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Sample records for suspected endocrine disruptors

  1. Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo F. Ricci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs and actions for their regulation. For both, dose–response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence. The European Union (EU has several regulatory tools and ongoing research on the risks associated with bisphenol A, under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH Regulation and other regulations or directives. The integration of a vast (in kind and in scope number of research papers into a statement of causation for either policy or to satisfy legal requirements, in both the United States and the EU, relies on experts. We outline the discursive dilemma and issues that may affect consensus-based results and a Bayesian causal approach that accounts for the evolution of information, yielding both value of information and flexibility associated with public choices.

  2. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias. PMID:26816789

  3. Endocrine disruptors and their effects on puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Çetinkaya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors and their possible impact on human health have become a topic of discussion. Endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in plastics, detergents, pesticides and industrial chemicals. Some of these persist in the environment and others do not. Some are lipophilic, sequestered in adipose tissue and secreted in milk, and others may only be present for short periods of time but at critical periods of development. Endocrine disruptors are defined as an extrogenous substance or mixture that alters the function of the endocrine system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny. Endocrine disruptors affect the reproductive system and they may be responsible for oligospermia, abnormality of sperm characteristics, disorders of testicular steroidogenesis, testicular atrophy, uterus weight increases and precocious puberty. In this review, we aimed to assess on exposure to endocrine disruptors and the effects of endocrine disruptors on puberty.

  4. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  5. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  6. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  7. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  8. Environmental endocrine disruptors: New diabetogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénichel, Patrick; Chevalier, Nicolas

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades. While lifestyle factors (sedentariness, noxious food), together with genetic susceptibility, are well-known actors, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a pathophysiological role in the occurrence of metabolic diseases. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence support a role for early and chronic exposure to low doses of chemical pollutants with endocrine and metabolic disrupting effects. Most are present in the food chain and accumulate in the fat mass after absorption. In rodents, bisphenol A stimulates synthesis and secretion of pancreatic β cells and disturbs insulin signaling in liver, muscle and adipose tissue through epigenetic changes leading to insulin resistance and β cell impairment. In humans, epidemiological reports show statistical link between exposure to pesticides, polychlorinated bisphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins or aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbides or heavy metals and DT2 after acute accidental releases or early in life and/or chronic, low doses exposure. More prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the importance of such environmental risk factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. [Endocrine disruptors are a novel direction of endocrinologic scientific investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglova, N V; Iaglov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous anthropogenic chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and others), that are able to bind hormonal receptors of endocrine and other cells in vivo and act like hormones. These substances disrupt endocrine regulation of metabolism, reproduction and adaptive reactions of organisms and promote human and animal endocrine disorders.

  10. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive system of farm animals as well as in dogs and cats are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence for clinical cases of endocrine disruption by chemical pollutants is weak, whereas for phytooestrogens, it is well established. However, there is concern that particular dogs and cats may be exposed to man-made endocrine disruptors. PMID:26382024

  11. Endocrine Disruptors in Mediterranean top marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, M Cristina; Casini, Silvia; Marsili, Letizia

    2006-05-01

    Man-made Endocrine Disruptors (EDs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDs was investigated. In a four-year survey on the Mediterranean population of swordfish (Xiphias gladius), the potential toxicological effects of organochlorine compounds (OCs) on specimens of swordfish and tuna fish (Thunnus thynnus thynnus), caught in the spawning seasons from 1999 to 2002 in the Straits of Messina, Sicily (Italy), were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg), Zona radiata proteins (Zrp), and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activities (EROD, BPMO). Tissues (skin and blubber) were obtained from Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis and Balaenoptera physalus from the western Ligurian Sea, between Corsica and the French-Italian coast, and Ionic Sea using biopsy darts launched with a crossbow. Benzo(alpha)pyrene monoxigenase (BPMO) activity was mesured in biopsies and cholrinated hydrocarbon levels were detected. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in Xiphias gladius and Thunnus thynnus thynnus), and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis and Balaenoptera physalus) exposed to EDs. The present research shows that: a) Vtg and Zrp can be used as diagnostic tools for fish stocks hazard assessment in the Mediterranean Sea; b) that CYP1A1 (BPMO) induction in

  12. Endocrine Disruptor Degradation by Photocatalytic Pilot Plant Unit.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spáčilová, Lucie; Morozová, Magdalena; Mašín, P.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, František; Dytrych, Pavel; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena; Šolcová, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2016), s. 4613-4620 ISSN 2458-9403 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020700 Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984398 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * titanium dioxide * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M)

  13. Endocrine Disruptor Induction of Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental exposures such as toxicants, nutrition and stress have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease susceptibility. Endocrine disruptors are one of the largest groups of specific toxicants shown to promote this form of epigenetic inheritance. These environmental compounds that interfere with normal endocrine signaling are one of the largest classes of toxicants we are exposed to on a daily level. The ability of ancestral exposures to promote disease susceptibility significantly increases the potential biohazards of these toxicants. Therefore, what your great-grandmother was exposed to during pregnancy may influence your disease development, even in the absence of any exposure, and you are going to pass this on to your grandchildren. This non-genetic form of inheritance significantly impacts our understanding of biology from the origins of disease to evolutionary biology. The current review will describe the previous studies and endocrine disruptors shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. PMID:25088466

  14. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... of endocrine disruption. Results: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis and it was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurs...

  15. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  16. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  17. Spreeta-based biosensor for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  18. QSAR Methods to Screen Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Porta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is one of the important goals of environmental chemical hazard screening. We report on in silico methods addressing toxicological studies about EDCs with a special focus on the application of QSAR models for screening purpose. Since Estrogen-like (ER activity has been extensively studied, the majority of the available models are based on ER-related endpoints. Some of these models are here reviewed and described. As example for their application, we screen an assembled dataset of candidate substitutes for some known EDCs belonging to the chemical classes of phthalates, bisphenols and parabens, selected considering their toxicological relevance and broad application, with the general aim of preliminary assessing their ED potential. The goal of the substitution processes is to advance inherently safer chemicals and products, consistent with the principles of green chemistry. Results suggest that the integration of a family of different models accounting for different endpoints can be a convenient way to describe ED as properly as possible and allow also both to increase the confidence of the predictions and to maximize the probability that most active compounds are correctly found.

  19. Light at night as an environmental endocrine disruptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Kathryn L G; Nelson, Randy J

    2017-09-06

    Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are often consequences of human activity; however, the effects of EEDs are not limited to humans. A primary focus over the past ∼30years has been on chemical EEDs, but the repercussions of non-chemical EEDs, such as artificial light at night (LAN), are of increasing interest. The sensitivity of the circadian system to light and the influence of circadian organization on overall physiology and behavior make the system a target for disruption with widespread effects. Indeed, there is increasing evidence for a role of LAN in human health, including disruption of circadian regulation and melatonin signaling, metabolic dysregulation, cancer risk, and disruption of other hormonally-driven systems. These effects are not limited to humans; domesticated animals as well as wildlife are also exposed to LAN, and at risk for disrupted circadian rhythms. Here, we review data that support the role of LAN as an endocrine disruptor in humans to be considered in treatments and lifestyle suggestions. We also present the effects of LAN in other animals, and discuss the potential for ecosystem-wide effects of artificial LAN. This can inform decisions in agricultural practices and urban lighting decisions to avoid unintended outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".

  1. Endocrine Disruptors Leading to Obesity and Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios Petrakis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The review aims to comprehensively present the impact of exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs in relation to the clinical manifestation of obesity and related diseases, including diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases, carcinogenesis and infertility. EDs are strong participants in the obesity epidemic scenery by interfering with cellular morphological and biochemical processes; by inducing inflammatory responses; and by presenting transcriptional and oncogenic activity. Obesity and lipotoxicity enhancement occur through reprogramming and/or remodeling of germline epigenome by exposure to EDs. Specific population groups are vulnerable to ED exposure due to current dietary and environmental conditions. Obesity, morbidity and carcinogenicity induced by ED exposure are an evolving reality. Therefore, a new collective strategic approach is deemed essential, for the reappraisal of current global conditions pertaining to energy management.

  2. Genetic polymorphisms and metabolism of endocrine disruptors in cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatagima Ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have estimated that approximately 80% of all cancers are related to environmental factors. Individual cancer susceptibility can be the result of several host factors, including differences in metabolism, DNA repair, altered expression of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, and nutritional status. Xenobiotic metabolism is the principal mechanism for maintaining homeostasis during the body's exposure to xenobiotics. The balance of xenobiotic absorption and elimination rates in metabolism can be important in the prevention of DNA damage by chemical carcinogens. Thus the ability to metabolize and eliminate xenobiotics can be considered one of the body's first protective mechanisms. Variability in individual metabolism has been related to the enzymatic polymorphisms involved in activation and detoxification of chemical carcinogens. This paper is a contemporary literature review on genetic polymorphisms involved in the metabolism of endocrine disruptors potentially related to cancer development.

  3. Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J; Perovich, Laura J; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in product composition. Consumers should be able to avoid

  4. Endocrine Disruptors and Asthma-Associated Chemicals in Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J.; Perovich, Laura J.; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. Objectives: We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. Methods: We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. Results: We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Conclusions: Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in

  5. Determination of endocrine disruptors in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichilongo, Kwenga; Torto, Nelson

    2006-08-01

    Analysis of serum, whole blood and liver tissue samples from Kafue lechwe in the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia for suspected endocrine disrupting compounds revealed high concentrations for some of the compounds. 45 samples of serum, whole blood and liver tissue were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction followed by an analysis using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD). The following endocrine disruptors were analyzed: deltamethrin, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, pp-DDD, heptachlor, d-t-allethrin, pp-DDE, endrin and pp-DDT. For all the samples, dieldrin showed the highest concentration ranging from 1.7 to 44.4 microg/ml in serum and whole blood sample extracts and 0.10-5.1 microg/g wet weight in liver sample extracts. The most frequently detected was deltamethrin in 62% of the samples. Percent recoveries in spiked laboratory blanks ranged between 60% and 100% while calculated detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.21 microg/ml for all the endocrine disruptors evaluated. Where endocrine disruptors were detected, the concentrations of most of them far exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and the extraneous maximum residue limits (EMRLs) set by the Codex Alimentarius of the United Nations (UN), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).

  6. The endocrine disruptors among the environmental risk factors for stillbirth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncati, Luca, E-mail: emailmedical@gmail.com [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy); Department of Diagnostic and Clinical Medicine and of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, MO (Italy); Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been lately taken into consideration for their adverse effects, as possible stillbirth contributors; stillbirth can be in fact considered the most dramatic pregnancy complication. Congenital abnormalities account for few stillbirths and many related disorders are potentially modifiable or often coexist, such as maternal infections, non-communicable diseases, lifestyle factors and maternal age. Causal pathways for stillbirth frequently involve impaired placental function, either with fetal growth restriction or preterm labour. For this reason, many current efforts are focusing on the study of endocrine disruptor (ED) placental transfer, to better understand the in utero exposure dynamics. In this regard, our research group has investigated, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the EDs presence in brain samples of 24 stillbirths, collected over a 3-year period (2012–2014), coming from the Northeast Italy, a notorious area devoted to apple cultivation. Surprisingly, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), well-known EDs, have been detected in 11 samples. Apart from the noteworthy evidence of pesticides' bio-persistence, this finding implies a redefinition of the placental barrier concept: not a real safety system, but a time-deferral mechanism of absorption. The term ‘placental barrier’ in fact refers to a 4-membrane structure, made up by two epithelial layers, which exactly lining the chorionic villi, and by two endothelial layers, belonging to the feeding vessels for the fetus. It is an effective barrier only for a low administration of water-soluble substances, which encounter obstacle to cross four instead of two membranes. High doses of water-soluble compounds can reach appreciable concentration in the fetal blood, and the lipid-soluble chemicals, such as EDs, are able to pass the placental barrier, through a simple mechanism of passive diffusion, even in minimal concentrations. After crossing the placental barrier

  7. Endocrine disruptors and spontaneous premature labor: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaby Cheryl

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature labor is a poorly understood condition. Estrogen is thought to play a key role and therefore the labor process may be affected by endocrine disruptors. We sought to determine whether or not an environmental toxicant, DDE, or dietary derived endocrine disruptors, daidzein and genistein, are associated with spontaneous preterm labor. Methods Cases were defined as primiparous patients having a preterm delivery at or before 35 weeks following the spontaneous onset of labor. Controls were defined as primiparous women who delivered on the same day as the cases but at term gestation. Over approximately 1 year, 26 cases and 52 controls were recruited. Subjects agreed to have blood tests on day one postpartum for DDE and for the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein. Results The mean concentration of DDE was similar in the case and control groups: 4.29 vs 4.32 ng/g lipid p = .85. In the case group, 13/26 had detectable levels of daidzein (range 0.20 – 1.56 ng/ml compared to 25/52 controls (range 0.21 – 3.26 ng/ml. The mean concentration of daidzein was similar in cases compared to controls: 0.30 vs .34 ng/ml p = 0.91. Of the case group,14/26 had detectable levels of genistein (range 0.20 – 2.19 ng/ml compared to 32/52 controls (range 0.21 – 2.55 ng/ml. The mean concentration of genistein was similar in cases compared to controls: 0.39 vs 0.31 ng/ml, p = 0.61. Conclusion The serum levels of DDE in this population were found to be low. There appears to be no relationship between serum concentrations of DDE, daidzein, and genistein and spontaneous preterm labor in our population. The inability to identify an effect may be related to the comparatively low concentrations of DDE in our population and the rapid and variable reduction of phytoestrogens from women in labor.

  8. Assessment of endocrine disruptors - DDTs and DEHP (plasticizer) in source water: a case study from Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerasingam, Santhi Armugam; Ali Mohd, Mustafa

    2013-06-01

    The presence of endocrine disruptors in source water is of great concern because of their suspected adverse effects on humans, even when present at very low levels. As the main source of potable water supply, rivers in Malaysia are highly susceptible to contamination by various endocrine disruptors originating from anthropogenic activities. In this study, the contamination levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) and its metabolites and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in rivers of Selangor were examined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Samples were collected from sites representing source water for 18 drinking water treatment plants in Selangor between July 2008 and July 2009. DDT and its metabolites were detected in only 14% of the 192 samples analysed at levels ranging from 0.6 to 14.6 ng/L. Meanwhile DEHP was detected in 96.8% of the samples at levels ranging from below quantitation level (18 ng/L) to 970 ng/L. The detected levels of DDTs and DEHP were lower than the WHO and Malaysian Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Data obtained from this study should also serve as a reference point for future surveillance on these endocrine disruptors.

  9. Endocrine disruptor activity in bottled mineral and flavoured water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotan, Monika; Frizzell, Caroline; Robinson, Victoria; Elliott, Christopher T; Connolly, Lisa

    2013-02-15

    A panel of reporter gene assays (RGAs) coupled with a single solid phase extraction (SPE) step was developed and used to screen bottled mineral water for the presence of four classes of endocrine disruptors (EDs), oestrogens, androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids. Fourteen brands of bottled mineral water in triplicate (42 samples) were analysed. Overall, hormonal activity was found in 78% of the samples. Oestrogenic, androgenic, progestagenic and glucocorticoid activity was found in 38%, 38%, 36% and 55% of the samples, respectively at an average concentration of 10 ng/l 17β-estradiol equivalent (EEQ), 26 ng/l testosterone equivalent (TEQ), 123 ng/l progesterone equivalent (PEQ) and 13.5 ng/l hydrocortisone equivalent (HEQ). The level of oestrogenic, androgenic and progestagenic activity observed is not considered a matter of concern for the consumers' health. It is unknown whether the glucocorticoid levels observed are safe. The ED source, long term exposure and mixture effects remain to be investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of endocrine disruptors on the human fetal testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Habert, René; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    The modern societies are exposing us to a huge variety of potentially harmful pollutants. Among these endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been especially scrutinized as several were proven to display reprotoxic effects in rodent models. In the context of high and growing concerns about the reprotoxicity of EDs, it is crucial to carry out studies in order to assess their impact on the human reproductive function. However, such evidence remains scarce. The fetal period is critical for the proper development of the testis and is known as a period of high sensitivity to many EDs. Our team has shown in 2009 that a phthalate, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), has a potential deleterious effect on the development of human male germ cells. This result was the first direct experimental proof of the toxic effect of an ED in human testis. More recently, we also reported that bisphenol A (BPA) impaired testosterone production in the human fetal testis. Here, we will summarize the known effects of EDs on the various cell types composing the human developing testis and discuss their relevancy to propose future directions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Properties of irradiated PVC plasticized with non-endocrine disruptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutzler, B.W.; Machado, L.D.B.; Lugao, A.B. E-mail: ablugao@net.ipen.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H

    2000-03-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is under heavy attack from environmentalist groups due to the use of plasticizers and its recycling difficulties. Chloro-organics and phtalates are considered now as ubiquitous global contaminants due to their potential as weak endocrine disruptor and huge consumption. In order to make PVC acceptable for the irradiation processing industry in the long term, non-toxic plasticizers should be used. PVC was added with dioctyl phtalate (DOP) and epoxy soybean oil (ESO) and irradiated up to 50 kGy. Mechanical properties, optical properties and viscosity were measured and compared. The elongation and mechanical strength were under the usual range and they didn't show any significant change in the studied range of irradiation dose. All the samples showed a weak yellowing effect after irradiation and the molecular weight measured by viscosimetry showed only negligible changes. In conclusion, DOP and ESO were shown to be effective in stabilizing the radiolytic abstraction of HCl from PVC. Both plasticizers imparted good color stability and overall properties to the products.

  12. Obesogenic endocrine disruptors and obesity: myths and truths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Barrea, Luigi; Laudisio, Daniela; Savastano, Silvia; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-11-01

    Obesogenic endocrine disruptors, also known as obesogens, are chemicals potentially involved in weight gain by altering lipid homeostasis and promoting adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. They included compounds to which human population is exposed over daily life such as pesticides/herbicides, industrial and household products, plastics, detergents and personal care products. The window of life during which the exposure happens could lead to different effects. A critical window is during utero and/or neonatal period in which the obesogens could cause subtle changes in gene expression and tissue organization or blunt other levels of biological organization leading to increased susceptibility to diseases in the adulthood. Some of the reasons for this increased sensitivity include the lack of the protective mechanisms that are available in adult such as DNA repair mechanisms, a competent immune system, detoxifying enzymes, liver metabolism and the blood/brain barrier still not fully functional in the fetus or newborn. The mechanisms of action of obesogens lay on their ability to increase the number and/or the size of the adipocytes and to alter appetite, satiety and food preferences. The ability of obesogens to increase fat deposition results in an increased capacity for their own retention due to their lipophilic properties; thus prolonging the exposure and increasing the detrimental metabolic consequences.

  13. Session 2 – Identification of endocrine disruptors and amendments of standard information requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Holbech, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions regarding regulation of endocrine disruptors (EDs) and combination effects are ongoing in Europe. Among the central topics of discussion are establishment of criteria for identification of EDs, whether there is a threshold for endocrine disrupting effects and how EDs should be handled...

  14. Occupational exposure to potential endocrine disruptors: further development of a job exposure matrix.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Tongeren, M. van; Hirst, A.A.; Bretveld, R.W.; Roeleveld, N.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to develop a new up-to-date and comprehensive job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposure to potential endocrine disruptors in epidemiological research. METHODS: Chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties were identified from the literature and classified into 10

  15. Human endometrial cell coculture reduces the endocrine disruptor toxicity on mouse embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myeong-Seop

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Previous studies suggested that endocrine disruptors (ED are toxic on preimplantation embryos and inhibit development of embryos in vitro culture. However, information about the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on preimplantation development of embryo in human reproductive environment is lacking. Methods Bisphenol A (BPA and Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls were used as endocrine disruptors in this study. Mouse 2-cell embryos were cultured in medium alone or vehicle or co-cultured with human endometrial epithelial layers in increasing ED concentrations. Results At 72 hours the percentage of normal blastocyst were decreased by ED in a dose-dependent manner while the co-culture system significantly enhanced the rate and reduced the toxicity of endocrine disruptors on the embryonic development in vitro. Conclusions In conclusion, although EDs have the toxic effect on embryo development, the co-culture with human endometrial cell reduced the preimplantation embryo from it thereby making human reproductive environment protective to preimplantation embryo from the toxicity of endocrine disruptors.

  16. Metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer associations: biochemical and pathophysiological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Di Palo, Rossella; Lamantia, Elvira; Castaldo, Luigi; Nocerino, Flavia; Ametrano, Gianluca; Cappuccio, Francesca; Malzone, Gabriella; Montanari, Micaela; Vanacore, Daniela; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Iovane, Gelsomina; Pepe, Maria Filomena; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carmine; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; De Falco, Francesco; Maiolino, Piera; Caraglia, Michele; Montella, Maurizio; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes the main pathophysiological basis of the relationship between metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptor exposure and prostate cancer that is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and hormonal factors having a central role in the initiation and recurrence of many western chronic diseases including hormonal-related cancers and it is considered as the worlds leading health problem in the coming years. Many biological factors correlate metabolic syndrome to prostate cancer and this review is aimed to focus, principally, on growth factors, cytokines, adipokines, central obesity, endocrine abnormalities and exposure to specific endocrine disruptors, a cluster of chemicals, to which we are daily exposed, with a hormone-like structure influencing oncogenes, tumor suppressors and proteins with a key role in metabolism, cell survival and chemo-resistance of prostate cancer cells. Finally, this review will analyze, from a molecular point of view, how specific foods could reduce the relative risk of incidence and recurrence of prostate cancer or inhibit the biological effects of endocrine disruptors on prostate cancer cells. On the basis of these considerations, prostate cancer remains a great health problem in terms of incidence and prevalence and interventional studies based on the treatment of metabolic syndrome in cancer patients, minimizing exposure to endocrine disruptors, could be a key point in the overall management of this disease. PMID:28389628

  17. Reproductive toxicology of endocrine disruptors : effects of cadmium, phthalates and phytoestrogens on testicular steroidogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, David

    2008-01-01

    A number of investigations during the last two decades describe adverse trends in male reproductive health, which have been proposed to be caused by environmental factors with endocrine disrupting properties. In contrast to many other toxicants, endocrine disruptors often do not show linear dose-response relationships typical of those found in traditional toxicological studies. For many compounds, low-dose exposure causes effects opposite to the ones seen after high-dose exposure. In addition...

  18. Sustained Reprogramming of the Estrogen Response After Chronic Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea R Patterson; Mo, Xiaokui; Shapiro, Ali; Wernke, Karen E.; Archer, Trevor K.; Burd, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive nature of estrogenic industrial and dietary compounds is a growing health concern linked to cancer, obesity, and neurological disorders. Prior analyses of endocrine disruptor action have focused primarily on the short-term consequences of exposure. However, these studies are unlikely to reflect the consequences of constant exposures common to industrialized countries. Here we examined the global effects of long-term endocrine disruption on gene transcription and estrogen signali...

  19. The application of reporter gene assays for the detection of endocrine disruptors in sport supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plotan, M.; Elliot, C.T.; Scippo, M.L.; Müller, M.; Antignac, J.P.; Malone, E.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Mitchell, S.; Connolly, L.

    2011-01-01

    The increasing availability and use of sports supplements is of concern as highlighted by a number of studies reporting endocrine disruptor contamination in such products. The health food supplement market, including sport supplements, is growing across the Developed World. Therefore, the need to

  20. Effects of Endocrine Disruptors Ethinylestradiol and Procloraz on the vocal system of the frog Xenopus tropicalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Nørum, Ulrik; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    for studying the effects of endocrine disruptors on sexual differentiation. We exposed tadpoles and metamorphs of the species Xenopus tropicalis to the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol and the fungicide prochloraz. Prochloraz masculinized the larynx of female frogs while ethinylestradiol had no effect...

  1. A study on the degradation of endocrine disruptors and dioxins by ozonation and advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kenmochi, Y.; Tutumi, K.; Tanaka, T. [Ebara Corp., Fujisawa (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Recently, enhancement and development of treatment technologies related to contaminated water environment by endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol-A(BPA), estradiol(E2) and dioxins have become a focus of attention. In this study, the influence of O{sub 3} dosage and the forms of endocrine disruptors on the degradability during O{sub 3} treatment and AOP treatment were investigated. A reaction kinetic evaluation of these processes was also carried out. In this study, the endocrine disruptors were classified into 2 groups: (1) DXNs: dioxins and (2) EDs: endocrine disruptors other than dioxins. For the case of DXNs decomposition, highly concentrated DXNs from incinerator washwater were degraded by UV/O{sub 3} combined treatment. Influence of O{sub 3} dosage and forms of DXNs on the reaction rate constant were evaluated. For the case of EDs decomposition, the effect of O{sub 3} dosage on the reaction rate constant were investigated during O{sub 3} treatment of secondary treated sewage. Also, a degradability comparison was made for the above 2 groups. (orig.)

  2. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  3. Bioremediation of endocrine disruptor di-n-butyl phthalate ester by Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Chen, Lung-Chieh; Chen, Bing-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a group of phthalate esters (PAEs) that are widely used in cosmetics, perfumes, and plasticizers. Due to its high production and application figures, DBP is commonly found in wastewater, sewage sludge, and aquatic environments. It has been classified as suspected endocrine disruptors by most countries. In this study, we isolated two DBP degradable strains from activated sludge. The strains were identified with their 16S rRNA as Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri. We constructed the optimal condition of DBP degradation by using different kinds of incubation factors such as temperature, initial pH, yeast extract and surfactants. The optimal conditions of DBP degradation for these two strains are: 30 degrees C, pH 7.5 and static culture. Besides, addition of 0.23 mM of Triton X-100 could enhance the DBP degradation for D. radiodurans. In the end, we amended these two strains into the origin activated sludge and analyzed the whole microbial community structure of mixed cultures by PCR-DGGE technique. The result showed that only D. radiodurans could survive in the activated sludge after 7d of incubation. Based on this work, we hope that these findings could provide some useful information for applying the bioremediation of DBP in our environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuevos disruptores endocrinos: su importancia en la población pediátrica New endocrine disruptors: their importance in pediatric population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Alfaro Velásquez

    2005-04-01

    clothes, cleaning products, cosmetics and motor vehicles. In every one of these groups there are signals of an endocrine-disrupting activity, whether direct or indirect. Initial controversy dealt with products chemically similar to estrogens and with those with antiandrogenic and antithyroid activity because of their suspected harmful activity on DNA; more recently, new substances and life conditions have been introduced in the list of endocrine disruptors; although such substances do not damage the genome, they interact in inappropriate ways with enzymes and their metabolic pathways. Among the potential harmful effects of these substances the following should be emphasized: intrauterine abnormalities due to damage of fetal tissues, changes of genital phenotype, several clinical manifestations during adolescence and potential effects on future generations. Finally, there are substances that can modulate the endocrine and immune expressions of individuals as well as homeostasis, reproduction, development and behavior; they have effects on reproductive tissues, both male and female, fertility, thyroid function and the central nervous system.

  5. Exposure to Endocrine Disruptor Induces Transgenerational Epigenetic Deregulation of MicroRNAs in Primordial Germ Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brieno-Enriguez, M. A.; García-López, J.; Cárdenas, D.B.; Guibert, S.; Cleroux, E.; Děd, Lukáš; de Dios Hourcade, J.; Pěknicová, Jana; Weber, M.; del Mazo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2015) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/1834; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * epigenetics * primordial germ cells * vinclozolin * TUNEL analysis * methylation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  6. Effect of Sediment Humic Substances on Sorption of Selected Endocrine Disruptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, W. L., E-mail: sunweiling@iee.pku.edu.cn; Ni, J. R.; Liu, T. T. [The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University (China)

    2006-12-15

    Characterizing sorption processes is essential to understand the environmental distribution and toxicity potential of endocrine disruptors in terrestrial and aquatic systems. The sorption behaviors of three endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A (BPA), 17{beta}-estradiol (E2), and 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE2)) on sediments were investigated using batch techniques. Samples were taken from some representative reaches in several major Chinese rivers. More attention has been paid to the effect of sediment organic components on the sorption of BPA, E2, and EE2. The results show that the sediment organic carbon-normalized partition coefficients (K{sub oc}(sed)) for three endocrine disruptors are in the order of EE2 > E2 > BPA, which corresponds to the octanol-water partitioning coefficients (logK{sub ow}) of the compounds. Moreover, the K{sub oc} values for humic substances (K{sub oc}(hs)) are comparable with the K{sub oc}(sed) values and highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of humic substances in sediments. The UV absorptivity at 272 nm (A{sub 272}), which suggests the abundance of aromatic rings in humic substance structure, correlates well with the K{sub oc}(hs) values. In addition, the infrared spectra of the humic substances extracted from sediments show four strong bands centered at 3,400 cm{sup -1}, 1,625 cm{sup -1}, 1,390 cm{sup -1}, and 1,025 cm{sup -1}. The K{sub oc}(hs) values have a positive linear relation with the peak area ratio for peak at 1,025 cm{sup -1} and a negative linear relation with the peak area ratio between peaks at 1,625 cm{sup -1} and 1,025 cm{sup -1}. Hence, the hydrogen bonds play a critical role to the sorption of selected endocrine disruptors.

  7. Elucidating the links between endocrine disruptors and neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Blawas, Ashley M; Gray, Kimberly; Heindel, Jerrold J; Lawler, Cindy P

    2015-06-01

    Recent data indicate that approximately 12% of children in the United States are affected by neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disorders, intellectual disabilities, and autism spectrum disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates a multifactorial etiology for these disorders, with social, physical, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, and chemical toxicants acting together to influence risk. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during the early stages of life can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus alter brain function and disease susceptibility later in life. This article highlights research efforts and pinpoints approaches that could shed light on the possible associations between environmental chemicals that act on the endocrine system and compromised neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  8. Endocrine disruptors, travel-associated illness, and media violence: important health considerations for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattishall, Amy E; Spector, Nancy D

    2010-12-01

    This article addresses three important topics that are part of contemporary life for children: endocrine disruptors, hazards of international travel, and the impact of media violence on children and adolescents. Practitioners will learn about phthalates and Bisphenol-A as endocrine disruptors. In published studies, elevated phthalates were associated with an increase in pubertal gynecomastia and premature thelarche. Bisphenol-A was judged by the Food and Drug Administration as having some concern for potential effects on brain, behavior, and prostate gland in fetuses, infants, and young children: hence, the decision to take reasonable steps to reduce exposure of infants. In travel-related diseases, diarrheal disease (primarily Campylobacter and Salmonella), dermatologic conditions (animal bites), systemic febrile illness (malaria and dengue fever), and respiratory illnesses predominate. Children and adolescents spend more than 7 h using media per day. The degree to which media violence can be linked to behavior is not conclusive, but the prevention message for practitioners is important because parents can have an important mitigating effect. Endocrine disruptors, travel-related diseases, and media violence are part of modern day life for our children. Pediatricians need to stay abreast of recent findings and have access to up-to-date resources to assist them in providing contemporary advice and guidance to patients and families.

  9. Two Virus Based Endocrine Disruptor Assays Effective Across Vertebrate Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of hormone mimics, or endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC’s), in the environment are increasing. Sources range from agricultural run–off, pharmaceuticals in waste water, to industrial operations. Current levels of contamination are sufficient to alter sexual develo...

  10. Spreeta-based biosensor assays for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; meulenberg, E.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta™-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  11. Steroidogenesis in vitro : towards relevant models for endocrine disruptor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, M.J.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357301137

    2016-01-01

    Starting our search for in vitro alternative methods to screen for steroidogenesis toxicity, we focused on the effects of (suggested) endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme activity. CYP17 is responsible for conversion of progestagens to dehydroepiandrosterone

  12. Verifying of endocrine disruptor chemical affect to the mouse testes: can raman spectroscopy support histology study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriana, Bibin B.; Oshima, Yusuke; Takanezawa, Sota; Tay, Tat W.; Rosawati Soeratman, Catherine Linda; Alam, Mohammad S.; Mitsuoka, Hiroki; Zhu, Xiao B.; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Kanai, Yoshiakira; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2009-02-01

    One of suspect environmental endocrine disruptors that affect mouse male reproduction by altering the morphology of Sertoli cells and spermatogenic cells is phthalate. The effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), one of metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate , on immature mouse testes in vivo were examined. We have recently shown that MEHP induced Sertoli cells necrosis and spermatogenic cells apoptosis in mice by TUNEL method, F-actin staining, and ultrastructural study, but there is no data for biochemical changing of testes due to those methods could not explore. To verify in detail of it, we conducted Raman spectroscopy study with 785 nm wavelength laser line, 50mW of laser power and 3 minutes of exposure time to analysis the MEHP-treated testicular tissue, which has been fixatived by 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA). Five weeks old (5 w.o) male mice were used in this experiment. As the results, the alterations were observed by Raman spectroscopy that there are significantly differences of DNA, actin filament, type IV collagen and amide I between control group (0 μM MEHP) and treatment group (100 μM MEHP). These results significantly support histology staining observation (such as the apoptotic spermatogenic cells which is associated with DNA fragmentation and F-actin disruption) and ultrastructural observation (such as mitochondria rupture and disintegration of nucleus membrane). Raman spectroscopy can be used for 4% PFA-fixatived tissue observation. However, we recommend that Raman spectroscopy may be able to be expanded as an armamentarium not just for the clarification of histology staining and ultrastructural study, but furthermore, it may be as a non-invasion assessment for screening animal tissue toxicity of chemical in future.

  13. Biosensors for environmental monitoring of endocrine disruptors: a review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Lopez de Alda, Maria J.; Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Maria-Pilar [Department of Biological Organic Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the applications of biosensors in analysis and monitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the environment. Special attention is devoted to the various types of physical-chemical signal transduction elements, biological mechanisms employed as sensing elements and techniques used for immobilisation of the bioreceptor molecules on the transducer surface. Two different classes of biosensors for EDCs are considered: biosensors that measure endocrine-disrupting effects, and biosensors that respond to the presence of a specific substance (or group of substances) based on the specific recognition of a biomolecule. Several examples of them are presented to illustrate the power of the biosensor technology for environmental applications. Future trends in the development of new, more advanced devices are also outlined. (orig.)

  14. Effect of wastewater chlorination on endocrine disruptor removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Samaras, V; Bouras, T; Marneri, M; Antoniou, K

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds of mainly anthropogenic origin that interfere with the endocrine system of animals and humans thus causing a series of disorders. Wastewater treatment plants are one of the major routes for transporting such chemicals to the water courses. In the context of this study, several chlorination batch tests were performed in order to assess the effectiveness of chlorination to remove bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS), nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO) from secondary effluent. According to the results, an appreciable removal of NP, BPA and TCS to the order of 60-84% was observed as an effect of moderate chlorination doses. This was not the case for NP1EO and NP2EO as even at high chlorine doses, removal efficiencies were lower (37% for NP1EO and 52% for NP2EO). Removal efficiencies of NP, BPA and TCS are practically independent of contact time, although this was not the case for NP1EO and NP2EO. Based on toxicity experiments, it is anticipated that following chlorination of the target chemicals, production of more toxic metabolites is taking place. Therefore the effectiveness of chlorination to remove EDCs is questionable and more research is needed to guarantee safe wastewater reuse.

  15. Endocrine Disruptors: An Evolving Health Concern in International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Borowy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are compounds believed to mimic hormones in animal and human bodies and which are thought therefore to be a potential threat to health. Agencies including the European Commission, the International Labour Office (ILO, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO, the UN Environment Programme (UNEP each had some responsibility for chemicals in the wider environment over the last five decades. Despite this, the issue of how far the use of EDCs represents a threat to public health remains contested and policy remains uncertain. This article aims to examine the response of IHOs to the growing perception that EDCs can have negative health impacts by disentangling the various agendas and actors involved.

  16. Early-onset androgenetic alopecia and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guarrera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is the most common acquired non scarring alopecia in humans caused by androgen hormones in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Usually AGA starts after puberty, but recently it has been observed also in adolescents. Their mean age was 13 years with a slight prevalence in males. The premature AGA may be caused by environmental, alimentary (meat and milk or cosmetics overexposure to sexual hormones or to endocrine disrupters (EDs. EDs are "exogenous substances that interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body causing adverse effects to human health" and they are able bind to the steroid hormone receptors. Early onset AGA may be linked to the well known phenomenon of early puberty caused in some cases by hormones contained in food or by environmental chemicals. Therefore it is likely that the EDs may play a role also in the pathogenesis of early-onset AGA.

  17. Low-dose effects of hormones and endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous hormones have effects on tissue morphology, cell physiology, and behaviors at low doses. In fact, hormones are known to circulate in the part-per-trillion and part-per-billion concentrations, making them highly effective and potent signaling molecules. Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) mimic hormones, yet there is strong debate over whether these chemicals can also have effects at low doses. In the 1990s, scientists proposed the "low-dose hypothesis," which postulated that EDCs affect humans and animals at environmentally relevant doses. This chapter focuses on data that support and refute the low-dose hypothesis. A case study examining the highly controversial example of bisphenol A and its low-dose effects on the prostate is examined through the lens of endocrinology. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of factors that can influence the ability of a study to detect and interpret low-dose effects appropriately. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitor of Differentiation-3 and Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors: Implications for Susceptibility to Obesity and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Doke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rising global incidence of obesity cannot be fully explained within the context of traditional risk factors such as an unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, aging, or genetics. Adipose tissue is an endocrine as well as a metabolic organ that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental estrogenic chemicals. Since some of the endocrine disruptors are lipophilic chemicals with long half-lives, they tend to bioaccumulate in the adipose tissue of exposed populations. Elevated exposure to these chemicals may predispose susceptible individuals to weight gain by increasing the number and size of fat cells. Genetic studies have demonstrated that the transcriptional regulator inhibitor of differentiation-3 (ID3 promotes high fat diet-induced obesity in vivo. We have shown previously that PCB153 and natural estrogen 17β-estradiol increase ID3 expression. Based on our findings, we postulate that ID3 is a molecular target of estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs in the adipose tissue and a better understanding of this relationship may help to explain how EEDs can lead to the transcriptional programming of deviant fat cells. This review will discuss the current understanding of ID3 in excess fat accumulation and the potential for EEDs to influence susceptibility to obesity or metabolic disorders via ID3 signaling.

  19. Adsorption of pharmaceutical compounds and an endocrine disruptor from aqueous solutions by carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, José L; Rodríguez, Araceli R; Mateos, María M; Hernández, Sergio D; Torrellas, Silvia A; Rodríguez, Juan G

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption has been used to study the removal of atenolol, caffeine, diclofenac and isoproturon, pharmaceutical compounds as emerging contaminants and an endocrine disruptor from ultrapure water and a municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent with three carbonaceous materials: activated carbon, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers. The adsorption capacities were studied in the temperature range of 25-65°C and pH range from 3 to 9. Several model isotherms were used to model the adsorption equilibrium data. Also, the competitive adsorption was evaluated.

  20. New-tools to assess the toxicological hazard of endocrine disruptor organoclorine contaminants in Mediterranean cetaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Cristina Fossi; Marsili, L.; Casini, S. [Dept. of Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Siena (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The Mediterranean top predators, and particularly cetacean odontocetes, accumulate high concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (OCs), incurring high toxicological risk. Some organochlorine compounds, now with worldwide distribution, are known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Four types of organochlorine endocrine disruptors are commonly found in Mediterranean cetaceans: (1) environmental estrogens, (2) environmental androgens, (3) anti-estrogens and (4) anti-androgens. Endocrine disruptors act by mimicking sex steroid hormones, both estrogens and androgens, by binding to hormone receptors or influencing cell pathways (environmental estrogens and androgens), or by blocking and altering hormone receptor binding (anti-estrogens, antiandrogens). Environmental estrogens are the most common and most widely studied EDCs. The relative estrogenic power of these chemicals, identified by in vitro and in vivo screening methods is rather weak (10{sup -3} or less) compared with the reference power of 17-estradiol or DES. However, the high levels of organochlorine compounds detected in marine mammals, particularly in pinnipeds and odontocetes, and consequently, the high levels of organochlorines with ED capacity, cannot be ignored. Here the hypothesis that some Mediterranean cetaceans (Stenella coeruleoalba, Delphinus delphis, Tursiops truncatus and Balaenoptera physalus) are ''potentially at risk'' due to organochlorines with endocrine disrupting capacity is investigated using new non-lethal tools. As ''diagnostic'' tool we use benzo(a)pyrene monooxygenase (CYP1A1) activity in skin biopsies (non-lethal biomarker) as a potential indicator of exposure to organochlorines, with special reference to the compounds with endocrine disrupting capacity. As ''prognostic'' tool we propose the immunofluorescence technique in fibroblast cell cultures, for a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the target

  1. Exposure to endocrine disruptor induces transgenerational epigenetic deregulation of microRNAs in primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Brieño-Enríquez

    Full Text Available In mammals, germ cell differentiation is initiated in the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs during fetal development. Prenatal exposure to environmental toxicants such as endocrine disruptors may alter PGC differentiation, development of the male germline and induce transgenerational epigenetic disorders. The anti-androgenic compound vinclozolin represents a paradigmatic example of molecule causing transgenerational effects on germ cells. We performed prenatal exposure to vinclozolin in mice and analyzed the phenotypic and molecular changes in three successive generations. A reduction in the number of embryonic PGCs and increased rate of apoptotic cells along with decrease of fertility rate in adult males were observed in F1 to F3 generations. Blimp1 is a crucial regulator of PGC differentiation. We show that prenatal exposure to vinclozolin deregulates specific microRNAs in PGCs, such as miR-23b and miR-21, inducing disequilibrium in the Lin28/let-7/Blimp1 pathway in three successive generations of males. As determined by global maps of cytosine methylation, we found no evidence for prominent changes in DNA methylation in PGCs or mature sperm. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors induces transgenerational epigenetic deregulation of expression of microRNAs affecting key regulatory pathways of germ cells differentiation.

  2. Characterization of the interactions between endocrine disruptors and aquatic humic substances from tropical rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botero, Wander G. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Arapiraca, AL (Brazil); Oliveira, Luciana C. de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Cunha, Bruno B.; Oliveira, Lilian K. de; Goveia, Danielle; Fraceto, Leonardo F.; Rosa, Andre Henrique, E-mail: ahrosa@sorocaba.unesp.b [UNESP, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia do Meio Ambiente; Rocha, Julio Cesar [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2011-07-01

    Interactions between two endocrine disruptors (ED) and aquatic humic substances (AHS) from tropical rivers were studied using an ultrafiltration system equipped with a 1 kDa cut-off cellulose membrane to separate free ED from the fraction bound in the AHS. Quantification of 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol and bisphenol A was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The times required for establishment of equilibrium between the AHS and the ED were ca. 30 min, and complexation capacities for 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol and bisphenol A were 18.53 and 2.07 mg g{sup -1} TOC, respectively. The greater interaction of AHS with 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol, compared to bisphenol A, was due to the presence of hydrogen in the structure of 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol, which could interact with ionized oxygenated groups of the AHS. The results indicate that AHS can strongly influence the transport and reactivity of endocrine disruptors in aquatic systems. (author)

  3. Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... estrogens and other hormones on human health. FDA - Bisphenol A (BPA) - A summary of FDA’s current perspective on BPA in food contact applications. Organ: Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms - “ ...

  4. Early endocrine disruptors exposure acts on 3T3-L1 differentiation and endocrine activity

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    Sofiane Boudalia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.

  5. Occurrence and Profiles of the Artificial Endocrine Disruptor Bisphenol A and Natural Endocrine Disruptor Phytoestrogens in Urine from Children in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to artificial or natural endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A (BPA and phytoestrogens has been demonstrated to have health effects, especially in children. Biomonitoring of BPA and phytoestrogens in human urine can be used to assess the intake levels of these compounds. Methods: In this study, BPA and phytoestrogens in urine specimens (n = 256 collected from children in China were measured by liquid chromatography (LC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Results: BPA was detected in most specimens, with a geometric mean concentration of 1.58 ng/mL. For the first time, levels of urinary phytoestrogens in Chinese children were reported. Daidzein and enterolactone are the typical isoflavones and lignans compounds in urine, respectively. Conclusions: Relatively high levels of urinary BPA indicate an increasing risk of BPA exposure to Chinese children. Urinary concentrations of daidzein in Chinese children are higher when compared with those reported in the U.S. children, while concentrations of urinary enterolactone and enterodiols are significantly lower. This suggests a significant difference in phytoestrogen intake between the children from China and from the U.S.

