. Compared with SS, RC had a lower (better) mean total QoL score (1.84 vs 2.81, P food allergy QoL is heterogeneous, and worse among SS versus RC. Clinically and statistically significant differences were noted in the total, domain-specific, and allergen-specific QoL scores, which indicated that the food allergic population may be segmented and have different risk profiles and/or burdens of illness, despite a common diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early-life antibiotic use and subsequent diagnosis of food allergy and allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A G; Pollak, J; Glass, T A; Poulsen, M N; Bailey-Davis, L; Mowery, J; Schwartz, B S

    2017-02-01

    Antibiotic use in early life has been linked to disruptions in the microbiome. Such changes can disturb immune system development. Differences have been observed in the microbiota of children with and without allergies, but there have been few studies on antibiotic use and allergic disease. We evaluated associations of early-life antibiotic use with subsequent occurrence of food allergy and other allergies in childhood using electronic health record data. We used longitudinal data on 30 060 children up to age 7 years from Geisinger Clinic's electronic health record to conduct a sex- and age-matched case-control study to evaluate the association between antibiotic use and milk allergy, non-milk food allergies, and other allergies. For each outcome, we estimated conditional logistic regression models adjusting for race/ethnicity, history of Medical Assistance, and mode of birth delivery. Models were repeated separately for penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides. There were 484 milk allergy cases, 598 non-milk food allergy cases and 3652 other allergy cases. Children with three or more antibiotic orders had a greater odds of milk allergy (Odds Ratio; 95% Confidence interval) (1.78; 1.28-2.48), non-milk food allergy (1.65; 1.27-2.14), and other allergies (3.07; 2.72-3.46) compared with children with no antibiotic orders. Associations were strongest at younger ages and differed by antibiotic class. We observed associations between antibiotic orders and allergic diseases, providing evidence of a potentially modifiable clinical practice associated with paediatric allergic disease. Differences by antibiotic class should be further explored, as this knowledge could inform paediatric treatment decisions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) attenuates food allergy symptoms by regulating type 1/type 2 helper T cells (Th1/Th2) balance in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Bae, Min-Jung; Sung, Ki-Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-04

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has traditionally been used to treat pain, fever, allergic and inflammatory diseases such as bronchitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. In particular, turmeric and its active component, curcumin, were effective in ameliorating immune disorders including allergies. However, the effects of turmeric and curcumin have not yet been tested on food allergies. Mice were immunized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) and alum. The mice were orally challenged with 50mg OVA, and treated with turmeric extract (100mg/kg), curcumin (3mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 16 days. Food allergy symptoms including decreased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis were evaluated. In addition, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were evaluated using ELISA. Turmeric significantly attenuated food allergy symptoms (decreased rectal temperature and anaphylactic response) induced by OVA, but curcumin showed weak improvement. Turmeric also inhibited IgE, IgG1, and mMCP-1 levels increased by OVA. Turmeric reduced type 2 helper cell (Th2)-related cytokines and enhanced a Th1-related cytokine. Turmeric ameliorated OVA-induced food allergy by maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. Furthermore, turmeric was confirmed anti-allergic effect through promoting Th1 responses on Th2-dominant immune responses in immunized mice. Turmeric significantly ameliorated food allergic symptoms in a mouse model of food allergy. The turmeric as an anti-allergic agent showed immune regulatory effects through maintaining Th1/Th2 immune balance, whereas curcumin appeared immune suppressive effects. Therefore, we suggest that administration of turmeric including various components may be useful to ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic disorders such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Prevalence of food allergy in Icelandic infants during first year of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinsdóttir, Harpa; Clausen, Michael; Ragnarsdóttir, Hildur S; Halldórsdóttir, Ingibjörg H; McBride, Doreen; Beyer, Kristen; Sigurdardóttir, Sigurveig Th

    2011-01-01

    This study is a part of EuroPrevall, an EU-funded European food allergy project. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of food allergy in Icelandic infants during their first year of life. Infants (n=1,341) were followed prospectively from birth to 12 months of age. Questionnaires were obtained at birth and 12 months. Children with symptoms of possible food allergy were assessed with a skin-prick test (SPT) and specific IgE. Food allergy was confirmed with a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Out of 170 symptomatic children 44 infants (3.27%) had either positive SPT (n=21; 1.57%) or specific IgE (n=40; 2.98%). Food allergy was confirmed in 25 (1.86%); egg allergy 1.42%, milk 0.52%, fish 0.22%, wheat 0.15%, peanuts 0.15%, and soy 0.07%. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 7.90% (n=106) and according to questionnaires 8.80% had asthma (n=118). Positive family history was the strongest risk factor for asthma (OR=2.12; pallergy symptoms. Our results show lower prevalence of food allergy than previously reported in a study of Icelandic children at two years of age. The prevalence was also lower than reported in some other European countries and could be explained by different genetic and environmental factors.

  14. Hand eczema as a risk factor for food allergy among occupational kitchen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Takafumi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Akasawa, Akira; Taniguchi, Masami

    2017-09-02

    An increasing number of studies in children is highlighting the importance of transdermal routes of exposure to food allergens through damaged skin in the pathogenesis of food allergies. However, data on this in adults are limited. A few case-series studies has documented development of food allergy among kitchen workers with hand eczema after direct contact exposure to foods. To explore the significance of hand eczema as a risk factor for food allergies in adults at the epidemiological level, we performed a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire survey on kitchen workers whose exposures were classed as occupational (cooks and food handlers, n = 1592) or non-occupational (housewives, n = 1915). Logistic regression was used to explore the association between the presence/severity of hand eczema and the risk of food allergy after adjustment for potential confounders. Current hand eczema and current diagnosed food allergy were more common among occupational kitchen workers (OKW) than among non-occupational kitchen workers (NOKW) (32.3%-vs-29.9% and 9.9%-vs-3.8%, respectively). Current hand eczema was significantly associated with increased risk of current diagnosed food allergy in OKW (adjusted odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.6-3.7). Those with more severe hand eczema were more likely to suffer from allergic symptoms for foods, and diagnosed food allergy. This study illustrates a significant public health problem in the adult population, documenting a major impact of hand eczema on the ongoing adult food allergy epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of food allergy with asthma severity and atopic diseases in Jewish and Arab adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graif, Yael; German, Larissa; Livne, Irit; Shohat, Tamy

    2012-10-01

      To investigate the prevalence of reported food allergy and its association with atopic diseases and asthma severity among Jewish and Arab adolescents.   The self-report questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was administered to adolescents aged 13-14 years from randomly selected junior high schools in Israel. Questions regarding food allergy were added.   A total of 11 171 questionnaires were available for analysis. Food allergy was reported by 3.6% of participants: 1.9% milk, 0.6% egg, 0.6% peanut and 0.4% sesame. On multivariate analysis, food allergy was strongly associated with current asthma (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.8-3.3), atopic eczema (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.4-4.3) and allergic rhinitis (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.8-3.1). Arabs were significantly more allergic to peanut (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.1), egg (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 2.1-5.9) and sesame (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5) than Jews, and less allergic to milk (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9). Asthmatic subjects with food allergy had significantly more parameters of severe asthma than those without food allergy (p foods differs between Jews and Arabs. Asthmatic adolescents with food allergy report more severe asthma than those without food allergy. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Joyce Irene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc., soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat, and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.

  17. Formula and breast feeding in infant food allergy: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Alice J; Koplin, Jennifer J; Lowe, Adrian J; Tang, Mimi Lk; Matheson, Melanie C; Robinson, Marnie; Peters, Rachel; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether infant-feeding practices, including duration of exclusive breastfeeding and use of partially hydrolysed formula, modify the risk of developing infant food allergy. In an observational population-based study, 1 year olds were recruited from community immunisation clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Parent-reported data on infant-feeding practices and potential confounders were collected prior to infant skin prick testing for four food allergens. Sensitised infants attended hospital-based oral food challenges to establish food allergy status. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate associations between breastfeeding and formula-feeding and infant food allergy adjusting for possible confounding variables. A total of 5276 (74% response) infants participated. Of the 4537 for whom food allergy status was determined, 515 (11.3%) were food allergic (challenge-proven in the context of skin prick testing positive (≥2 mm)). After adjusting for confounding variables, there was no association between duration of exclusive breastfeeding and food allergy. Use of partially hydrolysed formula did not reduce the risk of food allergy compared with cow's milk formula in the general population (adjusted odds ratios 1.03 (confidence interval 0.67-1.50)). Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and use of partially hydrolysed formula were not associated with food allergy at 1 year of age in this large population-based study. These findings have implications for population-based infant-feeding guidelines and do not support the use of partially hydrolysed formula for food allergy prevention. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaru, B. I.; Hickstein, L.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Sheikh, A.; Halken, Susanne; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Worm, Margitta; Beyer, Kirsten; Dubois, Anthony; Eigenmann, Philippe; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars; Cardona, Vicky; Agache, Ioana; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Akdis, Cezmi; DuToit, George; Monserrat, Fernandez Rivas; Høst, Arne; Knol, Edward; Lack, Gideon; Marchisotto, Mary Jane; Niggemann, Bodo; Skypala, Isabel; Venter, Alain Schoepfer Carina; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Nilsson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe. Studies published in

  19. Precision medicine in allergic disease-food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis-PRACTALL document of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, A; Lemanske, R F; Castells, M; Torres, M J; Khan, D; Simon, H-U; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; Poulsen, L K; Sampson, H A; Worm, M; Nadeau, K C

    2017-07-01

    This consensus document summarizes the current knowledge on the potential for precision medicine in food allergy, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis under the auspices of the PRACTALL collaboration platform. PRACTALL is a joint effort of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, which aims to synchronize the European and American approaches to allergy care. Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment based on disease endotypes, which are phenotypic subclasses associated with specific mechanisms underlying the disease. Although significant progress has been made in defining endotypes for asthma, definitions of endotypes for food and drug allergy or for anaphylaxis lag behind. Progress has been made in discovery of biomarkers to guide a precision medicine approach to treatment of food and drug allergy, but further validation and quantification of these biomarkers are needed to allow their translation into practice in the clinical management of allergic disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Primary prevention of food allergy in infants who are at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    on primary prevention of food allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: In prospective observational controlled studies of high quality of birth cohorts, exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months combined with introduction of solid foods after 4 months of age is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy and atopic...... dermatitis, particularly in high-risk infants. When breastfeeding for 4-6 months is not possible or insufficient, randomized controlled trials have shown a significant reduction in food allergy and atopic dermatitis in high-risk infants fed a documented hypoallergenic hydrolysed formula. SUMMARY......: Breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented hypoallergenic hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusively breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months. As regards primary prevention of food allergy there is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention during...

  1. Challenge Test Results in Patients With Suspected Penicillin Allergy, but No Specific IgE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Anne; Mosbech, Holger

    2011-04-01

    Patients with a history of allergic reaction to penicillin, but with no detectable specific IgE, are common and pose a dilemma. Challenge tests are considered to be the diagnostic gold standard. The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with very low risk for reactions who could be safely tested using a more rapid and simple procedure. A total of 580 consecutively referred adult patients with a history of non-serious cutaneous allergic reactions to penicillin, but with no IgE, were challenged with therapeutic doses of penicillin V (phenoxymethylpenicillin), penicillin G (benzylpenicillin), or both. Only 14 of 580 patients had a positive challenge test. In 11 of the 14, a reaction to challenge occurred within 2 hours, and none were anaphylactic. The year of the original reaction was known for 555 patients; a positive challenge was seen in only 0.4% of those with an original reaction >15 years before challenge, but in 4.6% of those with a more recent original reaction (P=0.001). Onset of a reaction within the first day of the original exposure was a predictive factor for a positive challenge (P=0.001) in patients challenged within 15 years of the original reaction. Among suspected penicillin-allergic patients with non-severe skin reactions and no detectable specific IgE, the subgroup of patients who originally reacted more than 15 years previously had very low risk for reacting to a challenge. The risk was higher in patients with a more recent original reaction, especially if the symptoms had occurred within the first day of exposure.

  2. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvilla, S A; Dubois, A E J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J

    2014-01-01

    This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires a...

  3. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvilla, S. A.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Panesar, S. S.; Worth, A.; Patel, S.; Muraro, A.; Halken, S.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Regent, L.; de Jong, N. W.; Roberts, G.; Sheikh, A.; Bindslev Jensen, C.; Cardona, V.; Eigenmann, P.; Papadopoulos, N.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Akdis, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires are

  4. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvilla, S. A.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine; Panesar, S. S.; Worth, A.; Patel, S.; Muraro, A.; Halken, S.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Regent, L.; de Jong, N. W.; Roberts, G.; Sheikh, A.

    This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires are

  5. Characterization of plasma cytokines in an infant population cohort of challenge-proven food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T D; Tang, M L K; Koplin, J J; Licciardi, P V; Eckert, J K; Tan, T; Gurrin, L C; Ponsonby, A-L; Dharmage, S C; Allen, K J

    2013-10-01

    Sensitization to food allergens indicates the production of food-specific IgE; however, sensitization is not a definite indicator of allergic reaction upon ingestion (N Engl J Med, 344, 2001, 30: J Allergy Clin Immunol, 120, 2007, 491). Currently, food challenge is the best approach to identify the presence or absence of allergy. While 95% positive predictive values (PPVs) thresholds for sIgE can assist with identifying increased likelihood of allergy among those who are sensitized, there are no specific biological markers that differentiate between allergic and sensitized individuals. To determine whether plasma serum cytokine profiles predict (i) sensitization to peanut and egg and (ii) food allergy among sensitized infants. Peanut-sensitized (PT) and egg-sensitized 14-month-old infants and nonsensitized controls enrolled in HealthNuts, a population-based study of food allergy, underwent an oral food challenge (OFC). Blood was collected within 1 h after OFC. Serum levels of Th1, Th2 and regulatory cytokines were determined in allergic (n = 79), sensitized (n = 40) and nonsensitized, nonallergic (n = 37) infants by multiplex assay. Food-sensitized infants had significantly higher plasma IL-4, IL-13, IL-12p70 and lower IL-10 levels compared to nonsensitized infants. IL-10 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in sensitized compared with allergic infants. Egg-allergic infants had significantly higher IL-13 and IL-12p70 levels compared to peanut-allergic (PA) infants. Levels of Th2-related cytokines in plasma are higher in food-sensitized infants, irrespective of clinical food allergy status. In contrast, IL-10 levels appear to predict food allergy among sensitized infants. Differences in IL-13 and IL-12p70 between egg- and peanut-allergic infants could help explain the different resolution rates of the allergies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Epidemiological survey of pediatric food allergy in Mashhad in Northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanchian, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedali; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Haghi, Nasrinsadat Motevalli; Nakhaei, Alireza Ataei; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Radbin, Mohammad Hossein; Kianifar, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasing problem worldwide, but the foods responsible for food allergy are not the same in different countries, probably because of the role of genetic, cultural, and nutritional factors. The aim of this study was to determine the common food allergens in pediatric patients with different presentation of food allergy. In this cross-sectional study, all of the patients were referred to pediatric allergy clinics affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences from September 2012 to August 2014. For patients with IgE-mediated food allergy that was diagnosed with clinical manifestations, the skin prick test was done. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 17 and statistical analysis was done with the chi-squared test and the t-test. P values prevalence were egg white (17.8%), pepper (15.8%), curry (14.3%), egg yolk (14%), cow's milk (10%), and tomato (7.8%). The most common presenting symptoms were respiratory (allergic rhinitis 45%, asthma 32%), dermatologic (atopic dermatitis 30%, urticaria 8.3%), colitis (17.5%), and gasteroesophagial reflux disease (GERD) (2%). According to the prevalence of food allergens in different age groups, we realized that, after the age of three years, the frequency of sensitization to egg white, egg yolk, cow's milk, wheat and cereals was decreased and allergy to pepper and curry was increased. The prevalence of culprit foods that produce food allergies depends on several factors, including age, presenting manifestation, and where the patient lives. As many food allergies are outgrown, patients should be reevaluated regularly to determine whether they have lost their reactivity or not.

  7. Association between timing of food introduction in on first year old and the prevalence of allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael San Mauro-Martín

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food allergy is an abnormal response after ingestion of an allergen in a food where there is a proven immune mechanism. During the period of breastfeeding, infants are introducing new foods in small quantities and separately for possible allergies. All in relation to the suggested timetable for the introduction of different food groups suggested by the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition. Our project focused on studying the possible relationship between the variability of introduction of the different food groups and the development of allergies in infant.Material and Methods: Retrospective descriptive study in an incidental sample (n = 30. It evolved into an online platform with an Ad Hoc survey, in which data was recollected on the characteristics of allergy, diet, type of birth, and introduction of food were collected.Results: Allergies were found 36% fruit, 20% egg, nuts and dairy 16% and 12%, grains, legumes, seafood and vegetables 4% respectively. 89% were breastfeeding. 78% were born vaginally. 46.2% compliance with the protocol introduction and 53.8% advance or postpone the introduction.Conclusions: The data reviewed suggest that food allergies are influenced by several factors that can influence and affect the number of allergic conditions of a particular region, so it is necessary to define these variables in studies to have greater reliability in the necessary studies performed.

  8. Overview of Evidence in Prevention and Aetiology of Food Allergy: A Review of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. Lodge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Early life environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of this global epidemic. The largest burden of disease is in early childhood, where research efforts aimed at prevention have been focused. Evidence synthesis from good quality systematic reviews is needed. We performed an overview of systematic reviews concerning the prevention and aetiology of food allergy, retrieving 14 systematic reviews, which covered three broad topics: formula (hydrolysed or soy for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization; maternal and infant diet and dietary supplements for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization and hygiene hypothesis-related interventions. Using the AMSTAR criteria for assessment of methodological quality, we found five reviews to be of high quality, seven of medium quality and two of low quality. Overall we found no compelling evidence that any of the interventions that had been systematically reviewed were related to the risk of food allergy. Updating of existing reviews, and production of new systematic reviews, are needed in areas where evidence is emerging for interventions and environmental associations. Furthermore, additional primary studies, with greater numbers of participants and objective food allergy definitions are urgently required.

