WorldWideScience

Sample records for suspected acid deposition

  1. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  2. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  3. Bile acid aspiration in suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chung; Hsu, Po-Kuei; Su, Kang-Cheng; Liu, Lung-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Chien; Tsai, Shu-Ho; Hsu, Wen-Hu; Lee, Yu-Chin; Perng, Diahn-Warng

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to measure the levels of bile acids in patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and provide a possible pathway for neutrophilic inflammation to explain its proinflammatory effect on the airway. Bile acid levels were measured by spectrophotometric enzymatic assay, and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was used to quantify the major bile acids. Alveolar cells were grown on modified air-liquid interface culture inserts, and bile acids were then employed to stimulate the cells. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blots were used to determine the involved gene expression and protein levels. The mean (+/- SE) concentration of total bile acids in tracheal aspirates was 6.2 +/- 2.1 and 1.1 +/- 0.4 mumol/L/g sputum, respectively, for patients with and without VAP (p VAP group (p aspiration may reduce the intensity of neutrophilic inflammation in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in the ICU.

  4. Geological aspects of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, O.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general pattern of rain falling on the earth and reacting with the materials of the lithosphere (the weathering reactions so familiar to every beginning geology student) began soon after the earth was formed and has continued to the present. Anthropogenic additions to the natural acidic components of the atmosphere have increased since the time of the industrial revolution until they now rival or exceed those of the natural system. The severity of the environmental perturbations caused by these anthropogenic additions to the atmosphere has become a hotly debated topic in scientific forums and in the political arena. The six chapters in this book address various aspects of the acid deposition phenomenon from a geological perspective. It is hoped that the geological approach will be useful in bringing the problem more clearly into focus and may shed light on the geochemical processes that modify the chemical composition of acid deposition after it encounters and reacts with the materials of the lithosphere

  5. Aquatic chemistry of acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumm, W; Sigg, L; Schnoor, J L

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of acid precipitation in many regions of the Northern hemisphere is a consequnece of human interference in the cycles that unite land, water and atmosphere. The oxidation of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen, resulting mostly from fossil fuel burning, rivals oxidation processes induced by photosynthesis and respiration and disturbs redox conditions in the atmosphere. The paper discusses oxidation-reduction reactions, particularly those involving atmospheric pollutants that are important in the formation of acid precipitation. Topics covered are: a stoichiometric model of acid rain formation; sulfur dioxide and ammonia adsorption; acid neutralizing capacity. The paper concludes that explanations of simple chemical equilibria between gases and water aid our understanding of how acidifying gases become dissolved in cloud water, in droplets of falling rain, or in fog. Rigorous definitions of base- or acid-neutralizing capacities are prerequisites to measuring and interpreting residual acidity in dry and wet deposition and for assessing the disturbance caused by the transfer of acid to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. 20 references.

  6. Acidic deposition and global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, N.P.; Ecsedy, C.; Olem, H.; Nikolaidis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    A literature is presented which examines the research published on understanding ecosystem acidification and the effects of acidic deposition on freshwaters. Topics of discussion include the following: acidic deposition; regional assessments; atmospheric deposition and transport; aquatic effects; mathematical modeling; liming acidic waters; global climate change; atmospheric changes; climate feedbacks; and aquatic effects

  7. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  8. Acid deposition. Origins, impacts and abatement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S. (Manchester Polytechnic, Acid Rain Information Centre (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Studies) (ed.)

    1991-01-01

    The subject of acid deposition is one of the most important of our contemporary environmental problems. Presenting and discussing new data on the sources and effects of such deposition, this book seeks to assist in the definition of our future research requirements and policy developments. It is divided into four broad themes: Emissions, Chemistry and Deposition, Ecosystem Effects (freshwater, soils and forest systems), Effects on Structural Materials, and Mitigation, Control and Management. (orig.) With 130 figs.

  9. Urban acid deposition in Greater Manchester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E. (Manchester Polytechnic, Manchester (UK). Acid Rain Information Centre)

    1989-08-01

    Data are presented from a monitoring network of 18 bulk precipitation collectors and one wet-only collector in the urban area of Greater Manchester, in the north west of England. Weekly samples were analysed for all the major ions in precipitation along with gaseous nitrogen dioxide concentrations from diffusion tubes. Statistical analysis of the data shows significant spatial variation of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, acidity and calcium concentrations, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations. Calcium is thought to be responsible for the buffering of acidity and is of local origin. Wet deposition is the likely removal process for calcium in the atmosphere and probably by below cloud scavenging. Nitrate and ammonium concentrations and depositions show close spatial, temporal and statistical association. Examination of high simultaneous episodes of nitrate and ammonium deposition shows that these depositions cannot be explained in terms of trajectories and it is suggested that UK emissions of ammonia may be important. Statistical analysis of the relationships between nitrate and ammonium depositions, concentrations and precipitation amount suggest that ammonia from mesoscale sources reacts reversibly with nitric acid aerosol and is removed by below cloud scavenging. High episodes of the deposition of non marine sulphate are difficult to explain by trajectory analysis alone, perhaps suggesting local sources. In a comparison between wet deposition and bulk deposition, it was shown that only 15.2% of the non marine sulphur was dry deposited to the bulk precipitation collector. 63 refs., 86 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Acid deposition in the northern hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Green, S.E.; Lee, D.S.

    1987-02-01

    Examines the phenomenon of acid deposition: the distribution and magnitude of sources and its actual and potential direct and indirect effects on soils, forests and other vegetation; wildlife, freshwaters, materials and health. The wide range of technological and other controls that are available to reduce the emissions of pollutants contributing to the phenomenon is also examined and includes pre-combustion control of pollutants, removal during combustion and post-combustion control. Also considered are political responses to acidification, acid deposition monitoring in the United Kingdom and the treatment of acidified areas.

  11. Acid deposition: sources, effects and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this collection of 19 papers is to review our understanding of the cause and effect of acid deposition, to present new data that assist in the provision of a fuller understanding of cause, process and implication and thus to assist in defining the research agenda of the future. The materials presented are European in perspective, drawn from the Federal Republic of Germany, Hungary, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The current position as regards deposition monitoring, ecological effects and control technologies is presented in five sections: acid deposition monitoring, freshwater acidification, soils and forest systems, structural materials and control technologies. Each section is introduced by an overview paper outlining the contemporary understanding and identifying areas requiring future work. Specialist papers presenting new data or re-interpretations of existing information comprise the remainder of each section. Four of the papers have been abstracted separately.

  12. Acid deposition study in the Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soon, Ting-Kueh [Tunku Abdul Rahman College, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Lau, Wai-Yoo [Malaysian Scientific Association, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1996-12-31

    The Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN is a regional association of seven countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei and Vietnam, located at the south eastern part of the Asian continent. Together with the East Asian States of Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan, this part of the world is experiencing rapid economic growth, especially in the last decade. Rapid industrialization has resulted in an increased demand for energy in the manufacturing and transport sectors, and also for infrastructure development. This has led to a significant increase in gaseous emissions and a corresponding increase in atmospheric acidity. Acid deposition study in the ASEAN countries began in the mid-70s when Malaysia first started her acid rain monitoring network in 1976. This was followed closely by Singapore and the other ASEAN countries in the 80s. By now all ASEAN countries have their own acid rain monitoring networks with a number of these countries extending the monitoring to dry deposition as well.

  13. Method for detection of a suspect viral deoxyribonucleic acid in an acellular biological fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berninger, M S

    1982-10-06

    A method for evaluating an acellular biological fluid for the presence of a suspect viral DNA, such as DNA of the Hepatitis-B virus, is described. The acellular biological fluid is treated to immobilize in denatured form the DNAs including the suspect viral DNA on a solid substrate. This substrate is contacted with a solution including radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral denatured DNA to renature the immobilized suspect viral native DNA. The solid substrate is then evaluated for radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral renatured DNA.

  14. Method for detection of a suspect viral deoxyribonucleic acid in an acellular biological fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berninger, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for evaluating an acellular biological fluid for the presence of a suspect viral DNA, such as DNA of the Hepatitis-B virus, is described. The acellular biological fluid is treated to immobilize in denatured form the DNAs including the suspect viral DNA on a solid substrate. This substrate is contacted with a solution including radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral denatured DNA to renature the immobilized suspect viral native DNA. The solid substrate is then evaluated for radioisotopically-labelled suspect viral renatured DNA. (author)

  15. Effects of acid deposition on tree roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1995-12-31

    Large forest regions in SW Sweden have been exposed to high levels of acid deposition for many decades, causing soil acidification in forest soils. Historically, SO{sub 2} has been the major acidification agent, but lately nitrogen compounds increasingly have become important. The amount and chemical form of nitrogen strongly affects the pH in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Many forest stands show a positive growth response to increased nitrogen input, even in heavily N-loaded areas. Nitrogen fertilization experiments suggest that part of the increased forest production is caused by a translocation of biomass production from below-ground to above-ground parts. At the same time fine-root growth dynamics are strongly affected by the high N supply. Deficiencies of various nutrients (Mg,Ca,K,Mn and Zn) obtained from needle analyses have been reported from different Picea abies stands. In areas with more extensive acidification and nutrient leaching, a decline in tree vitality has been observed. Although deficiency symptoms in forest trees may be reflected in nitrogen/cation ratios in fine roots, few attempts have been made to explain forest damage symptoms from fine-root chemistry. Root damage is often described as a decline in the amount of living fine roots, an increase in the amount of dead versus live fine roots (a lower live/dead ratio) and an increasing amount of dead medium and coarse roots. The primary objectives of the present presentation were to analyse available data on the effects of high nitrogen and sulphur deposition on mineral nutrient balance in tree fine roots and to evaluate the risk of Al interference with cation uptake by roots

  16. Effects of acid deposition on tree roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, H [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Research

    1996-12-31

    Large forest regions in SW Sweden have been exposed to high levels of acid deposition for many decades, causing soil acidification in forest soils. Historically, SO{sub 2} has been the major acidification agent, but lately nitrogen compounds increasingly have become important. The amount and chemical form of nitrogen strongly affects the pH in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. Many forest stands show a positive growth response to increased nitrogen input, even in heavily N-loaded areas. Nitrogen fertilization experiments suggest that part of the increased forest production is caused by a translocation of biomass production from below-ground to above-ground parts. At the same time fine-root growth dynamics are strongly affected by the high N supply. Deficiencies of various nutrients (Mg,Ca,K,Mn and Zn) obtained from needle analyses have been reported from different Picea abies stands. In areas with more extensive acidification and nutrient leaching, a decline in tree vitality has been observed. Although deficiency symptoms in forest trees may be reflected in nitrogen/cation ratios in fine roots, few attempts have been made to explain forest damage symptoms from fine-root chemistry. Root damage is often described as a decline in the amount of living fine roots, an increase in the amount of dead versus live fine roots (a lower live/dead ratio) and an increasing amount of dead medium and coarse roots. The primary objectives of the present presentation were to analyse available data on the effects of high nitrogen and sulphur deposition on mineral nutrient balance in tree fine roots and to evaluate the risk of Al interference with cation uptake by roots

  17. Simulated dry deposition of nitric acid near forest edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeJong, JJM; Klaassen, W; Jong, J.J.M. de

    1997-01-01

    Dry deposition is simulated to understand and generalize observations of enhanced deposition of air pollution near forest edges. Nitric acid is taken as an example as its deposition velocity is often assumed to be determined by turbulent transport only. The simulations are based on the

  18. Acid formic effect in zinc coatings obtained by galvanostatic deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, C.; David, M.; Souza, E.C.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deposits obtained from electrodeposition is widely used for the purpose of protecting steel substrates from corrosion. They are generally added to Zn deposition bath many additives for improving certain characteristics of the deposit. As far as is known there is no information in literature about the effect of formic acid in corrosion resistance of a Zn deposit. Because it is an acid additive, it has the use of cyclohexylamine, in order for the electrolytic bath continue with a pH equal to the one used commercially, around 5. The main goal of this study is analyze the effect of the formic acid addition in the corrosion resistance of an Zn electrodeposition obtained by galvanostatic deposition. The results obtained by performance tests, cyclic voltammetry and X-ray diffraction showed that the formic acid addition may be promising in combating the corrosion of materials. (author)

  19. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  20. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  1. Effects of deposition time in chemically deposited ZnS films in acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, H.; Chelouche, A., E-mail: azeddinechelouche@gmail.com; Talantikite, D.; Merzouk, H.; Boudjouan, F.; Djouadi, D.

    2015-08-31

    We report an experimental study on the synthesis and characterization of zinc sulfide (ZnS) single layer thin films deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition technique in acidic solution. The effect of deposition time on the microstructure, surface morphology, optical absorption, transmittance, and photoluminescence (PL) was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis–NIR spectrophotometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the samples exhibit wurtzite structure and their crystal quality is improved by increasing deposition time. The latter, was found to affect the morphology of the thin films as showed by SEM micrographs. The optical measurements revealed a high transparency in the visible range and a dependence of absorption edge and band gap on deposition time. The room temperature PL spectra indicated that all ZnS grown thin films emit a UV and blue light, while the band intensities are found to be dependent on deposition times. - Highlights: • Single layer ZnS thin films were deposited by CBD in acidic solution at 95 °C. • The effect of deposition time was investigated. • Coexistence of ZnS and ZnO hexagonal structures for time deposition below 2 h • Thicker ZnS films were achieved after monolayer deposition for 5 h. • The highest UV-blue emission observed in thin film deposited at 5 h.

  2. Soil Acidification due to Acid Deposition in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Bohan

    1999-12-31

    Anthropogenic emission of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to the atmosphere has made acid deposition one of the most serious environmental problems. In China, acid deposition research started in the late 1970s. The present thesis is part of a joint Chinese-Norwegian research project. The main goal of the thesis was to investigate the mechanism of soil acidification, to estimate soil responses to acid deposition, and to compare relative soil sensitivity to acidification in southern China. Laboratory experiments and modelling simulations were included. Specifically, the thesis (1) studies the characteristics of anion adsorption and cation release of the soils from southern China, (2) examines the effects of increased ionic strength in the precipitation and the effects of anion adsorption on cation release from the soils, (3) compares the relative sensitivity of these soils to acidification and the potentially harmful effects of acid deposition, (4) estimates likely soil responses to different deposition scenarios, including changes in soil waters and soil properties, and (5) investigates long-term changes in soils and soil waters in the Guiyang catchment due to acid deposition. 218 refs., 31 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. Soil Acidification due to Acid Deposition in Southern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Bohan

    1998-12-31

    Anthropogenic emission of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to the atmosphere has made acid deposition one of the most serious environmental problems. In China, acid deposition research started in the late 1970s. The present thesis is part of a joint Chinese-Norwegian research project. The main goal of the thesis was to investigate the mechanism of soil acidification, to estimate soil responses to acid deposition, and to compare relative soil sensitivity to acidification in southern China. Laboratory experiments and modelling simulations were included. Specifically, the thesis (1) studies the characteristics of anion adsorption and cation release of the soils from southern China, (2) examines the effects of increased ionic strength in the precipitation and the effects of anion adsorption on cation release from the soils, (3) compares the relative sensitivity of these soils to acidification and the potentially harmful effects of acid deposition, (4) estimates likely soil responses to different deposition scenarios, including changes in soil waters and soil properties, and (5) investigates long-term changes in soils and soil waters in the Guiyang catchment due to acid deposition. 218 refs., 31 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Urban acid deposition. Results from the GMADS network, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    This fourth annual data report of the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS) gives results from the urban precipitation chemistry network across Greater Manchester and Warrington for 1990. Full analytical methods are described along with precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. 40 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs., 1 app.

  5. Correlation between hypersensitivity induced by esophageal acid infusion and the baseline impedance level in patients with suspected gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, A Young; Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Hyuk; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the relevance between the pH parameters and baseline impedance level or esophageal hypomotility in patients with suspected gastroesophageal reflux. The recordings of 51 patients with heartburn, acid regurgitation, globus or noncardiac chest pain were analyzed. Evaluation included a 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH test while on off-proton pump inhibitor therapy over 1 week, high-resolution manometry and Bernstein test. Mean baseline impedance level at the most distal portion of the impedance channel was assessed manually. Esophageal hypomotility was evaluated using transitional zone defect (TZD) and distal break (DB) length measurement. In the study subjects (n = 51), 6 had a DeMeester score of more than 14.7 and 14 had a positive symptom index. The Bernstein test was positive in ten patients. The baseline impedance level was inversely correlated with the acid exposure time % (r = -0.660, P reflux and weakly acid reflux time % measured by impedance monitoring showed a weak correlation with TZD + DB length (r = 0.327 and 0.324, P = 0.019 and 0.020, respectively). Although a positive Bernstein test has no relevance for the acid exposure time or acid-related symptoms as represented by the DeMeester score or symptom index, the baseline impedance level was significantly lower in patients with a positive Bernstein test than in those with a negative one (2,628.4 ± 862.7 vs. 1,752.2 ± 611.1 Ω, P = 0.004). A lower baseline impedance level is closely related to increased esophageal acid exposure. Hypersensitivity induced by esophageal acid infusion might be attributed to acid-induced mucosal changes of the esophagus.

  6. Effects of acid deposition on microbial processes in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    Biogeochemical processes mediated by microorganisms are not adversely affected by the acidification of natural waters to the same extent as are the life cycles of higher organisms. Basic processes, e.g., primary production and organic matter decomposition, are not slowed in moderately acidified systems and do not generally decline above a pH of 5. More specifically, the individual components of the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles are, with few exceptions, also acid resistant. The influence of acid deposition on microbial processes is more often stimulation of nitrogen and sulfur cycling, often leading to alkalinity production, which mitigates the effect of strong acid deposition. Bacterial sulfate reduction and denitrification in sediments are two of the major processes that can be stimulated by sulfate and nitrate deposition, respectively, and result in ANC (acid-neutralizing capacity) generation. One of the negative effects of acid deposition is increased mobilization and bioaccumulation of some metals. Bacteria appear to play an important role, especially in mercury cycling, with acidification leading to increased bacterial methylation of mercury and subsequent bioaccumulation in higher organisms

  7. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 11. Historical changes in surface-water acid-base chemistry in response to acidic deposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Small, M.J.; Kingston, J.C.; Bernert, J.A.; Thomas, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the analyses reported in the State of Science report are to: identify the lake and stream populations in the United States that have experienced chronic changes in biologically significant constituents of surface water chemistry (e.g. pH, Al) in response to acidic deposition; quantify biologically meaningful historical changes in chronic surface water chemistry associated with acidic deposition, with emphasis on ANC, pH, and Al; estimate the proportion of lakes nor acidic that were not acidic in pre-industrial times; estimate the proportional response of each of the major chemical constituents that have changed in response to acidic deposition using a subset of statistically selected Adirondack lakes for which paleolimnological reconstructions of pre-industrial surface water chemistry have been performed; evaluate and improve, where appropriate and feasible, empirical models of predicting changes in ANC; and evaluate the response of seepage lakes to acidic deposition

  8. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjević, L; Mitrović, M; Pavlović, P; Gajić, G; Kostić, O

    2006-05-01

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges (ranging from 1-80%). Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids (38.07-185.16 microg/g of total phenolics and 4.12-27.28 microg/g of phenolic acids) in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. Ash samples contained high amounts of ferulic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acid, while the content of both p-hydroxybenzoic and syringic acid was relatively low. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  9. Phenolic acids as bioindicators of fly ash deposit revegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Djurdjevic; M. Mitrovic; P. Pavlovic; G. Gajic; O. Kostic [Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic,' Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Department of Ecology

    2006-05-15

    The floristic composition, the abundance, and the cover of pioneer plant species of spontaneously formed plant communities and the content of total phenolics and phenolic acids, as humus constituents, of an ash deposit after 7 years of recultivation were studied. The restoration of both the soil and the vegetation on the ash deposits of the 'Nikola Tesla-A' thermoelectric power plant in Obrenovac (Serbia) is an extremely slow process. Unfavorable physical and chemical characteristics, the toxicity of fly ash, and extreme microclimatic conditions prevented the development of compact plant cover. The abundance and cover of plants increased from the central part of the deposit towards its edges. Festuca rubra L., Crepis setosa Hall., Erigeron canadensis L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Calamagrostis epigeios (L.) Roth., and Tamarix gallica L. were the most abundant species, thus giving the highest cover. Humus generated during the decomposition process of plant remains represents a completely new product absent in the ash as the starting material. The amount of total phenolics and phenolic acids in fly ash increased from the center of the deposit towards its edges in correlation with the increase in plant abundance and cover. The presence of phenolic acids indicates the ongoing process of humus formation in the ash, in which the most abundant pioneer plants of spontaneously formed plant communities play the main role. Phenolic compounds can serve as reliable bioindicators in an assessment of the success of the recultivation process of thermoelectric power plants' ash deposits.

  10. Use of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for assessment of renal function in dogs with suspected renal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawiec, D.R.; Twardock, A.R.; Badertscher, R.R. II; Daniel, G.B.; Dugan, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of technetium /sup 99m/-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc DTPA) to assess renal function in 13 dogs with suspected renal disease was evaluated. Glomerular filtration rates (actual GFR) were determined on the basis of endogenous creatinine clearance. Predicted GFR were determined by using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA within 72 hours after the determination of creatinine clearance. The percentage of an IV administered dose of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in the kidneys (percentage dose) was determined. Two equations were used to calculate predicted GFR, which were derived from previously reported linear regression analysis of inulin (In) and creatinine (Cr) GFR vs percentage dose /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in dog kidneys. The correlations of actual GFR vs predicted GFR (In) and actual GFR vs predicted GFR (Cr) were both r = 0.92. The dogs' mean actual GFR was 1.73 +/- 1.35 ml/min/kg. Their mean predicted GFR (In) and predicted GFR (Cr) were 1.92 +/- 1.42 ml/min/kg and 1.85 +/- 1.27 ml/min/kg, respectively. Therefore, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA can be used with high accuracy as an agent to predict GFR in dogs with suspected renal disease. The procedure for determining GFR by use of nuclear medicine was rapid and noninvasive and appeared to induce little stress in the animals evaluated

  11. Acid atmospheric deposition in a forested mountain catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křeček, J.; Palán, L.; Stuchlík, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), s. 680-686 ISSN 1971-7458 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : mountain water shed * spruce forests * acid atmospheric deposition * water resources recharge Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  12. Acid deposition and water use efficiency in Appalachian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcomb, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multiple studies have reported increases in forest water use efficiency in recent decades, but the drivers of these trends remain uncertain. While acid deposition has profoundly altered the biogeochemistry of Appalachian forests in the past century, its impacts on forest water use efficiency have been largely overlooked. Plant ecophysiology literature suggests that plants up-regulate transpiration in response to soil nutrient limitation in order to maintain sufficient mass flow of nutrients. To test the impacts of acid deposition on forest eco-hydrology in central Appalachia, we integrated dendrochronological techniques, including tree ring δ13C analysis, with catchment water balance data from the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. Tree cores from four species were collected in Fernow Watershed 3, which has received experimental ammonium sulfate additions since 1989, and Watershed 7, an adjacent control catchment. Initial results suggest that acidification treatments have not significantly influenced tree productivity compared to a control watershed, but the effect varies by species, with tulip poplar showing greatest sensitivity to acidification. Climatic water balance, defined as the difference between growing season precipitation and evapotranspiration, is significantly related to annual tree ring growth, suggesting that climate may be driving tree growth trends in chronically acidified Appalachian forests. Tree ring 13C analysis from Fernow cores is underway and these data will be integrated with catchment hydrology data from five other sites in central Appalachia and the U.S. Northeast, representing a range of forest types, soil base saturations, and acid deposition histories. This work will advance understanding of how climate and acid deposition interact to influence forest productivity and water use efficiency, and improve our ability to model carbon and water cycling in forested ecosystems impacted by acid deposition.

  13. The usual suspects-influence of physicochemical properties on lag time, skin deposition, and percutaneous penetration of nine model compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo Nielsen, Jesper; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Nielsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    The influence of physicochemical properties of nine model compounds on lag time, skin deposition, and percutaneous penetration was evaluated. Static diffusion cells mounted with human skin were used as the experimental model, and experiments were carried out in accordance with Organization for Ec...... agencies using experimental data for assessing systemic toxicity following dermal exposures as for development of structure activity relationships for dermal absorption of chemicals....

  14. Deposition and conversion in soil of acids, acid-forming substances and nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Balancing of material depositions entries is the basis for their evaluation. The acid depositions must be put in relation to the acid neutralization capacity and to the buffer rate of the soil. Every 'excess' in depositons leads to an acid supply into the sub-soil and/or into the groundwater system. On the one hand, the nutrient depositions are interpreted in relation to the nutrient supplies of the soil and their availability to the plants; and on the other hand with a view to the nutrient depletion through the polants. Excesses can also lead to a (non-desirable) pollution of aquatic systems, or else to an enhanced nutrient supply in the soil. Balancing is therefore a necessary aid for the evaluation of material depositions from the atmosphere. (orig./EF) [de

  15. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben

    2009-07-28

    We used a general circulation model of Earth\\'s climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  16. Sulfuric acid deposition from stratospheric geoengineering with sulfate aerosols

    KAUST Repository

    Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Marquardt, Allison B.

    2009-01-01

    We used a general circulation model of Earth's climate to conduct geoengineering experiments involving stratospheric injection of sulfur dioxide and analyzed the resulting deposition of sulfate. When sulfur dioxide is injected into the tropical or Arctic stratosphere, the main additional surface deposition of sulfate occurs in midlatitude bands, because of strong cross-tropopause flux in the jet stream regions. We used critical load studies to determine the effects of this increase in sulfate deposition on terrestrial ecosystems by assuming the upper limit of hydration of all sulfate aerosols into sulfuric acid. For annual injection of 5 Tg of SO2 into the tropical stratosphere or 3 Tg of SO2 into the Arctic stratosphere, neither the maximum point value of sulfate deposition of approximately 1.5 mEq m−2 a−1 nor the largest additional deposition that would result from geoengineering of approximately 0.05 mEq m−2 a−1 is enough to negatively impact most ecosystems.

  17. Absorption characteristics of Kupravas deposit clays modified by phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruplis, A.; Mezinskis, G.; Chaghuri, M.

    1998-01-01

    Literature data suggested that clays may be used as sorbents for waste water treatment. The surface and sorption properties of minerals changes due to the influence of acid rains. The process of recession of clay properties has been modeled in laboratory by treatment of clays with mineral acids at higher temperature that in natural conditions. The present paper is devoted to the study of influence of phosphoric acid on the sorption properties of Kupravas deposit clays. Natural clay samples and samples treated with phosphoric acid were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction an differential thermal analysis (DTA) methods These methods were used also to identify the sample of Lebanese clays. X-ray diffraction analysis data show that the samples of clays from the deposit of Kuprava contain illite and kaolinite while sample of Lebanese clay contains quartz, calcite, and montmorillonite. DTA results show characteristic features of Kuprava clays described in reference with DTA of Lebanese clay clearly demonstrate the presence of large quantity of calcite

  18. Declining acidic deposition begins reversal of forest-soil acidification in the northeastern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Paul W. Hazlett; Ivan J. Fernandez; Rock Ouimet; Scott W. Bailey; Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith; Michael R. Antidormi

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing trends in acidic deposition levels over the past several decades have led to partial chemical recovery of surface waters. However, depletion of soil Ca from acidic deposition has slowed surface water recovery and led to the impairment of both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Nevertheless, documentation of acidic deposition effects on soils has been...

  19. Circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits are associated with serum polyunsaturated Fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeie, Eli; Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R; Bjørndal, Bodil; Bohov, Pavol; Berge, Rolf K; Svingen, Gard F T; Seifert, Reinhard; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øivind; Ulvik, Arve; Hustad, Steinar; Drevon, Christian A; Gregory, Jesse F; Nygård, Ottar

    2015-01-01

    The long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are considered to be of major health importance, and recent studies indicate that their endogenous metabolism is influenced by B-vitamin status and smoking habits. We investigated the associations of circulating B-vitamins and smoking habits with serum polyunsaturated fatty acids among 1,366 patients who underwent coronary angiography due to suspected coronary heart disease at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway. Of these, 52% provided information on dietary habits by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were assessed using partial correlation (Spearman's rho). In the total population, the concentrations of most circulating B-vitamins were positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the associations between B-vitamins and polyunsaturated fatty acids tended to be weaker in smokers. This could not be solely explained by differences in dietary intake. Furthermore, plasma cotinine, a marker of recent nicotine exposure, showed a negative relationship with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, but a positive relationship with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In conclusion, circulating B-vitamins are, in contrast to plasma cotinine, generally positively associated with serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and negatively with serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with suspected coronary heart disease. Further studies should investigate whether B-vitamin status and smoking habits may modify the clinical effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

  20. Measurements of dry-deposition parameters for the California acid-deposition monitoring program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Egami, R.T.; Bowen, J.L.; Frazier, C.A.

    1991-06-01

    The State of California monitors the concentrations of acidic gases and particles at 10 sites throughout the state. Seven sites represent urban areas (South Coast Air Basin - three sites, San Francisco Bay Area, Bakersfield, Santa Barbara, and Sacramento) and three represent forested areas (Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park, and Gasquet). Several sites are collocated with monitoring instruments for other air quality and forest response networks. Continuous monitors for the dry deposition network collect hourly average values for ozone, wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, temperature, dew point, time of wetness, and solar radiation. A newly-designed gas/particle sampler collects daytime (6 a.m. to 6 p.m.) and nighttime (6 p.m. to 6 a.m.) samples every sixth day for sulfur dioxide, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and nitric acid. Particles are collected on the same day/night schedule in PM(10) and PM(2.5) size ranges, and are analyzed for mass, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and calcium ions. The sampling schedule follows the regulatory schedule adopted by the EPA and ARB for suspended particulate matter. Wet deposition data are collected at or nearby the dry deposition stations. The first year of the monitoring program included installation of the network, training of technicians, acquisition and validation of data, and transfer of the sampling and analysis technology to Air Resources Board operating divisions. Data have been validated and stored for the period May, 1988 through September, 1989

  1. Randomized comparison of polyglycolic acid and polyglyconate sutures for abdominal fascial closure after laparotomy in patients with suspected impaired wound healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Gjøde, P; Mortensen, Sophie Berit Bondegaard

    1995-01-01

    A randomized study of abdominal fascial closure using interrupted polyglyconate and polyglycolic acid sutures after laparotomy was carried out in 204 consecutive patients with suspected impaired wound healing. There were no statistically significant differences between the two sutures with regard...... to the development of fascial disruption and incisional hernia. Wound infection demanding surgical intervention was found in 7 per cent of patients with polyglyconate sutures and in 16 per cent of those with polyglycolic acid sutures (P = 0.04). Monofilament polyglyconate suture does not reduce the incidence...... of fascial disruption and incisional hernia after laparotomy in patients with suspected impaired wound healing but the incidence of wound infection may be reduced compared with that of multifilament polyglycolic acid suture....

  2. The nitric acid decomposition of calcined danburite concentrate of Ak-Arkhar Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.; Suleymani, M.; Borudzherdi, A.; Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to nitric acid decomposition of calcined danburite concentrate of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan. The obtaining of boric acid from pre backed danburite concentrate by decomposition of nitric acid was studied. The chemical composition of danburite concentrate was determined. The laboratory study of danburite leaching by nitric acid was conducted. The influence of temperature, process duration, nitric acid concentration on nitric acid decomposition of calcined danburite concentrate of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was studied as well. The optimal conditions of nitric acid decomposition of calcined danburite concentrate of Ak-Arkhar Deposit, including temperature, process duration, nitric acid concentration and particle size were proposed.

  3. Spooky Suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Lara

    2011-01-01

    This activity presents an option for covering biology content while engaging students in an investigation that highlights the spirit of Halloween. Students are engaged in the story line and have fun trying to solve the mystery kidnapping by using science skills to examine the evidence and eliminate some ghoulish suspects. (Contains 1 figure.)

  4. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Pippa J.; Clark, Joanna M.; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K.

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer. - Seasonal variations in soil solution ANC is controlled by seasonal variations in seasalt deposition and production of dissolved organic acids

  5. Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battler, Melissa M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Michel, Frederick A.; Craig, Michael A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Leoni, Lisa; Slater, Gregory F.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Preston, Louisa J.; Banerjee, Neil R.