  6. In Vitro Effects of the Endocrine Disruptor p,p’-DDT on Human Follitropin Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Mathilde; Grouleff, Julie; Gourdin, Louis; Fauchard, Mathilde; Chantreau, Vanessa; Henrion, Daniel; Coutant, Régis; Schiøtt, Birgit; Chabbert, Marie; Rodien, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Background: 1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene (p,p′-DDT) is a persistent environmental endocrine disruptor (ED). Several studies have shown an association between p,p′-DDT exposure and reproductive abnormalities. Objectives: To investigate the putative effects of p,p′-DDT on the human follitropin receptor (FSHR) function. Methods and Results: We used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing human FSHR to investigate the impact of p,p′-DDT on FSHR activity and its interaction with the receptor. At a concentration of 5 μM p,p′-DDT increased the maximum response of the FSHR to follitropin by 32 ± 7.45%. However, 5 μM p,p′-DDT decreased the basal activity and did not influence the maximal response of the closely related LH/hCG receptor to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The potentiating effect of p,p′-DDT was specific for the FSHR. Moreover, in cells that did not express FSHR, p,p′-DDT had no effect on cAMP response. Thus, the potentiating effect of p,p′-DDT was dependent on the FSHR. In addition, p,p′-DDT increased the sensitivity of FSHR to hCG and to a low molecular weight agonist of the FSHR, 3-((5methyl)-2-(4-benzyloxy-phenyl)-5-{[2-[3-ethoxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-ethylcarbamoyl]-methyl}-4-oxo-thiazolidin-3-yl)-benzamide (16a). Basal activity in response to p,p′-DDT and potentiation of the FSHR response to FSH by p,p′-DDT varied among FSHR mutants with altered transmembrane domains (TMDs), consistent with an effect of p,p′-DDT via TMD binding. This finding was corroborated by the results of simultaneously docking p,p′-DDT and 16a into the FSHR transmembrane bundle. Conclusion: p,p′-DDT acted as a positive allosteric modulator of the FSHR in our experimental model. These findings suggest that G protein–coupled receptors are additional targets of endocrine disruptors. Citation: Munier M, Grouleff J, Gourdin L, Fauchard M, Chantreau V, Henrion D, Coutant R, Schiøtt B, Chabbert M, Rodien P. 2016

  7. In Vitro Effects of the Endocrine Disruptor p,p'-DDT on Human Follitropin Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Mathilde; Grouleff, Julie; Gourdin, Louis; Fauchard, Mathilde; Chantreau, Vanessa; Henrion, Daniel; Coutant, Régis; Schiøtt, Birgit; Chabbert, Marie; Rodien, Patrice

    2016-07-01

    1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene (p,p'-DDT) is a persistent environmental endocrine disruptor (ED). Several studies have shown an association between p,p'-DDT exposure and reproductive abnormalities. To investigate the putative effects of p,p'-DDT on the human follitropin receptor (FSHR) function. We used Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing human FSHR to investigate the impact of p,p'-DDT on FSHR activity and its interaction with the receptor. At a concentration of 5 μM p,p'-DDT increased the maximum response of the FSHR to follitropin by 32 ± 7.45%. However, 5 μM p,p'-DDT decreased the basal activity and did not influence the maximal response of the closely related LH/hCG receptor to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The potentiating effect of p,p'-DDT was specific for the FSHR. Moreover, in cells that did not express FSHR, p,p'-DDT had no effect on cAMP response. Thus, the potentiating effect of p,p'-DDT was dependent on the FSHR. In addition, p,p'-DDT increased the sensitivity of FSHR to hCG and to a low molecular weight agonist of the FSHR, 3-((5methyl)-2-(4-benzyloxy-phenyl)-5-{[2-[3-ethoxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-ethylcarbamoyl]-methyl}-4-oxo-thiazolidin-3-yl)-benzamide (16a). Basal activity in response to p,p'-DDT and potentiation of the FSHR response to FSH by p,p'-DDT varied among FSHR mutants with altered transmembrane domains (TMDs), consistent with an effect of p,p'-DDT via TMD binding. This finding was corroborated by the results of simultaneously docking p,p'-DDT and 16a into the FSHR transmembrane bundle. p,p'-DDT acted as a positive allosteric modulator of the FSHR in our experimental model. These findings suggest that G protein-coupled receptors are additional targets of endocrine disruptors. Munier M, Grouleff J, Gourdin L, Fauchard M, Chantreau V, Henrion D, Coutant R, Schiøtt B, Chabbert M, Rodien P. 2016. In vitro effects of the endocrine disruptor p,p'-DDT on human follitropin receptor. Environ Health

  8. In vitro steroid profiling system for the evaluation of endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yosuke; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Masashi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disruptors (ED) are chemicals that affect various aspects of the endocrine system, often leading to the inhibition of steroidogenesis. Current chemical safety policies that restrict human exposure to such chemicals describe often time-consuming and costly methods for the evaluation of ED effects. We aimed to develop an effective tool for accurate phenotypic chemical toxicology studies. We developed an in vitro ED evaluation system using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) methods for metabolomic analysis of multi-marker profiles. Accounting for sample preparation and GC/MS/MS conditions, we established a screening method that allowed the simultaneous analysis of 17 steroids with good reproducibility and a linear calibration curve. Moreover, we applied the developed system to H295R human adrenocortical cells exposed to forskolin and prochloraz in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines and observed dose-dependent variations in steroid profiles. While the OECD guidelines include only testosterone and 17β-estradiol, our system enabled a comprehensive and highly sensitive analysis of steroid profile alteration due to ED exposure. The application of our ED evaluation screen could be economical and provide novel insights into the hazards of ED exposure to the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term effects of environmental endocrine disruptors on reproductive physiology and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B Patisaul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that, over the course of development, hormones shape the vertebrate brain such that sex specific physiology and behaviors emerge. Much of this occurs in discrete developmental windows that span gestation through the prenatal period, although it is now becoming clear that at least some of this process continues through puberty. Perturbation of this developmental progression can permanently alter the capacity for reproductive success. Wildlife studies have revealed that exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs, either naturally occurring or man made, can profoundly alter reproductive physiology and ultimately impact entire populations. Laboratory studies in rodents and other species have elucidated some of the mechanisms by which this occurs and strongly indicate that humans are also vulnerable to disruption. Use of hormonally active compounds in human medicine has also unfortunately revealed that the developing fetus can be exposed to and affected by endocrine disruptors, and that it might take decades for adverse effects to manifest. Research within the field of environmental endocrine disruption has also contributed to the general understanding of how early life experiences can alter reproductive physiology and behavior through non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation. These types of effects have the potential to impact future generations if the germ line is affected. This review provides an overview of how exposure to EDCs, particularly those that interfere with estrogen action, impacts reproductive physiology and behaviors in vertebrates.

  10. Biomarker Genes for Detecting Estrogenic Activity of Endocrine Disruptors via Estrogen Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Yang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (EDs are compounds used in various industrial products, drugs, and cosmetics. They can be found in the environment and disturb the endocrine and reproductive systems, resulting in adverse effects to humans and wildlife such as birth defects and developmental disorders. Since several EDs have a structure similar to that of endogenous steroid hormones such as estrogens, they intend to have an affinity for steroid hormone receptors and alter hormone-mediated metabolism by binding to these receptors. EDs are therefore a global concern and assays should be developed to efficiently determine whether these compounds are detrimental to biological systems. Diverse experimental methods may help determine the endocrine disrupting potential of EDs and evaluate the adverse effects of a single and/or combination of these reagents. Currently, biomarkers have been employed to objectively measure EDs potency and understand the underlying mechanisms. Further studies are required to develop ideal screening methods and biomarkers to determine EDs potency at environmentally relevant concentrations. In this review, we describe the biomarkers for estrogenicity of EDs identified both in vitro and in vivo, and introduce a biomarker, cabindin-D9k (CaBP-9k, that may be used to assess estrogenic activity of EDs.

  11. Long term impact of the endocrine disruptor tributyltin on male fertility following a single acute exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumonto; Srivastava, Ankit; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2017-10-01

    Declining rate of human fertility is a growing concern, where lifestyle and environmental factors play an important role. We recently demonstrated that tributyltin (TBT), an omnipresent endocrine disruptor, affects testicular cells in vitro. In this study, male Wistar rats were gavaged a single dose of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg TBT-chloride (TBTC) (to mimic accidental exposure in vivo) and sacrificed on day 3 and day 7, respectively. TBT bioavailability was evaluated by estimating total tin content, and essential metal levels were analyzed along with redox molecules (ROS and GSH/GSSG) to understand the effect on physiological conditions. Blood-testicular barrier (BTB) disruption, levels of associated proteins and activity of proteolytic enzymes were evaluated to understand the effect on BTB. Histological analysis of tissue architecture and effect on protein expression of steroidogenic, stress and apoptotic markers were also evaluated. Widespread TBTC pollution can be an eventual threat to male fertility worldwide. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol induces adipocyte differentiation and promotes obesity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Chan-Juan; Cheng, Xue-Jia; Xia, Hong-Fei, E-mail: hongfeixia@yahoo.com.cn; Ma, Xu

    2012-08-15

    Epidemiology studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental “window” contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of endocrine disruptor such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here we evaluated the effects of DES on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DES induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, and activated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-acivated receptor (PPAR) γ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. ER mediated the enhancement of DES-induced PPARγ activity. Moreover, DES perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to low dose of DES significantly increased body weight, liver weight and fat mass in female offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60. In addition, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to DES may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. -- Highlights: ► DES induced adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. ► DES activated adipogenic critical regulators and markers in vitro and in vivo. ► Perinatal exposure to DES led to the obese phenotype in female offspring. ► DES might be a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  13. The application of reporter gene assays for the detection of endocrine disruptors in sport supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotan, Monika; Elliott, Christopher T. [Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT95AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Scippo, Marie Louise [Department of Food Sciences, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Muller, Marc [Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering GIGA-R, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Antignac, Jean-Philippe [LABERCA, ENVN, USC INRA 2013, BP 50707, 44 307, Nantes (France); Malone, Edward [The State Laboratory, Young' s Cross, Celbridge, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Bovee, Toine F.H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, AE Wageningen 6700 (Netherlands); Mitchell, Samuel [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Connolly, Lisa, E-mail: l.connolly@qub.ac.uk [Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT95AG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-26

    The increasing availability and use of sports supplements is of concern as highlighted by a number of studies reporting endocrine disruptor contamination in such products. The health food supplement market, including sport supplements, is growing across the Developed World. Therefore, the need to ensure the quality and safety of sport supplements for the consumer is essential. The development and validation of two reporter gene assays coupled with solid phase sample preparation enabling the detection of estrogenic and androgenic constituents in sport supplements is reported. Both assays were shown to be of high sensitivity with the estrogen and androgen reporter gene assays having an EC{sub 50} of 0.01 ng mL{sup -1} and 0.16 ng mL{sup -1} respectively. The developed assays were applied in a survey of 63 sport supplements samples obtained across the Island of Ireland with an additional seven reference samples previously investigated using LC-MS/MS. Androgen and estrogen bio-activity was found in 71% of the investigated samples. Bio-activity profiling was further broken down into agonists, partial agonists and antagonists. Supplements (13) with the strongest estrogenic bio-activity were chosen for further investigation. LC-MS/MS analysis of these samples determined the presence of phytoestrogens in seven of them. Supplements (38) with androgen bio-activity were also selected for further investigation. Androgen agonist bio-activity was detected in 12 supplements, antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 16 and partial antagonistic bio-activity was detected in 10. A further group of supplements (7) did not present androgenic bio-activity when tested alone but enhanced the androgenic agonist bio-activity of dihydrotestosterone when combined. The developed assays offer advantages in detection of known, unknown and low-level mixtures of endocrine disruptors over existing analytical screening techniques. For the detection and identification of constituent hormonally

  14. Steroids and endocrine disruptors--History, recent state of art and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Richard; Kubátová, Jana; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter provides an overview of the levels and sites at which endocrine disruptors (EDs) affect steroid actions. In contrast to the special issue of Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology published three years ago and devoted to EDs as such, this paper focuses on steroids. We tried to point to more recent findings and opened questions. EDs interfere with steroid biosynthesis and metabolism either as inhibitors of relevant enzymes, or at the level of their expression. Particular attention was paid to enzymes metabolizing steroid hormones to biologically active products in target cells, such as aromatase, 5α-reductase and 3β-, 11β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. An important target for EDs is also steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), responsible for steroid precursor trafficking to mitochondria. EDs influence receptor-mediated steroid actions at both genomic and non-genomic levels. The remarkable differences in response to various steroid-receptor ligands led to a more detailed investigation of events following steroid/disruptor binding to the receptors and to the mapping of the signaling cascades and nuclear factors involved. A virtual screening of a large array of EDs with steroid receptors, known as in silico methods (≡computer simulation), is another promising approach for studying quantitative structure activity relationships and docking. New data may be expected on the effect of EDs on steroid hormone binding to selective plasma transport proteins, namely transcortin and sex hormone-binding globulin. Little information is available so far on the effects of EDs on the major hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axes, of which the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is of particular importance. Kisspeptins act as stimulators for hormone-induced gonadotropin secretion and their expression is regulated by sex steroids via a feed-back mechanism. Kisspeptin is now believed to be one of the key factors triggering puberty in

  15. Effects of elevated glucocorticoids on reproduction and development: relevance to endocrine disruptor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witorsch, Raphael J

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis on mammalian male and female reproduction and development of offspring and its potential impact on the identification of endocrine disruptive chemicals by in vivo assays. In the adult male rat and baboon, stress suppresses testosterone secretion via a direct inhibitory effect of elevated glucocorticoids on Leydig cells. In adult female sheep, stress disrupts reproductive function via multi-stage mechanisms involving glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of LH secretion, LH action on the ovary and the action of estradiol on its target cells (e.g., uterus). While physiological concentrations of endogenous glucocorticoids are supportive of fetal development, excessive glucocorticoids in utero (i.e., maternal stress) adversely affect mammalian offspring by "programing" abnormalities that are primarily manifest postpartum. The influence of stress on reproduction and development can also be mediated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), a bi-directional oxidative:reductive pathway, which governs the balance between biologically active (reduced) endogenous glucocorticoid and inactive (oxidized) metabolites. This pathway is mediated primarily by two isozymes, 11β - HSD1 (reductase) and 11β-HSD2 (oxidase) which act both in an intracrine (intracellular) and endocrine (systemic) fashion. The 11β-HSD pathway appears to play a variety of physiological roles in mammalian reproduction and development and is a target for selected xenobiotics. The effects of the HPA axis on mammalian reproduction and development are potential confounders for in vivo bioassays in rodents employed to identify endocrine disruptive chemicals. Accordingly, consideration of the impact of the HPA axis should be incorporated into the design of bioassays for evaluating endocrine disruptors.

  16. Endocrine Disruptors and Health Effects in Africa: A Call for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Maria S; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie H; de Jager, Christiaan; Wagenaar, Gesina M; Bouwman, Hindrik; Barnhoorn, Irene E J; Patrick, Sean M; Vandenberg, Laura N; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Blumberg, Bruce; Kimmins, Sarah; Jegou, Bernard; Auger, Jacques; DiGangi, Joseph; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2017-08-22

    Africa faces a number of unique environmental challenges. Unfortunately, it lacks the infrastructure needed to support the comprehensive environmental studies that could provide the scientific basis to inform environmental policies. There are a number of known sources of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other hazardous chemicals in Africa. However, a coordinated approach to identify and monitor these contaminants and to develop strategies for public health interventions has not yet been made. This commentary summarizes the scientific evidence presented by experts at the First African Endocrine Disruptors meeting. We describe a "call to action" to utilize the available scientific knowledge to address the impact of EDCs on human and wildlife health in Africa. We identify existing knowledge gaps about exposures to EDCs in Africa and describe how well-designed research strategies are needed to address these gaps. A lack of resources for research and a lag in policy implementation slows down intervention strategies and poses a challenge to advancing future health in Africa. To address the many challenges posed by EDCs, we argue that Africans should take the lead in prioritization and evaluation of environmental hazards, including EDCs. We recommend the institution of education and training programs for chemical users, adoption of the precautionary principle, establishment of biomonitoring programs, and funding of community-based epidemiology and wildlife research programs led and funded by African institutes and private companies. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1774.

  17. The Substitution Principle within the REACH Regulation: Nuclear Receptor-Bound Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lorenzetti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the REACH Regulation (EC/1907/2006, the substitution principle for chemicals classified as Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC for either human health or environmental risks has been implemented in order to support their replacement by suitable alternatives. Considering the thousands of chemicals to be tested within the frame of REACH, animal testing by internationally-accepted guidelines sounds unreasonable in terms of the required time, costs as well ethical issues. Hence, REACH recommended also the use of alternative methods to animal experimentation although no validated in silico or in vitro tools were available when regulation entried into force. To search for suitable alternatives to SVHC having an Endocrine Disruptor (ED-like Mode-of-Action (MoA by means of an integrated, tiered in silico-in vitro approach, the EU-granted project LIFE-EDESIA (contract no. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000633 is combining computational-based tools and cell-based bioassays, in order to develop a no-animal testing procedure to screen for chemicals having less or no toxicity in terms of endocrine disruption-like activities. A general view of the no-animal testing approach implementing REACH and the substitution principle will be given, emphasising ligand-nuclear receptor (NR assessment by molecular docking (one of the LIFE-EDESIA in silico approaches and the use of clinical biomarkers in in vitro toxicology to detect ED-like adverse effects in cell-based bioassays.

  18. Negative role of the environmental endocrine disruptors in the human neurodevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Roncati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The endocrine disruptors (EDs are able to influence the endocrine system, mimicking or antagonizing hormonal molecules. They are bio-persistent for their degradation resistance in the environment. Our research group has investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS the EDs presence in 35 brain samples, coming from 27 cases of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS and 8 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS, collected by centralization in the last year (2015. More in detail, a mixture of 25 EDs has been subjected to analytical procedure, following standard protocols. Among the target analytes, some organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, that is α-chlordane, γ-chlordane, heptachlor, p,p-DDE, p,p-DDT, and the two most commonly used organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs, chlorpyrifos and chlorfenvinfos, have been found in 7 and 3 samples, respectively. The analytical procedure used to detect the presence of environmental EDs in cortex samples has been successfully implemented on SIUDS and SIDS victims. The environmental EDs have been found to be able to overcome the placental barrier, reaching also the basal ganglia assigned to the control of the vital functions. This finding, related to the OPPs bio-persistence, implies a conceptual redefinition of the fetal-placental and fetal blood-brain barriers: not real safety barriers, but simply time-deferral mechanisms of absorption.

  19. Exposición a disruptores endocrinos y alteraciones del tracto urogenital masculino (criptorquidia e hipospadias Exposure to endocrine disruptors and male urogenital tract malformations [cryptorchidism and hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana F. Fernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Se ha sugerido que la exposición maternoinfantil a compuestos hormonalmente activos (disruptores endocrinos tiene en la etapa intrauterina una de sus fases más comprometidas. Objetivo: Revisar los estudios epidemiológicos, nacionales e internacionales, publicados entre 1990 y el primer trimestre de 2006, que tuvieran como hipótesis la asociación entre la exposición humana a disruptores endocrinos y el riesgo de criptorquidia e hipospadias. Métodos: Se han buscado artículos en MEDLINE/PubMed mediante las palabras clave: disruptores endocrinos, xenoestrógenos, pesticidas organoclorados y criptorquidia e hipospadias. La selección de los 16 trabajos incluidos se hizo atendiendo al diseño y la población de estudio, las medidas de exposición empleadas, los criterios de exclusión e inclusión establecidos y el análisis estadístico utilizado. Resultados y conclusiones: Aunque los estudios aquí revisados no son concluyentes para confirmar la asociación entre disruptores endocrinos y riesgo de malformación del tracto genitourinario, tampoco demuestran la falta de tal asociación. Por este motivo parece razonable sugerir que este aspecto de la patología hormonal debería investigarse más en profundidad, resolviendo, al menos, el diagnóstico adecuado de los individuos y la estimación de la exposición a múltiples compuestos químicos, contaminantes ambientales, que actúan conjuntamente a través de mecanismos similares a las hormonas endógenas.Background: It has been proposed that the intrauterine period of child-mother exposure to hormonally active compounds (endocrine disruptors is of critical importance. Objective: We reviewed all Spanish and English-language epidemiological studies published between 1990 and the first trimester of 2006 that studied the possible association between human exposure to chemical compounds and the risk of cryptorchidism and/or hypospadias. Methods: The MEDLINE (PubMed database was

  20. Disruptores endocrinos utilizados en la industria textil-confección en España Endocrine disruptors used in textile industry in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gadea

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los disruptores endocrinos son sustancias químicas que pueden alterar el sistema hormonal. Estas sustancias se utilizan en distintos procesos de la industria del textil-confección. Objetivos: Identificar las sustancias con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizados en la industria del textil y la confección en España para prevenir la exposición de los trabajadores a estas sustancias. Material y métodos: En el estudio participaron 65 empresas de siete comunidades autónomas, seleccionadas mediante acuerdo entre las organizaciones empresariales y sindicales del sector. Técnicos de salud laboral de las federaciones sindicales visitaron las empresas participantes y recogieron información sobre los productos químicos utilizados mediante observación de etiquetas y fichas de datos de seguridad y mediante entrevistas con técnicos de prevención, trabajadores designados, delegados de prevención y trabajadores utilizando cuestionarios estandarizados. Resultados: Las empresas participantes cubren un amplio rango de actividades propias del sector, siendo la mayoría de ellas de tamaño medio (entre 51 y 250 trabajadores, n=39. Se identificaron diecisiete sustancias diferentes con efectos de disrupción endocrina utilizadas en distintos puestos de trabajo, incluyendo preparación de fibras y tejidos, lavado, tintado o acabado textil, entre otros. Conclusiones: Serían necesarios estudios que permitieran cuantificar el nivel de exposición en los puestos identificados para priorizar las medidas preventivas necesarias.Introduction: Endocrine disruptors are chemicals which can affect hormonal system in human beings. These substances are used in several processes in the textile industry. Objectives: Identifying chemicals with endocrine disruption potential used in Spanish textile industry to promoting risk prevention in exposed workers. Material and methods: The study includes 65 companies located in seven different Spanish regions

  1. Estrogenic endocrine disruptors present in sports supplements. A risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotan, Monika; Elliott, Christopher T; Frizzell, Caroline; Connolly, Lisa

    2014-09-15

    Sports supplements are becoming a regular dietary addition for consumers who view such products as a means of improving their health and performance. Previously estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EDs) were detected in 80% of 116 sports supplements investigated by biological in vitro reporter gene assays (RGAs). The aim of this study was to quantify the hormonal activity in 50 of these sports supplement samples using a validated estrogen RGA and perform an exposure and risk assessment for human health. Results showed that 17β-estradiol equivalent levels were higher than those reported as being present in the typical human omnivore diet in 33 of the sports supplements and higher than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) in 13 of these products. The highest activity samples presented a potential to influence the human daily exposure to 17β-estradiol like activity in various risk groups with a predicted hormonal impact of greatest concern in young boys and postmenopausal women. In conclusion, consumers of sports supplements may be exposed to high levels of estrogenic EDs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure to selected endocrine disruptors and neonatal outcome of 86 healthy boys from Nice area (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker-Davis, Françoise; Wagner-Mahler, Kathy; Bornebusch, Laure; Delattre, Isabelle; Ferrari, Patricia; Gal, Jocelyn; Boda-Buccino, Mireille; Pacini, Patricia; Tommasi, Camille; Azuar, Pierre; Bongain, André; Fénichel, Patrick

    2010-09-01

    In utero and lactational exposure to endocrine disruptors is thought to be potentially harmful on fetal and infant development. Data of exposure in France is scarce. This is a prospective study with (1) collection of 84 cord bloods (CB) and 69 milks from 86 mothers delivering healthy boys (gestational age >or= 34 weeks) at two maternity wards in Southern France, between 2002 and 2005 and (2) screening for 15 xenobiotics with anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic effects: DDE, 7 PCBs, dibutylphthalate and its metabolite mBP, HCB, lindane, linuron, procymidone and vinclozoline. Correlations were made with delivery and neonatal outcomes. All CB and milks were contaminated by one or more xenobiotics (mainly PCBs, DDE, HCB, and phthalates) with good correlation between CB and milk concentrations. Compared to other geographical areas, exposure was usually in the lower bracket. Milk [PCB180] was associated with lower birth weight. Infant head circumference correlated negatively with [HCB] and positively with [mBP] in CB. There was a similar but not significant trend for birth weight and length. [DDE] in milk was higher in older mothers and in women born in Africa. In utero and lactational exposure is ubiquitous in our area. Contamination of milk with HCB, mBP, and PCB 180 showed weak correlations with infant growth. This snapshot of exposure in an area with no major industry will serve for further monitoring. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterizing the effect of endocrine disruptors on human health: The role of epidemiological cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Vernet, Céline; Nassan, Feiby L; Hauser, Russ; Philippat, Claire

    Research on endocrine disruptors (EDs) developed from numerous disciplines. In this concert of disciplines, epidemiology is central to inform on the relevance for humans of mechanisms and dose-response functions identified in animals, to characterize the health impact (number of attributable disease cases), the cost associated with ED exposure, and the efficiency of the measures taken to limit exposure. Here, we present epidemiological tools to draw valid inference regarding effects of potential EDs. Epidemiology is generally observational, requiring care to control confounding bias. Many potential EDs have a short biological half-life; approaches relying on repeated biospecimens sampling allow limiting exposure misclassification and the resulting bias. For non-persistent compounds, couple-child cohorts are a central study design. Cohorts can now rely on molecular biology approaches to characterize exposures and intermediate pathways, which corresponds to the advent of molecular epidemiology and allows stronger interactions between epidemiology, toxicology, and molecular epidemiology to characterize the health effects of EDs. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioindication in natural-like aquatic ecosystems: endocrine disruptors in outdoor microcosms. Status-report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W.; Severin, G.F.

    2002-07-01

    Over the past few decades scientists have shown that the hormone system of a wide range of organisms can be affected by numerous environmental chemicals. Society strongly demands studies about the fate and effects of such endocrine disruptors on the aquatic environment. It has been scientifically accepted that risk assessment studies done in aquatic microcosms can be used to extrapolate the potential impact of the tested compound on natural ecosystems. Realistic exposure situations were simulated and screening methods as well as analytical methods with high accuracy were applied on water and sediment. For the comprehensive risk assessment as many trophic levels as possible have to be investigated. Changes in the population dynamics and the community structure serve as ecotoxicological endpoints. Modelling the concentrations of the chemicals in the different aquatic compartments complements and confirms the analytical diagnostics. A directed design of the analytical procedures according to amount of sample and limits of determination becomes possible. Bridging acute and chronic time scales in effect diagnostics the 'area under the curve' - approach has been followed in combination with multivariate statistics. Haber's rule have been applied to the results about complex effect- and exposure-conditions. In some cases the interpretation of results becomes more easy and clear by this approach. (orig.)

  5. Proposal of how to update the standard information requirements in REACH, PPPR and BPR – a testing strategy for identification of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla

    This presentation is based on a project prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) for the Danish EPA. The project aim to provide a science based input to the on-going work in EU with regard to endocrine disruptors, i.e. the development of criteria for identification, REACH rev...

  6. Coexpression of nuclear receptors and histone methylation modifying genes in the testis: implications for endocrine disruptor modes of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endocrine disruptor chemicals elicit adverse health effects by perturbing nuclear receptor signalling systems. It has been speculated that these compounds may also perturb epigenetic mechanisms and thus contribute to the early origin of adult onset disease. We hypothesised that histone methylation may be a component of the epigenome that is susceptible to perturbation. We used coexpression analysis of publicly available data to investigate the combinatorial actions of nuclear receptors and genes involved in histone methylation in normal testis and when faced with endocrine disruptor compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression patterns of a set of genes were profiled across testis tissue in human, rat and mouse, plus control and exposed samples from four toxicity experiments in the rat. Our results indicate that histone methylation events are a more general component of nuclear receptor mediated transcriptional regulation in the testis than previously appreciated. Coexpression patterns support the role of a gatekeeper mechanism involving the histone methylation modifiers Kdm1, Prdm2, and Ehmt1 and indicate that this mechanism is a common determinant of transcriptional integrity for genes critical to diverse physiological endpoints relevant to endocrine disruption. Coexpression patterns following exposure to vinclozolin and dibutyl phthalate suggest that coactivity of the demethylase Kdm1 in particular warrants further investigation in relation to endocrine disruptor mode of action. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides proof of concept that a bioinformatics approach that profiles genes related to a specific hypothesis across multiple biological settings can provide powerful insight into coregulatory activity that would be difficult to discern at an individual experiment level or by traditional differential expression analysis methods.

  7. [Alteration of thyroid hormone secretion after long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor DDT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglova, N V; Iaglov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substances that exhibit hormone-like action and consequently disrupt homeostatic action of endogenous hormones. DDT is the most common disruptor. The objective was to evaluate changes in thyroid hormone secretion after long-term exposure to low doses of DDT. The experiment was performed on male Wistar rats. The rats were given DDT at doses of 1.89±0.86 мg/kg/day and 7.77±0.17 мg/kg/day for 6 and 10 weeks. Dose dependent increase of serum total thyroxine, total triiodthyronine, and thyroid peroxidase was revealed after 6 weeks exposure. After 10 weeks free thyroxine secretion was reduced. Such alterations of the thyroid status are typical for iodine deficient goiter. The data obtained indicate that the main mechanism of DDT action includes disruption of thyroxine secretion by thyrocytes, but not inhibition of deiodinase activity and decrease of blood thyroid binding proteins.

  8. Environmental endocrine disruptors and developmental abnormalities in wildlife; Kankyo horumon (gaiinsei naibunpi kakuran kagaku busshitsu) no kankyo seibutsu ni taisuru eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, T. [Yokohama City Univ., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-04-15

    The environmental endocrine disruptor, or the so-called environmental hormone, is outlined. Hormones are secreted from endocrine glands in trace amounts, transported by blood, and exert influence on the target organs and distal cells, this to sustain constancy in living organisms. There are two types: peptide hormones which are rows of amino acids and steroid hormones which are composed of cholesterol. Endocrine disruptors are chemical substances discharged into the environment which, once taken into human organisms, disrupt endocrine systems, some acting like female sex hormones and others resisting male sex hormones. Many a wild animal are found affected by them. They are accumulating in human organisms too. Synthesized chemical substances such as DDT, PCB, dioxins, and alkylphenols present in the water system affect a fish by disrupting its endocrine, immunity, nerve, growth, and regeneration. Embryos and larvae are quite susceptible, easy to turn abnormal. Voices are high across the world for the study of environmental endocrine disruptors. Introduced in this report are some animal experiments, typical cases of impact on the ecosystem, and systems for detecting environmental endocrine disruptors. 36 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Removal capacity and pathways of phenolic endocrine disruptors in an estuarine wetland of natural reed bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Li, Zhengyan; Zou, Li; Gao, Huiwang

    2011-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are partly known as endocrine disruptors with various harmful effects including feminization and carcinogenesis at very low concentrations. Consequently, the pathways and removal of these compounds in natural and artificial sewage treatment systems such as wetlands have received wide concern. In this paper, a natural reed bed wetland with an area of 695ha located in the Liaohe River estuary in Northeast China was employed as a demonstration site to study the retention and removal efficiency of phenolic compounds including 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), and to evaluate their purification capacity via water and mass balance analyses during an irrigation period from May 9 to September 8, 2009. The results showed that the phenolic compounds could be retained in the wetland system and removed through various processes. On average, 27.5% of phenolic compounds could be retained by the wetland substrate during the initial three-day irrigation period with a retention capacity order of 4-t-OP>4-NP>BPA>DCP. During the following 120d irrigation period, the phenolic compounds could be efficiently removed with an average percentage of 91.6%. It is estimated that 1.76kgd(-1) of phenolic compounds could be removed by the Liaohe River estuarine wetland (∼8×10(4)ha). The reed bed wetland system therefore provides a feasible mitigation option for phenolic pollutants in sewage and wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mass flows of endocrine disruptors in the Glatt River during varying weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkers, Niels; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Dammshaeuser, Anna [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Giger, Walter [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: giger@eawag.ch

    2009-03-15

    . - Mass balance of endocrine disruptors in a wastewater-river system is strongly influenced by water flow conditions.

  11. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Thomas P.; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F.; Struik, Dicky; Makris, Konstantinos C.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Frederiksen, Hanne; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain regions: the hypothalamus and white-matter tissue. In addition, a potential association between these npEDCs concentrations and obesity was investigated. Post-mortem brain material was obtained from 24 individuals, made up of 12 obese and 12 normal-weight subjects (defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 and BMI < 25 kg/m2, respectively). Nine phenols and seven parabens were measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. In the hypothalamus, seven suspect npEDCs (bisphenol A, triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and benzyl paraben) were detected, while five npEDCs (bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclocarban, methyl-, and n-propyl paraben) were found in the white-matter brain tissue. We observed higher levels of methylparaben (MeP) in the hypothalamic tissue of obese subjects as compared to controls (p = 0.008). Our findings indicate that some suspected npEDCs are able to cross the blood–brain barrier. Whether the presence of npEDCs can adversely affect brain function and to which extent the detected concentrations are physiologically relevant needs to be further investigated. PMID:28902174

  12. Endocrine disruptors induce perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of human pluripotent stem cell derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamani, Uthra; Gross, Andrew R.; Ocampo, Camille; Andres, Allen M.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Sareen, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We ...

  13. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy James T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration. Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53; automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88, food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53, and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92. Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4 and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5. Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and

  14. Evaluation of endocrine disruptor levels in Kafue Lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the Blue Lagoon National Park of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichilongo, Kwenga; Torto, Nelson

    2009-12-01

    The concentrations of endocrine disruptors were determined in 36 liver tissue, serum and whole blood sample extracts drawn from 15 Blue Lagoon National Park Kafue lechwe. Out of 10 analytes evaluated, 89% of the sample extracts showed very high dieldrin concentrations of between 0.08–100 μg/mL in serum, 0.08–24.8 μg/mL in whole blood and 0.08–4.6 μg/g wet weight in liver tissue extracts. pp-DDE was detected in 83% of the sample extracts at 0.006–5.1 μg/mL in serum, 0.006–8.5 μg/mL in whole blood and 0.006–0.12 μg/g wet weight in liver tissue extracts. There was strong correlation between pp-DDE and dieldrin in all the three matrices. Deltamethrin and endosulfan detected at 50% frequency each. Percent recoveries in spiked laboratory blanks ranged between 60–100% while calculated detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.21 μg/mL for all the endocrine disruptors evaluated.

  15. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  16. Reporter cell lines for the characterization of the interactions between nuclear receptors and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marina egrimaldi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs are exogenous substances interfering with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action, and consequently causing disturbances in the endocrine system. Various pathways are activated by EDCs, including interactions with nuclear receptors (NRs which are primary targets of numerous environmental contaminants.The main NRs targeted by environmental contaminants are the estrogen (ER α, β and the androgen (AR receptors. ERs and AR have pleiotropic regulatory roles in a diverse range of tissues, notably in the mammary gland, the uterus and the prostate. Thus, dysfunctional ERs and AR signaling due to inappropriate exposure to environmental pollutants may lead to hormonal cancers and infertility. The pregnane X receptor (PXR is also recognized by many environmental molecules. PXR has a protective role of the body through its ability to regulate proteins involved in the metabolism, the conjugation and the transport of many exogenous and endogenous compounds. However, the permanent activation of this receptor by xenobiotics may lead to premature drug metabolism, the formation and accumulation of toxic metabolites and defects in hormones homeostasis. The activity of other NRs can also be affected by environmental molecules. Compounds capable of inhibiting or activating the estrogen related (ERRγ, the thyroid hormone (TRα, β, the retinoid X receptors (RXRα, β, γ and peroxisome proliferator-activated (PPAR α, γ receptors have been identified and are highly suspected to promote developmental, reproductive, neurological, or metabolic diseases in humans and wildlife.In this review we provide an overview of reporter cell lines established to characterize the human NR activities of a large panel of EDCs including natural as well as industrial compounds such as pesticides, plasticizers, surfactants, flame retardants and cosmetics.

  17. TITLE: Twenty-five years after “Wingspread” – Environmental endocrine disruptors (EDCs) and human health: EDSP, HTS, AOPs, and TSCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to provide the reader with a view of the Endocrine Disruptor Chemical (EDC) research field and its relevance to human health. My perspective is from working on the effects of EDCs that act via the androgen (A) or estrogen (E) signaling pathways in a regul...

  18. Estrogenic and androgenic activities in total plasma measured with reporter-gene bioassays: relevant exposure measures for endocrine disruptors in epidemiologic studies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, M.M.; Besselink, H.; Bretveld, R.W.; Anzion, R.B.M.; Scheepers, P.T.J.; Brouwer, A.; Roeleveld, N.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of estrogenic and androgenic activities in total plasma with Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX(R)) bioassays could provide biologically relevant measures for exposure to endocrine disruptors in epidemiologic studies. The objective of this study was to explore the

  19. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  20. Determination of a broad spectrum of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in biofilm from a waste water treatment plant-impacted river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, B; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Nannou, C; Nakis, L; Ruhí, A; Acuña, V; Sabater, S; Barcelo, D

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the main sources of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in freshwater ecosystems, and several studies have reported bioaccumulation of these compounds in different organisms in those ecosystems. River biofilms are exceptional indicators of pollution, but very few studies have focused on the accumulation of these emerging contaminants. The objectives of this study were first to develop an efficient analytical methodology for the simultaneous analysis of 44 pharmaceuticals and 13 endocrine disrupting compounds in biofilm, and second, to assess persistence, distribution, and bioaccumulation of these contaminants in natural biofilms inhabiting a WWTP-impacted river. The method is based on pressurized liquid extraction, purification by solid-phase extraction, and analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS) in tandem. Recoveries for pharmaceuticals were 31-137%, and for endocrine disruptors 32-93%. Method detection limits for endocrine disruptors were in the range of 0.2-2.4 ng g(-1), and for pharmaceuticals, 0.07-6.7 ng g(-1). A total of five endocrine disruptors and seven pharmaceuticals were detected in field samples at concentrations up to 100 ng g(-1). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Development of a new adsorbent from agro-industrial waste and its potential use in endocrine disruptor compound removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovani, Suzimara; Censi, Monique T.; Pedrotti, Sidnei L.; Lima, Éder C.; Cataluña, Renato; Fernandes, Andreia N., E-mail: andreia.fernandes@ufrgs.br

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Development of a new adsorbent from agro-industrial waste. • Characterization by chemical and spectroscopic methods. • Alternative for the treatment of effluents that contain estrogens. • The AC adsorbent was successfully employed as solid phase adsorbent for the preconcentration of E2 and EE2 from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: A new activated carbon (AC) material was prepared by pyrolysis of a mixture of coffee grounds, eucalyptus sawdust, calcium hydroxide and soybean oil at 800 °C. This material was used as adsorbent for the removal of the endocrine disruptor compounds 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) from aqueous solutions. The carbon material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption curves and point of zero charge (pH{sub PZC}). Variables including the initial pH of the adsorbate solutions, adsorbent masses and contact time were optimized. The optimum range of initial pH for removal of endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC) was 2.0–11.0. The kinetics of adsorption were investigated using general order, pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. The Sips isotherm model gave the best fits of the equilibrium data (298 K). The maximum amounts of E2 and EE2 removed at 298 K were 7.584 (E2) and 7.883 mg g{sup −1} (EE2) using the AC as adsorbent. The carbon adsorbent was employed in SPE (solid phase extraction) of E2 and EE2 from aqueous solutions.

  2. The OBELIX project: early life exposure to endocrine disruptors and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; van de Bor, M.; Schoeters, G.; van der Ven, L.; Eggesbo, M.; Koppe, J.; Trnovec, T.

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals:

  3. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors with oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III) and sulfate as electron acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Natalie; Page, Declan; Tiehm, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds was examined in long term batch experiments for a period of two and a half years to obtain more insight into the effects of redox conditions. A mix including lipid lowering agents (e.g. clofibric acid, gemfibrozil), analgesics (e.g. diclofenac, naproxen), beta blockers (e.g. atenolol, propranolol), X-ray contrast media (e.g. diatrizoic acid, iomeprol) as well as the antiepileptic carbamazepine and endocrine disruptors (e.g. bisphenol A, 17α-ethinylestradiol) was analyzed in batch tests in the presence of oxygen, nitrate, manganese (IV), iron (III), and sulfate. Out of the 23 selected substances, 14 showed a degradation of > 50% of their initial concentrations under aerobic conditions. The beta blockers propranolol and atenolol and the analgesics pentoxifylline and naproxen showed a removal of > 50% under anaerobic conditions. In particular naproxen proved to be degradable with oxygen and under most anaerobic conditions, i.e. with manganese (IV), iron (III), or sulfate. The natural estrogens estriol, estrone and 17β-estradiol showed complete biodegradation under aerobic and nitrate-reducing conditions, with a temporary increase of estrone during transformation of estriol and 17β-estradiol. Transformation of 17β-estradiol under Fe(III)-reducing conditions resulted in an increase of estriol as well. Concentrations of clofibric acid, carbamazepine, iopamidol and diatrizoic acid, known for their recalcitrance in the environment, remained unchanged.

  4. Deleterious effects of endocrine disruptors are corrected in the mammalian germline by epigenome reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Tran, Diana A.; Li, Arthur X.; Warden, Charles; Bai, Angela Y.; Singh, Purnima; Wu, Xiwei; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Szab?, Piroska E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals during pregnancy reportedly causes transgenerationally inherited reproductive defects. We hypothesized that to affect the grandchild, endocrine-disrupting chemicals must alter the epigenome of the germ cells of the in utero-exposed G1 male fetus. Additionally, to affect the great-grandchild, the aberration must persist in the germ cells of the unexposed G2 grandchild. Results Here, we treat gestating female mice with vinclozo...

  5. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) – New endocrine disruptors in polar bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kathrine Eggers; Letcher, Robert J.; Sonne, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging in the Arctic and accumulate in brain tissues of East Greenland (EG) polar bears. In vitro studies have shown that PFASs might possess endocrine disrupting abilities and therefore the present study was conducted to investigate potential PFAS...... dimorph brain function. The present work indicates an urgent need for a better mechanistic understanding of how PFASs may affect the endocrine system of polar bears and potentially other mammal species....

  6. Early developmental actions of endocrine disruptors on the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex.

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Anne-Simone; NAVEAU, Elise; Gerard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Gary L Westbrook

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids and thyroid hormones play a key role in the development of the central nervous system. The critical role of these hormonal systems may explain the sensitivity of the hypothalamus, the cerebral cortex, and the hippocampus to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). This review examines the evidence for endocrine disruption of glial-neuronal functions in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex. Focus was placed on two well-studied EDC, the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichl...

  7. Effect of an endocrine disruptor on mammalian fertility. Application of monoclonal antibodies against sperm protein as marker for testing sperm damage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pěknicová, Jana; Kyselová, Vendula; Buckiová, Daniela; Boubelík, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2002, č. 47 (2002), s. 311-318 ISSN 1046-7408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV524/96/K162; GA ČR GA303/00/1651; GA MZd NJ5851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : acrosome integrity * bisphenol-A * endocrine disruptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.413, year: 2002

  8. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Thomas P; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain...

  9. Endocrine disrupters in the Llobregat river basin; Disruptores endocrinos en la cuenca del rio Llobregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J.; Ventura, F.; Marti, I.; Cancho, B. [AGBAR Societat General d' Aigues de Barcelona S. A. (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Endocrine disrupters are chemicals capable of modulating the endocrine system. These chemicals may have a natural or an anthropogenic origin. The latter are the most important to international organisms due to their potential hazardous effects on human health and wildlife. An important group of substances such as pesticides, surfactants, alkylphenols, phthalates and bisphenol A are considered as endocrine disrupters: adverse effects like cancer, infertility and alterations of sexual organs are related with their presence. Phthalates and alkylphenols (ethoxylated nonylphenols and their acidic metabolites) are the main endocrine disrupters identified in the Llobregat river water using different analytical techniques. No pesticides have been identified in significative concentrations due to the low agricultural activity in this area. The contamination levels, at the {mu} g/l values, are in agreement with those cited by other authors in the literature. Llobregat raw water is treated in the Sant Joan Despi plant with a complex treatment able to reduce and/or eliminate these compounds. Only phthalates and ethoxylated nonylphenols are identified in treated water (at sub-{mu}g/l levels). Brominated ethoxylated nonylphenols are formed in the water treatment plant due to the high bromide level in Llobregat raw water. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Thomas P van der; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F; Struik, Dicky; Makris, Konstantinos C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Frederiksen, Hanne; Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V van

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain

  11. 78 FR 35909 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The... American Chemistry Council (ACC), Bayer CropScience LP (BCS), Croplife America (CLA), and the Chemical... the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), ACC, BCS, and CLA and the Endocrine Policy...