  9. Food diversity in infancy and the risk of childhood asthma and allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Kaila, Minna; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Ahonen, Suvi; Pekkanen, Juha; Simell, Olli; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Hyöty, Heikki; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the bacterial diversity of the intestinal flora and the diversity of various environmental factors during infancy have been linked to the development of allergies in childhood. Food is an important environmental exposure, but the role of food diversity in the development of asthma and allergies in childhood is poorly defined. We studied the associations between food diversity during the first year of life and the development of asthma and allergies by age 5 years. In a Finnish birth cohort we analyzed data on 3142 consecutively born children. We studied food diversity at 3, 4, 6, and 12 months of age. Asthma, wheeze, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis were measured by using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire at age 5 years. By 3 and 4 months of age, food diversity was not associated with any of the allergic end points. By 6 months of age, less food diversity was associated with increased risk of allergic rhinitis but not with the other end points. By 12 months of age, less food diversity was associated with increased risk of any asthma, atopic asthma, wheeze, and allergic rhinitis. Less food diversity during the first year of life might increase the risk of asthma and allergies in childhood. The mechanisms for this association are unclear, but increased dietary antigen exposure might contribute to this link. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Mothers of Children with Food Allergy: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Knibb

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy affects quality of life in patients and parents and mothers report high levels of anxiety and stress. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT may be helpful in reducing the psychological impact of food allergy. The aim of this study was to examine the appropriateness and effectiveness of CBT to improve psychological outcomes in parents of children with food allergy. Methods: Five parents (all mothers from a local allergy clinic requested to have CBT; six mothers acted as controls and completed questionnaires only. CBT was individual and face-to face and lasted 12 weeks. All participants completed measures of anxiety and depression, worry, stress, general mental health, generic and food allergy specific quality of life at baseline and at 12 weeks. Results: Anxiety, depression and worry in the CBT group significantly reduced and overall mental health and QoL significantly improved from baseline to 12 weeks (all p < 0.05 in mothers in the CBT group; control group scores remained stable. Conclusions: CBT appears to be appropriate and effective in mothers of children with food allergy and a larger randomised control trial now needs to be conducted. Ways in which aspects of CBT can be incorporated into allergy clinic visits need investigation.

  11. Peanut allergy diagnosis and management: the role of allergen components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemans, R.J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut and soy are both legumes and therefore phylogenetically related. Both peanut and soy should be addressed in the diagnostic work-up of a suspected allergy to either of these foods because of possible cross-reactivity. Allergic symptoms to both foods can range from mild oral allergy symptoms

  12. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Kim, Jennifer S; Barnathan, Julia A; Amsden, Laura B; Tummala, Lakshmi S; Holl, Jane L

    2008-01-01

    .... Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public...

  13. Which advises for primary food allergy prevention in normal or high-risk infant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giampaolo; Cipriani, Francesca

    2016-12-01

    In the last decades, international guidelines proposed different strategies of complementary foods introduction during weaning to prevent allergy. Avoidance measures, such as late introduction of allergenic foods, failed to show a significant preventive effect towards allergy. Recently, prospective randomized controlled studies suggested that the early introduction of solid foods - rather than the late introduction - could be a strategy to prevent allergic sensitization and food allergy. However, at today clear evidence of effectiveness and safety of early introduction are not yet available to recommend a radical change in the current clinical practice. A realistic advice for the general population could be to begin the weaning at 4-5 months with the progressive introduction of different foods. The advices for introduction of solid foods during weaning should also take in consideration the global development of child to chose the better timing of introduction of foods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A hospital-based survey on food allergy in the population of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Debarati; Ghosh, Nandini; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing worldwide, and Asian countries are not the exception. Still, ample data are lacking in India. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a metropolis of Eastern India to record the presence of food allergy among the local population. The prevalence of food allergy was investigated among patients reporting to The Institute of Child Health and Mediland Diagnostics in Kolkata, India. A total of 5,161 patients were subdivided into 3 age groups and surveyed accordingly. The evaluation was conducted via a questionnaire and a skin prick test. Among the 5,161 patients tested, 4,160 showed a positive response to one or more food items. Banana (32%), brinjal (29%), wheat (22%), and egg (23%) were found to be dominant allergens. Sixty-three percent of patients with a family history of allergy showed either a sudden or an insidious mode of onset, whereas the remaining 37% suffered insidious allergic symptoms with no record of a family history of allergy. Skin rashes, cough, and sneezing were the major symptoms observed. Patients in the age group of 15-40 years were the most susceptible. It has been observed that certain specific foods consumed in specific regions cause allergies that are unique to their respective populations. In the present study, the most commonly consumed foods in the studied area, e.g. banana, brinjal, wheat, and egg, had severe effects on the local population. Complementary studies in other countries as well as in other parts of India will allow us to gain further insight into this fact. Some other influencing factors were found to be genetics, cultural habits, and occupation. Avoidance of the allergy-causing food is the best way to deal with food allergy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and young adults with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, M A; Van Lieshout, R J; Ohayon, J; Scott, J G

    2016-04-01

    Adolescents with food allergy have poorer psychosocial outcomes compared with their nonallergic counterparts; however, few studies have prospectively examined the mental health of adolescents and young adults in this vulnerable population. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in an epidemiological sample of adolescents and young adults with food allergy; determine whether food allergy is associated with adolescent and maternal reports of such problems; and examine the patterns of change in emotional and behavioral problems from adolescence to young adulthood among individuals with and without food allergy. Data came from 1303 participants at 14 and 21 years of age in the Mater University Study of Pregnancy. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured using self- and maternal-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. Maternal, but not self-reports suggested that emotional and behavioral problems were higher among adolescents with food allergy. Food allergy was associated with increased odds of elevated levels of maternal-reported symptoms of depression [OR = 4.50 (1.83, 11.07)], anxiety [OR = 2.68 (1.12, 6.44)], and ADHD [OR = 3.14 (1.07, 9.19)] in adolescence. Food allergy was also associated with depressive symptoms that persisted from adolescence to young adulthood [OR = 2.05 (1.04, 4.03)]. Emotional and behavioral problems, particularly symptoms of depression, anxiety, and ADHD, are common among adolescents with food allergy in the general population and, in the case of elevated levels of depressive symptoms, persist into young adulthood. Healthcare professionals should seek adolescent and parental perspectives when assessing emotional and behavioral problems and monitor mental health during the transition to adulthood. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. INTESTINAL MICROBIOCENOSIS, FOOD TOLERANCE AND FOOD ALLERGY. CURRENT STATE OF A PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the review of modern literature the influence of a bacterial factor, first of all — indigenous microflora — on formation of food tolerance and immune answer of a child as a whole is in detail considered. Formation of a microbiocenosis, food and autogenic tolerance happens under the general laws. In this process the primary colonization of intestines and formation of a microflora variety which, as results of the last researches show, comes to an end by 2–4 years of life of a child has special value. In the review the major factors influencing the formation of a child intestinal microbiota both antenatal and postnatal and for the first years of life, and also their interaction are considered. The influence of a bacterial factor on formation of food tolerance and sensibilization processes, and also mechanisms of this influence is in detail discussed. The data on features of a structure of intestinal microflora at children with food allergy including the results of own researches devoted to microbiocenosis at children with food allergy and to development of tactics of management of children with this pathology are provided. The main directions and possibilities of dietary influence on biocenosis structure at children with this pathology are considered.

  17. Use of Animal Models to Investigate Major Allergens Associated with Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L. Van Gramberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an emerging epidemic that affects all age groups, with the highest prevalence rates being reported amongst Western countries such as the United States (US, United Kingdom (UK, and Australia. The development of animal models to test various food allergies has been beneficial in allowing more rapid and extensive investigations into the mechanisms involved in the allergic pathway, such as predicting possible triggers as well as the testing of novel treatments for food allergy. Traditionally, small animal models have been used to characterise immunological pathways, providing the foundation for the development of numerous allergy models. Larger animals also merit consideration as models for food allergy as they are thought to more closely reflect the human allergic state due to their physiology and outbred nature. This paper will discuss the use of animal models for the investigation of the major food allergens; cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut/other tree nuts, highlight the distinguishing features of each of these models, and provide an overview of how the results from these trials have improved our understanding of these specific allergens and food allergy in general.

  18. Food allergy and risk assessment: Current status and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Benjamin C.

    2017-09-01

    Risk analysis is a three part, interactive process that consists of a scientific risk assessment, a risk management strategy and an exchange of information through risk communication. Quantitative risk assessment methodologies are now available and widely used for assessing risks regarding the unintentional consumption of major, regulated allergens but new or modified proteins can also pose a risk of de-novo sensitization. The risks due to de-novo sensitization to new food allergies are harder to quantify. There is a need for a systematic, comprehensive battery of tests and assessment strategy to identify and characterise de-novo sensitization to new proteins and the risks associated with them. A risk assessment must be attuned to answer the risk management questions and needs. Consequently, the hazard and risk assessment methods applied and the desired information are determined by the requested outcome for risk management purposes and decisions to be made. The COST Action network (ImpARAS, www.imparas.eu) has recently started to discuss these risk management criteria from first principles and will continue with the broader subject of improving strategies for allergen risk assessment throughout 2016-2018/9.

  19. Possibilities of antenatal prevention of food allergy in young children

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    O. V. Tarasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the efficiency of antenatal prevention of food allergy in children. A total of 248 mother-child pairs were followed up. According to their maternal feeding pattern during pregnancy, the newborn infants were divided into 3 subgroups. Subgroup 1 consisted of 37 infants whose mothers had ingested a hypoallergenic diet during pregnancy. Subgroup 2 entered 29 babies, whose mothers had adhered to a hypoallergenic diet and received the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis in the last stages of gestation. Subgroup 3 comprised 82 infants whose mothers had received a diet with a hypoallergenic substitute of cow’s milk for the New Zealand goat’s milk Amalthea in combination with the probiotic during pregnancy.There were no differences between the neonatal groups in anthropometric indicators. Analysis of intestinal microbiota showed that significantly more children had an increasing amount of Klebsiella, enterococci, Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus aureus in the comparison group (p<0.05. Subgroup 3 babies whose mother had received lactobacilli and the whole goat’s milk Amalthea were more frequently found to have normal levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (p<0.05 and a smaller number of opportunistic pathogens (p<0.05 in the enteric flora. In addition, the hypoallergenic diet including goat’s milk and/or Lactobacillus reuteri Protectis in mothers in the last stages of gestation reduced the frequency and degree of sensitization to cow’s and goat’s milk in the infants.

  20. IgE-mediated food allergy--extensive review of the literature.

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    Ebo, D G; Stevens, W J

    2001-01-01

    Adverse reactions to food, i.e. food allergy and intolerance have gained considerable attention. This overview focuses on the diagnosis and management of IgE-mediated food allergy that is believed to be responsible for most immediate-type food-induced hypersensitivity reactions. Clinically, these reactions are characterised by a variety of signs and symptoms that occur within minutes or hours after consumption of the offending food. Reactions may be limited or more generalised with involvement of the skin, nose, eyes, and/or lungs. In more severe cases, cardiovascular symptoms including hypotension, shock, cardiac dysrhythmias and death can occur. In food-allergic individuals, IgE is produced against naturally occurring food components, primarily glycoproteins that usually retain their allergenicity after heating and/or proteolysis. While adults tend to be allergic to fish, crustaceans, peanuts and tree nuts, children tend to be allergic to cow's milk, egg white, wheat and soy more frequently. "Emerging" food allergens include tropical fruits, sesame seeds, psyllium, spices and condiments. These allergies frequently represent a cross-allergy to an allergen derived from another source, e.g. pollens or natural rubber latex. The evaluation of IgE-mediated food allergy relies on a careful history, physical examination, appropriate skin testing or in vitro testing with food extracts, and/or double blind, placebo-controlled food challenges. Avoidance remains the mainstay of therapy. However, allergens may be "hidden" and labelling can be non-precise or misleading, thereby severely hampering prevention. Patients with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with adrenaline, an antihistamine and an injectable rapid onset-of-action corticosteroid. At present there is no evidence to support the use of immunotherapy, except for research purposes. Production of "hypoallergenic" food is hampered by incomplete methods for assessing the allergenic potential of such

  1. Assessment of IgE-mediated food allergies in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudi, A; Karagiannidou, A; Xinias, I; Cassimos, D; Karantaglis, N; Farmaki, E; Imvrios, G; Fotoulaki, M; Eboriadou, M; Tsanakas, J

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory disease of the skin, which is characterised by a chronic relapsing course. The aim of the study was to assign the prevalence of clinically active food allergies among a group of children between 3 months and 7 years of age, with AD. Eighty-eight children with AD were screened for specific IgE antibodies to food proteins. All patients with AD and specific IgE antibodies to food proteins were subjected to Oral Food Challenges (OFCs) with the relevant foods. Food-sensitised patients with moderate levels of sIgE had clinically active food allergy to milk (39.28%) and egg (42.34%) on the basis of positive OFCs. High IgE and eosinophilia had a prevalence of almost 80% and 25%, regardless of concomitant food sensitisation and disease severity. In this study, clinically active food allergies were recognised in 26.13% of children with AD. Nevertheless, no association was confirmed between food sensitisation and AD severity. High IgE and peripheral eosinophilia have not been found more prevalent among children with severe AD nor among children with food sensitisation. Infants and younger children with AD should be screened for an underlying food allergy, regardless of disease severity. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Early life precursors, epigenetics, and the development of food allergy.

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    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2012-09-01

    Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of nongenetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birth weight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the interrelationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations, and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA.

  3. A new model for conservative food challenge in children with immunoglobulin E-mediated cow's milk allergy.

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    Calvani, Mauro; Iacono, Iride Dello; Giorgio, Valentina; Sopo, Stefano Miceli; Panetta, Valentina; Tripodi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The diagnostic gold standard for food allergy is an oral food challenge (OFC) with the suspected food. Usually, an OFC is stopped at the onset of mild objective symptoms for fear of severe reactions, but there is no consensus on this issue. To investigate the effectiveness and side effects of a new model of oral milk challenge in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of cow's milk protein allergy and reduce the number of useless elimination diets. This model is characterized by a conservative diagnostic protocol and "step-up cow's milk dosing." The secondary aim was to investigate possible factors influencing severe reactions. Sixty-six children (median age 1 year, range 1-18) with suspected immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cow's milk allergy performed a conservative OFC, i.e., the OFC was continued even in the presence of subjective, even repeated, or mild local or multiple organ objective symptoms. If the first objective reaction occurred when the quantity of milk was > 10 ml, the investigator would decide whether to continue the OFC or prescribe a gradual increase in milk feeding at home. Symptoms developed during the OFC in 42.4% of the children. Local, generalized and severe generalized reactions developed in 11 (16.7%), 11 (16.7%) and 6 (9.1%) children, respectively. Only 14/28 (50%) who developed objective symptoms during the OFC were considered to be affected by cow's milk allergy. In the remaining 14 both subjective and objective symptoms developed and the OFC was continued without further symptoms. Epinephrine was administered to 6 of the 28 children (21.4%) who developed objective symptoms. All but one had subjective symptoms following the early doses of milk, whereas all children who later tolerated milk had their first subjective or mild symptoms following doses > or = 10 ml. This new model of OFC criteria led to frequent severe allergic reactions; hence its use in daily practice seems inadvisable. However, our study provides evidence that a severe

  4. Interpreting skin prick tests in the evaluation of food allergy in children.

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    Eigenmann, P A; Sampson, H A

    1998-11-01

    Skin prick tests (SPTs) are utilized routinely in the evaluation of food allergy and several authors have discussed their utility. Efforts to standardize SPT reagents and procedures have been made, but the accuracies of different recording techniques have not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to compare different SPT recording methods with the outcome of oral food challenge and determine whether they offer any advantage over the criteria proposed by Bock and May (1). Children suspected of IgE-mediated symptoms to any of five common food allergens (egg, milk, peanut, soy and wheat) were skin tested by the prick technique utilizing commercial extracts. The wheal reactions were recorded by two different methods: first by measuring the largest diameter of the wheal and the diameter orthogonal to it (mean wheal diameter), and second by recording the surface area of the wheal with a hand-held scanner. Wheal sizes above the 95% confidence interval of tolerant individuals were considered positive. The results of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges were considered the "gold standard" for diagnosis. Cut-off values were compared for positive responses in our study population (mean diameter/surface area of wheal): 4 mm/16 mm2 for egg, 5 mm/29 mm2 for milk, 6 mm/40 mm2 for peanut, 3 mm/9 mm2 for soy, and 3 mm/7 mm2 for wheat. Significant differences in wheal sizes were seen between individuals who were allergic or tolerant to egg (P Skin prick tests are a useful procedure for evaluating clinical reactivity to egg, milk, peanut and wheat, but not to soy. While the size of the SPT wheals may be interpreted utilizing mean diameter or surface area cut-offs, the predictive values of these measurement methods were no better than the commonly utilized grading method where a positive skin test was recorded as a mean wheal diameter 3 mm greater than the negative control.

  5. Hot topics in paediatric immunology: IgE-mediated food allergy and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueter, Kristina; Prescott, Susan

    2014-10-01

    The epidemic of allergic disease is a major public health crisis. The greatest burden of allergies is in childhood, when rapidly rising rates of disease are also most evident. General practitioners (GP) have a key role in recognising and addressing aller-gy-related problems and identifying whether a child requires referral to a paediatric allergist. This article focuses on IgE-mediated food allergies and allergic rhinitis, the most commonly seen conditions in paediatric im-munology. We will discuss prevention, diagnosis, management and treatment strategies. Currently there is no cure for food allergy. Oral tolerance induction continues to be a significant focus of research. All children with a possible food allergy should be referred to an allergist for further testing and advice. Children who develop allergic rhinitis need a regular review by their GP. Immunotherapy should be discussed early in the disease process and needs to be com-menced by an allergist.

  6. Long term outcome of acquired food allergy in pediatric liver recipients: a single center experience

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    Antigoni Mavroudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food induced sensitization has been reported in pediatric liver recipients. However long term follow up has not been established so far. We report here our experience regarding 3 pediatric patients who developed acquired food allergy after liver transplantation. The first patient suffered from persistent diarrhea and eczema. The second one presented with abdominal pain with no signs of rejection, abdominal discomfort, vomiting when ingesting milk proteins and responded well to the elimination diet. The third patient presented with facial angioedema and hoarseness of voice. She had multiple food allergies and reacted to milk, egg and sesame. All the patients had elevated total Immunoglobulin E (IgE and elevated specific IgE antibodies to the implicated food allergens. The first patient presented clinical manifestations of allergy when she was 19 months old. The second patient became allergic at the age of 16 and the third patient at the age of 3. The symptoms of food allergy persisted for 8 years in the first case and for 2 years in the other two cases. Low levels of specific IgE antibodies to the implicated food allergens and an enhanced T-helper 1 cell immune response toward interferon-gamma production were markers of tolerance acquisition. The long term prognosis in our cases was excellent. Food allergy resolved in all the patients. The long term prognosis of acquired food allergy after liver transplantation is currently obscure. More studies would be needed including greater number of patients to determine whether acquired food allergy is transient in pediatric liver recipients.

  7. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy and IgE antibodies to food allergens in Swedish and Estonian schoolchildren.