    2013-06-01

    Surficial deposits of the OH-bearing iron sulfate mineral jarosite have been observed in several places on Mars, such as Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis. The specific depositional conditions and mechanisms are not known, but by comparing martian sites to analogous locations on Earth, the conditions of formation and, thus, the martian depositional paleoenvironments may be postulated. Located in a cold semi-arid desert ˜100 km east of Norman Wells, Northwest Territories, Canada, the Golden Deposit (GD) is visible from the air as a brilliant golden-yellow patch of unvegetated soil, approximately 140 m × 50 m. The GD is underlain by permafrost and consists of yellow sediment, which is precipitating from seeps of acidic, iron-bearing groundwater. On the surface, the GD appears as a patchwork of raised polygons, with acidic waters flowing from seeps in troughs between polygonal islands. Although UV-Vis-NIR spectral analysis detects only jarosite, mineralogy, as determined by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry, is predominantly natrojarosite and jarosite, with hydronium jarosite, goethite, quartz, clays, and small amounts of hematite. Water pH varies significantly over short distances depending on proximity to acid seeps, from 2.3 directly above seeps, to 5.7 several m downstream from seeps within the deposit, and up to 6.5 in ponds proximal to the deposit. Visual observations of microbial filament communities and phospholipid fatty acid analyses confirm that the GD is capable of supporting life for at least part of the year. Jarosite-bearing sediments extend beneath vegetation up to 70 m out from the deposit and are mixed with plant debris and minerals presumably weathered from bedrock and glacial till. This site is of particular interest because mineralogy (natrojarosite, jarosite, hematite, and goethite) and environmental conditions (permafrost and arid conditions) at the time of deposition are conceivably analogous to jarosite

  6. Expanding atmospheric acid deposition in China from the 1990s to the 2010s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haili; Wang, Qiufeng

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition is considered a global environmental issue. China has been experiencing serious acid deposition, which is anticipated to be more serious with the country's economic development and increasing consumption of fossil fuels in recent decades. By collecting nationwide data on pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO42-) and nitrate (NO3-) in precipitation between 1980 and 2014 in China, we explored the spatiotemporal variations of precipitation acid deposition (bulk deposition) and their influencing factors. Our results showed that average precipitation pH values were 4.86 and 4.84 in the 1990s and 2010s, respectively. This suggests that precipitation acid deposition in China has not seriously changes. Average SO42- deposition declined from 30.73 to 28.61 kg S ha-1 yr-1 but average NO3- deposition increased from 4.02 to 6.79 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Specifically, the area of severe precipitation acid deposition in southern China has shrunk to some extent as a result of decreasing pollutant emissions, whereas the area of moderate precipitation acid deposition has expanded in northern China, associated with rapid industrial and transportation development. Significant positive correlations have been found between precipitation acid deposition, energy consumption, and rainfall. Our findings provide a comprehensive evaluation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of precipitation acid deposition in China over past three decades, and confirm the idea that strategies implemented to save energy and reduce pollutant emissions in China have been effective in alleviating precipitation acid deposition. These findings might be used to demonstrate how developing countries could achieve economic development and environmental protection through the implementation of advanced technologies to reduce pollutant emissions.

  7. Microbial activity in an acid resin deposit: Biodegradation potential and ecotoxicology in an extremely acidic hydrocarbon contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloos, Karin; Schloter, Michael; Meyer, Ortwin

    2006-01-01

    Acid resins are residues produced in a recycling process for used oils that was in use in the forties and fifties of the last century. The resin-like material is highly contaminated with mineral oil hydrocarbons, extremely acidic and co-contaminated with substituted and aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. To determine the potential for microbial biodegradation the acid resin deposit and its surroundings were screened for microbial activity by soil respiration measurements. No microbial activity was found in the core deposit. However, biodegradation of hydrocarbons was possible in zones with a lower degree of contamination surrounding the deposit. An extreme acidophilic microbial community was detected close to the core deposit. With a simple ecotoxicological approach it could be shown that the pure acid resin that formed the major part of the core deposit, was toxic to the indigenous microflora due to its extremely low pH of 0-1. - Acidity is the major toxic factor of the extremely hydrophobic and acidic mixed contamination found in an acid resin deposit

  8. Development of atmospheric acid deposition in China from the 1990s to the 2010s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haili; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Zhu, Jianxing; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Yunhai; Jia, Yanlong; Yu, Guirui

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition is a global environmental issue. China has been experiencing serious acid deposition, which is anticipated to become more severe with the country's economic development and increasing consumption of fossil fuels in recent decades. We explored the spatiotemporal variations of acid deposition (wet acid deposition) and its influencing factors by collecting nationwide data on pH and concentrations of sulfate (SO 4 2− ) and nitrate (NO 3 − ) in precipitation between 1980 and 2014 in China. Our results showed that average precipitation pH values were 4.59 and 4.70 in the 1990s and 2010s, respectively, suggesting that precipitation acid deposition in China has not seriously worsened. Average SO 4 2− deposition declined from 40.54 to 34.87 kg S ha −1 yr −1 but average NO 3 − deposition increased from 4.44 to 7.73 kg N ha −1 yr −1 . Specifically, the area of severe precipitation acid deposition in southern China has shrunk to some extent as a result of controlling the pollutant emissions; but the area of moderate precipitation acid deposition has expanded in northern China, associated with rapid industrial and transportation development. Furthermore, we found significant positive correlations between precipitation acid deposition, energy consumption, and rainfall. Our findings provide a relatively comprehensive evaluation of the spatiotemporal dynamics of precipitation acid deposition in China over past three decades, and confirm the idea that strategies implemented to save energy and control pollutant emissions in China have been effective in alleviating precipitation acid deposition. These findings might be used to demonstrate how developing countries could achieve economic development and environmental protection through the implementation of advanced technologies to reduce pollutant emissions. - Highlights: • Explore spatial and temporal dynamics of wet acid deposition during three decades in China. • Acid

  9. Effects of acidic deposition on forest and aquatic ecosystems in New York State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Charles T.; Driscoll, Kimberley M.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Raynal, Dudley J

    2003-06-01

    Elevated inputs of acidic deposition have deleterious effects on forest and aquatic ecosystems in New York. - Acidic deposition is comprised of sulfuric and nitric acids and ammonium derived from atmospheric emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia, respectively. Acidic deposition has altered soil through depletion of labile pools of nutrient cations (i.e. calcium, magnesium), accumulation of sulfur and nitrogen, and the mobilization of elevated concentrations of inorganic monomeric aluminum to soil solutions in acid-sensitive areas. Acidic deposition leaches essential calcium from needles of red spruce, making this species more susceptible to freezing injury. Mortality among sugar maples appears to result from deficiencies of nutrient cations, coupled with other stresses such as insect defoliation or drought. Acidic deposition has impaired surface water quality in the Adirondack and Catskill regions of New York by lowering pH levels, decreasing acid-neutralizing capacity, and increasing aluminum concentrations. Acidification has reduced the diversity and abundance of aquatic species in lakes and streams. There are also linkages between acidic deposition and fish mercury contamination and eutrophication of estuaries.

  10. The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Carly J.; Dupre, Cecilia; Dorland, Edu; Gaudnik, Cassandre; Gowing, David J.G.; Bleeker, Albert; Diekmann, Martin; Alard, Didier; Bobbink, Roland; Fowler, David; Corcket, Emmanuel; Mountford, J. Owen; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 153 acid grasslands from the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. Across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg N ha -1 yr -1 ) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. Soil C:N ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. The above-ground tissue nitrogen contents of three plant species were examined: Agrostis capillaris (grass), Galium saxatile (forb) and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (bryophyte). The tissue nitrogen content of neither vascular plant species showed any relationship with nitrogen deposition, but there was a weak positive relationship between R. squarrosus nitrogen content and nitrogen deposition. None of the species showed strong relationships between above-ground tissue N:P or C:N and nitrogen deposition, indicating that they are not good indicators of deposition rate. - Highlights: → N deposition is negatively correlated with forb richness as a proportion of species richness. → Soil C:N ratio increased with increasing N deposition. → Soil extractable nitrate and ammonium were not related to nitrogen deposition. → Plant-tissue N content was not a good indicator of N deposition. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects soils, plant-tissue chemistry and plant species composition in acid grasslands in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe.

  11. The impact of nitrogen deposition on acid grasslands in the Atlantic region of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Carly J., E-mail: c.j.stevens@open.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Dupre, Cecilia [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Dorland, Edu [Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Department of Biology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.058, 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Gaudnik, Cassandre [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Gowing, David J.G. [Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bleeker, Albert [Department of Air Quality and Climate Change, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, PO Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Diekmann, Martin [Institute of Ecology, FB 2, University of Bremen, Leobener Str., DE-28359 Bremen (Germany); Alard, Didier [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Bobbink, Roland [B-WARE Research Centre, Radboud University, PO Box 9010, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fowler, David [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Corcket, Emmanuel [University of Bordeaux 1, UMR INRA 1202 Biodiversity, Genes and Communities, Equipe Ecologie des Communautes, Batiment B8 - Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence (France); Mountford, J. Owen [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, MacLean Building, Benson Lane, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Vandvik, Vigdis [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2011-10-15

    A survey of 153 acid grasslands from the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe indicates that chronic nitrogen deposition is changing plant species composition and soil and plant-tissue chemistry. Across the deposition gradient (2-44 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}) grass richness as a proportion of total species richness increased whereas forb richness decreased. Soil C:N ratio increased, but soil extractable nitrate and ammonium concentrations did not show any relationship with nitrogen deposition. The above-ground tissue nitrogen contents of three plant species were examined: Agrostis capillaris (grass), Galium saxatile (forb) and Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (bryophyte). The tissue nitrogen content of neither vascular plant species showed any relationship with nitrogen deposition, but there was a weak positive relationship between R. squarrosus nitrogen content and nitrogen deposition. None of the species showed strong relationships between above-ground tissue N:P or C:N and nitrogen deposition, indicating that they are not good indicators of deposition rate. - Highlights: > N deposition is negatively correlated with forb richness as a proportion of species richness. > Soil C:N ratio increased with increasing N deposition. > Soil extractable nitrate and ammonium were not related to nitrogen deposition. > Plant-tissue N content was not a good indicator of N deposition. - Atmospheric nitrogen deposition affects soils, plant-tissue chemistry and plant species composition in acid grasslands in the Atlantic biogeographic region of Europe.

  12. Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Evans

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the major chemical processes leading to acid extremes in a small, moorland stream in mid-Wales, UK, which has been monitored since 1979. Results suggest that base cation (mainly calcium dilution, the "sea-salt effect", and elevated nitrate pulses, are the major causes of seasonal/episodic minima in acid neutralising capacity (ANC, and that the relative importance of these drivers has remained approximately constant during 25 years of decreasing acid deposition and associated long-term chemical recovery. Many of the chemical variations causing short-term reductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increases, are closely related to changes in water-flowpath and therefore to stream discharge. Changes in the observed pH-discharge relationship over time indicate that high-flow pH has increased more rapidly than mean-flow pH, and therefore that episodes have decreased in magnitude since 1980. However a two-box application of the dynamic model MAGIC, whilst reproducing this trend, suggests that it will not persist in the long term, with mean ANC continuing to increase until 2100, but the ANC of the upper soil (the source of relatively acid water during high-flow episodes stabilising close to zero beyond 2030. With climate change predicted to lead to an increase in maximum flows in the latter half of the century, high-flow related acid episodes may actually become more rather than less severe in the long term, although the model suggests that this effect may be small. Two other predicted climatic changes could also detrimentally impact on acid episodes: increased severity of winter "sea-salt" episodes due to higher wind speeds during winter storms; and larger sulphate pulses due to oxidation of reduced sulphur held in organic soils, during more extreme summer droughts. At the Gwy, the near-coastal location and relatively small extent of peat soils suggest that sea-salt episodes may have the

  13. Studies of Physicochemical Processes in Atmospheric Particles and Acid Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N.

    A comprehensive chemical mechanism for aqueous -phase atmospheric chemistry was developed and its detailed sensitivity analysis was performed. The main aqueous-phase reaction pathways for the system are the oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) by H_2O_2 , OH, O_2 (catalysed by Fe ^{3+} and Mn^ {2+}), O_3 and HSO_sp{5}{-}. The gas-phase concentrations of SO_2, H_2O_2, HO _2, OH, O_3 HCHO, NH_3, HNO_3 and HCl and the liquid water content of the cloud are of primary importance. The Lagrangian model predictions for temperature profile, fog development, liquid water content, gas-phase concentrations of SO_2 , HNO_3, and NH_3 , pH, aqueous-phase concentrations of SO _sp{4}{2-}, NH _sp{4}{+} and NO _sp{3}{-}, and finally deposition rates of the above ions match well the observed values. A third model was developed to study the distribution of acidity and solute concentration among the various droplet sizes in a fog or a cloud. Significant solute concentration differences can occur in aqueous droplets inside a fog or a cloud. Fogs in polluted environments have the potential to increase aerosol sulfate concentrations, but at the same time to cause reductions in the aerosol concentration of nitrate, chloride, ammonium and sodium as well as in the total aerosol mass concentration. The sulfate producd during fog episodes favors the aerosol particles that have access to most of the fog liquid water. Aerosol scavenging efficiencies of around 80% were calculated for urban fogs. Sampling and subsequent mixing of fog droplets of different sizes may result in measured concentrations that are not fully representative of the fogwater chemical composition. Isoprene and beta-pinene, at concentration levels ranging from a few ppb to a few ppm were reacted photochemically with NO_ {x} in the Caltech outdoor smog chamber facility. Aerosol formation from the isoprene photooxidation was found to be negligible even under extreme ambient conditions due to the relatively high vapor pressure of its

  14. Handbook of methods for acid-deposition studies. Laboratory analyses for soil chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, L.J.; Schumacher, P.W.; Schaffer, K.A.; Cappo, K.A.; Papp, M.L.

    1990-09-01

    The handbook describes methods used to process and analyze soil samples. It is intended as a guidance document for groups involved in acid deposition monitoring activities similar to those implemented by the Aquatic Effects Research Program of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. These methods were developed for use in the Direct/Delayed Response Project, a component project of the Aquatic Effects Research Program within the Office of Ecological Processes and Effects Research. The program addresses the following issues relating to the effects of acid deposition on aquatic ecosystems: The extent and magnitude of past change; The change to be expected in the future under various deposition scenarios; The maximum rates of deposition below which further change is not expected; and The rate of change or recovery of aquatic ecosystems if deposition rates are decreased. Chemical and physical parameters were measured during the Direct/Delayed Response Project and are described in the document

  15. Discrepancies between feline coronavirus antibody and nucleic acid detection in effusions of cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Eleonora; Mari, Viviana; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Trotta, Adriana; Dowgier, Giulia; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Zatelli, Andrea; Elia, Gabriella; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola

    2017-10-31

    Intra-vitam diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a challenge for veterinary diagnosticians, since there are no highly specific and sensitive assays currently available. With the aim to contribute to fill this diagnostic gap, a total of 61 effusions from cats with suspected effusive FIP were collected intra-vitam for detection of feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibodies and RNA by means of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay and real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), respectively. In 5 effusions there was no evidence for either FCoV RNA or antibodies, 51 and 52 specimens tested positive by IIF and qRT-PCR, respectively, although antibody titres≥1:1600, which are considered highly suggestive of FIP, were detected only in 37 effusions. Three samples with high antibody levels tested negative by qRT-PCR, whereas 18 qRT-PCR positive effusions contained no or low-titre antibodies. qRT-PCR positive samples with low antibody titres mostly contained low FCoV RNA loads, although the highest antibody titres were detected in effusions with C T values>30. In conclusion, combining the two methods, i.e., antibody and RNA detection would help improving the intra-vitam diagnosis of effusive FIP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acid deposition and assessment of its critical load for the environmental health of waterbodies in a subtropical watershed, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junjie; Gao, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric acidic deposition in subtropical watersheds poses an environmental risk of causing acidification of aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of acid deposition in a subtropical forest ecosystem and the associated critical loads of acidity for a sensitive aquatic ecosystem. We found that out of 132 rainfall events, 33(25%) were acidic rainfall occurrences. Estimated wet acid deposition (2282.78 eq·ha-1·yr-1), consistent with SO42- and NH4+ deposition, was high in spring and summer and low in autumn and winter. Waterbodies surrounded by mixed wood and citrus orchard experience severe acidification, mostly from S deposition because acidic deposition exceeds the corresponding critical loads of acidity. Modifications that take acid rain deposition into consideration are needed for land-use and agricultural management strategies to improve the environmental health of waterbodies in subtropical watersheds.

  17. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria; Livi, Sebastien; Hayrapetyan, Suren; Wang, Yue; Estevez, Luis; Vittoria, Vittoria; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged

  18. Foliar loading and metabolic assimilation of dry deposited nitric acid air pollutants by trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela E. Padgett; Hillary Cook; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Robert L. Heath

    2009-01-01

    Dry deposition of nitric acid vapor (HNO(3)) is a major contributor to eutrophication of natural ecosystems. Although soil fertilization by nitrogen deposition is considered to be the primary pathway for changes in plant nutrient status and shifts in ecological structure, the aerial portion of plants offer many times the surface area in which to...

  19. Acidic deposition along the Appalachian Trail corridor and its effects on acid-sensitive terrestrial and aquatic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Bailey, Scott W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Dovciak, Martin; Ewing, Holly A.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Minocha, Rakesh; Riemann, Rachel; Quant, Juliana; Rice, Karen C.; Siemion, Jason; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT), a unit of the National Park Service (NPS), spans nearly 2,200 miles from Georgia to Maine, encompassing a diverse range of ecosystems. Acidic deposition (acid rain) threatens the AT’s natural resources. Acid rain is a result of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds produced from fossil fuel combustion, motor vehicles, and agricultural practices. The AT is particularly vulnerable to S and N because it passes along ridgetops that receive higher levels of acid rain than lower valley terrain, and these ridges are often underlain by bedrock with minimal ability to buffer acidic inputs. Further, there are numerous S and N emission sources across the region. In the environment, acidic deposition can lower the pH of streams and soils which can ultimately affect fish, invertebrates, and vegetation that inhabit these areas. To address this concern, the MegaTransect Deposition Effects Study evaluated the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition, and defined air pollution thresholds (critical and target loads) and recovery rates. Findings indicate that additional S emission

  20. Potential research money available from the Acid Deposition Program and Alberta Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primus, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to demonstrate definitive long-term changes in animal health as a result of acid-forming emissions from sour gas wells. A summary is presented of current research in Alberta, followed by the potential for research funding by the Alberta Government/Industry Acid Deposition Program (ADRP). The Alberta Environment research budget consists of four programs in addition to the ADRP: acid deposition effects research in the Athabasca oil sands; western and northern Canada long-range transport of air pollutants; departmental monitoring; and inhalation toxicology and animal health. Animal health research, although a component of the acid deposition issue, is beyond the mandate of Alberta Environment, and the ADRP members committee does not forsee becoming involved in the long-term and complex research required to address the effects of acid-forming emissions on livestock. Funds for additional animal health research must come from other government departments and agencies whose mandate covers this area

  1. The smog-fog-smog cycle and acid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandis, Spyros N.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pilinis, Christodoulos

    1990-10-01

    A model including descriptions of aerosol and droplet microphysics, gas and aqueous-phase chemistry, and deposition is used to study the transformation of aerosol to fog droplets and back to aerosol in an urban environment. Fogs in polluted environments have the potential to increase aerosol sulfate concentrations but at the same time to cause reductions in the aerosol concentration of nitrate, chloride, ammonium and sodium and well as in the total aerosol mass concentration. The sulfate produced during fog episodes favors the aerosol particles that have access to most of the fog liquid water which are usually the large particles. Aerosol scavenging efficiencies of around 80 percent are calculated for urban fogs. Sampling and subsequent mixing of fog droplets of different sizes may result in measured concentrations that are not fully representative of the fogwater chemical composition and can introduce errors in the reported values of the ionic species deposition velocities. Differences in the major ionic species deposition velocities can be explained by their distribution over the droplet size spectrum and can be correlated with the species average diameter. Two different expressions are derived for use in fog models for the calculation of the liquid water deposition velocity during fog growth and dissipation stages.

  2. Effects of acid deposition on Dutch forest ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Leeters, E.E.J.M.; Hendriks, C.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of elevated sulphur and nitrogen deposition on the solution chemistry of Dutch forest soils are mainly manifested by increased aluminium concentrations, associated with increased concentrations of sulphate and nitrate. Critical aluminium/base cation ratios are often exceeded below 20 cm soil

  3. Influence of containing of asphaltenes and naphthenic acids over organic deposition inhibitor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Geiza E.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Pires, Renata V.; Passos, Leonardo B.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Alvares, Dellyo R.S.; Gonzalez, Gaspar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Organic deposition is a serious problem confronted by the petroleum industry in Brazil and worldwide. Among the main petroleum components that may cause deposition problems are waxes and asphaltenes. This work aims at evaluating the influence of petroleum fractions (asphaltenes and naphthenic acids) on the organic deposition phenomenon as well as on organic deposition inhibitors performance. The influence of the organic fractions was evaluated by their ability to change wax crystals, to lower the pour point and to alter the initial wax appearance temperature. The efficiency of the additives was tested by pour point measurements. The results show that asphaltenes seem to act as organic deposition inhibitors, while naphthenic acids do not significantly change the system. Moreover, employing both of them produces no synergic effect. Among polymeric inhibitors, all of the chemically modified EVA copolymer presented better results than the non-modified commercial EVA copolymer. The best result was observed for EVA28C{sub 16}. (author)

  4. High frequency and large deposition of acid fog on high elevation forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Manabu; Matsumura, Ko; Okochi, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    We have collected and analyzed fogwater on the mountainside of Mt. Oyama (1252 m) in the Tanzawa Mountains of Japan and observed the fog event frequency from the base of the mountain with a video camera. The fog event frequency increased with elevation and was observed to be present 46% of the year at the summit. The water deposition via throughfall increased with elevation because of the increase in fogwater interception and was about twice that via rain at the summit, where the air pollutant deposition via throughfall was several times that via rainwater. The dry deposition and the deposition via fogwater were dominant factors in the total ion deposition at high elevation sites. In a fog event, nitric acid, the major acid component on the mountain, is formed during the transport of the air mass from the base of the mountain along the mountainside, where gases including nitric acid deposit and are scavenged by fogwater. Therefore, high acidity caused by nitric acid and relatively low ion strength are observed in the fogwater at high elevation sites.

  5. Impact of acid atmosphere deposition on soils : field monitoring and aluminum chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid atmospheric deposition on concentrations and transfer of major solutes in acid, sandy soils was studied. Emphasis was given to mobilization and transport of potentially toxic aluminum. Data on solute concentrations and fluxes in meteoric water as well as soil solutions

  6. [Current situation and impact factors of acid deposition in main cites of Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hong-yu; Zhang, Qiao-xian; Deng, Hong-bing; Zhao, Jing-zhu; Mu, Jin-bo; Zhang, De-zhi

    2006-12-01

    Based on the monitoring data for years in Shandong Province, current situation of acid rain in every city was assessed, and the temporal distribution of the dry, wet and total sulfur deposition in Jinan and Qingdao were studied. The results showed that Qingdao which had the largest precipitation acidity was the single city whose annul average precipitation pH was below 5. 60. The precipitation acidities in the main cities of Shandong Province were in a descent tendency. The total sulfur desposition in Jinan and Qingdao was basically stable or in a descent tendency, but also reached 10 t/(km(2)x a) or so. Among the total sulfur deposition flux, the dry deposition of sulfur had the greater contribution, and the contribution of SO2 dry deposition was higher than that of SO42- dry deposition. By analyzing the relation between the precipitation acidity and the SO2 discharge intensity, soil acidity and meteorological condition, the impact factors of acid precipitation in the cities of Shandong Province were revealed.

  7. Effect of acids and bases on electrophoretic deposition of

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cihlář, J.; Drdlík, D.; Cihlářová, Z.; Hadraba, Hynek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2013), s. 1885-1892 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR GD106/09/H035 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Electrophoretic deposition * Zirconia * Alumina * 2-Propanol * Electrosteric stabilization Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.307, year: 2013

  8. Acidic deposition in California: findings from a program of monitoring and effects research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, B.K.; Croes, B.E.; Brown, S.M.; Motallebi, N.; Westerdahl, F.D.; Margolis, H.G.; Cahill, B.T.; Mueller, M.D.; Holmes, J.R. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA (United States). Research Division

    1995-12-01

    California`s 14-year, 25 million dollar acidic deposition program has studied the causes and effects of acidic air pollutants. In contrast to the eastern United States where sulfur-derived (S-derived) by-products from coal combustion dominate precipitation chemistry, nitrogen-derived (N-derived) acids predominate in wet and dry deposition in California. Adverse effects on the human lung have not been observed after short-term exposures to acidity, but extended exposures to ambient acidity may pose a chronic risk. No irreversible, adverse effects on surface waters in the Sierra Nevada mountain range or to the state`s forests have been found due to extent acidic inputs. The longer-term outlook for forests is less certain because the impacts observed elsewhere occurred after decades of S and N deposition, but at lower ambient ozone levels. Ozone is the major air pollutant stressor for forests, but atmospheric N has the potential to cause adverse changes in soil nutrient cycling. Impacts on man-made materials in southern California (e.g. galvanized steel) were found to be minor. While California does not have an ambient air quality standard for acidic air pollutants, emission of precursors have declined since the 1960s due to changes in industrial practices, improvements in technology and adoption of control measures for ozone. Lowering emission from motor vehicles will be emphasized to prevent future increases in N deposition. 67 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Theory of acid deposition and its application to the dew-point meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, T.

    1977-06-01

    The theory of convective mass transfer is used to calculate the rate of deposition of sulphuric acid on cooled surfaces in boiler flues. The mass deposited per unit area per second is ah/c (p/sub Ag/ - p/sub As/) where h is the coefficient of convective heat transfer, c is the specific heat of the gas and a is a factor having a value of about 1.9; p/sub Ag/ and p/sub As/ are the partial pressures of sulphuric acid in the bulk of the gas and in saturated gas at the temperature of the surface. Values of p/sub A/ are tabulated against dew-point temperature and water vapour content. The theory explains how fog formation in the gas reduces the rate of acid deposition within a certain band of temperature between the acid dew-point and the water dew-point. The rate of deposition on a probe is shown to depend on the local mass flow as well as on the acid content. By contrast the dew-point depends only on the acid content. The sensitivity of the dew-point meter to changes in acid content is not very high but it is adequate for the control of combustion. A continuously recording dew-point meter is being successfully used on industrial boilers.

  10. The Contribution from Shipping Emissions to Air Quality and Acid Deposition in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, Richard G.; Stevenson, David S.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Cofala, Janusz; Mechler, Reinhard; Amann, Markus; Dentener, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    A global three-dimensional Lagrangian chemistry-transport model STOCHEM is used to describe the European regional acid deposition and ozone air quality impacts along the Atlantic Ocean seaboard of Europe, from the SO 2 , NO x , VOCs and CO emissions from international shipping under conditions appropriate to the year 2000. Model-derived total sulfur deposition from international shipping reaches over 200 mg S m-2 yr-1 over the southwestern approaches to the British Isles and Brittany. The contribution from international shipping to surface ozone concentrations during the summertime, peaks at about 6 ppb over Ireland, Brittany and Portugal. Shipping emissions act as an external influence on acid deposition and ozone air quality within Europe and may require control actions in the future if strict deposition and air quality targets are to be met

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of composite halloysite nanotube–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zhitomirsky, I., E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Composite halloysite nanotubes–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films were prepared. ► Electrophoretic deposition method was used for deposition. ► Natural hyaluronic acid was used as a dispersing, charging and film forming agent. ► Film composition and deposition yield can be varied. ► The films can be used for biomedical implants with controlled release of drugs. -- Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of biocomposite films containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), hydroxyapatite (HA) and hyaluronic acid. The method is based on the use of natural hyaluronate biopolymer as a dispersing and charging agent for HNT and HA and film forming agent for the fabrication of the composite films. The deposition kinetics was studied by the quartz crystal microbalance method. The composite films were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The composite films are promising materials for the fabrication of biomedical implants with advanced functional properties.

  12. Electrophoretic deposition of composite halloysite nanotube–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, I.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite halloysite nanotubes–hydroxyapatite–hyaluronic acid films were prepared. ► Electrophoretic deposition method was used for deposition. ► Natural hyaluronic acid was used as a dispersing, charging and film forming agent. ► Film composition and deposition yield can be varied. ► The films can be used for biomedical implants with controlled release of drugs. -- Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition method has been developed for the deposition of biocomposite films containing halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), hydroxyapatite (HA) and hyaluronic acid. The method is based on the use of natural hyaluronate biopolymer as a dispersing and charging agent for HNT and HA and film forming agent for the fabrication of the composite films. The deposition kinetics was studied by the quartz crystal microbalance method. The composite films were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopy. The composite films are promising materials for the fabrication of biomedical implants with advanced functional properties

  13. Influence of Humic Acid on the Transport and Deposition of Colloidal Silica under Different Hydrogeochemical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport and deposition of colloids in aquifers plays an important role in managed aquifer recharge (MAR schemes. Here, the processes of colloidal silica transport and deposition were studied by displacing groundwater with recharge water. The results showed that significant amounts of colloidal silica transport occurred when native groundwater was displaced by HA solution. Solution contains varying conditions of ionic strength and ion valence. The presence of humic acid could affect the zeta potential and size of the colloidal silica, which led to obvious colloidal silica aggregation in the divalent ion solution. Humic acid increased colloidal silica transport by formation of non-adsorbing aqueous phase silica–HA complexes. The experimental and modeling results showed good agreement, indicating that the essential physics were accurately captured by the model. The deposition rates were less than 10−8 s−1 in deionized water and monovalent ion solution. Moreover, the addition of Ca2+ and increase of IS resulted in the deposition rates increasing by five orders of magnitude to 10−4 s−1. In all experiments, the deposition rates decreased in the presence of humic acid. Overall, the promotion of humic acid in colloidal silica was strongly associated with changes in water quality, indicating that they should receive greater attention during MAR.

  14. 4.3. Decomposition of danburite concentrate of Ak-Arkar Deposit by nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite concentrate of Ak-Arkar Deposit by nitric acid. The influence of temperature on reaction process was studied. The dependence of extraction rate of oxides (B 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and Ca O) at nitric acid processing on temperature ranges from 25 to 95 deg C was defined. The dependence of extraction rate of oxides (B 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and Ca O) at nitric acid processing on process duration (5-60 minutes) was defined as well. The optimal conditions of decomposition of danburite concentrate by nitric acid were proposed.

  15. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria

    2013-04-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged layers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with ionic liquids (ILs) and the negatively charged plasma treated polylactic acid leads to homogeneous, stable, and highly durable coatings. Deposition of the LDH coatings increases the surface hydrophobicity of the neat PLA, which results to a decrease in water permeability by about 35%. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Acidic precipitation. Volume 3: Sources, deposition, and canopy interactions. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L.; Norton, S.A. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    As has been the case with many environmental issues of the twentieth century, acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. This volume emphasizes the atmospheric aspects of acidic precipitation and all that this term has come to include (e.g. toxic gases such as ozone, trace metals, aluminum, and oxides of nitrogen). It progresses from emissions of the precursors of acidic precipitation to their eventual deposition on environmental surfaces. The chapters describe the sources of acidic and basic airborne substances, their interactions in the atmosphere and with rain droplets, and their reactions with other airborne constituents such as aluminum and other metals. Also discussed are the use of metals as tracers of sources of the precursors of acidic precipitation and as tracers of historical deposition rates, the processes controlling the removal of airborne material as dry deposition and deposition interactions with the forest canopy, and past and future trends in atmospheric emissions and options for their abatement.

  17. Simulation of soil response to acidic deposition scenarios in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, W. de; Reinds, G.J.; Posch, M.; Kaemaera, J.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical response of European forest soils to three emission-deposition scenarios for the year 1960-2050, i.e. official energy pathways (OEP), current reduction plans (CRP) and maximum feasible reductions (MFR), was evaluated with the SMART model (Simulation Model for Acidification's Regional Trends). Calculations were made for coniferous and deciduous forests on 80 soil types occurring on the FAO soil map of Europe, using a gradient of 1.0 degree C longitude x 0.5 degree latitude. Results indicated that the area with nitrogen saturated soils, i.e. soils with elevated NO 3 concentrations (>0.02 mol c m -3 ) will increase in the future for all scenarios, even for the MFR scenario. The area with acidified soils, with a high Al concentration (> 0.2 mol c m -3 ) and Al/BC ratio (>1 mol -1 ) and a low pH ( 3 and Al concentrations mainly occurred in western, central and eastern Europe. Uncertainties in the initial values of C/N ratios and base saturation, and in the description of N dynamics in the SMART model had the largest impact on the temporal development of forested areas exceeding critical parameter values. Despite uncertainties involved, predicted general trends are plausible and reliable. 61 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs

  18. 1.6. The kinetics of hydrochloric acid decomposition of argillite of Chashma-Sang Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Mirzoev, D.Kh.; Boboev, Kh.E.