  12. The use of metabolising systems for in vitro testing of endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.N.; Janssens, W.; Bernauer, U.; Brandon, E.; Coecke, S.; Combes, R.; Edwards, P.; Freidig, A.; Freyberger, A.; Kolanczyk, R.; Mc Ardie, C.; Mekenyan, O.; Schmieder, P.; Schrader, T.; Takeyoshi, M.; Burg, B. van der

    2008-01-01

    Legislation and prospective legislative proposals in for instance the USA, Europe, and Japan require, or may require that chemicals are tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of mammals. Chemicals found to test positive are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS) and may

  13. Occupational exposure to endocrine disruptors and lymphoma risk in a multi-centric European study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costas, L.; Infante-Rivard, C.; Zock, J.P.; Tongeren, M. van; Boffetta, P.; Cusson, A.; Robles, C.; Casabonne, D.; Benavente, Y.; Becker, N.; Brennan, P.; Foretova, L.; Maynadié, M.; Staines, A.; Nieters, A.; Cocco, P.; Sanjose, S. de

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incidence rates of lymphoma are usually higher in men than in women, and oestrogens may protect against lymphoma. Methods: We evaluated occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 2457 controls and 2178 incident lymphoma cases and subtypes from the European

  14. Key learnings from performance of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Tier 1 in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBaron, Matthew J; Coady, Katie K; O'Connor, John C; Nabb, Diane L; Markell, Lauren K; Snajdr, Suzanne; Sue Marty, M

    2014-02-01

    Tier 1 of the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program comprises 11 studies: five in vitro assays, four in vivo mammalian assays, and two in vivo nonmammalian assays. The battery is designed to detect compounds with the potential to interact with the estrogen, androgen, or thyroid signaling pathways. This article examines the procedures, results, and data interpretation for the five Tier 1 in vitro assays: estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor binding assays, an ER transactivation assay, an aromatase assay, and a steroidogenesis assay. Data are presented from two laboratories that have evaluated approximately 11 compounds in the Tier 1 in vitro assays. Generally, the ER and androgen receptor binding assays and the aromatase assay showed good specificity and reproducibility. As described in the guideline for the ER transactivation assay, a result is considered positive when the test compound induces a reporter gene signal that reaches 10% of the response seen with 1 nM 17β-estradiol (positive control). In the experience of these laboratories, this cutoff criterion may result in false-positive responses. For the steroidogenesis assay, there is variability in the basal and stimulated production of testosterone and estradiol by the H295R cells. This variability in responsiveness, coupled with potential cell stress at high concentrations of test compound, may make it difficult to discern whether hormone alterations are specific steroidogenesis alterations (i.e., endocrine active). Lastly, both laboratories had difficulty meeting some recommended performance criteria for each Tier 1 in vitro assay. Data with only minor deviations were deemed valid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Endocrine disruptors in the workplace, hair spray, folate supplementation, and risk of hypospadias: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Gillian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nelson, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Iszatt, Nina; Geneletti, Sara; Elliott, Paul

    2009-02-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital congenital anomalies affecting baby boys. Prevalence estimates in Europe range from 4 to 24 per 10,000 births, depending on definition, with higher rates reported from the United States. Relatively little is known about potential risk factors, but a role for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been proposed. Our goal was to elucidate the risk of hypospadias associated with occupational exposure of the mother to endocrine-disruptor chemicals, use of folate supplementation during pregnancy, and vegetarianism. We designed a case-control study of 471 hypospadias cases referred to surgeons and 490 randomly selected birth controls, born 1 January 1997-30 September 1998 in southeast England. Telephone interviews of mothers elicited information on folate supplementation during pregnancy and vegetarianism. We used a job exposure matrix to classify occupational exposure. In multiple logistic regression analysis, there were increased risks for self-reported occupational exposure to hair spray [exposed vs. nonexposed, odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.40-4.17] and phthalate exposure obtained by a job exposure matrix (OR = 3.12; 95% CI, 1.04-11.46). There was a significantly reduced risk of hypospadias associated with of folate use during the first 3 months of pregnancy (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93). Vegetarianism was not associated with hypospadias risk. Excess risks of hypospadias associated with occupational exposures to phthalates and hair spray suggest that antiandrogenic EDCs may play a role in hypospadias. Folate supplementation in early pregnancy may be protective.

  16. Programed nebulizing-gas pressure mode for quantitative capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry analysis of endocrine disruptors in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Álvarez, Javier; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Hernández-Méndez, Jesús; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2012-08-01

    The application of programed nebulizing-gas pressure (PNP) has been previously described to be a simple strategy for the separation of anions by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS). The PNP mode provided high resolution and stable analyses and also had the advantage of allowing the use of capillaries wider than the 50-75 μm conventional ones. Here, the application of the PNP approach to the quantitative analysis of pollutants in real samples by CE-ESI-MS is described for the first time; in particular, for the determination several endocrine disruptors (2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, bisphenol-A, 4-tert-butyl-phenol, and 4-tert-butyl benzoic acid) in honey. For sample pretreatment, different liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) procedures were assayed and compared to the QuEChERS(©) methodology prior to electrophoretic analysis. With the application of the PNP approach to CE-ESI-MS, the limits of detection achieved were in the 1-4 ng/g range with a simple liquid-liquid procedure without any further clean-up step; relative standard deviation values in the 2-9% range were found. The analytical characteristics allow the proposed method to be used in the control analysis of these compounds in honey. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of Endocrine Disruptor Compounds, Alone or in Combination, on Human Macrophage-Like THP-1 Cell Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Couleau

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunological effects on human macrophages of four endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs using the differentiated human THP-1 cell line as a model. We studied first the effects of these EDCs, including Bisphenol A (BPA, di-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP and 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP, either alone or in combination, on cytokine secretion, and phagocytosis. We then determined whether or not these effects were mediated by estrogen receptors via MAPK pathways. It was found that all four EDCs studied reduced strongly the phagocytosis of the differentiated THP-1 cells and that several of these EDCs disturbed also TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-8 cytokine secretions. Furthermore, relative to control treatment, decreased ERK 1/2 phosphorylation was always associated with EDCs treatments-either alone or in certain combinations (at 0.1 μM for each condition. Lastly, as treatments by an estrogen receptor antagonist suppressed the negative effects on ERK 1/2 phosphorylation observed in cells treated either alone with BPA, DEHP, 4-OP or with the combined treatment of BPA and DEHP, we suggested that estrogen receptor-dependent pathway is involved in mediating the effects of EDCs on human immune system. Altogether, these results advocate that EDCs can disturb human immune response at very low concentrations.

  18. Liquid-phase exfoliated graphene as highly-sensitive sensor for simultaneous determination of endocrine disruptors: Diethylstilbestrol and estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Lintong; Cheng, Qin [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Danchao; Ma, Ming [Ningbo Entry-exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of China, Ningbo 315012 (China); Wu, Kangbing, E-mail: kbwu@hust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Large-Format Battery Materials and System, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel electrochemical sensor was developed for diethylstilbestrol and estradiol. • Graphene prepared by solvent exfoliation greatly enhances the detection sensitivity. • The newly-developed method has promising application and the accuracy is good. - Abstract: It is quite important to develop convenient and rapid analytical methods for trace levels of endocrine disruptors because they heavily affect health and reproduction of humans and animals. Herein, graphene was easily prepared via one-step exfoliation using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent, and then used to construct an electrochemical sensor for highly-sensitive detection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2). On the surface of prepared graphene film, two independent and greatly-increased oxidation waves were observed at 0.28 V and 0.49 V for DES and E2. The remarkable signal enlargements indicated that the detection sensitivity was improved significantly. The influences of pH value, amount of graphene and accumulation time on the oxidation signals of DES and E2 were discussed. As a result, a highly-sensitive and rapid electrochemical method was newly developed for simultaneous detection of DES and E2. The values of detection limit were evaluated to be 10.87 nM and 4.9 nM for DES and E2. Additionally, this new method was successfully used in lake water samples and the accuracy was satisfactory.

  19. The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A may play a role in the aetiopathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Leyla; Kendirci, Mustafa; Narin, Figen; Kurtoglu, Selim; Saraymen, Recep; Kondolot, Meda; Koçak, Selda; Elmali, Ferhan

    2015-04-01

    Experimental in vitro studies have shown that bisphenol A affects steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis and ovarian morphology. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A in the aetiopathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adolescents and its relationship with metabolic parameters, insulin resistance and obesity in this population. A total of 112 girls with PCOS and 61 controls between 13 and 19 years of age were enrolled in the study. Serum bisphenol A levels were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. An oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. Adolescents with PCOS had markedly increased serum bisphenol A levels (mean: 1.1 ng/mL 95% CI: 1.0-1.2) than controls (mean: 0.8 ng/mL 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, p = 0.001). When we compared the subgroups according to obesity, the main factor determining the significant increase in bisphenol A was the presence of PCOS, but not obesity (p = 0.029). Bisphenol A was significantly correlated with total testosterone (r = 0.52), free testosterone (r = 0.44), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (r = 0.37) and Ferriman-Gallwey score (r = 0.43) (p bisphenol A levels than controls, independent of obesity. Bisphenol A concentrations were significantly correlated with androgen levels, leading us to consider that bisphenol A might play a role in the aetiopathogenesis of PCOS in adolescents. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Deposition patterns and transport mechanisms for the endocrine disruptor 4-nonylphenol across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rebecca; Van de Bittner, Kyle; Morgan-Jones, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Dust and particulate distribution patterns are shifting as global climate change brings about longer drought periods. Particulates act as vehicles for long range transport of organic pollutants, depositing at locations far from their source. Nonylphenol, a biodegradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate, is a known endocrine disruptor. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate enters the environment as an inert ingredient in pesticide sprays, potentially traveling great distances from its application site. This is of concern when a highly agricultural region, California's Central Valley, lies adjacent to sensitive areas like the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The distribution and transport mechanisms for 4-nonylphenol were investigated in Eastern Sierra Nevada canyons. Regions close to canyon headwalls showed trace amounts of 4-nonylphenol in surface water, snow, and atmospheric deposition. Exposed areas had yearly average concentrations as high as 9 μg/L. Distribution patterns are consistent with particulate-bound transport. This suggests with increasing drought periods, higher levels of persistent organic pollutants are likely. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Liquid-phase exfoliated graphene as highly-sensitive sensor for simultaneous determination of endocrine disruptors: diethylstilbestrol and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lintong; Cheng, Qin; Chen, Danchao; Ma, Ming; Wu, Kangbing

    2015-01-01

    It is quite important to develop convenient and rapid analytical methods for trace levels of endocrine disruptors because they heavily affect health and reproduction of humans and animals. Herein, graphene was easily prepared via one-step exfoliation using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent, and then used to construct an electrochemical sensor for highly-sensitive detection of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and estradiol (E2). On the surface of prepared graphene film, two independent and greatly-increased oxidation waves were observed at 0.28V and 0.49V for DES and E2. The remarkable signal enlargements indicated that the detection sensitivity was improved significantly. The influences of pH value, amount of graphene and accumulation time on the oxidation signals of DES and E2 were discussed. As a result, a highly-sensitive and rapid electrochemical method was newly developed for simultaneous detection of DES and E2. The values of detection limit were evaluated to be 10.87 nM and 4.9 nM for DES and E2. Additionally, this new method was successfully used in lake water samples and the accuracy was satisfactory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. On-Line Derivatization Gas Chromatography Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2004-03-31

    A method has been developed for the determination of endocrine disruptors (EDs) (containing hydroxyl groups) in surface water from different sources. The surface water samples from different sites including school and local dormitory sewage effluents, lake water and river water were collected and analyzed. In this method, the pretreated sample is directly analyzed by GC-MS using on-line derivatization, where tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMA-OH) was used as the derivatizing agent. Use of large-volume direct sample introduction (DSI) and co-injection of the sample and TMAOH avoids external contaminations as observed in conventional derivatization protocols. Additionally, the use of chemical ionization (CI) and CI-MS/MS could enable detection of EDs at lower concentrations and reduce the matrices' interference thereby enhancing detection sensitivity of EDs for quantification. In this work, the use of dichloromethane as CI reagent for EDs is reported for the first time and could detect EDs to concentrations as low as 0.5 pg/mL. The recovery ranged from 74 to 112 % and the relative standard derivations for replicate analyses ranged from 5 to 17 %. We hope that this method will be applicable for routine analysis of EDs with hydroxyl functional groups.

  3. Possible Roles of B1 Cells and Environmental Estrogens (Endocrine Disruptors in the Development of Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Ishikawa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases as well as type-I allergic diseases have markedly increased in the past 30 years. Environmental estrogens or endocrine disruptors are possibly involved in the etiology of the increase in autoimmune diseases as one of environmental factors. In aged BWF1 mice, a murine model for SLE, B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC/CXCL13 is ectopically and highly expressed in target organs such as the thymus and kidney. B1 cells, a specialized cell population that are distinguished from conventional B cells (B2 cells by their origin, cell surface phenotype, unique tissue distribution, self-reactivity, etc., preferentially migrate towards BLC. Aberrant B1 cell trafficking to the target organs may result in activation of autoreactive CD4 T cells, autoantibody production, and impaired mucosal immunity in the gut during the development of SLE. Interestingly, B1 cells show a higher sensitivity to environmental estrogens than conventional B (B2 cells to produce autoantibodies. Thus, B1 cell can be a useful target for evaluating the pathological significance of environmental estrogens in the development of autoimmune diseases.

  4. Endocrine disruptors in freshwater streams of Hesse, Germany: Changes in concentration levels in the time span from 2003 to 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quednow, Kristin [J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Strasse 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)], E-mail: quednow@kristall.uni-frankfurt.de; Puettmann, Wilhelm [J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Institute of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Department of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, Georg-Voigt-Strasse 14, 60054 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Four small freshwater streams in the region known as Hessisches Ried in Germany were investigated with respect to the temporal and spatial concentration variations of the endocrine disruptors bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP), and the technical isomer mixture of 4-nonylphenol (tech.-4-NP). Measured concentrations of the target compounds in the river water samples ranged from <20 ng/l to 1927 ng/l, <10 ng/l to 770 ng/l, and <10 ng/l to 420 ng/l for BPA, 4-tert-OP and tech.-4-NP, respectively. BPA levels were, with the exception of two samples, below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for water organisms. Tech.-4-NP concentrations showed a significant tendency of decreasing concentrations during the sampling period. This is mainly attributed to the implementation of the European Directive 2003/53/EG, which restricts both the marketing and use of nonylphenols. Results from the analysis of additionally collected water samples from sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents indicate that the STPs cannot be the only sources for tech.-4-NP found in the river water. - Concentrations of 4-nonylphenols in rivers of Hessisches Ried in Germany decreased in the sampling period from September 2003 to September 2005.

  5. Monitoring and risk assessment for endocrine disruptors in the aquatic environment: a biomarker approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerregaard, P.; Korsgaard, B.; Christiansen, L.B.; Pedersen, K.L.; Christensen, L.J.; Pedersen, S.N.; Horn, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Biologisk Inst.

    1998-12-31

    Evidence that a number of chemicals affect wildlife populations or individuals via interaction with endocrine systems has been increasing in recent years. Not all of the mechanisms of action are fully understood, but endocrine disrupting chemicals may work at various biochemical levels, e.g. affecting the synthesis of hormones, interfering with hormone transporting proteins in the blood, affecting the metabolisation of hormones or by direct effects on cellular hormone receptors. In dogwhelks Nucella lapillus tributyltin inhibits the aromatase that converts testosterone to oestrogen thereby masculinising the females (Oehlmann et al. 1996). Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls interfere with thyroxin transporting proteins in the blood of seals. Chemicals that induce MFO-activity may indirectly lead to altered hormone levels by increasing the metabolisation of hormones. Alkylphenols react directly with the oestrogen receptor which in turn may lead to feminisation of male organisms exposed. (orig.)

  6. Early developmental actions of endocrine disruptors on the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Naveau, Elise; Gerard, Arlette; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Westbrook, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Sex steroids and thyroid hormones play a key role in the development of the central nervous system. The critical role of these hormonal systems may explain the sensitivity of the hypothalamus, the cerebral cortex, and the hippocampus to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). This review examines the evidence for endocrine disruption of glial-neuronal functions in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex. Focus was placed on two well-studied EDC, the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). DDT is involved in neuroendocrine disruption of the reproductive axis, whereas polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) interact with both the thyroid hormone- and sex steroid-dependent systems and disturb the neuroendocrine control of reproduction and development of hippocampus and cortex. These results highlight the impact of EDC on the developing nervous system and the need for more research in this area.

  7. Should oral gavage be abandoned in toxicity testing of endocrine disruptors?

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Welshons, Wade V.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2014-01-01

    For decades, hazard assessments for environmental chemicals have used intra-gastric gavage to assess the effects of ‘oral’ exposures. It is now widely used – and in some cases required – by US federal agencies to assess potential toxicity of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this review we enumerate several reasons why gavage is not appropriate for the assessment of EDCs using bisphenol A (BPA) as a main example. First, whereas human dietary exposures interact with the oral mucosa, ga...

  8. Disruption of Reproductive Aging in Female and Male Rats by Gestational Exposure to Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Deena M.; Kermath, Bailey A.; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial contaminants and known endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Previous work has shown that gestational exposure to PCBs cause changes in reproductive neuroendocrine processes. Here we extended work farther down the life spectrum and tested the hypothesis that early life exposure to Aroclor 1221 (A1221), a mixture of primarily estrogenic PCBs, results in sexually dimorphic aging-associated alterations to reproductive parameters in rats, and gene express...

  9. An Emerging Role of micro-RNA in the Effect of the Endocrine Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derghal, Adel; Djelloul, Mehdi; Trouslard, Jérôme; Mounien, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are diverse natural and synthetic chemicals that may alter various mechanisms of the endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, metabolic, and neurological effects in both humans and wildlife. Research on EDCs has revealed that they use a variety of both nuclear receptor-mediated and non-receptor-mediated mechanisms to modulate different components of the endocrine system. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of EDCs are still under investigation. Interestingly, some of the effects of EDCs have been observed to pass on to subsequent unexposed generations, which can be explained by the gametic transmission of deregulated epigenetic marks. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications, DNA methylation, and specific micro-RNAs (miRNAs) expression, have been proposed to mediate transgenerational transmission and can be triggered by environmental factors. MiRNAs are short non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally repress the expression of genes by binding to 3'-untranslated regions of the target mRNAs. Given that there is mounting evidence that miRNAs are regulated by hormones, then clearly it is important to investigate the potential for environmental EDCs to deregulate miRNA expression and action.

  10. Should oral gavage be abandoned in toxicity testing of endocrine disruptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N; Welshons, Wade V; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Myers, John Peterson

    2014-06-25

    For decades, hazard assessments for environmental chemicals have used intra-gastric gavage to assess the effects of 'oral' exposures. It is now widely used--and in some cases required--by US federal agencies to assess potential toxicity of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this review we enumerate several reasons why gavage is not appropriate for the assessment of EDCs using bisphenol A (BPA) as a main example. First, whereas human dietary exposures interact with the oral mucosa, gavage exposures avoid these interactions, leading to dramatic differences in absorption, bioavailability and metabolism with implications for toxicokinetic assumptions and models. Additionally, there are well acknowledged complications associated with gavage, such as perforation of the esophagus that diminish its value in toxicological experiments. Finally, the gavage protocol itself can induce stress responses by the endocrine system and confound the assessment of EDCs. These serious flaws have not been taken into account in interpreting results of EDC research. We propose the exploration of alternatives to mimic human exposures when there are multiple exposure routes/sources and when exposures are chronic. We conclude that gavage may be preferred over other routes for some environmental chemicals in some circumstances, but it does not appropriately model human dietary exposures for many chemicals. Because it avoids exposure pathways, is stressful, and thus interferes with endocrine responses, gavage should be abandoned as the default route of administration for hazard assessments of EDCs.

  11. Analytical methods for the endocrine disruptor compounds determination in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Sciascia, Francesco; Cifelli, Roberta; Malatesta, Luciano; Bruni, Pantaleone; Croce, Fausto

    2016-02-19

    The potential risk of exposure to different xenobiotics, which can modulate the endocrine system and represent a treat for the wellness of an increasing number of people, has recently drawn the attention of international environmental and health agencies. Several agents, characterized by structural diversity, may interfer with the normal endocrine functions that regulate cell growth, homeostasis and development. Substances such as pesticides, herbicides, plasticizers, metals, etc. having endocrine activity (EDCs) are used in agriculture and industry and are also used as drugs for humans and animals. A difficulty in the analytical determination of these substances is the complexity of the matrix in which they are present. In fact, the samples most frequently analyzed consist of groundwater and surface water, including influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants and drinking water. In this review, several sample pretreatment protocols, assays and different instrumental techniques recently used in the EDCs determination have been considered. This review concludes with a paragraph in which the most recent hyphenated-instrument techniques are treated, highlighting their sensitivity and selectivity for the analyses of environmental water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Defeminization in Daphnia magna: A screening test for endocrine-disruptors in the environment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Hoeven, N. van der

    1995-12-31

    Long term consequences associated with exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment have been found in mammals, birds, fish, turtles and gastropods. Despite their important role, however, hardly any attention has been paid to the long term effects of such chemicals on crustaceans. Experiments originally carried out to quantify the ability of Daphnia magna to recover from short term exposure to para-tert-pentylphenol, revealed the endocrine disrupting properties of the test compound. During one of the experiments animals were divided into six (8 hour) age groups between 0 and 48 hours and exposed to 6 mg of para-tert-pentylphenol 1{sup {minus}1} for a period of 8 hours. Within the age groups of 16 to 24 and of 24 to 32 hours old 51 and 70% of the females respectively lag-fed behind in growth and showed reduced fertility. In addition to this, about 37 and 16% of these females showed malformations suggesting defeminization. The males showed no delay in growth and had no malformations. Furthermore, in terms of survival the males were shown to be less sensitive towards the test compound than the females. The type of effects in females and the sharp distinction between the effects on males and females are indicative for the estrogenicity of para-tert-pentylphenol. The estrogenic effects of a number alkylphenols, including para-tert-pentylphenol, were demonstrated in rats and confirmed in tests with the human breast cell MCF7. To the best of knowledge estrogenicity has not been recorded before for any chemical for any crustacean. The observation of estrogenic effects in D. magna opens up the way to a standardized test for screening chemicals with potentially endocrine disrupting properties. Such a test may be a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment and conservation of environmental and human health.

  13. Changes in male reproductive health and effects of endocrine disruptors in Scandinavian countries

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    Toppari Jorma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many ways during the last decades. The incidence of testicular cancer has rapidly increased in Europe and European-derived populations. Sperm concentrations have declined and sperm motility and morphology have worsened in many areas. Both adverse trends have been shown to be associated with year of birth. Older birth cohorts have better reproductive health than the younger generations. Incidences of cryptorchidism and hypospadias have also increased according to several studies. The reasons for secular trends are unknown, but the rapid pace of the change points to environmental causes. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to influence male reproductive health.

  14. Proteomic investigation of male Gammarus fossarum, a freshwater crustacean, in response to endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Judith; Armengaud, Jean; Pible, Olivier; Gaillard, Jean-Charles; Abbaci, Khedidja; Habtoul, Yassine; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier

    2015-01-02

    While the decrease in human sperm count in response to pollutants is a worldwide concern, little attention is being devoted to its causes and occurrence in the biodiversity of the animal kingdom. Arthropoda is the most species-rich phyla, inhabiting all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. During evolution, key molecular players of the arthropod endocrine system have diverged from the vertebrate counterparts. Consequently, arthropods may have different sensitivities toward endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Here alteration of sperm quality in a crustacean, Gammarus fossarum, a popular organism in freshwater risk assessment, was investigated after laboratory exposure to various concentrations of three different xenobiotics: cadmium, methoxyfenozide, and pyriproxyfen. The integrity of the reproductive process was assessed by means of sperm-quality markers. For each substance, semiquantitative/relative proteomics based on spectral counting procedure was carried out on male gonads to observe the biological impact. The changes in a total of 871 proteins were monitored in response to toxic pressure. A drastic effect was observed on spermatozoon production, with a dose-response relationship. While exposure to EDCs leads to strong modulations of male-specific proteins in testis, no induction of female-specific proteins was noted. Also, a significant portion of orphans proved to be sensitive to toxic stress.

  15. Effect of endocrine disruptors on male reproduction in humans: why the evidence is still lacking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliatka, D; Lymperi, S; Mastorakos, G; Goulis, D G

    2017-05-01

    The so-called "endocrine disruption hypothesis" suggests that exposures to endocrine disruption (EDs) during fetal, neonatal and adult life may interfere with the development of reproductive organs and alter semen quality and reproductive hormone production. Even though animal studies provide substantial evidence of adverse effects of EDs on male reproductive system, epidemiological studies in humans arrive at conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature to locate methodological characteristics of the studies that struggle the formation of an association between EDs and human male reproduction. Such characteristics include: (i) definition of the exposed and the non-exposed population, (ii) age, (iii) insufficient control for confounders, (iv) ED assay and threshold, (v) time parameters of ED exposure, and (vi) study outcomes. Additional issues are: (i) the late effect of an early exposure, (ii) the multiple exposure effect, and (iii) the fact the same ED may exhibit different modes of action. Unfortunately, the nature of the field precludes the conduction of randomized-controlled trials, which could result to etiological associations between EDs and human male reproduction. Consequently, there is a great need to conduct well-designed studies of case-control or cohort type to evaluate EDs effects on human male reproductive health, and apply possible measures that could limit dangerous exposures. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. A computational model to predict rat ovarian steroid secretion from in vitro experiments with endocrine disruptors.

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    Nadia Quignot

    Full Text Available A finely tuned balance between estrogens and androgens controls reproductive functions, and the last step of steroidogenesis plays a key role in maintaining that balance. Environmental toxicants are a serious health concern, and numerous studies have been devoted to studying the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. The effects of EDCs on steroidogenic enzymes may influence steroid secretion and thus lead to reproductive toxicity. To predict hormonal balance disruption on the basis of data on aromatase activity and mRNA level modulation obtained in vitro on granulosa cells, we developed a mathematical model for the last gonadal steps of the sex steroid synthesis pathway. The model can simulate the ovarian synthesis and secretion of estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, and testosterone, and their response to endocrine disruption. The model is able to predict ovarian sex steroid concentrations under normal estrous cycle in female rat, and ovarian estradiol concentrations in adult female rats exposed to atrazine, bisphenol A, metabolites of methoxychlor or vinclozolin, and letrozole.

  17. Isolation and characterisation of endocrine disruptor nonylphenol-using bacteria from South Africa

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    Lehlohonolo B. Qhanya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are synthetic chemicals that alter the function of endocrine systems in animals including humans. EDCs are considered priority pollutants and worldwide research is ongoing to develop bioremediation strategies to remove EDCs from the environment. An understanding of indigenous microorganisms is important to design efficient bioremediation strategies. However, much of the information available on EDCs has been generated from developed regions. Recent studies have revealed the presence of different EDCs in South African natural resources, but, to date, studies analysing the capabilities of microorganisms to utilise/degrade EDCs have not been reported from South Africa. Here, we report for the first time on the isolation and enrichment of six bacterial strains from six different soil samples collected from the Mpumalanga Province, which are capable of utilising EDC nonylphenol as a carbon source. Furthermore, we performed a preliminary characterisation of isolates concerning their phylogenetic identification and capabilities to degrade nonylphenol. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that four isolates belonged to Pseudomonas and the remaining two belonged to Enterobacteria and Stenotrophomonas. All six bacterial species showed degradation of nonylphenol in broth cultures, as HPLC analysis revealed 41–46% degradation of nonylphenol 12 h after addition. The results of this study represent the beginning of identification of microorganisms capable of degrading nonylphenol, and pave the way for further exploration of EDC-degrading microorganisms from South Africa.

  18. Biomarkers for endocrine disruptors in three species of Mediterranean large pelagic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, M C; Casini, S; Marsili, L; Neri, G; Mori, G; Ancora, S; Moscatelli, A; Ausili, A; Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, G

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species, such as large pelagic fish, are potentially at risk due to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), is investigated. The potential estrogenic effects of PHAHs in three fish species of commercial interest, the top predators bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus thynnus), swordfish (Xiphias gladius), and Mediterranean spearfish (Tetrapturus belone), were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg), zona radiata proteins (Zrp) and mixed function oxidases (EROD, BPMO) as diagnostic tools. High induction of Vtg and Zrp was detected by western blot and ELISA techniques in adult males of X. gladius and T. thynnus thynnus, suggesting that these species are at high toxicological risk in the Mediterranean sea. Comparison of BPMO and EROD activities in the three species indicated, both in male and female, much higher MFO activity in bluefin tuna. This data suggests high exposure of this species to lipophilic xenobiotic contaminants in the Mediterranean environment.

  19. The influence of endocrine disruptors on growth and development of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVall, Sara A

    2013-02-01

    This review describes the most recent data about the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on infant and early childhood growth and reproductive tract development as well as controversies in the field. EDCs are present in pregnant women, young children and adolescents. Whether the level of exposure contributes to disease is an ongoing debate. Epidemiological studies suggest associations between prenatal EDC exposure and disease outcome, but animal studies using controlled EDC exposure have varying results with underlying mechanisms largely unknown. Human exposure to EDCs is widespread; bisphenol A, phthalates and persistent organic pollutants are detectable in all age groups and geographical locations in the USA. Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that phthalates and bisphenol A have adverse effects on birth weight, promote development of childhood obesity and adversely affect male reproductive tract development. Differences in the interpretation of available studies underlie the disparate conclusions of scientific and regulatory body's panels on potential toxicological effects of EDCs at current levels of human exposure.

  20. Biosensors for environmental monitoring of aquatic systems. Bioanalytical and chemical methods for endocrine disruptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelo, Damia [IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Girona Univ. (ES). Catalan Inst. for Water Research (ICRA); Hansen, Peter-Diedrich (eds.) [Berlin Inst. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Ecotoxicology

    2009-07-01

    There is an increasing need for effective methods of estimating the risks caused by the large number of pollutants released into the environment by human activities. This volume provides an overview of biosensors as a key tool for the environmental monitoring of aquatic systems. Biosensor technology is based on a specific biological recognition element in combination with a transducer for signal processing. In particular, the detection and identification of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other toxins in wastewater are treated in detail. Biosensors are presented as a practical alternative or supplement to traditional chromatographic techniques. Emphasis is also placed on the validation of the applied technology and its application to real-world environmental samples. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear receptors and endocrine disruptors in fetal and neonatal testes: a gapped landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eRouiller-Fabre

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, many studies reported that male reproductive disorders are increasing among humans. It is currently acknowledged that these abnormalities can result from fetal exposure to environmental chemicals that are progressively becoming more concentrated and widespread in our environment. Among the chemicals present in the environment (air, water, food and many consumer products, several can act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs, thus interfering with the endocrine system. Phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA and diethylstilbestrol (DES have been largely incriminated, particularly during the fetal and neonatal period, due to their estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic properties. Indeed, many epidemiological and experimental studies have highlighted their deleterious impact on fetal and neonatal testis development. As EDCs can affect many different genomic and non-genomic pathways, the mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of EDC exposure are difficult to elucidate. Using literature data and results from our laboratory, in the present review we discuss the role of classical nuclear receptors (genomic pathway in the fetal and neonatal testis response to EDC exposure, particularly to phthalates, BPA and DES. Among the nuclear receptors we focused on some of the most likely candidates, such as peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR, androgen receptor (AR, estrogen receptors (ERα and β, liver X receptors (LXR and small heterodimer partner (SHP. First, we describe the expression and potential functions (based on data from studies using receptor agonists and mouse knockout models of these nuclear receptors in the developing testis. Then, for each EDC studied, we summarize the main evidences indicating that the reprotoxic effect of each EDC under study is mediated through a specific nuclear receptor(s. We also point-out the involvement of other receptors and nuclear receptor-independent pathways.

  2. Developmental toxicity of endocrine disruptors in early life stages of zebrafish, a genetic and embryogenesis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Dércia; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are capable of interfering with the endocrine system and are increasingly widespread in the aquatic environments. In the present study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae were used to assess how EDCs may interfere with embryogenesis. Therefore, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2: 0.4, 2, 4 and 20 ng/L), genistein (Gen: 2, 20, 200 and 2000 ng/L) and fadrozole (Fad: 2, 10, 50 and 250 μg/L), between 2 and 144 h post-fertilization (hpf). Somite development, heartbeat, malformations, mortality and hatching rates were evaluated. In parallel, the expression patterns of hormone receptors (esr1, esr2a, esr2b and ar) and apoptotic pathways related genes (p53 and c-jun) were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that EE2, Gen and Fad caused a higher mortality and also malformations in larvae compared with control. A significant toxic effect was observed in the heartbeat rate, at 144 hpf, in larvae exposed to EE2 and Fad. QPCR revealed alterations in the expression levels of all the evaluated genes, at different time points. esr1 and c-jun genes were upregulated by EE2 and Gen exposure while the expression of esr2a, esr2b and ar genes was downregulated. Fad exposure decreased esr1, p53 and c-jun expression levels. This study shows a toxic effect of EE2, Gen and Fad to vertebrate embryogenesis and a relation between hormones action and apoptosis pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

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    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3 following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA, bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  4. Plastics Derived Endocrine Disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) Induce Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Obesity, Reproductive Disease and Sperm Epimutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1–F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the “plastics” or “lower dose plastics” mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures. PMID:23359474

  5. Phenotypic malignant changes and untargeted lipidomic analysis of long-term exposed prostate cancer cells to endocrine disruptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedia, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.bedia@idaea.csic.es; Dalmau, Núria, E-mail: nuria.dalmau@idaea.csic.es; Jaumot, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.jaumot@idaea.csic.es; Tauler, Romà, E-mail: roma.tauler@idaea.csic.es

    2015-07-15

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are a class of environmental toxic molecules able to interfere with the normal hormone metabolism. Numerous studies involve EDs exposure to initiation and development of cancers, including prostate cancer. In this work, three different EDs (aldrin, aroclor 1254 and chlorpyrifos (CPF)) were investigated as potential inducers of a malignant phenotype in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a chronic exposure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction, proliferation, migration, colony formation and release of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were analyzed in 50-day exposed cells to the selected EDs. As a result, aldrin and CPF exposure led to an EMT induction (loss of 16% and 14% of E-cadherin levels, respectively, compared to the unexposed cells). Aroclor and CPF presented an increased migration (134% and 126%, respectively), colony formation (204% and 144%, respectively) and MMP-2 release (137% in both cases) compared to the unexposed cells. An untargeted lipidomic analysis was performed to decipher the lipids involved in the observed transformations. As general results, aldrin exposure showed a global decrease in phospholipids and sphingolipids, and aroclor and CPF showed an increase of certain phospholipids, glycosphingolipids as well as a remarkable increase of some cardiolipin species. Furthermore, the three exposures resulted in an increase of some triglyceride species. In conclusion, some significant changes in lipids were identified and thus we postulate that some lipid compounds and lipid metabolic pathways could be involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype in exposed prostate cancer cells to the selected EDs. - Highlights: • Aldrin, aroclor and chlorpyrifos induced an aggressive phenotype in DU145 cells. • An untargeted lipidomic analysis has been performed on chronic exposed cells. • Lipidomic results showed changes in specific lipid species under chronic exposure. • These lipids may have a role in the

  6. A multi-residue method for characterization of endocrine disruptors in gaseous and particulate phases of ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliot, Fabrice; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Bourges, Catherine; Desportes, Annie; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc

    2014-08-01

    A number of semi-volatile compounds occur in indoor air most of them being considered as potent endocrine disruptors and thus, exerting a possible impact upon health. To assess their concentration levels in indoor air, we developed and validated a method for sampling and multi-residue analysis of 58 compounds including phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), parabens, bisphenol A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in gaseous and particulate phases of air. We validated each step of procedures from extraction until analysis. Matrice spiking were performed at extraction, fractionation and purification stages. The more volatile compounds were analyzed with a gas chromatography system coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) or with a tandem mass spectrometer (GC/MS/MS). The less volatile compounds were analyzed with a liquid chromatography system coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS). Labeled internal standard method was used ensuring high quantification accuracy. The instrumental detection limits were under 1 pg for all compounds and therefore, a limit of quantification averaging 1 pg m-3 for the gaseous and the particulate phases and a volume of 150 m3, except for phthalates, phenol compounds and BDE-209. Satisfactory recoveries were found except for phenol compounds. That method was successfully applied to several indoor air samples (office, apartment and day nursery) and most of the targeted compounds were quantified, mainly occurring in the gaseous phase. The most abundant were phthalates (up to 918 ng m-3 in total air), followed by PCBs > parabens > BPA > PAHs > PBDEs.

  7. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Tracey, Rebecca; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3) following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries) were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  8. Fetal and neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor methoxychlor causes epigenetic alterations in adult ovarian genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zama, Aparna Mahakali; Uzumcu, Mehmet

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during development could alter the epigenetic programming of the genome and result in adult-onset disease. Methoxychlor (MXC) and its metabolites possess estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and antiandrogenic activities. Previous studies showed that fetal/neonatal exposure to MXC caused adult ovarian dysfunction due to altered expression of key ovarian genes including estrogen receptor (ER)-beta, which was down-regulated, whereas ERalpha was unaffected. The objective of the current study was to evaluate changes in global and gene-specific methylation patterns in adult ovaries associated with the observed defects. Rats were exposed to MXC (20 microg/kgxd or 100 mg/kg.d) between embryonic d 19 and postnatal d 7. We performed DNA methylation analysis of the known promoters of ERalpha and ERbeta genes in postnatal d 50-60 ovaries using bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCRs. Developmental exposure to MXC led to significant hypermethylation in the ERbeta promoter regions (P fetal and neonatal development affects adult ovarian function via altered methylation patterns.

  9. THE MERCURY AS ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR ON THE ADRENOCARCINOMA CELL LINE H295R

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    Mária Rácz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is one of the oldest heavy metals, which has various effects on the endocrine system. Target of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl2 on the steroidogenesis in adrenocarcinoma cells isolated from the cell line H295R. We examined the dose-dependent changes of HgCl2 on the production of testosterone (T. Release of steroid hormone by adrenocarcinoma cells was determined after 48 h HgCl2 exposure (1.0; 5.0; 25; 50; 100 µmol.dm-3 using an ELISA assay. Decreased hormone production was detected in all experimental groups with the addition of HgCl2. In regards to the release of T, significant differences (P<0.01 between the control group and all experimental groups was recorded. The lowest amount of T was found after administration at doses >50 μmol.dm-3 of HgCl2. Obtained data indicate, that Hg has toxic effect on the testosterone production and its toxicity can reflect also in the others pathways of the cells.

  10. Diet-dependence of metabolic perturbations mediated by the endocrine disruptor tolylfluanid

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    Shane M Regnier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence implicates environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes; however, the interactions between EDCs and traditional risk factors in disease pathogenesis remain incompletely characterized. The present study interrogates the interaction of the EDC tolylfluanid (TF and traditional dietary stressors in the promotion of metabolic dysfunction. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD or a high-sucrose diet (HSD, with or without TF supplementation at 100 μg/g, for 12 weeks. Food intake, body weight and visceral adiposity were quantified. Glucose homeostasis was interrogated by intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance tests at 9 and 10 weeks of exposure, respectively. After 12 weeks of dietary exposure, metabolic cage analyses were performed to interrogate nutrient handling and energy expenditure. In the background of an HFHSD, TF promoted glucose intolerance; however, weight gain and insulin sensitivity were unchanged, and visceral adiposity was reduced. In the background of an HSD, TF increased visceral adiposity; however, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were unchanged, while weight gain was reduced. Thus, these analyses reveal that the metabolic perturbations induced by dietary exposure to TF, including the directionality of alterations in body weight gain, visceral adiposity and glucose homeostasis, are influenced by dietary macronutrient composition, suggesting that populations may exhibit distinct metabolic risks based on their unique dietary characteristics.

  11. Testosterone conjugating activities in invertebrates: are they targets for endocrine disruptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, G; Sternberg, R M; LeBlanc, G A; Porte, C

    2005-02-10

    processes can serve as targets for endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  12. Endocrine disruptor regulation of microRNA expression in breast carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilghman, Syreeta L; Bratton, Melyssa R; Segar, H Chris; Martin, Elizabeth C; Rhodes, Lyndsay V; Li, Meng; McLachlan, John A; Wiese, Thomas E; Nephew, Kenneth P; Burow, Matthew E

    2012-01-01

    Several environmental agents termed "endocrine disrupting compounds" or EDCs have been reported to bind and activate the estrogen receptor-α (ER). The EDCs DDT and BPA are ubiquitously present in the environment, and DDT and BPA levels in human blood and adipose tissue are detectable in most if not all women and men. ER-mediated biological responses can be regulated at numerous levels, including expression of coding RNAs (mRNAs) and more recently non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Of the ncRNAs, microRNAs have emerged as a target of estrogen signaling. Given the important implications of EDC-regulated ER function, we sought to define the effects of BPA and DDT on microRNA regulation and expression levels in estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells. To investigate the cellular effects of DDT and BPA, we used the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, which is ER (+) and hormone sensitive. Our results show that DDT and BPA potentiate ER transcriptional activity, resulting in an increased expression of receptor target genes, including progesterone receptor, bcl-2, and trefoil factor 1. Interestingly, a differential increase in expression of Jun and Fas by BPA but not DDT or estrogen was observed. In addition to ER responsive mRNAs, we investigated the ability of DDT and BPA to alter the miRNA profiles in MCF-7 cells. While the EDCs and estrogen similarly altered the expression of multiple microRNAs in MCF-7 cells, including miR-21, differential patterns of microRNA expression were induced by DDT and BPA compared to estrogen. We have shown, for the first time, that BPA and DDT, two well known EDCs, alter the expression profiles of microRNA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these compounds could provide important insight into the role of EDCs in human disease, including breast cancer.

  13. Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasnier, Céline; Dumont, Coralie; Benachour, Nora; Clair, Emilie; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2009-08-21

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used across the world; they are commercialized in different formulations. Their residues are frequent pollutants in the environment. In addition, these herbicides are spread on most eaten transgenic plants, modified to tolerate high levels of these compounds in their cells. Up to 400 ppm of their residues are accepted in some feed. We exposed human liver HepG2 cells, a well-known model to study xenobiotic toxicity, to four different formulations and to glyphosate, which is usually tested alone in chronic in vivo regulatory studies. We measured cytotoxicity with three assays (Alamar Blue, MTT, ToxiLight), plus genotoxicity (comet assay), anti-estrogenic (on ERalpha, ERbeta) and anti-androgenic effects (on AR) using gene reporter tests. We also checked androgen to estrogen conversion by aromatase activity and mRNA. All parameters were disrupted at sub-agricultural doses with all formulations within 24h. These effects were more dependent on the formulation than on the glyphosate concentration. First, we observed a human cell endocrine disruption from 0.5 ppm on the androgen receptor in MDA-MB453-kb2 cells for the most active formulation (R400), then from 2 ppm the transcriptional activities on both estrogen receptors were also inhibited on HepG2. Aromatase transcription and activity were disrupted from 10 ppm. Cytotoxic effects started at 10 ppm with Alamar Blue assay (the most sensitive), and DNA damages at 5 ppm. A real cell impact of glyphosate-based herbicides residues in food, feed or in the environment has thus to be considered, and their classifications as carcinogens/mutagens/reprotoxics is discussed.

  14. Endocrine disruptor regulation of microRNA expression in breast carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syreeta L Tilghman

    Full Text Available Several environmental agents termed "endocrine disrupting compounds" or EDCs have been reported to bind and activate the estrogen receptor-α (ER. The EDCs DDT and BPA are ubiquitously present in the environment, and DDT and BPA levels in human blood and adipose tissue are detectable in most if not all women and men. ER-mediated biological responses can be regulated at numerous levels, including expression of coding RNAs (mRNAs and more recently non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs. Of the ncRNAs, microRNAs have emerged as a target of estrogen signaling. Given the important implications of EDC-regulated ER function, we sought to define the effects of BPA and DDT on microRNA regulation and expression levels in estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells.To investigate the cellular effects of DDT and BPA, we used the human MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, which is ER (+ and hormone sensitive. Our results show that DDT and BPA potentiate ER transcriptional activity, resulting in an increased expression of receptor target genes, including progesterone receptor, bcl-2, and trefoil factor 1. Interestingly, a differential increase in expression of Jun and Fas by BPA but not DDT or estrogen was observed. In addition to ER responsive mRNAs, we investigated the ability of DDT and BPA to alter the miRNA profiles in MCF-7 cells. While the EDCs and estrogen similarly altered the expression of multiple microRNAs in MCF-7 cells, including miR-21, differential patterns of microRNA expression were induced by DDT and BPA compared to estrogen.We have shown, for the first time, that BPA and DDT, two well known EDCs, alter the expression profiles of microRNA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of these compounds could provide important insight into the role of EDCs in human disease, including breast cancer.