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    Sandin, A; Annus, T; Björkstén, B; Nilsson, L; Riikjärv, M-A; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Bråbäck, L

    2005-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-reported food allergy and IgE antibodies to food allergens in wheezing and non-wheezing Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren, in the light of the disparities in the standard of living, food consumption and prevalence of respiratory allergies that still exist between Estonia and the Scandinavian countries. As a part of the ISAAC Phase II study, children from a random sample of schools in Tallinn in Estonia and Linköping and Ostersund in Sweden participated in skin prick tests to inhalant allergens and the parents replied to questionnaires. IgE antibodies against a panel of food allergens (egg white, milk, soy bean, fish, wheat and peanut) were taken from children with questionnaire-reported wheezing and a random sample of nonwheezing children. Children aged 10-11 y. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was similar in Estonia and Sweden and about twice as high in wheezing children than in nonwheezing children. In Estonia, however, 3% of the children with perceived food allergy reported reactions from at least four different foods, as compared to 31% in Sweden. The prevalence of sensitisation to food allergens was similar in wheezing and nonwheezing children in Estonia (8%) while, in Swedish children, IgE antibodies to food allergens were more likely among wheezing children (Linköping 38 vs 11%, crude OR 5.1, 95% CI 2.2-11.6, and Ostersund 24 vs 7%, crude OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9-8.5). Our study suggests that IgE-mediated food reactions were less likely in Estonian schoolchildren. Moreover, the perception of food allergy and thereby the meaning of self-reported food allergy appears to be different in the two countries.

  8. [Individualized Reception Project at school and for school food services for children with a food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud-Morin, A

    2001-03-01

    The circulars of 1992, 1993 and more recently of 10th November 1999, illustrate the significant progress of schools in the reception of sick children and the help in execution of the medical regulations. The National Education physician is a privileged interlocutor of families, the treating physician and the education authority to make the link between the caregivers and the school. Application of the 1999 circular, which has the objective of taking into account the food allergies in the 1993 plan of action, raises difficulties of three types: Difficulties of a medical type raised by the frequent confusion between the Protocol for urgent intervention and the individualised reception plan. The Protocol for urgent intervention, of which the National Education physician is the recipient, must be accompanied by a letter from the allergy physician that takes into consideration simple immunological sensitization and true allergy and to appreciate the risks that concern food disparities that are not always the same. The almost systematic prescription of adrenaline in protocols for urgent intervention, without argument and in the absence of commercialisation of an auto-injectable pen at the time of distribution of the circular, was a source of resistance by education authorities to catering services. Difficulties of a human type concerning the creation of fear in families, in the education authorities, in the catering services and the time-lag between some families and their careful vigilance with regard to the dietary observance and the conduct to be taken in the case of acute symptoms. Difficulties of administrative or legal types knowing that the scholars catering is a service which does not have the obligatory character of the teaching plan, and which accepts the sole competence of the authorities for 1st degree education. In total the teaching plan and pupil catering for children with a food allergy needs making the parents aware of the responsibility between the

  9. Preventive Effects of a Probiotic Mixture in an Ovalbumin-Induced Food Allergy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Soon; Eom, Ji-Eun; Shin, Dong-Uk; Yeon, Sung-Hum; Lim, Seong-Il; Lee, So-Young

    2018-01-28

    Although there has been a steady increase in the prevalence of food allergies worldwide in recent decades, no effective therapeutic strategies have been developed. Modulation of the gut microbiota composition and/or function through probiotics has been highlighted as a promising target for protection against food allergies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the allergy-reducing effects of a probiotic mixture (P5: Lactococcus lactis KF140, Pediococcus pentosaceus KF159, Lactobacillus pentosus KF340, Lactobacillus paracasei 698, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 26N) in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy. Administration of P5 significantly suppressed the oral OVA challenge-induced anaphylactic response and rectal temperature decline, and reduced diarrhea symptoms. Moreover, P5 also significantly inhibited the secretion of IgE, Th2 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13), and Th17 cytokines (IL-17), which were increased in mice with OVA-induced food allergy, and induced generation of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. These results revealed that P5 may have applications as a preventive agent against food allergy.

  10. Exploring Low-Income Families’ Financial Barriers to Food Allergy Management and Treatment

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    Leia M. Minaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Low-income families may face financial barriers to management and treatment of chronic illnesses. No studies have explored how low-income individuals and families with anaphylactic food allergies cope with financial barriers to anaphylaxis management and/or treatment. This study explores qualitatively assessed direct, indirect, and intangible costs of anaphylaxis management and treatment faced by low-income families. Methods. In-depth, semistructured interviews with 23 participants were conducted to gain insight into income-related barriers to managing and treating anaphylactic food allergies. Results. Perceived direct costs included the cost of allergen-free foods and allergy medication and costs incurred as a result of misinformation about social support programs. Perceived indirect costs included those associated with lack of continuity of health care. Perceived intangible costs included the stress related to the difficulty of obtaining allergen-free foods at the food bank and feeling unsafe at discount grocery stores. These perceived costs represented barriers that were perceived as especially salient for the working poor, immigrants, youth living in poverty, and food bank users. Discussion. Low-income families report significant financial barriers to food allergy management and anaphylaxis preparedness. Clinicians, advocacy groups, and EAI manufacturers all have a role to play in ensuring equitable access to medication for low-income individuals with allergies.

  11. Immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies among adults with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin-Yilmaz, Asli; Nocon, Cheryl C; Corey, Jacquelynne P

    2010-09-01

    To compare the prevalence of food allergy for peanut, shrimp, and milk in adults with allergic rhinitis and to determine predictive values of these allergens and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) to detect food allergies. Cross-sectional study. University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois. We retrospectively analyzed in vitro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of adults with rhinitis. Subjects were tested for nine inhalants and three foods (peanut, shrimp, milk) and total IgE. Subjects with food allergy history were tested with additional foods. The sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the allergens and total IgE to detect food allergies were calculated. A total of 283 subjects received in vitro tests. Forty-one percent tested negative and 59 percent tested positive for inhalants. The prevalence of subjects with a positive peanut or shrimp allergy in the inhalant-positive population was significantly greater than subjects with milk allergy (23.4% peanut [P = 0.008], 22.2% shrimp [P = 0.001], and 13.2% milk [P = 0.008], P = 0.001). For subjects with food allergy history, peanut had the best SP (100.0%), SE (28.1%), PPV (100.0%), and NPV (64.6%) in detecting allergies to other foods. In patients positive for the initial panel (inhalants and peanut), the SP, SE, PPV, and NPV of elevated total IgE was 71.4, 72.4, 77.8, and 65.2 percent, respectively. Peanut and shrimp were the most common foods encountered in adults with allergic rhinitis. Peanut was best in predicting other food allergies. Total IgE levels with inhalants plus peanut provided the optimal combination of SE, SP, PPV, and NPV. In vitro testing may be important to identify and prevent anaphylaxis to foods in adults. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cesarean section delivery and development of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma, Evangelia; Triga, Maria; Fouzas, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may predispose to allergic disorders, presumably due to alterations in the establishment of normal gut microbiota in early infancy. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between CS and physician-diagnosed food allergy and atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life, using data from a homogeneous, population-based, birth cohort. A total of 459 children born and cared for in the same tertiary maternity unit were examined at birth and followed up at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age. Participants with symptoms suggestive of food allergy or atopic dermatitis were evaluated by a pediatric allergy specialist to confirm the diagnosis based on well-defined criteria. The rate of CS was 50.8% (n = 233). Food allergy was diagnosed in 24 participants (5.2%) while atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 62 children (13.5%). Cesarean section (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.14-8.70), atopic dermatitis of the child (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.18-7.80), parental atopy (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.73-12.1), and gestational age (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.07-2.37) were significant and independent predictors of food allergy. Children with at least one allergic parent delivered by CS had higher probability of developing food allergy compared with vaginally delivered children of non-allergic parents (OR 10.0; 95% CI 3.06-32.7). Conversely, the effect of CS on atopic dermatitis was not significant (OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.74-2.47). Delivery by CS predisposes to the development of food allergy but not atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Cesarean section delivery seems to upregulate the immune response to food allergens, especially in children with allergic predisposition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Perinatal stress and food allergy: a preliminary study on maternal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, L; Ferruzza, E; Ronconi, L; Lazzarotto, F; Toniolo, A; Bonaguro, R; Muraro, A

    2015-01-01

    Maternal stress in fetal and early life has been associated with the development of respiratory allergies, but no studies exist about food allergy. Stressful events and the quality of caregiving provided, as they affect the emotional and physiologic regulation of the infant, could alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and immune system, facilitating an increased allergic response. This study aimed to investigate the influence of perinatal stress, as perceived by mothers, on developing food allergy in childhood. A survey on pregnancy and the first three months after giving birth was submitted to 59 Italian mothers of at least one child suffering from severe food allergy and one completely healthy child, for a total of 118 children examined. The presence of stressful events and the quality of perinatal period for each child were assessed retrospectively. The food allergic children's data were compared to siblings' data through inferential statistics. The results showed a significantly higher number of stressful events occurred during patients' perinatal period, compared to siblings, in particular bereavements in pregnancy and parenting difficulties in postpartum. Mothers reported harder pregnancies and more stressful, harder, and, in general, worse postpartum when referring to their food-allergic children, in comparison with their siblings (p food allergy; further studies are necessary to understand individual psychological impact and its relations with genetic and biological factors.

  14. EOSINOPHILIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT AND FOOD ALLERGY AMONG CHILDREN

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    P.V. Shumilov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the structure of the inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract among children, one may single out a specific group of the chronic pathology of the digestive apparatus — eosinophilic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gastroenterological manifestations of the food allergy. The food allergy is characterized by the pathologic immune reactivity among commonly genetically predisposed people. Depending on the peculiarities of the immune reactivity of a sick person and the nature of the allergen, the allergic reaction may evolve with primary involvement of the different mechanisms or th2 IgE-mediated, or Th1 non-igecmediated. Clinical picture of the food allergy is the manifestation of the immunoinflammatory process caused by the interaction of the food antigens with the structures of the lymphoid tissues associated with the mucous membranes of this or that target organ. The morphological basis of the clinical picture is mostly immune inflammation with primarily eosinophilic tissue infiltration. The eosinophilic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, eosinophilic enteritis, eosinophilic colitis, eosinophilic proctitis and other states. During the food allergy each of the clinical forms of the gastrointestinal tract lesion has its own peculiarities with regards to the primary development mechanism, age of manifestation, character of the run and behaviour tactics.Key words: eosinophilic inflammation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis, food allergy.

  15. Favorable trends in the frequency of U.S. emergency department visits for food allergy, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sunday; Espinola, Janice A; Rudders, Susan A; Banerji, Aleena; Camargo, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Several studies suggest an increase in both the prevalence of food allergy and in the frequency of emergency department (ED) visits for food-related allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. This study evaluates time trends in the frequency of ED visits for food allergy, with a focus on possible differences by age. Data from two multicenter ED-based studies were used to identify the proportion of patients assigned to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes with actual food-related acute allergic reaction and the proportion of these patients with food-induced anaphylaxis. We multiplied these proportions against counts from nationally representative data (2001-2009) to estimate the number of U.S. ED visits for each ICD-9-CM code with likely food allergy. Over the 9-year study period, there were ∼1,892,000 ED visits for food allergy. The number of ED visits for food allergy did not significantly change among children aged food allergy was stable for children (0.29% versus 0.28%; p = 0.22) but decreased for adults (0.18% versus 0.09%; p = 0.01). The number of U.S. ED visits for food-related acute allergic reactions is significantly higher than prior reports. These results also suggest that the frequency of ED visits for food allergy was stable or decreased from 2001 to 2009, despite reports suggesting an ongoing rise in the prevalence of food allergy.

  16. Food Allergy - Basic Mechanisms and Applications to Identifying Risks Associated with Plant Incorporated Pesticides and Other Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is a relatively new concern for toxicologists as a result of the incorporation of novel proteins into food crops in order to promote resistance to pests and other stresses, improve nutrition, or otherwise modify the phenotype. Food allergy can manifest as inflammatio...

  17. What do school personnel know, think and feel about food allergies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, Laura; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Toniolo, Alice; Ducolin, Giorgia; Muraro, Antonella

    2013-11-25

    The incidence of food allergy is such that most schools will be attended by at least one food allergic child, obliging school personnel to cope with cases at risk of severe allergic reactions. Schools need to know about food allergy and anaphylaxis management to ensure the personal safety of an increasing number of students. The aim of this study was to investigate Italian school teachers and principals' knowledge, perceptions and feelings concerning food allergy and anaphylaxis, to deeply understand how to effectively support schools to manage a severely allergic child. In addition a further assessment of the impact of multidisciplinary courses on participants was undertaken. 1184 school teachers and principals attended courses on food allergy and anaphylaxis management at school were questioned before and after their course. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the resulting data. Participants tended to overestimate the prevalence of food allergy; 79.3% were able to identify the foods most likely involved and 90.8% knew the most frequent symptoms. 81.9% were familiar with the typical symptoms of anaphylaxis but, while the majority (65.4%) knew that "adrenaline" is the best medication for anaphylaxis, only 34.5% knew indications of using adrenaline in children. 48.5% thoroughly understood dietary exclusion. School personnel considered that food allergic students could have social difficulties (10.2%) and/or emotional consequences (37.2%) because of their condition. "Concern" was the emotion that most respondents (66.9%) associated with food allergy. At the end of the course, the number of correct answers to the test increased significantly. Having adequately trained and cooperative school personnel is crucial to significantly reduce emergencies and fatal reactions. The results emphasize the need for specific educational interventions and improvements in school health policies to support schools to deal with allergic students ensuring their

  18. Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Keefe AW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrew W O'Keefe,1,2 Sarah De Schryver,1 Jennifer Mill,3 Christopher Mill,3 Alizee Dery,1 Moshe Ben-Shoshan1 1Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, NL, Canada; 3Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy. Keywords: skin prick testing, oral challenge, specific IgE, component testing, oral immunotherapy, epinephrine

  19. Food allergy among Iranian children with inflammatory bowel disease: A preliminary report

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    Farid Imanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence has shown a link between allergic disease and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs. We investigated food allergy in Iranian pediatric IBD patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a consecutive sample of children with newly diagnosed IBD referring to Mofid Children′s University Hospital in Tehran (Iran between November 2013 and March 2015. Data on age, gender, history of cow′s milk allergy (CMA, IBD type, routine laboratory tests, and colonoscopic and histopathological findings were gathered. Food allergy was assessed with the skin prick test (SPT. Results: A total of 28 patients including 19 ulcerative colitis (UC, 7 Cronh′s disease (CD, and two with unclassified colitis with a mean age of 8.3 ± 4.4 years. (57.1% females, 42.9% were studied. History of CMA was present in eight patients (28.6%. Seventeen patients (60.7% had at least one food allergy (68.4% of UC vs. 42.9% of CD, P = 0.230. Ten patients (35.7% had multiple food allergies (36.8% of UC vs. 42.9% of CD, P > 0.999. Common allergic foods were cow′s milk (28.6%, beef, seafood, albumen, wheat, and walnuts (each 10.7%, and peanuts and chestnuts (each 7.1%. The SPT showed CMA in 68.4% (8/17 of UC but none of the CD patients (P = 0.077. Conclusion: Food allergy is frequent in Iranian pediatric IBD patients with CMA being the most common observed allergy. The CMA seems to be more frequent in UC than in CD patients.

  20. Effects of food allergy on the dietary habits and intake of primary schools' Cypriot children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulou, E; Christoforou, C; Andreou, E; Heraclides, A

    2017-07-01

    Aim. To determine whether food allergy affects overall dietary intake and food choices in Cypriot primary school children. Methods. As part of the first epidemiological study in Cyprus on food allergy in primary school children, two 24-hour recalls (one from a week and one from a weekend day) of twenty-eight food allergic children (21 girls) and thirty healthy children (20 girls) aged 6-11 years old, were analysed and compared regarding their macro- and micronutrient content, food choices and meal distribution. Results. Significant differences between the two subgroups of children were estimated regarding the total energy intake and macronutrients, where food allergic children were found to consume in lower quantities, as well as for calcium, niacin, fiber and vitamin E. Food allergic children were also found to avoid combining foods from the various food groups in their meals, and to prefer specific food products from each category, whereas they consumed higher amounts of sugar and fructose. Conclusion. Food allergy in Cypriot food allergic children impacts on both the quality and quantity of food choices, probably due to lack of nutritional education regarding proper elimination diet and alternative nutrient sources.

  1. 436 Ten Years Follow up of Japanese Survey on Immediate Type Food Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Takanori; Sugizaki, Chizuko; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    Background The food labeling system for food allergens was introduced from April 2002 in Japan. To confirm the effectiveness of the system, we regularly conduct a nationwide food allergy survey every 3 years. Methods The survey was conducted in cooperation with over 1000 volunteer doctors in Japan at 2001+2002, 2005 and 2008. We have sent questionnaires to contributing doctors every 3 months based on the previous survey system, and contributing doctors were asked to report immediate type food...

  2. 492 Nationwide Survey of Immediate Type Food Allergy in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Takanori; Sugizaki, Chizuko; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2012-01-01

    Background The food labeling system for food allergens was introduced from April 2002 in Japan. To confirm the effectiveness of the system, we regularly conduct a nationwide food allergy survey every 3 years. Methods The survey was conducted in cooperation with over 1000 volunteer allergists in Japan at 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2008. We sent questionnaire to contributing doctors every 3 months based on the past survey system, and contributing doctors were asked to report immediate type food aller...

  3. New approach for food allergy management using low-dose oral food challenges and low-dose oral immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Yanagida

    2016-04-01

    With food allergies, removing the need to eliminate a food that could be consumed in low doses could significantly improve quality of life. This review discusses the importance of an OFC and OIT that use low doses of causative foods as the target volumes. Utilizing an OFC or OIT with a low dose as the target volume could be a novel approach for accelerating the tolerance to causative foods.

  4. Disparity between the presence and absence of food allergy action plans in one school district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, John M; Sease, Kerry K; Marshall, Gailen D

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Task Force of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; the American Academy of Pediatrics; and the National Association of School Nurses all recommend emergency action plans (EAPs) that direct therapy of allergic reactions in children. This study investigated the school nurse's perception of food allergies and their use of EAPs in food-allergic students in a large, socioeconomically diverse school district. An electronic and paper survey was developed and administered to all elementary and middle school nurses in Greenville County, SC. Forty-three of the eligible school nurses participated for a response rate of 64% (43/67). All of the participants worked at schools that had at least one student with food allergies (mean, nine students with food allergies per school; SD, seven students). Forty-four percent (19/43) of schools had a written action plan for all their food-allergic students, whereas in 42% (18/43) of schools, one-half or less of the food-allergic students, had an action plan. Seventy percent (30/43) of schools made at least one accommodation for students with food allergies and 23% (10/43) of schools made multiple accommodations. At least three additional school personnel were trained in administering rescue medications besides the school nurse in 86% (37/43) of schools, but in 5% (2/43) of schools no additional adults were trained to give rescue medications. Although multiple organizations recommend EAPs for food-allergic students, our study highlights their inconsistent use in this school district.