    2016-01-01

    Present article of book is devoted to kinetics of hydrochloric acid decomposition of argillite of Chashma-Sang Deposit. It was defined that with temperature increasing the extraction rate of Al_2O_3 and Fe_2O_3 increases. The dependence of extraction rate of Al_2O_3 and Fe_2O_3 on process duration at hydrochloric acid decomposition of argillite was studied. The activation energy of the process was defined.

  19. An overview of a 5-year research program on acid deposition in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; He, K.; Xu, X.; Zhang, P.; Bai, Y.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, X.; Duan, L.; Li, W.; Chai, F.

    2011-12-01

    Despite concerted research and regulative control of sulfur dioxide in China, acid rain remained a serious environmental issue, due to a sharp increase in the combustion of fossil fuel in the 2000s. In 2005, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China funded a five-year comprehensive research program on acid deposition. This talk will give an overview of the activities and the key findings from this study, covering emission, atmospheric processes, and deposition, effects on soil and stream waters, and impact on typical trees/plants in China. The main results include (1) China still experiences acidic rainfalls in southern and eastern regions, although the situation has stabilized after 2006 due to stringent control of SO2 by the Chinese Government; (2) Sulfate is the dominant acidic compound, but the contribution of nitrate has increased; (3) cloud-water composition in eastern China is strongly influenced by anthropogenic emissions; (4) the persistent fall of acid rain in the 30 years has lead to acidification of some streams/rivers and soils in southern China; (5) the studied plants have shown varying response to acid rain; (6) some new insights have been obtained on atmospheric chemistry, atmospheric transport, soil chemistry, and ecological impacts, some of which will be discussed in this talk. Compared to the situation in North America and Europe, China's acid deposition is still serious, and continued control of sulfur and nitrogen emission is required. There is an urgent need to establish a long-term observation network/program to monitor the impact of acid deposition on soil, streams/rivers/lakes, and forests.

  20. Do uric acid deposits in zooxanthellae function as eye-spots?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yamashita

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosis between zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium and corals is a fundamental basis of tropical marine ecosystems. However the physiological interactions of the hosts and symbionts are poorly understood. Recently, intracellular crystalline deposits in Symbiodinium were revealed to be uric acid functioning for nutrient storage. This is the first exploration of these enigmatic crystalline materials that had previously been misidentified as oxalic acid, providing new insights into the nutritional strategies of Symbiodinium in oligotrophic tropical waters. However, we believe these deposits also function as eye-spots on the basis of light and electron microscopic observations of motile cells of cultured Symbiodinium. The cells possessed crystalline deposit clusters in rows with each row 100-150 nm thick corresponding to 1/4 the wavelength of light and making them suitable for maximum wave interference and reflection of light. Crystalline clusters in cells observed with a light microscope strongly refracted and polarized light, and reflected or absorbed short wavelength light. The facts that purines, including uric acid, have been identified as the main constituents of light reflectors in many organisms, and that the photoreceptor protein, opsin, was detected in our Symbiodinium strain, support the idea that uric acid deposits in Symbiodinium motile cells may function as a component of an eye-spot.

  1. Do uric acid deposits in zooxanthellae function as eye-spots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kobiyama, Atsushi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2009-07-17

    The symbiosis between zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium) and corals is a fundamental basis of tropical marine ecosystems. However the physiological interactions of the hosts and symbionts are poorly understood. Recently, intracellular crystalline deposits in Symbiodinium were revealed to be uric acid functioning for nutrient storage. This is the first exploration of these enigmatic crystalline materials that had previously been misidentified as oxalic acid, providing new insights into the nutritional strategies of Symbiodinium in oligotrophic tropical waters. However, we believe these deposits also function as eye-spots on the basis of light and electron microscopic observations of motile cells of cultured Symbiodinium. The cells possessed crystalline deposit clusters in rows with each row 100-150 nm thick corresponding to 1/4 the wavelength of light and making them suitable for maximum wave interference and reflection of light. Crystalline clusters in cells observed with a light microscope strongly refracted and polarized light, and reflected or absorbed short wavelength light. The facts that purines, including uric acid, have been identified as the main constituents of light reflectors in many organisms, and that the photoreceptor protein, opsin, was detected in our Symbiodinium strain, support the idea that uric acid deposits in Symbiodinium motile cells may function as a component of an eye-spot.

  2. Poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) deposited on poly(vinyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we have deposited poly(aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid) on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by in situ ... along the polyaniline (PANI) chain results in self dop- ing of PANI and ..... The value of electrical conductivity is found to be ...

  3. Impact of acid atmospheric deposition on soils : quantification of chemical and hydrologic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinsven, van J.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of SO x , NOx and NHx will cause major changes in the chemical composition of solutions in acid soils, which may affect the biological functions of the soil. This thesis deals with quantification of soil acidification by means of chemical

  4. Electrophoretic deposition and electrochemical behavior of novel graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Qian; Jia, Zhaojun; Xu, Xuchen; Shi, Yuying; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-01-01

    Novel ternary graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite (GO-HY-HA) nanocomposite coatings were prepared on Ti substrate using anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Hyaluronic acid was employed as charging additive and dispersion agent during EPD. The kinetics and mechanism of the deposition, and the microstructure of the coated samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and microscopic Fourier transform infrared analysis. The results showed that the addition of GO sheets into the HY-HA suspensions could increase the deposition rate and inhibit cracks creation and propagation in the coatings. The corrosion resistant of the resulting samples were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization method in simulated body fluid, and the GO-HY-HA coatings could effectively improve the anti-corrosion property of the Ti substrate

  5. Electrophoretic deposition and electrochemical behavior of novel graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Qian; Jia, Zhaojun; Xu, Xuchen; Shi, Yuying; Cheng, Yan; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-11-01

    Novel ternary graphene oxide-hyaluronic acid-hydroxyapatite (GO-HY-HA) nanocomposite coatings were prepared on Ti substrate using anodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Hyaluronic acid was employed as charging additive and dispersion agent during EPD. The kinetics and mechanism of the deposition, and the microstructure of the coated samples were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and microscopic Fourier transform infrared analysis. The results showed that the addition of GO sheets into the HY-HA suspensions could increase the deposition rate and inhibit cracks creation and propagation in the coatings. The corrosion resistant of the resulting samples were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization method in simulated body fluid, and the GO-HY-HA coatings could effectively improve the anti-corrosion property of the Ti substrate.

  6. Analysis of leachability for a sandstone uranium deposite with high acid consumption and sensitivities in Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Wei; Miao Aisheng; Li Jianhua; Zhou Lei; Chang Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    In-situ Leaching adaptability of a ground water oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposit from Inner Mongolia is studied. The ore of the uranium deposit has high acid consumption and sensitivities in in-situ leaching. The leaching process with agent of CO_2 + O_2 and adjusting concentration of HCO_3"- can be suitable for the deposit. (authors)

  7. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Contemporaneous deposition of phyllosilicates and sulfates: Using Australian acidic saline lake deposits to describe geochemical variability on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, A.M.; Hook, S.J.; Crowley, J.K.; Marion, G.M.; Kargel, J.S.; Michalski, J.L.; Thomson, B.J.; de Souza, Filho C.R.; Bridges, N.T.; Brown, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the origin of the Martian sulfate and phyllosilicate deposits have led to the hypothesis that there was a marked, global-scale change in the Mars environment from circum-neutral pH aqueous alteration in the Noachian to an acidic evaporitic system in the late Noachian to Hesperian. However, terrestrial studies suggest that two different geochemical systems need not be invoked to explain such geochemical variation.Western Australian acidic playa lakes have large pH differences separated vertically and laterally by only a few tens of meters, demonstrating how highly variable chemistries can coexist over short distances in natural environments. We suggest diverse and variable Martian aqueous environments where the coetaneous formation of phyllosilicates and sulfates at the Australian sites are analogs for regions where phyllosilicates and sulfates coexist on Mars. In these systems, Fe and alkali earth phyllosilicates represent deep facies associated with upwelling neutral to alkaline groundwater, whereas aluminous phyllosilicates and sulfates represent near-surface evaporitic facies formed from more acidic brines. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Acid deposition: a select review 1852-1990. 2. Effects on materials and health; abatement strategies and programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Raper, D.W.; Lee, D.S.; Heath, B.A.; Conlan, B.; King, H.J. (Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom). Atmospheric Research and Information Centre)

    1993-10-01

    Part 2 of this review is concerned with the impact of acid deposits and their precursors on materials and human health, and with the control technologies and programmes introduced as a consequence of the environmental impacts of acid deposition. 269 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Effect of humic acid on the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry of copper in acetic acid soil extract solutions at mercaptoacetic acid-modified gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Gregoire; Beni, Valerio; Dillon, Patrick H.; Barry, Thomas; Arrigan, Damien W.M

    2004-05-24

    Electrochemical measurements were undertaken for the investigation of the underpotential deposition-stripping process of copper at bare and modified gold electrodes in 0.11 M acetic acid, the first fraction of the European Union's Bureau Communautaire de References (BCR) sequential extraction procedure for fractionating metals within soils and sediments. Gold electrodes modified with mercaptoacetic acid showed higher sensitivity for the detection of copper than bare gold electrodes, both in the absence and in the presence of humic acid in acetic acid solutions, using the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) method. In the presence of 50 mg l{sup -1} of humic acid, the mercaptoacetic acid modified electrode proved to be 1.5 times more sensitive than the bare gold electrode. The mercaptoacetic acid monolayer formed on the gold surface provided efficient protection against the adsorption of humic acid onto the gold electrode surface. Variation of the humic acid concentration in the solution showed little effect on the copper stripping signal at the modified electrode. UPD-SV at the modified electrode was applied to the analysis of soil extract samples. Linear correlation of the electrochemical results with atomic spectroscopic results yielded the straight-line equation y ({mu}g l{sup -1}) = 1.10x - 44 (ppb) (R=0.992, n=6), indicating good agreement between the two methods.

  11. Effects of acid deposition on ecosystems: Advances in the state of the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Fenn, Mark E.; Baron, Jill S.

    2011-01-01

    Chapter 2 focused on the environmental results of the ARP, presenting data from national monitoring networks on SO2 and NOx emissions, air quality, atmospheric deposition, surface water chemistry, and visibility. This chapter expands on this information by examining the most recent research into how ecosystems respond to acid deposition, especially the processes that control the recovery of ecosystems as acid deposition decreases. In Chapter 2, two general trends were discussed regarding the current recovery status of affected ecosystems: (1) these ecosystems are trending generally towards recovery, but improvements in ecosystem condition shown by surface water chemistry monitoring data thus far have been less than the improvements in deposition; and (2) ecosystem impacts and trends vary widely by geographic region, but the evidence of improvement is strongest and most evident in the Northeast. These trends are not uniform across the United States, however, and in some regions (e.g., central Appalachian Mountain region), trends in improved water quality are generally not evident. Despite the strong link in many areas between reduced emissions and reduced acidity of atmospheric deposition, the link is less clear between reduced acidity and recovery of the biological communities that live in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems that have experienced deleterious effects from acid deposition. The recovery of these communities is proceeding at a slower pace than, for example, the improvements in stream and lake ANC would indicate. The goal of this chapter is to synthesize the science in a weightof-evidence manner to provide policy makers with tangible evidence and likely causative factors regarding ecosystem status and recovery patterns to date. This chapter serves as an update to the 2005 NAPAP RTC (NSTC, 2005), with an emphasis on scientific studies and monitoring since 2003, which was the last year for consideration of research results in the 2005 report. Several

  12. Intensified Vegetation Water Use due to Soil Calcium Leaching under Acid Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, M.; Wang, L.; Scanlon, T. M.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.; Adams, M. B.; Epstein, H. E.; Druckenbrod, D.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the important role vegetation plays in the global water cycle, the exact controls of vegetation water use, especially the role of soil biogeochemistry, remain elusive. Nitrate and sulfate deposition from fossil fuel burning has caused significant soil acidification, leading to the leaching of soil base cations. From a physiological perspective, plants require various soil cations as signaling and regulatory ions as well as integral parts of structural molecules; a depletion of soil cations can cause reduced productivity and abnormal responses to environmental change. A deficiency in calcium could also potentially prolong stomatal opening, leading to increased transpiration until enough calcium had been acquired to stimulate stomatal closure. Based on the plant physiology and the nature of acidic deposition, we hypothesize that depletion of the soil calcium supply, induced by acid deposition, would intensify vegetation water use at the watershed scale. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing a long-term and unique data set (1989-2012) of soil lysimeter data along with stream flow and evapotranspiration data at the Fernow Experimental Forest. We show that depletion of soil calcium by acid deposition can intensify vegetation water use ( 10% increase in evapotranspiration and depletion in soil water) for the first time. These results are critical to understanding future water availability, biogeochemical cycles, and surficial energy flux and may help reduce uncertainties in terrestrial biosphere models.

  13. The Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF): A tool for the integrated assessment of acid deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloyd, C.N.; Henrion, M.; Marnicio, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major challenge that has faced policy makers concerned with acid deposition is obtaining an integrated view of the underlying science related to acid deposition. In response to this challenge, the US Department of Energy is sponsoring the development of an integrated Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) which links together the key acid deposition components of emissions, air transport, atmospheric deposition, and aquatic effects in a single modeling structure. The goal of TAF is to integrate credible models of the scientific and technical issues into an assessment framework that can directly address key policy issues, and in doing so act as a bridge between science and policy. Key objectives of TAF are to support coordination and communication among scientific researchers; to support communications with policy makers, and to provide rapid response for analyzing newly emerging policy issues; and to provide guidance for prioritizing research programs. This paper briefly describes how TAF was formulated to meet those objectives and the underlying principals which form the basis for its development

  14. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    Background:Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected to promote...

  15. Distribution and Orientation of Carbon Fibers in Polylactic Acid Parts Produced by Fused Deposition Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; W. Gutmann, Ingomar; Koch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the understanding of the fiber orientation by investigations in respect to the inner configuration of a polylactic acid matrix reinforced with short carbon fibers after a fused deposition modeling extrusion process. The final parts were analyzed by X-ray, tomography......, and magnetic resonance imaging allowing a resolved orientation of the fibers and distribution within the part. The research contributes to the understanding of the fiber orientation and fiber reinforcement of fused deposition modeling parts in additive manufacturing....

  16. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This project had three major objectives. The first objective was to develop a fossil fuel combustion source inventory (NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, and hydrocarbon emissions) that would be relatively easy to use and update for analyzing the impact of combustion emissions on acid deposition in the eastern United States. The second objective of the project was to use the inventory data as a basis for selection of a number of areas that, by virtue of their importance in the acid rain issue, could be further studied to assess the impact of local and intraregional combustion sources. The third objective was to conduct an analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in the areas under study, along with pertinent physical characteristics, meteorological conditions, and emission patterns of these areas, to investigate probable relationships between local and intraregional combustion sources and the deposition of acidic material. The combustion source emissions inventory has been developed for the eastern United States. It characterizes all important area sources and point sources on a county-by-county basis. Its design provides flexibility and simplicity and makes it uniquely useful in overall analysis of emission patterns in the eastern United States. Three regions with basically different emission patterns have been identified and characterized. The statistical analysis of wet deposition monitoring data in conjunction with emission patterns, wind direction, and topography has produced consistent results for each study area and has demonstrated that the wet deposition in each area reflects the characteristics of the localized area around the monitoring sites (typically 50 to 150 miles). 8 references, 28 figures, 39 tables.

  17. Changing public interest in, and awareness of, acid deposition: some evidence from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Bantock, J.; Hare, S.E.; Conlan, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    It is fundamental that the general public have access to usable environmental information on which they can base their decisions. Since 1984 the Atmospheric Research and Information Centre (ARIC) has operated a public information programme for the UK on the subject of acid deposition. The objective of the programme is to disseminate information on acid deposition without advocacy. ARIC provides enquiries with a broad range of authoritative and accurate facts and opinions from a wide range of parties from all sides of the debate. These sources include pressure groups, governmental bodies and industrialists from the UK and overseas. By deconstructing complex technical material and reassembling it for dissemination in a user friendly form, ARIC assists those receiving information to obtain a balanced perspective. This enables personal decision making within the context of the fullest information resource ARIC is able to provide. 8 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Changing public interest in, and awareness of, acid deposition: some evidence from the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Bantock, J.; Hare, S.E.; Conlan, D.E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Sciences

    1995-12-01

    It is fundamental that the general public have access to usable environmental information on which they can base their decisions. Since 1984 the Atmospheric Research and Information Centre (ARIC) has operated a public information programme for the UK on the subject of acid deposition. The objective of the programme is to disseminate information on acid deposition without advocacy. ARIC provides enquiries with a broad range of authoritative and accurate facts and opinions from a wide range of parties from all sides of the debate. These sources include pressure groups, governmental bodies and industrialists from the UK and overseas. By deconstructing complex technical material and reassembling it for dissemination in a user friendly form, ARIC assists those receiving information to obtain a balanced perspective. This enables personal decision making within the context of the fullest information resource ARIC is able to provide. 8 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Impact of the Fused Deposition (FDM) Printing Process on Polylactic Acid (PLA) Chemistry and Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Arthur Cuiffo; Jeffrey Snyder; Alicia M. Elliott; Nicholas Romero; Sandhiya Kannan; Gary P. Halada

    2017-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is an organic polymer commonly used in fused deposition (FDM) printing and biomedical scaffolding that is biocompatible and immunologically inert. However, variations in source material quality and chemistry make it necessary to characterize the filament and determine potential changes in chemistry occurring as a result of the FDM process. We used several spectroscopic techniques, including laser confocal microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and pho...

  20. Sulfuric acid dissolution of the Chashma-Sang deposit's green clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoev, D.Kh.; Boboev, Kh.E.; Pulatov, M.S.; Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2005-01-01

    Present article is presenting the results of the roentgen phase, thermodynamic and physical-chemical investigations of the green clays of the Chashma-Sang deposit of the Republic of Tajikistan. It is presented mineralogical and chemical composition of the mineral raw materials. Kinetic of decomposition of the oxides of aluminum and iron on temperature, time and concentration of the sulfuric acid has been investigated

  1. Acid rain and nitrogen deposition in a sub-tropical watershed (Piracicaba): ecosystem consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusche, A.V.; Camargo, P.B. de; Cerri, C.E.; Ballester, M.V.; Lara, L.B.L.S.; Victoria, R.L.; Martinelli, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Poorly buffered sandy soils may result in acidification problems for forests in this basin. - High levels of wet N and acidic deposition were measured in southeast Brazil. In this study we addressed the sensitivity of water bodies and soils to acidification and N deposition in the Piracicaba River basin (12,400 km 2 ). Average acid neutralization capacity (ANC) at 23 river sampling sites varied from 350 to 1800 μeq l -1 . Therefore, rivers and streams in the Piracicaba basin are well buffered, if the lower limit of 200 μeq l -1 is assumed as an indication of poorly buffered waters. ANC is increased by untreated wastewaters discarded into rivers and streams of the region. Average NO 3 concentrations varied from 20 to 70 μeq l -1 . At the most polluted river sites, NO 3 concentration is not highest, however, probably due to NO 3 reduction and denitrification. Most of the nitrogen in streams is also provided by wastewaters and not by wet deposition. The majority of the soils in the basin, however, are acidic with a low base cation content and high aluminum concentration. Therefore, soils in this basin are poorly buffered and, in areas of forest over sandy soils, acidification may be a problem

  2. Influence of acidic atmospheric deposition on soil solution composition in the Daniel Boone National Forest, Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.D. Barton; A.D. Karathanasis; G. Chalfant

    2002-01-01

    Acid atmosperic depositoin may enter an environmental ecosystem in a variety of forms and pathways, but the most common components include sulfuric and nitric acids formed when rainwater interacts with sulfur (SO3) and nitrogen (NO3) emmissions. For many soils and watersheds sensitive to acid deposition, the predominant...

  3. Transport of acid forming emissions and potential effects of deposition in northeastern Alberta and northern Saskatchewan: a problem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewchuk, S.R.; Abouguendia, Z.M.; Atton, F.M.; Dublin, J.; Godwin, R.C.; Holowaychuk, N.; Hopkinson, R.; Liaw, W.K.; Maybank, J.; Padbury, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to study the potential effects of acid rain in northeastern Alberta and northern Saskatchewan. A problem analysis was conducted of the transport, transformations and deposition of emissions in this region. Studied are the atmospheric processes, geology and soils, natural vegetation, and the aquatic systems. At present, no environmental damage attributable to acidic deposition has been detected in this region. Field surveys in the region have detected no effects of industrial emissions on vegetation except within a few kilometers of industrial operations. The earliest effects of acid deposition tend to appear within aquatic systems. Ten recommendations based on these findings are discussed. 109 references, 22 figures, 10 tables.

  4. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 15. Liming acidic surface waters. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olem, H.; Thornelof, E.; Sandoy, S.; Schreiber, R.K.

    1990-09-01

    The document describes the science and technology of aquatic liming--a method for improving the water quality of acidic surface waters to restore or enhance fisheries. The report is a comprehensive compilation of years of research in North America and Europe by dozens of scientists. Several mitigation technologies--including those that have only been proposed--are critically evaluated along with the effects of liming on water chemistry and aquatic biota. Through these evaluations, the state of the science and technology of aquatic liming is identified for the reader. Whole-lake liming is now recognized as a valuable management tool for acidic surface waters and their fisheries. However, some liming technologies are considered experimental and will need further evaluation. Distinctions between technologies are included--as is the distinction between liming acidic surface waters and reducing acidifying emissions

  5. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 14. Methods for projecting future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, K.W.; Marmorek, D.; Ryan, P.F.; Heltcher, K.; Robinson, D.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the report are to: critically evaluate methods for projecting future effects of acidic deposition on surface water acid-base chemistry; review and evaluate techniques and procedures for analyzing projection uncertainty; review procedures for estimating regional lake and stream population attributes; review the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) methodology for projecting the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry; and present the models, uncertainty estimators, population estimators, and proposed approach selected to project the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry in the NAPAP 1990 Integrated Assessment and discuss the selection rationale

  6. Assessment of lake sensitivity to acidic deposition in national parks of the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Williams, M.W.; Campbell, D.H.; Tonnessen, K.A.; Blett, T.; Clow, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    The sensitivity of high-elevation lakes to acidic deposition was evaluated in five national parks of the Rocky Mountains based on statistical relations between lake acid-neutralizing capacity concentrations and basin characteristics. Acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) of 151 lakes sampled during synoptic surveys and basin-characteristic information derived from geographic information system (GIS) data sets were used to calibrate the statistical models. The explanatory basin variables that were considered included topographic parameters, bedrock type, and vegetation type. A logistic regression model was developed, and modeling results were cross-validated through lake sampling during fall 2004 at 58 lakes. The model was applied to lake basins greater than 1 ha in area in Glacier National Park (n = 244 lakes), Grand Teton National Park (n = 106 lakes), Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve (n = 11 lakes), Rocky Mountain National Park (n = 114 lakes), and Yellowstone National Park (n = 294 lakes). Lakes that had a high probability of having an ANC concentration 3000 m, with 80% of the catchment bedrock having low buffering capacity. The modeling results indicate that the most sensitive lakes are located in Rocky Mountain National Park and Grand Teton National Park. This technique for evaluating the lake sensitivity to acidic deposition is useful for designing long-term monitoring plans and is potentially transferable to other remote mountain areas of the United States and the world.

  7. Effect of N deposition on tree amino acid concentrations in two Sphagnum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsisto, M; Kitunen, V [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland). Vantaa Research Centre; Jauhiainen, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Vasander, H [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1997-12-31

    Nitrogen saturation of ecosystems occurs when the availability of nitrogen is not a growth limiting factor. This situation can be reached through fertilisation or by nitrogen deposition. Prolonged nitrogen saturation may overload the ecosystem and cause changes in the vigour and eventually in the composition of plant communities. But before this stage is reached, certain changes in nitrogen metabolism occur. These changes can be used as an early warning of nitrogen overload to ecosystems. A change in the amino acid pool of plants has been used as an indication of various kind of stress, including, temperature, nutrient imbalance, shading, drought or excess water. It has been postulated that such stresses have an effect on protein synthesis but not on the nitrogen uptake of plants. The result is an increase in the concentration of NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions in plant cells, which may have toxic effects to the plant and the processes that assimilate the free NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions. One of such process is the synthesis of amino acids, especially those containing a significant proportion of nitrogen, e.g. arginine, glutamine and asparagine. This study about the quantification of amino acids in two species of Sphagnum mosses is part of a larger study, the aim of which is to clarify how a number of Sphagnum species will cope with climatic change and nitrogen deposition. Sphagna are the most important members of the peat forming communities in the boreal zone. Sphagnum communities are formed by species specialised to grow in conditions of low nutrient availability, mainly provided via deposition. The present structure and composition of mire communities may be endangered due to elevated levels of nitrogen deposition that have persisted over the last few decades. (20 refs.)

  8. Effect of N deposition on tree amino acid concentrations in two Sphagnum species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsisto, M.; Kitunen, V. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Vantaa (Finland). Vantaa Research Centre; Jauhiainen, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Nitrogen saturation of ecosystems occurs when the availability of nitrogen is not a growth limiting factor. This situation can be reached through fertilisation or by nitrogen deposition. Prolonged nitrogen saturation may overload the ecosystem and cause changes in the vigour and eventually in the composition of plant communities. But before this stage is reached, certain changes in nitrogen metabolism occur. These changes can be used as an early warning of nitrogen overload to ecosystems. A change in the amino acid pool of plants has been used as an indication of various kind of stress, including, temperature, nutrient imbalance, shading, drought or excess water. It has been postulated that such stresses have an effect on protein synthesis but not on the nitrogen uptake of plants. The result is an increase in the concentration of NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions in plant cells, which may have toxic effects to the plant and the processes that assimilate the free NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions. One of such process is the synthesis of amino acids, especially those containing a significant proportion of nitrogen, e.g. arginine, glutamine and asparagine. This study about the quantification of amino acids in two species of Sphagnum mosses is part of a larger study, the aim of which is to clarify how a number of Sphagnum species will cope with climatic change and nitrogen deposition. Sphagna are the most important members of the peat forming communities in the boreal zone. Sphagnum communities are formed by species specialised to grow in conditions of low nutrient availability, mainly provided via deposition. The present structure and composition of mire communities may be endangered due to elevated levels of nitrogen deposition that have persisted over the last few decades. (20 refs.)

  9. Assessing future economic impacts of acidic deposition on the recreational fishery of eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the socio-economic impacts and net economic value effects related to potential reduction in acidic deposition on the sports fishery of eastern Canada. Impacts and net economic effects that would have occurred from 1950 to 1985 if emission/deposition controls were in place are measured. Impacts and net economic effects that will occur from 1986 to 2021 if controls are put in place in the future are also measured. The study incorporated the latest data describing the relationship of acidic deposition to lake pH levels and ultimate impact on fish survival, and applies a spatial analysis system to model changes in sport fish availability with respect to pH changes and fish survival responses. It was found that if emission controls were put in place beginning in 1950 the Canadian economy would have accrued $4.3 billion in net economic value from 1950 to 1985 inclusive. The 1986 value of the historical stream of losses that occurred because controls were not put in place is $24 billion assuming a 10% rate of return. If controls were put in place in the future, net economic value to Canada due to increased angler activity would be $4.2 billion for the period 1986-2021. The value in 1986 would be $925 million. 9 figs., 34 tabs

  10. The response of soil solution chemistry in European forests to decreasing acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Carnicelli, Stefano; Cecchini, Guia; Clarke, Nicholas; Cools, Nathalie; Hansen, Karin; Meesenburg, Henning; Nieminen, Tiina M; Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla; Titeux, Hugues; Vanguelova, Elena; Verstraeten, Arne; Vesterdal, Lars; Waldner, Peter; Jonard, Mathieu

    2018-03-31

    Acid deposition arising from sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions from fossil fuel combustion and agriculture has contributed to the acidification of terrestrial ecosystems in many regions globally. However, in Europe and North America, S deposition has greatly decreased in recent decades due to emissions controls. In this study, we assessed the response of soil solution chemistry in mineral horizons of European forests to these changes. Trends in pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), major ions, total aluminium (Al tot ) and dissolved organic carbon were determined for the period 1995-2012. Plots with at least 10 years of observations from the ICP Forests monitoring network were used. Trends were assessed for the upper mineral soil (10-20 cm, 104 plots) and subsoil (40-80 cm, 162 plots). There was a large decrease in the concentration of sulphate (SO42-) in soil solution; over a 10-year period (2000-2010), SO42- decreased by 52% at 10-20 cm and 40% at 40-80 cm. Nitrate was unchanged at 10-20 cm but decreased at 40-80 cm. The decrease in acid anions was accompanied by a large and significant decrease in the concentration of the nutrient base cations: calcium, magnesium and potassium (Bc = Ca 2+  + Mg 2+  + K + ) and Al tot over the entire dataset. The response of soil solution acidity was nonuniform. At 10-20 cm, ANC increased in acid-sensitive soils (base saturation ≤10%) indicating a recovery, but ANC decreased in soils with base saturation >10%. At 40-80 cm, ANC remained unchanged in acid-sensitive soils (base saturation ≤20%, pHCaCl2 ≤ 4.5) and decreased in better-buffered soils (base saturation >20%, pHCaCl2 > 4.5). In addition, the molar ratio of Bc to Al tot either did not change or decreased. The results suggest a long-time lag between emission abatement and changes in soil solution acidity and underline the importance of long-term monitoring in evaluating ecosystem response to decreases in deposition. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons

  11. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Increases Adiponectin and Normalizes IUGR-Induced Changes in Rat Adipose Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi N. Bagley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPARγ increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a PPARγ agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPARγ, adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI- induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1 normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPARγ expression in male rats and (2 increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR.

  12. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid increases adiponectin and normalizes IUGR-induced changes in rat adipose deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Heidi N; Wang, Yan; Campbell, Michael S; Yu, Xing; Lane, Robert H; Joss-Moore, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes to obesity and adipose dysfunction. We previously demonstrated IUGR-induced increased visceral adipose deposition and dysregulated expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor- γ 2 (PPAR γ 2) in male adolescent rats, prior to the onset of obesity. In other studies, activation of PPAR γ increases subcutaneous adiponectin expression and normalizes visceral adipose deposition. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a PPAR γ agonist, would normalize IUGR adipose deposition in association with increased PPAR γ , adiponectin, and adiponectin receptor expression in subcutaneous adipose. To test these hypotheses, we used a well-characterized model of uteroplacental-insufficiency-(UPI-) induced IUGR in the rat with maternal DHA supplementation. Our primary findings were that maternal DHA supplementation during rat pregnancy and lactation (1) normalizes IUGR-induced changes in adipose deposition and visceral PPAR γ expression in male rats and (2) increases serum adiponectin, as well as adipose expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors in former IUGR rats. Our novel findings suggest that maternal DHA supplementation may normalize adipose dysfunction and promote adiponectin-induced improvements in metabolic function in IUGR.

  13. A decade of monitoring at Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research (LWF) sites: can we observe trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Thimonier, Anne; Schmitt, Maria; Walthert, Lorenz; Waldner, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Trends in atmospheric acid deposition and in soil solution acidity from 1995 or later until 2007 were investigated at several forest sites throughout Switzerland to assess the effects of air pollution abatements on deposition and the response of the soil solution chemistry. Deposition of the major elements was estimated from throughfall and bulk deposition measurements at nine sites of the Swiss Long-Term Forest Ecosystem Research network (LWF) since 1995 or later. Soil solution was measured at seven plots at four soil depths since 1998 or later. Trends in the molar ratio of base cations to aluminum (BC/Al) in soil solutions and in concentrations and fluxes of inorganic N (NO(3)-N + NH(4)-N), sulfate (SO(4)-S), and base cations (BC) were used to detect changes in soil solution chemistry. Acid deposition significantly decreased at three out of the nine study sites due to a decrease in total N deposition. Total SO(4)-S deposition decreased at the nine sites, but due to the relatively low amount of SO(4)-S load compared to N deposition, it did not contribute to decrease acid deposition significantly. No trend in total BC deposition was detected. In the soil solution, no trend in concentrations and fluxes of BC, SO(4)-S, and inorganic N were found at most soil depths at five out of the seven sites. This suggests that the soil solution reacted very little to the changes in atmospheric deposition. A stronger reduction in base cations compared to aluminum was detected at two sites, which might indicate that acidification of the soil solution was proceeding faster at these sites.