  15. [Endocrine disruptors: A missing link in the pandemy of type 2 diabetes and obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Fénichel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades and exceeds World Health Organisation's predictions. Lifestyle factors such as decreased physical activity and energy dense diet, together with a genetic predisposition, are well-known actors in the pathophysiology of these metabolic diseases. However, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that the increased presence of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment, may also explain an important part in the incidence of metabolic syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes. EDCs are found in everyday products (including food, plastic bottles, metal cans, toys, cosmetics, pesticides…) and used in the manufacture of food. They interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity and/or elimination of natural hormones. Those interferences can block or mimic hormone actions and thus induce a wide range of adverse effects (especially reproductive effects and hormone-dependent cancers). In rodents, acute exposure to bisphenol A is responsible for modifications of insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic beta cells but also for modifications of insulin signalling in liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, which both lead to insulin-resistance, a major condition in pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome, obesity and type 2 diabetes. In humans, some epidemiologic reports suggested a strong link between exposure to some persistant EDCs (as organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyl ethers) and type 2 diabetes and obesity, especially after acute and accidental releases of EDCs (Seveso plant explosion, Vietnam war veterans). Other cross-sectional studies among the world reported suggestive to strong association between diabetes and obesity and EDCs exposure, especially for persistant organic pollutants, which should now be considered as insulin-resistance risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson

  16. Environmental transport and fate of endocrine disruptors from non-potable reuse of municipal wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, B; Beller, H; Bartel, C M; Kane, S; Campbell, C; Grayson, A; Liu, N; Burastero, S

    2005-11-16

    This project was designed to investigate the important but virtually unstudied topic of the subsurface transport and fate of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) when treated wastewater is used for landscape irrigation (non-potable water reuse). Although potable water reuse was outside the scope of this project, the investigation clearly has relevance to such water recycling practices. The target compounds, which are discussed in the following section and include EDCs such as 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 17{beta}-estradiol, were studied not only because of their potential estrogenic effects on receptors but also because they can be useful as tracers of wastewater residue in groundwater. Since the compounds were expected to occur at very low (part per trillion) concentrations in groundwater, highly selective and sensitive analytical techniques had to be developed for their analysis. This project assessed the distributions of these compounds in wastewater effluents and groundwater, and examined their fate in laboratory soil columns simulating the infiltration of treated wastewater into an aquifer (e.g., as could occur during irrigation of a golf course or park with nonpotable treated water). Bioassays were used to determine the estrogenic activity present in effluents and groundwater, and the results were correlated with those from chemical analysis. In vitro assays for estrogenic activity were employed to provide an integrated measure of estrogenic potency of environmental samples without requiring knowledge or measurement of all bioactive compounds in the samples. For this project, the Las Positas Golf Course (LPGC) in the City of Livermore provided an ideal setting. Since 1978, irrigation of this area with treated wastewater has dominated the overall water budget. For a variety of reasons, a group of 10 monitoring wells were installed to evaluate wastewater impacts on the local groundwater. Additionally, these wells were regularly monitored for tritium ({sup 3}H

  17. Warming modulates the effects of the endocrine disruptor progestin levonorgestrel on the zebrafish fitness, ovary maturation kinetics and reproduction success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P G; Rodrigues, D; Madureira, T V; Oliveira, N; Rocha, M J; Rocha, E

    2017-10-01

    Interactive effects between multiple stressors, namely climate drivers (e.g., temperature) and chemical pollution (e.g., endocrine disruptors) are poorly studied. Here, it was for the first time evaluated the combinatory effects of temperature and a synthetic progestin, levonorgestrel (LNG), on the fitness and reproductive-related endpoints of zebrafish (Danio rerio). A multi-factorial design was implemented by manipulating both temperature [setting as baseline an ambient temperature of 27 °C, against warming (+3 °C)] and LNG levels (10 ngL-1 and 1000 ngL-1). Groups of males and females were exposed sub-acutely, for 21-days. Increased temperature caused an overall decrease in the females' gonadosomatic index (GSI), during the pre-reproduction phase, LNG did not affect GSI. In addition, fecundity (number of ovulated eggs) was negatively affected by both temperature and LNG, being the effect of the latter more intense. Fish exposed to the highest LNG concentration (at both temperatures) did not reproduce, but also in those exposed to the lowest dose of progestin at a higher temperature, a complete reproductive failure occurred. These results reflect what was observed in the stereological analysis of the ovary maturation stages prior to reproduction. Accordingly, the higher the LNG concentration, the lower the degree of maturation of the ovary. This was exacerbated by the higher temperature. As to embryonated eggs, they hatched significantly faster at higher temperatures, but exposure to 10 ngL-1 of LNG (at 27 °C) reduced significantly the hatching rate, comparing to control. Further, the recrudescence of the ovary 48 h after spawning seems to be not affected by both stressors. Our data suggest that in a future scenario of global warming and synthetic hormones exposure, the reproduction of fish species, such as the zebrafish, can be endangered, which can put at risk their success, and consequently affect the structure and functioning of associated aquatic

  18. Simultaneous determination of selected hormones, endocrine disruptor compounds, and pesticides in water medium at trace levels by GC-MS after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chormey, Dotse Selali; Büyükpınar, Çağdaş; Turak, Fatma; Komesli, Okan Tarık; Bakırdere, Sezgin

    2017-06-01

    The need to enhance food safety has led to major advancements in pesticide productions, and though many benefits have been gained, environmental contamination has also risen from these chemicals that tend to persist in the environment. Some pesticides, together with other chemicals commonly called endocrine disruptor compounds, block the receptor sites of hormones or mimic displaced hormones, leading to imbalanced hormonal levels that result in health disorders and diseases. These chemicals occur at trace levels and are not directly detected by conventional analytical methods. A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method was therefore developed for preconcentration of 12 analytes including hormones, endocrine disruptor compounds, and pesticides, to be analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. This was achieved by optimizing parameters such as extractor solvent type and amount, dispersive solvent type and amount, pH, and salt effect that affect extraction output. The limits of detection and quantification of the developed method were between 0.09 and 3.36 and 0.31 and 11.19 ng mL-1, respectively. The calibration plots of the analytes also showed good linearity and low percent relative standard deviations. Recovery studies were performed for tap water and wastewater samples, and the percent recoveries recorded were between 84 and 109%.

  19. The molecular mechanism of bisphenol A (BPA as an endocrine disruptor by interacting with nuclear receptors: insights from molecular dynamics (MD simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanlan Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA can interact with nuclear receptors and affect the normal function of nuclear receptors in very low doses, which causes BPA to be one of the most controversial endocrine disruptors. However, the detailed molecular mechanism about how BPA interferes the normal function of nuclear receptors is still undiscovered. Herein, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the detailed interaction mechanism between BPA with three typical nuclear receptors, including hERα, hERRγ and hPPARγ. The simulation results and calculated binding free energies indicate that BPA can bind to these three nuclear receptors. The binding affinities of BPA were slightly lower than that of E2 to these three receptors. The simulation results proved that the binding process was mainly driven by direct hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, structural analysis suggested that BPA could interact with these nuclear receptors by mimicking the action of natural hormone and keeping the nuclear receptors in active conformations. The present work provided the structural evidence to recognize BPA as an endocrine disruptor and would be important guidance for seeking safer substitutions of BPA.

  20. Identification, assessment and management of "endocrine disruptors" in wildlife in the EU substance legislation--discussion paper from the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frische, Tobias; Bachmann, Jean; Frein, Daniel; Juffernholz, Tanja; Kehrer, Anja; Klein, Anita; Maack, Gerd; Stock, Frauke; Stolzenberg, Hans-Christian; Thierbach, Claudia; Walter-Rohde, Susanne

    2013-12-16

    A discussion paper was developed by a panel of experts of the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA) contributing to the on-going debate on the identification, assessment and management of endocrine disruptors with a view to protect wildlife according to the EU substance legislation (plant protection products, biocides, industrial chemicals). Based on a critical synthesis of the state-of-the-art regarding regulatory requirements, testing methods, assessment schemes, decision-making criteria and risk management options, we advise an appropriate and consistent implementation of this important subject into existing chemicals legislation in Europe. Our proposal for a balanced risk management of endocrine disruptors essentially advocates transparent regulatory decision making based on a scientifically robust weight of evidence approach and an adequate risk management consistent across different legislations. With respect to the latter, a more explicit consideration of the principle of proportionality of regulatory decision making and socio-economic benefits in the on-going debate is further encouraged. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure of rats to exogenous endocrine disruptors 17alpha-ethinylestradiol and benzo(a) pyrene and an estrogenic hormone estradiol induces expression of cytochromes P450 involved in their metabolism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bořek-Dohalská, L.; Klusoňová, Z.; Holecová, J.; Martinková, M.; Bárta, F.; Dračínská, H.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Stiborová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, Sup 1 (2016), s. 84-94 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02328S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol * cytochrome P450 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  2. Glifosato como desregulador endócrino químico / Glyphosate as an endocrine chemical disruptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marino Romano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumoDesreguladores endócrinos são moléculas exógenas ambientais que podem afetar a síntese, secreção, transporte, metabolismo, ligação, ação e catabolismo de hormônios naturais do organismo, podendo exercer seu efeito mesmo quando em mínimas quantidades. O glifosato é um herbicida utilizado no combate às plantas daninhas prejudiciais a diversas culturas, bastante efetivo, não seletivo e pós-emergente que inibe o crescimento da planta através da interferência com a produção de aminoácidos aromáticos essenciais pela inibição da fotossíntese. Em baixas concentrações não tóxicas ele causa efeito de desregulação sobre a enzima aromatase em células de placenta humana in vitro, reduzindo a atividade da enzima aromatase e reduzindo a expressão da proteína StAR (proteína de regulação rápida da esteroidogênese. Acontaminação do solo e da água tanto fluvial como subterrânea, pelo intenso uso do glifosato, pode levar a distúrbios reprodutivos, além da possibilidade da persistência de resíduos destas substâncias no sangue, na carne, no leite, na urina e nas fezes dos animais levando à recontaminação do solo e podendo chegar ao consumo humano. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar informações atuais sobre a toxicologia do glifosato e a sua importância sobre a saúde humana, suscitando o debate nessa área, uma vez que a legislação brasileira ainda não contempla o controle desse tipo de efeito tóxico.AbstractEndocrine disruptors (EDs are exogenous molecular factors that may affect the synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, binding, action, and catabolism of the body’s natural hormones. They are able to produce their effect even when they are present in minimum quantities. Glyphosate is an herbicide used to combat weeds that are harmful to different plants. It is very effective, non-selective and post-emergent, inhibiting the plant growth by interfering with the production of essential

  3. Accumulation and leaching potential of some pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disruptors in soils irrigated with wastewater in the Tula Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Richard; Durán-Álvarez, Juan C; Estrada, Karina León; Chávez, Alma; Jiménez Cisneros, Blanca

    2010-12-01

    The reuse of wastewater for irrigation of agricultural land is a well established practice but introduces many contaminants into the terrestrial environment including pharmaceuticals and personal care products. This study reports the persistence and leaching potential of a group of acidic pharmaceuticals, carbamazepine, and three endocrine disruptors in soils from the Tula Valley in Mexico, one of the largest irrigation districts in the world that uses untreated wastewater. After irrigation of soil columns with fortified wastewater over the equivalent of one crop cycle, between 0% and 7% of the total added amounts of ibuprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac and between 0% and 25% of 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, and bisphenol-A were recovered from the soil profiles. Carbamazepine was more persistent, between 55% and 107% being recovered. Amounts in leachates suggested that movement through the soil was possible for all of the analytes, particularly in profiles of low organic matter and clay content. Analysis of soil samples from the Tula Valley confirmed the general lack of accumulation of the acidic pharmaceuticals (concentrations from below the limit of detection to 0.61 μgkg(-1)) and endocrine disruptors (concentrations from below the limit of detection to 109 μgkg(-1)) despite continual addition through regular irrigation with untreated wastewater; there was little evidence of movement through the soil profiles. In contrast, carbamazepine was present in horizon A of the soil at concentrations equivalent to several years of additions by irrigation (2.6-7.5 μgkg(-1)) and was also present in the deeper horizons. The persistence and mobility of carbamazepine suggested a potential to contaminate groundwater. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endocrine disruptors in sludge wastewater treatment plants: environmental complications - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.10619

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Concern over exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs and impacts on wildlife and human has gradually increased in importance in recent years. Wastewater systematically receives most if not all of these chemicals, so a deeper understanding of the fate of EDs in environment is sorely needed. We evaluated EDs concentration in the affluent and effluent from the Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants (SWTPs Penha and Ilha do Governador. It was used as evaluation parameter the determination of some target compounds, such as: alkylphenols, 17β-estradiol, bisphenol A; complementing with measures of physical and chemical parameters: temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, and total chemical oxygen demand. Samples were collected along the line of treatment of each SWTP, and after laboratory procedures, analyzed by LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques. In some samples, we verified concentrations of chemical compounds with potential to disrupt the endocrine system of living organisms. Therefore, the release of this effluent, even within the effluent discharge standards (BRASIL, 2005 or in condition to be purified by the water course, may lead to physiological changes in the organisms of the receptor water body.  

  5. Preparation and characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate doped polypyrrole solid phase micro extraction fiber and its application to endocrine disruptor pesticide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korba, Korcan; Pelit, Levent; Pelit, Füsun Okçu; Ozdokur, K Volkan; Ertaş, Hasan; Eroğlu, Ahmet E; Ertaş, F Nil

    2013-06-15

    A robust in house solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) surface has been developed for the headspace (HS)-SPME determination of endocrine disruptor pesticides, namely, Chlorpyrifos, Penconazole, Procymidone, Bromopropylate and Lambda-Cyhalothrin in wine sample by using sodium dodecylsulfate doped polypyrrole SPME fiber. Pyrrole monomer was electrochemically polymerized on a stainless steel wire in laboratory conditions in virtue of diminishing the cost and enhancing the analyte retention on its surface to exert better selectivity and hence the developed polymerized surface could offer to analyst to exploit it as a fiber in headspace SPME analysis. The parameters, mainly, adsorption temperature and time, desorption temperature, stirring rate and salt amount were optimized to be as 70°C and 45min, 200°C, 600rpm and 10gL(-1), respectively. Limit of detection was estimated in the range of 0.073-1.659ngmL(-1) for the pesticides studied. The developed method was applied in to red wine sample with acceptable recovery values (92-107%) which were obtained for these selected pesticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of DFG-S19 method for the determination of common endocrine disruptor pesticides in wine samples with an estimation of the uncertainty of the analytical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelit, Füsun Okçu; Ertaş, Hasan; Seyrani, Işıl; Ertaş, F Nil

    2013-05-01

    A gas chromatographic method for the determination of endocrine disruptor pesticides (Chlorpyrifos, Penconazole, Procymidone, Iprodione, Bromopropylate and Lambda-Cyhalothrin) in wine samples is described. A general DFG-S19 method for residual pesticide determination in all kind of food stuff was investigated to simplify and adopt for wine samples in this work. Alternative sample preparation routes were elucidated and compared according to their recovery values. Four different separation techniques were tested and the method employing florosil column after a LLE procedure was applied for wine samples with satisfactory recovery ratios (72-97%). The pesticides were extracted from the sample by cyclohexane-ethyl acetate mixture (1:1 v/v) and cleaned up by florosil column. The regression coefficients were at least 0.99 and relative standard deviations were no higher than 16%. Detection limits were in the range of 0.6-2.9 ng/mL and the relative expanded measurement uncertainties were calculated in the 7-22% range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors in Drinking Water and Preterm Birth, Taking Neighborhood Deprivation into Account: A Historic Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Albouy-Llaty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between preterm birth (PTB and endocrine disruptor exposure in drinking-water has only occasionally been studied. The objective of this work was to investigate the relation between exposure to atrazine metabolites, or atrazine/nitrate mixtures, in drinking-water during pregnancy and prevalence of PTB neonates, while taking neighborhood deprivation into account. Method: A historic cohort study in Deux-Sèvres, France, between 2005 and 2010 with a multiple imputation model for data of exposure to atrazine metabolites and a logistic regression were carried out. Results: We included 13,654 mother/neonate pairs living in 279 different census districts. The prevalence of PTB was 4%. Average atrazine metabolite concentration was 0.019 ± 0.009 (0.014–0.080 µg/L and 39% of mothers lived in less deprived areas. The individual data were associated with risk of PTB. The risk of PTB when exposed to highest concentration of atrazine metabolite adjusted for confounders, was ORa 1.625 95% CI [0.975; 2.710]. Taking, or not, neighborhood deprivation into account did not change the result. Exposure to atrazine/nitrate mixtures remained non-significant. Conclusions: Even if we took neighborhood deprivation into account, we could not show a significant relationship between exposure to atrazine metabolites, or mixtures, in drinking-water during the second trimester of pregnancy and PTB.

  8. Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors and Nuclear Receptors Gene Expression in Infertile and Fertile Men from Italian Areas with Different Environmental Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia La Rocca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal levels of selected endocrine disruptors (EDs (i.e., perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (MEHP, and bisphenol A (BPA were analyzed in blood/serum of infertile and fertile men from metropolitan, urban and rural Italian areas. PFOS and PFOA levels were also evaluated in seminal plasma. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of same subjects, gene expression levels of a panel of nuclear receptors (NRs, namely estrogen receptor α (ERα estrogen receptor β (ERβ, androgen receptor (AR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and pregnane X receptor (PXR were also assessed. Infertile men from the metropolitan area had significantly higher levels of BPA and gene expression of all NRs, except PPARγ, compared to subjects from other areas. Subjects from urban areas had significantly higher levels of MEHP, whereas subjects from rural area had higher levels of PFOA in both blood and seminal plasma. Interestingly, ERα, ERβ, AR, PXR and AhR expression is directly correlated with BPA and inversely correlated with PFOA serum levels. Our study indicates the relevance of the living environment when investigating the exposure to specific EDs. Moreover, the NRs panel in PBMCs demonstrated to be a potential biomarker of effect to assess the EDs impact on reproductive health.

  9. Endocrine Disruptors in the Workplace, Hair Spray, Folate Supplementation, and Risk of Hypospadias: Case?Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ormond, Gillian; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Nelson, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B.; Iszatt, Nina; Geneletti, Sara; Elliott, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital congenital anomalies affecting baby boys. Prevalence estimates in Europe range from 4 to 24 per 10,000 births, depending on definition, with higher rates reported from the United States. Relatively little is known about potential risk factors, but a role for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been proposed. Objective Our goal was to elucidate the risk of hypospadias associated with occupational exposure of the mother to endocr...

  10. Effect of pharmaceutical potential endocrine disruptor compounds on protein disulfide isomerase reductase activity using di-eosin-oxidized-glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danièle Klett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bridges during folding of membrane and secreted proteins. As PDI is also known to bind various molecules including hormones such as estradiol and thyroxin, we considered the hypothesis that adverse effects of endocrine-disrupter compounds (EDC could be mediated through their interaction with PDI leading to defects in membrane or secreted proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Taking advantage of the recent description of the fluorescence self quenched substrate di-eosin-oxidized-glutathione (DiE-GSSG, we determined kinetically the effects of various potential pharmaceutical EDCs on the in-vitro reductase activity of bovine liver PDI by measuring the fluorescence of the reaction product (E-GSH. Our data show that estrogens (ethynylestradiol and bisphenol-A as well as indomethacin exert an inhibition whereas medroxyprogesteroneacetate and nortestosterone exert a potentiation of bovine PDI reductase activity. CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that the tested EDCs could not only affect endocrine target cells through nuclear receptors as previously shown, but could also affect these and all other cells by positively or negatively affecting PDI activity. The substrate DiE-GSSG has been demonstrated to be a convenient substrate to measure PDI reductase activity in the presence of various potential EDCs. It will certainly be usefull for the screening of potential effect of all kinds of chemicals on PDI reductase activity.

  11. CE with a boron-doped diamond electrode for trace detection of endocrine disruptors in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Damien J; Zhou, Lin; Luong, John H T; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2013-07-01

    Off-line SPE and CE coupled with electrochemical detection have been used for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F, 4-ethylphenol, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether in bottled drinking water. The use of boron-doped diamond electrode as an electrochemical detector in amperometric mode that provides a favorable analytical performance for detecting these endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as lower noise levels, higher peak resolution with enhanced sensitivity, and improved resistance against electrode passivation. The oxidative electrochemical detection of the endocrine-disrupting compounds was accomplished by boron-doped diamond electrode poised at +1.4 V versus Ag/AgCl without electrode pretreatment. An off-line SPE procedure (Bond Elut® C18 SPE cartridge) was utilized to extract and preconcentrate the compounds prior to separation and detection. The minimum concentration detectable for all four compounds ranged from 0.01 to 0.06 μM, having S/N equal to three. After exposing the plastic bottle water container under sunlight for 7 days, the estimated concentration of BPA in the bottled drinking water was estimated to be 0.03 μM. This proposed approach has great potential for rapid and effective determination of BPA content present in water packaging of plastic bottles that have been exposed to sunlight for an extended period of time. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Determination of endocrine disruptors in honey by CZE-MS using restricted access materials for matrix cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Domínguez-Alvarez, Javier; García-Gómez, Diego; García-Jiménez, María-Guadalupe; Carabias-Martínez, Rita

    2010-07-01

    An analytical method based on CZE coupled to ESI-MS is proposed for the identification and simultaneous quantification of several endocrine-disrupting chemicals in honey. The target compounds were the chlorophenols: 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, and bisphenol-A, 4-tert-butylphenol, and 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid. A two-step optimization of the ESI-MS detection was carried out. First, the organic solvent present in the sheath liquid was selected and its effect on the analytical signal was studied. The best results in terms of the intensity of the MS signals were obtained with methanol. Thus, an experimental design technique (Doehlert type) was used for the optimization of the other parameters: the NH(3) concentration in the sheath liquid, the flow of the sheath liquid, the nebulizer pressure in ESI, and the drying gas temperature and flow. Here, we developed a new sample treatment based on the combined use of a restricted access material and a polymeric sorbent for SPE. The LOD achieved were in the range of 5-31 ng/g. The intraday precision of the proposed method was determined from replicate analyses (n=4) at a concentration level of 50 ng/g, with RSD values in the range of 15-23%. The results revealed that the proposed method is suitable for the reliable quantification of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in honey at nanograms per gram levels.

  13. Arsenic as an endocrine disruptor: effects of arsenic on estrogen receptor-mediated gene expression in vivo and in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Jennifer C; Bodwell, Jack E; Gosse, Julie A; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2007-07-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water is considered a serious worldwide environmental health threat that is associated with increased disease risks including skin, lung, bladder, and other cancers; type 2 diabetes; vascular and cardiovascular diseases; reproductive and developmental effects; and neurological and cognitive effects. Increased health risks may occur at as low as 10-50 ppb, while biological effects have been observed in experimental animal and cell culture systems at much lower levels. We previously reported that As is a potent endocrine disruptor, altering gene regulation by the closely related glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, progesterone, and androgen steroid receptors (SRs) at concentrations as low as 0.01 microM ( approximately 0.7 ppb). Very low doses enhanced hormone-mediated gene transcription, whereas slightly higher but still noncytotoxic doses were suppressive. We report here that As also disrupts the more distally related estrogen receptor (ER) both in vivo and in cell culture. At noncytotoxic doses (1-50 micromol/kg arsenite) As strongly suppressed ER-dependent gene transcription of the 17beta-estradiol (E2)-inducible vitellogenin II gene in chick embryo liver in vivo. In cell culture, noncytotoxic levels (0.25-3 microM, approximately 20-225 ppb) of As significantly inhibited E2-mediated gene activation of an ER-regulated reporter gene and the native ER-regulated GREB1 gene in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. While the effects of As on ER-dependent gene regulation were generally similar to As effects on the other SRs, there were specific differences, particularly the lack of significant enhancement at the lowest doses, that may provide insights into possible mechanisms.

  14. Microsomal cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) nanobiosensor for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol-An endocrine disruptor compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, Nicolette R.; Waryo, Tesfaye T.; Arotiba, Omotayo; Jahed, Nazeem; Baker, Priscilla G.L. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of Western Cape, Moderddam Road, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel I. [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of Western Cape, Moderddam Road, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)], E-mail: eiwuoha@uwc.ac.za

    2009-02-28

    Cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) is a monooxygenase enzyme that plays a major role in the detoxification of bioactive compounds and hydrophobic xenobiotics (e.g. medicines, drugs, environmental pollutants, food supplements and steroids). Physiologically the monooxygenation reactions of this class II, microsomal, b-type heme enzyme, usually requires cytochrome P450 reductase, NADPH. A novel CYP3A4 biosensor system that essentially simplified the enzymatic redox processes by allowing electron transfer between the electrode and the enzyme redox centre to occur, without any need for the physiological redox partners, was developed for the detection of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a priority environmental pollutant and an endocrine disruptor. The biosensor, GC/Naf-Co(Sep){sup 3+}/CYP3A4/Naf, was constructed by encapsulating CYP3A4 in a Nafion-cobalt (III) sepulchrate (Naf-Co(Sep){sup 3+}) composite film on a glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The responses of the biosensor to 2,4-dichlorophenol, erythromycin (CYP3A4 native substrate) and ketoconazole (CYP 3A4 natural inhibitor) were studied by cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques. The detection limit (DL) of the biosensor for 2,4-dichlorophenol was 0.043 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is by an order of magnitude lower than the EU limit (0.3 {mu}g L{sup -1}) for any pesticide compound in ground water. The biosensor's DL is lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) value for 2,4-DCP, which is 2 {mu}g L{sup -1}.

  15. Disruptores endocrinos. El caso particular de los xenobióticos estrogénicos. I Estrógenos naturales Endocrine disrupters. The case of estrogen xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín Olmedo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El interés de la comunidad científica por la exposición humana a sustancias químicas capaces de alterar el equilibrio hormonal -disruptores endocrinos— ha crecido al mismo tiempo que se han presentado pruebas de las con- secuencias de la exposición a estas sustancias sobre poblaciones animales. Como ha ocurrido en ocasiones anteriores, los datos observacionales en poblaciones animales han sido lo suficientemente sugerentes como para inducir entre los clínicos cierto grado de preocupación, por si estuvieran produciéndose efectos similares en poblaciones humanas. Si bien es cierto que los datos sobre afectación de poblaciones animales se generan mas fácilmente de forma poblacional que individual, también es verdad que las observaciones individuales en la clínica junto con algunos pocos estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado cierto paralelismo. De hecho, modelos in vitro e in vivo han servido para asignar capacidad mimetizadora hormonal a muchos compuestos químicos, tanto naturales como de producción humana, para los cuales existe riesgo de exposición. En este trabajo se revisan las premisas conceptuales sobre disrupción endocrina y como se llegó a acuñar el término.Interest of the scientific community in chemical substances able to alter the hormone balance –endocrine disrupters- has grown with increasing evidence of the consequences for animal populations of exposure to these substances. As has occurred on previous occasions, observational data on animal populations have been sufficiently suggestive to cause concerns among clinicians that similar effects may be produced in human populations. Although data on the effects on populations of animals are more easily generated than those on individuals, clinical observations on human individuals alongside the few existing epidemiological studies have shown a certain parallelism. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo models have been able to designate many chemical compounds as hormonal

  16. Detection of estrogen receptor endocrine disruptor potency of commonly used organochlorine pesticides using the LUMI-CELL ER bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, J.D.; Chu, A.C.; Clark, G.C. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Chu, M.D. [Alta Analytical Perspectives, Wilmington, NC (United States); Denison, M.S. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In order to detect the endocrine disrupting potency of organochlorine pesticides and other compounds, BG-1 (human ovarian carcinoma) cells containing a stably transfected estrogenresponsive luciferase reporter gene plasmid (BG1Luc4E2), was used. This cell line, termed the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system, responds in a time-, dose dependent- and chemical-specific manner with the induction of luciferase gene expression in response to exposure to estrogen (but not other steroid hormones) and estrogenic chemicals in a high-throughput screening (HTPS) format6. Here we describe studies in which the LUMI-CELL trademark ER estrogenic cell bioassay system was used for high throughput screening (HTPS) analysis of the estrogenic disrupting potency of several commonly used pesticides and organochlorines: p,p'DDT; p,p'-DDE; DDD; {alpha}a-chlordane; {psi}-chlordane; Kepone; Methoxychlor; Vinclozolin; Fenarimol; 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid; and Dieldrin. Our results demonstrate the utility of XDS's LUMI-CELL trademark ER bioassay HTPS system for screening chemicals for estrogenic activity.

  17. Disruptores endocrinos. El caso particular de los xenobióticos estrogénicos. II Estrógenos sintéticos Endocrine disrupters. The case of oestrogenic xenobiotics II: synthetic oestrogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín Olmedo

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha puesto en evidencia que muchas sustancias químicas de origen antropogénico son capaces de alterar el sistema endocrino de los seres vivos y se ha acuñado el nombre de disruptores endocrinos para definirlas. El número de disruptores endocrinos es una preocupación creciente si se añade a la inclusión de nuevos compuestos químicos, hasta ahora insospechados, la información generada sobre sus precursores, metabolitos y productos de degradación que tan solo ahora empiezan a conocerse. No se ha podido definir una estructura química única que permita clasificar a un compuesto químico como mimetizador de las hormonas sexuales femeninas, de tal manera que estructuras químicas similares a los estrógenos naturales, basados en el ciclopentanoperhidrofenantreno, comparten con los estilbenos, bisfenoles, bifenilos, alquilfenoles, dioxinas, furanos y parabenes su efecto hormonal estrogénico. El reconocimiento de la actividad estrogénica en diferentes modelos biológicos se ha utilizado para actualizar el censo de xenoestrógenos y poner de manifiesto fuentes de exposición humana hasta el momento insospechadas.In recent years, it has been demonstrated that endocrine systems of living beings can be altered by many chemical substances of anthropogenic origin, designated as endocrine disrupters. There are growing concerns about the number of these endocrine disrupters. It has not been possible to define a single chemical structure that allows the classification of a chemical compound as a mimic of female sex hormones, so that chemical structures similar to natural estrogens, based on cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene, share their hormonal effect with stilbenes, bisphenols, alkylphenols, dioxins, furans and parabenes. The recognition of estrogenic activity in different biological models has been used to update the list of xenoestrogens and reveal sources of human exposure that were previously unknown. New previously

  18. Using the Health Belief Model to Illustrate Factors That Influence Risk Assessment during Pregnancy and Implications for Prenatal Education about Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree; Barrett, Emily S.; Velez, Marissa; Conn, Kelly; Heinert, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are ubiquitous in our environment and a growing body of research indicates that EDCs may adversely affect human development. Fetal development is particularly susceptible to EDC exposure, and prenatal care providers are being asked to educate women about the risks of…

  19. Endocrine Disruptors Differentially Target ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in the Blood-Testis Barrier and Affect Leydig Cell Testosterone Secretion In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, A.C.A.; Roelofs, M.J.; Piersma, A.H.; Sweep, F.C.; Russel, F.G.M.; Berg, M. van den; Duursen, M.B. van; Masereeuw, R.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are considered to cause testicular toxicity primarily via interference with steroid hormone function. Alternatively, EDCs could possibly exert their effects by interaction with ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that are expressed in the blood-testis

  20. A synchronized amphibian metamorphosis assay as an improved tool to detect thyroid hormone disturbance by endocrine disruptors and apolar sediment extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, A.C.; Schriks, M.; Mossink, L.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Amphibian metamorphosis assays are used to evaluate potential effects of endocrine disrupting compounds on the thyroid hormone axis. In this study, Xenopus laevis tadpoles are kept in a solution of 0.2% thiourea (TU) to arrest and synchronise them in their development. The advantage of this

  1. Maternal Exposure to Domestic Hair Cosmetics and Occupational Endocrine Disruptors Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Hypospadias in the Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Elodie Haraux; Karine Braun; Philippe Buisson; Erwan Stéphan-Blanchard; Camille Devauchelle; Jannick Ricard; Bernard Boudailliez; Pierre Tourneux; Richard Gouron; Karen Chardon

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant women are exposed to various chemical products at home and at work. Some of these products contain endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as cosmetics, pesticides, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, plastics or medications that could alter sexual differentiation and increase the risk of hypospadias. We evaluated maternal occupational and household exposures that could constitute risk factors for hypospadias. From 2011 to 2014, we enrolled 57 full-term newborns with hypospadias a...

  2. Endocrine-disrupting effect of the ultraviolet filter benzophenone-3 in zebrafish, Danio rerio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Petersen, Gitte I.; Albrektsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    The chemical ultraviolet (UV) filter benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is suspected to be an endocrine disruptor based on results from in vitro and in vivo testing. However, studies including endpoints of endocrine adversity are lacking. The present study investigated the potential endocrine-disrupting effects...... not affect the vitellogenin concentration in TG 234. After 12 d exposure of adult male zebrafish, a slight but yet significant increase in the vitellogenin concentration was observed at 268 µg/L but not at 63 µg/L and 437 µg/l BP-3. Skewing of the sex ratio is a marker of an endocrine mediated mechanism...... as well as a marker of adversity and therefore the conclusion of the investigation is that BP-3 is an endocrine-disrupting chemical in accordance with the World Health Organization's definition....

  3. Endocrine-disruptor molecular responses, occurrence of intersex and gonado-histopathological changes in tilapia species from a tropical freshwater dam (Awba Dam) in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Onibonoje, Kolawole; Ibor, Oju R.; Omiwole, Roseline A.; Chukwuka, Azubuike V.; Ugwumba, Alex O.; Ugwumba, Adiaha A.A. [Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Occurrence and severity of intersex in Nigerian aquatic environment. • Estrogenic and reproductive developmental effects of effluents from a University community. • Biomarker of endocrine disruption in fish from a developing country. • Relationship between estrogenic responses and sediment contaminants burden in a dam used for University domestic water supply and for fisheries. • Possible health consequences of environmental contamination - Abstract: In the present study, the occurrence of endocrine disruptive responses in Tilapia species from Awba Dam has been investigated, and compared to a reference site (Modete Dam). The Awba Dam is a recipient of effluents from University of Ibadan (Nigeria) and several other anthropogenic sources. A total of 132 Tilapia species (Sarotherodon malenotheron (n = 57 and 32, males and females, respectively) and Tilapia guineensis (n = 23 and 20, males and females, respectively)) were collected from June to September 2014. At the reference site, samples of adult male and female S. melanotheron (48 males and 47 females) and T. guineensis (84 males and 27 females) were collected. Gonads were morphologically and histologically examined and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Hepatic mRNA transcriptions of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zrp) genes were analyzed using validated RT-qPCR. Significant increase in Vtg and Zrp transcripts were observed in male tilapias from Awba Dam, compared to males from the reference site. In addition, male tilapias from Awba Dam produced significantly higher Vtg and Zrp mRNA, compared to females in June and July. However, at the natural peak spawning period in August and September, females produced, significantly higher Vtg and Zrp mRNA, compared to males. Fish gonads revealed varying incidence of intersex with a striking presence of two (2) pairs of testes and a pair of ovary in S. melanotheron from Awba Dam. The entire fish population examined at Awba Dam

  4. A comparative study of occurrence and fate of endocrine disruptors: diethyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate in ASP- and SBR-based wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gita; Pant, Shalini; Singh, Shri Om; Kazmi, A A; Alam, Tanveer

    2016-11-01

    Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting chemicals which affect endocrine system by bio-accumulation in aquatic organisms and produce adverse health effects in aquatic organisms as well as human beings, when come in contact. Present study focuses on occurrence and removal of two phthalates: diethylphthalate (DEP) and dibutylphthalate (DBP) in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) i.e. sewage treatment plants (STPs) based on well-adopted technologies, activated sludge process (ASP) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR).Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed for both wastewater and sludge sample for determination and identification of the concentration of these compounds in both STPs by monitoring the STPs for 9 months. It was observed that the concentration of DEP was less than DBP in the influent of ASP and SBR. Average concentrations of DEP and DBP in sludge sample of ASP were found to be 2.15 and 2.08 ng/g, whereas in SBR plant, these values were observed as 1.71 and 2.01 ng/g, respectively. Concerning the removal efficiency of DEP, SBR and ASP plants were found effective with removal efficiency of 91.51 and 91.03 %, respectively. However, in the case of DBP, SBR showed lower removal efficiency (85.42 %) as compared to ASP (92.67 %). Comparative study of both plants proposed that in ASP plant, DBP reduction was higher than the SBR. Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) analysis also confirmed the same result of sludge analysis for both STPs. Sludge disposal studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques confirmed that sludge of both STPs have high calorific value and can be used as fuel to make fuel-briquettes and bottom ash to make firebricks.

  5. Maternal Exposure to Domestic Hair Cosmetics and Occupational Endocrine Disruptors Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Hypospadias in the Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraux, Elodie; Braun, Karine; Buisson, Philippe; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Devauchelle, Camille; Ricard, Jannick; Boudailliez, Bernard; Tourneux, Pierre; Gouron, Richard; Chardon, Karen

    2016-12-29

    Pregnant women are exposed to various chemical products at home and at work. Some of these products contain endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as cosmetics, pesticides, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, plastics or medications that could alter sexual differentiation and increase the risk of hypospadias. We evaluated maternal occupational and household exposures that could constitute risk factors for hypospadias. From 2011 to 2014, we enrolled 57 full-term newborns with hypospadias and three randomly selected controls per case (162 control newborns), matched for gestational age, from 11 maternity units in Picardy, France. Neonatal and parental data were collected at birth (personal characteristics, maternal lifestyle, and medical history). Maternal occupational exposure was assessed by a job-exposure matrix for EDCs from a job history questionnaire completed by mothers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression, and adjusted for relevant covariates. Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between hypospadias and potential maternal occupational exposure to EDCs and maternal household use of hair cosmetics (OR 6.1, 95% CI: 1.1-34.9; OR: 9.6, 95% CI: 1.4-66.1, respectively). Our results suggest that maternal occupational exposure to EDCs is a risk factor for hypospadias and suggests a possible influence of household use of hair cosmetics during early pregnancy on the incidence of hypospadias in the offspring. A larger study with more accurate exposure assessment should evaluate the impact of EDCs in hair cosmetics on the incidence of hypospadias.

  6. Development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) gonadotropin ß subunit mRNAs to support endocrine disruptor research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Miracle, Ann L.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Degitz, Sigmund J.; Kahl, Michael D.; Korte, Joseph J.; Greene, Katie J.; Blake, Lindsey S.; Linnum, Ann; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2007-03-01

    Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are one of the most widely-used small fish models for regulatory ecotoxicology testing and research related to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, we isolated and sequenced cDNAs for fathead minnow follicle-stimulating hormone-like and luteinizing hormone-like β (FSHβ and LHβ) and glycoprotein α (GPα) subunits. Quantitative real-time PCR assays for measuring gonadotropin (GtH) β subunit transcripts were developed and used to examine “baseline” transcript levels over a range of age classes and reproductive states encompassed in EDC testing. In females, FSHβ and LHβ transcripts were greater in 4-5 month old than in younger fish and were significantly correlated with one another across all age classes examined. In males, FSHβ transcripts were greatest in 2-3 month old fish and were inversely correlated with various measures of testis development including, gonadal-somatic index (GSI), and histological stage. Overall, the pattern of GtHβ expression over age classes associated with gonad development was similar to that reported for other asynchronous-spawning fish. Despite significant changes in female GSI, gonad stage, and plasma vitellogenin within 24 h of spawning, GtHβ transcript levels in fish that had spawned within the preceding 24 h were not significantly different from those in fish that were 2-3 days post-spawn and expected to spawn within the next 24 h based on spawning history. Results of this study provide insights related to the role of GtHs in fathead minnow reproductive development and function. Additionally they provide useful “baseline” data needed to design and interpret effective experiments for studying direct and indirect effects of EDCs on GtH subunit mRNA expression, which will facilitate a greater understanding of integrated system-wide responses of the fathead minnow brain-pituitary-gonadal axis to stressors including EDCs.

  7. Maternal Exposure to Domestic Hair Cosmetics and Occupational Endocrine Disruptors Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Hypospadias in the Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Haraux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are exposed to various chemical products at home and at work. Some of these products contain endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs such as cosmetics, pesticides, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, plastics or medications that could alter sexual differentiation and increase the risk of hypospadias. We evaluated maternal occupational and household exposures that could constitute risk factors for hypospadias. From 2011 to 2014, we enrolled 57 full-term newborns with hypospadias and three randomly selected controls per case (162 control newborns, matched for gestational age, from 11 maternity units in Picardy, France. Neonatal and parental data were collected at birth (personal characteristics, maternal lifestyle, and medical history. Maternal occupational exposure was assessed by a job-exposure matrix for EDCs from a job history questionnaire completed by mothers. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression, and adjusted for relevant covariates. Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between hypospadias and potential maternal occupational exposure to EDCs and maternal household use of hair cosmetics (OR 6.1, 95% CI: 1.1–34.9; OR: 9.6, 95% CI: 1.4–66.1, respectively. Our results suggest that maternal occupational exposure to EDCs is a risk factor for hypospadias and suggests a possible influence of household use of hair cosmetics during early pregnancy on the incidence of hypospadias in the offspring. A larger study with more accurate exposure assessment should evaluate the impact of EDCs in hair cosmetics on the incidence of hypospadias.

  8. LC-MS/MS analytical procedure to quantify tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, as a source of the endocrine disruptors 4-nonylphenols, in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Pascal; Frank, Nancy; Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Romero, Roman; Delatour, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, an antioxidant used in polyethylene resins for food applications, is problematic since it is a source of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals 4-nonylphenols (4NP) upon migration into packaged foods. As a response to concerns surrounding the presence of 4NP-based compounds in packaging materials, some resin producers and additive suppliers have decided to eliminate TNPP from formulations. This paper describes an analytical procedure to verify the "TNPP-free" statement in multilayer laminates used for bag-in-box packaging. The method involves extraction of TNPP from laminates with organic solvents followed by detection/quantification by LC-MS/MS using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mode. A further acidic treatment of the latter extract allows the release of 4NP from potentially extracted TNPP. 4NP is then analysed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. This two-step analytical procedure ensures not only TNPP quantification in laminates, but also allows the flagging of other possible sources of 4NP in such packaging materials, typically as non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). The limits of quantification were 0.50 and 0.48 µg dm⁻² for TNPP and 4NP in laminates, respectively, with recoveries ranging between 87% and 114%. Usage of such analytical methodologies in quality control operations has pointed to a lack of traceability at the packaging supplier level and cross-contamination of extrusion equipment at the converter level, when TNPP-containing laminates are processed on the same machine beforehand.

  9. Biological assessments of a mixture of endocrine disruptors at environmentally relevant concentrations in water following UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.-J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University (United States); Integrated Toxicology Program, Nicolas School of Environment and Earth Science, Duke University (United States); Rosenfeldt, Erik J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University (United States); Kullman, Seth W. [Integrated Toxicology Program, Nicolas School of Environment and Earth Science, Duke University (United States); Hinton, David E. [Integrated Toxicology Program, Nicolas School of Environment and Earth Science, Duke University (United States); Linden, Karl G. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University (United States)]. E-mail: kglinden@duke.edu

    2007-04-15

    Numerous studies have investigated degradation of individual endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in lab or natural waters. However, natural variations in water matrices and mixtures of EDCs in the environment may confound analysis of the treatment efficiency. Because chemical based analytical methods cannot represent the combined or synergistic activities between water quality parameters and/or the EDC mixtures at environmentally relevant concentrations ({mu}g L{sup -1}-ng L{sup -1}), bioanalytical assessments of residual estrogenic activity in treated water were used to evaluate the performance of the UV based advanced oxidation process for estrogenic contaminants in water. Four EDCs including estradiol (E{sub 2}), ethinyl estradiol (EE{sub 2}), bisphenol-A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) were spiked individually or as a mixture at {mu}g L{sup -1}-ng L{sup -1} in laboratory or natural river water. The removal rates of estrogenic activity were quantitatively evaluated by in vitro yeast estrogen screen (YES) and in vivo Vitellogenin (VTG) assays with Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). UV in combination with 10 ppm H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an oxidation process was capable of decreasing in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity, however, in vivo estrogenic activity of the EDC mixture in natural water was not completely removed at UV fluence up to 2000 mJ cm{sup -2}. The removal rates of in vitro estrogenic activity of the EDC mixtures were lower than those observed for single compounds, and slower in natural waters, likely due to lower steady-state concentrations of hydroxyl radicals ({center_dot}OH) in the presence of {center_dot}OH scavengers from the water matrix and EDC mixture.