  5. Parenting and independent problem-solving in preschool children with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Power, Thomas G; Hahn, Amy L; Hoehn, Jessica L; Thompson, Caitlin C; Herbert, Linda J; Law, Emily F; Bollinger, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    To examine autonomy-promoting parenting and independent problem-solving in children with food allergy. 66 children with food allergy, aged 3-6 years, and 67 age-matched healthy peers and their mothers were videotaped while completing easy and difficult puzzles. Coders recorded time to puzzle completion, children's direct and indirect requests for help, and maternal help-giving behaviors. Compared with healthy peers, younger (3- to 4-year-old) children with food allergy made more indirect requests for help during the easy puzzle, and their mothers were more likely to provide unnecessary help (i.e., explain where to place a puzzle piece). Differences were not found for older children. The results suggest that highly involved parenting practices that are medically necessary to manage food allergy may spill over into settings where high levels of involvement are not needed, and that young children with food allergy may be at increased risk for difficulties in autonomy development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Food allergy and allergic rhinitis in 435 asian patients - A descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, K A; Pang, K P; Pang, E B; Tan, Y N; Chan, Y H; Siow, J K

    2017-08-01

    To describe the prevalence of food allergy in Asian patients with allergic rhinitis. A non-randomized prospectively collected patients over a three year period, with complaints of nose congestion, rhinorrhea and/or nasal discharge. There were 435 patients enrolled, 213 children and 222 adults. The children group had a high prevalence of allergen specific IgE to Dermatophagoides pteryonysinus (70%), Dermatophagoides farina (69%), and Blomia tropicalis (55%); followed by dogs (32%), cats (19%) and cockroaches (19%). In the children food allergy category, the top three allergens were egg white (54%), milk (31%) and soya bean (13%). The adult group had results of Dermatophagoides pteryonysinus (71%), Dermatophagoides farina (72%), and Blomia tropicalis (59%); the adult food allergy category, the top 3 allergens were egg white (13%), milk (6%) and soya bean (5%). There was a statistically significant difference in the child and adult group for Dust, D. pteryonysinus, D. farina, B.tropicalis, egg white, wheat, gluten and soya bean. In the age specific child groups, there was an increased in egg food allergy levels, with a peak at the age of five-nine years old and decreasing thereafter (p=0.04). In the children group, the mean Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) was 10.3 (range of 7 to 13); the adult group was similar, with a mean TNSS of 9.8 (range 5 to 12). The prevalence of food allergy in paediatric patients with allergic rhinitis is fairly high and should be considered when treating these children.

  7. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte proliferative responses to food allergens in dogs with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Hayashiya, Makio; Okayama, Taro

    2011-10-01

    Two different allergy tests, antigen-specific immunoglobulin E quantification (IgE test) and flow cytometric analysis of antigen-specific proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes (lymphocyte proliferation test), were performed to examine differences in allergic reactions to food allergens in dogs with food allergy (FA). Thirteen dogs were diagnosed as FA based on clinical findings and elimination diet trials. Seven dogs clinically diagnosed with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) were used as a disease control group, and 5 healthy dogs were used as a negative control group. In the FA group, 19 and 33 allergen reactions were identified using the serum IgE test and the lymphocyte proliferation test, respectively. Likewise, in the CAD group, 12 and 6 allergen reactions and in the healthy dogs 3 and 0 allergen reactions were identified by each test, respectively. A significant difference was found between FA and healthy dogs in terms of positive allergen detection by the lymphocyte proliferation test, suggesting that the test can be useful to differentiate FA from healthy dogs but not from CAD. Both tests were repeated in 6 of the dogs with FA after a 1.5- to 5-month elimination diet trial. The IgE concentrations in 9 of 11 of the positive reactions decreased by 20-80%, whereas all the positive reactions in the lymphocyte proliferation test decreased to nearly zero (Pfood allergens may be involved in the pathogenesis of canine FA.

  8. Emergency Department Visits for Food Allergy in Taiwan: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Fai Chan

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Seafood, fish, and fruits are common foods which cause acute allergic reactions in Taiwan. Although most food allergies are mild, anaphylactic shock still presents in about 1% of patients. Only a minority of patients with anaphylaxis receive epinephrine. As anaphylaxis may be life-threatening, prompt education and use of an epinephrine auto-injector deserves further concern.

  9. Food allergy guidelines and assessing allergic reaction risks: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luccioli, Stefano

    2012-06-01

    To review information in food allergy guidelines and the literature on assessing and understanding food allergic reaction risks. Current food allergy guidelines have focused on tools for better diagnosis of food allergy and treatment of reactions. These guidelines have not addressed the growing body of literature on risk assessment and diagnostic tools being used to assess dose-response relationships in relation to food-allergen exposures. The literature includes substantial data from food-allergen challenges performed in sensitive individuals, and probabilistic modeling of these data may help to elucidate the relationship between allergen dose exposures, including thresholds, and reaction risk in allergic individuals. Understanding this relationship has potential to improve the health-related quality of life of allergic consumers. Recent findings in the literature have highlighted improved diagnostic tools and other information that can be used to assess risks for allergic reaction to low-dose allergen exposures (thresholds) and reaction severity in food allergic consumers. Recommendations to better define and stratify allergic reaction risks for consumers could be adopted into guidelines for the diagnosis and clinical management of food allergy.

  10. DIGESTIBILITY AND ORAL TOLERANCE IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish allergens from non-allergens when exposed to foods orally, both in terms of oral tolerance and allergic antibody ...

  11. Development, validity and reliability of the food allergy independent measure (FAIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, J. L.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O.'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Child Form, -Teenager Form and -Adult Form (FAQLQ-CF, -TF and -AF) have recently been developed. To measure construct validity in the FAQLQs, a suitable independent measure was needed with which FAQLQ scores could be correlated. However, in food

  12. The diagnosis of food allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares-Weiser, K.; Takwoingi, Y.; Panesar, S. S.; Muraro, A.; Werfel, T.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Roberts, G.; Halken, S.; Poulsen, L.; van Ree, R.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Sheikh, A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the accuracy of tests used to diagnose food allergy. Skin prick tests (SPT), specific-IgE (sIgE), component-resolved diagnosis and the atopy patch test (APT) were compared with the reference standard of double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Seven databases were searched and

  13. Ige-mediated food allergy - current problems and future perspectives (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, T; Gotua, M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of FA have changed over time, and many studies have indeed suggested a true rise in prevalence over the past 10-20 years. Recent studies showed that prevalence of self-reported food allergy is 17, 3%, versus challenged confirmed - 0.9%. The majority of allergic reactions to foods, particularly in children, are suggested to be caused primarily by eight foods, namely cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Clinical symptoms of FA include skin, gastrointestinal and systemic reaction anaphylaxis that might be life-threatening and cause fatal reaction. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on SPT, sIgE measurements, component resolved diagnostics (CRD) and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) tests. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the causal foods. Patients should be provided an emergency action plan, including how to administer an epinephrine autoinjector. It is recommended that all infants be exclusively breast-fed, without maternal diet restriction of allergens, until 4 to 6 months of age. Recent studies have shown that oral immunotherapy (OIT) can induce desensitization and modulate allergen-specific immune responses. Further work to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of this therapy is ongoing and needed before they are used in the main-stream care of children or adults with food allergy.

  14. Familial aggregation of food allergy and sensitization to food allergens: a family-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H-J; Kumar, R; Pongracic, J; Liu, X; Story, R; Yu, Y; Caruso, D; Costello, J; Schroeder, A; Fang, Y; Demirtas, H; Meyer, K E; O'Gorman, M R G; Wang, X

    2009-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of food allergy (FA) is a growing clinical and public health problem. The contribution of genetic factors to FA remains largely unknown. This study examined the pattern of familial aggregation and the degree to which genetic factors contribute to FA and sensitization to food allergens. This study included 581 nuclear families (2,004 subjects) as part of an ongoing FA study in Chicago, IL, USA. FA was defined by a set of criteria including timing, clinical symptoms obtained via standardized questionnaire interview and corroborative specific IgE cut-offs for > or =95% positive predictive value (PPV) for food allergens measured by Phadia ImmunoCAP. Familial aggregation of FA as well as sensitization to food allergens was examined using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, with adjustment for important covariates including age, gender, ethnicity and birth order. Heritability was estimated for food-specific IgE measurements. FA in the index child was a significant and independent predictor of FA in other siblings (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.6, P=0.01). There were significant and positive associations among family members (father-offspring, mother-offspring, index-other siblings) for total IgE and specific IgE to all the nine major food allergens tested in this sample (sesame, peanut, wheat, milk, egg white, soy, walnut, shrimp and cod fish). The estimated heritability of food-specific IgE ranged from 0.15 to 0.35 and was statistically significant for all the nine tested food allergens. This family-based study demonstrates strong familial aggregation of FA and sensitization to food allergens, especially, among siblings. The heritability estimates indicate that food-specific IgE is likely influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Together, this study provides strong evidence that both host genetic susceptibility and environmental factors determine the complex trait of IgE-mediated FA.

  15. Clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal form of food allergy in children and approaches to its diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.R. Chernysh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal food allergy is caused by the development of allergic inflammation in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanisms of this inflammation are immunogflobulin E (IgE-mediated (oral allergic syndrome, immediate gastrointestinal hypersensitivity, non-IgE-mediated (protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, protein-induced enteropathy, protein-induced allergic proctocolitis and mixed IgE- and non-IgE-mediated reactions (eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastritis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergy are also combined with symptoms of atopic diseases, more often with atopic dermatitis, urticaria and angioedema. Clinical manifestations of allergic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract are different and non-specific. Common signs of gastrointestinal allergy include: vomiting (occurs from a few minutes to 4–6 hours after eating; сolic (immediately or several hours after eating; constipation; diarrhea; refusal of food (from a specific product or complete refusal to eat; abdominal pain; flatulence, the presence of mucus and eosinophils in the stool; poor appetite; headache. Differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal food allergy should be carried out with diseases such as disease and abnormalities in the development of the digestive system, mental and metabolic disorders, intoxications, infectious diseases, pancreatic endocrine gland failure, celiac disease, cystic fibrosis, immunodeficiencies, disaccharidic insufficiency, side effects of medications, endocrine pathology, irritable bowel syndrome. Methods for diagnosing gastrointestinal allergy, which currently exist, are limited and imperfect. This requires further scientific researches aimed at timely detection of this pathology, prevention in genetically predisposed children, development of optimal diagnostic algorithms, prevention of the progression of clinical manifestations, the choice of individual diet therapy and

  16. Food allergy management from the perspective of patients or caregivers, and allergists: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ya S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that the long term management of food allergy is suboptimal. Our study aims to provide direction for improvement, by evaluating food allergy management from the perspective of, food allergic patients or their caregivers, and allergists in selected outpatient settings in Ontario. Methods This two-part study included an anonymous questionnaire completed by patients or their caregivers in allergy clinics, and a qualitative interview with allergists. In Part A, food allergic patients or their caregivers were surveyed about information they received on food allergy, their level of confidence with self-management, and their learning needs. In Part B, allergists were interviewed about teaching priorities and the challenges and strategies that currently exist in food allergy management. The questionnaire was developed and piloted at the Hamilton Health Sciences Corporation-McMaster University Medical Center Site. Using convenience sampling, participants were recruited from 6 allergy clinics in 5 Ontario cities. Patients of any age with food allergy who were evaluated by an allergist were considered for inclusion. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency analysis. Audio recorded interviews with allergists were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis of grounded theory methodology. Results Ninety-two food allergic families in the care of 6 allergists in Toronto, Hamilton, London, Kitchener, and Kingston participated in the study. Key areas requiring improvement in food allergy management were identified: 33% of families were not shown how to use an epinephrine auto-injector with a trainer, only 57% were asked to demonstrate an auto-injector, despite being on average at their 5th visit, and only about 30% felt very confident about when and how to give an auto-injector. Fifty percent of families did not receive sufficient information on medical identification and 21

  17. Food allergy management from the perspective of patients or caregivers, and allergists: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Research has shown that the long term management of food allergy is suboptimal. Our study aims to provide direction for improvement, by evaluating food allergy management from the perspective of, food allergic patients or their caregivers, and allergists in selected outpatient settings in Ontario. Methods This two-part study included an anonymous questionnaire completed by patients or their caregivers in allergy clinics, and a qualitative interview with allergists. In Part A, food allergic patients or their caregivers were surveyed about information they received on food allergy, their level of confidence with self-management, and their learning needs. In Part B, allergists were interviewed about teaching priorities and the challenges and strategies that currently exist in food allergy management. The questionnaire was developed and piloted at the Hamilton Health Sciences Corporation-McMaster University Medical Center Site. Using convenience sampling, participants were recruited from 6 allergy clinics in 5 Ontario cities. Patients of any age with food allergy who were evaluated by an allergist were considered for inclusion. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequency analysis. Audio recorded interviews with allergists were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis of grounded theory methodology. Results Ninety-two food allergic families in the care of 6 allergists in Toronto, Hamilton, London, Kitchener, and Kingston participated in the study. Key areas requiring improvement in food allergy management were identified: 33% of families were not shown how to use an epinephrine auto-injector with a trainer, only 57% were asked to demonstrate an auto-injector, despite being on average at their 5th visit, and only about 30% felt very confident about when and how to give an auto-injector. Fifty percent of families did not receive sufficient information on medical identification and 21% did not receive information

  18. [Evaluation of the RAST in the diagnosis of children with food allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, R R; Mora, P M

    1996-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic value of RAST in children with symptoms of airways allergy and probable food allergy. We studied 17 children under 6 years old with rhinitis or asthma. The underwent a food elimination diet during 4 weeks followed by weekly ambulatory oral food challenge. Cough, wheezing, dyspnea, rhinorrea and nasal itch and blockage were evaluated, daily by their parents and weekly at the hospital. We found no difference between the clinical evaluation made by their parents and at the hospital. We found 16/76 positive oral food challenges. RAST was positive in 44 foods. Cow's milk and egg were the more frequent positive foods both in oral challenge and RAST, 5 and 6, and 14 and 14, respectively. Serum IgE had an average of 350 UI/ml. RAST evaluation results were sensitivily 62.5%, specificity 43.3%; positive predictive value 22.7%, negative predictive value 81.3% and total efficacy 47.4%. We can conclude that food allergy can be a frequent cause of airways allergy symptoms in children under 6 years old and although in cases, RAST is considered the best in vitro diagnostic test, its results should be symptoms related and cautiosly interpreted.

  19. Ethical principles as a guide in implementing policies for the management of food allergies in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Jason

    2010-06-01

    Food allergy in children is a growing public health problem that carries a significant risk of anaphylaxis such that schools and child care facilities have enacted emergency preparedness policies for anaphylaxis and methods to prevent the inadvertent consumption of allergens. However, studies indicate that many facilities are poorly prepared to handle the advent of anaphylaxis and policies for the prevention of allergen exposure are missing essential components. Furthermore, certain policies are inappropriate because they are blatantly discriminatory. This article aims to provide further guidance for school health officials involved in creating food allergy policies. By structuring policies around ethical principles of confidentiality and anonymity, fairness, avoiding stigmatization, and empowerment, policy makers gain another method to support better policy making. The main ethical principles discussed are adapted from key values in the bioethics and public health ethics literatures and will be framed within the specific context of food allergy policies for schools.

  20. The Relationship Between the Status of Unnecessary Accommodations Being Made to Unconfirmed Food Allergy Students and the Presence or Absence of a Doctor’s Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurika Ganaha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the current state of unnecessary children food allergy accommodation and the medical efforts to confirm the existence of food allergies in school lunch service kitchens in Okinawa, Japan, including kitchens accommodating food allergy students by requiring medical documentation at the start and during provisions being made (Double Diagnosis, requiring medical documentation at the start only (Single Diagnosis, and with no medical documentation (Non-Diagnosis. Unnecessary accommodations are being made to unconfirmed food allergy students, wherein the more medical consultation was required, the lower the food allergy incident rate was and the more food allergens were diagnosed (Non-Diagnosis > Single Diagnosis > Double Diagnosis. This study suggests the possibility that unconfirmed food allergy students may be receiving unnecessary food allergy accommodations per school lunches, and the number of unnecessary food allergy provisions being made could be reduced by requiring medical documentation at the start and during these provisions.

  1. Quality of life in childhood, adolescence and adult food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Nielsen, D

    2017-01-01

    completed by 73 children, 49 adolescents and 29 adults with peanut, hazelnut or egg allergy. Parents (197 mothers, 120 fathers) assessed their child's HRQL using the FAQLQ-Parent form. Clinical data and threshold values were obtained from a hospital database. Significant factors for HRQL were investigated...

  2. School personnel's self-efficacy in managing food allergy and anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, Laura; Baldi, Ileana; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Bonaguro, Roberta; Toniolo, Alice; Celegato, Nicolò; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy affects up to 4-7% European schoolchildren. Studies identified important shortcomings on food allergy and anaphylaxis management in schools. In social cognitive theory, personal beliefs in own capabilities influence choices, effort levels, perseverance and performance accomplishments. This study aimed to investigate school personnel's self-efficacy in managing food allergy and anaphylaxis, providing a valid instrument to deeply understand how to support schools to effectively manage students at risk of food reactions. A total of 440 schoolteachers and caretakers from north-east Italy completed a questionnaire assessing self-efficacy in managing food allergy and anaphylaxis at school. Exploratory factor analysis was performed. Factors' internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Factors' scores were estimated using Bartlett approach, and kernel density estimate of distributions was provided. Descriptive statistics explored school personnel's self-efficacy. A regression model assessed the influence of gender, school, job and previous experience. Two factors emerged from exploratory factor analysis related to anaphylaxis management (AM) and food allergy management (FAM). The two subscales both showed good internal consistency. School personnel showed lower self-efficacy in recognizing symptoms, administering drugs and guaranteeing full participation to extra-curricular activities to food-allergic students. Participants who previously had food-allergic students showed a significantly increased self-efficacy in AM and a significantly decreased self-efficacy in FAM. The study supports the use of self-efficacy scale to identify specific areas where teachers' confidence in their ability to care for food-allergic students is especially weak. This would empower the development of training programs specifically tailored to the needs of teachers and caregivers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Woicka-Kolejwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim: To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods : We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013 in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results : We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI, asthma and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%, 96 (34.3%, 39 (13.9%, respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to -lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87. In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62; sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75. We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions : Sensitization to -lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis.

  4. FAST: towards safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy of persistent life-threatening food allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan Laurian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT, using subcutaneous injections with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1 and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3, respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre-clinical testing (toxicology testing and efficacy in mouse models, SCIT with alum-absorbed hypoallergens will be evaluated in phase I/IIa and IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC clinical trials, with the DBPC food challenge as primary read-out. To understand the underlying immune mechanisms in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold for fish or peach intake, thereby decreasing their anxiety and dependence on rescue medication.