  14. Characterization of heavy metal desorption from road-deposited sediment under acid rain scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, An; Wu, Guangxue; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on urban impervious surfaces are important carriers of heavy metals. Dissolved heavy metals that come from RDS influenced by acid rain, are more harmful to urban receiving water than particulate parts. RDS and its associated heavy metals were investigated at typical functional areas, including industrial, commercial and residential sites, in Guangdong, Southern China, which was an acid rain sensitive area. Total and dissolved heavy metals in five particle size fractions were analyzed using a shaking method under acid rain scenarios. Investigated heavy metals showed no difference in the proportion of dissolved fraction in the solution under different acid rain pHs above 3.0, regardless of land use. Dissolved loading of heavy metals related to organic carbon content were different in runoff from main traffic roads of three land use types. Coarse particles (>150μm) that could be efficiently removed by conventional street sweepers, accounted for 55.1%-47.1% of the total dissolved metal loading in runoff with pH3.0-5.6. The obtained findings provided a significant scientific basis to understand heavy metal release and influence of RDS grain-size distribution and land use in dissolved heavy metal pollution affected by acid rain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Leaching of cell wall components caused by acid deposition on fir needles and trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigihara, Ado [Department of Material and Life Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, 3-27-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan)], E-mail: r200670202@kanagawa-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi [Department of Material and Life Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, 3-27-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Sakurai, Naoki [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Science, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Igawa, Manabu [Department of Material and Life Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, 3-27-1, Rokkakubashi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    Virgin fir forests have been declining since the 1960s at Mt. Oyama, which is located at the eastern edge of the Tanzawa Mountains and adjacent to the Kanto plain in Japan. An acid fog frequently occurs in the mountains. We collected throughfall and stemflow under fir trees and rainfall every week during January-December 2004 at Mt. Oyama to clarify the influence of acid fog on the decline of fir (Abies firma) needles. In relation to throughfall and stemflow, D-mannose, D-galactose, and D-glucose are the major neutral sugar components; only D-glucose is a major component of rainfall. The correlation coefficient between the total neutral sugars and uronic acid (as D-galacturonic acid), which is a key component of the cross-linking between pectic polysaccharides, was high except for rainfall. The leached amount of calcium ion, neutral sugars, uronic acid, and boron is related to the nitrate ion concentration in throughfall. Results of a laboratory exposure experiment using artificial fog water simulating the average composition of fog water observed at Mt. Oyama (simulated acid fog: SAF) on the fir seedling needles also shows a large leaching of these components from the cell walls of fir needles. The leaching amount increased concomitantly with decreasing pH of the SAF solution. We also observed that a dimeric rhamnogalacturonan II-borate complex (dRG-II-B) that exists in the cell wall as pectic polysaccharide was converted to monomeric RG-II (mRG-II) by the leaching of calcium ion and boron. Results not only of field observations but also those of laboratory experiments indicate a large effect of acid depositions on fir needles.

  16. Ester Sensing with Poly (Aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic Acid Deposited on Poly (Vinyl Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ADHIKARI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly (aniline-co-m-aminobenzoic acid was deposited on poly (vinyl alcohol film by in situ oxidative polymerization of the monomers aniline and m-aminobenzoic acid. Sensing experiments were performed on the composite film with the injection of various concentrations of hexenyl acetate and hexenyl butyrate at room temperature. The sensor responded rapidly and reversibly in the presence of hexenyl acetate and hexenyl butyrate vapors which was detected by resistance change of the composite film upon exposure to the vapor. Selectivity tests revealed that the sensor selectively responded to hexenyl butyrate compared to hexenyl acetate. The sensing response has been explained on the basis of FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of the polymer film before and after exposure to the ester vapor.

  17. The distribution of common construction materials at risk to acid deposition in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Frederick W.; Daum, Mary L.

    Information on the geographic distribution of various types of exposed materials is required to estimate the economic costs of damage to construction materials from acid deposition. This paper focuses on the identification, evaluation and interpretation of data describing the distributions of exterior construction materials, primarily in the United States. This information could provide guidance on how data needed for future economic assessments might be acquired in the most cost-effective ways. Materials distribution surveys from 16 cities in the U.S. and Canada and five related databases from government agencies and trade organizations were examined. Data on residential buildings are more commonly available than on nonresidential buildings; little geographically resolved information on distributions of materials in infrastructure was found. Survey results generally agree with the appropriate ancillary databases, but the usefulness of the databases is often limited by their coarse spatial resolution. Information on those materials which are most sensitive to acid deposition is especially scarce. Since a comprehensive error analysis has never been performed on the data required for an economic assessment, it is not possible to specify the corresponding detailed requirements for data on the distributions of materials.

  18. Hatching success in salamanders and chorus frogs at two sites in Colorado, USA: Effects of acidic deposition and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Campbell, D.H.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    The snowpack in the vicinity of the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area is among the most acidic in the western United States. We analyzed water chemistry and examined hatching success in tiger salamanders and chorus frogs at ponds there and at nearby Rabbit Ears Pass (Dumont) to determine whether acid deposition affects amphibians or their breeding habitats at these potentially sensitive locations. We found a wide range of acid neutralizing capacity among ponds within sites; the minimum pH recorded during the experiment was 5.4 at one of 12 ponds with all others at pH ??? 5.7. At Dumont, hatching success for chorus frogs was greater in ponds with low acid neutralizing capacity; however, lowest pHs were >5.8. At current levels of acid deposition, weather and pond characteristics are likely more important than acidity in influencing hatching success in amphibian larvae at these sites.

  19. Deposition of Coating to Protect Waste Water Reservoir in Acidic Solution by Arc Thermal Spray Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion characteristics of 304 stainless steel (SS and titanium (Ti coatings deposited by the arc thermal spray process in pH 4 solution were assessed. The Ti-sprayed coating exhibits uniform, less porous, and adherent coating morphology compared to the SS-sprayed coating. The electrochemical study, that is, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, revealed that as exposure periods to solution were increased, the polarization resistance (Rp decreased and the charge transfer resistance (Rct increased owing to corrosion of the metallic surface and simultaneously at the same time the deposition of oxide films/corrosion on the SS-sprayed surface, while Ti coating transformed unstable oxides into the stable phase. Potentiodynamic studies confirmed that both sprayed coatings exhibited passive tendency attributed due to the deposition of corrosion products on SS samples, whereas the Ti-sprayed sample formed passive oxide films. The Ti coating reduced the corrosion rate by more than six times compared to the SS coating after 312 h of exposure to sulfuric acid- (H2SO4- contaminated water solution, that is, pH 4. Scanning electron microscope (SEM results confirmed the uniform and globular morphology of the passive film on the Ti coating resulting in reduced corrosion. On the other hand, the corrosion products formed on SS-sprayed coating exhibit micropores with a net-like microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the presence of the composite oxide film on Ti-sprayed samples and lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH on the SS-coated surface. The transformation of TiO and Ti3O into TiO2 (rutile and anatase and Ti3O5 after 312 h of exposure to H2SO4 acid reveals the improved corrosion resistance properties of Ti-sprayed coating.

  20. U(VI) speciation and reduction in acid chloride fluids in hydrothermal conditions: from transport to deposition of uranium in unconformity-related deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargent, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    Circulations of acidic chloride brines in the earth's crust are associated with several types of uranium deposits, particularly unconformity-related uranium (URU) deposits. The spectacular high grade combined with the large tonnage of these deposits is at the origin of the key questions concerning the geological processes responsible for U transport and precipitation. The aim of this work is to performed experimental studies of U(VI) speciation and its reduction to U(IV) subsequently precipitation to uraninite under hydrothermal condition. About uranium transport, the study of U(VI) speciation in acidic brines at high temperature is performed by Raman and XAS spectroscopy, showing the coexistence of several uranyl chloride complexes UO 2 Cl n 2-n (n = 0 - 5). From this study, complexation constants are proposed. The strong capability of chloride to complex uranyl is at the origin of the transport of U(VI) at high concentration in acidic chloride brines. Concerning uranium precipitation, the reactivity of four potential reductants under conditions relevant for URU deposits genesis is investigated: H 2 , CH 4 , Fe(II) and the C-graphite. The kinetics of reduction reaction is measured as a function of temperature, salinity, pH and concentration of reductant. H 2 , CH 4 , and the C-graphite are very efficient while Fe(II) is not able to reduce U(VI) in same conditions. The duration of the mineralizing event is controlled by (i) the U concentration in the ore-forming fluids and (ii) by the generation of gaseous reductants, and not by the reduction kinetics. These mobile and efficient gaseous reductant could be at the origin of the extremely focus and massive character of ore in URU deposits. Finally, first partition coefficients uraninite/fluid of trace elements are obtained. This last part opens-up new perspectives on (i) REE signatures interpretation for a given type of uranium deposit (ii) and reconstruction of mineralizing fluids composition. (author) [fr

  1. Influence of hydrofluoric acid treatment on electroless deposition of Au clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachela G. Milazzo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs deposited on a (100 silicon wafer by simple immersion in a solution containing a metal salt and hydrofluoric acid (HF is altered by HF treatment both before and after deposition. The gold clusters are characterized by the presence of flat regions and quasispherical particles consistent with the layer-by-layer or island growth modes, respectively. The cleaning procedure, including HF immersion prior to deposition, affects the predominantly occurring gold structures. Flat regions, which are of a few tens of nanometers long, are present after immersion for 10 s. The three-dimensional (3D clusters are formed after a cleaning procedure of 4 min, which results in a large amount of spherical particles with a diameter of ≈15 nm and in a small percentage of residual square layers of a few nanometers in length. The samples were also treated with HF after the deposition and we found out a general thickening of flat regions, as revealed by TEM and AFM analysis. This result is in contrast to the coalescence observed in similar experiments performed with Ag. It is suggested that the HF dissolves the silicon oxide layer formed on top of the thin flat clusters and promotes the partial atomic rearrangement of the layered gold atoms, driven by a reduction of the surface energy. The X-ray diffraction investigation indicated changes in the crystalline orientation of the flat regions, which partially lose their initially heteroepitaxial relationship with the substrate. A postdeposition HF treatment for almost 70 s has nearly the same effect of long duration, high temperature annealing. The process presented herein could be beneficial to change the spectral response of nanoparticle arrays and to improve the conversion efficiency of hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  2. Relationships between soil properties and community structure of soil macroinvertebrates in oak-history forests along an acidic deposition gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1996-02-01

    Soil macroinvertebrate communities were studied in ecologically analogous oak-hickory forests across a three-state atmospheric pollution gradient in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. The goal was to investigate changes in the community structure of soil fauna in study sites receiving different amounts of acidic deposition for several decades and the possible relationships between these changes and physico-chemical properties of soil. The study revealed significant differences in the numbers of soil animals among the three study sites. The sharply differentiated pattern of soil macroinvertebrate fauna seems closely linked to soil chemistry. Significant correlations of the abundance of soil macroinvertebrates with soil parameters suggest that their populations could have been affected by acidic deposition in the region. Abundance of total soil macroinvertebrates decreased with the increased cumulative loading of acidic deposition. Among the groups most sensitive to deposition were: earthworms gastropods, dipteran larvae, termites, and predatory beetles. The results of the study support the hypothesis that chronic long-term acidic deposition could aversely affect the soil decomposer community which could cause lower organic matter turnover rates leading to an increase in soil organic matter content in high deposition sites.

  3. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.; McDonnell, Todd C.; McPherson, G.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study documents the effects of acidic deposition and soil acid-base chemistry on the growth, regeneration, and canopy condition of sugar maple (SM) trees in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Sugar maple is the dominant canopy species throughout much of the northern hardwood forest in the State. A field study was conducted in 2009 in which 50 study plots within 20 small Adirondack watersheds were sampled and evaluated for soil acid-base chemistry and SM growth, canopy condition, and regeneration. Atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) deposition were estimated for each plot. Trees growing on soils with poor acid-base chemistry (low exchangeable calcium and % base saturation) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric S and N deposition exhibited little to no SM seedling regeneration, decreased canopy condition, and short-to long-term growth declines compared with study plots having better soil condition and lower levels of atmospheric deposition. These results suggest that the ecosystem services provided by SM in the western and central Adirondack Mountain region, including aesthetic, cultural, and monetary values, are at risk from ongoing soil acidification caused in large part by acidic deposition.

  4. Effects of acid and alkaline based surface preparations on spray deposited cerium based conversion coatings on Al 2024-T3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinc, W. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)], E-mail: wrphw5@mst.edu; Geng, S.; O' Keefe, M.; Fahrenholtz, W.; O' Keefe, T. [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Cerium based conversion coatings were spray deposited on Al 2024-T3 and characterized to determine the effect of surface preparation on the deposition rate and surface morphology. It was found that activation of the panel using a 1-wt.% sulfuric acid solution increased the coating deposition rate compared to alkaline cleaning alone. Analysis of the surface morphology of the coatings showed that the coatings deposited on the acid treated panels exhibited fewer visible cracks compared to coatings on alkaline cleaned panels. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling showed that the acid activation decreased the thickness of the aluminum oxide layer and the concentration of magnesium on the surface of the panels compared to the alkaline treatment. Additionally, acid activation increased the copper concentration at the surface of the aluminum substrate. Based on the results, the acid based surface treatment appeared to expose copper rich intermetallics, thus increasing the number of cathodic sites on the surface, which led to an overall increase in the deposition rate.

  5. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U. S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A. (US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1992-06-01

    Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried limestone and marble have been exposed to the environment to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Erosion due to grain loss did not seem to be influenced by rainfall acidity, but may be influenced by dry deposition of sulphur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions suggest that around 30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulphur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining 70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in 'clean' rain. 17 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Whole-lake algal responses to a century of acidic industrial deposition on the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinebrooke, R.D.; Dixit, S.S.; Graham, M.D.; Gunn, J.M.; Chen, Y.-W.; Belzile, N.

    2002-01-01

    A century of cultural acidification is hypothesized to have altered algal community structure in boreal lakes. To date, this hypothesis has remained untested because of both the lack of data predating the onset of industrial pollution and incomplete estimates of whole-lake algal community structure. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of sedimentary pigments was used to quantify whole-lake algal responses to acid deposition in six boreal lakes located in Killarney Park, Ontario, Canada. Concomitant significant increases in chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, diatom-inferred lake acidity, and metal levels since 1900 suggested that algal abundances in four acidified lakes and one small, circumneutral lake were enhanced by aerial pollution. An alternate explanation is that increased acidity and underwater light availability in the acidified lakes shifted algal abundance towards phytobenthos and deepwater phytoplankton, whose pigment signatures were better preserved in the sediments. Taxonomically diagnostic pigment stratigraphies were consistent with shifts in algal community structure towards filamentous green phytobenthos and deepwater phytoflagellates in the acidified lakes. Our findings suggest that decades of aerial pollution have altered the base of foodwebs in boreal lakes, potentially rendering them less resilient to other environmental stressors. (author)

  7. Effect of Time and Deposition Method on Quality of Phosphonic Acid Modifier Self-Assembled Monolayers on Indium Zinc Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Lingzi; Knesting, Kristina M.; Bulusu, Anuradha; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Giordano, Anthony J.; Marder, Seth R.; Berry, Joseph J.; Graham, Samuel; Ginger, David S.; Pemberton, Jeanne E.

    2016-12-15

    Phosphonic acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are utilized at critical interfaces between transparent conductive oxides (TCO) and organic active layers in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The effects of PA deposition method and time on the formation of close-packed, high-quality monolayers is investigated here for SAMs fabricated by solution deposition, micro-contact printing, and spray coating. The solution deposition isotherm for pentafluorinated benzylphosphonic acid (F5BnPA) on indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) is studied using polarization modulation-infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) at room temperature as a model PA/IZO system. Fast surface adsorption occurs within the first min; however, well-oriented high-quality SAMs are reached only after -48 h, presumably through a continual process of molecular adsorption/desorption and monolayer filling accompanied by molecular reorientation. Two other rapid, soak-free deposition techniques, micro-contact printing and spray coating, are also explored. SAM quality is compared for deposition of phenyl phosphonic acid (PPA), F13-octylphosphonic acid (F13OPA), and pentafluorinated benzyl phosphonic acid (F5BnPA) by solution deposition, micro-contact printing and spray coating using PM-IRRAS. In contrast to micro-contact printing and spray coating techniques, 48-168 h solution deposition at both room temperature and 70 degrees C result in contamination- and surface etch-free close-packed monolayers with good reproducibility. SAMs fabricated by micro-contact printing and spray coating are much less well ordered.

  8. Stability of sputter deposited ZnO:Cr films against acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Makoto; Nishide, Toshikazu; Sawada, Yutaka; Hosaka, Masato; Matsumoto, Toshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    ZnO:Cr films were deposited on water-cooled soda-lime glass substrates at room temperature in an Ar atmosphere by rf magnetron sputtering of a ZnO target on which Cr chips were placed. The films exhibited extraordinary stability against acids such as HCl or HNO 3 , and also high resistivities similar to those of ZnO films. The addition of Cr suppressed the growth of ZnO grains which resulted in the formation of a dense film with a smooth surface. The stability and high resistivity displayed by the ZnO:Cr films can be attributed to the formation of a chromium-oxide-rich grain boundary. (author)

  9. Extreme nitrogen deposition can change methane oxidation rate in moist acidic tundra soil in Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Kang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, extreme nitrogen(N) deposition events are observed in Arctic regions where over 90% of the annual N deposition occurred in just a few days. Since Arctic ecosystems are typically N-limited, input of extremely high amount of N could substantially affect ecosystem processes. CH4 is a potent greenhouse gas that has 25 times greater global warming potential than CO2 over a 100-year time frame. Ammonium is known as an inhibitor of methane oxidation and nitrate also shows inhibitory effect on it in temperate ecosystems. However, effects of N addition on Arctic ecosystems are still elusive. We conducted a lab-scale incubation experiment with moist acidic tundra (MAT) soil from Council, Alaska to investigate the effect of extreme N deposition events on methane oxidation. Zero point five % methane was added to the head space to determine the potential methane oxidation rate of MAT soil. Three treatments (NH4NO3-AN, (NH4)2SO4-AS, KNO3-PN) were used to compare effects of ammonium, nitrate and salts. All treatments were added in 3 levels: 10μg N gd.w-1(10), 50μg N gd.w-1(50) and 100μg N gd.w-1(100). AN10 and AN50 increased methane oxidation rate 1.7, 6% respectively. However, AN100 shows -8.5% of inhibitory effect. In AS added samples, all 3 concentrations (AN10, AN50, AN100) stimulated methane oxidation rate with 4.7, 8.9, 4%, respectively. On the contrary, PN50 (-9%) and PN100 (-59.5%) exhibited a significant inhibitory effect. We also analyzed the microbial gene abundance and community structures of methane oxidizing bacteria using a DNA-based fingerprinting method (T-RFLP) Our study results suggest that NH4+ can stimulate methane oxidation in Arctic MAT soil, while NO3- can inhibit methane oxidation significantly.

  10. Responses of Soil Acid Phosphomonoesterase Activity to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition in Three Forests of Subtropical China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-Juan; LIU Shi-Zhong; CHU Guo-Wei; ZHANG De-Qiang; LI Yue-Lin; LU Xian-Kai; ZHANG Wei; HUANG Juan; D. OTIENO; Z. H. XU; LIU Ju-Xiu

    2012-01-01

    Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity (APA) plays a vital role in controlling phosphorus (P) cycling and reflecting the current degree of P limitation Responses of soil APA to elevating nitrogen (N) deposition are important because of their potential applications in addressing the relationship between N and P in forest ecosystems.A study of responses of soll APA to simulated N deposition was conducted in three succession forests of subtropical China.The three forests include a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest (MPF)—pioneer community,a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF)—transition community and a monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF)—climax community.Four N treatments were designed for MEBF:control (without N added),low-N (50 kg N ha-1 year-1),and medium-N (100 kg N ha-1 year-1) and high-N (150 kg N ha-1 year-1),and only three N treatments (i.e.,control,low-N,mediun-N) were established for MPF and MF.Results showed that soil APA was highest in MEBF.followed by MPF and MF.Soil APAs in both MPF and MF were not influenced by low-N treatments but depressed in medium-N trcatments.However,soil APA in MEBF exhibited negative responses to high N additions,indicating that the environment of enhanced N depositions would reduce P supply for the mature forest ecosystem.Soil APA and its responses to N additions in subtropical forests were closely related to the succession stages in the forests.

  11. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 10. Watershed and lake processes affecting surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.S.; Cook, R.B.; Miegroet, H.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Elwood, J.W.

    1990-09-01

    The acid-base chemistry of surface waters is governed by the amount and chemistry of deposition and by the biogeochemical reactions that generate acidity or acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) along the hydrologic pathways that water follows through watersheds to streams and lakes. The amount of precipitation and it chemical loading depend on the area's climate and physiography, on it proximity to natural or industrial gaseous or particulate sources, and on local or regional air movements. Vegetation interacts with the atmosphere to enhance both wet and dry deposition of chemicals to a greater or lesser extent, depending on vegetation type. Vegetation naturally acidifies the environment in humid regions through processes of excess base cation uptake and generation of organic acids associated with many biological processes. Natural acid production and atmospheric deposition of acidic materials drive the acidification process. The lake or stream NAC represents a balance between the acidity-and ANC-generating processes that occur along different flow paths in the watershed and the relative importance of each flow path

  12. Uranium deposits associated to tertiary acid volcanism of the Pena Blanca Sierra (Chihuahua, Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniel, B.

    1986-12-01

    The uraniferous deposits located in the Sierra de Pena Blanca (Chihuahua, Mexico) are the consequence of successive events that modified acid volcanic rocks. The devitrification of the Nopal Formation, vitroclastic tuffs, is esential in the cooling history because it releases uranium that becomes available. The uranium present in fluids as uranylcarbonate complexes, precipitate along the lamellea of hematite (exsolutions of the ilmenites). The presence of sulfur causes the destabilization of the ilmenites with uranium oxide (pitchblende - titanium oxide - pyrite), the pseudomorph of magnetites (pitchblende - pyrite) and the transformation of hematite into pyrite. The silice coming from the kaolinization of feldspars recristallizes as microcristalline quartz so that the rock appears compact. Fractures cause the uplifting of the lower unit of Nopal formation. It has been altered to montmorillonite. A carbonatation of this tuff has been observed and these two types of alteration occur after kaolinization. The Escuadra formation overlies the Nopal formation. The deposition takes place on an eroded basement where a soil developed. The two formations will together undergo transformations due to the saturation level and the primary ore will be only oxidized or oxidized, transported and reconcentrated. Late and localized thermal activities have been observed and may be the result of tectonic movements occurring after the supergene modification [fr

  13. Treatment of acid drainage in uranium deposit by means of a natural wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudeva, V.I.; Stoyanova, A.D.; Grudev, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    Acid drainage waters generated in the uranium deposit G-1, Western Bulgaria, were treated by means of a natural wetland located in the deposit. The waters had a pH in the range of about 2.4-3.9 and contained uranium and radium radionuclides, heavy metals (copper, zinc , cadmium, iron, manganese) arsenic and sulfates in concentrations usually much higher than the relevant permissible levels for waters intended for use in agriculture and/or industry. The wetland was characterized by abundant and emergent vegetation and a diverse microflora. Typha latifolia, Typha augustifolia and Potamogeton australis were the main plant species in the wetland but representatives of the genera Scirpus, Juncus, Elepchoris, Potamogeton, Carex and Poa as well as different algae were also present. The water flows through the wetland varied in the range at about 0.2-1,2 l/s reflecting water residence times in the wetland of about 10-50 hours. An efficient water cleanup took place in the wetland even during the cold winter months at ambient temperatures close to 0 o C. The removal of pollutants was due to different processes but the microbial dissimilatory sulphate reduction and the sorption of pollutants on organic matter (living and dead plant and microbial biomass) and clays present in the wetland played the main role. (author)

  14. Image analysis of epicuticular damage to foliage caused by dry deposition of the air pollutant nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Pamela E; Parry, Sally D; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Heath, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Nitric acid vapor is produced by the same photochemical processes that produce ozone. In the laboratory, concentrated nitric acid is a strong acid and a powerful oxidant. In the environment, where the concentrations are much lower, it is an innocuous source of plant nitrogen. As an air pollutant, which mode of action does dry deposition of nitric acid follow? We investigated the effects of dry deposition of nitric acid on the foliage of four tree species native to the western United States. A novel controlled environment, fumigation system enabled a four-week exposure at concentrations consistent with ambient diurnal patterns. Scanning electron microscopy and automated image analysis revealed changes in the epicuticular wax layer during fumigation. Exposure to nitric acid resulted in a reproducible suite of damage symptoms that increased with increasing dose. Each tree species tested exhibited a unique set of damage features, including cracks, lesions, and conformation changes to epicuticular crystallite structures. Dry deposition of atmospheric nitric acid caused substantial perturbation to the epicuticular surface of all four tree species investigated, consistent with the chemical oxidation of epicuticular waxes. Automated image analysis eliminated many biases that can trouble microscopy studies. Trade names and commercial enterprises or products are mentioned solely for information. No endorsements by the U.S. Department of Agriculture are implied.

  15. Effect of time and deposition method on quality of phosphonic acid modifier self-assembled monolayers on indium zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, Lingzi [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Knesting, Kristina M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1700 (United States); Bulusu, Anuradha [School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Sigdel, Ajaya K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Giordano, Anthony J.; Marder, Seth R. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States); Berry, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Graham, Samuel [School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Ginger, David S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1700 (United States); Pemberton, Jeanne E., E-mail: pembertn@email.arizona.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Deposition of phosphonic acid monolayers on oxides from ethanol solutions occurs by rapid adsorption within 10 s with slower equilibration complete in 48 h. • The slower equilibration step involves molecular reorientation and vacancy filling on the oxide surface. • Soak-free deposition by spray coating and microcontact printing do not provide reproducible, fully-covered, uniform monolayers without substrate etching. • Adjustments to exposure time, substrate temperature, and solution/substrate contact efficiency are necessary to optimize soak-free methods. - Abstract: Phosphonic acid (PA) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are utilized at critical interfaces between transparent conductive oxides (TCO) and organic active layers in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The effects of PA deposition method and time on the formation of close-packed, high-quality monolayers is investigated here for SAMs fabricated by solution deposition, micro-contact printing, and spray coating. The solution deposition isotherm for pentafluorinated benzylphosphonic acid (F{sub 5}BnPA) on indium-doped zinc oxide (IZO) is studied using polarization modulation-infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) at room temperature as a model PA/IZO system. Fast surface adsorption occurs within the first min; however, well-oriented high-quality SAMs are reached only after ∼48 h, presumably through a continual process of molecular adsorption/desorption and monolayer filling accompanied by molecular reorientation. Two other rapid, soak-free deposition techniques, micro-contact printing and spray coating, are also explored. SAM quality is compared for deposition of phenyl phosphonic acid (PPA), F{sub 13}-octylphosphonic acid (F{sub 13}OPA), and pentafluorinated benzyl phosphonic acid (F{sub 5}BnPA) by solution deposition, micro-contact printing and spray coating using PM-IRRAS. In contrast to micro-contact printing and spray coating techniques, 48–168 h solution

  16. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid by spray deposited nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, S.S.; Shinde, P.S.; Sapkal, R.T.; Oh, Y.W.; Haranath, D.; Bhosale, C.H.; Rajpure, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Influence of substrate temperature onto the physico-chemical properties. ► Photochemical, structural, luminescent, optoelectrical and thermal properties. ► The kinetics of oxalic acid degradation with reaction mechanism. ► Extent of mineralization by COD and TOC. - Abstract: The high quality nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films are deposited onto corning glasses by spray pyrolysis technique. The influence of reaction temperature onto their photoelectrochemical, structural, morphological, optoelectronic, luminescence and thermal properties has been investigated. The structural characteristics studied by X-ray diffractometry has complemented by resistivity measurements and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The photoelectrochemical activity shows enhancement in short circuit current (I sc = 0.357 mA) and open circuit voltage (V oc = 0.48 V). Direct band gap calculated by considering R and T values of ZnO thin films increases from 3.14–3.21 eV exhibiting a slight blue shift in band edge. Three characteristic luminescence peaks having near band-edge, blue and green emission are observed in the photoluminescence spectra. The specific heat and thermal conductivity study shows the phonon conduction behavior is dominant in films. Photocatalytic degradation of oxalic acid followed with reaction mechanism by using zinc oxide photoelectrode under solar illumination has been investigated.

  17. Atmospheric dry and wet deposition of sulphur and nitrogen species and assessment of critical loads of acidic deposition exceedance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. Piketh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acidic atmospheric pollution deposition, originating from the South African central industrial area, poses an environmental threat across a larger region within the dispersal footprint. A network of 37 passive monitoring sites to measure SO2 and NO2 was operated from August 2005 to September 2007. The area extended over the entire northern and eastern interior of South Africa. Monitoring locations were chosen to avoid direct impacts from local sources such as towns, mines and highways. Dry deposition rates of SO2 and NO2 were calculated from the measured concentrations. Concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen species in wet deposition from a previous study were used in conjunction with measured rainfall for the years 2006 and 2007 to estimate the wet deposition over the region. The calculated total (non-organic acidic deposition formed the basis for an assessment of exceedance of critical loads based on sensitivity of the regional soils. Regional soil sensitivity was determined by combining two major soil attributes available in the World Inventory of Soil Emission Potentials (International Soil Reference and Information Centre. Results indicate that certain parts of the central pollution source area on the South African Highveld have the potential for critical load exceedance, while limited areas downwind show lower levels of exceedance. Areas upwind and remote areas up and downwind, including forested areas of the Drakensberg escarpment, do not show any exceedance of the critical loads.

  18. 4.2. The kinetics of nitric acid decomposition of calcined borosilicate raw material of Ak-Arkhar Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to kinetics of nitric acid decomposition of calcined borosilicate raw material of Ak-Arkhar Deposit. The dependence of nitric acid decomposition of calcined boric raw material for extraction of boron oxide on temperature (20-100 deg C) and process duration (15-60 minutes) was defined. It was defined that at temperature increasing the extraction rate of boron oxide increases from 20.8 to 78.6%.

  19. Acidic deposition and its effects on forest productivity: a review of the present state of knowledge, research activities, and information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkerton, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The present state of knowledge with regard to acid deposition is reviewed. Sources include the literature and direct contact with persons responsible for carrying out all completed, ongoing, and planned research activities, national and international, related to acidic deposition and its effects, with emphasis on forest productivity. In addition, a list of information needs in seven areas was developed, these include: a characterization of forest soils to define their sensitivity to acidic deposition; effects on forest soil chemical and biological processes; development of improved dry deposition measurement methods; changes in precipitation composition due to forest canopies; more extensive monitoring of acidic deposition in industry owned forest lands; expansion of long-term greenhouse and controlled field experiments; and the relationship of acidic deposition and intensive forestry management practices. 85 references. (MDF)

  20. Laboratory study on leaching of a sandstone-type uranium deposit for acid in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhenqian; Yao Yixuan; Zheng Jianping; Jiang Yan; Cui Xin; Xing Yongguo; Hao Jinting; Tang Huazhang

    2013-01-01

    Ore samples were took from in-situ leaching experiment boreholes in a sandstone-type uranium deposit. Technological mineralogy study, agitating leaching and column leaching experiments were carried. The results show that the content of minerals consuming acid and deoxidized minerals is low. When sulfuric acid concentration was 1O g/L, initial uranium content was 0.0224%, and liquid-to-solid ratio was l.91, leaching rate of column leaching experiments is 89.19%, acid consumption is 8.2 kg/t ore, acid consumption is 41.88 t/tU. Acid leaching, technology is recommend for field in-situ leaching experiment, sulfuric acid concentration in confecting solution is 10 g/L, and oxidizing agent is needless during leaching process. (authors)

  1. Effects of Acidic Deposition and Soil Acidification on Sugar Maple Trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. J. Sullivan; G. B. Lawrence; S. W. Bailey; T. C. McDonnell; C. M. Beier; K. C. Weathers; G. T. McPherson; D. A. Bishop

    2013-01-01

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been...

  2. Nitrogen deposition and grass encroachment in calcareous and acidic Grey dunes (H2130) in NW-Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; van Til, M.; Noordijk, E.; Remke, E.; Kalbitz, K.