  10. Is Hypospadias Associated with Prenatal Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors? A French Collaborative Controlled Study of a Cohort of 300 Consecutive Children Without Genetic Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfa, Nicolas; Paris, Françoise; Philibert, Pascal; Orsini, Mattea; Broussous, Sylvie; Fauconnet-Servant, Nadège; Audran, Françoise; Gaspari, Laura; Lehors, Hélène; Haddad, Myriam; Guys, Jean-Michel; Reynaud, Rachel; Alessandrini, Pierre; Merrot, Thierry; Wagner, Kathy; Kurzenne, Jean-Yves; Bastiani, Florence; Bréaud, Jean; Valla, Jean-Stéphane; Lacombe, Gérard Morisson; Dobremez, Eric; Zahhaf, Amel; Daures, Jean-Pierre; Sultan, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the association between endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and hypospadias. Phenotype variability, the absence of representative comparison groups and concomitant genetic testing prevent any definitive conclusions. To identify the role of occupational and environmental exposures to EDCs in nongenetic isolated hypospadias. A total of 408 consecutive children with isolated hypospadias and 302 normal boys were prospectively included (2009-2014) in a multi-institutional study in the south of France, the area of the country with the highest prevalence of hypospadias surgery. In patients without AR, SRD5A2, and MAMLD1 mutations, parental occupational and professional exposures to EDCs were evaluated based on European questionnaire QLK4-1999-01422 and a validated job-exposure matrix for EDCs. Environmental exposure was estimated using the zip code, the type of surrounding hazards, and distance from these hazards. Multivariate analysis was performed. Fetal exposure to EDCs around the window of genital differentiation was more frequent in the case of hypospadias (40.00% vs 17.55%, odds ratio 3.13, 95% confidence interval 2.11-4.65). The substances were paints/solvents/adhesives (16.0%), detergents (11.0%), pesticides (9.0%), cosmetics (5.6%), and industrial chemicals (4.0%). Jobs with exposure were more frequent in mothers of hypospadiac boys (19.73% vs 10.26%, p=0.0019), especially cleaners, hairdressers, beauticians, and laboratory workers. Paternal job exposure was more frequent in the cases of hypospadias (40.13% vs 27.48%, p=0.02). Industrial areas, incinerators, and waste areas were more frequent within a 3-km radius for mothers of hypospadiac boys (13.29% vs. 6.64%, phypospadias through occupational and environmental exposure during fetal life. The association of various types of exposures may increase this risk. Our multi-institutional study showed that parental professional, occupational, and environmental exposures to chemical

  11. Genetic polymorphisms and metabolism of endocrine disruptors in cancer susceptibility Polimorfismos genéticos e metabolismo dos desreguladores endócrinos na suscetibilidade ao câncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hatagima

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have estimated that approximately 80% of all cancers are related to environmental factors. Individual cancer susceptibility can be the result of several host factors, including differences in metabolism, DNA repair, altered expression of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, and nutritional status. Xenobiotic metabolism is the principal mechanism for maintaining homeostasis during the body's exposure to xenobiotics. The balance of xenobiotic absorption and elimination rates in metabolism can be important in the prevention of DNA damage by chemical carcinogens. Thus the ability to metabolize and eliminate xenobiotics can be considered one of the body's first protective mechanisms. Variability in individual metabolism has been related to the enzymatic polymorphisms involved in activation and detoxification of chemical carcinogens. This paper is a contemporary literature review on genetic polymorphisms involved in the metabolism of endocrine disruptors potentially related to cancer development.Estudos epidemiológicos estimam que cerca de 80% dos cânceres estão relacionados a fatores ambientais. A suscetibilidade individual ao câncer pode resultar de vários fatores relacionados ao metabolismo de xenobióticos, reparo do DNA, expressão de genes supressores de tumor e protoncogenes e estado nutricional. O metabolismo é o principal mecanismo para manter a homeostasia durante a exposição dos organismos aos xenobióticos. O equilíbrio das taxas de absorção e eliminação dos xenobióticos tem um papel importante na prevenção de danos no DNA, provocados por carcinógenos químicos. Sendo assim, a habilidade de metabolizar e eliminar os xenobióticos pode ser considerada uma das primeiras linhas de defesa dos organismos. Variações no metabolismo individual têm sido relacionadas aos polimorfismos enzimáticos, envolvidos na ativação e desintoxicação de carcinógenos químicos. Neste trabalho, é realizada

  12. Phytoestrogens: potential endocrine disruptors in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santti, R; Mäkelä, S; Strauss, L; Korkman, J; Kostian, M L

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induces persistent structural and functional alterations in the developing reproductive tract of males. It is possible that xenoestrogens other than DES alter sexual differentiation in males and account for the increasing incidence of developmental disorders of the reproductive tract in men and wild animals. Phytoestrogens (coumestans, isoflavonoids, flavonoids, and lignans) present in numerous edible plants are quantitatively the most important environmental estrogens when their hormonal potency is assessed in vitro. They exert their estrogenic activity by interacting with estrogen receptors (ERs) in vitro. They may also act as antiestrogens by competing for the binding sites of estrogen receptors or the active site of the estrogen biosynthesizing and metabolizing enzymes, such as aromatase and estrogen-specific 17 beta-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (type 1). In theory, phytoestrogens and structurally related compounds could harm the reproductive health of males also by acting as antiestrogens. There are very little data on effects of phytoestrogens in males. Estrogenic effects in wildlife have been described but the evidence for the role of phytoestrogens is indirect and seen under conditions of excessive exposure. In doses comparable to the daily intake from soybased feed, isoflavonoids such as genistein were estrogen agonists in the prostate of adult laboratory rodents. When given neonatally, no persistent effects were observed. In contrast, the central nervous system (CNS)-gonadal axis and the male sexual behavior of the rat appear to be sensitive to phytoestrogens during development. The changes were similar but not identical to those seen after neonatal treatment with DES, but higher doses of phytoestrogens were needed.

  13. Review: Environmental endocrine disruptors of testicular function ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last 50 years the incidence of infertility, testicular and prostate cancers and associated maladies has increased significantly. Infertility now affects 15-20% of couples as opposed to 7-8% fifty years ago. Average sperm counts among adult men have decreased by 50% since 1938, with a decline of 2% every year from ...

  14. 78 FR 57859 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... determine the potential for a drug to disrupt the endocrine system. This draft guidance also discusses... compounds that have the potential to interfere with some aspect of the endocrine system of an organism or its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although...

  15. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  16. Exposição ambiental a interferentes endócrinos com atividade estrogênica e sua associação com distúrbios puberais em crianças Environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors with estrogenic activity and the association with pubertal disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crésio Alves

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A substância exógena que causa efeitos adversos na saúde de um organismo ou sua descendência, como resultado de distúrbios na função hormonal, é denominada interferente endócrino. Nos últimos anos, produtos ambientais com atividades hormonais têm sido documentados como causadores de anormalidades puberais ou reprodutivas em animais. Os poucos casos comprovados em humanos foram aqueles relacionados a exposições acidentais. Apesar disso, pediatras e pais recomendam a suspensão de todos os alimentos potencialmente contaminados, em especial carne (aves, gado e derivados da soja quando a criança apresenta alguma alteração puberal. Estas recomendações, se não embasadas cientificamente, podem ter conseqüências deletérias, não apenas pela eliminação de fontes protéicas da dieta, como também por retardar a investigação de causas tratáveis. Por outro lado, a não investigação dos efeitos adversos destes produtos é da mesma forma danosa. Esta revisão descreve os principais interferentes endócrinos responsáveis por alterações puberais em humanos e conclui que, excetuando exposições acidentais a altas quantidades destes produtos, mais estudos são necessários para responsabilizar a ação crônica e em baixas doses destas substâncias na alteração do tempo de desenvolvimento puberal em nossa espécie.Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substances with adverse health effects in intact organisms or their progeny, secondary to changes in endocrine function. Recent years have witnessed constant reports of environmental factors with hormone-like effects causing pubertal or reproductive abnormalities in animals. The few cases proven to be associated with pubertal disorders in humans have been related to accidental exposure. Nevertheless, pediatricians and parents recommend suspending all possible estrogen-contaminated food, especially meat (poultry, beef and soy products, when the child presents with a pubertal disorder

  17. Mixture Effects of 3 Mechanistically Different Steroidogenic Disruptors (Prochloraz, Genistein, and Ketoconazole) in the H295R Cell Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Frederik Knud; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Fey, Jennifer Anna

    2015-01-01

    Mixture effects of 3 model endocrine disruptors, prochloraz, ketoconazole, and genistein, on steroidogenesis were tested in the adrenocortical H295R cell line. Seven key steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and 17β...... the H295R cell line was suitable for evaluating mixture toxicity of endocrine disruptors with different modes of action. The compounds were chosen because they interfere with steroidogenesis in different ways. They all individually decrease the concentrations of the main sex steroids downstream...... with the H295R cell assay is a useful tool also for studying how mixtures of endocrine disruptors with differing modes of action interfere with the steroidogenic pathway and that existing models like concentration addition are insufficient in such cases. Furthermore, for end points where compounds exert...

  18. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Also Govern Effects of Chemicals on the Endocrine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A; Blaauboer, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can...

  19. KNOTTING NETS-MOLECULAR JUNCTIONS OF INTERCONNECTING ENDOCRINE AXES IDENTIFIED BY APPLICATION OF THE ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAY (AOP) CONCEPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Maria; Licht, Oliver; Fetter, Éva; Teigeler, Matthias; Schäfers, Christoph; Eilebrecht, Elke

    2017-10-06

    In order to be defined as endocrine disruptor, a substance has to meet several criteria, including the induction of specific adverse effects, specific endocrine mode-of-action and a plausible link between both. Especially the latter criterion might not always be unequivocally determined, particularly as the endocrine system consists of diverse endocrine axes. The axes closely interact with each other, and manipulation of one triggers effects on the other. This review aimed at identifying some of the many interconnections between these axes. This study focusses on fish, but also considers data obtained in studies on amphibians and mammals if these assist in closing data gaps, as most of the endocrine mechanisms are evolutionary conserved. The review comprises data of ecotoxicological studies, as well as data on physiological processes. The gathered information delivers data on hormone/hormone receptor interactions or gene transcription regulation. The identified key events (KE) and KE relationships (KER) provide explanations for unexpected effects on one axis, exerted by substances suspected to act specifically on another axis. Based on these data, several adverse outcome pathway (AOP) segments were identified, describing connections between the HPG- and HPT-axes, the HPG- and HPA/I-axes, and the HPT- and HPA/I-axes. Central KEs identified across axes were altered aromatase activity, and altered expression and function of the proteins 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. Substance classes, which act on more than one endocrine axis were for example goitrogens or aromatase inhibitors. Despite the wealth of gathered information, it only provides a small insight into the molecular nets of endocrine axes, demonstrating the complexity of the interconnections between endocrine axes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of medical therapy, alcohol, smoking, and endocrine disruptors on male infertility Efeitos da terapia medicamentosa, àlcool, cigarros e substância deletérias para o sistema endócrino na infertilidade masculina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Firmbach Pasqualotto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility affects up to 15% of the sexually active population, and in 50% of cases, a male factor is involved, either as a primary problem or in combination with a problem in the female partner. Because many commonly encountered drugs and medications can have a detrimental effect on male fertility, the medical evaluation should include a discussion regarding the use of recreational and illicit drugs, medications, and other substances that may impair fertility. With the knowledge of which drugs and medications may be detrimental to fertility, it may be possible to modify medication regimens or convince a patient to modify habits to decrease adverse effects on fertility and improve the chances of achieving a successful pregnancy. Concern is growing that male sexual development and reproduction have changed for the worse over the past 30 to 50 years. Although some reports find no changes, others suggest that sperm counts appear to be decreasing and that the incidence of developmental abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism appears to be increasing, as is the incidence of testicular cancer. These concerns center around the possibility that our environment is contaminated with chemicals - both natural and synthetic - that can interact with the endocrine system.A infertilidade afeta até 15% da população sexualmente ativa e em 50% dos casos, o fator masculino está envolvido, como problema primário ou em combinação com causas de origem feminina. Como muitas drogas comumente encontradas e medicações podem ter efeitos deletérios na infertilidade masculina, a avaliação médica deve incluir uma discussão sobre o uso de drogas recreacionais e ilícitas, medicamentos e outras substâncias podem prejudicar a fertilidade. Com o conhecimento de quais drogas e medicamentos podem ser prejudiciais à fertilidade talvez seja possível mudar os hábitos ou a posologia das medicações para diminuir os efeitos adversos na fertilidade e

  1. Reproductive toxicity of the endocrine disrupters vinclozolin and bisphenol A in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemos, M.F.L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Soares, A.M.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) have been largely studied concerning their effects on vertebrates. Nevertheless, invertebrates as targets for these chemicals have been neglected and few studies are available. Specifically for edaphic invertebrates, data concerning the effects of EDCs is

  2. IMPACT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS ON MAN: THE LIKELY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... and their retarding effect on children learning and behaviour. In another development, effects on the ... agricultural pesticides in United States' children and neurologic development like diminished memory, ..... "Breast Cancer and Serum Organochlorines: A Prospective Study among White, Black, and.

  3. Detection and Quantification of Oestrogenic Endocrine Disruptors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Melamine, beyond the kidney: A ubiquitous endocrine disruptor and neurotoxicant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Ashley L; Rochester, Johanna R; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2017-10-05

    Melamine is commonly used in a variety of consumer products such as furniture, dining ware, and food utensils. The chemical infamously gained worldwide attention by its illegal addition to a variety of foodstuffs in order to falsify protein content, which led to serious, sometimes fatal, health impacts in children and pets. This resulted in a large amount of published primary studies and reviews of the impacts of melamine exposure on kidney function. However, a growing body of literature suggests that melamine may have impacts beyond renal dysfunction. We conducted a scoping review of this literature which yielded more than 40 studies with human, animal, and in vitro findings. Neurological impacts, reproductive function, and anthropometric outcomes were identified as possible candidates for systematic review based on evidence stream and replication of endpoints. The results of this analysis provide a basis for prioritizing future research on health impacts associated with melamine exposure. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Lifestyle behaviors associated with exposures to endocrine disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Camille A.; Weiss, Bernard; Swan, Shanna H.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and characterizing sources of exposure to phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) have proved challenging due to the presence of multiple co-exposures resulting from a wide variety of home environments and lifestyles. We hypothesized that the consistent lifestyle of an Old Order Mennonite (OOM) community would provide an ideal setting in which to characterize sources of exposure to BPA and phthalates. We obtained urine samples from ten mid-term pregnant OOM women (ages-21–39) to determine concentrations of 9 phthalate metabolites and BPA and collected a self-reported survey of participants' household environment, product use, and lifestyle within a 48-h period prior to urine collection. We compared their metabolite concentrations to pregnant women included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007–2008). Although OOM participants reported some use of plastic and fragranced household products, concentrations of metabolites were lower and significantly less for BPA (p = 0.002) and phthalate metabolites MEHP (p = 0.0215), MiBP (p = 0.0020) and MEP (p = 0.021), when compared to NHANES pregnant women. Levels of other phthalate metabolites were also lower in this population. Our data suggest three practices that may contribute to these lower levels: (1) consuming mostly homegrown produce (ingestion), (2) no cosmetics and limited use of personal care products, and (3) transportation primarily by sources other than automobiles. PMID:22739065

  6. Scientific principles for the identification of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: a consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solecki, Roland; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Bergman, Åke

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is a specific form of toxicity, where natural and/or anthropogenic chemicals, known as "endocrine disruptors" (EDs), trigger adverse health effects by disrupting the endogenous hormone system. There is need to harmonize guidance on the regulation of EDs, but this has been...

  7. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, diethylstilbestrol (DES and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold2 software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69% and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%. Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  8. Effects of endocrine disrupting heavy metals on pituitary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of hypogonadism and visceral obesity (VO) was recently demonstrated in male auto-mechanics occupationally exposed to endocrine disruptors (ED)-lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, known to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The effects of exposure to these EDs on pituitary and gonadal ...

  9. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...

  10. Endocrine disrupting chemicals – probability of adverse environmental effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk due to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. Endocrine disruptors are defined as chemicals substances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and wildlife. Exposure to EDCs in animals models correlate positively with an increased incidence of malformations of genital tract, on neoplasmas, obesity, alternations on male and female reproduction and changes in neuroendocrinology and behavior. Results from animal models, human clinical observations and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant risk to public health.

  11. Information/testing strategy for identification of substances with endocrine disrupting properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Bjerregaard, Poul

    . The overall scope of this project is to provide a science based input to the ongoing work in EU with regard to endocrine disruptors, i.e. the development of criteria for identification, REACH review on EDs and the revised strategy for the future work on endocrine disruptors, focusing on adequate detection......This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CeHoS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build...... and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board...

  12. Spooky Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Lara

    2011-01-01

    This activity presents an option for covering biology content while engaging students in an investigation that highlights the spirit of Halloween. Students are engaged in the story line and have fun trying to solve the mystery kidnapping by using science skills to examine the evidence and eliminate some ghoulish suspects. (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System Print A A ... called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  14. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam De Coster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  15. Novel in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays elucidating the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on thyroid hormone action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.

    2006-01-01

    The last years, both scientific and public concern about the possible threat of compounds in the environment that may affect endocrine functions has increased. Thus far, the majority of endocrine disruptor research has focused on the interference of compounds with the sex hormone homeostasis. Less

  16. In vitro bioassay investigations of the endocrine disrupting potential of steviol glycosides and their metabolite steviol, components of the natural sweetener Stevia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shannon, Maeve; Rehfeld, Anders; Frizzell, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    a steroidal structure and therefore may have the potential to act as an endocrine disruptor in the body. Reporter gene assays (RGAs), H295R steroidogenesis assay and Ca(2+) fluorimetry based assays using human sperm cells have been used to assess the endocrine disrupting potential of two steviol glycosides...... of sperm, causing a rapid influx of Ca(2+). The response was fully inhibited using a specific CatSper inhibitor. These findings highlight the potential for steviol to act as a potential endocrine disruptor....

  17. Analysis of Endocrine Disruption in Southern California Coastal Fish using an Aquatic Multi-Species Microarray

    OpenAIRE

    Michael E. Baker; Ruggeri, Barbara; Sprague, L. James; Eckhardt-Ludka, Colleen; Lapira, Jennifer; Wick, Ivan; Soverchia, Laura; Ubaldi, Massimo; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta Maria; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris; Bay, Steven; Gully, Joseph R.; Jesus A. Reyes; Kevin M Kelley; SCHLENK, DANIEL

    2009-01-01

    Background Endocrine disruptors include plasticizers, pesticides, detergents, and pharmaceuticals. Turbot and other flatfish are used to characterize the presence of chemicals in the marine environment. Unfortunately, there are relatively few genes of turbot and other flatfish in GenBank, which limits the use of molecular tools such as microarrays and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to study disruption of endocrine responses in sentinel fish captured by ...

  18. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Also Govern Effects of Chemicals on the Endocrine System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A.; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Degen, Gisela H.; Dekant, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Daniel; Domingo, Jose L.; Gori, Gio Batta; Greim, Helmuth; Hengstler, Jan G.; Kacew, Sam; Marquardt, Hans; Pelkonen, Olavi; Savolainen, Kai; Vermeulen, Nico P.

    The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be

  19. [Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on birth outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Zee, E; Cornet, P; Lazimi, G; Rondet, C; Lochard, M; Magnier, A M; Ibanez, G

    2013-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors are ubiquitous chemicals contaminants in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Their adverse effects on reproduction are well-documented. There is growing evidence that they can contribute to the current emergence of chronic diseases. Our aim is to assess the relationships between endocrine disruptors and the neonatal health outcomes. Two persons have independently reviewed Medline and Toxline databases about the following pollutants: bisphenol A, phthalates, parabens, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. Only the human epidemiological studies, in general population with an abstract available, published between 2007 January the 1st and 2011 December the 31st, were analysed. The quality of each study was assessed with the Strobe score. Twenty-five out of 680 studies were included in the analysis. All pollutants were widely detected in maternal and new borns samples. Most of the studies have shown associations between bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds and lower birth weight. The effects on gestational age were less documented and have shown no clear connection. Results for phthalates were more ambiguous. Only one non-instructive study was found on parabens. Due to the inherent methological bias on endocrine disruptors research, further additional studies on environmental health must be investigated. It seems necessary to adopt preventive health measures first for vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Endocrine disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day eac...... as endocrine disruptors in vivo, although the profile of action in vivo varies. As ketoconazole is known to implicate numerous endocrine-disrupting effects in humans, the concern for the effects of the other tested azole fungicides in humans is growing.......The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each...

  1. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L

    2012-01-01

    exposures to have potent and irreversible effects. Finally, with regard to the current program designed to detect putative EDC, namely, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, we offer recommendations for strengthening this program through the incorporation of basic endocrine principles to promote......An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variability...... in regulation of these events across the life cycle. The developmental age at which EDC exposures occur is a critical consideration in understanding their effects. Because endocrine systems exhibit tissue-, cell-, and receptor-specific actions during the life cycle, EDC can produce complex, mosaic effects...

  2. Endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Didem; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Erbas, Tomris

    2010-01-01

    To present an overview of the published data on endocrine involvement and endocrine dysfunction in patients with systemic amyloidosis. We conducted a review of the medical literature using MEDLINE data sources, including clinical trials, in vitro studies, and case reports on pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic, adrenal, and gonadal involvement in systemic amyloidosis. Reports of endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis seem to consist primarily of small-samplesize clinical trials or case reports, probably because of the rarity of the disease itself. Systemic amyloidosis mainly involves and causes functional impairment in the thyroid and testes in the endocrine system. Evaluation of adrenal function necessitates special consideration because amyloid infiltration of the adrenal glands resulting in failure may be a life-threatening condition. Amyloid deposition commonly seen in the pituitary gland and the pancreas of patients with Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively, is generally classified as local amyloidosis and should not be confused with systemic involvement. Additionally, detection of amyloid deposition in the thyroid and testes may have a diagnostic role in patients with suspected systemic or renal amyloidosis. Published data suggest that systemic amyloidosis frequently involves the endocrine system, and endocrine dysfunction seems to be not as rare as previously thought. A rapidly growing goiter or symptoms and signs of adrenal or gonadal dysfunction should raise suspicion of amyloid infiltration. Involvement of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic sites in systemic amyloidosis still remains to be clarified. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed for complete characterization of the effect of systemic amyloidosis on the endocrine system.

  3. Can Endocrine disrupters interfere with Ca2+ homeostasis in invertebrate cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Canesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of environmental chemicals have been shown to alter the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. There is increasing evidence that many of these endocrine disruptors (EDs, in particular estrogenic chemicals, can rapidly affect cellular homeostasis and signaling in mammalian Ca2+ systems. In this work, in vitro and in vivo data are summarised on the effects of different compounds known or suspected as EDs on homeostasis in Ca2+ marine invertebrate, the blue mussel Mytilus spp. Both synthetic estrogens and different EDs (DES, BPA, NP, PCB congeners, etc. rapidly increased sytosolic [Ca2+] in mussel hemosytes, as evaluated by FURA2 single cell fluorescence microscopy. The observed [Ca2+] increase was unaffected by the antiestrogen Tamoxifen and was due to either increased influx or release from Ca2+ intracellular stores, depending on the compound. Moreover, different ED,s including the brominated flame retardant TBBPA (tetrabromo bisphenol A induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase (PMCA activity from mussel gills in vitro, this supporting a direct effect on membrane pumps. The in vitro effects of EDs were observed at concentrations generally higher than those of E2. However, in vivo, mussel exposure to environmetal concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA and of the polybrominated diphenyl ether TBDE-47 resulted in large inhibition of PMCA activity in the digestive gland. The results indicate that, in invertebrate like in mammalian systems, interference with Ca2+ homeostasis may represent a significant mode of action of a variety of EDs.

  4. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ... and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. Fact Steroid ...

  5. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  6. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  7. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and obesity development in humans: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, Jeanett; Andersen, Helle Raun; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the literature on the relations between exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities and obesity in humans. The studies generally indicated that exposure to some of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals was associated with an increase in body size in humans. The resu...... predisposing to later weight gain. The study findings suggest that some endocrine disruptors may play a role for the development of the obesity epidemic, in addition to the more commonly perceived putative contributors.......This study reviewed the literature on the relations between exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities and obesity in humans. The studies generally indicated that exposure to some of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals was associated with an increase in body size in humans...

  8. CT-guided biopsy of suspected malignancy: A potential pitfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Henderson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-secreting neuro-endocrine tumours that can arise from sympathetic or parasympathetic tissue. Any manipulation of these tumours, without appropriate medical therapy, can result in excess catecholamine release leading to a catecholamine crisis. Neuro-endocrine tumours must be considered prior to interventional biopsy of an unknown soft-tissue mass, and appropriate biochemical investigations should be performed in suspected cases to prevent catastrophic complications.

  9. Population-relevant endpoints in the evaluation of endocrine-active substances (EAS) for ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Mary S; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Constantine, Lisa; Kloas, Werner; Kumar, Anupama; Lagadic, Laurent; Meador, James; Pickford, Daniel; Schwarz, Tamar; Verslycke, Tim

    2017-03-01

    For ecotoxicological risk assessment, endocrine disruptors require the establishment of an endocrine mode of action (MoA) with a plausible link to a population-relevant adverse effect. Current ecotoxicity test methods incorporate mostly apical endpoints although some also include mechanistic endpoints, subcellular-through-organ level, which can help establish an endocrine MoA. However, the link between these endpoints and adverse population-level effects is often unclear. The case studies of endocrine-active substances (EAS) (tributyltin, ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, trenbolone, propiconazole, and vinclozolin) evaluated from the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Pellston Workshop ® "Ecotoxicological Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" were used to evaluate the population relevance of toxicity endpoints in various taxa according to regulatory endocrine-disruptor frameworks such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Conceptual Framework for Testing and Assessment of Endocrine Disruptors. A wide variety of potentially endocrine-relevant endpoints were identified for mollusks, fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals, although the strength of the relationship between test endpoints and population-level effects was often uncertain. Furthermore, testing alone is insufficient for assessing potential adaptation and recovery processes in exposed populations. For this purpose, models that link effects observed in laboratory tests to the dynamics of wildlife populations appear to be necessary, and their development requires reliable and robust data. As our understanding of endocrine perturbations and key event relationships improves, adverse population-level effects will be more easily and accurately predicted. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:317-330. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of

  10. Endocrine Labomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory endocrinology forms an integral part of 21 st century endocrinology. Perhaps, no other specialty of medicine is as closely associated with laboratory as endocrinology. This review intends to highlight the challenges faced by an endocrinologist before interpreting a hormone assay report. This review by no means is holistic but intends to highlight some of the pitfalls of laboratory endocrinology and arouse further interest in this important but neglected section of endocrinology. Lack of standardization, as well as rigorous implementation is some of the major challenges facing endocrine assays in our country. It is essential to be aware not only of the details of the method of analysis of a hormone, the pre-analytical requisites, but also disease-specific analytical issues to prevent unnecessary concern both for the patient, as well as the treating physician, as well as needless investigations. Problems with interpretation of serum prolactin, thyroglobulin, steroid hormone assays, rennin assay and vitamin-D assay have been highlighted.

  11. Mixture Effects of 3 Mechanistically Different Steroidogenic Disruptors (Prochloraz, Genistein, and Ketoconazole) in the H295R Cell Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Frederik Knud; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Fey, Jennifer Anna

    2015-01-01

    Mixture effects of 3 model endocrine disruptors, prochloraz, ketoconazole, and genistein, on steroidogenesis were tested in the adrenocortical H295R cell line. Seven key steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and 17β-estradiol......Mixture effects of 3 model endocrine disruptors, prochloraz, ketoconazole, and genistein, on steroidogenesis were tested in the adrenocortical H295R cell line. Seven key steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and 17β......-estradiol) were analyzed using gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) to investigate the effects throughout the steroidogenic pathway. Current modeling approaches often rely on models assuming compounds acting independently and that the individual effects in some way can be summarized...... to predict a mixture effect. In H295R cells with an intact steroidogenic pathway, such assumptions may not be feasible. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate whether effects of a mixture with differing modes of action followed or deviated from additivity (concentration addition) and whether...

  12. Mechanisms Mediating Environmental Chemical-Induced Endocrine Disruption in the Adrenal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel B Martinez-Arguelles; Vassilios ePapadopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs), mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early-life exposure leaves a finge...

  13. Challenges in assigning endocrine-specific modes of action: Recommendations for researchers and regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Schäfers, Christoph; Dreier, David A; Hecker, Markus; Ortego, Lisa; Kawashima, Yukio; Dang, Zhi-Chao; Solomon, Keith

    2017-03-01

    As regulatory programs evaluate substances for their endocrine-disrupting properties, careful study design and data interpretation are needed to distinguish between responses that are truly endocrine specific and those that are not. This is particularly important in regulatory environments where criteria are under development to identify endocrine-disrupting properties to enable hazard-based regulation. Irrespective of these processes, most jurisdictions use the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety definition of an endocrine disruptor, requiring that a substance is demonstrated to cause a change in endocrine function that consequently leads to an adverse effect in an intact organism. Such a definition is broad, and at its most cautious might capture many general mechanisms that would not specifically denote an endocrine disruptor. In addition, endocrine responses may be adaptive in nature, designed to maintain homeostasis rather than induce an irreversible adverse effect. The likelihood of indirect effects is increased in (eco)toxicological studies that require the use of maximum tolerated concentrations or doses, which must produce some adverse effect. The misidentification of indirect effects as truly endocrine mediated has serious consequences for prompting animal- and resource-intensive testing and regulatory consequences. To minimize the risk for misidentification, an objective and transparent weight-of-evidence procedure based on biological plausibility, essentiality, and empirical evidence of key events in an adverse outcome pathway is recommended to describe the modes of action that may be involved in toxic responses in nontarget organisms. Confounding factors such as systemic toxicity, general stress, and infection can add complexity to such an evaluation and should be considered in the weight of evidence. A recommended set of questions is proffered to help guide researchers and regulators in discerning endocrine and

  14. Landscape structure and management alter the outcome of a pesticide ERA: evaluating impacts of endocrine disruption using the ALMaSS European Brown Hare model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Dalby, Lars; Skov, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    , and indeed how to generate such landscapes. This paper evaluates the contribution of landscape and farming components to a model based risk assessment of a fictitious endocrine disruptor on hares. In addition, we present methods and code examples for generation of landscape structures and farming simulation...

  15. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Endometrial Cancer: An Overview of Recent Laboratory Evidence and Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, Maddalena; Leone, Chiara; Manurita, Francesca; Bellati, Filippo; Caserta, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women’s health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological cancer. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between EDCs and endometrial cancer, however, in the last years the number of these studies has increased. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed and relevant articles published in the last 23 years (from 1992 to 2016) were selected. Results: Human studies and animal experiments are confirming a carcinogenic effect due to the EDC exposure and its carcinogenesis process result to be complex, multifactorial and long standing, thus, it is extremely difficult to obtain the epidemiological proof of a carcinogenic effect of EDCs for the high number of confusing factors. Conclusions: The carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors are plausible, although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and responsible entities. Neverthless, to reduce endocrine disruptors (ED) exposure is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as embryonic period and puberty. PMID:28327540

  16. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-09-14

    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites.

  17. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models. © 2010

  18. Endocrine Treatment of Transsexual Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ... About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  19. Endocrine disruption: fact or urban legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Borgert, Christopher J; Dietrich, Daniel; Rozman, Karl K

    2013-12-16

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances that cause adverse health effects via endocrine-mediated mechanisms in an intact organism or its progeny or (sub) populations. Purported EDCs in personal care products include 4-MBC (UV filter) or parabens that showed oestrogenic activity in screening tests, although regulatory toxicity studies showed no adverse effects on reproductive endpoints. Hormonal potency is the key issue of the safety of EDCs. Oestrogen-based drugs, e.g. the contraceptive pill or the synthetic oestrogen DES, possess potencies up to 7 orders of magnitude higher than those of PCP ingredients; yet, in utero exposure to these drugs did not adversely affect fertility or sexual organ development of offspring unless exposed to extreme doses. Additive effects of EDs are unlikely due to the multitude of mechanisms how substances may produce a hormone-like activity; even after uptake of different substances with a similar mode of action, the possibility of additive effects is reduced by different absorption, metabolism and kinetics. This is supported by a number of studies on mixtures of chemical EDCs. Overall, despite of 20 years of research a human health risk from exposure to low concentrations of exogenous chemical substances with weak hormone-like activities remains an unproven and unlikely hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Human HNP36 Gene Is Localized to Chromosome 11q13 and Produces Alternative Transcripts That Are Not Mutated in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Type 1 (MEN I) Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, John B; Rexer, Brent; Sirripurapu, Sarada; John, Sutha; Goldstein, Richard; Phillips, John A; Haley, Linda L; Sait, Shiela N.J; Shows, Thomas B; Smith, Carissa M; Gerhard, Daniela S

    1997-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 (MEN I), is an autosomal dominant syndrome of selected endocrine neoplasms whose causative gene, a suspected tumor suppressor, has been localized to chromosome 11q13, but has not been identified...

  1. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furtado, C M; von Mühlen, C

    2015-01-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment...

  2. 75 FR 70557 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... accordance with accepted scientific methodology or protocol, including but not limited to those presented in... an accepted scientific methodology or protocol, and any other information relevant to a decision to... chemicals. Scientific research and development services (NAICS code 5417), e.g., persons who conduct testing...

  3. Steroid levels in crinoid echinoderms are altered by exposure to model endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado, Ramón; Barbaglio, Alice; Carnevali, M Daniela Candia; Porte, Cinta

    2006-06-01

    Sexual steroids (testosterone and estradiol) were measured in the whole body of wild specimens of the crinoid Antedon mediterranea collected from the Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). Testosterone levels (274-1,488 pg/g wet weight (w.w.)) were higher than those of estradiol (60-442 pg/g w.w.) and no significant differences between males and females were observed. No clear seasonal trend was either detected - individuals from February, June and October 2004 analyzed - apart from a peak of estradiol in males in autumn. Nonetheless, dramatic changes on tissue steroid levels were observed when individuals were exposed to model androgenic and anti-androgenic compounds for 2 and 4 weeks. The selected compounds were 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (17 alpha-MT), triphenyltin (TPT), fenarimol (FEN), cyproterone acetate (CPA), and p,p'-DDE. Endogenous testosterone levels were significantly increased after exposure to 17 alpha-MT, TPT and FEN, while different responses were observed for estradiol; 17 alpha-MT and FEN increased endogenous estradiol (up to seven-fold), and TPT lead to a significant decrease. Concerning the anti-androgenic compounds, CPA significantly reduced testosterone in a dose-dependent manner without altering estradiol levels, whereas specimens exposed to p,p'-DDE at a low dose (24 ng/L) for 4 weeks showed a four-fold increase in T levels. Overall, the data show the ability of the selected compounds to alter endogenous steroid concentrations in A. mediterranea, and suggest the existence in this echinoderm species of vertebrate-like mechanisms that can be affected by exposure to androgenic and anti-androgenic chemicals.

  4. Speciation, Phenotypic Variation and Plasticity: What Can Endocrine Disruptors Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-García, Braulio; López-Santibáñez Guevara, Marta; Marcos-Camacho, Lluvia I.; Fuentes-Farías, Alma L.; Meléndez-Herrera, Esperanza; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Phenotype variability, phenotypic plasticity, and the inheritance of phenotypic traits constitute the fundamental ground of processes such as individuation, individual and species adaptation and ultimately speciation. Even though traditional evolutionary thinking relies on genetic mutations as the main source of intra- and interspecies phenotypic variability, recent studies suggest that the epigenetic modulation of gene transcription and translation, epigenetic memory, and epigenetic inheritance are by far the most frequent reliable sources of transgenerational variability among viable individuals within and across organismal species. Therefore, individuation and speciation should be considered as nonmutational epigenetic phenomena. PMID:23762055

  5. Effects of Endocrine Disruptor Exposure on Mammary Gland Development and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Durando, Milena de Lourdes

    2009-01-01

    Los perturbadores endocrinos (PE) son sustancias que alteran las funciones del sistema endocrino provocando efectos adversos en la salud de un organismo intacto o su progenie. Bisfenol A (BPA), es un PE liberado de selladores odontológicos, envases de bebidas y alimentos. En roedores, la exposición prenatal a BPA produjo efectos profundos y duraderos en tejidos hormonodependientes. La exposición a dosis bajas de BPA durante períodos críticos de organogénesis/diferenciación genera c...

  6. Assessment of the analgesic dipyrone as a possible (anti)androgenic endocrine disruptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, Marcella Tapias; Kristensen, Maja Nørgaard; Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Woitkowiak, Claudia; Boareto, Ana Claudia; da Silva Amaral, Bruna Andreotti; Grechi, Nicole; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto; Munkboel, Cecilie Hurup; Styrishave, Bjarne; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Gomes, Caroline; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Martino-Andrade, Anderson Joel

    2017-12-28

    Mild analgesics have been associated with antiandrogenic effects, but there are no such studies on dipyrone, despite its high prevalence of use in many countries. We examined the production of steroid hormones in human H295R cells after exposure to dipyrone and two metabolites, 4-Methylaminoantipyrine (MAA) and 4-Aminoantipyrine (AA), as well as fetal testicular testosterone production in rats following maternal dipyrone exposure. Androgen agonistic/antagonistic effects were examined in vitro for dipyrone and its metabolites in the Yeast Androgen Screen (YAS) assay and in vivo for dipyrone through the Hershberger assay. In vitro we tested dipyrone, MAA, and AA (0.1-1000 μM) while in vivo we used dipyrone (50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day). In the H295R assay, dipyrone, MAA and AA reduced the production of androgens and corticosteroids. Testosterone was reduced at concentrations 4-13 times higher than the maximum plasma concentrations reported in humans for MAA and AA. No effects were observed in the fetal testosterone production assay. In the YAS and Hershberger assays, no androgen agonistic/antagonistic activities were observed. These results indicate that dipyrone and its metabolites do not interact with the androgen receptor, but have the potential to inhibit steroidogenesis, however only at concentrations that are not relevant under normal medical use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 75 FR 70248 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Second List of Chemicals for Tier 1 Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Triflumizole 68694-11-1 X FY 2007 Trinexapac-ethyl 95266-40-3 X FY 2008 Triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH) 76-87-9 X... FY 2007 Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 71283-80-2 X FY 2007 Fenoxycarb 72490-01-8 X FY 2007 Flumetsulam 98967-40...-4 X FY 2008 Quinoline 91-22-5 X Quizalofop-P-ethyl 100646-51-3 X FY 2008 RDX 121-82-4 X sec...

  8. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... orders (Data Call-Ins) to companies that manufacture or import any of the following nine chemicals...). In response to the test orders, companies have agreed to develop data and have asserted data... their use as inert ingredients in pesticide products. EPA is, however, offering an opportunity for...

  9. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in South Korean surface, drinking, and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang D; Cho, Jaeweon; Kim, In S; Vanderford, Brett J; Snyder, Shane A

    2007-03-01

    Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was used to measure the concentrations of 14 pharmaceuticals, 6 hormones, 2 antibiotics, 3 personal care products (PCPs), and 1 flame retardant in surface waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents in South Korea. Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), iopromide, naproxen, carbamazepine, and caffeine were quite frequently observed (>80%) in both surface waters and effluents. The analytes of greatest concentration were iopromide, TCEP, sulfamethoxazole, and carbamazepine. However, the primary estrogen hormones, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol and 17beta-estradiol, were rarely detected, while estrone was detected in both surface water and wastewater effluent. The elimination of these chemicals during drinking water and wastewater treatment processes at full- and pilot-scale also was investigated. Conventional drinking water treatment methods were relatively inefficient for contaminant removal, while efficient removal (approximately equal to 99%) was achieved by granular activated carbon (GAC). In wastewater treatment processes, membrane bioreactors (MBR) showed limited target compound removal, but were effective at eliminating hormones and some pharmaceuticals (e.g., acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and caffeine). Membrane filtration processes using reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) showed excellent removal (>95%) for all target analytes.

  10. Endocrine disruptors and dental materials: health implications associated with their use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho Antonio Jorge Molinário

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes international historical trends in the use of different types of materials in dental practice. The author describes the chemical properties of their ingredients and the potential and observed adverse effects in patients and dental technicians resulting from clinical or occupational exposure to various metals like beryllium, used to produce metal alloys. The growing use of various products (resin cements, ionomer cements, aesthetic restorative materials, resins, endodontal cements, and others based on the compound bisphenol-A, whose chemical structure is similar to that of estrogen. Considering the demographic and contemporary work force characteristics of those involved in dental practice in the Brazil, the study highlights the possible effect of the use of these materials in both male and female patients and all age strata, as well as in health professionals with occupational exposure to products containing bisphenol-A.

  11. Food intolerance at adulthood after perinatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Sandrine; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Leveque, Mathilde; Braniste, Viorica; Lencina, Corinne; Naturel, Manon; Moussa, Lara; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Gaultier, Eric; Theodorou, Vassilia; Houdeau, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The food contaminant bisphenol A (BPA) is pointed out as a risk factor in development of food allergy and food intolerance, two adverse food reactions increasing worldwide. We evaluated the consequences of perinatal exposure to low doses of BPA on immune-specific response to the food antigen ovalbumin (OVA) at adulthood. Perinatal exposure to BPA (0.5, 5, or 50 μg/kg/d) from 15th day of gravidity to pups weaning resulted in an increase of anti-OVA IgG titers at all BPA dosages in OVA-tolerized rats, and at 5 μg/kg/d in OVA-immunized rats compared to control rats treated with vehicle. In BPA-treated and OVA-tolerized rats, increased anti-OVA IgG titers were associated with higher IFNγ secretion by the spleen. This result is in accordance with the increase of activated CD4(+)CD44(high)CD62L(low) T lymphocytes observed in spleen of BPA-exposed rats compared to controls. Finally, when BPA-treated OVA-tolerized rats were orally challenged with OVA, colonic inflammation occurred, with neutrophil infiltration, increased IFNγ, and decreased TGFβ. We show that perinatal exposure to BPA altered oral tolerance and immunization to dietary antigens (OVA). In summary, the naive immune system of neonate is vulnerable to low doses of BPA that trigger food intolerance later in life. © FASEB.

  12. Effects of different endocrine disruptor (EDC) mixtures on gene expression in neonatal rat brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Sexual brain differentiation is a potential EDC target. It depends on a combination of estrogen receptor- and androgen receptor-mediated effects in males and on estrogens in females. It is not known how these processes are affected by real-world mixtures of EDCs. We investigated the effect of thr...

  13. Photolytic destruction of endocrine disruptor atrazine in aqueous solution under UV irradiation: Products and pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang Shaogui, E-mail: yangdlut@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Guo Yaping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Sun Cheng, E-mail: envidean@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Gu Chenggang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu Bin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2009-12-30

    The ultraviolet (UV) photolysis of atrazine in aqueous solution was investigated at wavelength of 254 nm in this study. This paper was mainly focused on the identification of atrazine degradation intermediates by HPLC-MS/MS and its degradation mechanisms. The photodegradation products included the following seven classes: dechloro-hydroxylated products, chloro-dealkylated products, dechloro-dealkylated products, alkylic-oxidated products, delamination-hydroxylated products, olefinic products, and dechloro-hydrogenated products which were never reported in direct photolytic process, 4-isopropylamino-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (IEST), 4,6-dihydroxy-s-triazine (OOST). The main degradation products were 2-hydroxy-4-acetamido-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (OIET), 2-chloro-4-isopropyl-amino-6-methylamino-s-triazine (CIMT), 2-chloro-4,6-divinylamino-s-triazine (CVVT), 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-amino-s-triazine(CEAT), 2-methoxy-4-isopropyl-amino-6-methylamino-s-triazine (OIMT), 2-hydroxy-4-acetamindo-6-ethylamino-s-triazine (ODET), etc. Finally, the possible degradation mechanism was also proposed here.

  14. Obesogenic effects of endocrine disruptors, what do we know from animal and human studies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Cock, M.; van de Bor, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hormonal actions and activation of receptors involved in adipogenesis and brain development during the prenatal period may be affected by exposure to certain chemicals. Experimental studies have shown that amongst others polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153 and

  15. Effects of two endocrine disruptors Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development of Rana Temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    to complete phenotypic sex reversal. The effect of the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol and the aromatase-inhibiting fungicide prochloraz on sexual differentiation in Rana temporaria, a species exhibiting natural juvenile hermaphroditism, was investigated. Prochloraz caused an increase in the percentage......  Effects of Prochloraz and Ethinylestradiol on development in Rana temporaria   The ontogeny of most amphibians is characterized by a large degree of sexual plasticity and sex steroids play an important role in the final differentiation of the gonads. One consequence of this plasticity...... is that exposure of frogs to estrogen or androgen agonists or antagonists, or compounds that block specific steroidogenic enzymes, during the sensitive periods of sex differentiation can result in individuals developing incomplete gonads of the gender opposite to that of their genotype, sometimes even leading...

  16. UV-C photolysis of endocrine disruptors. The influence of inorganic peroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Javier, E-mail: fjrivas@unex.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gimeno, Olga; Borralho, Teresa; Carbajo, Maria [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Avenida de Elvas S/N, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Norfloxacin, doxycycline and mefenamic acid have been photolysed with UV-C radiation (254 nm) in the presence and absence of inorganic peroxides (hydrogen peroxide or sodium monopersulfate). Quantum yields in the range (1.1-4.5) x 10{sup -3} mol Einstein{sup -1} indicate the low photo-reactivity of these pharmaceuticals. Inorganic peroxides considerably enhanced the contaminants conversion, although no appreciable mineralization could be obtained. A simplistic reaction mechanism for the hydrogen peroxide promoted experiments allowed for a rough estimation of the rate constant between hydroxyl radicals and norfloxacin (k > 1 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}), doxycycline (k > 1.5 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and mefenamic acid (k > 11.0 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}).

  17. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Universe of Chemicals and General Validation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document was developed by the EPA to provide guidance to staff and managers regarding the EDSP universe of chemicals and general validation principles for consideration of computational toxicology tools for chemical prioritization.