  5. The relationship of rhinitis and asthma, sinusitis, food allergy, and eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ricardo A; Corren, Jonathan

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiologic, genetic, immunologic, and clinical studies show a close relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. Rhinitis and sinusitis often coexist and are commonly referred to with the term rhinosinusitis. These conditions are also linked in the so-called atopic march, which is the sequential appearance of atopic manifestations starting with atopic dermatitis and later followed by food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Allergic rhinitis and asthma are now increasingly being approached diagnostically and therapeutically as the one-airway concept. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe : A patient-based cost of illness study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Margaret; Mugford, Miranda; Voordouw, Jantine; Cornelisse-Vermaat, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; de la Hoz Caballer, Belen; Cerecedo, Inma; Zamora, Javier; Rokicka, Ewa; Jewczak, Maciej; Clark, Allan B; Kowalski, Marek L; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Knulst, Anna C; Seneviratne, Suranjith; Belohlavkova, Simona; Asero, Roberto; de Blay, Frederic; Purohit, Ashok; Clausen, Michael; Flokstra de Blok, Bertine; Dubois, Anthony E; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Burney, Peter; Frewer, Lynn J; Mills, Clare E N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Food allergy is a recognized health problem, but little has been reported on its cost for health services. The EuroPrevall project was a European study investigating the patterns, prevalence and socio-economic cost of food allergy. Aims: To investigate the health service cost for

  7. Translation to Portuguese and cultural adaptation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couto, M; Silva, D; Piedade, S; Borrego, Lm; Flokstra-de Blok, B; Dunn Galvin, A; Morais-Almeida, M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a health problem with significant negative impact in Quality of Life (QoL). We aimed to translate into Portuguese and culturally adapt to our population the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). Cross-cultural translation was performed according to

  8. Test-retest reliability of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ) for children, adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jantina L.; Flokstra-de Blok, Bertine M. J.; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J.; Oude Elberink, Joanne N. G.; Schouten, Jan P.; DunnGalvin, Audrey; Hourihane, Jonathan O.'B.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Dubois, Anthony E. J.

    2009-01-01

    The self-administered Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF), -Teenager Form (FAQLQ-TF) and -Adult Form (FAQLQ-AF) were recently developed within EuroPrevall, a multi-centred study of food allergy in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest

  9. Adverse reactions to foods and food allergy: development and reproducibility of a questionnaire for clinical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Nilza R S; Motta, Maria E F A; Rocha, Luiz A R; Solé, Dirceu; Peixoto, Décio M; Rizzo, José A; Taborda-Barata, Luis; Sarinho, Emanuel S C

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop a questionnaire as a screening tool for adverse reactions to foods in children and to assess the technical reproducibility by test-retest. Methods. Reproducibility of the questionnaire was performed by the literature review, preparing the preliminary questionnaire, peer review, pretest, and retest analysis. The study of the test-retest reproducibility was cross-sectional and descriptive. Kappa coefficient was used to study the reproducibility of the questionnaire. The sample consisted of 125 2-4 year-old children from 15 daycare centers in Recife, Brazil, and interviews with parents or caregivers were used to collect data. Results. From the total children, sixty-three were boys (50.4%), forty-six were two years old (36.8%), forty-seven were three years old (37.6%), and thirty-two were four years old (25.6%). Forty caregivers reported that their child had health problems with food. Most frequently reported offending foods were milk, peanuts, shrimp, and chocolate. Nine questions showed a good Kappa index (≥0,6). Conclusions. The questionnaire used needs to be resized and reshaped on the basis of the issues with good internal consistency and reproducibility. The use of a validated and reproducible questionnaire in the children represents an important contribution towards assessing an eventual rise in overt food allergy.

  10. Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Allergy: Development and Reproducibility of a Questionnaire for Clinical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilza R. S. Lyra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop a questionnaire as a screening tool for adverse reactions to foods in children and to assess the technical reproducibility by test-retest. Methods. Reproducibility of the questionnaire was performed by the literature review, preparing the preliminary questionnaire, peer review, pretest, and retest analysis. The study of the test-retest reproducibility was cross-sectional and descriptive. Kappa coefficient was used to study the reproducibility of the questionnaire. The sample consisted of 125 2–4 year-old children from 15 daycare centers in Recife, Brazil, and interviews with parents or caregivers were used to collect data. Results. From the total children, sixty-three were boys (50.4%, forty-six were two years old (36.8%, forty-seven were three years old (37.6%, and thirty-two were four years old (25.6%. Forty caregivers reported that their child had health problems with food. Most frequently reported offending foods were milk, peanuts, shrimp, and chocolate. Nine questions showed a good Kappa index (≥0,6. Conclusions. The questionnaire used needs to be resized and reshaped on the basis of the issues with good internal consistency and reproducibility. The use of a validated and reproducible questionnaire in the children represents an important contribution towards assessing an eventual rise in overt food allergy.

  11. Food allergies in school: design and evaluation of a teacher-oriented training action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravarotto, Licia; Mascarello, Giulia; Pinto, Anna; Schiavo, Maria Rita; Bagni, Marina; Decastelli, Lucia

    2014-12-04

    Food allergies are perceived as a significant problem in school environments; as a result, a teacher's ability to recognise and deal with allergic reactions is of fundamental importance to protect children's health. This paper includes the results of a study conducted for the purposes of designing, implementing and monitoring a specific set of teacher-oriented communication actions. The study involved designing, implementing and assessing five workshops. These workshops were designed on the basis of the analysis of perceptions and information needs investigated by three focus groups (25 teachers). The level of the teachers' knowledge and appreciation of the workshops was evaluated by using two structured questionnaires (n = 158). The teachers feel that they are insufficiently informed about food allergies; this knowledge gap is confirmed by an analysis of their knowledge before participating in the workshops. According to the teachers, the information which would be most useful to them has to do with the practical management of allergies in school. They feel that there is a lack of a professional contact person for precise and reliable information on health issues. The workshops seem to be appreciated as an information method. In addition, there appears to be a need to involve all children in awareness raising activities and education projects on this subject. There is an urgent need for training actions on food allergies in Italian schools, in particular the communication of practical information regarding the management of allergies and emergencies. More communication between the medical and school staff is, in particular, advisable.

  12. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in Cartagena (Colombia) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo, J; Hernández, L; Villalba, V

    2008-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is an important health problem in western societies; however, there are no data available from developing countries. Studies based on self-reported symptoms range from 1.4 % to 33 %, and it is supposed that FA is more prevalent early in life. To our knowledge in Latin America there has not been a report on prevalence estimates for food allergy in unselected population-based studies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported food allergy, the most frequent symptoms, the allergens, and the risk factors for FA in a population from Cartagena (Colombia). This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 3099 (55.4 % Female, and 44.6 % Male) individuals in a randomised selection, aged 1-83 years, living in neighbourhoods in Cartagena, were asked questions about personal and family history of allergies and food allergy. The overall prevalence of self-reported FA was 14.9 % (Total 461 subjects, 16.4 % female, 12.8 % male). Fruit/vegetables (41.8 %), seafood (26.6 %), and meats (20.8 %), were the most reported allergens. The most frequently reported symptoms were skin (61.4 %), gastrointestinal (29.1 %), and respiratory reactions (8.6 %). FA was most frequent in subjects reporting atopic diseases (62.9 % vs. 29.6 %, chi2 test, p Cartagena population. Fruit/vegetables, seafood, and meats were the most reported allergens. Skin and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most frequent manifestation of FA. Our study is the first report on prevalence estimates for food allergy in a Latin American country.

  13. EAACI Guidelines on allergen immunotherapy: IgE-mediated food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajno, G B; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Arasi, S; Roberts, G; Akdis, C A; Alvaro-Lozano, M; Beyer, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; Ebisawa, M; Eigenmann, P; Knol, E; Nadeau, K C; Poulsen, L K; van Ree, R; Santos, A F; du Toit, G; Dhami, S; Nurmatov, U; Boloh, Y; Makela, M; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N; Sackesen, C; Agache, I; Angier, E; Halken, S; Jutel, M; Lau, S; Pfaar, O; Ryan, D; Sturm, G; Varga, E-M; van Wijk, R G; Sheikh, A; Muraro, A

    2017-09-27

    Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impairment of quality of life, and healthcare expenditure. There is therefore interest in novel strategies for its treatment, particularly food allergen immunotherapy (FA-AIT) through the oral (OIT), sublingual (SLIT), or epicutaneous (EPIT) routes. This Guideline, prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Task Force on Allergen Immunotherapy for IgE-mediated Food Allergy, aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for active treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy with FA-AIT. Immunotherapy relies on the delivery of gradually increasing doses of specific allergen to increase the threshold of reaction while on therapy (also known as desensitization) and ultimately to achieve post-discontinuation effectiveness (also known as tolerance or sustained unresponsiveness). Oral FA-AIT has most frequently been assessed: here, the allergen is either immediately swallowed (OIT) or held under the tongue for a period of time (SLIT). Overall, trials have found substantial benefit for patients undergoing either OIT or SLIT with respect to efficacy during treatment, particularly for cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut allergies. A benefit post-discontinuation is also suggested, but not confirmed. Adverse events during FA-AIT have been frequently reported, but few subjects discontinue FA-AIT as a result of these. Taking into account the current evidence, FA-AIT should only be performed in research centers or in clinical centers with an extensive experience in FA-AIT. Patients and their families should be provided with information about the use of FA-AIT for IgE-mediated food allergy to allow them to make an informed decision about the therapy. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  14. Heat-induced structural changes affect OVA-antigen processing and reduce allergic response in mouse model of food allergy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golias, Jaroslav; Schwarzer, Martin; Wallner, Michael; Kverka, Miloslav; Kozakova, Hana; Srutkova, Dagmar; Klimesova, Klara; Sotkovsky, Petr; Palova-Jelinkova, Lenka; Ferreira, Fatima; Tuckova, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    The egg protein ovalbumin (OVA) belongs to six most frequent food allergens. We investigated how thermal processing influences its ability to induce allergic symptoms and immune responses in mouse model of food allergy...

  15. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON THE PROFILE OF FOOD ALLERGY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC URTICARIA IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal Panicker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Skin allergy in the form of urticaria is commonly encountered. Food allergy is one of the common aetiologies responsible for this clinical situation. Identifying the offending allergens and avoidance is one of the most important measures which may help in the management of skin allergy. Skin prick test is one of the most reliable and safe method of identifying food allergens. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted to identify the skin sensitivity to various food allergens in patients with chronic urticaria and to study the regional pattern of food allergy in Kerala. 100 atopic patients with complaints of chronic urticaria were selected for the study. Skin prick allergy testing with 30 food allergens were performed in the above patients by skin prick test method. RESULTS 98% of patients with chronic urticaria had some form of food allergy. Common offending food allergens were wheat (28%, garlic (22%, ground nut (20%, cashew nut (18%, prawns (17%, ginger (16%, peas (12% and black pepper (10%. CONCLUSION Food allergy is common in chronic urticaria. Skin prick test is a reliable and safe method to identify food allergens. Most common offending food allergens were wheat, garlic, ground nut, cashew nut, prawns, ginger, peas and black pepper.

  16. Study on Patients Who Underwent Suspected Diagnosis of Allergy to Amide-Type Local Anesthetic Agents by the Leukocyte Migration Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Saito

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions:: There is a high possibility that these adverse reactions were caused by pseudoallergy to drug. Even by allergic reactions, it was assumed that 80% of them might be caused by antiseptic agents such as paraben. In addition, it was suggested that ALAs, especially lidocaine hydrochloride preparations have high antigenicity (sensitizing property. Furthermore, it was considered that patients with past history of drug or food allergies have a high potential for manifestation of the reactions.

  17. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Pajno, Giovanni Battista

    2016-01-01

    allergy. METHODS: We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established...... instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised. DISCUSSION: The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recommendations for EAACI's Guidelines on AIT....

  18. Probiotics in the Treatment and Prevention of Allergies in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Savilahti, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    Several studies on the pathogenesis of allergy both in man and experimental animals continue to show the importance of commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract in stimulating and directing the immune system. The interest in modulating commensal bacteria flora with pre- and probiotics to prevent and treat food allergy has multiplied in recent years. We recently studied 230 infants with atopic dermatitis and suspected cow’s milk allergy. The infants were randomly allocated to groups whi...

  19. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvilla, S A; Dubois, A E J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Panesar, S S; Worth, A; Patel, S; Muraro, A; Halken, S; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; Regent, L; de Jong, N W; Roberts, G; Sheikh, A

    2014-07-01

    This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires are significantly more sensitive than generic ones in measuring the response to interventions or future treatments, as well as estimating the general burden of food allergy. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify which disease-specific, validated instruments can be employed to enable assessment of the impact of, and investigations and interventions for, IgE-mediated food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Using a sensitive search strategy, we searched seven electronic bibliographic databases to identify disease-specific quality of life (QOL) tools relating to IgE-mediated food allergy. From the 17 eligible studies, we identified seven disease-specific HRQL instruments, which were then subjected to detailed quality appraisal. This revealed that these instruments have undergone formal development and validation processes, and have robust psychometric properties, and therefore provide a robust means of establishing the impact of food allergy on QOL. Suitable instruments are now available for use in children, adolescents, parents/caregivers, and adults. Further work must continue to develop a clinical minimal important difference for food allergy and for making these instruments available in a wider range of European languages. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Efficacy of the Use of Probiotic Therapy in Young Children with Food Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Ivakhnenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study — to evaluate the efficacy of inclusion of probiotics Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (1 × 109 CFU and Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (1 × 108 CFU in the compbined treatment of atopic dermatitis in infants on the background of food allergy to cow’s milk protein. The study revealed that the addition of probiotics Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (1 × 109 CFU, and Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (1 × 108 CFU for 4 weeks in infants with atopic dermatitis and proved allergy to cow’s milk protein against the elimination diet and basic treatment improves the clinical course of the disease, has a significantly positive impact on the clinical course of atopic dermatitis, reduces gastrointestinal symptoms of food allergies and has little influence on the occurrence of obstructive bronchitis.

  1. Racial Differences in Food Allergy Phenotype and Health Care Utilization among US Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Fox, Susan R; Smith, Bridget M; James, Christine; Palmisano, Erica L; Mohammed, Aisha; Zahid, Zeeshan; Assa'ad, Amal H; Tobin, Mary C; Gupta, Ruchi S

    Food allergy (FA) is a prevalent condition in the United States, but little is known about its phenotypes in racial minority groups. The objective of this study was to characterize disease phenotypes and disparities in health care utilization among African American (AA), Hispanic, and white children with FA. We conducted a large, 2-center, retrospective cohort study of children aged 0-17 years with FA seen in allergy/immunology clinics at 2 urban tertiary care centers in the United States. We used multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, and insurance. The cohort of 817 children was composed of 35% AA, 12% Hispanic, and 53% non-Hispanic white. Compared with non-Hispanic white children, AA children had significantly higher odds of having asthma and eczema (P allergy to wheat, soy, corn, fish, and shellfish (P allergy to corn, fish, and shellfish (P allergy specialist and higher rates of FA-related anaphylaxis and emergency department visits (P Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Evaluation of a Food Allergy and Epinephrine Autoinjector Training Program for Personnel Who Care for Children in Schools and Community Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Ann; Stephens, Hilary; Ruffo, Mark; Jones, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    With the dramatic increase in the incidence of food allergies, nurses and other school personnel are likely to encounter a child with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of in-person training on enhancing knowledge about food allergies and improving self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating…

  3. Peanut allergy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hourihane, Jonathan O'B

    2011-04-01

    Peanut allergy may affect up to 2% of children in some countries, making it one of the most common conditions of childhood. Peanut allergy is a marker of a broad and possibly severe atopic phenotype. Nearly all children with peanut allergy have other allergic conditions. Peanut accounts for a disproportionate number of fatal and near fatal food-related allergies. Families with a child or children with peanut allergy can struggle to adapt to the stringent avoidance measures required. Although oral induction of tolerance represents the cutting edge of peanut allergy management, it is not yet ready for routine practice.

  4. The epidemiology of food allergy in Europe : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nwaru, B. I.; Hickstein, L.; Panesar, S. S.; Muraro, A.; Werfel, T.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; Halken, S.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Poulsen, L. K.; Roberts, G.; Van Ree, R.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Sheikh, A.

    Food allergy (FA) is an important atopic disease although its precise burden is unclear. This systematic review aimed to provide recent, up-to-date data on the incidence, prevalence, time trends, and risk and prognostic factors for FA in Europe. We searched four electronic databases, covering

  5. Assessing Teachers' Confidence in Implementing Food Allergy Emergency Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Keturah-Elizabeth Harriett

    2017-01-01

    Food allergies are an increasing health concern in the United States, affecting nearly 6 million children under the age of 18 years. Research has suggested that 18% of school-age children will have their first allergic reactions at school. Life-threatening allergic reactions experienced by children in the school setting are on the rise; however,…

  6. Evaluation of an Online Educational Program for Parents and Caregivers of Children With Food Allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Baqués, A; Contreras-Porta, J; Marques-Mejías, M; Cárdenas Rebollo, J M; Capel Torres, F; Ariño Pla, M N; Zorrozua Santisteban, A; Chivato, T

    2018-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of food allergy affects both patients and their families. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an online educational program designed for parents and caregivers of children with food allergies. The program was developed by a multidisciplinary group comprising health care professionals, researchers, and expert patients under the participatory medicine model. Participants took a 2-week online educational program covering major topics in food allergy management. General knowledge about the disease, symptoms, treatment, and topics relevant to families' daily lives were evaluated. The contents included educational videos, online forums, and live video chats. A pretest/posttest questionnaire survey was used to evaluate the impact of the program. A total of 207 participants enrolled in the educational program, which was completed by 130 (62.8%). Knowledge acquisition improved significantly following participation in the program in 15 out of 30 items (50%), reaching P<.001 for 8 items (26.7%). Of the 207 participants who started the program, 139 (67.1%) visited online forums, and 27.5% attended video chats. Average overall satisfaction with the educational program was 8.78 (on a scale of 0 to 10). The results obtained show that parents improved their knowledge in all areas of food allergy. The high level of satisfaction among participants suggests that digital learning tools are effective and motivational, enabling patients to acquire appropriate knowledge and thus increasing their quality of life.

  7. Time Trends in Food Allergy Diagnoses, Epinephrine Orders, and Epinephrine Administrations in New York City Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuille, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Cheryl; Volel, Caroline; Sicherer, Scott H; Wang, Julie

    2017-11-01

    To assess time trends in food allergy diagnoses, epinephrine autoinjector (EAI) prescriptions, and EAI administrations in the school setting. In this retrospective study, deidentified student data from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, which oversees >1 million students in 1800 schools, were provided to investigators. Data from school years 2007-2008 to 2012-2013 pertaining to diagnoses of food allergy, student-specific EAI orders, and EAI administrations among students in New York City were analyzed for trends over time, via the use of ORs and χ2 calculation. The prevalences of providing physician documentation of food allergy and EAI orders, and the incidence of EAI administrations, all increased approximately 3-fold over the years of the study. Of 337 EAI administrations, more than one-half used stock EAI, and three-quarters were for students without a student-specific order preceding the incident. The rise in food allergy diagnoses, EAI prescriptions, and EAI administrations suggest either a true increase in allergic disease, increased reporting, and/or, in the case of EAI administrations, increased appropriate use. As the majority of EAI administrations used stock supply, availability of nonstudent-specific stock EAI appears vital to management of anaphylaxis in schools. Collaboration between physicians, families, and schools is needed to identify students at risk for severe allergic reactions and to ensure preparedness and availability of EAI in the event of anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance in the adult Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. J.; Kardinaal, A. F.; Huijbers, G.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B. J.; Martens, B. P.; Ockhuizen, T.