    We present an overview of high nitrogen deposition effects on coastal dune grasslands in NW-Europe (H2130), especially concerning grass encroachment in calcareous and acidic Grey Dunes. The problem is larger than previously assumed, because critical loads are still too high, and extra N-input from

  3. Protein and lipid deposition rates in male broiler chickens : separate responses to amino acids and protein-free energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eits, R.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Stoutjesdijk, P.; Greef, de K.H.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments of similar design were conducted with male broiler chickens over two body weight ranges, 200 to 800 g in Experiment 1 and 800 to 1,600 g in Experiment 2. The data were used to test the hypothesis that protein deposition rate increases (linearly) with increasing amino acid intake,

  4. Long-term changes in soil and stream chemistry across an acid deposition gradient in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Burns, Douglas A.; Antidormi, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Declines in acidic deposition across Europe and North America have led to decreases in surface water acidity and signs of chemical recovery of soils from acidification. To better understand the link between recovery of soils and surface waters, chemical trends in precipitation, soils, and streamwater were investigated in three watersheds representing a depositional gradient from high to low across the northeastern United States. Significant declines in concentrations of H+ (ranging from −1.2 to −2.74 microequivalents [μeq] L−1 yr−1), NO3− (ranging from −0.6 to −0.84 μeq L−1 yr−1), and SO42− (ranging from −0.95 to −2.13 μeq L−1 yr−1) were detected in precipitation in the three watersheds during the period 1999 to 2013. Soil chemistry in the A horizon of the watershed with the greatest decrease in deposition showed significant decreases in exchangeable Al and increases in exchangeable bases. Soil chemistry did not significantly improve during the study in the other watersheds, and base saturation in the Oa and upper B horizons significantly declined in the watershed with the smallest decrease in deposition. Streamwater SO42−concentrations significantly declined in all three streams (ranging from −2.01 to −2.87 μeq L−1 yr−1) and acid neutralizing capacity increased (ranging from 1.38 to 1.60 μeq L−1 yr−1) in the two streams with the greatest decreases in deposition. Recovery of soils has likely been limited by decades of acid deposition that have leached base cations from soils with base-poor parent material.

  5. Hexanoic Acid Treatment Prevents Systemic MNSV Movement in Cucumis melo Plants by Priming Callose Deposition Correlating SA and OPDA Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fernández-Crespo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike fungal and bacterial diseases, no direct method is available to control viral diseases. The use of resistance-inducing compounds can be an alternative strategy for plant viruses. Here we studied the basal response of melon to Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV and demonstrated the efficacy of hexanoic acid (Hx priming, which prevents the virus from systemically spreading. We analysed callose deposition and the hormonal profile and gene expression at the whole plant level. This allowed us to determine hormonal homeostasis in the melon roots, cotyledons, hypocotyls, stems and leaves involved in basal and hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR to MNSV. Our data indicate important roles of salicylic acid (SA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA, jasmonic-isoleucine, and ferulic acid in both responses to MNSV. The hormonal and metabolites balance, depending on the time and location associated with basal and Hx-IR, demonstrated the reprogramming of plant metabolism in MNSV-inoculated plants. The treatment with both SA and OPDA prior to virus infection significantly reduced MNSV systemic movement by inducing callose deposition. This demonstrates their relevance in Hx-IR against MNSV and a high correlation with callose deposition. Our data also provide valuable evidence to unravel priming mechanisms by natural compounds.

  6. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  7. Dendrochemical evidence for soil recovery from acidic deposition in forests of the northeastern U.S. with comparisons to the southeastern U.S. and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Shortle; Kevin T. Smith; Andrei G. Lapenis

    2017-01-01

    A soil resampling approach has detected an early stage of recovery in the cation chemistry of spruce forest soil due to reductions in acid deposition. That approach is limited by the lack of soil data and archived soil samples prior to major increases in acid deposition during the latter half of the 20th century. An alternative approach is the dendrochemical analysis...

  8. Critical Loads of Acid Deposition for Wilderness Lakes in the Sierra Nevada (California) Estimated by the Steady-State Water Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn D. Shaw; Ricardo Cisneros; Donald Schweizer; James O. Sickman; Mark E. Fenn

    2014-01-01

    Major ion chemistry (2000-2009) from 208 lakes (342 sample dates and 600 samples) in class I and II wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada was used in the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC) model to estimate critical loads for acid deposition and investigate the current vulnerability of high elevation lakes to acid deposition. The majority of the lakes were dilute (...

  9. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone - experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.; Reimann, K.J.; Sciammarella, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30?? to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ~15 to ~30?? ??m yr-1 for marble, and from ~25 to ~45 ??m yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ~30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ~70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ('clean rain'). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30?? from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60?? or 85??. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at Washington, DC

  10. Enriching acid rock drainage related microbial communities from surface-deposited oil sands tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Courtney; Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the microbial communities native to surface-deposited pyritic oil sands tailings, an environment where acid rock drainage (ARD) could occur. The goal of this study was to enrich sulfur-oxidizing organisms from these tailings and determine whether different populations exist at pH levels 7, 4.5, and 2.5. Using growth-based methods provides model organisms for use in the future to predict potential activities and limitations of these organisms and to develop possible control methods. Thiosulfate-fed enrichment cultures were monitored for approximately 1 year. The results showed that the enrichments at pH 4.5 and 7 were established quicker than at pH 2.5. Different microbial community structures were found among the 3 pH environments. The sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms identified were most closely related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Achromobacter spp., and Curtobacterium spp. While microorganisms related to Chitinophagaceae and Acidocella spp. were identified as the only possible iron-oxidizing and -reducing microbes. These results contribute to the general knowledge of the relatively understudied microbial communities that exist in pyritic oil sands tailings and indicate these communities may have a potential role in ARD generation, which may have implications for future tailings management.

  11. Zirconia sol-gel coatings deposited on 304 stainless steel for chemical protection in acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, F. Perdomo; Atik, M.; Avaca, Luis A.; Aegerter, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Zr O 2 thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and using dip-coating technique for deposition on 304 austenitic stainless steel, from sonocatalyzed sols of zirconia alkoxide, isopropanol (Zr(O C 3 H 7 )4/C 3 H 7 OH = 0.5), glacial acetic acid and water (C H 3 CO OH/H 2 O = 0.5). The films were dried at 40 deg C/15 min and thermally treated in the air with a linear variation of 5 deg C/min and two isothermal holdings at 400 deg C during 1 h and afterwards at 800 deg C during several periods of time (up to 20 h). The film thickness ranges between 0.6 and 0.8 μm. Structure and morphology were studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the polarization resistance and the corrosion rate (mpy) in 1,0 N aqueous solution of H 2 SO 4 at room temperature were determined using potentiometric polarization curves with a scanning velocity of 1 mV/s. These films act as a blocking physical layer in the corrosion media and increase the substrate life time in a factor of 7

  12. Zirconia sol-gel coatings deposited on 304 stainless steel for chemical protection in acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, F Perdomo; Atik, M; Avaca, Luis A; Aegerter, M A [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1996-12-31

    Zr O{sub 2} thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and using dip-coating technique for deposition on 304 austenitic stainless steel, from sonocatalyzed sols of zirconia alkoxide, isopropanol (Zr(O C{sub 3} H{sub 7})4/C{sub 3} H{sub 7} OH = 0.5), glacial acetic acid and water (C H{sub 3} CO OH/H{sub 2} O = 0.5). The films were dried at 40 deg C/15 min and thermally treated in the air with a linear variation of 5 deg C/min and two isothermal holdings at 400 deg C during 1 h and afterwards at 800 deg C during several periods of time (up to 20 h). The film thickness ranges between 0.6 and 0.8 {mu}m. Structure and morphology were studied by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion potential, the corrosion current density, the polarization resistance and the corrosion rate (mpy) in 1,0 N aqueous solution of H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} at room temperature were determined using potentiometric polarization curves with a scanning velocity of 1 mV/s. These films act as a blocking physical layer in the corrosion media and increase the substrate life time in a factor of 7 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Impact of the Fused Deposition (FDM Printing Process on Polylactic Acid (PLA Chemistry and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Arthur Cuiffo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an organic polymer commonly used in fused deposition (FDM printing and biomedical scaffolding that is biocompatible and immunologically inert. However, variations in source material quality and chemistry make it necessary to characterize the filament and determine potential changes in chemistry occurring as a result of the FDM process. We used several spectroscopic techniques, including laser confocal microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and photoacousitc FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS in order to characterize both the bulk and surface chemistry of the source material and printed samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to characterize morphology, cold crystallinity, and the glass transition and melting temperatures following printing. Analysis revealed calcium carbonate-based additives which were reacted with organic ligands and potentially trace metal impurities, both before and following printing. These additives became concentrated in voids in the printed structure. This finding is important for biomedical applications as carbonate will impact subsequent cell growth on printed tissue scaffolds. Results of chemical analysis also provided evidence of the hygroscopic nature of the source material and oxidation of the printed surface, and SEM imaging revealed micro- and submicron-scale roughness that will also impact potential applications.

  14. Effects of sulphuric acid and acidifying ammonium deposition on water quality and vegetation of simulated soft water ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurkes, J.A.A.R.; Heck, I.C.C; Hesen, P.L.G.M.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    1986-11-01

    In a greenhouse, seven identical mini-ecosystems, simulating soft water ponds, were exposed to different types of artificial rain water. The effects of rain water containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and nitrate, and rain water containing ammonium sulphate on water quality and vegetation were studied and compared. Causal relations were established between rain water quality, water chemistry and changes in floristic composition. Ammonium sulphate deposition, particularly, strongly affected water quality and vegetation development. Although ammonium sulphate deposition was only slightly acid, due to nitrification it acted as an important acid source, causing acidification to pH 3.8. Under acidified conditions, ammonium sulphate deposition led to a luxuriant growth of Juncus bulbosus and Agrostis canina. In the mini-ecosystems, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ deposition with a pH of 3.5 only decreased the pH of the water to 5.1 within 1 yr, the acidification of water appeared to be coupled with changes in alkalinity, sulphate, Al, Cd, Ca, Mg, K and inorganic-N. It is concluded that in NH/sub 3/-affected regions in The Netherlands, the high atmospheric deposition of ammonium sulphate probably contributes to a large extent in the acidification, eutrophication and floristic changes of oligotrophic soft waters. 10 references.

  15. Effects of sulphuric acid and acidifying ammonium deposition on water quality and vegetation of simulated soft water ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuurkes, J.A.; Heck, I.C.; Hesen, P.L.; Leuven, R.S.; Roelofs, J.G.

    1986-11-01

    In a greenhouse, seven identical mini-ecosystems, simulating soft water ponds, were exposed to different types of artificial rain water. The effects of rain water containing H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and nitrate, and rain water containing ammonium sulfate on water quality and vegetation were studied and compared. Causal relations were established between rain water quality, water chemistry and changes in floristic composition. Ammonium sulfate deposition, particularly, strongly affected water quality and vegetation development. Although ammonium sulfate deposition was only slightly acid, due to nitrification it acted as an important acid source, causing acidification to pH = 3.8. Under acidified conditions, ammonium sulfate deposition lead to a luxuriant growth of Juncus bulbosus and Agrostis canina. In the mini-ecosystems, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ deposition with a pH of 3.5 only decreased the pH of the water to 5.1 within 1 yr. The acidification of water appeared to be coupled with changes in alkalinity, sulfate, Al, Cd, Ca, Mg, K and inorganic-N. It is concluded that in NH/sub 3/-affected regions in The Netherlands, the high atmospheric deposition of ammonium sulfate probably contributes to a large extent in the acidification, eutrophication and floristic changes of oligotrophic soft waters. 10 refs.

  16. Effects of acidic deposition and soil acidification on sugar maple trees in the Adirondack Mountains, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Bailey, Scott W.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Beier, Colin M.; Weathers, K.C.; McPherson, G.T.; Bishop, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We documented the effects of acidic atmospheric deposition and soil acidification on the canopy health, basal area increment, and regeneration of sugar maple (SM) trees across the Adirondack region of New York State, in the northeastern United States, where SM are plentiful but not well studied and where widespread depletion of soil calcium (Ca) has been documented. Sugar maple is a dominant canopy species in the Adirondack Mountain ecoregion, and it has a high demand for Ca. Trees in this region growing on soils with poor acid–base chemistry (low exchangeable Ca and % base saturation [BS]) that receive relatively high levels of atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition exhibited a near absence of SM seedling regeneration and lower crown vigor compared with study plots with relatively high exchangeable Ca and BS and lower levels of acidic deposition. Basal area increment averaged over the 20th century was correlated (p < 0.1) with acid–base chemistry of the Oa, A, and upper B soil horizons. A lack of Adirondack SM regeneration, reduced canopy condition, and possibly decreased basal area growth over recent decades are associated with low concentrations of nutrient base cations in this region that has undergone soil Ca depletion from acidic deposition.

  17. Supercritical synthesis and in situ deposition of PbS nanocrystals with oleic acid passivation for quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakoli, M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aashuri, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells have recently attracted significant attention due to their low-processing cost and surging photovoltaic performance. In this paper, a novel, reproducible, and simple solution-based process based on supercritical fluid toluene is presented for in situ growth and deposition PbS nanocrystals with oleic-acid passivation. A lead precursor containing sulfur was mixed with oleic acid in toluene and processed in a supercritical fluid condition at different temperatures of 140, 270 and 330 °C for 20 min. The quantum dots were deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate inside the supercritical reactor. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption and dynamic light scattering showed that the nanocrystals processed at the supercritical condition (330 °C) are fully crystalline with a narrow size distribution of ∼3 nm with an absorption wavelength of 915 nm (bandgap of 1.3 eV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the PbS quantum dots are passivated by oleic acid molecules during the growth. Photovoltaic characteristics of Schottky junction solar cells showed an improvement over devices prepared by spin-coating. - Highlights: • Supercritical fluid processing and in situ deposition of PbS QDs are presented. • The prepared nanocrystals are mono-dispersed with an optical bandgap of 1.3 eV. • Photovoltaic performance of the in situ deposited nanocrystals is reported. • An improved PV performance compared to spin coated Schottky solar cells is shown.

  18. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 9. Current status of surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.A.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Brakke, D.F.; Herlihy, A.T.; Eilers, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The report is based largely upon the National Surface Water Survey (NSWS), augmented by numerous smaller state and university surveys and many detailed watershed studies. In describing the current status of surface waters, the authors go far beyond the description of population statistics, although some of this is necessary, and direct their attention to the interpretation of these data. They address the question of the sources of acidity to surface waters in order to determine the relative importance of acidic deposition compared with other sources, such as naturally produced organic acids and acid mine drainage. They also examine in some detail what they call 'high interest' populations-the specific groups of lakes and streams most likely to be impacted by acidic deposition. The authors then turn to the general question of uncertainty, and finally examine low alkalinity surface waters in several other parts of the world to develop further inferences about the acid-base status of surface waters in the United States

  19. Responses of soil N-fixing bacteria communities to invasive plant species under different types of simulated acid deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Zhou, Jiawei; Jiang, Kun; Liu, Jun; Du, Daolin

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions have incurred serious threats to native ecosystems in China, and soil N-fixing bacteria communities (SNB) may play a vital role in the successful plant invasion. Meanwhile, anthropogenic acid deposition is increasing in China, which may modify or upgrade the effects that invasive plant species can cause on SNB. We analyzed the structure and diversity of SNB by means of new generation sequencing technology in soils with different simulated acid deposition (SAD), i.e., different SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios, and where the invasive ( Amaranthus retroflexus L.) and the native species ( Amaranthus tricolor L.) grew mixed or isolated for 3 months. A. retroflexus itself did not exert significant effects on the diversity and richness of SNB but did it under certain SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios. Compared to soils where the native species grew isolated, the soils where the invasive A. retroflexus grew isolated showed lower relative abundance of some SNB classes under certain SAD treatments. Some types of SAD can alter soil nutrient content which in turn could affect SNB diversity and abundance. Specifically, greater SO4 2- to NO3 - ratios tended to have more toxic effects on SNB likely due to the higher exchange capacity of hydroxyl groups (OH-) between SO4 2- and NO3 -. As a conclusion, it can be expected a change in the structure of SNB after A. retroflexus invasion under acid deposition rich in sulfuric acid. This change may create a plant soil feedback favoring future A. retroflexus invasions.

  20. Nutritional Supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa Lowers Serum Methylmalonic Acid in Vegans and Vegetarians with a Suspected Vitamin B₁₂ Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Randall Edward; Phillips, Todd W; Udani, Jay

    2015-12-01

    Since vitamin B12 occurs in substantial amounts only in foods derived from animals, vegetarians and particularly vegans are at risk of developing deficiencies of this essential vitamin. The chlorella used for this study is a commercially available whole-food supplement, which is believed to contain the physiologically active form of the vitamin. This exploratory open-label study was performed to determine if adding 9 g of Chlorella pyrenoidosa daily could help mitigate a vitamin B12 deficiency in vegetarians and vegans. Seventeen vegan or vegetarian adults (26-57 years of age) with a known vitamin B12 deficiency, as evidenced by a baseline serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) level above 270 nmol/L at screening, but who otherwise appeared healthy were enrolled in the study. Each participant added 9 g of C. pyrenoidosa to their daily diet for 60 ± 5 days and their serum MMA, vitamin B12, homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hemoglobin (Hgb), and hematocrit (Hct) were measured at 30 and 60 days from baseline. After 30 and 60 days, the serum MMA level fell significantly (P < .05) by an average ∼34%. Fifteen of the 17 (88%) subjects showed at least a 10% drop in MMA. At the same time, Hcy trended downward and serum vitamin B12 trended upward, while MCV, Hgb, and Hct appeared unchanged. The results of this work suggest that the vitamin B12 in chlorella is bioavailable and such dietary supplementation is a natural way for vegetarians and vegans to get the vitamin B12 they need.

  1. Electrodeposition of ruthenium, rhodium and palladium from nitric acid and ionic liquid media: Recovery and surface morphology of the deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, M.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Sudha, R. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Srinivasan, T.G., E-mail: tgs@igcar.gov.com [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India); Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu 603102 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Platinum group metals are man-made noble metals. {yields} Electrochemical recovery of fission platinoids. {yields} Recovery from nitric acid medium. {yields} Recovery from ionic liquid medium. {yields} Platinoids with exotic surface morphologies. - Abstract: Electrodeposition is a promising technique for the recovery of platinum group metals with unique surface morphologies. The electrodeposition of palladium, ruthenium and rhodium from aqueous nitric acid, and non-aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid medium was studied at stainless steel electrode. The surface morphology and elemental composition of the resultant deposit were probed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. Deposits with diverse surface morphologies and metal compositions were obtained by varying the composition of the electrolytic medium and applied potential. The results demonstrate the possibility of tailoring the morphologies of PGMs by controlling the composition and potential needed for electrodeposition.

  2. The response of soil and stream chemistry to decreases in acid deposition in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Michael R; Burns, Douglas A; Siemion, Jason; Antidormi, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    The Catskill Mountains have been adversely impacted by decades of acid deposition, however, since the early 1990s, levels have decreased sharply as a result of decreases in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This study examines trends in acid deposition, stream-water chemistry, and soil chemistry in the southeastern Catskill Mountains. We measured significant reductions in acid deposition and improvement in stream-water quality in 5 streams included in this study from 1992 to 2014. The largest, most significant trends were for sulfate (SO 4 2- ) concentrations (mean trend of -2.5 μeq L -1 yr -1 ); hydrogen ion (H + ) and inorganic monomeric aluminum (Al im ) also decreased significantly (mean trends of -0.3 μeq L -1 yr -1 for H + and -0.1 μeq L -1 yr -1 for Al im for the 3 most acidic sites). Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased by a mean of 0.65 μeq L -1 yr -1 for all 5 sites, which was 4 fold less than the decrease in SO 4 2- concentrations. These upward trends in ANC were limited by coincident decreases in base cations (-1.3 μeq L -1 yr -1 for calcium + magnesium). No significant trends were detected in stream-water nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations despite significant decreasing trends in NO 3 - wet deposition. We measured no recovery in soil chemistry which we attributed to an initially low soil buffering capacity that has been further depleted by decades of acid deposition. Tightly coupled decreasing trends in stream-water silicon (Si) (-0.2 μeq L -1 yr -1 ) and base cations suggest a decrease in the soil mineral weathering rate. We hypothesize that a decrease in the ionic strength of soil water and shallow groundwater may be the principal driver of this apparent decrease in the weathering rate. A decreasing weathering rate would help to explain the slow recovery of stream pH and ANC as well as that of soil base cations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The response of soil and stream chemistry to decreases in acid deposition in the Catskill Mountains, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Michael; Burns, Douglas A.; Siemion, Jason; Antidormi, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Catskill Mountains have been adversely impacted by decades of acid deposition, however, since the early 1990s, levels have decreased sharply as a result of decreases in emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This study examines trends in acid deposition, stream-water chemistry, and soil chemistry in the southeastern Catskill Mountains. We measured significant reductions in acid deposition and improvement in stream-water quality in 5 streams included in this study from 1992 to 2014. The largest, most significant trends were for sulfate (SO42−) concentrations (mean trend of −2.5 μeq L−1 yr−1); hydrogen ion (H+) and inorganic monomeric aluminum (Alim) also decreased significantly (mean trends of −0.3 μeq L−1 yr−1 for H+ and −0.1 μeq L−1 yr−1 for Alim for the 3 most acidic sites). Acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) increased by a mean of 0.65 μeq L−1 yr−1 for all 5 sites, which was 4 fold less than the decrease in SO42−concentrations. These upward trends in ANC were limited by coincident decreases in base cations (−1.3 μeq L−1 yr−1 for calcium + magnesium). No significant trends were detected in stream-water nitrate (NO3−) concentrations despite significant decreasing trends in NO3− wet deposition. We measured no recovery in soil chemistry which we attributed to an initially low soil buffering capacity that has been further depleted by decades of acid deposition. Tightly coupled decreasing trends in stream-water silicon (Si) (−0.2 μeq L−1 yr−1) and base cations suggest a decrease in the soil mineral weathering rate. We hypothesize that a decrease in the ionic strength of soil water and shallow groundwater may be the principal driver of this apparent decrease in the weathering rate. A decreasing weathering rate would help to explain the slow recovery of stream pH and ANC as well as that of soil base cations.

  4. Acid-deposition research program. Volume 2. Effects of acid-forming emissions on soil microorganisms and microbially-mediated processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, S.; Danielson, R.M.; Parr, J.F.

    1987-02-01

    The interactions of soil physical, chemical, and biological processes are ultimately expressed in a soil's fertility and its capacity for plant production. Consequently, much of the research conducted to date regarding the impact of acid-forming pollutants on soil properties has been geared towards possible effects on plant productivity. This trend continues in this paper where the effects of acidic deposition on microbial communities are reviewed in relation to potential impact on plant growth. The objectives of the review are to discuss: (1) The effects of acid-forming emissions (primarily S-containing pollutants) on microbial community structure with emphasis on qualitative and quantitative aspects; (2) The effects of acidic deposition on microbially mediated processes (i.e., community functions); (3) Acidification effects of pollutants on symbiotic and disease-causing microorganisms. The symbionts discussed include ectomycorrhizal fungi, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria, particularly Rhizobium, while the disease-causing microorganisms will include those responsible for foliage, stem, and root diseases.

  5. Modelling of soil acidity and nitrogen availability in natural ecosystems in response to changes in acid deposition and hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J.; Reinds, G.J.; Vries, de W.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in vegetation are often caused by changes in abiotic site factors. The SMART2 model has been developed to evaluate the effects of changes in ion inputs by atmospheric deposition and seepage on these site factors. Linkage with the Multiple Stress Model for Vegetation (MOVE) enables evaluation

  6. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain; Mapas de Deposito Acido en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artinano, B; Cabal, H; Garcia, C

    1998-07-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km{sup 2} grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs.

  7. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain; Mapas de Deposito Acido en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C. [CIEMAT. Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    Annual and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To de this, updated database with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5 x 5 km``2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedance over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs.

  8. Effects of acidic deposition on the erosion of carbonate stone — experimental results from the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, Philip A.; Reddy, Michael M.; Reimann, Karl J.; Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    One of the goals of NAPAP-sponsored research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone has been to quantify the incremental effects of wet and dry deposition of hydrogen ion, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides on stone erosion. Test briquettes and slabs of freshly quarried Indiana limestone and Vermont marble have been exposed to ambient environmental conditions in a long-term exposure program. Physical measurements of the recession of test stones exposed to ambient conditions at an angle of 30° to horizontal at the five NAPAP materials exposure sites range from ˜ 15 to ˜ 30 μm yr -1 for marble, and from ˜ 25 to ˜ 45 μm yr -1 for limestone, and are approximately double the recession estimates based on the observed calcium content of run-off solutions from test slabs. The difference between the physical and chemical recession measurements is attributed to the loss of mineral grains from the stone surfaces that are not measured in the run-off experiments. The erosion due to grain loss does not appear to be influenced by rainfall acidity, however, preliminary evidence suggests that grain loss may be influenced by dry deposition of sulfur dioxide between rainfall events. Chemical analyses of the run-off solutions and associated rainfall blanks suggest that ˜ 30% of erosion by dissolution can be attributed to the wet deposition of hydrogen ion and the dry deposition of sulfur dioxide and nitric acid between rain events. The remaining ˜ 70% of erosion by dissolution is accounted for by the solubility of carbonate stone in rain that is in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide ("clean rain"). These results are for marble and limestone slabs exposed at an angle of 30° from horizontal. The relative contribution of sulfur dioxide to chemical erosion is significantly enhanced for stone slabs having an inclination of 60° or 85°. The dry deposition of alkaline particulate material has a mitigating effect at the two urban field exposure sites at

  9. New depositing method of Langmuir-Blodgett film of fatty acid soap as a radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahashi, Makio; Watanabe, Norifumi; Seimiya, Tsutomu; Naito, Fujio

    1985-02-01

    A stable radioactive source in vacuo was obtained by a new depositing method of Langmuir-Blodgett (L/B) film. In spite of the slight consumption of the substrate solution (only 2-2.5 ml) for preparing a 15 mm x 25 mm sized L/B film containing four molecular layers of /sup 109/Cd-eicosanoate, the deposition of the film was complete. (author).

  10. Differences in functional traits between invasive and native Amaranthus species under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Wu, Bingde; Jiang, Kun; Zhou, Jiawei

    2018-05-01

    Co-occurring invasive plant species (invaders hereafter) and natives receive similar or even the same environmental selection pressures. Thus, the differences in functional traits between natives and invaders have become widely recognized as a major driving force of the success of plant invasion. Meanwhile, increasing amounts of acid are deposited into ecosystems. Thus, it is important to elucidate the potential effects of acid deposition on the functional traits of invaders in order to better understand the potential mechanisms for the successful invasion. This study aims to address the differences in functional traits between native red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.; amaranth hereafter) and invasive redroot pigweed (A. retroflexus L.; pigweed hereafter) under simulated acid deposition with a gradient of pH levels. Pigweed was significantly taller than amaranth under most treatments. The greater height of pigweed can lead to greater competitive ability for resource acquisition, particularly for sunlight. Leaf shape index of pigweed was also significantly greater than that of amaranth under all treatments. The greater leaf shape index of pigweed can enhance the efficiency of resource capture (especially sunlight capture) via adjustments to leaf shape and size. Thus, the greater height and leaf shape index of pigweed can significantly enhance its competitive ability, especially under acid deposition. Acid deposition of pH 5.6 significantly increased amaranth leaf width in the co-cultivation due to added nutrients. The pH 4.5 acid deposition treatment significantly increased the specific leaf area of amaranth in the monoculture compared with the pH 5.6 acid deposition treatment and the control. The main mechanism explaining this pattern may be due to acid deposition mediating a hormesis effect on plants, promoting plant growth. The values of the relative competition intensity between amaranth and pigweed for most functional traits were lower than zero under most

  11. Target loads of atmospheric sulfur deposition for the protection and recovery of acid-sensitive streams in the Southern Blue Ridge Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Sullivan; Bernard Cosby; William Jackson

    2011-01-01

    An important tool in the evaluation of acidification damage to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is the critical load (CL), which represents the steady-state level of acidic deposition below which ecological damage would not be expected to occur, according to current scientific understanding. A deposition load intended to be protective of a specified resource...

  12. Certified reference materials - beech leaves and spruce needles - for the quality control in monitoring damage in forests by acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, E A; Griepink, B [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Community Bureau of Reference; Muntau, H [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    1989-12-01

    The chemical determination of various elements in leaves or needles allows to establish the damage caused by acid deposition. To control the quality of such determinations the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) produced two Certified Reference Materials: Beech leaves (CRM No. 100) and Spruce needles (CRM No. 101). After a careful preparation procedure, a homogeneity study and a long term stability study, the materials were certified for: Cl, N, P and S in CRM No. 100, Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, N, P, S and Zn in CRM No. 101. Indicative values on the content of 19 majors and trace elements are also reported. (orig.).

  13. Zirconium phosphate coating on aluminium foams by electrophoretic deposition for acidic catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordomskiy, V.; Schouten, J.C.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    The electrophoretic deposition method has been applied for the formation of an amorphous zirconium phosphate layer on the surface of open-cell aluminum foam. The aluminum foam was fully and uniformly covered by the zirconium phosphate layer with a good mechanical adherence to the support. The

  14. Modelling impacts of acid deposition and groundwater level on habitat quality and plant species diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kros, J.; Mol, J.P.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Reinds, G.J.; Hinsberg, van A.; Vries, de W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction
    We quantified the effects of the site factors pH and nitrate (NO3) concentration in soil solution and groundwater level on the vegetation of terrestrial ecosystems for the Netherlands in response to changes in atmospheric nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) deposition and groundwater level

  15. Application of a complex transport problem for simulating an acid rain episode in Europe. Anwendung eines komplexen Ausbreitungsmodells zur Simulation einer Episode saurer Deposition ueber Europa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R; Scherer, B

    1989-04-01

    For the first time in Europe, a comprehensive Eulerian regional tropospheric transport, transformation and removal model has been applied to an european wide acid deposition episode. This model, the Transport And Deposition of Acidifying Pollutants (TADAP) model incorporated detailed knowledge of the relevant physicochemical processes which lead to the formation of photochemical oxidants and acidifying pollutants. The EUROPA-model (EUM) of the German Weather Service, a limited area numerical weather prediction model, has been used to derive the total meteorological cloud variables. The application of the EUM/TADAP-modelling system to a 20 day-wintertime acid deposition episode in Europe showed that it is possible to model the principal features of the acid deposition system. In general, there is reasonable agreement between observed and predicted concentration and deposition patterns. Most discrepancies from observed trends can be explained by deviations between the modelled and the actual meteorology. First sensitivity studies with TADAP directed to reveal the influence of emission changes on the acid deposition system showed that there are considerable non-proportionalities between depositions of secondary pollutants and the emissions of the respective precursors. The nonlinearities arise due to the chemical coupling of the SO{sub x}/No{sub x}/VOC-system. This makes the design of control strategies to a highly complex task. Strategies developed to tackle different air pollution problems can therefore not be looked upon independently. (orig.) With 47 refs., 42 figs.

  16. Effects and quantification of acid runoff from sulfide-bearing rock deposited during construction of Highway E18, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindar, Atle; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The Highway E18 between the cities of Grimstad and Kristiansand, southern Norway, constructed in the period 2006–2009, cuts through sulfide-bearing rock. The geology of this area is dominated by slowly-weathering gneiss and granites, and oxidation of fresh rock surfaces can result in acidification of surface water. Sulfide-containing rock waste from excavations during construction work was therefore deposited in three waste rock deposits off-site. The deposits consist of 630,000–2,360,000 metric tons of waste rock material. Shell sand and limestone gravel were added in layers in adequate amounts to mitigate initial acid runoff in one of the deposits. The shell sand addition was not adequate in the two others. The pH in the effluents from these two was reduced from 4.9–6.5 to 4.0–4.6, and Al concentrations increased from below 0.4 mg/L to 10–20 mg/L. Stream concentrations of trace metals increased by a factor of 25–400, highest for Ni, and then in decreasing order for Co, Mn, Cd, Zn and Cu. Concentrations of As, Cr and Fe remained unchanged. Ratios of Co/Ni and Cd/Zn indicate that the metal sources for these pair of metals are sphalerite and pyrite, respectively. Based on surveys and established critical limits for Al, surface waters downstream became toxic to fish and invertebrates. The sulfur release rates were remarkably stable in the monitoring period at all three sites. Annual sulfur release was 0.1–0.4% of the total amount of sulfur in the deposit, indicating release periods of 250–800 years. Precipitates of Al-hydroxysulfates, well-known from mining sites, were found at the base of the deposits, in streams and also along the ocean shore-line. The effects of added neutralization agents in the deposits and in treatment areas downstream gradually decreased, as indicated by reduced stream pH over time. Active measures are needed to avoid harmful ecological effects in the future.

  17. Acid deposition: State of science and technology. Summary report of the U.S. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, P.M.; Smith, E.