  18. 77 FR 12297 - Petition To Demonstrate Paperwork Reduction Act Compliance of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... (subject heading, Federal Register date and page number). ii. Follow directions. The Agency may ask you to...-HQ-OPP-2012-0061, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP...

  19. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  20. The EDKB: an established knowledge base for endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Don; Xu, Lei; Fang, Hong; Hong, Huixiao; Perkins, Roger; Harris, Steve; Bearden, Edward D; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida

    2010-10-07

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) and their broad range of potential adverse effects in humans and other animals have been a concern for nearly two decades. Many putative EDs are widely used in commercial products regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) such as food packaging materials, ingredients of cosmetics, medical and dental devices, and drugs. The Endocrine Disruptor Knowledge Base (EDKB) project was initiated in the mid 1990's by the FDA as a resource for the study of EDs. The EDKB database, a component of the project, contains data across multiple assay types for chemicals across a broad structural diversity. This paper demonstrates the utility of EDKB database, an integral part of the EDKB project, for understanding and prioritizing EDs for testing. The EDKB database currently contains 3,257 records of over 1,800 EDs from different assays including estrogen receptor binding, androgen receptor binding, uterotropic activity, cell proliferation, and reporter gene assays. Information for each compound such as chemical structure, assay type, potency, etc. is organized to enable efficient searching. A user-friendly interface provides rapid navigation, Boolean searches on EDs, and both spreadsheet and graphical displays for viewing results. The search engine implemented in the EDKB database enables searching by one or more of the following fields: chemical structure (including exact search and similarity search), name, molecular formula, CAS registration number, experiment source, molecular weight, etc. The data can be cross-linked to other publicly available and related databases including TOXNET, Cactus, ChemIDplus, ChemACX, Chem Finder, and NCI DTP. The EDKB database enables scientists and regulatory reviewers to quickly access ED data from multiple assays for specific or similar compounds. The data have been used to categorize chemicals according to potential risks for endocrine activity, thus providing a basis for prioritizing chemicals for more

  1. A Two-Tiered-Testing Decision Tree for Assays in the USEPA-EDSP Screening Battery: Using 15 years of Experience to Improve Screening and Testing for Endocrine Active Chemicals##

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a brief description of the oral presentation given by Dr LE Gray Jr at the meeting for the T4 workshop report-Lessons learned, challenges, ansd opportunities: The U.S. Endocrine Disruptor Scrrening Program published in the journal ALTEX, edited by the Swiss Societ...

  2. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spikes Is mealtime insulin right for you? The Endocrine System Access more 3D visualizations by downloading the Hormone ... Endocrinologist Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  3. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search The Endocrine System Access more 3D visualizations by downloading the Hormone ... About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  4. Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 4 of 4 Items. 2013. Vol 7, No 1 ...

  5. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The endocrine quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  7. Application of biotests for the characterization of exposure pathways for endocrine disrupters from plastics; Anwendung von Biotests zur Charakterisierung der Expositionspfade fuer Umwelthormone aus Kunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Joerg [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abteilung Aquatische Oekotoxikologie

    2011-12-15

    The present project aims to characterise the exposure pathways for endocrine disruptors from plastic materials. A bioassay-based approach was employed to investigate and characterise the endocrine activity. Migration studies with food packaging and plastic preforms document the leaching of estrogen-like compounds from several types of plastic in the Yeast Estrogen Screen and the E-Screen. Additionally, anti-estrogenic activity was predominant in many samples. The detection of complex migration profiles provides evidence for the leaching of several, diverse-acting endocrine disruptors. Moreover, extracts of plastic food packaging exhibited agonistic activity on the estrogen receptor, retinoid X receptor, and vitamin D receptor. A theoretical exposure assessment for marine molluscs implies that endocrine disruptors from plastic might induce relevant effect in the environment. Within the exemplary investigation of bottled mineral water, 60% of the products were characterised as significantly estrogenic using the YES and E-Screen. These in vitro data point to the plastic packaging being one source of estrogenic contamination. An in vivo study employing the estrogen-sensitive model organism Potamopyrgus antipodarum supports this hypothesis. By using several analytical techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS/MS) we identified several well-known endocrine disruptors in bottled water and the plastic material, e.g. numerous phthalates and phenols. Moreover, potent antagonists of the estrogen and androgen receptor were extracted from bottled water. In a non-target analysis (Orbitrap-MS) a compound with the exact mass of 363.1992 [M+H{sup +}] correlated highly significantly with the biological activity. On the basis of the methods optimised and applied within the project we elaborated a set of aspects that are crucial for the applicability of bioassays to characterise the endocrine activity of complex samples. Employing a bioassay-based approach we provide evidence for the presence and

  8. Endocrine disrupting chemicals research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: summary of a peer-review report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Anna K.; Daston, George P.; Boyd, Glen R.; Lucier, George W.; Safe, Stephen H.; Stewart, Juarine; Tillitt, Donald E.; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2006-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development, a subcommittee of the Board of Scientific Counselors Executive Committee conducted an independent and open peer review of the Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research Program (EDC Research Program) of the U.S. EPA. The subcommittee was charged with reviewing the design, relevance, progress, scientific leadership, and resources of the program. The subcommittee found that the long-term goals and science questions in the EDC Program are appropriate and represent an understandable and solid framework for setting research priorities, representing a combination of problem-driven and core research. Long-term goal (LTG) 1, dealing with the underlying science surrounding endocrine disruptors, provides a solid scientific foundation for conducting risk assessments and making risk management decisions. LTG 2, dealing with defining the extent of the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has shown greater progress on ecologic effects of EDCs compared with that on human health effects. LTG 3, which involves support of the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program of the U.S. EPA, has two mammalian tests already through a validation program and soon available for use. Despite good progress, we recommend that the U.S. EPA a) strengthen their expertise in wildlife toxicology, b) expedite validation of the Endocrine Disruptors Screening and Testing Advisory Committee tests, c) continue dependable funding for the EDC Research Program, d) take a leadership role in the application of “omics” technologies to address many of the science questions critical for evaluating environmental and human health effects of EDCs, and e) continue to sponsor multidisciplinary intramural research and interagency collaborations.

  9. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    hormones and their precursors across the foeto-maternal interface. The endocrine system is the earliest system developing in foetal life, and it is functional from early intrauterine existence through old age. Regulation of the foetal endocrine system relies, to some extent, on precursors secreted......The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  10. Inhibition of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy of Osteoarthritis by Disruptor Peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ultimate human subject testing. 2. KEYWORDS: Osteoarthritis Parathyroid hormone-related protein PTH receptor -catenin Cell signaling...To further verify our results, we will repeat the experiments with mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to chondrocytes...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0325 TITLE: Inhibition of Chondrocyte Hypertrophy of Osteoarthritis by Disruptor Peptide PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bin

  11. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  12. Endocrine system: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  13. Pediatric glaucoma suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooner K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Karanjit Kooner,1 Matthew Harrison,1 Zohra Prasla,1 Mohannad Albdour,1 Beverley Adams-Huet21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: To report demographic and ocular features of pediatric glaucoma suspects in an ethnically diverse population of North Central Texas.Design: Retrospective cross-sectional chart review.Participants: Subjects included 75 (136 eyes pediatric glaucoma suspects. Patients with one or more of the following risk factors were included: cup-to disc (C/D ratio of ≥0.6; intraocular pressure (IOP ≥21 mmHg; family history of glaucoma; congenital glaucoma in the opposite eye; history of blunt trauma to either eye; and presence of either Sturge–Weber or Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome, or oculodermal melanocytosis.Methods: Data were extracted from electronic patient medical records. Patient records with incomplete data were excluded. The main outcome measures were race, sex, age, IOP, C/D, family history of glaucoma; and glaucoma treatment.Results: Subjects included 28 (37.3% Hispanics, 20 (26.6% African Americans, 20 (26.6% Caucasians, and seven (9.3% Asians. Forty (53.3% of the patients were male. Suspicious optic disc was seen in 57 (76%; elevated IOP in 25 (33.3%; presence of family history in 13 (17.3%, and Sturge–Weber syndrome in nine (12% patients. The average C/D ratio was 0.58±0.2. The C/D ratios of African American (0.65±0.2, Hispanic (0.63±0.2, and Asian (0.62±0.15 patients were significantly greater than those of Caucasians (0.43±0.18; P=0.0004, 0.0003, and 0.0139, respectively. Caucasian patients were the youngest (7.9±4.8 years. Eleven cases (14.7% required medication.Conclusion: Thirty-three point seven percent of patients seen in the glaucoma clinic were glaucoma suspects. The most common risk factors for suspected glaucoma were suspicious optic discs, elevated IOP, and family history

  14. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing....... To improve knowledge on possible influences of endocrine disrupters on female reproductive system, the effects of EDCs on genital malformations in females and the development of mammary glands were studied in the present project. AIMS: The aims for the studies on male and female mammary gland development...... effects on prepubertal female rat mammary glands were observed at lower levels than those affecting other endpoints studied. CONCLUSION: The present findings in rats suggest that EDCs may affect mammary gland development in women and men, although risk assessment including comparison with exposure...

  15. The effect of perinatal exposure to ethinyl oestradiol or a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides on kisspeptin neurons in the rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Holst, Klaus; Mandrup, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disruptors is considered to disturb normal development of hormone sensitive parameters and contribute to advanced puberty and reduced fecundity in humans. Kisspeptin is a positive regulator of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, and plays a key role...... exposure to a pesticide mixture in this experimental setting. However, we find that the pesticide mancozeb tends to increase Kiss1 expression in the ARC, presumably through neurotoxic mechanisms rather than via classical endocrine disruption, calling for increased awareness that Kiss1 expression can...

  16. Refinement of the ECETOC approach to identify endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Weyers, Arnd; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

    2013-12-16

    To use and implement an assessment scheme for the evaluation of endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals in ecotoxicology, the types of effect need to be agreed. Effects that merit further consideration in this context should fulfil the following three criteria: caused by an endocrine mode of action, be adverse, and be relevant at the population level to reflect the protection goal of ecotoxicological assessments. Thereafter, a comparison of effect values, regardless of the causative mechanisms, should be made, firstly to determine if endocrine toxicity generates the lowest endpoint within a taxon, and secondly if it is the lowest endpoint compared to that of other taxa living in the same compartment. These comparisons inform on two levels of specificity and determine if endocrine-mediated side-effects determine the ecotoxicological profile of a chemical. Various quantitative measures for the assessment of potency are also presented, which could assist in determining how to handle substances in the risk assessment when a regulatory concern is identified. Finally, derogation criteria should be defined for compounds that were designed as endocrine disruptors for non-vertebrates and those for which there is 'negligible exposure'. This paper discusses and provides proposals on how to apply these concepts for assessment of substances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000399.htm Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed ...

  18. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU......). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...... disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish...

  19. Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Biological and Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disruptor compounds (EDCs can mimic natural hormones and produce adverse effects in the endocrine functions by interacting with estrogen receptors. EDCs include both natural and synthetic chemicals, such as hormones, personal care products, surfactants, and flame retardants, among others. EDCs are characterised by their ubiquitous presence at trace-level concentrations and their wide diversity. Since the discovery of the adverse effects of these pollutants on wildlife and human health, analytical methods have been developed for their qualitative and quantitative determination. In particular, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. This paper reviews recently published analytical methodologies for the sample preparation and for the determination of these compounds in different environmental and biological matrices by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The various sample preparation techniques are compared and discussed. In addition, recent developments and advances in this field are presented.

  20. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between

  1. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Special Needs Glasses and Contact Lenses Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System Print A A A en español Tu sistema ... a pea, is the "master gland" of the endocrine system. It makes and releases a bunch of hormones ...

  2. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal accepts original contributions related to the practice and science of clinical endocrinology, articles updating the clinical endocrinologist on current areas of interest in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, articles discussing dilemma facing endocrinologists in the clinical, social, and ethical arena of ...

  4. Endocrine Drugs in Aircrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    intracellular inflammatory action of corticosteroids, the and extracellular communication. The site of action contraceptive action of gonadal steroids...complications occur have results in the disappearance of weakness, malaise allowed more effective methods of prevention and and fatigue. Anorexia and...disease * Osteoporosis "* Pancreatitis * Myopathy Endocrine-Metabolic Neuropsychiatric "* latrogenic Cushing * Psychosis "* Acne, hirsutism, menstrual

  5. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating disorders: obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. In: Wilson JD, Foster ... Original Articles should be restricted to clinical or basic studies, particularly translational research, which add new information to the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of endocrine disorders that have not been published previously.

  6. Introduction to the science and regulation concerning endocrine disrupting chemicals: the challenges ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Leopold, Annegaaike; Kraak, Glen Van Der; Manibusan, Mary K.; Andersson, Niklas; Wheeler, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Presentations in session one of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America Focused Topic Meeting: Endocrine Disruption (February 4 – 6, 2014) described where the science and the regulations have arrived and identified the key challenges that lie ahead. The first presentation gave an overview of where the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) issue currently stands in terms of science and policy. It introduced the significant debate about whether suspected EDCs s...

  7. Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Angelousi, Anna; Weickert, Martin O; Randeva, Harpal S; Kaltsas, Gregory; Grossman, Ashley

    2017-06-01

    The majority of neoplasms are responsible for symptoms caused by mass effects to surrounding tissues and/or through the development of metastases. However, occasionally neoplasms, with or without endocrine differentiation, acquire the ability to secrete a variety of bioactive substances or induce immune cross-reactivity with the normal tissues that can lead to the development of characteristic clinical syndromes. These syndromes are named endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes when the specific secretory components (hormones, peptides or cytokines) are unrelated to the anticipated tissue or organ of origin. Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes can complicate the patient's clinical course, response to treatment, impact prognosis and even be confused as metastatic spread. These syndromes can precede, occur concomitantly or present at a later stage of tumour development, and along with the secreted substances constitute the biological 'fingerprint' of the tumour. Their detection can facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying neoplasia, monitor response to treatment and/or detect early recurrences following successful initial management. Although when associated with tumours of low malignant potential they usually do not affect long-term outcome, in cases of highly malignant tumours, endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes are usually associated with poorer survival outcomes. Recent medical advances have not only improved our understanding of paraneoplastic syndrome pathogenesis in general but also enhanced their diagnosis and treatment. Yet, given the rarity of endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes, there is a paucity of prospective clinical trials to guide management. The development of well-designed prospective multicentre trials remains a priority in the field in order to fully characterise these syndromes and provide evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Technology and the Glaucoma Suspect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumberg, Dana M; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Garg, Reena; Chen, Cynthia; Theventhiran, Alex; Hood, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    ...), stereoscopic disc photographs, and automated perimetry as assessed by a group of glaucoma specialists in differentiating individuals with early glaucoma from suspects. Forty-six eyes (46 patients...

  9. Zearalenone endocrine system catch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bursić Vojislava P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the contamination of our environment with thousands of both natural and man-made chemicals which affect the endocrine system of humans and animals. These so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are thought to mimic or block the action of hormones and therefore disrupt sexual development in utero. EDCs are organochlorine pesticides, dioxin compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, alkylpolyethoxylates, plastic additives and phytoestrogens (occurring naturally in foods: isoflavones coumenestans and zearalenone. The structure of zearalenone is similar to the structure of estrogens and it enables binding to the estrogenic receptors. DNA laddering on gel electrophoresis was present 12 h after dosing thus indicating a conclusion that there was apoptosis. Apoptosis is the principal mechanism contributing to germ cell depletion and testicular atrophy following zearalenone exposure.

  10. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  11. Cadmium in the Umtata River and the associated health impact of on rural communities who are primary users of water from the river

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fatoki, OS

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available suspected of having mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects (Fischer, 1987; Kazantzis, 1987) and recently it has been classified as an endocrine disruptor. Studies have also shown that the offspring of animals exposed to Cd during pregnancy...

  12. Environmental epigenomics: Current approaches to assess epigenetic effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC's) on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Orozco, Natalia; Santiago-Toledo, Gerardo; Barrón, Valeria; Espinosa-García, Ana María; García-García, José Antonio; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2017-04-01

    Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders. Conventional detection of EDCs is based on chemical structure and concentration sample analysis. However, substantial evidence has emerged, suggesting that cell exposure to EDCs leads to epigenetic changes, independently of its chemical structure with non-monotonic low-dose responses. Consequently, a paradigm shift in toxicology assessment of EDCs is proposed based on a comprehensive review of analytical techniques used to evaluate the epigenetic effects. Fundamental insights reported elsewhere are compared in order to establish DNA methylation analysis as a viable method for assessing endocrine disruptors beyond the conventional study approach of chemical structure and concentration analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lavado, Ramon [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Thibaut, Remi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, F-76058 Le Havre (France); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es

    2006-05-15

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period.

  14. Proteomic response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii hepatopancreas exposed to chlordecone: Identification of endocrine disruption biomarkers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Baiwir, Dominique; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; De Pauw, Edwin; Lemoine, Soazig; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Gismondi, Eric

    2017-07-01

    The present work is the first study investigating the impacts of chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, on the proteome of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by gel-free proteomic analysis. The hepatopancreas protein expression variations were analysed in organisms exposed to three environmental relevant concentrations of chlordecone (i.e. 0.2, 2 and 20µg/L). Results revealed that 62 proteins were significantly up- or down-regulated in exposed prawns compared to controls. Most of these proteins are involved in important physiological processes such as ion transport, defense mechanisms and immune system, cytoskeleton dynamics, or protein synthesis and degradation. Moreover, it appears that 6% of the deregulated protein are involved in the endocrine system and in the hormonal control of reproduction or development processes of M. rosenbergii (e.g. vitellogenin, farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase). These results indicate that chlordecone is potentially an endocrine disruptor compound for decapods, as already observed in vertebrates. These protein modifications could lead to disruptions of M. rosenbergii growth and reproduction, and therefore of the fitness population on the long-term. Besides, these disrupted proteins could be suggested as biomarkers of exposure for endocrine disruptions in invertebrates. However, further investigations are needed to complete understanding of action mechanisms of chlordecone on proteome and endocrine system of crustaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hand and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Ryndak, Amélie; Karrouz, Wassila; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Baudoux, Florence

    2013-12-01

    The whole of hormones likely influence state of hands, modifying colouring and trophicity of the skin and having influence on its muscular, tendineous, osseous, articular components. Thus state of the hands contributes to the recognition of the endocrine diseases: hot and moist hands of the Graves' disease, dry, cold and infiltrated hands in myxoedema, pale and fine hands of hypopituitarism, broad and thick hand of acromegaly, brachymetacarpia in the pseudohypoparathyroidism… Diabetes exposes particularly to tendineous and articular retractions, to whitlows and ungual mycosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Women's Health Endocrine Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Ekta; Faubion, Stephanie; Hines, Stephanie; Stuenkel, Cynthia A

    2017-11-07

    The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice changing journal articles summarized for our readers. Topics include menopause, sexual dysfunction, breast health, contraception, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this clinical update, we selected four recent high-impact publications related to endocrine issues in women. We have chosen to highlight research on subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including cognitive outcomes in offspring; the progression of metabolic syndrome severity during the menopausal transition; and the association of diabetes and metformin use with cancer risk and mortality.

  17. Germline CDKN1B/p27Kip1 mutation in multiple endocrine neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgitsi, Marianthi; Raitila, Anniina; Karhu, Auli; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Sane, Timo; Vierimaa, Outi; Mäkinen, Markus J.; Tuppurainen, Karoliina; Paschke, Ralph; Gimm, Oliver; Koch, Christian A.; Gündogdu, Sadi; Lucassen, Anneke; Tischkowitz, Marc; Izatt, Louise; Aylwin, Simon; Bano, Gul; Hodgson, Shirley; de Menis, Ernesto; Launonen, Virpi; Vahteristo, Pia; Aaltonen, Lauri A.

    2007-01-01

    Germline mutations in the MEN1 gene predispose to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome, but in up to 20-25% of clinical MEN1 cases, no MEN1 mutations can be found. Recently, a germline mutation in the CDKN1B gene, encoding p27(Kip1), was reported in one suspected MEN1 family with two

  18. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Endocrine Practice, a peer reviewed publication published twice a year is the official publication of the Nigerian Chapter of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE-Nigeria). The primary mission of the Nigerian Endocrine Practice is to enhance the health care of patients with ...

  19. Corticosteroid Production in H295R Cells During Exposure to 3 Endocrine Disrupters Analyzed With LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Christina S; Nielsen, Frederik Knud; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The adrenocortical human cell line H295R is a valuable tool for screening endocrine disrupting compounds. In general, previous research focus has been on the production of the 2 sex steroids, 17β-estradiol and testosterone, and less attention has been paid to other important steroid end points......295R cell line. The method was applied by studying the effects of 2 model endocrine disrupters, ketoconazole and prochloraz, the pharmaceutical budesonide, and the inducer forskolin on the steroid production in this cell line. Dose-response curves were obtained for the correlation between hormone...... concentrations and the concentration of the individual disruptors. Exposing cells to ketoconazole resulted in a decrease in cortisol and corticosterone concentrations in a dose-dependent manner with EC50 values of 0.24 and 0.40 μmol/L, respectively. The same applied for cells exposed to prochloraz with EC50...

  20. 78 FR 35922 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Second List of Chemicals and Substances for Tier 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ...-60-5 X 103. Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 X 104. Triflumizole 68694-11-1 X 105. Trinexapac-ethyl 95266-40...-7 X 52. Ethylurethane 51-79-6 X 53. Etofenprox 80844-07-1 X 54. Fenoxaprop-P-ethyl 71283-80-2 X 55.... Quizalofop-P-ethyl 100646-51-3 X 94. RDX 121-82-4 X 95. sec-Butylbenzene 135-98-8 X 96. Styrene 100-42-5 X 97...

  1. Endocrine Disruptors and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Elevated Serum Levels of Bisphenol A in Women with PCOS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kandaraki, Eleni; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonis; Livadas, Sarantis; Palioura, Eleni; Economou, Frangiscos; Koutsilieris, Michael; Palimeri, Sotiria; Panidis, Dimitrios; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2011-01-01

    In women with PCOS, bisphenol A levels are higher compared to body mass index-matched healthy women and are positively and strongly associated with hormonal and metabolic abnormalities characterizing the syndrome. Context: Bisphenol A (BPA...

  2. Considerations for estimating daily intake values of non-persistent environmental endocrine disruptors based on urinary biomonitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionHuman exposure to chemicals may be estimated by back-calculating urinary concentrations resulting from biomonitoring studies if knowledge of the chemical's toxicokinetic properties is available.AimTo review available toxicokinetic data for back-calculating urinary concentrations into ...

  3. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  4. Impiego di materiali plastici nell'industria alimentare: rilascio di 'Endocrine Disruptors' valutato mediante test a breve termine in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Reali

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutazione del rischio di esposizione della popolazione a composti chimici estrogenomimetici rilasciati da materiali plastici utilizzati nell’industria delle bevande e nel packaging di alimenti

    Metodi: messa a punto di un metodo di estrazione di composti organici da flussi acquosi tramite l’uso di resine di amberlite® XAD®-2 con passaggio di matrice acquosa (50ml/min attraverso tubi di adduzione. L’analisi chimica di eventuali composti chimici migranti da tubi e contenitori per bevande è stata effettuata con GC/MS e arricchimento con tecnica SPME. L’attività estrogeno mimetica degli estratti è stata saggiata con un test biologico a breve termine, il Yeast Estrogen Screen. Il costrutto di Saccharomyces cerevisiae è vettore di sequenze di DNA che codificano il recettore estrogenico alfaumano e i rispettivi response elements legati alla regione promotrice del gene reporter LacZ per la ßgalattosidasi. L’induzione di sintesi di ß-galattosidasi dipende dall’attivazione del gene reporter conseguente all’affinità di legame ligando-recettore e viene misurata spettrofotometricamente. La potenza estrogenica viene calcolata in riferimento all’attività elicitata dall’ormone naturale 17ß-estradiolo nelle stesse condizioni sperimentali preso come controllo positivo di riferimento (RIE.

    Risultati preliminari e Conclusioni: l’analisi tossicologica in vitro ha evidenziato che nell’acqua che è stata a contatto con silicone e PVC in condizioni dinamiche sono presenti composti chimici (1-10 μg/lt: con attività estrogeno-mimetica (RIE= 87.31;44.28. Sono emersi aspetti interessanti da studiare ulteriormente nell’ottica della promozione della sicurezza alimentare.

  5. Serenoa repens as an Endocrine Disruptor in a 10-Year-Old Young Girl: A New Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Paolo; Miroddi, Marco; Giovinazzo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-01-01

    Serenoa repens, commonly known as saw palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa. The plant is a low shrubby palm that is native of West Indies, and it grows in the coastal lands of North America and other European mediterranean countries. Its fruits contain high concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols. S. repens extracts have been studied for the symptomatic treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recently, they have been proposed to treat androgenic alopecia and other hair disorders. We report a new case of hot flashes in a 10-year-old girl using a food supplement containing the extract of S. repens for the treatment of hirsutism. When the girl discontinued the treatment, the hot flashes stopped. A 'rechallenge' of the supplement was tried and symptoms reappeared. About 4 months after starting therapy, the girl experienced menarche. Exposure to the plant-derived product could be responsible for the appearance of menarche. In our opinion, use of phytotherapeutic agents in pediatric patients should be associated to a better evaluation of benefit/risk profile taking in account the physiological changes that occurs at different ages in this subgroup of population. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. PDK1 disruptors and modulators: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, Muhammad Jahangir; Kim, Seung Cheol; Yang, Sungjae; Kim, Han Gyung; Jeong, Deok; Yi, Young-Su; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Jeong-Oog; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-05-01

    3-Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is a master regulator of the AGC protein kinase family and is a critical activator of multiple pro-survival and oncogenic protein kinases, for which it has garnered considerable interest as an oncology drug target. This manuscript reviews small molecule patent literature disclosures between October 2011 and September 2014 for both PDK1 activators and inhibitors and restates the selective patents published before September 2011. PDK1 modulators are organized according to pharmaceutical company and chemical structural class. Many academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies continue to research into the development of small molecules that can function as PDK1 inhibitors or modulators. To date, >50 patent publications on PDK1 disruptors and modulators have been published since the protein was first discovered in 1998. Most of these molecules act as ATP mimetics, forming similar hydrogen bonding patterns to PDK1 as ATP and functioning as hydrophobic pharmacophores. To achieve selectivity in PDK1 inhibition, the discovery of binding pockets structurally distinctive from the ATP site is a challenging but promising strategy.

  7. Endocrine Actions of Osteocalcin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Patti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin is the most abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Once transcribed, this protein undergoes posttranslational modifications within osteoblastic cells before its secretion, including the carboxylation of three glutamic residues in glutamic acid, which is essential for hydroxyapatite binding and deposition in the extracellular matrix of bone. Recent provocative data from experimental observations in mice showed that the circulating undercarboxylated fraction of osteocalcin increases insulin secretion and sensitivity, lowers blood glucose, and decreases visceral fat in both genders, while it enhances testosterone production by the testes in males. Moreover, both total and undercarboxylated osteocalcins increase following physical activity with potential positive effects on glucose tolerance. Despite that these evidences have been only in part confirmed in humans, further prospective investigations are needed to definitively establish the endocrine role of osteocalcin both in the general population and cohorts of patients with diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

  8. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, western style diet and smoking......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more...... than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin...

  9. SARCOPENIA: AN ENDOCRINE DISORDER?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Alexis; Morley, John E; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Vinik, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as low muscle function (walking speed or grip strength) in the presence of low muscle mass. A simple screening test-the SARC-F-is available to identify persons with sarcopenia. The major endocrine causes of sarcopenia are diabetes mellitus and male hypogonadism. Other causes are decreased physical activity, loss of motor neuron units, weight loss, inflammatory cytokines, reduced blood flow to muscles, very low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and decreased growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Treatment for sarcopenia includes resistance and aerobic exercise, leucine-enriched essential amino acids, and vitamin D. In hypogonadal males, testosterone improves muscle mass, strength, and function. Selective androgen receptor molecules and anti-myostatin activin II receptor molecules are under development as possible treatments for sarcopenia. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease DHEA = dehydroepiandrosterone IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1 GH = growth hormone mTOR = mammalian target of rapamycin SARM = selective androgen receptor molecule.

  10. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them Produtos químicos como desreguladores endócrinos: substâncias danosas e como devem ser testadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Olea-Serrano

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.Este artigo apresenta uma análise das opiniões de diferentes grupos, inclusive de cientistas, agências regulatórias internacionais, organizações não-governamentais e indústrias, interessados na questão da identificação de substâncias químicas com atividade desreguladora endócrina. Os autores discutem também o impacto da exposição aos desreguladores endócrinos sobre a saúde humana, considerando as seguintes questões: estimativa de risco; testes utilizados para detectar distúrbios endócrinos; dificuldades na identificação de uma associação entre dose, tempo de exposição, suscetibilidade individual e efeito e tentativas no sentido de mapear os desreguladores endócrinos. Finalmente, os autores argumentam que nem todos os agonistas hormonais devem ser incluídos sob a denominação genérica de desreguladores endócrinos.

  11. EDCs DataBank: 3D-Structure database of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Grajales, Diana; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-01-02

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a group of compounds that affect the endocrine system, frequently found in everyday products and epidemiologically associated with several diseases. The purpose of this work was to develop EDCs DataBank, the only database of EDCs with three-dimensional structures. This database was built on MySQL using the EU list of potential endocrine disruptors and TEDX list. It contains the three-dimensional structures available on PubChem, as well as a wide variety of information from different databases and text mining tools, useful for almost any kind of research regarding EDCs. The web platform was developed employing HTML, CSS and PHP languages, with dynamic contents in a graphic environment, facilitating information analysis. Currently EDCs DataBank has 615 molecules, including pesticides, natural and industrial products, cosmetics, drugs and food additives, among other low molecular weight xenobiotics. Therefore, this database can be used to study the toxicological effects of these molecules, or to develop pharmaceuticals targeting hormone receptors, through docking studies, high-throughput virtual screening and ligand-protein interaction analysis. EDCs DataBank is totally user-friendly and the 3D-structures of the molecules can be downloaded in several formats. This database is freely available at http://edcs.unicartagena.edu.co. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  13. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  14. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  15. as endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of removing EDCs and other pollutants at South African wastewater treatment .... of a particular component within one endocrine axis may also ...... HPG. Hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal. HPT. Hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid.

  16. Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David J.; St Jean, David J.; Kurzeja, Robert J. M.; Wahl, Robert C.; Michelsen, Klaus; Cupples, Rod; Chen, Michelle; Wu, John; Sivits, Glenn; Helmering, Joan; Komorowski, Renée; Ashton, Kate S.; Pennington, Lewis D.; Fotsch, Christopher; Vazir, Mukta; Chen, Kui; Chmait, Samer; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Longbin; Norman, Mark H.; Andrews, Kristin L.; Bartberger, Michael D.; van, Gwyneth; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Vonderfecht, Steven L.; Wang, Minghan; Jordan, Steven R.; Véniant, Murielle M.; Hale, Clarence

    2013-12-01

    Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic β-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that directly hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent small-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory effect of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

  17. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Also Govern Effects of Chemicals on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Degen, Gisela H; Dekant, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Daniel; Domingo, Jose L; Gori, Gio Batta; Greim, Helmuth; Hengstler, Jan G; Kacew, Sam; Marquardt, Hans; Pelkonen, Olavi; Savolainen, Kai; Vermeulen, Nico P

    2015-07-01

    The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be subjected to the well-evaluated health risk characterization approach used for many years including adverse outcome pathways. Many of the points arguing for a specific approach for risk characterization of chemicals with hormonal activity are based on highly speculative conclusions. These conclusions are not well supported when evaluating the available information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie

    2017-01-01

    consensus statements and narrative reviews in recent years have divided the scientific community and have elicited a call for systematic transparent reviews. We aimed to fill this gap in knowledge in the field of male reproductive disorders. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this study...... identified 33 papers(28 study populations) fulfilling the eligibility criteria. These provided 85 risk estimates of links between persistent organic pollutants and rapidly metabolized compounds (phthalates and Bisphenol A) and male reproductive disorders. The overall odds ratio (OR) across all exposures...... that this increased risk was driven by any specific disorder. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The current epidemiological evidence is compatible with a small increased risk of male reproductive disorders following prenatal and postnatal exposure to some persistent environmental chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors...

  20. An Isomer-Specific Approach to Endocrine-Disrupting Nonylphenol in Infant Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Klaus; Räcker, Torsten; Böhme, Roswitha

    2017-02-15

    Nonylphenols (NPs) are persistent endocrine disruptors that are priority hazardous substances of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Their presence in the environment has caused growing concern regarding their impact on human health. Recent studies have shown that nonylphenol is ubiquitous in commercially available foodstuffs and is also present in human blood. The isomer distribution of 4-nonylphenol was analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry in 44 samples of infant food. Our study shows that the distribution of nonylphenol isomers is dependent on the foodstuff analyzed. Although some isomer groups prevail, different distributions are frequent. Variations are even found in the same food group. Nonylphenol is a complex mixture of isomers, and the estrogenic potentials of each of these isomers are very different. Consequently, to determine the potential toxicological impact of NP in food, an isomer-specific approach is necessary.

  1. Using short-term bioassays to evaluate the endocrine disrupting capacity of the pesticides linuron and fenoxycarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirhanzlova, Petra; De Groef, Bert; Nicholson, Freda E; Grommen, Sylvia V H; Marras, Giulia; Sébillot, Anthony; Demeneix, Barbara A; Pallud-Mothré, Sophie; Lemkine, Gregory F; Tindall, Andrew J; Du Pasquier, David

    2017-10-01

    Several short-term whole-organism bioassays based on transgenic aquatic models are now under validation by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) to become standardized test guidelines for the evaluation of the endocrine activity of substances. Evaluation of the endocrine disrupting capacity of pesticides will be a domain of applicability of these future reference tests. The herbicide linuron and the insecticide fenoxycarb are two chemicals commonly used in agricultural practices. While numerous studies indicate that linuron is likely to be an endocrine disruptor, there is little information available on the effect of fenoxycarb on vertebrate endocrine systems. Using whole-organism bioassays based on transgenic Xenopus laevis tadpoles and medaka fry we assessed the potential of fenoxycarb and linuron to disrupt thyroid, androgen and estrogen signaling. In addition we used in silico approach to simulate the affinity of these two pesticides to human hormone receptors. Linuron elicited thyroid hormone-like activity in tadpoles at all concentrations tested and, showed an anti-estrogenic activity in medaka at concentrations 2.5mg/L and higher. Our experiments suggest that, in addition to its previously established anti-androgenic action, linuron exhibits thyroid hormone-like responses, as well as acting at the estrogen receptor level to inhibit estrogen signaling. Fenoxycarb on the other hand, did not cause any changes in thyroid, androgen or estrogen signaling at the concentrations tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selenium hyperaccumulation offers protection from cell disruptor herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Colin F

    2010-08-01

    protective effect of hyperaccumulated Se against cell-disrupting herbivores. The finding that Se protected the two hyperaccumulator species from both cell disruptors lends further support to the elemental defense hypothesis and increases the number of herbivores and feeding modes against which Se has shown a protective effect. Because western flower thrips and two-spotted spider mites are widespread and economically important herbivores, the results from this study also have potential applications in agriculture or horticulture, and implications for the management of Se-rich crops.

  3. Growing South Africa’s wealth through digital innovations: Digital innovation as a disruptor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Williams, Quentin R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation briefly discusses problems/trends such as unemployment, lack of advanced skills, import-driven economy, and the nature of the South African ICT sector. Digital innovation is put forward as a disruptor of mentioned trends....

  4. Endocrine manifestations related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantyghem Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are recessive, genetically transmitted diseases and are classified into 3 main groups according to their mechanisms: cellular intoxication, energy deficiency, and defects of complex molecules. They can be associated with endocrine manifestations, which may be complications from a previously diagnosed IEM of childhood onset. More rarely, endocrinopathies can signal an IEM in adulthood, which should be suspected when an endocrine disorder is associated with multisystemic involvement (neurological, muscular, hepatic features, etc.. IEM can affect all glands, but diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism are the most frequent disorders. A single IEM can present with multiple endocrine dysfunctions, especially those involving energy deficiency (respiratory chain defects, and metal (hemochromatosis and storage disorders (cystinosis. Non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter and sometimes hypoparathyroidism should steer the diagnosis towards a respiratory chain defect. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is frequent in haemochromatosis (often associated with diabetes, whereas primary hypogonadism is reported in Alström disease and cystinosis (both associated with diabetes, the latter also with thyroid dysfunction and galactosemia. Hypogonadism is also frequent in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (with adrenal failure, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and Fabry and glycogen storage diseases (along with thyroid dysfunction in the first 3 and diabetes in the last. This is a new and growing field and is not yet very well recognized in adulthood despite its consequences on growth, bone metabolism and fertility. For this reason, physicians managing adult patients should be aware of these diagnoses.

  5. Field-directed assembly of nanowires: identifying directors, disruptors and indices to maximize the device yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Mahshid; Moghimian, Nima; Bhiladvala, Rustom B.

    2015-12-01

    Individually-addressable nano-electro-mechanical (NEMS) devices have been used to demonstrate sensitive mass detection to the single-proton level, as well as neutral-particle mass spectrometry. The cost of individually securing or patterning such devices is proportional to their number or the chip area covered. This limits statistical support for new research, as well as paths to the commercial availability of extraordinarily sensitive instruments. Field-directed assembly of synthesized nanowires addresses this problem and shows potential for low-cost, large-area coverage with NEMS devices. For positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) as the main assembly director, the space of field, geometric and material parameters is large, with combinations that can serve either as directors or disruptors for directed assembly. We seek parameter values to obtain the best yield, by introducing a rational framework to reduce trial-and-error. We show that sorting the disruptors by severity and eliminating those weakly coupled to the director, allows reduction of the parameter space. The remaining disruptors are then represented compactly by dimensionless parameters. In the example protocol chosen, a single dimensionless parameter, the yield index, allows minimization of disruptors by the choice of frequency. Following this, the voltage may be selected to maximize the yield. Using this framework, we obtained 94% pre-clamped and 88% post-clamped yield over 57000 nanowire sites. Organizing the parameter space using a director-disruptor framework, with economy introduced by non-dimensional parameters, provides a path to controllably decrease the effort and cost of manufacturing nanoscale devices. This should help in the commercialization of individually addressable nanodevices.Individually-addressable nano-electro-mechanical (NEMS) devices have been used to demonstrate sensitive mass detection to the single-proton level, as well as neutral-particle mass spectrometry. The cost of

  6. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  7. Lipid effects of endocrine medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Dan V; Vora, Avni; Mazzone, Theodore

    2011-02-01

    Various alterations of lipid homeostasis have a significant role in the pathophysiology of the artherosclerotic process. The effects of usual lipid-lowering agents such as statins, fibrates, or niacin are well known, but other endocrine therapeutic agents could also affect the blood levels of various lipoproteins and, in turn, influence atheroma formation. In this review, we attempt to summarize the effect of several hormonal and non-hormonal endocrine agents on lipid metabolism, including insulin, thyroid hormone, sex hormones, glucocorticoids, growth hormone, and several anti-diabetic agents.

  8. Phthalate ester plasticizers in freshwater systems of Venda, South Africa and potential health effects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fatoki, OS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available al., 2000; Tomita et al., 1982; Huff and Kluwe, 1984). DEHP has been included in Class B2 (probable human carcinogens) (Alatriste-Mondragon, et al., 2003). They are also suspected endocrine disruptors (Fredricsson et al, 1993). A study by Colon et..., carcinogens and endocrine disruptors (WHO, 2003). Exposure assessment is a key phase in health risk assessment, because without exposure even the most toxic carcinogenic compound is not hazardous. Exposure assess- ment involves the identification...

  9. Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aspect of your health. What is the endocrine system? Your endocrine system includes glands and organs that make and release ... to feel well. How can TBI affect the endocrine system? Two important parts of the endocrine system—the ...

  10. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  12. Sex-specific patterns and deregulation of endocrine pathways in the gene expression profiles of Bangladeshi adults exposed to arsenic contaminated drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Alexandra; Chervona, Yana [New York University School of Medicine, Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Hall, Megan [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York (United States); Kluz, Thomas [New York University School of Medicine, Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Gamble, Mary V., E-mail: mvg7@columbia.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York (United States); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Nelson Institute of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water occurs globally and is associated with numerous diseases including skin, lung and bladder cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research indicates that arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor. This study was conducted to evaluate the nature of gene expression changes among males and females exposed to arsenic contaminated water in Bangladesh at high and low doses. Twenty-nine (55% male) Bangladeshi adults with water arsenic exposure ranging from 50 to 1000 μg/L were selected from the Folic Acid Creatinine Trial. RNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells for gene expression profiling using Affymetrix 1.0 ST arrays. Differentially expressed genes were assessed between high and low exposure groups for males and females separately and findings were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 534 and 645 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of males and females, respectively, when high and low water arsenic exposure groups were compared. Only 43 genes overlapped between the two sexes, with 29 changing in opposite directions. Despite the difference in gene sets both males and females exhibited common biological changes including deregulation of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes, deregulation of genes downstream of Sp1 (specificity protein 1) transcription factor, and prediction of estrogen receptor alpha as a key hub in cardiovascular networks. Arsenic-exposed adults exhibit sex-specific gene expression profiles that implicate involvement of the endocrine system. Due to arsenic's possible role as an endocrine disruptor, exposure thresholds for arsenic may require different parameters for males and females. - Highlights: • Males and females exhibit unique gene expression changes in response to arsenic. • Only 23 genes are common among the differentially expressed genes for the sexes. • Male and female gene lists exhibit common

  13. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  14. Assessment of the effects of the carbamazepine on the endogenous endocrine system of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, A L; Floro, A M; Palma, P

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the endocrine activity of the antiepileptic pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) in the crustacean Daphnia magna was assessed. To assess the hormonal activity of the drug, we exposed maternal daphnids and embryos to environmental relevant concentrations of CBZ (ranging from 10 to 200 μg/L) and to mixtures of CBZ with fenoxycarb (FEN; 1 μg/L). Chronic exposure to CBZ significantly decreased the reproductive output and the number of molts of D. magna at 200 μg/L. This compound induced the production of male offspring (12 ± 1.7 %), in a non-concentration-dependent manner, acting as a weak juvenile hormone analog. Results showed that this substance, at tested concentrations, did not antagonize the juvenoid action of FEN. Further, CBZ has shown to be toxic to daphnid embryos through maternal exposure interfering with their normal gastrulation and organogenesis stages but not producing direct embryo toxicity. These findings suggest that CBZ could act as an endocrine disruptor in D. magna as it decreases the reproductive output, interferes with sex determination, and causes development abnormality in offspring. Therefore, CBZ could directly affect the population sustainability.

  15. High levels of endocrine pollutants in US streams during low flow due to insufficient wastewater dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jacelyn; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Wastewater discharges from publicly owned treatment works are a significant source of endocrine disruptors and other contaminants to the aquatic environment in the US. Although remaining pollutants in wastewater pose environmental risks, treated wastewater is also a primary source of stream flow, which in turn is critical in maintaining many aquatic and riparian wildlife habitats. Here we calculate the dilution factor--the ratio of flow in the stream receiving discharge to the flow of wastewater discharge--for over 14,000 receiving streams in the continental US using streamflow observations and a spatially explicit watershed-scale hydraulic model. We found that wastewater discharges make up more than 50% of in-stream flow for over 900 streams. However, in 1,049 streams that experienced exceptional low-flow conditions, the dilution factors in 635 of those streams fell so low during those conditions that the safety threshold for concentrations of one endocrine disrupting compound was exceeded, and in roughly a third of those streams, the threshold was exceeded for two compounds. We suggest that streams are vulnerable to public wastewater discharge of contaminants under low-flow conditions, at a time when wastewater discharges are likely to be most important for maintaining stream flow for smaller sized river systems.

  16. QSAR modeling and prediction of the endocrine-disrupting potencies of brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Kovarich, Simona; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-05-17

    In the European Union REACH regulation, the chemicals with particularly harmful behaviors, such as endocrine disruptors (EDs), are subject to authorization, and the identification of safer alternatives to these chemicals is required. In this context, the use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) becomes particularly useful to fill the data gap due to the very small number of experimental data available to characterize the environmental and toxicological profiles of new and emerging pollutants with ED behavior such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In this study, different QSAR models were developed on different responses of endocrine disruption measured for several BFRs. The multiple linear regression approach was applied to a variety of theoretical molecular descriptors, and the best models, which were identified from all of the possible combinations of the structural variables, were internally validated for their performance using the leave-one-out (Q(LOO)(2) = 73-91%) procedure and scrambling of the responses. External validation was provided, when possible, by splitting the data sets in training and test sets (range of Q(EXT)(2) = 76-90%), which confirmed the predictive ability of the proposed equations. These models, which were developed according to the principles defined by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development to improve the regulatory acceptance of QSARs, represent a simple tool for the screening and characterization of BFRs.