    1994-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy and intolerance (FA/FI) was studied in a random sample (n = 1483) of the Dutch adult population. First, the self-reported FA/FI reactions were investigated by questionnaire. Subsequently, in a clinical follow-up study, it was determined in how many cases this

  9. Development, validity and reliability of the food allergy independent measure (FAIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, J. L.; Flokstra-de Blok, B. M. J.; Vlieg - Boerstra, B. J.; Oude Elberink, J. N. G.; DunnGalvin, A.; Hourihane, J. O'B.; Duiverman, E. J.; Dubois, A. E. J.

    Background: The Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire-Child Form, -Teenager Form and -Adult Form (FAQLQ-CF, -TF and -AF) have recently been developed. To measure construct validity in the FAQLQs, a suitable independent measure was needed with which FAQLQ scores could be correlated. However, in

  10. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p allergic rhinitis and PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  11. Food allergy-related paediatric constipation: the usefulness of atopy patch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrigou, Ekaterini I; Pitsios, Constantinos; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Chouliaras, Georgios; Kitsiou, Sofia; Kanariou, Mary; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the implication of food allergy as a cause of paediatric constipation and to determine the diet period needed to tolerate the constipation-causing foods. Fifty-four children aged 6 months to 14 years (median, 42 months) suffering from chronic constipation (without anatomic abnormalities, cοeliac disease or hypothyroidism), unresponsive to a 3-month laxative therapy, were prospectively evaluated. All participants were evaluated for allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, rice, corn, potato, chicken, beef and soy, using skin tests (SPT), serum specific IgE and atopy patch test (APT). A withdrawal of the APT-positive foods was instructed. Thirty-two children had positive APT; 15 were positive to one; six, to two and 11, to three or more food allergens, wheat and egg being the commonest. After withdrawing the APT-positive foods for an 8-week period, constipation had improved in 28/32 children, but a relapse of constipation was noticed after an oral food challenge, so they continued the elimination diet. Tolerance to food allergens was achieved in only 6/28 after 6 months, compared to 25/28 after 12 months and to all after a 2-year-long elimination. Food allergy seems to be a significant etiologic factor for chronic constipation not responding to treatment, in infants and young children. APT was found to be useful in evaluating non-IgE allergy-mediated constipation, and there was no correlation of APT with IgE detection. Tolerance was adequately achieved after 12 months of strict food allergen elimination.

  12. Improvement of teacher food allergy knowledge in socioeconomically diverse schools after educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sweta S; Parker, Crystal L; Davis, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    Increasingly, teachers are the first respondents to food allergic reactions in schools. Studies of food allergy in school settings have identified deficiencies in teacher recognition and treatment of reactions. We sought to determine the effect of a didactic session on teacher knowledge of the causative foods, symptoms, and treatment of reactions in diverse elementary schools. An educational intervention project using a pretest-posttest control group design was performed. Teacher knowledge about food allergy causes, symptoms, and treatment of food allergic reactions was assessed. The average percentage of correctly answered questions by teachers at baseline for each school ranged from 60% to 68%. After education, teachers at the intervention schools answered 24.6% to 34.6% (confidence interval = 21.5-74.1 and 32.1-103.9, respectively) more questions correctly compared with 4.0% to 4.3% (confidence interval = 2.5-21.6 and 0.9-31.0, respectively) in control schools. Education significantly increased teacher knowledge of food allergy causes, symptoms, and treatment of food allergic reactions in diverse schools.

  13. Basophil-derived IL-4 promotes epicutaneous antigen sensitization concomitant with the development of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Maryam; Borcard, Loïc; Walsh, Kevin P; Pena Rodriguez, Maria; Mueller, Christoph; Kim, Brian S; Kubo, Masato; Artis, David; Noti, Mario

    2017-04-06

    Exaggerated thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) production and infiltration of basophils are associated with the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD), a recognized risk factor for the development of food allergies. Although TSLP and basophils have been implicated in promotion of food-induced allergic disorders in response to epicutaneous sensitization, the mechanisms by which TSLP-elicited basophils guide the progression of allergic inflammation in the skin to distant mucosal sites, such as the gastrointestinal tract, are poorly understood. We sought to test the role of basophil-intrinsic IL-4 production in TH2 sensitization to food antigens in the skin and effector food-induced allergic responses in the gut. Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin on an AD-like skin lesion, followed by intragastric antigen challenge to induce IgE-mediated food allergy. The requirement for basophil-derived IL-4 production for TH2 polarization and the pathogenesis of IgE-mediated food allergy was assessed in vitro by using coculture experiments with naive T cells and in vivo by using Il4 3'UTR mice that selectively lack IL-4 production in basophils. Epicutaneous food antigen sensitization is associated with infiltration of IL-4-competent innate immune cells to the skin, with basophils and eosinophils representing the predominant populations. In contrast to basophils, absence of eosinophils did not alter disease outcome. Coculture of IL-4-competent basophils together with dendritic cells and naive T cells was sufficient to promote TH2 polarization in an IL-4-dependent manner in vitro, whereas absence of basophil-intrinsic IL-4 production in vivo was associated with reduced food-induced allergic responses. TSLP-elicited basophils promote epicutaneous sensitization to food antigens and subsequent IgE-mediated food allergy through IL-4. Strategies to target the TSLP-basophil-IL-4 axis in patients with AD might lead to innovative therapies that can prevent the

  14. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the Food Allergy Research and Education website. Reading Food Labels Makers of foods sold in the ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  15. Management of Food Allergy in Japan “Food Allergy Management Guideline 2008 (Revision from 2005)” and “Guidelines for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases in Schools”

    OpenAIRE

    Motohiro Ebisawa

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the “Food Allergy Management Guideline 2005” was published. In order to encompass food allergy from infancy to adulthood, the project committee included not only pediatricians, but also internists, dermatologists, and otolaryngologists. After the release of the guideline, oral food challenge tests were approved as a medical examination on hospital admission by the national health insurance system in 2006, and the tests at outpatient clinics were also approved in 2008. As clearly stat...

  16. An Analysis of “Natural” Food Litigation to Build a Sesame Allergy Consumer Class Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Dana

    In a world where food allergy is still an incurable disease, law and regulation stand as necessary mechanisms to provide food-allergic consumers with the information they need to protect their health. The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 provided specific labeling requirements for the “Top Eight” allergens in the U.S.: milk, soy, gluten, egg, tree nut, peanut, fish, and Crustacean shellfish. Since then, sesame has become more prevalent as an allergen and remains just as dangerous, inducing anaphylactic shock in some sesame-allergic individuals. Yet sesame remains unregulated, despite advocates and congressional members arguing for its inclusion. This note entertains one solution to this problem by exploring the most strategic way to bring a sesame allergy class action against a private food company under California’s consumer protection statutes. Because this kind of class action does not have much, if any, precedent, this note analyzes the basic, preliminary issues that any litigant would have to navigate around to certify a class, including preemption, standing, and the claim itself, by focusing on how courts have examined these issues in the recent “natural” class action litigation. It also analyzes the legal, moral, and practical aspects of choosing a type of relief, as well as whom to include in the class. Finally, this note briefly considers how FDA itself can ensure sesame is regulated on the labels of food products, given that some of the legal issues may well be insurmountable for this particular class action. This note explores the potential solutions to difficult legal hurdles in constructing a sesame allergy class action, arguing that litigating a sesame allergy class action—even if it is not ultimately successful—could start a productive conversation that might lead Congress or FDA to provide greater public health and consumer protection for those with sesame allergy.

  17. Diagnosis and management of food allergy and intolerance in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, J; Harvey, R

    1994-10-01

    This paper reviews food allergy and intolerance in dogs and cats. Adverse reactions to ingested food components can affect many systems and can produce signs involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and central nervous system, and these clinical signs are reviewed. Most basic food ingredients have the potential to induce an allergic response, although most reactions are caused by proteins. In particular, dogs and cats can become sensitive to cow's milk, beef, fish or cereal. Food allergy and intolerance is rare in dogs and cats, although the incidence in practice is difficult to establish. Clinical signs are quite variable, depending on the individual response, although the major clinical sign is pruritus. Diagnosis can be difficult, as there is no single test available to help the clinician to confirm or refute the presence of food sensitivity. Diagnosis is based on dietary investigation in the form of elimination diets and test meals. Elimination diets for dogs include lamb, chicken, rabbit, horse meat and fish as sources of protein, with rice or potatoes. Successful elimination diets for cats include lamb, chicken, rabbit or venison, with rice. Improvement in clinical signs while on the elimination diet is suggestive of food allergy. The diagnosis should be confirmed by feeding the original diet, with the development of clinical signs within 7 to 14 days of feeding.

  18. Emergency department visits for food allergy in Taiwan: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chan-Fai; Chen, Po-Hon; Huang, Ching-Feng; Wu, Tzee-Chung

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the characteristics of patients who visit the emergency department (ED) due to food allergy in Taiwan. This study aims to assess the triggers, clinical presentations, and management of patients presenting to a tertiary ED for food allergy. This is a retrospective study of 369 visits presenting to the ED of Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan for food allergy over a 2 year period. Patients' demographics, food allergens, presenting features, and management were addressed and analyzed. Adult and pediatric cases were also compared. The patients had an average age of 32.9 years [standard deviation (SD) ± 20.6]; the cohort was 66.9% adult and 53.7% male. Seafood (67.5%), fish (6.2%), and fruits (4.3%) were the major foods eliciting acute allergic reactions. Overall itchy mucocutaneous lesion was the most common presentation (85.6%), followed by anaphylaxis (12.2%), respiratory distress (1.4%), and anaphylactic shock (0.8%). Mucocutaneous involvement was more common in the pediatric population (92.6% vs. 82.2%, p = 0.007), whereas anaphylaxis was more prevalent in adults (15.4% vs. 5.7%, p = 0.0068). Antihistamines (98.6%) and systemic corticosteroids (63.1%) were commonly used medications. Only 2.2% of patients with anaphylaxis received epinephrine. The average duration in the ED was 1.6 hours (SD ± 1.8). No death was documented in the current study. Seafood, fish, and fruits are common foods which cause acute allergic reactions in Taiwan. Although most food allergies are mild, anaphylactic shock still presents in about 1% of patients. Only a minority of patients with anaphylaxis receive epinephrine. As anaphylaxis may be life-threatening, prompt education and use of an epinephrine auto-injector deserves further concern. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. What are the beliefs of pediatricians and dietitians regarding complementary food introduction to prevent allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of complementary food introduction is controversial. Providing information on the timing of dietary introduction is crucial to the primary prevention of food allergy. The American Academy of Pediatrics offers dietary recommendations that were updated in 2008. Objective Identify the recommendations that general pediatricians and registered dietitians provide to parents and delineate any differences in counselling. Methods A 9-item survey was distributed to pediatricians and dietitians online and by mail. Information on practitioner type, gender, length of practice and specific recommendations regarding complementary food introduction and exposure was collected. Results 181 surveys were returned with a 54% response rate from pediatricians. It was not possible to calculate a meaningful dietitian response rate due to overlapping email databases. 52.5% of all respondents were pediatricians and 45.9% were dietitians. The majority of pediatricians and dietitians advise mothers that peanut abstinence during pregnancy and lactation is unnecessary. Dietitians were more likely to counsel mothers to breastfeed their infants to prevent development of atopic dermatitis than pediatricians. Hydrolyzed formulas for infants at risk of developing allergy were the top choice of formula amongst both practitioners. For food allergy prevention, pediatricians were more likely to recommend delayed introduction of peanut and egg, while most dietitians recommended no delay in allergenic food introduction. Conclusions In the prophylaxis of food allergy, pediatricians are less aware than dietitians of the current recommendation that there is no benefit in delaying allergenic food introduction beyond 4 to 6 months. More dietitians than pediatricians believe that breastfeeding decreases the risk of atopic dermatitis. Practitioners may benefit from increased awareness of current guidelines.

  20. IgE-mediated food allergies in Swiss infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giovanni Gaspare; Eng, Peter Andreas

    2011-10-12

    To determine the most frequent food allergens causing immediate hypersensitivity reactions in Swiss children of different age groups and to investigate the clinical manifestation of IgE-mediated food allergies in young patients. The study was a prospective analysis of children referred for assessment of immediate type I food hypersensitivity reactions. The diagnostic strategy included a careful history, skin prick tests with commercial extracts and native foods, in vitro determination of specific IgE to food proteins and food challenges when appropriate. A total of 278 food allergies were identified in 151 children with a median age of 1.9 years at diagnosis. Overall, the most frequent food allergens were hen's egg (23.7%), cow's milk (20.1%), peanut (14.0%), hazelnut (10.4%), wheat (6.1%), fish (4.3%), kiwi and soy (2.2% each). In infancy, cow's milk, hen's egg and wheat were the most common allergens. In the second and third year of life however, the top three food allergens were hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut, whereas above the age of 3 years, peanut was number one, followed by hen's egg and fish. Overall, urticaria (59.0%) and angioedema (30.2%) were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Gastrointestinal symptoms were found in 25.9% and respiratory involvement in 25.2%. There were 13 cases (4.7%) of anaphylaxis to peanut, fish, cow's milk, hen's egg, wheat and shrimps. A total of eight allergens account for 83% of IgE-mediated food allergies in Swiss infants and children, with differences in the distribution and order of the most frequently involved food allergens between paediatric age groups.

  1. Quality of life in childhood, adolescence and adult food allergy: Patient and parent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensgaard, A; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Nielsen, D; Munch, M; DunnGalvin, A

    2017-04-01

    Studies of children with food allergy typically only include the mother and have not investigated the relationship between the amount of allergen needed to elicit a clinical reaction (threshold) and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Our aims were (i) to compare self-reported and parent-reported HRQL in different age groups, (ii) to evaluate the impact of severity of allergic reaction and threshold on HRQL, and (iii) to investigate factors associated with patient-reported and parent-reported HRQL. Age-appropriate Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQ) were completed by 73 children, 49 adolescents and 29 adults with peanut, hazelnut or egg allergy. Parents (197 mothers, 120 fathers) assessed their child's HRQL using the FAQLQ-Parent form. Clinical data and threshold values were obtained from a hospital database. Significant factors for HRQL were investigated using univariate and multivariate regression. Female patients reported greater impact of food allergy on HRQL than males did. Egg and hazelnut thresholds did not affect HRQL, but lower peanut threshold was associated with worse HRQL. Both parents scored their child's HRQL better than the child's own assessment, but whereas mother-reported HRQL was significantly affected by limitations in the child's social life, father-reported HRQL was affected by limitations in the family's social life. Severity of allergic reaction did not contribute significantly to HRQL. The risk of accidental allergen ingestion and limitations in social life are associated with worse HRQL. Fathers provide a unique perspective and should have a greater opportunity to contribute to food allergy research. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Parental use of EpiPen for children with food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jennifer S; Sinacore, James M; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2005-07-01

    EpiPen is often underused in children with food allergy experiencing anaphylaxis. We explored whether underuse of EpiPen might be attributed to parental discomfort with administration, as measured by a lack of parental empowerment and knowledge of proper administration. A written survey was mailed to parents of children with food allergy. Those children with physician-diagnosed food allergy who had been prescribed EpiPen were included in the analysis. Parents were recruited from a local food-allergy support group and private allergy practice. Perceived comfort with administering EpiPen was measured by using a 10-cm visual analog scale. Knowledge of EpiPen use and anaphylaxis was tested by using a series of multiple-choice questions. Empowerment was measured with a 16-item instrument that included statements from the Family Empowerment Scale. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine how much of the variance in the comfort ratings could be explained by knowledge, empowerment, and other factors assessed in the survey. Of 360 mailed surveys, 165 (46%) completed surveys met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Anaphylaxis was reported in 42% of children (n = 70); 8% of parents (n = 14) had administered EpiPen to their child. Factors correlating with comfort included prior administration of EpiPen ( P = .009), EpiPen training ( P = .005), and empowerment ( P EpiPen use, but knowledge did not. Physicians should continue to instruct all parents on EpiPen administration because this correlated significantly with comfort. Other psychological factors beyond empowerment might contribute to underuse of EpiPen.

  3. Food allergy and attitudes to close interpersonal relationships: An exploratory study on attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, Laura; Schiff, Sami; Ferruzza, Emilia; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Bonaguro, Roberta; Toniolo, Alice; Celegato, Nicolò; Muraro, Antonella

    2017-08-01

    Food allergy is a common immunologic disease that includes potentially fatal reactions. It impacts considerably on patients' social life including close interpersonal relationships. Attachment theory provides a theoretic framework to evaluate the quality of close interpersonal relationships in chronic disorders. Attachment insecurity, mainly characterized by attachment avoidance, has been found in a variety of health conditions, but still needs to be investigated in food allergy. The study aimed to investigate attachment, as attitude to close interpersonal relationships, among food-allergic young patients, compared to healthy controls. This is a cross-sectional study involving patients suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy sequentially recruited and matched to healthy controls for age and gender. The Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) was used to assess five factors and two attachment dimensions (Anxiety-Avoidance). Associations with anaphylaxis and adrenaline prescription were explored among patients. 174 participants were assessed (female=45%; mean age=17.51; SD=4.26). Food-allergic patients reported significantly higher levels of Discomfort with Closeness (PAttachment Avoidance (Pattachment for health and illness. They should support patients in limiting social impairment finding a balance between safety and psychologic well-being. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  4. Health economic analysis of allergen immunotherapy for the management of allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and venom allergy: A systematic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaria, M; Dhami, S; van Ree, R; Gerth van Wijk, R; Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Sheikh, A

    2018-02-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing guidelines for allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, IgE-mediated food allergy and venom allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we undertook systematic reviews to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of AIT for these conditions. This study focusses on synthesizing data and gaps in the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of AIT for these conditions. We produced summaries of evidence in each domain, and then, synthesized findings on health economic data identified from four recent systematic reviews on allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy and venom allergy, respectively. The quality of these studies was independently assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool for health economic evaluations. Twenty-three studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Of these, 19 studies investigated the cost-effectiveness of AIT in allergic rhinitis, of which seven were based on data from randomized controlled trials with economic evaluations conducted from a health system perspective. This body of evidence suggested that sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) would be considered cost-effective using the (English) National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) cost-effectiveness threshold of £20 000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY). However, the quality of the studies and the general lack of attention to characterizing uncertainty and handling missing data should be taken into account when interpreting these results. For asthma, there were three eligible studies, all of which had significant methodological limitations; these suggested that SLIT, when used in patients with both asthma and allergic rhinitis, may be cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £10 726 per QALY. We found one economic modelling

  5. Vitamin D and food allergies in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Erin K; Wang, Zhen; Jin, Jay; Patel, Bhavisha; Motosue, Megan; Bhagia, Amrita; Almasri, Jehad; Erwin, Patricia J; Kumar, Seema; Joshi, Avni Y

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with immune dysfunction and linked to the epidemic of atopic diseases in the Western hemisphere, yet there are studies with conflicting results, and the risk has not been quantified uniformly across studies. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate and quantify if vitamin D deficiency is associated with the presence and persistence of food allergy. A systematic review was undertaken to assess for the association between food allergy and vitamin D status in children. A total of 368 citations relevant to this systematic review were identified. In the whole review, 5105 children were included. We did not find a significant association between 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and risk of food allergy in children (odds ratio [OR] 1.35 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.79-2.29]; p = 0.27, I2 = 58.3%). We conducted subgroup analyses based on different cutoffs of the 25(OH)D status (20 versus 30 ng/mL). Only one study used 30 ng/mL and found that children with <30 ng/mL were more likely to report food allergy than children with a 25(OH)D status of ≥30 ng/mL (OR 2.04 [95% CI, 1.02-4.04]; p = 0.04). Four studies compared children with a 25(OH)D status of <20 ng/mL to children with a 25(OH)D status of ≥20 ng/mL and found no significant differences (OR 1.18 [95% CI, 0.62-2.27]; p = 0.62, I2 = 62.7%). Based on the studies analyzed, this systematic review did not identify a significant association between vitamin D status and food allergy. Interpretation of the included studies was limited by a lack of a standard definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficient knowledge regarding the optimal vitamin D status needed to impact immune function. Longitudinal studies are warranted to assess if vitamin D might contribute to the development of food allergy.