    1991-09-01

    The twenty-seven State-of-Science and State-of-Technology (SOS/T) Reports, published in 1990 as the definitive scientific and technical synthesis of information obtained during the first decade of the U.S. national Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), are summarized in the document. In most cases, these summaries were the final chapter of the complete SOS/T Report

  18. Water availability drives gas exchange and growth of trees in northeastern US, not elevated CO2 and reduced acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Mathieu; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil

    2017-04-10

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) exhibit high uncertainty about how climate change, elevated atmospheric CO 2 (atm. CO 2 ) concentration, and atmospheric pollutants will impact carbon sequestration in forested ecosystems. Although the individual roles of these environmental factors on tree growth are understood, analyses examining their simultaneous effects are lacking. We used tree-ring isotopic data and structural equation modeling to examine the concurrent and interacting effects of water availability, atm. CO 2 concentration, and SO 4 and nitrogen deposition on two broadleaf tree species in a temperate mesic forest in the northeastern US. Water availability was the strongest driver of gas exchange and tree growth. Wetter conditions since the 1980s have enhanced stomatal conductance, photosynthetic assimilation rates and, to a lesser extent, tree radial growth. Increased water availability seemingly overrides responses to reduced acid deposition, CO 2 fertilization, and nitrogen deposition. Our results indicate that water availability as a driver of ecosystem productivity in mesic temperate forests is not adequately represented in DGVMs, while CO 2 fertilization is likely overrepresented. This study emphasizes the importance to simultaneously consider interacting climatic and biogeochemical drivers when assessing forest responses to global environmental changes.

  19. Correlation of film density and wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provine, J., E-mail: jprovine@stanford.edu; Schindler, Peter; Kim, Yongmin; Walch, Steve P.; Kim, Hyo Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kim, Ki-Hyun [Manufacturing Technology Center, Samsung Electronics, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}), particularly for use a low k dielectric spacer. One of the key material properties needed for SiN{sub x} films is a low wet etch rate (WER) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In this work, we report on the evaluation of multiple precursors for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of SiN{sub x} and evaluate the film’s WER in 100:1 dilutions of HF in H{sub 2}O. The remote plasma capability available in PEALD, enabled controlling the density of the SiN{sub x} film. Namely, prolonged plasma exposure made films denser which corresponded to lower WER in a systematic fashion. We determined that there is a strong correlation between WER and the density of the film that extends across multiple precursors, PEALD reactors, and a variety of process conditions. Limiting all steps in the deposition to a maximum temperature of 350 °C, it was shown to be possible to achieve a WER in PEALD SiN{sub x} of 6.1 Å/min, which is similar to WER of SiN{sub x} from LPCVD reactions at 850 °C.

  20. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu, E-mail: wangbc2000@126.com; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. - Highlights: • The porous PLGA microparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospray deposition method at one step. • The porous microparticles had high loading capacity and low density. • The microparticle showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric liquid. • The microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro.

  1. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. - Highlights: • The porous PLGA microparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospray deposition method at one step. • The porous microparticles had high loading capacity and low density. • The microparticle showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric liquid. • The microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro

  2. Structural and surface morphological studies of long chain fatty acid thin films deposited by Langmuir-Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nayan Mani, E-mail: nayanmanidas3@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Roy, Dhrubojyoti [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India); Gupta, Mukul [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India); Gupta, P.S. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad 826004 (India)

    2012-12-15

    In the present work we aim to study the structural and surface morphological characteristics of divalent cation (cadmium ion, Cd{sup 2+}) induced thin mono- to multilayer films of fatty acids such as arachidic acid and stearic acid prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. These ultra thin films of various numbers of layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In this specific Y-type deposition, it was found that as the individual layer thickness increases, the corresponding layer by layer interfacial electron density of the thin films decreases. Since the fatty acid chain tries to maintain its minimum value of cross-sectional area, tilting occurs with respect to its nearest neighbor. The tilt angle calculated for 9 layers of cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) and cadmium stearate (CdSt{sub 2}) are 18 Degree-Sign and 19.5 Degree-Sign , respectively. An asymmetric air gap of thickness {approx}3 A was also seen between the tail parts of 2 molecular chains. The RMS roughness and average height factors calculated through AFM studies show non-uniform surface morphology of both CdA{sub 2} and CdSt{sub 2}, although the calculated topographic variations were found to have more irregularity in case of CdSt{sub 2} than in case of CdA{sub 2}.

  3. Deposition of lignin droplets produced during dilute acid pretreatment of maize stems retards enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael J; Viamajala, Sridhar; Decker, Stephen R; Tucker, Melvin P; Himmel, Michael E; Vinzant, Todd B

    2007-01-01

    Electron microscopy of lignocellulosic biomass following high-temperature pretreatment revealed the presence of spherical formations on the surface of the residual biomass. The hypothesis that these droplet formations are composed of lignins and possible lignin carbohydrate complexes is being explored. Experiments were conducted to better understand the formation of these "lignin" droplets and the possible implications they might have on the enzymatic saccharification of pretreated biomass. It was demonstrated that these droplets are produced from corn stover during pretreatment under neutral and acidic pH at and above 130 degrees C, and that they can deposit back onto the surface of residual biomass. The deposition of droplets produced under certain pretreatment conditions (acidic pH; T > 150 degrees C) and captured onto pure cellulose was shown to have a negative effect (5-20%) on the enzymatic saccharification of this substrate. It was noted that droplet density (per unit area) was greater and droplet size more variable under conditions where the greatest impact on enzymatic cellulose conversion was observed. These results indicate that this phenomenon has the potential to adversely affect the efficiency of enzymatic conversion in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

  4. Piper sarmentosum is comparable to glycyrrhizic acid in reducing visceral fat deposition in adrenalectomised rats given dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairus, A; Ima Nirwana, S; Elvy Suhana, M R; Tan, M H; Santhana, R; Farihah, H S

    2013-01-01

    Visceral obesity may be due to the dysregulation of cortisol production or metabolism that lead to metabolic disease. In adipose tissue, the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates cortisol metabolism (11beta-HSD1). A previous study showed an increase in the visceral fat deposition in adrenalectomised rats given intramuscular dexamethasone. Glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) has been shown to reduce fat deposition because it is a known potent inhibitor of the 11beta-HSD1 enzyme. Piper sarmentosum (PS) is an edible medicinal plant commonly used in Asia as traditional medicine for treating diabetes, hypertension and joint pains. In this study, we determined the effects of PS extract on the disposition and morphology of perirenal adipocytes of adrenalectomised rats given intramuscular dexamethasone. A total of 21 male Spraque Dawley rats were adrenalectomised and given intramuscular dexamethasone, 120 μg/kg/day. These rats were further divided into three groups: adrenalectomised control (ADR+Dexa; n=7), GCA-treated (ADR+Dexa+GCA; dose=240 mg/kg/day; n=7) and PS-treated (ADR+Dexa+PS; dose=125 mg/kg/day; n=7) groups. The various treatments were given via gastric gavage following 2 weeks of adrenalectomy. Treatment with PS extract for 8 weeks showed decreased deposition of perirenal adipocytes which was similar to the GCA-treated group. However, PS-treated rats had thinner adipocyte membrane compared with that of the GCA-treated group. In conclusion, PS extract decreased perirenal fat deposition and reduced the diameter of the adipocyte membrane. However, the mechanisms of action needed further study.

  5. Biomimetic Deposition of Hydroxyapatite by Mixed Acid Treatment of Titanium Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J M; Park, W U; Hwang, K H; Lee, J K; Yoon, S Y

    2015-03-01

    A simple chemical method was established for inducing bioactivity of Ti metal. In the present study, two kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coatings successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in the simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid etching was used to increase the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surfaces allow better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrate. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Some specimens were treated with a 5 M NaOH aqueous solution, and then heat treated at 600 °C in order to form an amorphous sodium titanate layer on their surface. This treated titanium metal is believed to form a dense and uniform bone-like apatite layer on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF). This study proved that mixed acid treatment is not only important for surface passivation but is also another bioactive treatment for titanium surfaces, an alternative to alkali treatment. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than alkali treatment.

  6. Phytopigments and fatty acids in the gut of the deposit-feeding heart urchin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, A.R.; Duineveld, G.C.A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a broader study on benthic–pelagic coupling in the southern North Sea, specimens of the common heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum were sampled for analyses on phytopigments and fatty acids in their guts. Results were interpreted in the context of feeding and ecological

  7. Fatty acid metabolism and deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot finished cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of pasture finishing versus high-concentrate finishing, over time, on fatty acid metabolism in Angus crossbred (n = 24) steers. Ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue biopsies were obtained on d 0, 28, 84, and 140. Pasture forages and diet ingr...

  8. Effect of acid deposition on Nanshan forest at Chongging in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaolei; Ogura, Norio

    1992-01-01

    Chongqing is the city where atmospheric pollution is severest in China, and the pH of rainwater has been measured every year since 1981, which is close to 4.0 now. In 1982, the decline of Pinus massoniana in Nanshan district in southeast Chongqing has occurred. The decline phenomena of this forest attracted attention also in foreign countries, and the various studies on its causes have been carried out, consequently, the main cause was presumed to be the compound effect of acid rain, acid mist and the damage by insects. It was clarified by the recent research that the dry and wet acid fallouts mainly composed of SO 2 are one of the important causes that brought about the decline of Pinus massoniana in Nanshan. The forest area in Nanshan is about 2000 ha, and almost the simple forest of Pinus massoniana that distributes at the elevation from 400 to 1400 m. The withering of a small number began to occur in 1982, but thereafter, the area of withering increased rapidly, and reached 41.8% of the total forest area in July, 1983. The decline still continues now. The direct effect of acid fallout to Nanshan forest and the indirect effect through soil are reported in this paper. (K.I.)

  9. Factors affecting the long-term response of surface waters to acidic deposition: state-of-the-science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.S.; Johnson, D.W.; Elwood, J.N.; Van Winkle, W.; Clapp, R.B.; Jones, M.L.; Marmarek, D.R.; Thornton, K.W.; Gherinig, S.A.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Recent intensive study of the causes of surface water acidification has led to numerous hypothesized controlling mechanisms. Among these are the salt-effect reduction of alkalinity, the base cation buffering and sulfate adsorption capacities of soils, availability of weatherable minerals (weathering rates), depth of till, micropore flow, and type of forest cover. Correlative and predictive models have been developed to show the relationships (if any) between hypothesized controlling mechanisms and surface water acidity, and to suggest under what conditions additional surface water might become acid. This document (Part A) is a review of our current knowledge of factors and processes controlling soil and surface water acidification, as well as an assessment of the adequacy of that knowledge for making predictions of future acidification. Section 2 is a data extensive, conceptual overview of how watersheds function. Section 3 is a closer look at the theory and evidence for the key hypotheses. Section 4 is a review of existing methods of assessing system response to acidic deposition.

  10. The effect of pomegranate seed oil and grapeseed oil on cis-9, trans-11 CLA (rumenic acid), n-3 and n-6 fatty acids deposition in selected tissues of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, A; Białek, M; Lepionka, T; Kaszperuk, K; Banaszkiewicz, T; Tokarz, A

    2018-04-23

    The aim of this study was to determine whether diet modification with different doses of grapeseed oil or pomegranate seed oil will improve the nutritive value of poultry meat in terms of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, as well as rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) content in tissues diversified in lipid composition and roles in lipid metabolism. To evaluate the influence of applied diet modification comprehensively, two chemometric methods were used. Results of cluster analysis demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil modifies fatty acids profile in the most potent way, mainly by an increase in rumenic acid content. Principal component analysis showed that regardless of type of tissue first principal component is strongly associated with type of deposited fatty acid, while second principal component enables identification of place of deposition-type of tissue. Pomegranate seed oil seems to be a valuable feed additive in chickens' feeding. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Prime Suspect, Second Row Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    His father had been hacked to death in his own bed with an ax the previous November. His mother was similarly brutalized and left for dead with her husband but survived. On the last Monday of that August, after several months and many investigative twists, turns, and fumbles, there sat the son--the prime suspect--in Ellen Laird's literature class,…

  12. The response of soil solution chemistry in European forests to decreasing acid deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, James; Pannatier, Elisabeth Graf; Carnicelli, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    to emissions controls. In this study, we assessed the response of soil solution chemistry in mineral horizons of European forests to these changes. Trends in pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), major ions, total aluminium (Altot) and dissolved organic carbon were determined for the period 1995–2012. Plots...... with at least 10 years of observations from the ICP Forests monitoring network were used. Trends were assessed for the upper mineral soil (10–20 cm, 104 plots) and subsoil (40–80 cm, 162 plots). There was a large decrease in the concentration of sulphate () in soil solution; over a 10‐year period (2000...... over the entire dataset. The response of soil solution acidity was nonuniform. At 10–20 cm, ANC increased in acid‐sensitive soils (base saturation ≤10%) indicating a recovery, but ANC decreased in soils with base saturation >10%. At 40–80 cm, ANC remained unchanged in acid‐sensitive soils (base...

  13. Effects of acidic deposition on nutrient uptake, nutrient cycling and growth processes of vegetation in the spruce-fir ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-16

    This report summarizes progress in three years of field research designed to evaluate biological and chemical indicators of the current and future health of the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem. The emphasis of this research has been on the identification and understanding of mechanisms through which current levels of acidic deposition are impacting ecosystem processes. The identification of these principal mechanisms and key biological indicators of change was designed to improve our capabilities to detect, monitor, and assess the effects of air quality regulations and attendant future air quality changes on ecosystem response. Individual research tasks focused on the following research areas: (1) the significance of foliar uptake of atmospheric sources of nitrogen in relationship to plant utilization of N from available soil reserves; (2) linkages between atmospheric inputs to the soil surface, solution chemistry, and decomposition in the upper organic soil horizons; (3) effects of soil solution chemistry on uptake of cations and aluminum by fine roots; and (4) the effects of varying rates of calcium supply on carbon metabolism of Fraser fir and red spruce, and the relationship between calcium levels in wood cells and integrity of wood formed in bole and branches. Each of the individual tasks was designed to focus upon a mechanism or process that we consider critical to understanding chemical and biological linkages. These linkages will be important determinants in understanding the basis of past and potential future responses of the high elevation Southern Appalachian Forest to acidic deposition and other co-occurring environmental stresses. This report contains (1) background and rationale for the research undertaken in 1992-94; (2) a summary of principal research findings; (3) publications from this research; and (4) characterization of data sets produced by this research which will be the basis of future research, analyses and/or publications.

  14. Use of soil-streamwater relationships to assess regional patterns of acidic deposition effects in the northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Declines of acidic deposition levels by as much as 50% since 1990 have led to partial recovery of surface waters in the northeastern USA but continued depletion of soil calcium through this same period suggests a disconnection between soil and surface water chemistry. To investigate the role of soil-surface water interactions in recovery from acidification, the first regional survey to directly relate soil chemistry to stream chemistry during high flow was implemented in a 4144-km2 area of the Catskill region of New York, where acidic deposition levels are among the highest in the East.More than 40% of 95 streams sampled in the southern Catskill Mountains were determined to be acidified and had inorganic monomeric aluminum concentrations that exceeded a threshold that is toxic to aquatic biota. More than 80% likely exceeded this threshold during the highest flows, but less than 10% of more than 100 streams sampled were acidified in the northwestern portion of the region. Median Oa horizon soil base saturation ranged from 50% to 80% at 200 sites across the region, but median base saturation in the upper 10 cm of the B horizon was less than 20% across the region and was only 2% in the southern area. Aluminum is likely to be interfering with root uptake of calcium in the mineral horizon in approximately half the sampled watersheds. Stream chemistry was highly variable over the Catskill region and, therefore, did not always reflect the calcium depletion of the B horizon that our sampling suggested was nearly ubiquitous throughout the region. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Regional air-quality and acid-deposition modeling and the role for visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.H.; Dennis, R.L.

    1991-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses air quality and deposition models to advance the scientific understanding of basic physical and chemical processes related to air pollution, and to assess the effectiveness of alternative emissions control strategies. The paper provides a brief technical description of several regional scale atmospheric models, their current use within EPA, and related data analysis issues. Spatial analysis is a key component in the evaluation and interpretation of the model predictions. Thus, the authors highlight several types of analysis enhancements focusing on those related to issues of spatial scale, user access to models and analysis tools, and consolidation of air quality modeling and graphical analysis capabilities. They discuss their initial experience with a Geographical Information System (GIS) pilot project that generated the initial concepts for the design of an integrated modeling and analysis environment. And finally, they present current plans to evolve this modeling/visualization approach to a distributed, heterogeneous computing environment which enables any research scientist or policy analyst to use high performance visualization techniques from his/her desktop

  16. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 2. Atmospheric processes research and process model development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, B.B.; Draxler, R.R.; Albritton, D.L.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.; Davidson, C.I.

    1990-10-01

    The document represents an attempt to put together, in one place, a summary of the present state of knowledge concerning those processes that affect air concentrations of acidic and acidifying pollutants, during their transport, from emission to deposition. It is not intended to be an all-encompassing review of the entire breadth of each of the contributing disciplines, but instead focuses on those areas where the state of science has improved over the last decade--the period of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. The discussion is not limited to NAPAP activities, although it is clear that the products of NAPAP research are perhaps given greater attention than are the results obtained elsewhere. This bias is partially intentional, since it is the INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT that is currently being prepared by NAPAP that constitutes the 'client' for the material presented here. The integrated assessment pay attention to the North American situation alone, and hence the present work gives greatest attention to the North American case, but with awareness of the need to place this particular situation in the context of the rest of the world

  17. A geochemical characterization of cold-water natural acid rock drainage at the Zn–Pb XY deposit, Yukon, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gault, Kristen B.; Gammon, Paul; Fortin, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterizes the waters and minerals of a natural acid rock drainage (ARD). • Demonstrates that cold climate ARD is mostly similar to temperate systems. • Cold-climate differences impact kinetic rates and hydrologic seasonality. • Demonstrates that thermodynamic equilibrium governs the ARD system. • Demonstrates that extraneous inputs can be detected in the system. - Abstract: Acid rock drainage (ARD) is considered to be temperature-limited due to the diminished activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing microbes at low temperatures. Nonetheless, ARD streams are present in cold climates. This study presents a geochemical characterization of a cold climate ARD creek at the Zn–Pb XY deposit in Yukon, Canada, which showed highly elevated concentrations of dissolved zinc (up to 475 mg/L). Acid rock drainage at the XY deposit is likely generated via subsurface abiotic and biotic oxidation of sulfide minerals, and then exits as seeps at the headwaters of the creek. The uppermost reaches of the creek have the lowest pH levels (pH 3.3) and highest metal concentrations, with prolific precipitation of iron-hydroxysulfate and -oxyhydroxide mineral precipitates (schwertmannite, jarosite, and goethite), present as terraced iron formations (TIFs) at one sampling location. The lower reaches of the creek show a progressive pH increase (up to pH level 4.9) which occurs due to Fe(III)- and Al-hydrolysis, the neutralizing influence of carbonate-rich strata and/or ground waters, and dilution by surface waters entering the creek. Progressive pH neutralization causes a change in precipitate mineralogy to X-ray amorphous Al-hydroxysulfates, with a composition similar to aluminite and hydrobasaluminite, and amorphous Al(OH)_3. Natural attenuation of Cd, Zn, and Pb occurred downstream from the headwater seeps, which was likely influenced by adsorption reactions involving both metal-sulfate anions and metal-sulfate ternary complexes. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Zn, and

  18. Suspected acute coronary syndrome in the emergency room: Limited added value of heart type fatty acid binding protein point of care or ELISA tests: The FAME-ER (Fatty Acid binding protein in Myocardial infarction Evaluation in the Emergency Room) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Ingrid Em; Dekker, Marieke S; Hoes, Arno W; Zuithoff, Nicolaas Pa; Verheggen, Peter Whm; de Vrey, Evelyn A; Wildbergh, Thierry X; Timmers, Leo; de Kleijn, Dominique Pv; Glatz, Jan Fc; Mosterd, Arend

    2016-08-01

    Timely recognition of acute coronary syndrome remains a challenge as many biomarkers, including troponin, remain negative in the first hours following the onset of chest pain. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), a cardiac biomarker with potential value immediately post symptom onset. Prospective monocentre diagnostic accuracy study of H-FABP bedside point of care (CardioDetect®) and ELISA tests in acute coronary syndrome suspected patients presenting within 24 hours of symptom onset to the emergency department, in addition to clinical findings, electrocardiography and the currently recommended biomarker high sensitivity troponin-T (hs-cTnT). The final diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome was adjudicated by two independent cardiologists, blinded to H-FABP results. Acute coronary syndrome was diagnosed in 149 (32.9%) of 453 unselected patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (56% men, mean age 62.6 years). Negative predictive values were similar for H-FABP point of care and ELISA tests (79% vs. 78% respectively), but inferior to initial hs-cTnT (negative predictive value 86%). The addition of H-FABP point of care results to hs-cTnT increased the negative predictive value to 89%. In a multivariable logistic regression model, H-FABP point of care and ELISA tests yielded relevant diagnostic information in addition to clinical findings and ECG (likelihood ratio test pacute coronary syndrome presenting to the emergency department, H-FABP testing improves diagnostic accuracy in addition to clinical findings and electrocardiography. H-FABP, however, has no additional diagnostic value when hs-cTnT measurements are also available. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  19. Zinc deposition and dissolution in methanesulfonic acid onto a carbon composite electrode as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.K.; Ponce-de-Leon, C.; Low, C.T.J.; Walsh, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use methanesulfonic acid to avoid dendrite formation during a long (>4 h) zinc electrodeposition. → Electrochemical characterization of Zn(II) deposition and its morphology using methanesulfonic acid solutions. → Use of additives to improve the efficiency of zinc deposition and dissolution as the half cell reaction of a redox flow battery. - Abstract: Electrodeposition and dissolution of zinc in methanesulfonic acid were studied as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery. Cyclic voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode was used to characterize the electrochemistry and the effect of process conditions on the deposition and dissolution rate of zinc in aqueous methanesulfonic acid. At a sufficiently high current density, the deposition process became a mass transport controlled reaction. The diffusion coefficient of Zn 2+ ions was 7.5 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 . The performance of the zinc negative electrode in a parallel plate flow cell was also studied as a function of Zn 2+ ion concentration, methanesulfonic acid concentration, current density, electrolyte flow rate, operating temperature and the addition of electrolytic additives, including potassium sodium tartarate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, and indium oxide. The current-, voltage- and energy efficiencies of the zinc-half cell reaction and the morphologies of the zinc deposits are also discussed. The energy efficiency improved from 62% in the absence of additives to 73% upon the addition of 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 of indium oxide as a hydrogen suppressant. In aqueous methanesulfonic acid with or without additives, there was no significant dendrite formation after zinc electrodeposition for 4 h at 50 mA cm -2 .

  20. Effect of glycerin and formic acid in the efficiency of deposit on Zn-Ni, obtained by electrodeposition; Efeito da glicerina e do acido formico na eficiencia de deposito da liga Zn-Ni, obtido atraves de eletrodeposicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroza, G.A.G.; Souza, C.A.C.; Lima, L.R.P.A.; Ferreira, D.M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia - Escola Politecnica, BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Additives are added to the electrodeposition of metal coatings to improve the characteristics of the deposit. However, the objective was to investigate the effect of adding glycerin and formic acid in the deposition efficiency and deposit structure of zinc-nickel alloy obtained by electrodeposition. The depositions were made at a galvanostatic current density of 10 mA/cm{sup 2} to obtain a deposit of about 5 mm in thickness. The deposition efficiency was determined through measures of mass, chemical composition of the deposit in the presence and absence of additives was examined by X-ray Spectrometer Fluorescence (XRF) and surface characterization of coatings was performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The high levels of glycerin (0,07 M) and formic acid (0,26 M) in bath deposition increased the deposition efficiency of around 10% to 12% by mass, respectively. (author)

  1. Effect of acid deposition on soil animals and microorganisms: influence on structures and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Principal effects of acid stress on the soil subsystem are increase or decrease in faunal and microfloral populations, changes in species assemblages and overall reductions in several soil microbiological processes. Little is known about the effects on nitrogen transformation (ammonification, nitrification, denitrification). Some possible but hypothetical scenarios for the effect of acidification stress on the forest ecosystem level are: (1) Inhibition of decomposition leads to an accumulation of litter. Immission and other disturbances may lead to humus disintegration and nitrate leaching; (2) Inhibition of mineralization reduces the availability of plant nutrients; (3) Decrease of the microfauna may cause disturbances of matter microcycling in the root zone; (4) Increase of the mesofauna may enhance the gracing pressure on mycorrhizal mycelia for even fine roots; (5) Decrease of the macrofauna (especially earthworms) lead to less bioturbation which impairs the buffer capacity of the litter and topsoil. A general outcome of liming experiments is stimulation of decomposition and mineralization: (1) Increased in nutrient arailability could lead to increased productivityin nutrient limited stands; (2) More irregular effects of animals on microbial activity may result in low stability of the soil-litter system and high liability to perturbations. (orig./vhe)

  2. Ecological ranges for the pH and NO3 of syntaxa: a new basis for the estimation of critical loads for acid and nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Goedhart, P.W.; Malinowska, A.H.; Frissel, J.Y.; Wegman, R.M.A.; Slim, P.A.; Dobben, van H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Question: Can the abiotic ranges of syntaxonomic units (associations) in terms of pH and nitrate concentration be estimated and then in principle be used to estimate critical loads for acid and nitrogen deposition? Location: Europe. Methods: Using splines, abiotic ranges of syntaxonomic units were

  3. Effect of PW12–GPK on the acid characteristics of Ni-, Pd- and Pt- catalysts deposited onto pillared Al montmorillonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Zhumadullaev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid characteristics of Ni-, Pd-, Pt- catalyzers , deposited to Al pillared CaH montmorillonite modified by heteropolyacid H3PW12O40·xH2O (PW12 by ammonia thermoadsorbtion method has been studied.

  4. Valproic acid reduces insulin-resistance, fat deposition and FOXO1-mediated gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sabbir; Kumar, Sandeep; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in insulin-resistance, gluconeogenesis and islet function. HDACs can modulate the expression of various genes, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of valproic acid (VPA) on fat deposition, insulin-resistance and gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. VPA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day and metformin (positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 weeks were administered by oral gavage. Insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and glycemia were evaluated by biochemical estimations, while fat accumulation and structural alteration were assessed by histopathology. Protein expression and insulin signaling were evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue and liver, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, VPA inhibited the gluconeogenesis and glucagon expression as well as restored the histopathological alterations in pancreas and liver. Our findings provide new insights on the anti-diabetic role of VPA in type-2 diabetes mellitus by the modulation of insulin signaling and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1)-mediated gluconeogenesis. Since VPA is a well established clinical drug, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the present findings can be further investigated for possible clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Leaf area and foliar biomass relationships in northern hardwood forests located along an 800 km acid deposition gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, A.J.; Pregitzer, K.S.; Reed, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The canopies of northern hardwood forests dominated by sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) were examined at five locations spanning 800 km along an acid deposition and climatic gradient in the Great Lakes region. Leaf area index (LAI) calculated from litterfall ranged from 6.0 to 8.0 in 1988, from 4.9 to 7.9 in 1989, and from 5.3 to 7.8 in 1990. The data suggest that maximum LAI for the sites is between 7 and 8. Insect defoliation and the allocation of assimilates to reproductive parts in large seed years reduced LAI by up to 34%. Allometric equations for leaf area and foliar biomass were not significantly different among sites. They predicted higher LAI values than were estimated from litterfall and could not account for the influences of defoliation and seed production. Canopy transmittance was a viable alternative for estimating LAI. Extinction coefficients (K) of 0.49 to 0.65 were appropriate for solar elevations of 63 degree to 41 degree. Patterns of specific leaf area (SLA) were similar for the sites. Average sugar maple SLA increased from 147 cm 2 g -1 in the upper 5 m of the canopy to 389 cm 2 g -1 in the seeding layer. Litterfall SLA averaged 196 cm 2 g -1 for all species and 192 cm 2 g -1 for sugar maple. Similarity among the sites in allometric relationships, maximum LAI, canopy transmittance, and patterns of SLA suggests these characteristics were controlled primarily by the similar nutrient and moisture availability at the sites. A general increasing trend in litter production along the gradient could not be attributed to N deposition or length of growing season due to year to year variability resulting from insect defoliation and seed production

  6. Target loads of atmospheric sulfur deposition for the protection and recovery of acid-sensitive streams in the Southern Blue Ridge Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Timothy J; Cosby, Bernard J; Jackson, William A

    2011-11-01

    An important tool in the evaluation of acidification damage to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems is the critical load (CL), which represents the steady-state level of acidic deposition below which ecological damage would not be expected to occur, according to current scientific understanding. A deposition load intended to be protective of a specified resource condition at a particular point in time is generally called a target load (TL). The CL or TL for protection of aquatic biota is generally based on maintaining surface water acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) at an acceptable level. This study included calibration and application of the watershed model MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) to estimate the target sulfur (S) deposition load for the protection of aquatic resources at several future points in time in 66 generally acid-sensitive watersheds in the southern Blue Ridge province of North Carolina and two adjoining states. Potential future change in nitrogen leaching is not considered. Estimated TLs for S deposition ranged from zero (ecological objective not attainable by the specified point in time) to values many times greater than current S deposition depending on the selected site, ANC endpoint, and evaluation year. For some sites, one or more of the selected target ANC critical levels (0, 20, 50, 100μeq/L) could not be achieved by the year 2100 even if S deposition was reduced to zero and maintained at that level throughout the simulation. Many of these highly sensitive streams were simulated by the model to have had preindustrial ANC below some of these target values. For other sites, the watershed soils contained sufficiently large buffering capacity that even very high sustained levels of atmospheric S deposition would not reduce stream ANC below common damage thresholds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalpic acid decreases abdominal fat deposition, improves glucose homeostasis and upregulates PPAR alpha expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontecillas, Raquel; Diguardo, Maggie; Duran, Elisa; Orpi, Marcel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-10-01

    Catalpic acid (CAT) is a conjugated linolenic acid (CLN) isomer containing trans-9, trans-11, cis-13 double bonds in an 18-carbon chain and it is found primarily in the seed oil of ornamental and medicinal trees and shrubs of the family Bignoniaceae. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CAT decreases obesity and ameliorates insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice fed high-fat diets. To test the efficacy of CAT in decreasing obesity and diabetes we used both a model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and a genetic model of obesity (i.e., mice lacking the leptin receptor). Blood was collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for determining fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in plasma. In addition, a glucose tolerance test was administered on day 28. We found that dietary CAT (1g/100g) decreased fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, ameliorated the glucose normalizing ability following glucose challenge and decreased abdominal white adipose tissue accumulation. In white adipose tissue (WAT), CAT upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and its responsive genes [i.e., stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD1) and enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase (ECH)], increased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. CAT decreased abdominal fat deposition, increased HDL cholesterol, decreased TG concentrations, decreased glucose and insulin homeostasis and modulated WAT gene expression in a manner reminiscent of the actions of the PPAR alpha-activating fibrate class of lipid-lowering drugs.

  8. Transient inhibition of connective tissue infiltration and collagen deposition into porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ryan J; Jones, Kim S

    2013-12-01

    Connective tissue rapidly proliferates on and around biomaterials implanted in vivo, which impairs the function of the engineered tissues, biosensors, and devices. Glucocorticoids can be utilized to suppress tissue ingrowth, but can only be used for a limited time because they nonselectively arrest cell proliferation in the local environment. The present study examined use of a prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor, 1,4-dihydrophenonthrolin-4-one-3-carboxylic acid (1,4-DPCA), to suppress connective tissue ingrowth in porous PLGA discs implanted in the peritoneal cavity for 28 days. The prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor was found to be effective at inhibiting collagen deposition within and on the outer surface of the disc, and also limited connective tissue ingrowth, but not to the extent of glucocorticoid inhibition. Finally, it was discovered that 1,4-DPCA suppressed Scavenger Receptor A expression on a macrophage-like cell culture, which may account for the drug's ability to limit connective tissue ingrowth in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  9. Optimization of Processing Parameters in 3D-Printing of Poly(lactic acid by Fused Deposition Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ezoji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, making use of additive manufacturing (AM processes such as fused deposition modeling (FDM, in different areas, such as car manufacturing, biomedical and aerospace industries is gaining popularity worldwide because of their capacities in producing functional parts with complex geometries. Therefore, it is very important to identify the significance of FDM processing parameters which would have an impact on the quality of articles produced by the processing system. In this work, poly(lactic acid was used to study the effects of processing parameters such as layer thickness, raster angle and printing plane on the tensile properties and surface roughness of the printed specimens. The results showed that the tensile strength of a specimen increased by reducing its layer thickness. However, the elastic modulus values increased with decreasing the layer thickness to some extent. Moreover, when the layer thickness was kept constant at 0.05 mm and 3D-printing was carried out in XYZ plane, the maximum modulus and tensile strength were obtained for the raster angle of 0˚. Microscopic studies showed that in low layer thickness, the polymeric layers diffused properly into each other and no voids were formed between the layers. However, with a thickness above its critical value, a few voids were formed between the layers which played as a stress concentrator and decreased the tensile strength of the specimens. The results also showed that the surface roughness increased with increasing the layer thickness.