  17. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana, E-mail: viviana.scognamiglio@mlib.ic.cnr.it [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano [Biosensor S.r.l. - Via degli Olmetti 44 00060 Formello, Rome (Italy); Buonasera, Katia [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche - Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Rome (Italy); Giardi, Maria Teresa [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 {mu}M and 4.5 {mu}M, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 {mu}M and 35 {mu}M respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  18. Mechanisms mediating environmental chemical-induced endocrine disruption in the adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Martinez-Arguelles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs, mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early life exposure leaves a fingerprint on the epigenome, which may increase the risk of disease later in life. Epigenetic changes occurring in early life in response to environmental toxicants have been shown to affect behavior, increase cancer risk, and modify the physiology of the cardiovascular system. Thus, exposure to an ED or combination of EDs may represent a first hit to the epigenome. Only limited information is available regarding the effect of ED exposure on adrenal function. The adrenal gland controls the stress response, blood pressure, and electrolyte homeostasis. This endocrine organ therefore has an important role in physiology and is a sensitive target of EDs. We review herein the effect of ED exposure on the adrenal gland with particular focus on in utero exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylehyl phthalate. We discuss the challenges associated with identifying the mechanism mediating the epigenetic origins of disease and availability of biomarkers that may identify individual or population risks.

  19. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H. [Inst. for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonneveld, E. [BioDetection Systems (BDS), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Murk, A.J. [Wageningen Univ., Toxicology Group, Wageningen (Netherlands); Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P. [Royal Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands); Brouwer, A. [Umea Univ., Umea (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Substantial evidence is recently becoming available that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are potential endocrine disruptors. The toxicological profile of BFRs, however, is too incomplete and insufficient to perform human and ecological risk assessment. To fill these gaps, the EU funded research program FIRE was started in December 2002. This program aims at the identification and toxicological characterization of the most potent and environmentally relevant BFRs and their possible risk for human and wildlife health. As part of a hazard identification approach, twenty seven BFRs have been selected within the framework of FIRE for pre-screening their endocrinedisrupting potencies. Selection of test compounds was based on a maximal variation in physicochemical characteristics of BFRs within the test set, allowing the establishment of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). In addition, environmental relevance (e.g. high production volumes and persistence) and availability for testing were used as selection criteria. BFRs were tested in seven different in vitro bioassays for their potency to interfere via estrogenic, thyroidal, androgenic, progestagenic, and Ah-receptor mediated pathways. Metabolisation rates of BFRs were determined using phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes. Finally, the endocrine disrupting potency of the metabolites was determined in the same in vitro bio-assays and compared to the potency of the parent compounds.

  20. Strain Specific Induction of Pyometra and Differences in Immune Responsiveness in Mice Exposed to 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol or the Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziorski, Jessica A.; Kendig, Eric L.; Gear, Robin L.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Pyometra is an inflammatory disease of the uterus that can be caused by chronic exposure to estrogens. It is unknown whether weakly estrogenic endocrine disruptors can cause pyometra. We investigated whether dietary exposures to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) induced pyometra. Pyometra did not occur in CD1 mice exposed to different dietary doses of BPA ranging from 4.1 to >4000 µg/kg/day or 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE; 1.2 to >150 µg/kg/day). In the C57BL/6 strain, pyometra occurred in the 15 µg/kg/day EE and 33 µg/kg/day BPA treatment groups. At the effective concentration of BPA, histological analysis revealed pathological alterations of uterine morphology associated with a >5.3-fold increase in macrophage numbers in non-pyometra uteri of C57BL/6 mice exposed to BPA. These results suggest that BPA enhances immune responsiveness of the uterus and that heightened responsiveness in C57BL/6 females is related to increased susceptibility to pyometra. PMID:22429997

  1. Afferent Endocrine Control of Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Wolfgang; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    The afferent endocrine factors that control eating can be separated into different categories. One obvious categorization is by the time course of their effects, with long-term factors that signal adiposity and short-term factors that operate within the time frame of single meals. The second...... obvious categorization is by the origin of the endocrine signalling molecules. The level of knowledge concerning the physiological mechanisms and relevance of the hormones that are implicated in the control of eating is clearly different. With the accumulating knowledge about the hormones' actions......, various criteria have been developed for when the effect of a hormone can be considered 'physiologic'. This chapter treats the hormones separately and categorizes them by origin. It discusses ALL hormones that are implicated in eating control such as Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone and glucagon-like peptide...

  2. Classical endocrine diseases causing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jolanta U

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with several endocrine diseases, including common ones such as hypothyroidism and polycystic ovarian syndrome to rare ones such as Cushing's syndrome, central hypothyroidism and hypothalamic disorders. The mechanisms for the development of obesity vary in according to the endocrine condition. Hypothyroidism is associated with accumulation of hyaluronic acid within various tissues, additional fluid retention due to reduced cardiac output and reduced thermogenesis. The pathophysiology of obesity associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome remains complex as obesity itself may simultaneously be the cause and the effect of the syndrome. Net excess of androgen appears to be pivotal in the development of central obesity. In Cushing's syndrome, an interaction with thyroid and growth hormones plays an important role in addition to an increased adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. This review also describes remaining rare cases: hypothalamic obesity due to central hypothyroidism and combined hormone deficiencies.

  3. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Luisetto, G; Basso, S M M; Basso, U; Brunello, A; Camozzi, V

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the first leading causes of death in women, and currently endocrine treatment is of major therapeutic value in patients with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and GnRH agonists are the drugs of choice. Tamoxifen, a partial nonsteroidal estrogen agonist, is a type II competitive inhibitor of estradiol at its receptor, and the prototype of SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors significantly lower serum estradiol concentration in postmenopausal patients, having no detectable effects on adrenocortical steroids formation, while GnRH agonists suppress ovarian function, inducing a menopause-like condition in premenopausal women. Endocrine therapy has generally a relatively low morbidity, leading to a significant reduction of mortality for breast cancer. The aim of chemoprevention is to interfere early with the process of carcinogenesis, reducing the risk of cancer development. As preventive agents, raloxifene and tamoxifene are equivalent, while raloxifene has more potent antiresorptive effects in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocrine treatment is usually considered a standard choice for patients with estrogen-receptor positive cancers and non-life-threatening advanced disease, or for older patients unfit for aggressive chemotherapy regimens. Several therapeutic protocols used in patients with breast cancer are associated with bone loss, which may lead to an increased risk of fracture. Bisphosphonates are the drugs of choice to treat such a drug-induced bone disease. The aim of this review is to outline current understanding on endocrine therapy of breast cancer. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  4. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid diseas...

  5. Suspected levamisole intoxication in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K R; Dwyer, C

    2016-07-01

    A group of 32 Friesian and four Hereford calves, 3-4 months old with body weights between 100-120 kg, were purchased from a weaner sale. On arrival at the property the Hereford calves were treated with a combination anthelmintic containing 2 g/L abamectin and 80 g/L levamisole hydrochloride. Shortly afterwards they developed tremors and frothing from the mouth, and two died overnight. The Friesian calves were treated with the same anthelmintic on the following day, when some showed hypersalivation and frothing from the mouth. Examination of the three most severely affected Friesian calves revealed severe nicotinic-type symptoms including hypersalivation, frothing from the mouth, muscle tremors, recumbency, rapid respiration, hyperaesthesia, and central nervous system depression. Other calves showed mild to moderate signs of intoxication including restlessness, tail switching, salivation, tremors, frequent defaecation, mild colic and jaw chomping. Two calves died shortly afterwards. An adverse drug event investigation revealed that the formulation and quality of the anthelmintic was within the correct specification, and that the drench gun was functioning correctly. Suspected levamisole intoxication due to a combination of possible overdosing, dehydration, and stress caused by transportation and prolonged yarding. Susceptibility to levamisole toxicity in New Zealand calves can be increased if factors like dehydration or stress are present. Levamisole has a narrow margin of safety, and overdosing in calves can easily occur if the dose rate is not based on their actual weight or health status.

  6. Persistence of endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after discontinued exposure to the androgen 17β-trenbolone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Lisa; Knörr, Susanne; Keiter, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the androgenic endocrine disruptor 17β-trenbolone on the sexual development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) with special emphasis on the question whether adverse outcomes of developmental exposure are reversible or persistent. An exposure...... scenario including a recovery phase was chosen to assess the potential reversibility of androgenic effects. Zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 17β-trenbolone (1 - 30 ng/L) from fertilization until completion of gonad sexual differentiation (60 days post-hatch, dph......). Thereafter, exposure was either followed by 40 d of recovery in clean water or continued until 100 dph, the age when zebrafish start being able to reproduce. Fish exposed for 100 d to 10 or 30 ng/L 17β-trenbolone were masculinized at different biological effect levels, as evidenced from a concentration...

  7. SLEEP APNEA IN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a  number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.

  8. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-10-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist. In some with CD, multiple glandular endocrinopathies may also occur and complicate the initial presentation of the intestinal disease. In others presenting with an apparent isolated endocrine disorder, serological screening for underlying subclinical CD may prove to be positive, particularly if type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid or other autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as Addison's disease are first detected. A number of reports have also recorded hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism or ovarian failure in CD and these may be improved with a strict gluten-free diet.

  9. Endocrine Disruption: Computational Perspectives on Human Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin and Phthalate Plasticizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A.; Turki, Rola F.; Abuzenadah, Adel M.; Damanhouri, Ghazi A.; Beg, Mohd A.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are a class of high volume production chemicals used as plasticizers for household and industrial use. Several members of this chemical family have endocrine disrupting activity. Owing to ubiquitous environmental distribution and exposure of human population at all stages of life, phthalate contamination is a continuous global public health problem. Clinical and experimental studies have indicated that several phthalates are associated with adverse effects on development and function of human and animal systems especially the reproductive system and exposures during pregnancy and early childhood are by far of utmost concern. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a plasma carrier protein that binds androgens and estrogens and represents a potential target for phthalate endocrine disruptor function in the body. In the present study, the binding mechanism of the nine phthalates i.e. DMP, DBP, DIBP, BBP, DNHP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP with human SHBG was delineated by molecular docking simulation. Docking complexes of the nine phthalates displayed interactions with 15–31 amino acid residues of SHBG and a commonality of 55–95% interacting residues between natural ligand of SHBG, dihydrotestosterone, and the nine phthalate compounds was observed. The binding affinity values were more negative for long chain phthalates DEHP, DNOP, DINP, and DIDP compared to short chain phthalates such as DMP and DBP. The Dock score and Glide score values were also higher for long chain phthalates compared to short chain phthalates. Hence, overlapping of interacting amino acid residues between phthalate compounds and natural ligand, dihydrotestosterone, suggested potential disrupting activity of phthalates in the endocrine homeostasis function of SHBG, with long chain phthalates expected to be more potent than the short chain phthalates. PMID:26963243

  10. The multigenerational effects of water contamination and endocrine disrupting chemicals on the fitness of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Calderón, Suany; Bacigalupe, Leonardo Daniel; Toro-Vélez, Andrés Fernando; Madera-Parra, Carlos Arturo; Peña-Varón, Miguel Ricardo; Cárdenas-Henao, Heiber

    2017-08-01

    Water pollution due to human activities produces sedimentation, excessive nutrients, and toxic chemicals, and this, in turn, has an effect on the normal endocrine functioning of living beings. Overall, water pollution may affect some components of the fitness of organisms (e.g., developmental time and fertility). Some toxic compounds found in polluted waters are known as endocrine disruptors (ED), and among these are nonhalogenated phenolic chemicals such as bisphenol A and nonylphenol. To evaluate the effect of nonhalogenated phenolic chemicals on the endocrine system, we subjected two generations (F0 and F1) of Drosophila melanogaster to different concentrations of ED. Specifically, treatments involved wastewater, which had the highest level of ED (bisphenol A and nonylphenol) and treated wastewater from a constructed Heliconia psittacorum wetland with horizontal subsurface water flow (He); the treated wastewater was the treatment with the lowest level of ED. We evaluated the development time from egg to pupa and from pupa to adult as well as fertility. The results show that for individuals exposed to treated wastewater, the developmental time from egg to pupae was shorter in individuals of the F1 generation than in the F0 generation. Additionally, the time from pupae to adult was longer for flies growing in the H. psittacorum treated wastewater. Furthermore, fertility was lower in the F1 generation than in the F0 generation. Although different concentrations of bisphenol A and nonylphenol had no significant effect on the components of fitness of D. melanogaster (developmental time and fertility), there was a trend across generations, likely as a result of selection imposed on the flies. It is possible that the flies developed different strategies to avoid the effects of the various environmental stressors.

  11. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixing Feng

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and prolactin (PRL were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1, estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1, steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR, estrogen receptor (ERα and androgen receptor (AR were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth.

  12. Estimating burden and disease costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R Thomas; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Grandjean, Philippe; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Bellanger, Martine; Hauser, Russ; Legler, Juliette; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2015-04-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood obesity, adult obesity, adult diabetes, cryptorchidism, male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median cost of €157 billion (or $209 billion, corresponding to 1.23% of EU gross domestic product) annually across 1000 simulations. Notably, using the lowest end of the probability range for each relationship in the Monte Carlo simulations produced a median range of €109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in

  13. An in vitro investigation of endocrine disrupting effects of the mycotoxin alternariol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizzell, Caroline [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ndossi, Doreen [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kalayou, Shewit [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Mekelle University College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle (Ethiopia); Eriksen, Gunnar S. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo (Norway); Verhaegen, Steven [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Sørlie, Morten [Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås (Norway); Elliott, Christopher T. [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ropstad, Erik [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Connolly, Lisa, E-mail: l.connolly@qub.ac.uk [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Alternariol (AOH) is a mycotoxin commonly produced by Alternaria alternata on a wide range of foods. Few studies to date have been performed to evaluate the effects of AOH on endocrine activity. The present study makes use of in vitro mammalian cellular based assays and gene expression to investigate the ability of AOH to act as an endocrine disruptor by various modes of action. Reporter gene assays (RGAs), incorporating natural steroid hormone receptors for oestrogens, androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids were used to identify endocrine disruption at the level of nuclear receptor transcriptional activity, and the H295R steroidogenesis assay was used to assess endocrine disruption at the level of gene expression and steroid hormone production. AOH exhibited a weak oestrogenic response when tested in the oestrogen responsive RGA and binding of progesterone to the progestagen receptor was shown to be synergistically increased in the presence of AOH. H295R cells when exposed to 0.1–1000 ng/ml AOH, did not cause a significant change in testosterone and cortisol hormones but exposure to 1000 ng/ml (3.87 μM) AOH resulted in a significant increase in estradiol and progesterone production. In the gene expression study following exposure to 1000 ng/ml (3.87 μM) AOH, only one gene NR0B1 was down-regulated, whereas expression of mRNA for CYP1A1, MC2R, HSD3B2, CYP17, CYP21, CYP11B2 and CYP19 was up-regulated. Expression of the other genes investigated did not change significantly. In conclusion AOH is a weak oestrogenic mycotoxin that also has the ability to interfere with the steroidogenesis pathway. - Highlights: • Alternariol was investigated for endocrine disrupting activity. • Reporter gene assays and the H295R steroidogenesis assay have been used. • An oestrogenic effect of alternariol was observed. • This can lead to an increase in expression of the progesterone receptor. • Alternariol is capable of modulating hormone production and gene expression.

  14. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  15. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  16. Osmoregulation and endocrine glands of teleosts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oguri, M

    1970-01-01

    ...), have indicated that the following endocrine glands: thyroid gland, hypophysis, interrenal body, urophysis, corpuscle of stannius and juxtaglomerular cells, are involved in the osmoregulation in teleosts...

  17. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2017-04-01

    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dixon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Around 70% of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha positive and hence their development is highly dependent on estradiol. While the invention of endocrine therapies has revolusioned the treatment of the disease, resistance to therapy eventually occurs in a large number of patients. This paper seeks to illustrate and discuss the complexity and heterogeneity of the mechanisms which underlie resistance and the approaches proposed to combat them. It will also focus on the use and development of methods for predicting which patients are likely to develop resistance.

  19. In vitro bioassay investigations of the endocrine disrupting potential of steviol glycosides and their metabolite steviol, components of the natural sweetener Stevia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Maeve; Rehfeld, Anders; Frizzell, Caroline; Livingstone, Christina; McGonagle, Caoimhe; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Wielogórska, Ewa; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-05-15

    The food industry is moving towards the use of natural sweeteners such as those produced by Stevia rebaudiana due to the number of health and safety concerns surrounding artificial sweeteners. Despite the fact that these sweeteners are natural; they cannot be assumed safe. Steviol glycosides have a steroidal structure and therefore may have the potential to act as an endocrine disruptor in the body. Reporter gene assays (RGAs), H295R steroidogenesis assay and Ca(2+) fluorimetry based assays using human sperm cells have been used to assess the endocrine disrupting potential of two steviol glycosides: stevioside and rebaudioside A, and their metabolite steviol. A decrease in transcriptional activity of the progestagen receptor was seen following treatment with 25,000 ng/ml steviol in the presence of progesterone (157 ng/ml) resulting in a 31% decrease in progestagen response (p=<0.01). At the level of steroidogenesis, the metabolite steviol (500-25,000 ng/ml) increased progesterone production significantly by 2.3 fold when exposed to 10,000 ng/ml (p=<0.05) and 5 fold when exposed to 25,000 ng/ml (p=<0.001). Additionally, steviol was found to induce an agonistic response on CatSper, a progesterone receptor of sperm, causing a rapid influx of Ca(2+). The response was fully inhibited using a specific CatSper inhibitor. These findings highlight the potential for steviol to act as a potential endocrine disruptor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroimmune endocrine effects of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marco Antonioli, Joanna Rybka, LA CarvalhoPsychoimmunology Translational Laboratory, Health Science Research Centre, Roehampton University, London, UKAbstract: Antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date the most often used treatment for depression, but the exact mechanism of action underlying its therapeutic effect is still unclear. Many theories have been put forward to account for depression, as well as antidepressant activity, but none of them is exhaustive. Neuroimmune endocrine impairment is found in depressed patients; high levels of circulating corticosteroids along with hyperactivation of the immune system, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, low levels of melatonin in plasma and urine, and disentrainment of circadian rhythms have been demonstrated. Moreover, antidepressant treatment seems to correct or at least to interfere with these alterations. In this review, we summarize the complex neuroimmune endocrine and chronobiological alterations found in patients with depression and how these systems interact with each other. We also explain how antidepressant therapy can modify these systems, along with some possible mechanisms of action shown in animal and human models.Keywords: antidepressant agents, biological markers, human, cytokines, neuroinflammation, psychoneuroimmunology, endophenotype

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal. Journal Home > Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. People. » Contact ...

  3. Positron emission tomography (PET) in endocrine tumours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine pancreatic tumours is probably limited to those that are less well differentiated and metabolically active. However, a future role for PET imaging in the detection of endocrine tumours, using more specific substrates, appears very promising. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa Vol.

  4. A case of suspect “cyanosis”

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Antonucci; Matteo Conte; Michele Di Pumpo; Giuseppe Antonucci

    2013-01-01

    CLINICAL CASE A 70-year old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever, asthenia and a suspected stroke. Her medical history showed a congenital cardiopathy (Patent Foramen Ovale, PFO). Skin and oral mucosa pigmentation, orthostatic hypotension, hypoglycemia and hyponatriemia arose the suspect of Addison’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by the evaluation of basal levels of plasma ACTH and serum cortisol, and serum cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation. Abdominal CT scan showed...

  5. Synthetic Lethality Triggered by Combining Olaparib with BRCA2-Rad51 Disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchi, Federico; Giacomini, Elisa; Masini, Tiziana; Boutard, Nicolas; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Manerba, Marcella; Farabegoli, Fulvia; Rossini, Lara; Robertson, Janet; Minucci, Saverio; Pallavicini, Isabella; Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Roberti, Marinella; Pellicciari, Roberto; Cavalli, Andrea

    2017-10-20

    In BRCA2-defective cells, poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase inhibitors can trigger synthetic lethality, as two independent DNA-repairing mechanisms are simultaneously impaired. Here, we have pharmacologically induced synthetic lethality, which was triggered by combining two different small organic molecules. When administered with a BRCA2-Rad51 disruptor in nonmutant cells, Olaparib showed anticancer activity comparable to that shown when administered alone in BRCA2-defective cells. This strategy could represent an innovative approach to anticancer drug discovery and could be extended to other synthetic lethality pathways.

  6. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  7. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  8. ENDOCRINE MANIFESTATIONS OF PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Shatha; Eisenberg, Yuval

    2017-11-16

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations. We conducted a PubMed search for articles related to PH1. The terms "primary hyperoxaluria," "nonPTH mediated hypercalcemia," "hypothyroidism," and "hypogonadism" were used to identify pertinent literature. Given the rarity of PH1, there is scant literature regarding the incidence and clinical significance of endocrine manifestations of this disorder. There are rare reports of hypercalcemia secondary to osteoclast-stimulating activity of macrophages in bone granulomas, which occur in response to oxalate deposits. We report that hypercalcemia may also be mediated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 (OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism are thought to be due partly to calcium oxalate deposition in thyroid and testicular tissue. The presented case is the first to report PTHrP mediated hypercalcemia and primary hypogonadism in a patient with PH1. PH1 is a metabolic disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Owing to its rarity, it is not widely recognized in the field of endocrinology, despite presenting with several endocrinopathies. Recognition of endocrine disturbances can result in early and successful treatment, limiting morbidity and improving quality of life in these challenging patients. PH = primary hyperoxaluria; ESRD = end stage renal disease; PTH = parathyroid hormone; 1,25 (OH)2D = 1,25 dihydoxyvitamin D; PTHrP = parathyroid hormone related protein; CKD = chronic kidney disease; AGT = alanine: glyoxylate

  9. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664

  10. Behcet's Disease and Endocrine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet's disease (BD is a chronic disease which is characterized by recurrent oral apthous ulcerations, recurrent genital ulcerations, skin eruptions, ocular involvements and other various systemic manifestations as well as systemic vasculitis. Endocrine involvement in BD regarding various systems can be seen. Hypophysis is one of the best and dense vascularized organs of the body, thus it is likely that it can be affected by BD. Not only anterior hypophysis functions, but posterior hypophysis functions as well can be affected. As BD is a disease of autoimmune process, it may be possible that adrenal insufficiency or alterations in the cortisol levels could be expected. Another concern is whether or not there is insulin resistance in patients with BD. The avaliable data suggests that there is an increased susceptibility to insulin resistance in patients with BD.

  11. Atrazine acts as an endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucka, Marek [Section on Cellular Signaling, Program in Developmental Neuroscience, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Stojilkovic, Stanko S. [Section on Cellular Signaling, Program in Developmental Neuroscience, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kovacevic, Radmila, E-mail: radmila.kovacevic@dbe.uns.ac.rs [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2012-11-15

    Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, acts as an endocrine disruptor, but the mechanism of its action has not been characterized. In this study, we show that atrazine rapidly increases cAMP levels in cultured rat pituitary and testicular Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but less effectively than 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a competitive non-specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase)- and probenecid (an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide transporters)-treated cells, but not in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-treated cells, atrazine further increased cAMP levels, indicating that inhibition of PDEs accounts for accumulation of cAMP. In contrast to cAMP, atrazine did not alter cGMP levels, further indicating that it inhibits cAMP-specific PDEs. Atrazine-induced changes in cAMP levels were sufficient to stimulate prolactin release in pituitary cells and androgen production in Leydig cells, indicating that it acts as an endocrine disrupter both in cells that secrete by exocytosis of prestored hormones and in cells that secrete by de novo hormone synthesis. Rolipram abolished the stimulatory effect of atrazine on cAMP release in both cell types, suggesting that it acts as an inhibitor of PDE4s, isoforms whose mRNA transcripts dominate in pituitary and Leydig cells together with mRNA for PDE8A. In contrast, immortalized lacto-somatotrophs showed low expression of these mRNA transcripts and several fold higher cAMP levels compared to normal pituitary cells, and atrazine was unable to further increase cAMP levels. These results indicate that atrazine acts as a general endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific PDE4s. -- Highlights: ► Atrazine stimulates cAMP accumulation in pituitary and Leydig cells. ► Atrazine also stimulates PRL and androgens secretion. ► Stimulatory effects of atrazine were abolished in cells with IBMX-inhibited PDEs. ► Atrazine specificity toward c

  12. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Laccase production by the aquatic ascomycete Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 and the white rot basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 during submerged cultivation on banana peels and enzyme applicability for the removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libardi, Nelson; Gern, Regina Maria Miranda; Furlan, Sandra Aparecida; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to study the production of laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus DSM 1833 and Phoma sp. UHH 5-1-03 using banana peels as alternative carbon source, the subsequent partial purification and characterization of the enzyme, as well the applicability to degrade endocrine disruptors. The laccase stability with pH and temperature, the optimum pH, the K (m) and V(max) parameters, and the molar mass were determined. Tests were conducted for assessing the ability of degradation of the endocrine disruptors t-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, and 17α-ethinylestradiol. Laccase production of 752 and 1,117 U L⁻¹ was obtained for Phoma sp. and P. ostreatus, respectively. Phoma sp. laccase showed higher stability with temperature and pH. The laccase from both species showed higher affinity by syringaldazine. The culture broth with banana peels induced the production of two isoforms of P. ostreatus (58.7 and 21 kDa) and one of Phoma sp. laccase (72 kDa). In the first day of incubation, the concentrations of bisphenol A and 17α-ethinylestradiol were reduced to values close to zero and after 3 days the concentration of t-nonylphenol was reduced in 90% by the P. ostreatus laccase, but there was no reduction in its concentration by the Phoma sp. laccase.

  14. The phenomenology of specialization of criminal suspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tumminello

    Full Text Available A criminal career can be either general, with the criminal committing different types of crimes, or specialized, with the criminal committing a specific type of crime. A central problem in the study of crime specialization is to determine, from the perspective of the criminal, which crimes should be considered similar and which crimes should be considered distinct. We study a large set of Swedish suspects to empirically investigate generalist and specialist behavior in crime. We show that there is a large group of suspects who can be described as generalists. At the same time, we observe a non-trivial pattern of specialization across age and gender of suspects. Women are less prone to commit crimes of certain types, and, for instance, are more prone to specialize in crimes related to fraud. We also find evidence of temporal specialization of suspects. Older persons are more specialized than younger ones, and some crime types are preferentially committed by suspects of different ages.

  15. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Polycystic ovary syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macut, Djuro; Božić-Antić, Ivana; Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent endocrine disease in women, with a number of metabolic and reproductive consequences. Obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes are prominent metabolic characteristics of PCOS and common factors affecting liver function and generating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Multiple genes involved in the synthesis of androgens, cytokines and IR, as well as acquired factors, such as endocrine disruptors, could associate the etiopathogenesis of PCOS and NAFLD. Besides the high prevalence of PCOS in general population, NAFLD was shown to be a frequent condition in transition periods, such as adolescence and menopause. Although liver biopsy is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing liver damage, its routine use in such a prevalent condition as PCOS can be related to a higher rate of complications. Therefore, it is necessary to be able to diagnose NAFLD using simple and reliable surrogate markers. Recently, fatty liver index and NAFLD fatty liver score analyzed in large cohorts of PCOS women have been shown as accurate markers of liver damage in this metabolically vulnerable population. Lifestyle changes are still the mainstay of the management of NAFLD in PCOS, although prospective randomized controlled clinical studies remain a priority in the field. With regard to medications, metformin may be the drug of choice for treating PCOS patients with NAFLD when pharmacologic therapy is considered. Liraglutide use in obese PCOS has shown favorable effects on the predictors of liver fibrosis. In this review, we aim to summarize the influence of the common risk factors and to discuss the diagnostic approaches and management options for NAFLD in patients with PCOS. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Exposure to modern, widespread environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effect on the reproductive potential of women: an overview of current epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacka, Anetta; Zamkowska, Dorota; Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna

    2017-07-31

    Growing evidence indicates that exposure to widespread, environmental contaminants called endocrine disruptors (EDCs) negatively affects animal and human reproductive health and has been linked to several diseases including infertility. This review aims to evaluate the impact of environmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals [phthalates, parabens, triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA), organochlorine (PCBs) and perfluorinated (PFCs) compounds] on the reproductive potential among women, by reviewing most recently published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on EDCs exposure and reproductive potential among women for the last 16 years were identified by a search of the PUBMED, MEDLINE, EBSCO and TOXNET literature databases. The results of the presented studies show that exposure to EDCs impacts the reproductive potential in women, measured by ovarian reserve and by assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals decrease: (i) oestradiol levels (BPA); (ii) anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations (PCBs); (iii) antral follicle count (BPA, parabens, phthalates); (iv) oocyte quality (BPA, triclosan, phthalates, PCBs); (v) fertilization rate (PFCs, PCBs); (vi) implantation (BPA, phthalates, PCBs); (vii) embryo quality (triclosan, PCBs, BPA); (viii) rate of clinical pregnancy and live births (parabens, phthalates). The studies were mostly well-designed and used prospective cohorts with the exposure assessment based on the biomarker of exposure. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiological data is urgently needed to confirm the presented findings.

  17. Elucidation of endocrine disrupting mechanism of dioxin and related compounds for health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohyama, Chiharu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The important point on health risk assessment for dioxins as well as environmental endocrine disruptors is that we should scientifically evaluate whether the actual exposure level from food and environment may pose a threat to human health not only for the present but also for the future generations. We formulated a research project, called CREST project with support from the Japan Science and Technology Agency, in order to obtain experimental evidence for risk assessment as well as for the mechanism of toxicity. We thus investigated the dose-response relationships of certain 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD)-like compounds for eliciting various endpoints. First, we administered TCDD or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) to rats and mice during the sensitive period from fertilization to birth. Second, we studied what kinds of adverse effects could be observed in terms of reproductive/developmental effects, cognitive/learning abilities and immune functions. Third, we focused on the actual toxicity phenotypes found at the whole body and organ/tissue levels by a forward toxicology approach, and tried to narrow down appropriate phenomena, to study the mechanism on the molecular basis by the reverse toxicology approach. In this presentation, I will summarize the outcome of the CREST project.

  18. Endocrine effects on heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gamberini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors associated with thalassemic heart disease, endocrine disturbance is also a contributing factor. We present a retrospective, cross sectional study, which aims to establish the prevalence of cardiac complications in thalassaemia major (TM patients with endocrine complications and to evaluate the influence of endocrine disease on cardiac complications. Endocrinological and cardiological parameters were considered on 957 TM patients who are enrolled in the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassemia (MIOT network in 68 sites in Italy. Patients with pubertal hypogonadism (163 males and 175 females, hypothyroidism (192, diabetes mellitus (87 and hypoparathyroidism (61, were compared according to cardiac complications: global heart T2*, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, arrythmias, pulmonary hypertension and myocardial fibrosis. Control groups were made up according to the age range of patients with the corresponding endocrinopathy. The prevalence of cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure was significantly increased in patients with endocrinopathies. Cardiac complications tended to increase according to the number of endocrinologies affecting the patient. 与地中海贫血心脏疾病相关的因素中,内分泌失调也是一个促进因素。 我们进行了回顾和断面研究,旨在患有内分泌并发症的重型地中海贫血患者中建立心脏并发症的患病率,以及评估内分泌疾病对心脏并发症的影响。 曾考虑到意大利地中海贫血心肌铁过载(MIOT)网络的68个站点上注册的957名重型地中海贫血患者的内分泌和心脏病学参数。 根据以下心脏并发症对青春期性腺机能减退的患者(男性163名、女性175名)、甲状腺机能减退患者(192名)、糖尿病患者(87名)和甲状旁腺机能减退患者(61名)进行了比较: 心脏 T2*、心功能障碍、心脏衰竭、心率不齐、肺动脉高

  19. A case of suspect “cyanosis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Antonucci

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CLINICAL CASE A 70-year old woman was admitted to our hospital because of fever, asthenia and a suspected stroke. Her medical history showed a congenital cardiopathy (Patent Foramen Ovale, PFO. Skin and oral mucosa pigmentation, orthostatic hypotension, hypoglycemia and hyponatriemia arose the suspect of Addison’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by the evaluation of basal levels of plasma ACTH and serum cortisol, and serum cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation. Abdominal CT scan showed atrophy and calcification of adrenal glands. CONCLUSIONS In most cases, Addison’s disease is provoked by autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex; however, in our reported patient, tuberculosis could be a possible cause.

  20. Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malabsorptive procedures. Weight loss depends on following a strict diet. • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RYGB ... index.cfm). www.hormone.org Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery Patient Guide November 2010

  1. Endocrine Disorders Induced by Antiepileptic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disturbances in adolescent women with epilepsy, and the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs and hormonal contraception are discussed by a pediatric neurologist and epileptologist at the Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

  2. The clandestine organs of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2018-02-01

    This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Report on Criteria for Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather...... new knowledge on endocrine disrupters with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board....... The overall aim of this project is to provide a science based proposal for criteria for endocrine disrupters. The terms of reference for the project specify elements to be included and/or addressed when developing the criteria (Annex 1). Also, several international reports and papers dealing with assessment...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: multiple endocrine neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neoplasia multiple endocrine neoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... stones, thinning of bones, nausea and vomiting, high blood pressure (hypertension), weakness, and fatigue. The most common sign ...

  5. Contribution of the Endocrine Perspective in the Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... issues. This paper aims at discussing the relevance of the endocrine perspective with regard to EDC effects on pubertal timing. Puberty involves particular sensitivity to environmental conditions. Reports about the advancing onset of puberty in several countries have led to the hypothesis...

  6. The pressure reduction coefficient: A new parameter to assess aneurysmal blood stasis induced by flow diverters/disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascou, Gregory; Ferrara, Riccardo; Ambard, Dominique; Sanchez, Mathieu; Lobotesis, Kyriakos; Jourdan, Franck; Costalat, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Background and purpose Pore density (PD), surface metal coverage (SMC) and the number of wires are all different parameters which can influence the efficacy of a flow disruptor/diverter. Nevertheless, the relative importance of a parameter to induce intra-aneurysmal blood stasis is still poorly evaluated. Therefore, comparison between devices based on a unique value is not reliable. The aim of this study was to propose a new bench top parameter (the pressure reduction coefficient (PRC; ξ)) in order to assess the global haemodynamic effect of each flow diverter/disruptor to slow flow. Methods Eight devices were tested in vitro during three different flow conditions. For the eight devices, the PRC was computed at different volumetric flow rates to characterise flow reduction. Comparison was made with SMC, PD and the number of wires. Results The PRC obtained for flow disruptors was on average 1.5 times more efficient in reducing flow compared to flow diverters. PD (mm2) ranged from 24 to 38 for flow diverters and did not independently correlate with the PRC. The SMC of flow diverters ranged from 25% to 70%, and ranged from 20% to 100% for flow disruptors, without independent correlation to the PRC. The number of wires ranged from 48 to 96 for the flow diverters and did not correlate independently to the PRC. Conclusion There were no direct correlations between individual device characteristics and the PRC, suggesting a multifaceted and interrelating association of the overall design of each implant. Hence, the PRC could be used as a simple, reliable parameter to assess the overall capacity of flow disruptors/diverters to induce intra-aneurysmal blood stasis.

  7. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-08-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  8. Wilson′s disease: An endocrine revelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilson′s disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism. The affected patients, who otherwise have a near normal life span, may often suffer from some potentially treatable and under recognized endocrine disorders that may hinder their quality of life. We explored previously published literature on the various endocrine aspects of this disease with their probable underlying mechanisms, highlighting the universal need of research in this area.

  9. Endocrine manifestations of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooten, Rachel; Schmitt, Jessica; Schwartz, Alison

    2018-02-01

    To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures. Risk of thyroid disease is present throughout the life course in individuals with Down syndrome. New approaches and understanding of the pathophysiology and management of subclinical hypothyroidism continue to be explored. Individuals with Down syndrome are also at risk for other autoimmune conditions, with recent research revealing the role of the increased expression of the Autoimmune Regulatory gene on 21st chromosome. Lastly, Down-syndrome-specific growth charts were recently published and provide a better assessment of growth. Recent research confirms and expands on the previously known endocrinopathies in Down syndrome and provides more insight into potential underlying mechanisms.

  10. The endocrine system in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefai, Hisham; Allababidi, Hisham; Levy, Shiri; Levy, Joseph

    2002-07-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is complex and not fully understood. However, it emerges as an abnormal metabolic condition associated with a systemic damage to the vascular bed. Cumulative evidence also reveals that the endocrine system is not intact in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is not clear whether the changes observed in the endocrine system represent a primary defect or reflect the effects of the impaired insulin action and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism on the hormonal milieu. Review of the literature reveals that the function of the entire endocrine system including the functions of hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, the vitamin D system, the gonads, and the endocrine function of the adipose tissue, is impaired. Good metabolic control and insulin treatment may reverse some of these abnormalities. It remains unanswered as to what extent these changes in the endocrine system contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in individuals affected by diabetes mellitus and whether part of the abnormalities observed in the endocrine system reflect a basic cellular defect in the diabetic syndrome.

  11. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  12. Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Signs and symptoms of congenital malaria do not differ much from those of neonatal sepsis: both can co-exist, and most times very difficult to differentiate clinically. Objective: To document the prevalence, risk factors for congeni tal malar ia among neonates admitted for suspected neonatal sepsis, and ...

  13. Congenital Malaria Among Newborns Admitted for Suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None of the clinical feature had good sensitivity, specificity or predictive value for congenital malaria, and only 1.6% death was recorded in a baby with high parasite density. Conclusion: Congenital malaria is common in newborns with suspected neonatal sepsis. History of peripartum pyrexia, prematurity and intrauterine ...

  14. MRI for clinically suspected appendicitis during pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, L.P.; Groot, I.; Haans, L.; Blickman, J.G.; Puylaert, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether MRI can be used to accurately diagnose or exclude appendicitis in pregnant patients with clinically suspected appendicitis. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that MRI is helpful in the examination and diagnosis of acute appendicitis in

  15. Biomechanical properties of keratoconus suspect eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Alain; Lteif, Yara; Azan, Elodie; Gatinel, Damien

    2010-06-01

    Measuring corneal biomechanical properties may help detect keratoconus suspect corneas and eliminate the risk of ectasia after LASIK. Data of 504 eyes separated into three groups were retrospectively reviewed: normal (n = 252), keratoconus suspect (n = 80), and keratoconus (n = 172). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with an ocular biomechanics analyzer. Mean corneal hysteresis was 10.6 +/- 1.4 (SD) mm Hg in the normal group, compared with 10.0 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the keratoconus suspect group and 8.1 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in the keratoconus group. The mean CRF was 10.6 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the normal group compared with 9.7 +/- 1.7 in the keratoconus suspect group and 7.1 +/- 1.6 mm Hg in the keratoconus group. Mean CH and CRF were significantly different between the three groups (P corneas. Analyzing signal curves obtained with the biomechanics analyzer may provide additional valuable information for selecting qualified patients for refractive surgery.

  16. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  18. Association between glycodelin and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in Iranian breast cancer patients: impact of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Korani, Mitra; Bozorgi, Niloofar; Zavarhei, Mansour Djamali; Ziarati, Parisa; Akbarzadeh, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer affects Iranian women one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the underlying risk factors have remained controversial. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the effects of many environmental endocrine disruptors and contributes to the many other genes and Gd is an endocrine-regulated glycoprotein which may induce by AhR ligands in endometrium. This study has aimed to compare the interactions between Gd and AhR and other fundamental genes (p53, K-Ras, ER, PgR, AR) between pre and post menopausal Iranian breast cancer patients. To conduct immunohistochemical studies with appropriate monoclonal antibodies, 25 premenopausal invasive ductal carcinomas and 29 postmenopausal invasive ductal carcinomas were selected retrospectively in 2008-2010 from the pathology department of Imam Khomeini hospital complex of Tehran. Higher levels of AhR in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients and breast fibroadenoma emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental induced tumors. Current study demonstrated a significant association between tumoral levels of Gd and AhR (p=0.002) in breast cancers which confirms the preliminary hypothesis about the role of TCDD exposure on Gd biosynthesis and secretion in TCDD-treated endometrial epithelial cells. In summary this study showed the dual prognostic role of Gd especially in premenopausal breast cancer which could be induced by AhR overexpression. Further studies are necessary to find the direct role of breast carcinogens as well as endocrine disrupting chemicals on the differential levels of Gd in breast tumors.

  19. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  20. [The effect of long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor ddt on serum levels of thyroid protein autoantigenes and antithyroid autoantibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaglova, N V; Yaglov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Changes in secretion of thyroid autoantigenes and production of antithyroid autoantibodies after long-term exposure to low doses of DDT were studied. Changes in serum levels of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies and thyroid peroxidase, attributed to disruption of thyroxine production by DDT were found. Long-term exposure of rats to low doses of DDT revealed no specific impact on serum autoantibodies to all thyroid autoantigenes studied. The increase of the ratio of autoantibody/autoantigen for thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin was rather small and thus could not be considered as a significant symptom of thyroid autoimmunity.

  1. Fetal and neonatal exposure to the endocrine disruptor, methoxychlor, reduces lean body mass and bone mineral density and increases cortical porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagnant, Heather S; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Buckendahl, Patricia; Dunn, Michael G; Shupper, Peter; Shapses, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous estrogen has beneficial effects on mature bone and negatively affects the developing skeleton, whereas the effect of environmental estrogens is not known. Methoxychlor (MXC) is a synthetic estrogen known as a persistent organochlorine and used as a pesticide. Methoxychlor and its metabolites display estrogenic, anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity and may therefore influence bone. Fifty-eight male fetal and neonatal rats were exposed to either: a negative control (DMSO), 0.020, 100 mg/kg MXC, or 1 mg/kg β-estradiol-3-benzoate (EB; positive control). Rats were treated daily for 11 days, from embryonic day 19 to postnatal day (PND) 7 or for 4 days during the postnatal period (PND 0-7). All rats were analyzed at PND-84. Total body, femur, spine, and tibia areal bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), lean body mass (LBM) and fat were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone geometry and volumetric (v) BMD were measured using micro-computed tomography and biomechanical properties using three-point bending were assessed. Rats exposed to EB or MXC (at either the high and/or low dose), independent of exposure interval showed lower body weight, LBM, tibia and femur BMD and length, and total body BMD and BMC than DMSO control group (p ≤ 0.05). Methoxychlor and EB exposure increased cortical porosity compared to DMSO controls. Trabecular vBMD, number and separation, and cortical polar moment of inertia and cross-sectional area were lower due to EB exposure compared to control (p < 0.05). Early MXC exposure compromises cortical porosity and bone size at maturity, and could ultimately increase the risk of fracture with aging.

  2. Simultaneous Analysis of Endocrine Disruptors, 4-Alkylphenol and Bisphenol A, Contained in Synthetic Resin Products Used for Drug Containers and Household Utensils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakurai, Katsumi; Sugaya, Naeko; Nakagawa, Tomoo; Uchiyama, Taketo; Fujimoto, Yasuo; Takahashi, Kunio

    2005-01-01

    .... Considering the importance of investigations of the chemical structure of 4-nonylphenol contained in commonly used synthetic resin products, we investigated an analytical method of individual isomers...

  3. Standardized application of yeast bioluminescent reporters as endocrine disruptor screen for comparative analysis of wastewater effluents from membrane bioreactor and traditional activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Eldridge, Melanie; Menn, Fu-min; Dykes, Todd; Sayler, Gary

    2015-12-01

    A standardized protocol is demonstrated for bioluminescent strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BLYES, BLYAS and BLYR as high-throughput screening tools to monitor the estrogenic, androgenic and toxic potencies in wastewater. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay in wastewater monitoring was evaluated for 7 day semi-continuous batch reactor using activated sludge with hormones spiked raw sewage. Yeast bioluminescent assay successfully captured the rapid removal of estrogenic and androgenic activities in the bioreactors, and demonstrated rapid response (≤4 h) with good reproducibility. This standardized protocol was then applied in a 12 months monitoring of the effluent of a WWTP located at Powell, TN, USA featuring parallel-operated full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) and traditional activated sludge (TAS) treatment. Monitoring results showed that estrogenic activity was persistent in all TAS and most MBR effluent samples, while residual androgenic activity was non-detectable throughout the monitored period. The estrogenic equivalents (EEQ) in TAS effluent ranged from 21.61 ng/L to 0.04 pg/L and averaged 3.25 ng/L. The EEQ in MBR effluent ranged from 2.88 ng/L to 0.0134 pg/L and averaged ~10 fold less (0.32 ng/L) than TAS. Despite the large temporal variation, MBR effluent EEQ was consistently lower than TAS on any given sampling date. Most MBR effluent samples also exhibited less cytotoxicity than TAS. Further analysis did not demonstrate significant correlation between effluent EEQ level and WWTP operational parameters including MLSS, SRT, HRT and BOD.