  6. Nutritional implications of food allergies | Steinman | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or asthma may result in decreased activity, and/or increased or decreased food intake, which in turn may cause either negative effects on growth, or obesity. Clinical awareness is required among health professionals as to the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, investigation, and management of food allergic disorders, ...

  7. Treatment of delayed food allergy based on specific immunoglobulin G RAST testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, H S

    2000-07-01

    This preliminary, descriptive study after extensive clinical experience demonstrates specific IgG food RASTs done in 114 consecutive patients with strong positive histories for delayed food allergy. Elimination of the positive foods was the sole means of treatment. The symptoms leading to the test are detailed, and the method of workup is reviewed. The overall results demonstrated a 71% success rate for all symptoms achieving at least a 75% improvement level. Of particular interest was the group of patients with chronic, disabling symptoms, unresponsive to other intensive treatments. Whereas 70% obtained 75% or more improvement, 20% of these patients obtained 100% relief.

  8. [Food allergy in children with pollinosis in the Western sea coast region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja-Bulsa, G; Bachórska, J

    1998-12-01

    Type and frequency of allergy to food was analysed in groups of children sensitized to grass pollens (170 children), birch pollen (142 children) and cereal pollens (158 children) in comparison with children being not sensitised to pollens (432 children). It has been disclosed that the most frequent food allergens in the whole studied group as well as among the children not sensitized to pollens are: milk, eggs, beef, chocolate, nuts and cereals (positive skin prick tests and allergy manifestations after food consumption). In 10-20% of children sensitised to grass pollens, it was revealed that the prick tests for carrot, celery, apple, tomato and nuts were positive. Manifestations after their consumption are evidenced by 30-70% of the studied subjects. In 20-40% of children sensitised to birch pollen there were positive skin prick tests for celery, carrot, potato, tomato, apple, peaches and grapes. The manifestations after their consumption appear in 20% of children. Eighty-five per cent of children sensitised to cereals pollens display positive skin prick tests for cereal grains. Half of them have signs of food allergy, most frequently after ingesting wheat and rye.

  9. Identification of IgE-mediated food allergy and allergens in older children and adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Kumari, Dolly; Srivastava, Prakriti; Khare, Vishal; Fakhr, Hena; Arora, Naveen; Gaur, S N; Singh, B P

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated food allergy is primarily reported for certain pediatric populations and adults. The present study was aimed to investigate the relative prevalence of food allergy and allergens in older children and adults with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Patients (12-62 years) were screened using standard questionnaire and skin prick-test (SPT) with common foods and aeroallergens. Specific IgE level was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and allergy was established by blinded food challenges. Of 1860 patients screened, 1097 (58.9%) gave history of food allergy. Of the history positive patients skin tested (n=470), 138 (29.3%) showed a marked positive reaction to food extracts. Rice elicited positive SPT reaction in maximum number of cases 29 (6.2%) followed by blackgram 28 (5.9%), lentil 26 (5.5%), citrus fruits 25 (5.3%), pea 18 (3.8%), maize 18 (3.8%) and banana 17 (3.6%). The SPT positive patients showed elevated specific IgE levels (range: 0.8-79 IU/mL) against respective food allergens than normal controls (0.73 IU/mL, mean +/- 2 SD). Food allergy was confirmed in 21/45 (46.6%) of the patients by blinded controlled food challenges. The prevalence of food allergy was estimated to be 4.5% (2.6%-6.34%) at 95% confidence interval (95% CI) in test population (n=470). Sensitisation to food was significantly associated with asthma (p = 0.0065) while aeroallergens were strongly related to rhinitis (p Food allergy is estimated to be 4.5% in adolescents and adults with asthma, rhinitis or both. Rice, citrus fruits, blackgram and banana are identified as major allergens for inducing allergic symptoms.

  10. Allergen immunotherapy for IgE-mediated food allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmatov, U; Dhami, S; Arasi, S; Pajno, G B; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Muraro, A; Roberts, G; Akdis, C; Alvaro-Lozano, M; Beyer, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Burks, W; du Toit, G; Ebisawa, M; Eigenmann, P; Knol, E; Makela, M; Nadeau, K C; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N; Poulsen, L K; Sackesen, C; Sampson, H; Santos, A F; van Ree, R; Timmermans, F; Sheikh, A

    2017-08-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for IgE-mediated Food Allergy. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we sought to critically assess evidence on the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of AIT in the management of food allergy. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis that involved searching nine international electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies (NRS). Eligible studies were independently assessed by two reviewers against predefined eligibility criteria. The quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for RCTs and the Cochrane ACROBAT-NRS tool for quasi-RCTs. Random-effects meta-analyses were undertaken, with planned subgroup and sensitivity analyses. We identified 1814 potentially relevant papers from which we selected 31 eligible studies, comprising of 25 RCTs and six NRS, studying a total of 1259 patients. Twenty-five trials evaluated oral immunotherapy (OIT), five studies investigated sublingual immunotherapy, and one study evaluated epicutaneous immunotherapy. The majority of these studies were in children. Twenty-seven studies assessed desensitization, and eight studies investigated sustained unresponsiveness postdiscontinuation of AIT. Meta-analyses demonstrated a substantial benefit in terms of desensitization (risk ratio (RR) = 0.16, 95% CI 0.10, 0.26) and suggested, but did not confirm sustained unresponsiveness (RR = 0.29, 95% CI 0.08, 1.13). Only one study reported on disease-specific quality of life (QoL), which reported no comparative results between OIT and control group. Meta-analyses revealed that the risk of experiencing a systemic adverse reaction was higher in those receiving AIT, with a more marked increase in the risk of local adverse reactions. Sensitivity analysis excluding those studies judged to be at high risk of bias demonstrated the

  11. Non-IgE-mediated food allergies | Terblanche | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mediated conditions such as atopic dermatitis and eosinophilic oesophagitis, and pure T-cell-mediated conditions such as food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, allergic proctocolitis and enteropathy syndromes. Diagnosing mixed or ...

  12. Clinical and immunochemical profiles of food challenge proven or anaphylactic shrimp allergy in tropical Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalayasingam, M; Gerez, I F A; Yap, G C; Llanora, G V; Chia, I P; Chua, L; Lee, C J A O; Ta, L D H; Cheng, Y K; Thong, B Y H; Tang, C Y; Van Bever, H P S; Shek, L P; Curotto de Lafaille, M A; Lee, B W

    2015-03-01

    Shellfish allergy in Singapore is highly prevalent, and shrimp allergy is the most common. This study aims to evaluate the clinical characteristics and immunological phenotype of shellfish allergy in this population. Patients with self-reported shellfish allergy were recruited from outpatient clinics of three large hospitals and from a population survey. Open oral food challenges (OFC) to glass prawn (Litopenaeus vannamei) and tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) were carried out on all patients except for those who had a history of severe anaphylaxis. Skin prick tests (SPT) and specific IgE to crude and recombinant allergens were carried out to evaluate shrimp and dust mite sensitization. Immunoblots were used to assess IgE-binding proteins. The 104 patients recruited were categorized into shellfish allergic (SA) when OFC was positive or had a history of severe anaphylaxis (n = 39), shellfish tolerant (ST) when OFC was negative (n = 27), and house dust mite positive controls (HDM(+) ) who were ST (n = 38). Oral symptoms (87.1%) were the predominant clinical manifestation. Positive challenge doses ranged from 2 to 80 g of cooked shrimp, with 25/52 patients reacting to either one or both shrimps challenged. The presence of specific IgE to shrimp either by SPT and/or ImmunoCAP(®) assay provided diagnostic test sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 22.2%. The inclusion of specific IgE to shrimp tropomyosin and IgE immunoblots with shrimp extracts did not improve the diagnostic proficiency substantially. This study highlights the predominance of oral symptoms in shrimp allergy in tropical Asia and that a high provocation dose may be necessary to reveal shrimp allergy. Furthermore, specific IgE diagnostic tests and immunoblots were of limited use in this population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. O conhecimento de pediatras sobre alergia alimentar: estudo piloto Pediatricians' knowledge on food allergy: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Sole

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento de pediatras sobre alergia alimentar. MÉTODOS: Dados obtidos de questionário padronizado, postado e respondido por pediatras filiados à Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP. Digitação dos dados em planilha Excel e análise de freqüência de respostas afirmativas em porcentagem. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 895 questionários preenchidos por pediatras de todo o país, com predomínio da região Sudeste (61,6%. Segundo os pediatras entrevistados, as manifestações diagnósticas de alergia alimentar são: respiratórias, cutâneas e sistêmicas, em iguais proporções. Ainda segundo estes pediatras, leite de vaca (98,9%, clara de ovo (58,7% e amendoim (50,9% são os principais alimentos associados a essas manifestações. Embora 74,8% dos respondedores tivessem identificados os corantes e aditivos alimentares como responsáveis pela alergia alimentar, apenas 19,4% conheciam o código de identificação da tartrazina. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados apresentados reforçam a necessidade de ampliação dos conhecimentos dos profissionais de saúde sobre o diagnóstico e tratamento da alergia alimentar, com o objetivo de garantir o uso de critérios diagnósticos e terapêuticos mais adequados.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of Brazilian pediatricians about food allergy. METHODS: Data was obtained from a sent back posted written questionnaire. It was filled in by Brazilian pediatricians, affiliated to the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. Data was transcript to an Excel spread sheet and the frequency of affirmative responses was reported as percentages. RESULTS: Data from 895 written questionnaire of pediatricians from all over Brazil, (mainly from the southeastern region - 61.6%, were analyzed. The main clinical expressions of food allergy determined by the pediatricians were: respiratory, cutaneous and systemic symptoms (equal proportions. According to these pediatricians, cow's milk (98.9%, egg white (58.7% and

  14. New approach for food allergy management using low-dose oral food challenges and low-dose oral immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Okada, Yu; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have suggested that a large subset of children (approximately 70%) who react to unheated milk or egg can tolerate extensively heated forms of these foods. A diet that includes baked milk or egg is well tolerated and appears to accelerate the development of regular milk or egg tolerance when compared with strict avoidance. However, the indications for an oral food challenge (OFC) using baked products are limited for patients with high specific IgE values or large skin prick test diameters. Oral immunotherapies (OITs) are becoming increasingly popular for the management of food allergies. However, the reported efficacy of OIT is not satisfactory, given the high frequency of symptoms and requirement for long-term therapy. With food allergies, removing the need to eliminate a food that could be consumed in low doses could significantly improve quality of life. This review discusses the importance of an OFC and OIT that use low doses of causative foods as the target volumes. Utilizing an OFC or OIT with a low dose as the target volume could be a novel approach for accelerating the tolerance to causative foods. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of maternal allergy and use of probiotics during pregnancy on breast milk cytokines and food antibodies and development of allergy in children until 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen, Mikael; Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina; Savilahti, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    Whether breast milk (BM) can protect against allergy has been studied extensively, with conflicting results. Variations in mothers' BM composition may explain some of the conflicting results. Our aim was to assess the impact of maternal allergy and probiotic intervention on BM food antibodies, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(2) and interleukin (IL)-10 and their impact on allergy development in children until the ages of 2 and 5. We measured total IgA, IgA antibodies to cow's milk (CM), casein, β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin (OVA), TGF-β(2) and IL-10 in 364 colostrum samples and 321 BM samples taken at 3 months from mothers participating in a prospective study evaluating the allergy-preventive effect of probiotics in a cohort with an increased risk for allergy. CM, casein and OVA antibodies, TGF-β(2) and IL-10 were detectable in most samples. Maternal allergy was associated with raised levels of IgA to casein (p = 0.04) and lower levels of TGF-β(2) (p = 0.006) in mature BM. Probiotic supplementation was associated with increased IL-10 (p = 0.046) and decreased casein IgA antibodies (p = 0.027) in mature BM. High OVA IgA antibodies in colostrum were associated with the development of atopy by the age of 2, while low levels in mature BM were a significant risk factor for the development of eczema by the age of 2. TGF-β(2) levels in BM constituted a risk for development of allergy by the age of 2. The immunologic composition of BM was only slightly affected by maternal atopy and could be altered by probiotic supplementation. Small effects of BM components on allergy development in children were evident. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Hazelnut allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortolani, C; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Hansen, K S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tree nuts are a common cause of food allergy in Europe. However, few studies deal with real food allergy to hazelnuts in subjects believed to be allergic to this food. OBJECTIVE: We sought to select subjects with a history of allergic reactions on ingestion of hazelnut and determine how...... many of these have true allergy by means of the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). METHODS: Eighty-six subjects with a history of symptoms after hazelnut ingestion were recruited from 3 allergy centers (Milan, Zurich, and Copenhagen). All subjects underwent skin prick tests (SPTs......) with aeroallergens and hazelnut, as well as having their specific hazelnut IgE levels determined. Diagnosis of clinical relevant food allergy was made on the basis of the DBPCFC. RESULTS: Sixty-seven (77.9%) of 86 subjects had a positive DBPCFC result; 8 were placebo responders, and 11 were nonresponders. Of the 11...

  17. Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about food allergies. Advocacy Resources Community Resources Teal Pumpkin Project Education Network Food for Thought Video Series ... those advertised as meat substitutes Also, peanut hulls (shells) can sometimes be found in compost, which can ...

  18. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about food allergies. Advocacy Resources Community Resources Teal Pumpkin Project Education Network Food for Thought Video Series ... urchin Scallops Snails (escargot) Squid (calamari) Whelk (Turban shell) *Note: The federal government does not require mollusks ...

  19. Allergic hemiglossitis as a unique case of food allergy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Omar; Dioszeghy Csaba

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A unique case of topical food allergy is presented with unilateral swelling of the tongue with ulceration. Only one similar case has been reported in 1972. Case presentation 76 years old female patient presented at the Emergency Department with a unilateral painful swelling and ulcerations of the tongue after eating mint chocolate. However the swelling did not compromised the airways the presentation was rather frightening for the patient. The allergic reaction responded...

  20. The Potential Therapeutic Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in Children with Food Allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Costanzo, Margherita; Pezzella, Vincenza; Cosenza, Linda; Granata, Viviana; Terrin, Gianluca; Nocerino, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) continues to be a growing health concern for infants living in Western countries. The long-term prognosis for the majority of affected infants is good, with 80–90% naturally acquiring tolerance by the age of five years. However, recent studies suggest that the natural history of FA is changing, with an increasing persistence until later ages. The pathogenesis of FA as well as oral tolerance is complex and not completely known, although numerous studies implicate gut-associat...

  1. Exploring the Concern about Food Allergies among Secondary School and University Students in Ontario, Canada: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon E. Majowicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to explore the perceived risk of food allergies among students in Ontario, Canada. We analyzed blinding questions (“I am concerned about food allergies”; “food allergies are currently a big threat to my health” from three existing food safety surveys, given to high school and university undergraduate students (n=3,451 circa February 2015, using descriptive analysis, and explored how concern related to demographics and self-reported cooking ability using linear regression. Overall, high school students were neutral in their concern, although Food and Nutrition students specifically were significantly less concerned (p=0.002 than high school students overall. University undergraduates were moderately unconcerned about food allergies. Concern was highest in younger students, decreasing between 13 and 18 years of age and plateauing between 19 and 23 years. Among students aged 13–18 years, concern was higher among those who worked or volunteered in a daycare and who had previously taken a food preparation course. Among students aged 19–23 years, concern was higher among females and those with less advanced cooking abilities. Concern was significantly correlated with perceiving food allergies as a personal threat. This study offers a first exploration of perceived risk of food allergies among this demographic and can guide future, more rigorous assessments.

  2. Evaluation of an educational programme with workshops for families of children with food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Porta, J; Ruiz-Baqués, A; Gabarron Hortal, E; Capel Torres, F; Ariño Pla, M N; Zorrozua Santisteban, A; Sáinz de la Maza, E

    2016-01-01

    When a child is diagnosed with a food allergy, prevention and patient education are the key interventions for maintaining the child's health and quality of life and that of his or her whole family. However, health education activities for the families of children with food allergies are very limited, and most of these activities have not been evaluated. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to develop an educational programme, to empower its participants through workshops, and to evaluate its results. Several types of educational materials were created specifically for the programme, called "Proyecto CESA" ("STOP-FAR Project: Stop Food-Induced Allergic Reactions"). The programme was carried out in seven Spanish cities and was attended by parents and caregivers. The workshops were led by physicians specialising in allergies and by expert patients. Afterwards, participant learning and satisfaction were evaluated based on questionnaires that were completed both before and after the workshops. A significant improvement was observed in 29 items out of 40 (McNemar's test). Participant satisfaction with the programme was also very high: 90% rated the course between 8 and 10 points out of a possible 10 (41% rated it as a 10). The face-to-face workshops, which included utilisation of educational materials, had positive results in terms of learning as well as in levels of satisfaction in participating families. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Health-related quality of life, assessed with a disease-specific questionnaire, in Swedish adults suffering from well-diagnosed food allergy to staple foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Sven-Arne; Heibert-Arnlind, Marianne; Middelveld, Roelinde Jm; Bengtsson, Ulf J; Sundqvist, Ann-Charlotte; Kallström-Bengtsson, Ingrid; Marklund, Birgitta; Rentzos, Georgios; Åkerström, Johanna; Östblom, Eva; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Ahlstedt, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the factors that affect health related quality of life (HRQL) in adult Swedish food allergic patients objectively diagnosed with allergy to at least one of the staple foods cow's milk, hen's egg or wheat. The number of foods involved, the type and severity of symptoms, as well as concomitant allergic disorders were assessed. The disease-specific food allergy quality of life questionnaire (FAQLQ-AF), developed within EuroPrevall, was utilized. The questionnaire had four domains: Allergen Avoidance and Dietary Restrictions (AADR), Emotional Impact (EI), Risk of Accidental Exposure (RAE) and Food Allergy related Health (FAH). Comparisons were made with the outcome of the generic questionnaire EuroQol Health Questionnaire, 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D). The patients were recruited at an outpatient allergy clinic, based on a convincing history of food allergy supplemented by analysis of specific IgE to the foods in question. Seventy-nine patients participated (28 males, 51 females, mean-age 41 years). The domain with the most negative impact on HRQL was AADR, assessing the patients' experience of dietary restrictions. The domain with the least negative impact on HRQL was FAH, relating to health concerns due to the food allergy. One third of the patients had four concomitant allergic disorders, which had a negative impact on HRQL. Furthermore, asthma in combination with food allergy had a strong impact. Anaphylaxis, and particularly prescription of an epinephrine auto-injector, was associated with low HRQL. These effects were not seen using EQ-5D. Analyses of the symptoms revealed that oral allergy syndrome and cardiovascular symptoms had the greatest impact on HRQL. In contrast, no significant effect on HRQL was seen by the number of food allergies. The FAQLQ-AF is a valid instrument, and more accurate among patients with allergy to staple foods in comparison to the commonly used generic EQ-5D. It adds important information on HRQL in food allergic

  4. New risks from ancient food dyes: cochineal red allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltolini, S; Pellegrini, S; Contatore, M; Bignardi, D; Minale, P

    2014-11-01

    This study reports an unusual case of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to Cochineal red or Carmine red, a coloring agent of natural origin. Although the risk of anaphylactic reactions is well known, since the nineties the use of this additive seems to be nowadays on the rise. The problem of labeling of additives used in handmade food products is highlighted.