  10. Trends in summer chemistry linked to productivity in lakes recovering from acid deposition in the Adirondack region of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. A.; Sutherland, J.W.; Eichler, L.W.; Harrison, J.P.; Boylen, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program (AEAP) to evaluate and monitor the status of biological communities in lakes in the Adirondack region of New York that have been adversely affected by acid deposition. This program includes chemical analysis of 30 lakes, sampled two to three times each summer. Results of trends analysis for lake chemistry and chlorophyll a (chlor a) are presented for 1994 to 2003, and a general comparison is made with recent results of the Adirondack Long-Term Monitoring (ALTM) Program, which included chemical analysis of all but two of these lakes (plus an additional 24 lakes) monthly, year-round for 1992-2004. Increases in pH were found in 25 of the 30 AEAP lakes (P level of P level of P level of P level of P level of P chemistry were similar to those of the ALTM Program, although decreases in SO 42- concentrations were more evident in the year-round ALTM record. Overall, the results suggest (a) a degree of chemical recovery from acidification during the summer, (b) an increase in phytoplankton productivity, and (c) a decreasing trend in NO 3- concentrations resulting from the increased productivity. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  11. Dietary protein reduction on microbial protein, amino acid digestibility, and body retention in beef cattle: 2. Amino acid intestinal absorption and their efficiency for whole-body deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, L D S; Amaral, P M; Valadares Filho, S C; Santos, S A; Detmann, E; Marcondes, M I; Pereira, J M V; Silva Júnior, J M; Prados, L F; Faciola, A P

    2018-03-06

    The objective of this study was to determine the apparent and true intestinal digestibility of total and individual AA, and to estimate the efficiency of whole-body AA retention from individual and total absorbed AA. Four Nellore animals (241.3 kg initial BW) and four crossbred Angus × Nellore (263.4 kg initial BW) cannulated in rumen and ileum were randomly allocated in two 4 × 4 Latin squares. The experiment lasted four 17 d periods, with 10 d for adaptation to diets and another 7 d for data collection. The diets consisted of increasing CP levels: 100, 120, or 140 g/kg of DM offered ad libitum, and restricted intake diet with 120 g CP/kg DM (experiment 1). In experiment 2, forty-four bulls (22 Nellore and 22 crossbred F1 Angus × Nellore) with 8 months and initial shrunk BW 215.0 ± 15.0 kg (Nellore = 208.0 ± 12.78 kg; Angus × Nellore = 221.9 ± 14.16 kg) were used. Eight of those animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment. The remaining 36 bulls were allocated in a completely randomized design with six replicates, in a 2 (genetic groups) × 3 (CP contents) factorial scheme. The amount of essential AA (EAA) and nonessential AA (NEAA) reaching the small intestine increased linearly (P digestibility of EAA was not affected (P > 0.05) by CP content, with exception for histidine (P = 0.07, linear effect), leucine (P = 0.01, linear effect), and methionine (P = 0.05, linear effect). Differences existed among AA when compared the apparent digestibility of NEAA. The apparent digestibility of alanine (P = 0.05), aspartic acid (P = 0.07), glutamic acid (P = 0.02), glycine (P = 0.05), proline (P = 0.02), and serine (P = 0.04) responded quadratically to CP content increase. However, the apparent digestibility of cystine and tyrosine was not affected (P > 0.05) by increasing dietary CP. The true intestinal digestibilities of total, essential, nonessential AA, lysine, and methionine were 75.0%, 77.0%, 74.0%, 77.0%, and 86%, respectively. The true

  12. 1.7. Acid decomposition of kaolin clays of Ziddi Deposit. 1.7.1. The hydrochloric acid decomposition of kaolin clays and siallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Mirzoev, D.Kh.; Boboev, Kh.E.

    2016-01-01

    Present article of book is devoted to hydrochloric acid decomposition of kaolin clays and siallites. The chemical composition of kaolin clays and siallites was determined. The influence of temperature, process duration, acid concentration on hydrochloric acid decomposition of kaolin clays and siallites was studied. The optimal conditions of hydrochloric acid decomposition of kaolin clays and siallites were determined.

  13. 2.4. The kinetics of hydrochloric-acid decomposition of calcined concentrate of boron raw material of Ak-Arkhar Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Kurbonov, A.S.; Mamatov, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to kinetics of hydrochloric-acid decomposition of calcined concentrate of boron raw material of Ak-Arkhar Deposit. The experimental data of dependence of hydrochloric-acid decomposition of calcined boron raw material for boron oxide extraction on temperature (20-80 deg C) and process duration (15-60 min) were considered. It was defined that at temperature increasing the boron oxide extraction from borosilicate raw material increases from 24.1 till 86.8%. The constants of decomposition rate of boron raw material were calculated.

  14. Effects of multiple stresses hydropower, acid deposition and climate change on water chemistry and salmon populations in the River Otra, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Richard F; Couture, Raoul-Marie; Christiansen, Anne B; Guerrero, José-Luis; Kaste, Øyvind; Barlaup, Bjørn T

    2017-01-01

    Many surface waters in Europe suffer from the adverse effects of multiple stresses. The Otra River, southernmost Norway, is impacted by acid deposition, hydropower development and increasingly by climate change. The river holds a unique population of land-locked salmon and anadromous salmon in the lower reaches. Both populations have been severely affected by acidification. The decrease in acid deposition since the 1980s has led to partial recovery of both populations. Climate change with higher temperatures and altered precipitation can potentially further impact fish populations. We used a linked set of process-oriented models to simulate future climate, discharge, and water chemistry at five sub-catchments in the Otra river basin. Projections to year 2100 indicate that future climate change will give a small but measureable improvement in water quality, but that additional reductions in acid deposition are needed to promote full restoration of the fish communities. These results can help guide management decisions to sustain key salmon habitats and carry out effective long-term mitigation strategies such as liming. The Otra River is typical of many rivers in Europe in that it fails to achieve the good ecological status target of the EU Water Framework Directive. The programme of measures needed in the river basin management plan necessarily must consider the multiple stressors of acid deposition, hydropower, and climate change. This is difficult, however, as the synergistic and antagonistic effects are complex and challenging to address with modelling tools currently available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of acid deposition and forest harvesting on lakes and their forested catchments in south central Ontario: a critical loads approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Watmough

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of acid deposition and tree harvesting on three lakes and their representative sub-catchments in the Muskoka-Haliburton region of south-central Ontario was assessed using a critical loads approach. As nitrogen dynamics in forest soils are complex and poorly understood, for simplicity and to allow comparison among lakes and their catchments, CLs (A for both lakes and forest soils were calculated assuming that nitrate leaching from catchments will not change over time (i.e. a best case scenario. In addition, because soils in the region are shallow, base cation weathering rates for the representative sub-catchments were calculated for the entire soil profile and these estimates were also used to calculate critical loads for the lakes. These results were compared with critical loads obtained by the Steady State Water Chemistry (SSWC model. Using the SSWC model, critical loads for lakes were between 7 and 19 meq m-2yr-1 higher than those obtained from soil measurements. Lakes and forests are much more sensitive to acid deposition if forests are harvested, but two acid-sensitive lakes had much lower critical loads than their respective forested sub-catchments implying that acceptable acid deposition levels should be dictated by the most acid-sensitive lakes in the region. Under conditions that assume harvesting, the CL (A is exceeded at two of the three lakes and five of the six sub-catchments assessed in this study. However, sulphate export from catchments greatly exceeds input in bulk deposition and, to prevent lakes from falling below the critical chemical limit, sulphate inputs to lakes must be reduced by between 37% and 92% if forests are harvested. Similarly, sulphate leaching from forested catchments that are harvested must be reduced by between 16 and 79% to prevent the ANC of water draining the rooting zone from falling below 0 μeq l-1. These calculations assume that extremely low calcium leaching losses (9–27 μeq l-1 from

  16. Study of underpotential deposited Cu layers on Pt(111) and their stability against CO and CO2 in perchloric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaup, Christian Georg; Horch, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper on a Pt(111) electrode and the influence of gas coadsorbates, i.e. CO and CO2, on the thus deposited copper layer were studied in a 0.1 M HClO4 electrolyte by means of EC-STM. By UPD, an atomically flat Cu layer is formed, which exhibits a pseudomorph...

  17. Presentation of suspected pediatric uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad Usman; Raza, Syed Hamid; Goyal, Sudeshna; Cleary, Gavin; Newman, William David; Chandna, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Presentation of suspected pediatric uveitis: Pediatric uveitis is usually managed in specialized ophthalmic centers in the UK. Meaningful data acquisition in these clinics may be helpful in clinical governance, and healthcare planning in a specialty that is gradually changing due to changes in treatment choices. Retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data in the Liverpool pediatric uveitis database was performed. Analysis of our data, based on 147 patients, with a mean age of 10 years, indicated a female to male ratio of 2:1. 99% of patients were Caucasian. Our data indicates 86% of all patients attending the uveitis clinic were diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, followed by intermediate uveitis 5% and idiopathic uveitis 4%. 46% of patients required treatment. Systemic treatment included methotrexate (34%), prednisolone (14%), etanercept (6%), ciclosporin (6%), mycophenolate (3%), and infliximab (1%). Severe visual loss (defined by counting fingers or below vision) was seen in 10 eyes despite appropriately treated chronic uveitis. Our data shows uveitis-related ocular morbidity in a predominantly pediatric Caucasian population. Patients with severe and chronic uveitis may experience significant uveitis-related complications and subsequent visual loss despite aggressive treatment.

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Candidate Genes Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition and Fatty Acid Composition in the Breast Muscle of Squabs (Columba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhong Ye

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that squab is consumed throughout the world because of its high nutritional value and appreciated sensory attributes, aspects related to its characterization, and in particular genetic issues, have rarely been studied. In this study, meat traits in terms of pH, water-holding capacity, intramuscular fat content, and fatty acid profile of the breast muscle of squabs from two meat pigeon breeds were determined. Breed-specific differences were detected in fat-related traits of intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition. RNA-Sequencing was applied to compare the transcriptomes of muscle and liver tissues between squabs of two breeds to identify candidate genes associated with the differences in the capacity of fat deposition. A total of 27 differentially expressed genes assigned to pathways of lipid metabolism were identified, of which, six genes belonged to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway along with four other genes. Our results confirmed in part previous reports in livestock and provided also a number of genes which had not been related to fat deposition so far. These genes can serve as a basis for further investigations to screen markers closely associated with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in squabs. The data from this study were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI’s Sequence Read Archive under the accession numbers SRX1680021 and SRX1680022. This is the first transcriptome analysis of the muscle and liver tissue in Columba using next generation sequencing technology. Data provided here are of potential value to dissect functional genes influencing fat deposition in squabs.

  19. Guidelines for identifying suspect/counterfeit material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist users of products in identifying: substandard, misrepresented, or fraudulently marked items. The guidelines provide information about such topics as: precautions, inspection and testing, dispositioning identified items, installed inspection and reporting suspect/counterfeit materials. These guidelines apply to users who are developing procurement documents, product acceptance/verification methods, company procedures, work instructions, etc. The intent of these SM guidelines in relation to the Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and implementing company Management Control Procedures is not to substitute or replace existing requirements, as defined in either the QAPD or company implementing instructions (Management Control Procedures). Instead, the guidelines are intended to provide a consolidated source of information addressing the issue of Suspect/Counterfeit materials. These guidelines provide an extensive suspect component listing and suspect indications listing. Users can quickly check their suspect items against the list of manufacturers products (i.e., type, LD. number, and nameplate information) by consulting either of these listings.

  20. Changes in stream chemistry and biology in response to reduced levels of acid deposition during 1987-2003 in the Neversink River Basin, Catskill Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Riva-Murray, K.; Bode, R.W.; Passy, S.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric acid deposition has decreased in the northeastern United States since the 1970s, resulting in modest increases in pH, acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), and decreases in inorganic monomeric aluminum (AlIM) concentrations since stream chemistry monitoring began in the 1980s in the acid-sensitive upper Neversink River basin in the Catskill Mountains of New York. Stream pH has increased by 0.01 units/year during 1987-2003 at three sites in the Neversink basin as determined by Seasonal Kendall trend analysis. In light of this observed decrease in stream acidity, we sampled 12 stream sites within the Neversink River watershed for water chemistry, macroinvertebrates, fish, and periphytic diatoms in 2003 to compare with a similar data set collected in 1987. Metrics and indices that reflect sensitivity to stream acidity were developed with these biological data to determine whether changes in stream biota over the intervening 16 years parallel those of stream chemistry. Statistical comparisons of data on stream chemistry and an acid biological assessment profile (Acid BAP) derived from invertebrate data showed no significant differences between the two years. For pH and ANC, however, values in 2003 were generally lower than those in 1987; this difference likely resulted from higher streamflow in summer 2003. Despite these likely flow-induced changes in summer 2003, an ordination and cluster analysis of macroinvertebrate taxa based on the Acid BAP indicated that the most acidic sites in the upstream half of the East Branch Neversink River form a statistically significant separate cluster consistent with less acidic stream conditions. This analysis is consistent with limited recovery of invertebrate species in the most acidic reaches of the river, but will require additional improvement in stream chemistry before a stronger conclusion can be drawn. Data on the fish and periphytic diatom communities in 2003 indicate that slimy sculpin had not extended their habitat

  1. Modelling the role of nitrogen in acidification of Swedish lakes: future scenarios of acid deposition, climate change and forestry practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldan, Filip (Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Cosby, B. Jack (Dept. of Env. Sciences, Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)); Wright, Richard F. (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research, Kjelsas, Oslo (Norway))

    2009-12-15

    There are three major drivers that can cause future changes in lake water chemistry: air pollution, land use and climate change. In this report we used an extensive set of Swedish lakes sampled in 1995, 2000 and in 2005 to model future lake water chemistry under 5 different scenarios. The base case scenario represented deposition of air pollutants under current legislation (CLE); that is assuming that emissions of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) will be reduced as currently agreed by the Gothenburg protocol, NEC directive and other legislation. After the agreed emission reductions were achieved, no further reduction in deposition was assumed and deposition was maintained constant up to year 2100. The base scenario assumed no change in current forestry practices and no climate change. A second other deposition scenario was based on maximum (technically) feasible emission reduction (MFR). The MFR scenario also did not assume change of either forestry practices or climate. A maximum biomass harvest was modelled (land use, LU, scenario), which entailed harvest of tree stems, slash and stumps. A scenario of climate change (CC) followed the IPCC A2 scenario downscaled to Sweden by SMHI. Finally climate change and land use were combined (CCLU scenario). The CC, LU and CCLU scenarios were driven by the 'current legislation' (CLE) deposition scenario for S and N deposition. The biogeochemical model MAGIC was used in this project, and scenarios were evaluated up to year 2100. Special attention was paid to the impact of the future scenarios on N leaching

  2. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil); Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo, E-mail: egpereira@gmail.com [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. PH Rolfs, Campus, Vicosa, Minas Gerais, 36570-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM{sub Fe}) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM{sub Fe} application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  3. Photosynthesis and oxidative stress in the restinga plant species Eugenia uniflora L. exposed to simulated acid rain and iron ore dust deposition: Potential use in environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust Neves, Natalia; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Cruz Centeno, Danilo da; Costa, Alan Carlos; Ferreira Ribas, Rogerio; Gusmao Pereira, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian sandy coastal plain named restinga is frequently subjected to particulate and gaseous emissions from iron ore factories. These gases may come into contact with atmospheric moisture and produce acid rain. The effects of the acid rain on vegetation, combined with iron excess in the soil, can lead to the disappearance of sensitive species and decrease restinga biodiversity. The effects of iron ore dust deposition and simulated acid rain on photosynthesis and on antioxidant enzymes were investigated in Eugenia uniflora, a representative shrub species of the restinga. This study aimed to determine the possible utility of this species in environmental risk assessment. After the application of iron ore dust as iron solid particulate matter (SPM Fe ) and simulated acid rain (pH 3.1), the 18-month old plants displayed brown spots and necrosis, typical symptoms of iron toxicity and injuries caused by acid rain, respectively. The acidity of the rain intensified leaf iron accumulation, which reached phytotoxic levels, mainly in plants exposed to iron ore dust. These plants showed the lowest values for net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, chlorophyll a content and electron transport rate through photosystem II (PSII). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased by simulated acid rain. Peroxidase activity and membrane injury increased following exposure to acid rain and simultaneous SPM Fe application. Eugenia uniflora exhibited impaired photosynthetic and antioxidative metabolism in response to combined iron and acid rain stresses. This species could become a valuable tool in environmental risk assessment in restinga areas near iron ore pelletizing factories. Non-invasive evaluations of visual injuries, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as invasive biochemical analysis could be used as markers.

  4. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laudon, Hjalmar; Poleo, Antonio B.S.; Voellestad, Leif Asbjoern; Bishop, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring

  5. Survival of brown trout during spring flood in DOC-rich streams in northern Sweden: the effect of present acid deposition and modelled pre-industrial water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laudon, Hjalmar [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: hjalmar.laudon@sek.slu.se; Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Voellestad, Leif Asbjoern [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Bishop, Kevin [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-05-01

    Mortality and physiological responses in brown trout (Salmo trutta) were studied during spring snow melt in six streams in northern Sweden that differed in concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH declines. Data from these streams were used to create an empirical model for predicting fish responses (mortality and physiological disturbances) in DOC-rich streams using readily accessible water chemistry parameters. The results suggest that fish in these systems can tolerate higher acidity and inorganic aluminium levels than fish in low DOC streams. But even with the relatively low contemporary deposition load, anthropogenic deposition can cause fish mortality in the most acid-sensitive surface waters in northern Sweden during spring flood. However, the results suggests that it is only in streams with high levels of organically complexed aluminium in combination with a natural pH decline to below 5.0 during the spring where current sulphur deposition can cause irreversible damage to brown trout in the region. This study support earlier studies suggesting that DOC has an ameliorating effect on physiological disturbances in humic waters but the study also shows that surviving fish recover physiologically when the water quality returns to less toxic conditions following a toxic high flow period. The physiological response under natural, pre-industrial conditions was also estimated. - High levels of complexed aluminum, at pH levels below 5.0, predisposes brown trout to sulfur-caused damage in the spring.

  6. Characterization of chemically deposited low-cost 2-6 thin films solar cells : modifying effects with catalytic silicotungstic acid (STA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petuenju, E.N.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    This paper described some properties of cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films that were chemically deposited on a silicon wafer for solar cell and optoelectronic applications. The as-deposited films were thermally annealed and characterized through structural, electrical, optical, and spectroscopic methods. The modifying effects of silicotungstic acid (STA) showed promising characteristics for various applications, including X- and gamma-ray detector devices. The films were characterized by X-rays Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Photoluminescence. Ellipsometry measurements were used to determine the thickness of the sample. The study showed that there is no significant effect of the addition of 10-4 M of STA on the thickness of the film. This might be due to the low concentration of STA. No significant difference was noted for samples deposited with and without STA. In both cases the crystallite size of the sample was estimated to be lower than 1.5 microns. The CdS/Si and CdS(STA)/Si samples were annealed at 360 degrees C for 12 hours. The samples prepared with and without STA had the same structure. CdS deposited without and STA exhibited a mixed hexagonal and cubic structure, most likely because the annealing temperature of the sample was very close to the transition temperature of the cubic structure to the hexagonal structure. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Interventions for suspected placenta praevia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, J P

    2003-01-01

    . Available data should, however, encourage further work to address the safety of more conservative policies of hospitalisation for women with suspected placenta praevia, and the possible value of insertion of a cervical suture.

  8. Multi-material poly(lactic acid) scaffold fabricated via fused deposition modeling and direct hydroxyapatite injection as spacers in laminoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ghifari; Ramahdita, Ghiska; Rahyussalim, A. J.; Whulanza, Yudan

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, additive manufacturing method has been used extensively to realize any product with specific attributes rather than the conventional subtractive manufacturing method. For instance, the additive manufacturing has enable us to construct a product layer-by-layer by successively depositing several materials in one session and one platform. This paper studied the properties of a 3D printed scaffold fabricated through Poly(Lactic-acid) (PLA) deposition modelling in combination with injectable hydroxyapatite (HA)/alginate as cell carrier. The scaffold was designed to serve as a spacer in cervical laminoplasty. Therefore, a series of test were conducted to elaborate the mechanical property, porosity and in-vitro toxicity testing. The results showed that the method is reliable to fabricate the scaffold as desired although the toxicity test needs more confirmation.

  9. Co-Deposition of a Hydrogel/Calcium Phosphate Hybrid Layer on 3D Printed Poly(Lactic Acid Scaffolds via Dip Coating: Towards Automated Biomaterials Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schneider

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the surface modification of 3D printed poly(lactic acid (PLA scaffolds with calcium phosphate (CP/gelatin and CP/chitosan hybrid coating layers. The presence of gelatin or chitosan significantly enhances CP co-deposition and adhesion of the mineral layer on the PLA scaffolds. The hydrogel/CP coating layers are fairly thick and the mineral is a mixture of brushite, octacalcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite. Mineral formation is uniform throughout the printed architectures and all steps (printing, hydrogel deposition, and mineralization are in principle amenable to automatization. Overall, the process reported here therefore has a high application potential for the controlled synthesis of biomimetic coatings on polymeric biomaterials.

  10. Replacing dietary nonessential amino acids with ammonia nitrogen does not alter amino acid profile of deposited protein in the carcass of growing pigs fed a diet deficient in nonessential amino acid nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla, W D; Htoo, J K; de Lange, C F M

    2017-10-01

    Amino acid usage for protein retention, and, consequently, the AA profile of retained protein, is the main factor for determining AA requirements in growing animals. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing ammonia N on whole-body N retention and the AA profile of retained protein in growing pigs fed a diet deficient in nonessential AA (NEAA) N. In total, 48 barrows with a mean initial BW of 13.6 kg (SD 0.7) were used. At the beginning of the study, 8 pigs were euthanized for determination of initial protein mass. The remaining animals were individually housed and fed 1 of 5 dietary treatments. A common basal diet (95% of experimental diets) was formulated to meet the requirements for all essential AA (EAA) but to be deficient in NEAA N (CP = 8.01%). The basal diet was supplemented (5%) with cornstarch (negative control) or 2 N sources (ammonia or NEAA) at 2 levels each to supply 1.35 or 2.70% extra CP. The final standardized ileal digestible (SID) NEAA content in the high-NEAA-supplemented diet (positive control) was based on the NEAA profile of whole-body protein of 20-kg pigs, and it was expected to reduce the endogenous synthesis of NEAA. Pigs were fed at 3.0 times maintenance energy requirements for ME in 3 equal meals daily. At the end of a 3-wk period, pigs were euthanized and the carcass and visceral organs were weighed, frozen, and ground for determination of protein mass. From pigs in the initial, negative control, high-ammonia, and high-NEAA groups, AA contents in the carcass and pooled visceral organs were analyzed to determine the total and deposited protein AA profile, dietary EAA efficiencies, and minimal de novo synthesis of NEAA. Carcass weight and whole-body N retention linearly increased ( 0.10) between N sources, but Cys content increased ( ammonia in visceral organ protein and deposited protein. The dietary SID EAA efficiency for increasing EAA deposition in whole-body protein increased ( 0.10) between N

  11. Effects of simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter on photosynthesis and the generation of oxidative stress in Schinus terebinthifolius Radii and Sophora tomentosa L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuki, Kacilda Naomi [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil)], E-mail: naomikuki@hotmail.com; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmao; Costa, Alan Carlos [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil); Cambraia, Jose [Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Vicosa (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    Particulate matter is a natural occurrence in the environment, but some industries, such as the iron ore sector, can raise the total amount of particles in the atmosphere. This industry is primarily a source of iron and sulfur dioxide particulates. The effects of the pollutants from the iron ore industries on representatives of restinga vegetation in a Brazilian coastal ecosystem were investigated using physiological and biochemical measures. Two species, Schinus terebinthifolius and Sophora tomentosa, were exposed to simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter in acrylic chambers in a greenhouse. Parameters such as gas exchange, fluorescence emission, chlorophyll content, total iron content, antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content were assessed in order to evaluate the responses of the two species. Neither treatment was capable of inducing oxidative stress in S. terebinthifolius. Nevertheless, the deposition of iron ore particulates on this species increased chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the electron transport rate, while iron content was unaltered. On the other hand, S. tomentosa showed a greater sensitivity to the treatments. Plants of S. tomentosa that were exposed to acid mist had a decrease in photosynthesis, while the deposition of iron particulate matter led to an increase in iron content and membrane permeability of the leaves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutase, were enhanced by both treatments. The results suggested that the two restinga species use different strategies to overcome the stressful conditions created by the deposition of particulate matter, either solid or wet. It seems that while S. terebinthifolius avoided stress, S. tomentosa used antioxidant enzyme systems to partially neutralize oxidative stress. The findings also point to the potential use of S. tomentosa as a biomarker species under field conditions.

  12. Effects of simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter on photosynthesis and the generation of oxidative stress in Schinus terebinthifolius Radii and Sophora tomentosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuki, Kacilda Naomi; Oliva, Marco Antônio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmão; Costa, Alan Carlos; Cambraia, José

    2008-09-15

    Particulate matter is a natural occurrence in the environment, but some industries, such as the iron ore sector, can raise the total amount of particles in the atmosphere. This industry is primarily a source of iron and sulfur dioxide particulates. The effects of the pollutants from the iron ore industries on representatives of restinga vegetation in a Brazilian coastal ecosystem were investigated using physiological and biochemical measures. Two species, Schinus terebinthifolius and Sophora tomentosa, were exposed to simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter in acrylic chambers in a greenhouse. Parameters such as gas exchange, fluorescence emission, chlorophyll content, total iron content, antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content were assessed in order to evaluate the responses of the two species. Neither treatment was capable of inducing oxidative stress in S. terebinthifolius. Nevertheless, the deposition of iron ore particulates on this species increased chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the electron transport rate, while iron content was unaltered. On the other hand, S. tomentosa showed a greater sensitivity to the treatments. Plants of S. tomentosa that were exposed to acid mist had a decrease in photosynthesis, while the deposition of iron particulate matter led to an increase in iron content and membrane permeability of the leaves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutase, were enhanced by both treatments. The results suggested that the two restinga species use different strategies to overcome the stressful conditions created by the deposition of particulate matter, either solid or wet. It seems that while S. terebinthifolius avoided stress, S. tomentosa used antioxidant enzyme systems to partially neutralize oxidative stress. The findings also point to the potential use of S. tomentosa as a biomarker species under field conditions.

  13. Effects of simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter on photosynthesis and the generation of oxidative stress in Schinus terebinthifolius Radii and Sophora tomentosa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuki, Kacilda Naomi; Oliva, Marco Antonio; Pereira, Eduardo Gusmao; Costa, Alan Carlos; Cambraia, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter is a natural occurrence in the environment, but some industries, such as the iron ore sector, can raise the total amount of particles in the atmosphere. This industry is primarily a source of iron and sulfur dioxide particulates. The effects of the pollutants from the iron ore industries on representatives of restinga vegetation in a Brazilian coastal ecosystem were investigated using physiological and biochemical measures. Two species, Schinus terebinthifolius and Sophora tomentosa, were exposed to simulated deposition of acid mist and iron ore particulate matter in acrylic chambers in a greenhouse. Parameters such as gas exchange, fluorescence emission, chlorophyll content, total iron content, antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde content were assessed in order to evaluate the responses of the two species. Neither treatment was capable of inducing oxidative stress in S. terebinthifolius. Nevertheless, the deposition of iron ore particulates on this species increased chlorophyll content, the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II and the electron transport rate, while iron content was unaltered. On the other hand, S. tomentosa showed a greater sensitivity to the treatments. Plants of S. tomentosa that were exposed to acid mist had a decrease in photosynthesis, while the deposition of iron particulate matter led to an increase in iron content and membrane permeability of the leaves. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalases and superoxide dismutase, were enhanced by both treatments. The results suggested that the two restinga species use different strategies to overcome the stressful conditions created by the deposition of particulate matter, either solid or wet. It seems that while S. terebinthifolius avoided stress, S. tomentosa used antioxidant enzyme systems to partially neutralize oxidative stress. The findings also point to the potential use of S. tomentosa as a biomarker species under field conditions

  14. Advanced zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron particles for acidic magnetorheological finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited ZnS and other IR materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, S.; Giannechini, L. J.; Romanofsky, H. J.; Golini, N.; Taylor, B.; Jacobs, S. D.; Lambropoulos, J. C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a modified version of zirconia-coated carbonyl-iron (CI) particles that were invented at the University of Rochester in 2008. The amount of zirconia on the coating is increased to further protect the iron particles from corrosion when introduced to an acidic environment. Five low-pH, magnetorheological (MR) fluids were made with five acids: acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric. All fluids were based on the modified zirconia-coated CI particles. Off-line viscosity and pH stability were measured for all acidic MR fluids to determine the ideal fluid composition for acidic MR finishing of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) and other infrared (IR) optical materials, such as hot-isostatic-pressed (HIP) ZnS, CVD zinc selenide (ZnSe), and magnesium fluoride (MgF2). Results show significant reduction in surface artifacts (millimeter-size, pebble-like structures on the finished surface) for several standard-grade CVD ZnS substrates and good surface roughness for the non-CVD MgF2 substrate when MR finished with our advanced acidic MR fluid.

  15. Chemical and mineralogical changes of waste and tailings from the Murgul Cu deposit (Artvin, NE Turkey): implications for occurrence of acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Emine Selva; Akçay, Miğraç

    2016-04-01

    Being one of the largest copper-producing resources in Turkey, the Murgul deposit has been a source of environmental pollution for very long time. Operated through four open pits with an annual production of about 3 million tons of ore at an average grade of about 0.5% Cu, the deposit to date has produced an enormous pile of waste (exceeding 100 million tons) with tailings composed of 36 % SiO2, 39% Fe2O3 and 32% S, mainly in the form of pyrite and quartz. Waters in the vicinity of the deposit vary from high acid-acid (2.71-3.85) and high-extremely metal rich (34.48-348.12 mg/l in total) in the open pits to near neutral (6.51-7.83) and low metal (14.39-973.52 μg/l in total) in downstream environments. Despite low metal contents and near neutral pH levels of the latter, their suspended particle loads are extremely high and composed mainly of quartz and clay minerals with highly elevated levels of Fe (3.5 to 24.5% Fe2O3; 11% on average) and S (0.5 to 20.6% S; 7% on average), showing that Fe is mainly in the form of pyrite and lesser hematite. They also contain high concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Waters collected along the course of polluted drainages are supersaturated with respect to Fe phases such as goethite, hematite, maghemite, magnetite, schwertmannite and ferrihydrite. Secondary phases such as Fe-sulphates are only found near the pits, but not along the streams due to neutral pH conditions, where pebbles are covered and cemented by Fe-oxides and hydroxides indicating that oxidation of pyrite has taken place especially at times of low water load. It follows, then, that the pyrite-rich sediment load of streams fed by the waste of the Murgul deposit is currently a big threat to the aquatic life and environment and will continue to be so even after the closure of the deposit. In fact, the oxidation will be enhanced and acidity increased due to natural conditions, which necessitates strong remedial actions to be taken.

  16. A two-layer application of the MAGIC model to predict the effects of land use scenarios and reductions in deposition on acid sensitive soils in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Helliwell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-layer application of the catchment-based soil and surface water acidification model, MAGIC, was applied to 21 sites in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (AWAMN, and the results were compared with those from a one-layer application of the model. The two-layer model represented typical soil properties more accurately by segregating the organic and mineral horizons into two separate soil compartments. Reductions in sulphur (S emissions associated with the Second S Protocol and different forestry (land use scenarios were modelled, and their effects on soil acidification evaluated. Soil acidification was assessed in terms of base saturation and critical loads for the molar ratio of base cations (CA2+ + MG 2+ + K+ to aluminium (Al in soil solution. The results of the two-layer application indicate that base saturation of the organic compartment was very responsive to changes in land use and deposition compared with the mineral soil. With the two- layer model, the organic soil compartment was particularly sensitive to acid deposition, which resulted in the critical load being predicted to be exceeded at eight sites in 1997 and two sites in 2010. These results indicate that further reductions in S deposition are necessary to raise the base cation (BC:Al ratio above the threshold which is harmful to tree roots. At forested sites BC:Al ratios were generally well below the threshold designated for soil critical loads in Europe and forecasts indicate that forest replanting can adversely affect the acid status of sensitive term objectives of protecting and sustaining soil and water quality. Policy formulation must seek to protect the most sensitive environmental receptor, in this case organic soils. It is clear, therefore, that simply securing protection of surface waters, via the critical loads approach, may not ensure adequate protection of low base status organic soils from the effects of acidification.