  4. Endocrine disruptors found in food contaminants enhance allergic sensitization through an oxidative stress that promotes the development of allergic airway inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takuma, E-mail: katotaku@doc.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Wang, Linan [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Murata, Mariko [Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Kuribayashi, Kagemasa [Department of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    In the past few decades, there has been a significant increase in incidence of allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis may provide some clues to explain this rising trend, but it may also be attributable to other environmental factors that exert a proallergic adjuvant effects. However, there is limited information on the risks of developing allergic asthma and related diseases through the ingestion of environmental chemicals found in food contaminants. In the present study, we have shown that oral administration of tributyltin, used as a model environmental chemical, induced oxidative-stress status in the bronchial lymph node, mesenteric lymph node and spleen, but not in the lung, where the initial step of allergic asthma pathogenesis takes place. Mice exposed to tributyltin exhibited heightened Th2 immunity to the allergen with more severe airway inflammation. Tributyltin also induced Treg cells apoptosis preferentially over non-Treg cells. All these effects of tributyltin exposure were canceled by the administration of glutathione monoethyl ester. Meanwhile, tributyltin did not affect airway inflammation of mice transferred with allergen-specific Th2 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that tributyltin exerts its pathological effect during the sensitization phase through oxidative stress that enhances the development of allergic diseases. The current study dissects the pathogenic role of oxidative stress induced by oral exposure to an environmental chemical during the sensitization phase of allergic airway inflammation and would be important for developing therapeutics for prevention of allergic diseases. - Highlights: • Oral exposure to TBT exacerbates airway inflammation. • TBT induces oxidative stress in secondary lymphoid organs, but not in the lung. • TBT preferentially induces regulatory T cell apoptosis over non-Treg cells. • TBT does not enhance pre-existing airway inflammation in sensitized mice. • Chemicals in food contaminants contribute to allergic asthma via oxidative stress.

  5. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  6. The evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Cindy W

    2015-05-01

    Child physical abuse is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and is associated with major physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Pediatricians are in a unique position to identify and prevent child abuse, and this clinical report provides guidance to the practitioner regarding indicators and evaluation of suspected physical abuse of children. The role of the physician may include identifying abused children with suspicious injuries who present for care, reporting suspected abuse to the child protection agency for investigation, supporting families who are affected by child abuse, coordinating with other professionals and community agencies to provide immediate and long-term treatment to victimized children, providing court testimony when necessary, providing preventive care and anticipatory guidance in the office, and advocating for policies and programs that support families and protect vulnerable children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Evidence for endocrine disruption in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetken, Matthias; Bachmann, Jean; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption (ED) in invertebrates has generated remarkably little interest in the past compared to research with aquatic vertebrates in this area. However, with more than 95% of all known species in the animal kingdom, invertebrates constitute a very important part of the global biodiversity with key species for the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that ED in invertebrates has been investigated on a smaller scale than in vertebrates, invertebrates provide some of the best documented examples for deleterious effects in wildlife populations following an exposure to endocrine-active substances. The article provides an overview of the diversity in endocrine systems of invertebrates. The principal susceptibility of invertebrates to endocrine-active compounds is demonstrated with the case studies of tributyltin effects in mollusks and of insect growth regulators, the latter as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters. The additional evidence for ED in invertebrates from laboratory and field studies is summarized as an update and amendment of the EDIETA report from 1998. Finally, conclusions about the scale and implications of the observed effects are drawn and research needs are defined.

  8. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  9. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Endocrine sequelae in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casano Sancho, Paula

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to the advances in cancer treatment, the five-year survival rate after childhood cancer has increased up to 80%. Therefore 1/500 young adults will be a survivor. Endocrine sequelae are most common, affecting 40-60% of survivors. The most frequent sequelae include growth failure and gonadal and thyroid diseases. Sequelae occur more frequently in survivors from central nervous system tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma. Their development will depend on the type of cancer, its location, age at diagnosis, and treatment administered. Treatments associated to more endocrine sequels are cranial radiotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Because of the high prevalence of endocrine sequelae, international guidelines recommend endocrinologists to prospectively evaluate the survivors. As some of these endocrine changes will not develop until adult life, transition programs should be implemented, and active investigation should be made to decrease the endocrine consequences of cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  13. Glaucoma suspect & Humphrey Field Analyzer a correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma originally meant "clouded", in Greek.The term glaucoma refers to a group of diseases that have in common characteristic optic neuropathy with associated visual field loss for which elevated intraocular pressure is one of the primary risk factor. The purpose of the study is to correlate the clinically diagnosed cases of glaucoma suspect with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA. Fifty cases of glaucoma suspect who attended the glaucoma clinic of Nepal Eye Hospital Tripureswor, Kathmandu, Nepal and who meets at least two criteria, among the four types of glaucoma suspects were advised for the HFA for the study. In this study out of 50 patient, 36 (72% patients had normal visual field. 14 (28% patients had thinning of the neural retinal rim (NRR in both eyes. The significant relation with thinning of neural retina rim and glaucomatous hemifield test was found in the study. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-1, 23-28 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i1.6822

  14. Tocolytics for suspected intrapartum fetal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulier, R; Hofmeyr, G J

    2000-01-01

    Prophylactic tocolysis with betamimetics and other agents has become widespread as a treatment for fetal distress. Uterine relaxation may improve placental blood flow and therefore fetal oxygenation. However there may also be adverse maternal cardiovascular effects. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of tocolytic therapy for suspected fetal distress on fetal, maternal and perinatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Date of last search: February 1999. Randomised trials comparing tocolytic therapy with no treatment or treatment with another tocolytic agent for suspected fetal distress. Two reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted data. Three studies were included. Compared with no treatment, there were fewer failed improvements in fetal heart rate abnormalities with tocolytic therapy (relative risk 0.26, 95% 0.13 to 0.53). Betamimetic therapy compared with magnesium sulphate showed a non-significant trend towards reduced uterine activity (relative risk 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 1.10). Betamimetic therapy appears to be able to reduce the number of fetal heart rate abnormalities and perhaps reduce uterine activity. However there is not enough evidence based on clinically important outcomes to evaluate the use of betamimetics for suspected fetal distress.

  15. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG......) to assess the effect of chemicals in molluscs. To date no endocrine specific mollusc biomarkers have though been validated and included in draft test guidelines due to lack of knowledge of the endocrine system. Here we investigate effects of pharmaceuticals targeting serotonin and dopamine in a cost...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L...

  16. Multiple endocrine neoplasia: the Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René E. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN types 1 and 2 are genetic diseases that are inherited as autosomal traits. The major clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 include the so-called "3 P's": parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic tumors, including gastroenteroneuroendocrine tumors. Genetic testing can be performed on patients and the potential carriers of the menin gene mutation, but the genotype-phenotype correlation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is less straightforward than multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Most likely, the main advantage of genetic testing in MEN1 is to exclude from further studies those who are negative for the genetic mutation if they belong to a family with a known history of MEN1. In Chile, we started with rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene genetic testing (MEN2 15 years ago. We carried out a prophylactic total thyroidectomy to prevent medullary thyroid carcinoma in a three-year-old girl who presented with microscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma. More than 90% of the individuals who tested positive using a genetic test achieved a biochemical cure compared with only 27% of patients who receive a clinical diagnosis. Mutations are mainly located in exon 11; the most common is C634W, rather than C634R. Hypertensive crisis was the cause of death in three patients, and extensive distant metastases occurred in nine (including two patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B of 14 patients. Earlier recognition of medullary thyroid carcinoma and the other features of the disease, especially pheochromocytoma, will improve the survival rate of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  17. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...

  19. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a r...

  20. CT-guided biopsy of suspected malignancy: A potential pitfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-secreting neuro-endocrine tumours that can arise from sympathetic or parasympathetic tissue. Any manipulation of these tumours, without appropriate medical therapy, can result in excess catecholamine release leading to a catecholamine crisis. Neuro-endocrine tumours must be ...

  1. Prevalence of glaucoma suspects and pattern of intra-ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma is the commonest cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Some glaucoma patients start out as glaucoma suspects for years. Aim: To determine the prevalence of glaucoma suspects and pattern of intra-ocular pressure distribution in glaucoma suspects. Methods: This survey was carried out in ...

  2. Nuclear Pedigree Criteria of Suspected HNPCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kładny Józef

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The criteria for the diagnosis of HNPCC established by the ICG-HNPCC are very restrictive as they do not allow for the diagnosis of a large number of "suspected HNPCC" cases - these are families which do no fulfill the strict diagnostic "Amsterdam criteria", but do present with several pedigree and clinical features characteristic for HNPCC. Several series of families suspected of harboring germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes have been studied for germline changes in DNA mismatch repair genes and a mutation rate of somewhere between 8-60% was found. Therefore a subgroup of members of the ICG-HNPCC has been working on pedigree/clinical diagnostic criteria for suspected HNPCC. Materials and methods Part I The study was based on two series of colorectal cancer (CRC cases: 1 HNPCC - this group comprised 190 patients affected by CRC from randomly selected families which fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria registered in Düsseldorf, Germany (102 cases of CRC, Denmark (18 CRCs, Leiden, Holland (23 CRCs and Szczecin, Poland (47 CRCs. 2 Consecutive CRCs - this group comprised 629 (78.0% of 806 individuals with CRC diagnosed in 1991-1997 in the city of Szczecin (ca. 400,000 of inhabitants, Poland. Nuclear pedigrees in both groups were compared for frequency of occurrence of clinical features, that have been shown to be associated with HNPCC. Part II 52 consecutive CRC cases from Szczecin, matching the criteria recognized in part I as appropriate for diagnosis of cases "suspected of HNPCC" were studied for the occurrence of germline hMSH2/hMLH1 constitutional mutations using "exon by exon" sequencing. Results The combination of features - i.e. the occurrence of an HNPCC associated cancer (CRC or cancer of the endometrium, small bowel or urinary tract in a 1st degree relative of a CRC patient; at least one of the patients being diagnosed under age of 50 - appeared to be strongly associated to HNPCC with an OR - 161. Constitutional

  3. Schedule for Rating Disabilities; the Endocrine System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) by revising the portion of the Schedule that addresses endocrine conditions and disorders of the endocrine system. The effect of this action is to ensure that the VASRD uses current medical terminology and to provide detailed and updated criteria for evaluation of endocrine disorders.

  4. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental "Obesogen" Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-07-28

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called "obesogenic environment". Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity.

  5. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, and f) effect on PPAR α and γ using a transactivation assay. For the in vitro metabolism studies, ten selected EDCs: five azole fungicides, three parabens, and two phthalates, were tested in vitro in the T-screen assay to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDCs to bind to and activate...... when looking at the metabolism of the azole fungicides. The PCBinduced rat microsomes gave a statistically significant difference between the amount of parent compound before and after treatment with the microsomes for four out of the five azole fungicides tested. When using the human liver S9...

  6. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  7. Primary endocrine-secreting pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C

    1980-04-01

    Insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), vipoma, somatostatinoma and a tumor that secretes human pancreatic polypeptide are the primary endocrine-secreting tumors of the pancreas. hormones are produced by specific tumor cell types and cause a variety of dramatic clinical pictures. Diagnosis often requires hormone assays. Computerized tomography may be helpful. Definitive surgical treatment is possible, but metastases may be present.

  8. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many chemicals have recently been demonstrated to be Endocrine-disrupting compounds and may potential interfere with normal reproductive processes. In this study, we quantified the effect of Bonnylight crude oil contaminated diet on Wister albino rats. Forty-five rats (twenty male and twenty five females) were expose to ...

  9. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting activity of Bonny light crude oil contaminated - diet on Wistar albino rats. Olawale OTITOJU. 1* and Ikechukwu N. E. ONWURAH. 2. 1Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, P M B 1008 Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. 2Dept of Biochemistry, Pollution ...

  10. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  11. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  12. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify...

  13. [Early endocrine complications in childhood cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, Cristina; Andrades Toledo, Mónica; Cárdeno Morales, Álvaro; Gutiérrez Carrasco, Ignacio; Ramírez Villar, Gema Lucía; Pérez Hurtado, José María; García García, Emilio

    2016-10-21

    The treatment of childhood cancers has increased survival rates, but also the risk of sequelae, such as endocrine complications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood malignant tumors within the first years after treatment and analyze the variables related to their appearance. A retrospective medical record review of patients referred to pediatric endocrinology after treatment of malignancy. Outcome measures were frequency and types of endocrine dysfunction and new-onset obesity. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed every 6 months. Statistics tests were: chi square and multiple logistic regression. Fifty five patients (26 women) were included with an age at diagnosis of tumour (mean±standard deviation) 6.0±4.4 years and followed up for 6.8±3.6 years. Thirty endocrine disorders were diagnosed in 26 patients (47.3%), 17 women (P=.01). Eleven adolescents had primary hypogonadism (26.2% to 0.6±0.5 years of follow-up) in relation to local irradiation (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.99, P=.005). Eleven patients had a pituitary disorder (20.0%) 5.2±2.4 years after diagnosis in relation to brain irradiation (OR 1.54, P=.039). Six children (10.9%) had primary hypothyroidism from 3.2±1.0 years of follow-up. Two children developed obesity. Endocrine disorders are frequently seen within the first years after diagnosis of a childhood cancer, so hormonal evaluation should start early and be repeated periodically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  15. Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Wylie C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Gooren, Louis J; Meyer, Walter J; Spack, Norman P; Tangpricha, Vin; Montori, Victor M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for endocrine treatment of transsexual persons. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence, which was low or very low. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society, European Society of Endocrinology, European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and World Professional Association for Transgender Health commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Transsexual persons seeking to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender require a safe, effective hormone regimen that will 1) suppress endogenous hormone secretion determined by the person's genetic/biologic sex and 2) maintain sex hormone levels within the normal range for the person's desired gender. A mental health professional (MHP) must recommend endocrine treatment and participate in ongoing care throughout the endocrine transition and decision for surgical sex reassignment. The endocrinologist must confirm the diagnostic criteria the MHP used to make these recommendations. Because a diagnosis of transsexualism in a prepubertal child cannot be made with certainty, we do not recommend endocrine treatment of prepubertal children. We recommend treating transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2) by suppressing puberty with GnRH analogues until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. We suggest suppressing endogenous sex hormones, maintaining physiologic levels of gender-appropriate sex hormones and monitoring for known risks in adult transsexual persons.

  16. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  17. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Greg K; Taylor, Howard E; Kiesling, Richard L; Ferrey, Mark L; Jahns, Nathan D; Bartell, Steve E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17β-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Population Survey of Iodine Deficiency and Environmental Disruptors of Thyroid Function in Young Children in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Oettingen, Julia E; Brathwaite, Tesha D; Carpenter, Christopher; Bonnell, Ric; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Larco, Philippe; Larco, Nancy Charles; Jean-Baptiste, Eddy; Brown, Rosalind S

    2017-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable neurodevelopmental delay in children worldwide and a possible public health concern in Haiti. To determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Haitian young children and its influence by environmental factors. Cross-sectional study, March through June 2015. Community churches in 3 geographical regions in Haiti. 299 healthy Haitian children aged 9 months to 6 years; one-third each enrolled in a coastal, mountainous, and urban region. Urinary iodide, serum thyrotropin (TSH), goiter assessment, and urinary perchlorate and thiocyanate. Mean age was 3.3±1.6 years, with 51% female, median family income USD 30/week, and 16% malnutrition. Median urinary iodide levels were normal in coastal (145 μg/L, interquartile range [IQR] 97 to 241) and urban regions (187 μg/L, IQR 92 to 316), but revealed mild iodine deficiency in a mountainous region (89 μg/L, IQR 56 to 129), P Haiti's mountainous regions. Exposure to two well-understood environmental thyroid function disruptors is limited.

  19. Paternal Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals as a Risk Factor for Leukaemia in Children: A Case-Control Study from the North of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupations with exposures to a variety of chemicals, including those thought to be potential endocrine disruptors, have been associated with an increased risk of leukaemia in offspring. We investigated whether an association exists between paternal occupations at birth involving such exposures and risk of leukaemia in offspring. Cases (n=958 were matched, on sex and year of birth, to controls from two independent sources, one other cancers, one cancer-free live births. Paternal occupations at birth were classified, using an occupational exposure matrix, as having “very unlikely,” “possible,” or “likely” exposure to six groups of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals. There was a significantly increased risk of acute nonlymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL for polychlorinated organic compounds (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08–3.54 only in comparison with cancer-free controls, and for phthalates (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00–2.61 only with registry controls. A number of other, including inverse, associations were seen, but limited to one control group only. No associations were seen with likely paternal exposure to heavy metals. The associations identified in this study require further investigation, with better exposure and potential confounding (for example maternal variables information, to evaluate the likelihood of true associations to assess whether they are real or due to chance.

  20. Molecular analysis of endocrine disruption in hornyhead turbot at wastewater outfalls in southern california using a second generation multi-species microarray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Baker

    Full Text Available Sentinel fish hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthysverticalis captured near wastewater outfalls are used for monitoring exposure to industrial and agricultural chemicals of ~ 20 million people living in coastal Southern California. Although analyses of hormones in blood and organ morphology and histology are useful for assessing contaminant exposure, there is a need for quantitative and sensitive molecular measurements, since contaminants of emerging concern are known to produce subtle effects. We developed a second generation multi-species microarray with expanded content and sensitivity to investigate endocrine disruption in turbot captured near wastewater outfalls in San Diego, Orange County and Los Angeles California. Analysis of expression of genes involved in hormone [e.g., estrogen, androgen, thyroid] responses and xenobiotic metabolism in turbot livers was correlated with a series of phenotypic end points. Molecular analyses of turbot livers uncovered altered expression of vitellogenin and zona pellucida protein, indicating exposure to one or more estrogenic chemicals, as well as, alterations in cytochrome P450 (CYP 1A, CYP3A and glutathione S-transferase-α indicating induction of the detoxification response. Molecular responses indicative of exposure to endocrine disruptors were observed in field-caught hornyhead turbot captured in Southern California demonstrating the utility of molecular methods for monitoring environmental chemicals in wastewater outfalls. Moreover, this approach can be adapted to monitor other sites for contaminants of emerging concern in other fish species for which there are few available gene sequences.

  1. Dermal uptake of benzophenone-3 from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Benzophenone-3 (aka BP-3, oxybenzone) is added to sunscreens, plastics and some coatings to filter UV radiation. A suspected endocrine disruptor, BP-3 has been widely detected and ot only in summertime, where a more intended use of sunscreen might be expected in the urine of Danish children...

  2. Synthesis of acrylate guar-gum for delivery of bio-active molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, it is a neu- rotoxin and is a suspected endocrine disruptor. It has also been associated with asthma, reproductive and developmen- tal toxicity. Recent research indicates that foetus exposed to chlorpyrifos have an increased risk of delays in mental and motor development after birth and an increased occurrence of.

  3. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and GH and an increase (P<0.01) in the serum concentration of TSH at PNDs 17 and 18. These conspicuous perturbations led to some histopathological deterioration in the thyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (P<0.01) serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor and lower (P<0.01) serum concentrations of IGF1 and insulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  4. Endocrine disruption of phenanthrene in the protogynous dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae: Perciformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Mariana Frias; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2017-06-23

    The dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish, that maintains high levels of plasma steroids as juveniles, as substrates for sex inversion. These fish are exposed to marine pollution from oil spills during cargo handling. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (Phe), are the main crude oil components and are toxic to fish, acting as endocrine disruptors (ED). This is the first study that investigated impacts of Phe as an ED in E. marginatus juveniles. An in vivo sublethal exposure (96h) to Phe was carried out at two concentrations (0.1mg/L and 1mg/L); exposure to the vehicle (ethanol; ETOH) was also performed. Plasma levels of 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were measured by ELISA. Gonads, liver and spleen were processed for histological analysis. In an in vitro bioassay, gonad fragments were incubated with Phe (8.91mg/L) or ETOH. Steroid levels in the culture media were measured by ELISA. The in vivo exposure to Phe triggered an increase of the area of the hepatocytes, increased number of melanomacrophagic centers and hemosiderosis in the spleen; ETOH induced similar effects on spleen. E2 and T levels did not change in plasma or in vitro media. In plasma, ETOH decreased 11-KT levels. Phenanthrene sharply reduced 11-KT levels in vitro. Although in vivo bioassay results were not unequivocal owing to ethanol effects, Phe might disrupt steroidogenesis in juvenile grouper, possibly causing dysfunctions during sex change and gonadal maturity, considering the importance of 11-KT in developing ovaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endocrine disrupting effects of zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol at the level of nuclear receptor binding and steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzell, C; Ndossi, D; Verhaegen, S; Dahl, E; Eriksen, G; Sørlie, M; Ropstad, E; Muller, M; Elliott, C T; Connolly, L

    2011-10-10

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) is a secondary metabolite of fungi which is produced by certain species of the genus Fusarium and can occur in cereals and other plant products. Reporter gene assays incorporating natural steroid receptors and the H295R steroidogenesis assay have been implemented to assess the endocrine disrupting activity of ZEN and its metabolites α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) and β-zearalenol (β-ZOL). α-ZOL exhibited the strongest estrogenic potency (EC(50) 0.022±0.001 nM), slightly less potent than 17-β estradiol (EC(50) 0.015±0.002 nM). ZEN was ~70 times less potent than α-ZOL and twice as potent as β-ZOL. Binding of progesterone to the progestagen receptor was shown to be synergistically increased in the presence of ZEN, α-ZOL or β-ZOL. ZEN, α-ZOL or β-ZOL increased production of progesterone, estradiol, testosterone and cortisol hormones in the H295R steroidogenesis assay, with peak productions at 10 μM. At 100 μM, cell viability decreased and levels of hormones were significantly reduced except for progesterone. β-ZOL increased estradiol concentrations more than α-ZOL or ZEN, with a maximum effect at 10 μM, with β-ZOL (562±59 pg/ml)>α-ZOL (494±60 pg/ml)>ZEN (375±43 pg/ml). The results indicate that ZEN and its metabolites can act as potential endocrine disruptors at the level of nuclear receptor signalling and by altering hormone production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of Breast, Prostate, Testicular, and Thyroid Cancer in Italian Contaminated Sites with Presence of Substances with Endocrine Disrupting Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benedetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of breast (females, prostate, testicular, and thyroid cancer in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs, served by cancer registries, where the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs, reported to be linked to these tumours, was documented. Evidence of carcinogenicity of EDs present in NPCSs was assessed based on evaluation by international scientific institutions and committees. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs were computed for each NPCS and cancer site between 1996 and 2005. Excess incidence of one or more cancer site studied was found in twelve out of fourteen NPCSs. Significantly increased SIRs were found for breast cancer in eight NPCSs, for prostate cancer in six, for thyroid cancer (both gender in four, and for testicular cancer in two. Non-significantly increased SIRs were found in five NPCSs for testicular cancer and in two for thyroid cancer (males. In a small number of instances a significant deficit was reported, mainly for thyroid and prostate cancer. Although increased incidence of one or more cancer sites studied were found in several NPCSs, the ecological study design and the multifactorial aetiology of the considered tumours do not permit concluding causal links with environmental contamination. Regarding the observation of some excesses in SIRs, continuing epidemiological surveillance is warranted.

  7. Incidence of Breast, Prostate, Testicular, and Thyroid Cancer in Italian Contaminated Sites with Presence of Substances with Endocrine Disrupting Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Marta; Zona, Amerigo; Beccaloni, Eleonora; Carere, Mario; Comba, Pietro

    2017-03-29

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of breast (females), prostate, testicular, and thyroid cancer in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs), served by cancer registries, where the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs), reported to be linked to these tumours, was documented. Evidence of carcinogenicity of EDs present in NPCSs was assessed based on evaluation by international scientific institutions and committees. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were computed for each NPCS and cancer site between 1996 and 2005. Excess incidence of one or more cancer site studied was found in twelve out of fourteen NPCSs. Significantly increased SIRs were found for breast cancer in eight NPCSs, for prostate cancer in six, for thyroid cancer (both gender) in four, and for testicular cancer in two. Non-significantly increased SIRs were found in five NPCSs for testicular cancer and in two for thyroid cancer (males). In a small number of instances a significant deficit was reported, mainly for thyroid and prostate cancer. Although increased incidence of one or more cancer sites studied were found in several NPCSs, the ecological study design and the multifactorial aetiology of the considered tumours do not permit concluding causal links with environmental contamination. Regarding the observation of some excesses in SIRs, continuing epidemiological surveillance is warranted.

  8. Perspectivas en disrupción endocrina Perspectives in endocrine disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available La descripción de alteraciones en la función reproductora de algunas especies de animales salvajes, junto a la demostración de la exposición humana y animal a sustancias químicas con actividad hormonal ­agonista y antagonista­ generó, hace dos décadas, lo que se conoce hoy día como hipótesis de disrupción endocrina. Se trata de un problema emergente de salud medioambiental que ha cuestionado algunos de los paradigmas en que se fundamenta el control y la regulación de uso de los compuestos químicos. La necesidad de incluir en los tests toxicológicos habituales nuevos objetivos de investigación, que se refieren específicamente al desarrollo y crecimiento de las especies y a la homeostasis y funcionalidad de los sistemas hormonales, ha venido a complicar tanto la evaluación de los nuevos compuestos químicos como la revaluación de los existentes. Sus repercusiones sobre la reglamentación y el comercio internacional no se han hecho esperar y a ambos lados del Atlántico se han diseñado y establecido sistemas de cribado de disruptores endocrinos y se han desarrollado programas de investigación con objeto de cualificar y cuantificar los efectos adversos sobre la salud humana y animal y poder actuar con medidas de prevención.Two decades ago, reports of alterations in the reproductive function of some wild animal species and clear evidence of human and animal exposure to chemical substances with hormonal activity ­agonist and antagonist­ generated what is known now as the hypothesis of endocrine disruption. This is an emerging environmental health problem that has challenged some of the paradigms on which the control and regulation of the use of chemical compounds is based. The need to include in routine toxicology tests new research objectives that specifically refer to the development and growth of species and to the homeostasis and functionality of hormonal systems, has served to complicate both the evaluation of new

  9. Monogenic autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  12. Paraoxonase 1 Activity in Endocrine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tarçın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase is an esterase bound to high-density lipoproteins which by metabolizing lipid peroxides, prevents their accumulation on low-density lipoproteins. It also hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds. Considering the role of PON1 in hydrolyzing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides and thus protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, it can be concluded that PON1 may be an indicator of the risk of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease development. Recent studies have also shown that PON activity was related to several disorders, including endocrine disorders as well. In this paper, we review the relation of PON1 activity with endocrine diseases like diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, osteoporosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, obesity and dyslipidemia. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 33-8

  13. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  14. Endocrine dysfunction in patients of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18-70 years, any duration in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40 and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3, growth hormone (GH deficiency (n = 2, primary hypogonadism (n = 2 and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study.

  15. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Trbojević, Božo

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l), or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l) hypothyrodi...

  16. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagusnerve

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural-crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from ...

  17. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  18. The Stapled AKAP Disruptor Peptide STAD-2 Displays Antimalarial Activity through a PKA-Independent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana R Flaherty

    Full Text Available Drug resistance poses a significant threat to ongoing malaria control efforts. Coupled with lack of a malaria vaccine, there is an urgent need for the development of new antimalarials with novel mechanisms of action and low susceptibility to parasite drug resistance. Protein Kinase A (PKA has been implicated as a critical regulator of pathogenesis in malaria. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effects of disrupted PKA signaling as a possible strategy for inhibition of parasite replication. Host PKA activity is partly regulated by a class of proteins called A Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs, and interaction between HsPKA and AKAP can be inhibited by the stapled peptide Stapled AKAP Disruptor 2 (STAD-2. STAD-2 was tested for permeability to and activity against Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites in vitro. The compound was selectively permeable only to infected red blood cells (iRBC and demonstrated rapid antiplasmodial activity, possibly via iRBC lysis (IC50 ≈ 1 μM. STAD-2 localized within the parasite almost immediately post-treatment but showed no evidence of direct association with PKA, indicating that STAD-2 acts via a PKA-independent mechanism. Furosemide-insensitive parasite permeability pathways in the iRBC were largely responsible for uptake of STAD-2. Further, peptide import was highly specific to STAD-2 as evidenced by low permeability of control stapled peptides. Selective uptake and antiplasmodial activity of STAD-2 provides important groundwork for the development of stapled peptides as potential antimalarials. Such peptides may also offer an alternative strategy for studying protein-protein interactions critical to parasite development and pathogenesis.

  19. Endocrine disruption by environmental gestagens in amphibians - A short review supported by new in vitro data using gonads of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziková, Andrea; Lorenz, Claudia; Hoffmann, Frauke; Kleiner, Wibke; Lutz, Ilka; Stöck, Matthias; Kloas, Werner

    2017-08-01

    Endocrine disruption caused by various anthropogenic compounds is of persisting concern, especially for aquatic wildlife, because surface waters are the main sink of these so-called endocrine disruptors (ED). In the past, research focused on (anti)estrogenic, (anti)androgenic, and (anti)thyroidal substances, affecting primarily reproduction and development in vertebrates; however, other endocrine systems might be also targeted by ED. Environmental gestagens, including natural progestogens (e.g. progesterone (P4)) and synthetic progestins used for contraception, are supposed to affect vertebrate reproduction via progesterone receptors. In the present paper, we review the current knowledge about gestagenic effects in amphibians, focussing on reproduction and the thyroid system. In addition, we support the literature data with results of recent in vitro experiments, demonstrating direct impacts of the gestagens levonorgestrel (LNG) and P4 on sexually differentiated gonads of larval Xenopus laevis. The results showed a higher susceptibility of female over male gonads to gestagenic ED. Only in female gonads LNG, but not P4, had direct inhibitory effects on gene expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and P 450 side chain cleavage enzyme, whereas aromatase expression decreased in reaction to both gestagens. Surprisingly, beyond the expected ED effects of gestagens on reproductive physiology in amphibians, LNG drastically disrupted the thyroid system, which resembles direct effects on thyroid glands and pituitary along the pituitary-thyroid axis disturbing metamorphic development. In amphibians, environmental gestagens not only affect the reproductive system but at least LNG can impact also development by disruption of the thyroid system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Aplicación de membrana de nanofiltración para eliminar disruptores endocrinos en la potabilización del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Abi-Faiçal Castanheira, Ana Paula

    2010-01-01

    Muchas de las actividades humanas contribuyen al deterioro del medio ambiente debido a la gran variedad de residuos químicos vertidos. Algunas de estas sustancias químicas son bastante persistentes y causan serios efectos en los animales y en la salud humana en un largo período de tiempo, incluso cuando están presentes en concentraciones muy bajas (Kuramitz et al, 2002), como ocurre con los disruptores endocrinos (DEs). Un disruptor endocrino (DE), conforme a la definición de la Comisión de l...

  1. Diagnosis and Management of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreijerink Koen MA

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder, characterised by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, the pancreatic islets, the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands and neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours. Carcinoid tumours of the thymus and pancreatic-duodenal gastrinomas are the most harmful tumour types, since these tumours have malignant potential and curative treatment is difficult to achieve. MEN1 is caused by germline mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. Mutation analysis enables mutation carriers to be identified. MEN1 patients and their family members, family members of mutation carriers and patients who are clinically suspected to be carriers of a MEN1 gene mutation are eligible for mutation analysis. MEN1-associated tumours can be detected and treated at an early stage through periodical clinical monitoring of mutation carriers.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of suspected atrial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegus, M A; Greenberg, M A; Spindola-Franco, H; Fayemi, A

    1992-05-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography has become the standard technique for evaluation of cardiac and paracardiac mass lesions. We have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an independent assessment of cardiac-associated masses in patients with echocardiograms demonstrating sessile atrial tumors. MRI was performed in seven patients, ages 33 to 84, whose echocardiographic diagnoses included left atrial mass (five), right atrial mass (one), and interatrial mass (one). In four of the patients with a diagnosis of left atrial mass, MRI showed extracardiac compression of the atrium, simulating a tumor (hiatal hernia, tortuous descending aorta, bronchogenic cyst). MRI was entirely normal in one patient with an apparent left atrial mass. MRI elucidated extension of an extracavitary mass into the interatrial septum in two patients. One of these patients with an echocardiographic right atrial mass had extension of a lipoma into the interatrial septum without atrial tumor. MRI confirmed the echocardiographic diagnosis of an interatrial mass in the other patient. We conclude that MRI, because of its ability to define anatomic relationships and tissue characteristics, is a powerful noninvasive tool for evaluating suspected cardiac mass lesions. Although echocardiography remains the primary screening test for the detection of cardiac masses, MRI is a more specific modality for precise diagnosis. Correct MRI interpretation may obviate the need for invasive studies or surgery.

  3. An Investigation of the Endocrine-Disruptive Effects of Bisphenol A in Human and Rat Fetal Testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maamar, Millissia Ben; Lesné, Laurianne; Desdoits-Lethimonier, Christèle; Coiffec, Isabelle; Lassurguère, Julie; Lavoué, Vincent; Deceuninck, Yoann; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Perdu, Elisabeth; Zalko, Daniel; Pineau, Charles; Chevrier, Cécile; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Jégou, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been undertaken to assess the possible effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the reproductive hormone balance in animals or humans with often contradictory results. We investigated possible direct endocrine disruption by BPA of the fetal testes of 2 rat strains (14.5–17.5 days post-coitum) and humans (8–12 gestational weeks) and under different culture conditions. BPA concentrations of 10-8M and 10-5M for 72h reduced testosterone production by the Sprague-Dawley fetal rat testes, while only 10-5M suppressed it in the Wistar strain. The suppressive effects at 10-5M were seen as early as 24h and 48h in both strains. BPA at 10-7-10-5M for 72h suppressed the levels of fetal rat Leydig cell insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3). BPA exposure at 10-8M, 10-7M, and 10-5M for 72h inhibited testosterone production in fetal human testes. For the lowest doses, the effects observed occurred only when no gonadotrophin was added to the culture media and were associated with a poorly preserved testicular morphology. We concluded that (i) BPA can display anti-androgenic effects both in rat and human fetal testes; (ii) it is essential to ascertain that the divergent effects of endocrine disruptors between species in vitro do not result from the culture conditions used, and/or the rodent strain selected; (iii) the optimization of each in vitro assay for a given species should be a major objective rather than the search of an hypothetical trans-species consensual model-system, as the organization of the testis is intrinsically different between mammalian species; (iv) due to the uncertainty existing on the internal exposure of the human fetal testis to BPA, and the insufficient number of epidemiological studies on the endocrine disruptive effects of BPA, caution should be taken in the extrapolation of our present results to the human reproductive health after fetal exposure to BPA. PMID:25706302

  4. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  5. Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-12-01

    The study of a number of rare familial syndromes associated with endocrine tumor development has led to the identification of genes involved in the development of these tumors. Major advances have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of these rare endocrine tumors, resulting in the elucidation of causative genes in rare familial diseases and a better understanding of the signaling pathways implicated in endocrine cancers. Recognition of the familial syndrome associated with a particular patient's endocrine tumor has important implications in terms of prognosis, screening of family members, and screening for associated conditions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The eunuchs of India: An endocrine eye opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.

  7. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P; Duno, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine function and its association to number of CTG repeats in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Concentration of various hormones and metabolites in venous blood was used to assess the endocrine function in 97 patients with DM1....... We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma...

  8. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.

  9. Well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.

  10. Detection of Rabies antigen in brains of suspected Rabid dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detect the presence of rabies antigen in brains of suspected rabid dogs. Materials and Methods: Ninety six (96) brain specimens from suspected rabid dogs were examined for the presence of rabies antigen using Seller's staining technique and enzyme immunoassay. Results: The two techniques were both ...

  11. 48 CFR 803.806 - Processing suspected violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Limitation on the Payment of Funds to Influence Federal Transactions 803.806 Processing suspected violations. A VA employee must report suspected violations of 31 U.S.C. 1352, Limitation on Use of Appropriated Funds to Influence Certain Federal...

  12. The clinical course of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, E. J.; Kuijer, P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Brandjes, D. P.; Bossuyt, P. M.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism is known to a limited extent only. OBJECTIVE: To address this limited knowledge in a cohort in whom pulmonary embolism was proved or ruled out. METHODS: Consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism underwent

  13. Seasonal variation among tuberculosis suspects in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabaera, Biggie; Naranbat, Nymadawa; Katamba, Achilles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze monthly trends across a calendar year in tuberculosis suspects and sputum smear-positive cases based on nationally representative samples of tuberculosis laboratory registers from Moldova, Mongolia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Out of the 47 140 suspects registered...... in the tuberculosis laboratory registers, 13.4% (6312) were cases. The proportion varied from country to country, Moldova having the lowest (9%) and Uganda the highest (21%). From the monthly proportion of suspects and cases among total suspects and cases, seasonal variations were most marked in Mongolia which, among...... attendance to diagnostic laboratory services, evidenced by the contrasting findings of Mongolia (extreme continental northern climate) compared to Uganda (equatorial climate). A combination of external and possibly endogenous factors seems to determine whether tuberculosis suspects and cases present...

  14. Health disparities in endocrine disorders: biological, clinical, and nonclinical factors--an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-09-01

    The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC STATEMENT: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. consensus process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the Advocacy and Public

  15. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A.; Chin, Marshall H.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L.; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E.; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. Participants in Development of Scientific Statement: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. Evidence: The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. Consensus Process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the

  16. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Oil and Natural Gas Operations: Potential Environmental Contamination and Recommendations to Assess Complex Environmental Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Tillitt, Donald E; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. Although these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals that are used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and antihormonal activities for chemicals used. We discuss the literature on a) surface and groundwater contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and b) potential human exposure, particularly in the context of the total hormonal and antihormonal activities present in surface and groundwater from natural and anthropogenic sources; we also discuss initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps. In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures. We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide information supporting the idea that using such a component will help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  17. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  18. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B A; Eroschenko, V P; Fox, G A; Fry, D M; Gorsline, J

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  19. Somatostatin receptors as markers for endocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reubi, J.C.

    1987-06-19

    Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively rare neoplasias that secrete large amounts of peptide hormones such as insulin, glucagon, gastrin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These substances are usually responsible for the distinct clinical features observed in patients with such tumors. Although most are relatively slow growing tumors, they may lead in early stages to dramatic symptoms such as hypoglycemia, gastric ulcerations, or watery diarrhea. Unfortunately they are often difficult to localize precisely at that stage. Somatostatin, a tetradecapeptide that inhibits peptide hormone release in various sites such as the pituitary, the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract, has been shown recently to have beneficial effects when given chronically in the form of a stable non-degradable octapeptide analogue (SMS 201-995) in such gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. This essay demonstrates with autoradiographic techniques the very high density of somatostatin receptors in one case of human gastrinoma. A hematoxylineosin-stained histologic section reveals a well-defined, 2-mm-long tumor surrounded by normal tissue. After incubation of the section with an iodinated somatostatin analogue (/sup 125/I-(Leu, D-Trp, Tyr)-somatostatin-28), the distribution of somatostatin receptors was visualized on tritium-sensitive films after a one-week exposure of the section in x-ray cassettes.

  20. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

  1. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  2. Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Endocrine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Peppa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the existing literature data concerning the involvement of skeletal muscle (SM in whole body glucose homeostasis and the contribution of SM insulin resistance (IR to the metabolic derangements observed in several endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, adrenal disorders and thyroid function abnormalities. IR in PCOS is associated with a unique postbinding defect in insulin receptor signaling in general and in SM in particular, due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Adrenal hormone excess is also associated with disrupted insulin action in peripheral tissues, such as SM. Furthermore, both hyper- and hypothyroidism are thought to be insulin resistant states, due to insulin receptor and postreceptor defects. Further studies are definitely needed in order to unravel the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In summary, the principal mechanisms involved in muscle IR in the endocrine diseases reviewed herein include abnormal phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins, altered muscle fiber composition, reduced transcapillary insulin delivery, decreased glycogen synthesis, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  3. Paediatric endocrine disorders as seen at the University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In most developing countries, data on the prevalence and distribution of paediatric endocrine disorders is lacking. Objective: To describe the pattern of endocrine disorders seen in the Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria between 2004 to 2013.

  4. The endocrine effects of mercury in humans and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shirlee W; Meiller, Jesse C; Mahaffey, Kathryn R

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is well studied and research continues as our knowledge of its health risks increases. One expanding area of research not well emphasized to date is the endocrine effects of Hg. This review summarizes the existing literature on the effects of Hg on the endocrine system and identifies gaps in the knowledge. It focuses on the thyroid, adrenal, and reproductive systems, including the accumulation of Hg in the endocrine system, sex differences that are manifested with Hg exposure, reproductive effects in male and female animals including humans, and Hg effects on the thyroid and adrenal systems. We concluded that there are five main endocrine-related mechanisms of Hg across these systems: (a) accumulation in the endocrine system; (b) specific cytotoxicity in endocrine tissues; (c) changes in hormone concentrations; (d) interactions with sex hormones; and (e) up-regulation or down-regulation of enzymes within the steroidogenesis pathway. Recommendations for key areas of research to better understand how the endocrine effects of Hg affect human and wildlife health were developed, and include increasing the amount of basic biological information available about Hg and wildlife species, exploring the role of Hg in the presence of other stressors and chemicals, understanding sublethal and indirect effects of Hg on adverse outcomes, developing better methods to extrapolate effects across species, and understanding the effects of Hg on multiple organ systems following exposure of an animal. Greater inclusion of endocrine endpoints in epidemiological and field studies on humans and wildlife will also advance the research in this area.

  5. Nuclear Receptors and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, K.M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311470238

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can

  6. paediatric endocrine disorders at the university college hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.O. Jarrett1, B.O. Ogunbosi1 and O.O. Ayoola2. 1. Department of Paediatrics, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2. Endocrine Science Research Group, University of Manchester, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital,. Manchester, UK. Correspondence: Dr. Omolola Ayoola. Endocrine Science Research Group,.

  7. Case Report: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A | Klisiewicz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN-2A) is an autosomal dominant genetic syndrome consisting of medullary thyroid carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism. A germline ...

  8. The heart of the matter: Cardiac manifestations of endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya John Binu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disorders manifest as a disturbance in the milieu of multiple organ systems. The cardiovascular system may be directly affected or alter its function to maintain the state of homeostasis. In this article, we aim to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical features and management of cardiac manifestations of various endocrine disorders.

  9. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. RJ Pegoraro, DJ Hacking, RH Buck, L Rom, PA Lanning, GMB Berger. Abstract. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects.

  10. In vitro screening for endocrine disruptive activity in selected South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various waterborne anthropogenic contaminants disrupt the endocrine systems of wildlife and humans, targeting reproductive pathways, among others. Very little is known, however, regarding the occurrence of endocrine disruptive activity in South African freshwater ecosystems, and coastal ecosystems have not been ...

  11. paediatric endocrine disorders at the university college hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infectious diseases, childhood endocrine disorders constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. ... on infectious diseases and malnutrition giving the impression that endocrine disorders are uncommon. Reports on .... of Vitamin D and the role of ultra violent light in prevention.12 The increased risk in dark skinned.

  12. The coagulation system in endocrine disorders: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Ageno, W.; Büller, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the

  13. INTRODUCTION Endocrine disorders do occur among children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine disorders in children in developing countries are few compared to ... children. We use this case to illustrate the challenges of diagnosis, management and of follow up of this treatable endocrine condition in a developing country and the ... electrocardiography, full blood count, urine culture and urinalysis were all ...

  14. Prediction of Suspect Location Based on Spatiotemporal Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Duan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of suspect location enables proactive experiences for crime investigations and offers essential intelligence for crime prevention. However, existing studies have failed to capture the complex social location transition patterns of suspects and lack the capacity to address the issue of data sparsity. This paper proposes a novel location prediction model called CMoB (Crime Multi-order Bayes model based on the spatiotemporal semantics to enhance the prediction performance. In particular, the model groups suspects with similar spatiotemporal semantics as one target suspect. Then, their mobility data are applied to estimate Markov transition probabilities of unobserved locations based on a KDE (kernel density estimating smoothing method. Finally, by integrating the total transition probabilities, which are derived from the multi-order property of the Markov transition matrix, into a Bayesian-based formula, it is able to realize multi-step location prediction for the individual suspect. Experiments with the mobility dataset covering 210 suspects and their 18,754 location records from January to June 2012 in Wuhan City show that the proposed CMoB model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for suspect location prediction in the context of data sparsity.

  15. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented...... in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  16. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  17. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for "diabesity."

  18. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  19. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  20. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and growth of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Jérémie; Kadawathagedara, Manik; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine

    2017-06-01

    According to the "environmental obesogen hypothesis", early-life (including in utero) exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may disturb the mechanisms involved in adipogenesis or energy storage, and thus may increase the susceptibility to overweight and obesity. Animal models have shown that exposure to several of these chemicals could induce adipogenesis and mechanisms have been described. Epidemiological studies are crucial to know whether this effect could also be observed in humans. We aimed at summarizing the literature in epidemiology on the relationship between EDCs exposure and child's growth. Overall, epidemiological studies suggest that pre- and/or early postnatal exposure to some EDCs may increase the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood. In that review, we present some limitations of these studies, mainly in exposure assessment, that currently prevent to conclude about causality. Recent advances in epidemiology should bring further knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.