  5. Mouse model in food allergy: dynamic determination of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the method could continuously reflect the variation of allergic symptom and actualize dynamic determination of shrimp allergenicity. Furthermore, it is feasible, sensitive and repeatable. The approach will provide some valuable reference for identifying allergenicity of novel food proteins by using animal model in the future.

  6. Temporal trends and racial/ethnic disparity in self-reported pediatric food allergy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keet, Corinne A; Savage, Jessica H; Seopaul, Shannon; Peng, Roger D; Wood, Robert A; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is thought to be increasing, but data from the United States have not been systematically synthesized. To summarize the data on prevalence of food allergy in the US pediatric population and to estimate the effects of time, race/ethnicity, and method of assessing food allergy on the estimated prevalence. Embase, MEDLINE, bibliographies of identified reports, and data from publically available data sets were searched. Studies were limited to those in English with data from the general pediatric US population. Study synthesis was performed by meta-analysis and meta-regression to estimate the effect of study- and participant-level covariates. Meta-regression was limited to nationally representative surveys conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 10,090 publications were identified, from which 27 different survey administrations, representing 452,237 children, were identified, covering the period of 1988 to 2011. Because of heterogeneity among surveys in the estimated food allergy prevalence, a summary estimate of food allergy prevalence was not possible. Meta-regression was performed using 20 of these surveys. Temporal trends were pronounced, with an estimated increased prevalence of self-reported food allergy of 1.2 percentage points per decade (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-1.6). The increase per decade varied by race/ethnicity: 2.1% among non-Hispanic blacks (95% CI, 1.5%-2.7%), 1.2% among Hispanics (95% CI, 0.7%-1.7%), and 1.0% among non-Hispanic whites (95% CI, 0.4%-1.6%). Self-report of food allergy among US children has sharply increased in the past 2 decades. The increase has been greatest among non-Hispanic black children, a disparity that needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of elimination diets on nutrition and growth in children with multiple food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Carina; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Maslin, Kate; Agostoni, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Growth and nutritional intake of children with cows' milk allergy and other food allergens has been thoroughly investigated in recent years across many different countries and age groups. An impaired growth in atopic children should not be attributed only to a high number of allergens and foods to be avoided, but to a general condition of 'sub-inflammation', which unfavorably affects the absorption and utilization of fuel and substrates. Atopic study participants may represent a good target for personalized nutrition and in this review we sought to outline many of the issues that should be taken into account when dietitians advise patients regarding food avoidance and expected effects on growth. The dietary management of food allergy requires appropriate dietary choices to maintain adequate growth, starting with special formulas in infancy. An emerging area of research is the fussy eating related to the exclusion of cow's milk and other foods during infancy and the long-term effects on eating habits and food preferences. Study participants with either mono or polyallergic diseases should ideally undergo the definition of their allergic and metabolic characteristics, to precisely adjust dietary interventions on an individual basis to support the genetic potential of growth and prevent unfavorable outcomes.

  8. Eczema in early childhood, sociodemographic factors and lifestyle habits are associated with food allergy: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Soller, Lianne; Harrington, Daniel W; Knoll, Megan; La Vieille, Sebastian; Fragapane, Joseph; Joseph, Lawrence; St Pierre, Yvan; Wilson, Kathie; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest an increase in food allergy prevalence over the last decade, but the contributing factors remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the most common food allergies and atopic history, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. We conducted a case-control study nested within the SPAACE study (Surveying Prevalence of Food Allergy in All Canadian Environments) – a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Cases consisted of individuals with probable food allergy (self-report of convincing symptoms and/or physician diagnosis) to milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, shellfish, fish, wheat, soy, or sesame. Controls consisted of nonallergic individuals, matched for age. Cases and controls were queried on personal and family history of atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between atopy, sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits with probable food allergy. Between September 2010 and September 2011, 480 cases and 4,950 controls completed the questionnaire. For all 9 allergens, factors associated with a higher risk of probable allergy were as follows: (1) personal history of eczema (in the first 2 years of life), asthma or hay fever (odds ratio, OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6-3.5; OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.2-3.6, and OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-3.0, respectively), (2) maternal, paternal or sibling's food allergy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.5-5.6; OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8-5.1, and OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.2-4.2), (3) high household income (top 20%; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0). Males and older individuals were less likely to have food allergy (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.9, and OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00). Eczema in the first 2 years of life was the strongest risk factor for egg, peanut, tree nut and fish allergy. This is the largest population-based nested case-control study exploring factors associated with food allergies. Our results reveal that, in addition to previously reported

  9. Health-related quality of life among adolescents with allergy-like conditions – with emphasis on food hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlstedt Staffan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that there is an increase in the prevalence of allergy and that allergic diseases have a negative impact on individuals' health-related quality of life (HRQL. However, research in this field is mainly focused on individuals with verified allergy, i.e. leaving out those with self-reported allergy-like conditions but with no doctor-diagnosis. Furthermore, studies on food hypersensitivity and quality of life are scarce. In order to receive information about the extent to which adolescent females and males experience allergy-like conditions and the impact of these conditions on their everyday life, the present study aimed to investigate the magnitude of self-reported allergy-like conditions in adolescence and to evaluate their HRQL. Special focus was put on food hypersensitivity as a specific allergy-like condition and on gender differences. Methods In connection with lessons completed at the children's school, a study-specific questionnaire and the generic instrument SF-36 were distributed to 1488 adolescents, 13–21 years old (response rate 97%. Results Sixty-four per cent of the respondents reported some kind of allergy-like condition: 46% reported hypersensitivity to defined substances and 51% reported allergic diseases (i.e. asthma/wheezing, eczema/rash, rhino-conjunctivitis. A total of 19% reported food hypersensitivity. Females more often reported allergy-like conditions compared with males (p Conclusions The results indicate a need to consider the psychosocial impact of allergy-like conditions during school age. Further research is needed to elucidate the gender differences in this area. A team approach addressing better understanding of how allergy-like conditions impair the HRQL may improve the management of the adolescent's health problems, both in health-care services and in schools.

  10. INCIDENCE OF APNEA ATTACK AS ALLERGIC REACTION AFTER ORAL FOOD CHALLENGE IN PATIENT WITH IgE-MEDIATED WHEAT ALLERGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and might cause death. Although wheezes, dyspnea or loss of consciousness are known to occur with severe allergic reactions with IgE-mediated food allergy, reports of apnea attack associated with IgE-mediated food allergy are rare. In this case, 9-year-old boy with IgE-mediated wheat allergy experienced apnea attack with strong desaturation after an immediate allergic reaction including erythema, abdominal pain, vomiting, and anaphylactic shock. The patient had asphyxia and cyanosis confirmed by medical staff when his oxygen saturation decreased to the 60% level, and he had occasional asphyxia over 10 seconds with no thoracic motion after a desaturation episode. Central apnea attack might be occurred in patient with IgE-mediated food allergy. However, the exact mechanism responsible remains unknown and further research is needed.

  11. 438 An Investigation of Food Choice Behaviour of Food Allergic and Non-food Allergic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Isolde; Mackenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Taraneh

    2012-01-01

    Background Childrens food choice behaviour is influenced by a number of family and social factors. About 20% to 30% of the population modifies their diet for a suspected adverse reaction to food. Since avoidance is the mainstay of managing food allergy, it can be assumed to significantly affect food choices. It is therefore important to understand if and to what extent food allergy influences the way parents and children make their food choice decisions. Methods The research project has utili...

  12. Attenuation of food allergy symptoms following treatment with human milk oligosaccharides in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Courtade, L; Han, S; Lee, S; Mian, F M; Buck, R; Forsythe, P

    2015-09-01

    The prebiotic nature of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and increasing evidence of direct immunomodulatory effects of these sugars suggest that they may have some therapeutic potential in allergy. Here, we assess the effect of two HMOs, 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose, on symptomatology and immune responses in an ovalbumin-sensitized mouse model of food allergy. The effects of oral treatment with 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose on anaphylactic symptoms induced by oral ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in sensitized mice were investigated. Mast cell functions in response to oral HMO treatment were also measured in the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis model, and direct effects on IgE-mediated degranulation of mast cells were assessed. Daily oral treatment with 2'-fucosyllactose or 6'-sialyllactose attenuated food allergy symptoms including diarrhea and hypothermia. Treatment with HMOs also suppressed antigen-induced increases in mouse mast cell protease-1 in serum and mast cell numbers in the intestine. These effects were associated with increases in the CD4(+) CD25(+) IL-10(+) cell populations in the Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, while 6'-sialyllactose also induced increased IL-10 and decreased TNF production in antigen-stimulated splenocytes. Both 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose reduced the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis response, but only 6'-sialyllactose directly inhibited mast cell degranulation in vitro, at high concentrations. Our results suggest that 2'-fucosyllactose and 6'-sialyllactose reduce the symptoms of food allergy through induction of IL-10(+) T regulatory cells and indirect stabilization of mast cells. Thus, human milk oligosaccharides may have therapeutic potential in allergic disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. IL-9-Producing Mast Cell Precursors and Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    MMC9s were induced in sensitized Fcer1a-/- mice, which consequently , exhibited less intestinal mastocytosis, produced fewer MCPt-1, and failed to...egg at only 4 months of age (6), suggesting that some patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) in early life may have a higher risk of developing food...University of Michigan, Department of Pathology , June 2017, Ann Arbor, MI 3. Emerging concepts of non-hematopoietic cell involvement in induction

  14. Nutritional management of children who have food allergies and eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Catherine M; McCloud, Emily

    2009-02-01

    Over the past decade, eosinophilic esophagitis has become increasingly prevalent in the United States. One of the effective treatment approaches is dietary management, which aims to eliminate exposure to food allergens. Approaches to dietary management include the use of elemental diets, elimination diets, and tailored elimination diets, each of which poses potential nutrition risks. The benefits and potential downsides of each treatment are discussed in detail. Regardless of the diet therapy selected, a complete nutrition assessment by a registered dietitian with expertise in the management of food allergies is recommended for all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis.

  15. Improved sensitivity to venom specific-immunoglobulin E by spiking with the allergen component in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naruo; Hirata, Hirokuni; Watanabe, Mineaki; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Arima, Masafumi; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Ishii, Yoshiki

    2015-07-01

    Ves v 5 and Pol d 5, which constitute antigen 5, are recognized as the major, most potent allergens of family Vespidae. Several studies have reported the diagnostic sensitivity of the novel recombinant (r)Ves v 5 and rPol d 5 allergens in routine clinical laboratory settings by analyzing a group of Vespula and Polistes venom-allergic patients. In this study, we analyzed the sensitivity to venom specific (s)IgE by spiking with rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 in Japanese patients suspected of Hymenoptera venom allergy. Subjects were 41 patients who had experienced systemic reactions to hornet and/or paper wasp stings. Levels of serum sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom by spiking with rVes v 5 and rPold d 5, respectively, as improvement testing, compared with hornet and paper wasp venom, as conventional testing, were measured by ImmunoCAP. Of the 41 patients, 33 (80.5%) were positive (≥0.35 UA/ml) for hornet and/or paper wasp venom in conventional sIgE testing. sIgE levels correlated significantly (P venom (R = 0.78) in improvement testing and conventional testing. To determine specificity, 20 volunteers who had never experienced a Hymenoptera sting were all negative for sIgE against these venoms in both improvement and conventional testing. Improved sensitivity was seen in 8 patients negative for sIgE against both venoms in conventional testing, while improvement testing revealed sIgE against hornet or paper wasp venom in 5 (total 38 (92.7%)) patients. The measurement of sIgE following spiking of rVes v 5 and rPol d 5 by conventional testing in Japanese subjects with sIgE against hornet and paper wasp venom, respectively, improved the sensitivity for detecting Hymenoptera venom allergy. Improvement testing for measuring sIgE levels against hornet and paper wasp venom has potential for serologically elucidating Hymenoptera allergy in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A retrospective study of canine cutaneous food allergy at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital from Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cristina Hoeppner Rondelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous food allergy is an adverse immunological response, triggered by antigenic dietary components that may escape the digestion process and are absorbed intact through the gastrointestinal mucosa. In Brazil, there are only a few reports on cutaneous food allergy and antigenicity of food components used in pet food production. Thus, the aim of this report was to assess and describe data from medical records of canine patients diagnosed with cutaneous food allergy at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital from Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, in order to evaluate epidemiological and clinical aspects related to this skin problem. From 2007 to 2012, 29 dogs received the diagnosis of cutaneous food allergy after an eight-week hypoallergenic elimination trial. Among them, purebred dogs were more frequent, as well as females, and their mean age was 50.4 months old. Pruritus was reported in all cases, especially in interdigital areas. In order to establish the diagnosis, most patients received home-cooked elimination diet, based on potato and lamb in approximately 80% of the cases. Besides, it was highlighted the importance of the hypoallergenic elimination diet being rigorously followed by dogs' owners, aiming the adequate control of the clinical signs related to cutaneous food allergy.

  17. A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON LIFESTYLE GUIDANCE AND USE OF MANAGEMENT FORMS FOR FOOD ALLERGY IN LICENSED NURSERY SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Sato, Sakura; Murata, Junko; Seto, Akiko; Nishisako, Shin; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    There have been no reports on the use of "foods allergy disease lifestyle guidance and management forms at day care centers" (life management guidance forms) for understanding details of pupils with food allergies. The contents of lifestyle management guidance forms obtained in Sagamihara city from licensed nurseries were investigated prospectively. We compared and analyzed for the use of life management guidance forms initially in 2013 and in the fiscal year of 2014 in Sagamihara city licensed nurseries. In all, in 2013 and 2014, 9,567 and 10,069 pupils were included in licensed nurseries, and 426 (4.5%) and 447 (4.4%) pupils had food allergies, 61 (0.6%) and 61 (0.6%) had anaphylaxis, respectively.The causative foods in 2013 and 2014, respectively, included unheated hen's egg in 71.6% and 69.6%; heated hen's egg in 54.2% and 54.8%; milk in 23.0% and 23.3%; peanuts in 17.8% and 17.0%; buckwheat in 7.3% and 8.5%; and wheat in 6.3% and 8.3%. There are no significant differences in the distribution of causative foods between 2013 and 2014.Immediate-type food allergy was significantly more frequent in 2014 than in 2013 (73.0% and 78.8%, respectively; p=0.040). Using a life management guidance form will make it easier to manage food allergies in children.

  18. The evaluation of a food allergy and epinephrine autoinjector training program for personnel who care for children in schools and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Ann; Stephens, Hilary; Ruffo, Mark; Jones, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic increase in the incidence of food allergies, nurses and other school personnel are likely to encounter a child with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of in-person training on enhancing knowledge about food allergies and improving self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating food allergy reactions and to collect information about prior training and participation in response to food allergy incidents. A total of 4,818 individuals at 247 schools and community sites participated in the training program, which was delivered by a licensed registered nurse. Written evaluations, online surveys, and phone interviews were used to measure the impact including content retention, confidence, and behavior changes. The results of this study show that in-person training can increase participant's knowledge about food allergies and improve self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating allergic reactions and that these gains were sustained over time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Food Allergy Emergencies in Children – To what extent are Early Years Services Prepared? A cross-sectional survey

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacGiobuin, S

    2017-08-01

    Food allergies are common in preschool children. This study’s aims are to establish prevalence, to clarify management practices, levels of preparedness and the perceived role of General Practitioners amongst Early Years Services providers. This study is an anonymous, quantitative, cross sectional study. An online questionnaire was distributed to 282 Early Years Service providers. Data were analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 35% (n=98). Prevalence of food allergy was 3% (n=119). Allergic reactions to food had occurred on site in 16% (n=15). Written emergency action plans were available in 47% of facilities (n=46). Medications were not kept on site in 63% (n=62) of facilities. General practitioners were felt to have an important role in the management of food allergies by 76% of respondents (n=61). This study identifies significant areas for improvement in the management of food allergic child in Early Years Services

  20. Management of Food Allergy in Japan “Food Allergy Management Guideline 2008 (Revision from 2005” and “Guidelines for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases in Schools”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Ebisawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the “Food Allergy Management Guideline 2005” was published. In order to encompass food allergy from infancy to adulthood, the project committee included not only pediatricians, but also internists, dermatologists, and otolaryngologists. After the release of the guideline, oral food challenge tests were approved as a medical examination on hospital admission by the national health insurance system in 2006, and the tests at outpatient clinics were also approved in 2008. As clearly stated in the guideline, it is essential for general practitioners to refer food allergy patients to specialists to receive accurate diagnosis. A specialist is needed because the oral food challenge test, which is sometimes required for accurate diagnosis, carries the potential risk of developing an adverse reaction. In 2008, the “Food Allergy Management Guideline 2008” was revised to update recent advances, such as the appropriate conditions needed to perform oral food challenge tests and probability curves for hen's egg and cow's milk developed in Japan. In the same year, “The Guidelines for the Treatment of Allergic Diseases in Schools” was published by the Japanese Society of School Health. In addition to the guideline, “School Life Management Certificate (for Allergic Diseases” was developed in order to allow the verification of the diagnosis and encourage the discussion of countermeasures by parents/guardians and school teachers for students requiring special care. It is hoped that this review article will be useful for doctors treating food allergy and that the quality of life of food allergy patients and their parents will be improved.