  17. Deposition of aqueous aerosol of technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid generated and delivered by a novel system (AERx) in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.K.; Eberl, S.; Bautovich, G.

    1999-01-01

    Deposition of technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid aqueous radioaerosols generated by a novel aerosol delivery system (AER x ) was studied in six healthy subjects using both planar and single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. AER x is a microprocessor-controlled, bolus inhalation device that is actuated at pre-programmed values of inspiratory flow rate and volume. The aims of the study were to determine the effects of posture and inhaled volume upon deposition of the aerosol in the lungs. Each subject inhaled the radioaerosol in two positions (supine vs sitting) and with two inspiratory manoeuvres [vital capacity (VC) vs ''fixed volume'' of 1 l above functional residual capacity]. Simultaneous transmission-emission planar and tomographic images were acquired. The results showed diffuse deposition of the aerosol in the lung. Neither the breathing manoeuvre nor the posture was found to affect the distribution of the aerosol as measured by the ratio of the activity (counts per pixel) in the peripheral:central (penetration index, PI) or in the apex:base regions of the planar lung images (P>0.1). A small, albeit statistically significant, difference in PI (P x system showed high efficiency of delivery, with approximately 50% of the extruded dose in the device depositing in the lung. The uniformity of radioactivity distributed throughout the lung is attributed to the fine particle size (mass median aerodynamic diameter of 2 μm) of the aerosol and the electronic control of aerosol inhalation by the device. In conclusion, the AER x system can be ideal for diffuse aerosol deposition of therapeutic or diagnostic agents and is largely unaffected by inhaled volume and posture. The efficiency of the device device can limit the total radiation exposure of patients and staff administering the radioaerosols, and can make it suitable for delivery of expensive drugs. (orig.)

  18. Study of the adhesive properties versus stability/aging of hernia repair meshes after deposition of RF activated plasma polymerized acrylic acid coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivolo, Paola; Nisticò, Roberto; Barone, Fabrizio; Faga, Maria Giulia; Duraccio, Donatella; Martorana, Selanna; Ricciardi, Serena; Magnacca, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In order to confer adhesive properties to commercial polypropylene (PP) meshes, a surface plasma-induced deposition of poly-(acrylic acid) (PPAA) is performed. Once biomaterials were functionalized, different post-deposition treatments (i.e. water washing and/or thermal treatments) were investigated with the aim of monitoring the coating degradation (and therefore the loss of adhesion) after 3 months of aging in both humid/oxidant (air) and inert (nitrogen) atmospheres. A wide physicochemical characterization was carried out in order to evaluate the functionalization effectiveness and the adhesive coating homogeneity by means of static water drop shape analysis and several spectroscopies (namely, FTIR, UV–Visible and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The modification of the adhesion properties after post-deposition treatments as well as aging under different storage atmospheres were investigated by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) used in Force/Distance (F/D) mode. This technique confirms itself as a powerful tool for unveiling the surface adhesion capacity as well as the homogeneity of the functional coatings along the fibers. Results obtained evidenced that post-deposition treatments are mandatory in order to remove all oligomers produced during the plasma-treatment, whereas aging tests evidenced that these devices can be simply stored in presence of air for at least three months without a meaningful degradation of the original properties. - Highlights: • Plasma polymerized surface functionalization of hernia-repair meshes was used to confer adhesive properties. • The stability of the adhesive coating was verified under different post-deposition conditions. • The use of AFM in F/D mode was selected to monitor the coating degradation.

  19. Study of the adhesive properties versus stability/aging of hernia repair meshes after deposition of RF activated plasma polymerized acrylic acid coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivolo, Paola [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Nisticò, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.nistico@unito.it [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Barone, Fabrizio [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Faga, Maria Giulia; Duraccio, Donatella [CNR-IMAMOTER, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino (Italy); Martorana, Selanna [Herniamesh S.r.l., Via F.lli Meliga 1/C, 10034 Chivasso (Italy); Ricciardi, Serena [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Magnacca, Giuliana [University of Torino, Department of Chemistry and NIS Centre, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    In order to confer adhesive properties to commercial polypropylene (PP) meshes, a surface plasma-induced deposition of poly-(acrylic acid) (PPAA) is performed. Once biomaterials were functionalized, different post-deposition treatments (i.e. water washing and/or thermal treatments) were investigated with the aim of monitoring the coating degradation (and therefore the loss of adhesion) after 3 months of aging in both humid/oxidant (air) and inert (nitrogen) atmospheres. A wide physicochemical characterization was carried out in order to evaluate the functionalization effectiveness and the adhesive coating homogeneity by means of static water drop shape analysis and several spectroscopies (namely, FTIR, UV–Visible and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The modification of the adhesion properties after post-deposition treatments as well as aging under different storage atmospheres were investigated by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) used in Force/Distance (F/D) mode. This technique confirms itself as a powerful tool for unveiling the surface adhesion capacity as well as the homogeneity of the functional coatings along the fibers. Results obtained evidenced that post-deposition treatments are mandatory in order to remove all oligomers produced during the plasma-treatment, whereas aging tests evidenced that these devices can be simply stored in presence of air for at least three months without a meaningful degradation of the original properties. - Highlights: • Plasma polymerized surface functionalization of hernia-repair meshes was used to confer adhesive properties. • The stability of the adhesive coating was verified under different post-deposition conditions. • The use of AFM in F/D mode was selected to monitor the coating degradation.

  20. Discussion on well field technology for acid in-situ leaching of uranium at a deposit of Yining uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Shandong; Wu Yunhui; Yin Guifang

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of geology and hydrogeology of a uranium deposit, the make-up and use of lixiviant, equilibrium control of push-pull, improvement of air lift efficiency, layout of well net, and management of well construction are described. (authors)

  1. Nitrogen deposition and soil carbon content affect nitrogen mineralization during primary succession in acid inland drift sand vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparrius, L.B.; Kooijman, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Two inland dunes in the Netherlands receiving low (24) and high (41 kg N ha−1 yr−1) nitrogen (N) deposition were compared for N dynamics and microbial activity to investigate the potential effect of N on succession rate of the vegetation and loss of pioneer habitats. Methods

  2. Handbook for Response to Suspect Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, William C.; Pappas, Richard A.; Arthur, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    This document provides response actions to be performed following the initial port, airport, or border crossing discovery of material that is suspected of being radioactive. The purpose of this guide is to provide actions appropriate for handling radioactive material

  3. Reductive Leaching Kinetics of Low Grade Manganese Deposits in H2SO4 Solution Using Malonic Acid as Reducing Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Taysser Lasheen; S. A. Abu Elenein; W. A. Saleh; A. H Orabi; D. A Ismaiel

    2014-01-01

    A leaching process was developed to extract manganese and metal values from Alloga manganese concentrate. The preferential leaching process was achieved through reductive leaching in dilute sulfuric acid medium with malonic acid as the reducing agent. Leaching parameters were optimized as 1.0 M H2SO4, 10% malonic acid in solid/liquid ratio 1:10 for 90 min at 80 C and using ore ground to – 74 µm. Under these conditions, the leaching efficiency of manganese reaches 97%, whilst iron dissolution ...

  4. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows, with medium lean tissue growth potential after AA intake restriction between 15 and 35 kg of BW. It is suggested that the upper limit to body protein deposition was the main factor that limited the extent of compensatory body protein deposition in this population of pigs. The concept of an upper limit to body protein deposition may be used to explain why compensatory growth is observed in some studies and not in others.

  5. Chemical composition and seasonal variation of acid deposition in Guangzhou, South China: Comparison with precipitation in other major Chinese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Deyin; Xu Yigang; Peng Pingan; Zhang Huihuang; Lan Jiangbo

    2009-01-01

    With the aim of understanding the origin of acid rains in South China, we analyzed rainwaters collected from Guangzhou, China, between March 2005 and February 2006. The pH of rainwater collected during the monitoring period varied from 4.22 to 5.87; acid rain represented about 94% of total precipitation during this period. The rainwater was characterized by high concentrations of SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , and NH 4 + . SO 4 2- and NO 3 - , the main precursors of acid rain, were related to the combustion of coal and fertilizer use/traffic emissions, respectively. Ca 2+ and NH 4 + act as neutralizers of acid, accounting for the decoupling between high SO 4 2- concentrations and relatively high pH in the Guangzhou precipitation. The acid rain in Guangzhou is most pronounced during spring and summer. A comparison with acid precipitation in other Chinese cities reveals a decreasing neutralization capacity from north to south, probably related to the role and origin of alkaline bases in precipitation. - A north-to-south decreasing trend in the neutralization capacity of precipitation in China

  6. Modelling regional response of lakewater chemistry to changes in acidic deposition: the MAGIC model applied to lake surveys in southernmost Norway 1974-1986-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Cosby

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods for modelling regional responses of lake water quality to changes in acidic deposition in southernmost Norway were examined. Both methods are based upon the MAGIC model but differ in mode of regional application; one uses site-specific while the other uses Monte-Carlo methods for model calibration. The simulations of regional responses from both methods were compared with observed responses based on data from three lake surveys in southernmost Norway conducted in 1974, 1986 and 1995. The regional responses of the two modelling approaches were quite similar and agreed well with the observed regional distributions of lakewater chemistry variables. From 1974 to 1986 the observed data indicated that despite a decline of approximately 10% in sulphate (SO4 deposition, the mean acid neutralizing capacity (ANC of lakes in southernmost Norway declined by approximately 6 μeq l-1. Both modelling approaches simulated no change or a very small decline in mean ANC for that period. From 1986 to 1995 the observed data indicated that, in response to an approximate 40% decline in SO4 deposition, the mean ANC of lakes in southernmost Norway increased by 11-16 μeq l-1. The modelling approaches simulated increases of 9-10 μeq l-1 in mean ANC for the same period. Both simulations and observations indicate that > 65% of lakes in southernmost Norway were acidic in 1974 and 1995. Both simulation methods predict that >65% of the lakes in southernmost Norway will have positive ANC values within 10 years of reductions of SO4 deposition to 20% of 1974 levels. Of the two regionalization methods the site-specific method appears preferable, because whereas the Monte-Carlo method gives results for a region as a whole, the site-specific method also reveals patterns within the region. The maintenance of a one-to-one correspondence between simulated and observed systems means that simulation results can be mapped for a geographically explicit presentation of model

  7. Inter- and intra-annual chemical variability during the ice-free season in lakes with different flushing rates and acid deposition histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Shelley E; Dillon, Peter J; Somers, Keith; Keller, Bill

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying chemical variability in different lake types is important for the assessment of both chemical and biological responses to environmental change. For monitoring programs that emphasize a large number of lakes at the expense of frequent samples, high variability may influence how representative single samples are of the average conditions of individual lakes. Intensive temporal data from long-term research sites provide a unique opportunity to assess chemical variability in lakes with different characteristics. We compared the intra- and inter-annual variability of four acidification related variables (Gran alkalinity, pH, sulphate concentration, and total base cation concentration) in four lakes with different flushing rates and acid deposition histories. Variability was highest in lakes with high flushing rates and was not influenced by historic acid deposition in our study lakes. This has implications for the amount of effort required in monitoring programs. Lakes with high flushing rates will require more frequent sampling intervals than lakes with low flushing rates. Consideration of specific lake types should be included in the design of monitoring programs.

  8. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  9. Acid or N? Disentangling Nutrient- and pH Effects of Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition to Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen deposition can act as both a nutrient and acidifying agent with sometimes synergistic and sometimes contradictory effects on ecosystem processes. However, these two roles are rarely separated. Similarly, deposition patterns of N and S often covary, making it difficult to correctly attribute their respective roles on the biogeochemistry of downwind ecosystems. In 2011, we initiated a N x pH (S) experiment in six mixed hardwood stands (3 primary, 3 secondary) in Central New York designed to separate nutrient and acidifying impacts of N and S deposition. Three treatments included two 50 N ha-1 yr-1 additions in forms intended to raise (NaNO3) or lower ((NH4)2SO4) soil pH as well as elemental S treatment to acidify without N. Five years of treatment shifted surface soil pH in the expected directions. Treatment effects on soil extract DOC correlated with pH, with lower DOC concentration and aromaticity in the acidifying treatments. Foliar litterfall did not vary by stand age or treatment, but N and S treatments enriched litterfall N and S concentrations, respectively. Wood production did not vary significantly by stand age or treatment but trended toward an increase in response to the N additions in both stand ages. The treatments did not affect early stages of litter decomposition, but both N additions and acidification suppressed decomposition in later stages, with largest effects from acidification alone. Soil respiration responses followed those of litter decomposition, except that the response of respiration to the NaNO3 addition depended on the stand's mycorrhizal composition, with greater suppression in stands with a higher fraction of ectomycorrhizal tree species. Together, these results show that both N addition and acidification can suppress decomposition rates, but likely for different reasons that may be linked to plant carbon allocation (for N) and microbial function (pH). Distinguishing these mechanisms will be important for projecting recovery of

  10. An Evaluation of the Role of Ozone, Acid Deposition, and other Airborne Pollutants in the Forests of Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.H.B. Garner; Terry Pagano; Ellis B. Cowling

    1989-01-01

    Existing knowledge on air pollutants that occur in the forests of eastern North America is summarized and interpreted.Resolution is sought to the conflict between the prevailing scientific judgment that ozone and other oxidants are most likely to be damaging eastern forests and the prevailing public perception that acidic and acidifying substances are the most likely...

  11. Effects of acidic deposition on in-lake phosphorus availability: A lesson from lakes recovering from acidification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Kaňa, Jiří; Norton, S. A.; Stuchlík, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2015), s. 2895-2903 ISSN 0013-936X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09231S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : modelling * recovery from acid ification * nutrients * phosphorus Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 5.393, year: 2015

  12. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  13. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 24. Visibility: Existing and historical conditions - causes and effects. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trijonis, J.C.; Malm, W.C.; Pitchford, M.; White, W.H.; Charlson, R.

    1990-10-01

    One of the important effects associated with acid precipitation related pollutants is interference with radiation transfer (light transmission) in the atmosphere. An obvious result of such interference is visibility degradation--the impairment of atmospheric clarity or of the ability to perceive form, texture, and color. Climate modification constitutes another, somewhat less obvious, result. The purpose of the NAPAP State of Science/Technology report is to summarize current knowledge regarding these radiation transfer effects. Although the report focuses mainly on visibility issues, it does encompass the emerging field of climate modification. The links between the acid rain problem and radiation transfer effects, although indirect, are quite strong. The principal link is through sulfur dioxide emissions and sulfate aerosols. A secondary link occurs through nitrogen oxide emissions

  14. Wet deposition and related atmospheric chemistry in the São Paulo metropolis, Brazil: Part 2—contribution of formic and acetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Adalgiza; Gutz, Ivano G. R.

    Wet-only deposition samples were collected at a site in the urban area of the São Paulo metropolis between February (end of the rainy summer) and October (beginning of spring) 2000, an atypical period due to rainfall 40% below the 30-year average. The majority ions in rainwater were measured by capillary zone electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection, CZE-CCD, applied for the first time to the organic anions acetate and formate. The volume weight mean (VWM) concentrations of the majority anions NO 3-, SO 42- and Cl - were, respectively, 15.6, 9.5 and 4.7 μmol l -1. The VWM concentration of HCOO -t, (HCOO -+HCOOH) was 17.0 μmol l -1, about twice the 8.9 μmol l -1 of CH 3COO -t. The VWM concentration of free H + was low ( 16.9 μmol l -1), corresponding to pH 4.77. This denotes the relevance of species like ammonia, analyzed as NH4+ ( VWM=27.9 μmol l -1), and calcium carbonate ( VWM=5.3 μmol l -1 Ca2+) as partial neutralizers of the acidity. By hypothetically assuming that H + is the only counterion of the non-sea-salt fraction of the dissociated anions, their contribution to the total potential acidity would decrease in the following order: sulfate (29%), formate (29%), nitrate (26%), acetate (15%) and chloride (1%). The 44% potential participation of the carboxylic acids reveals their importance to the acidity of São Paulo's rainwater during the study period. Direct vehicular emission of lower carboxylic acids and aldehydes (in particular, acetic acid and acetaldehyde) is singularly high in the metropolis due to the extensive use of ethanol and gasohol (containing ˜20% of ethanol) as fuels of the light fleet of 5.5 million cars; in addition, regional atmospheric conditions favor the photochemical formation of the acids, since concentrations of ozone and aldehydes are high and solar irradiation is intense at the 23°34'S latitude. The presence of higher concentrations of HCOOH than CH 3COOH indicates a prevalence of its photochemical production

  15. In situ detection of denitrifying bacteria by mRNA-targeted nucleic acid probes and catalyzed reporter deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Michael Vedel; Stief, Peter; Poulsen, Morten

    can be designed to target a broader range of denitrifying bacteria; however, they require two-pass CARD-FISH, which may result in (too) high background fluorescence. In a first application example, habitat-specific polynucleotide probes were used to quantify bacteria expressing narG and nos...... reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen gas, is essential for the removal of fixed nitrogen from natural and engineered ecosystems. However, community structure and activity dynamics of denitrifying bacteria in most systems are poorly understood, partially due to difficulties in identifying and quantifying...... and catalyzed fluorescent reporter deposition (CARD-FISH). The general feasibility of the approach was first tested with pure cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and various denitrifying and nitrate-reducing isolates. Detailed studies of probe specificity and hybridization conditions using Clone-FISH of nar...

  16. Studies on morphology of Langmuir-Blodgett films of stearic acid deposited with different orientation of substrates with respect to compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Keerti; Manjuladevi, V.; Gupta, R. K., E-mail: raj@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of physics, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    The Langmuir monolayer at an air-water interface shows remarkably different surface pressure – area isotherm, when measured with the surface normal of a Wilhemly plate parallel or perpendicular to the direction of compression of the monolayer. Such difference arises due to difference in stress exerted by the monolayer on the plate in different direction. In this article, we report the effect of changing the direction of substrate normal with respect to the compression of the monolayer during Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film deposition on the morphology of the films. The morphology of the LB film of stearic acid was studied using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The morphology of the LB films was found to be different due to difference in the stress in different directions.

  17. Different sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affects apparent digestibility, tissue deposition, and tissue oxidative stability in growing female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Vagner A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous health benefits associated with increased omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA consumption has lead to an increasing variety of available n-3 PUFA sources. However, sources differ in the type, amount, and structural form of the n-3 PUFAs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sources of ω-3 PUFAs on digestibility, tissue deposition, eicosanoid metabolism, and oxidative stability. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats (age 28 d were randomly assigned (n = 10/group to be fed a high fat 12% (wt diet consisting of either corn oil (CO or n-3 PUFA rich flaxseed (FO, krill (KO, menhaden (MO, salmon (SO or tuna (TO oil for 8 weeks. Rats were individually housed in metabolic cages to determine fatty acid digestibility. Diet and tissue fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography and lipid classes using thin layer chromatography. Eicosanoid metabolism was determined by measuring urinary metabolites of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs and thromoboxanes (TXBs using enzyme immunoassays. Oxidative stability was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total antioxidant capacity (TAC using colorimetric assays. Gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results Rats fed KO had significantly lower DHA digestibility and brain DHA incorporation than SO and TO-fed rats. Of the n-3 PUFA sources, rats fed SO and TO had the highest n-3 PUFAs digestibility and in turn, tissue accretion. Higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFAs had no significant effect on 2-series PG and TXB metabolites. Despite higher tissue n-3 LC-PUFA deposition, there was no increase in oxidation susceptibility indicated by no significant increase in TBARS or decrease in TAC and gene expression of antioxidant defense enzymes, in SO or TO-fed rats. Conclusions On the basis that the optimal n-3 PUFA sources should

  18. Boosting the performance of Pt electro-catalysts toward formic acid electro-oxidation by depositing sub-monolayer Au clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Xuanxuan; Wang Rongyue; Ding Yi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Au decoration on Pt nanoparticles simultaneously increases the activity and stability. → Sub-monolayer Au decoration changes the reaction path and results in the activity improvement. → Increasing the Au coverage will increase the specific activity. → Proper Au coverage results in a maximum mass specific activity. - Abstract: CO poisoning is the main obstacle to the application of Pt nanoparticles as anode catalysts in direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). Significant types of Pt alloys have been investigated, which often demonstrate evidently improved catalytic performance governed by difference mechanisms. By using a well-known electrochemical technique of under potential deposition and in situ redox replacement, sub-monolayer Au clusters are deposited onto Pt nanoparticle surfaces in a highly controlled manner, generating a unique surface alloy structure. Under optimum conditions, the modified Pt nanoparticles can exhibit greatly enhanced specific activity (up to 23-fold increase) at potential of -0.2 V vs. MSE toward formic acid electro-oxidation (FAEO). Interestingly, the mass specific activity can also be improved by a factor of 2.3 at potential of -0.35 V vs. MSE although significant amount of surface Pt atoms are covered by the overlayer Au clusters. The much enhanced catalytic activity can be ascribed to a Pt surface ensemble effect, which induces change of the reaction path. Moreover, the sub-monolayer Au coating on the surface also contributes to the enhanced catalyst durability by inhibiting the Pt oxidation. These results show great potential to rationally design more active and stable nanocatalysts by modifying the Pt surface with otherwise inactive materials.

  19. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  20. Suspecting Neurological Dysfunction From E Mail Messages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A non medical person suspected and confirmed neurological dysfunction in an individual, based only on e mail messages sent by the individual. With email communication becoming rampant “peculiar” email messages may raise the suspicion of neurological dysfunction. Organic pathology explaining the abnormal email ...

  1. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat in broilers.

  2. Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition on fatty acid molecular and isotope composition of above- and belowground tree biomass and forest soil fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Eglinton, Timothy I; Hagedorn, Frank; Schmidt, Michael W I; Wiesenberg, Guido L B

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and reactive nitrogen (N) concentrations have been increasing due to human activities and impact the global carbon (C) cycle by affecting plant photosynthesis and decomposition processes in soil. Large amounts of C are stored in plants and soils, but the mechanisms behind the stabilization of plant- and microbial-derived organic matter (OM) in soils are still under debate and it is not clear how N deposition affects soil OM dynamics. Here, we studied the effects of 4 years of elevated (13C-depleted) CO2 and N deposition in forest ecosystems established in open-top chambers on composition and turnover of fatty acids (FAs) in plants and soils. FAs served as biomarkers for plant- and microbial-derived OM in soil density fractions. We analyzed above- and belowground plant biomass of beech and spruce trees as well as soil density fractions for the total organic C and FA molecular and isotope (δ13C) composition. FAs did not accumulate relative to total organic C in fine mineral fractions, showing that FAs are not effectively stabilized by association with soil minerals. The δ13C values of FAs in plant biomass increased under high N deposition. However, the N effect was only apparent under elevated CO2 suggesting a N limitation of the system. In soil fractions, only isotope compositions of short-chain FAs (C16+18) were affected. Fractions of 'new' (experimental-derived) FAs were calculated using isotope depletion in elevated CO2 plots and decreased from free light to fine mineral fractions. 'New' FAs were higher in short-chain compared to long-chain FAs (C20-30), indicating a faster turnover of short-chain compared to long-chain FAs. Increased N deposition did not significantly affect the quantity of 'new' FAs in soil fractions, but showed a tendency of increased amounts of 'old' (pre-experimental) C suggesting that decomposition of 'old' C is retarded by high N inputs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Kinetic study of formic acid oxidation on Ti/IrO{sub 2} electrodes prepared using the spin coating deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.fierro@epfl.c [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ISIC-EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Comninellis, Christos [Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ISIC-EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-09-30

    In the first part of this paper, IrO{sub 2} electrodes produced by thermal decomposition of H{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} precursor were manufactured using the spin coating deposition technique, where centrifugal forces spread the precursor solution with simultaneous evaporation of the solvent on the rotating Ti substrate. It was found using this technique, that it is possible to obtain thin and uniform IrO{sub 2} coatings with controlled loadings. The influence of the concentration of iridium salt in the precursor solution (c{sub 0}) as well as the influence of the rotation speed at which the substrate spins ({omega}) on the IrO{sub 2} loading have been studied using voltammetric charge measurements. From these results, a simple relation has been proposed for the estimation of the IrO{sub 2} loading for a given c{sub 0} and {omega}. In the second part of this paper and from measurements performed using different IrO{sub 2} loadings and formic acid concentrations, the kinetic parameters of the oxidation of formic acid have been quantitatively determined using a model that involves the redox couple IrO{sub 3}/IrO{sub 2} as mediator of this reaction. Furthermore, using the kinetic parameters obtained together with the Nernst equation and the I-V curves of the supporting electrolyte (1 M HClO{sub 4}), theoretical I-V curves could be constructed for different concentrations of formic acid and different IrO{sub 2} loadings.

  4. Suspects in criminal investigations of rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of sexual assaults mostly focus on victims and their credibility, which may cause lack of firm evidence in relation to suspects. Given the fact that the criminal offence of rape is characterised by a high incidence of false reports and accusations, frequently indicating specific persons as the perpetrators, certain caution is necessary in the investigation in order to avoid false accusations and/or convictions. As regards the personality of the rapist and motives for committing a forcible sexual act, certain types or rather certain categories of perpetrators can be distinguished, although it should be noted that a large number of rapists do not belong to one category only, but rather combine characteristics of several different types. During a criminal investigation it is of vital importance to differentiate between a rape as a surprise attack and a rape as abuse of trust, as they are compatible with the nature of the suspect's defence. The suspect shall be subjected to a forensic examination in the course of the investigation in order to find traces which prove vaginal, anal or oral penetration, coerced sexual intercourse and identity of the rapist. While conducting an interrogation of a suspected rapist, a crime investigating officer shall use either factual or emotional approach to his interviewee, depending on his psychological and motivational characteristics. In this regard, the factual approach is believed to be more efficient with anger rapists and sadistic rapists, whereas the compassionate approach gives good results with the gentlemen-rapists and partly with the power asserting rapists.

  5. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on translocation of 42K deposited on leaves of lettuce and maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamel, A.

    1975-01-01

    2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) applied in solution (10μg per plant) on a leaf of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa, cv. Grosse Blonde Paresseuse) decreases the translocation of 42 K from the treated leaf, both in pretreatment and in simultaneous action if the interval of time was sufficiently long between the foliar applications. The metabolic action of 2,4-D seemed to proceed in the treated leaf. The results may be explainded by stimulation of metabolic activity and consequently of retention, already observed by several authors, with 2,4-D and other phytohormones. 2,4-D had not a comparable effect on the translocation of 42 K from the leaves of maize plants (Zea mays Dekalb 202) even if the amount applied was higher and the duration of the pretreatment more significant. However, for this species slight stimulation with 2,4-D of the retention of 42 K in the sheath of the treated leaf was observed. The results obtained with lettuce and maize might fit to the pattern of selectivity found for other aspects of the metabolism. (author)

  6. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  7. Early diagnosis of dengue virus infection in clinically suspected cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, N.K.; Ahmed, S.; Ali, N.; Khan, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparison of real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for diagnosis of dengue virus infection in first week of illness in clinically suspected patients of dengue fever. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi from Jan 2013 to Nov 2013. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study including 68 clinically suspected patients of dengue fever according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. IgM capture ELISA and RT PCR for dengue virus ribonucleic acid (RNA) was performed on samples collected from patients having fever for 1 to 7 days. These were divided into two groups. Patients in group 1 presented with fever of 4 days or less, patients in group 2 had fever of 5 to 7 days duration. Results: In group 1, 72 percent of the patients were positive by RT PCR while 31 percent were positive by IgM capture ELISA. In group 2, 43 percent of the patients were positive by RT PCR while 97 percent were positive by ELISA. Conclusion: RT PCR can be used for early detection of dengue virus infection in the first few days of fever while IgM ELISA is diagnostic afterwards. (author)

  8. Magnetic resonance angiography in suspected cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, Philippe; De Ruyter, Nele; Wilms, Guido; Maes, Frederik; Velghe, Beatrijs

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the technical capacity and diagnostic accuracy of 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in suspected cerebral vasculitis in a retrospective analysis of MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 14 young patients with clinical and/or radiological suspicion of cerebral vasculitis. A total of nine arteries were evaluated in each patient. Consensus review of DSA by three observers was the reference standard. The sensitivity for detecting a stenosis varied from 62 to 79% for MRA and from 76 to 94% for DSA, depending on the observer. The specificity for detecting a stenosis varied from 83 to 87% for MRA and from 83 to 97% for DSA. Using the criterion ''more than two stenoses in at least two separate vascular distributions'' to consider the examination as being true positive, the false-positive rates for MRA and DSA were comparable. MRA plays a role as the first angiographical examination in the diagnostic work-up of suspected cerebral vasculitis. When more than two stenoses in at least two separate vascular distributions are depicted on MRA, DSA is not expected to add a significant diagnostic contribution in a patient with suspected cerebral vasculitis. DSA remains necessary when MRA is normal or when less than three stenoses are seen. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic resonance angiography in suspected cerebral vasculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, Philippe; De Ruyter, Nele; Wilms, Guido [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis, KU Leuven, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Maes, Frederik [Department of Medical Imaging Computing, Universitair Ziekenhuis, KU Leuven, 3000, Leuven (Belgium); Velghe, Beatrijs [Department of Radiology, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Schiepse Bos 6, 3600, Genk (Belgium)

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the technical capacity and diagnostic accuracy of 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in suspected cerebral vasculitis in a retrospective analysis of MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in 14 young patients with clinical and/or radiological suspicion of cerebral vasculitis. A total of nine arteries were evaluated in each patient. Consensus review of DSA by three observers was the reference standard. The sensitivity for detecting a stenosis varied from 62 to 79% for MRA and from 76 to 94% for DSA, depending on the observer. The specificity for detecting a stenosis varied from 83 to 87% for MRA and from 83 to 97% for DSA. Using the criterion ''more than two stenoses in at least two separate vascular distributions'' to consider the examination as being true positive, the false-positive rates for MRA and DSA were comparable. MRA plays a role as the first angiographical examination in the diagnostic work-up of suspected cerebral vasculitis. When more than two stenoses in at least two separate vascular distributions are depicted on MRA, DSA is not expected to add a significant diagnostic contribution in a patient with suspected cerebral vasculitis. DSA remains necessary when MRA is normal or when less than three stenoses are seen. (orig.)

  10. Early infant adipose deposition is positively associated with the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in human milk independent of maternal BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M C; Young, B E; Lemas, D J; Palmer, C E; Hernandez, T L; Barbour, L A; Friedman, J E; Krebs, N F; MacLean, P S

    2017-04-01

    Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-month of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased threefold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBCs) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2 weeks and 4 months postpartum. Forty-eight infants from normal weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) mothers were exclusively or predominantly breastfed over the first 4 months of lactation. Mid-feed HM and maternal RBC were collected at either transitional (2 weeks) or established (4 months) lactation, along with infant body composition assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. The FA composition of HM and maternal RBC was measured quantitatively by lipid mass spectrometry. In transitional and established HM, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was lower (P=0.008; 0.005) and the arachidonic acid (AA)/DHA+eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio was higher (P=0.05; 0.02) in the OB relative to the NW group. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and AA/DHA+EPA ratios in transitional and established HM were moderately correlated (P=0.018; 0.001). Total infant fat mass was increased in the upper AA/DHA+EPA tertile of established HM relative to the lower tertile (P=0.019). The amount of changes in infant fat mass and percentage of body fat were predicted by AA/EPA+DHA ratios in established HM (P=0.038; 0.010). Perinatal infant exposures to a high AA/EPA+DHA ratio during the first 4 months of life, which is primarily reflective of maternal dietary FA, may significantly contribute to

  11. Effects of acid deposition on dissolution of carbonate stone during summer storms in the Adirondack Mountains, New York, 1987-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Paul F.; Reddy, Michael M.; Sherwood, S.I.

    1994-01-01

    This study is part of a long-term research program designed to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone. Acidic deposition accelerates the dissolution of carbonate-stone monuments and building materials. Sequential sampling of runoff from carbonate-stone (marble) and glass (reference) microcatchments in the Adirondack Mountains in New York State provided a detailed record of the episodic fluctuations in rain rate and runoff chemistry during individual summer storms. Rain rate and chemical concentrations from carbonate-stone and glass runoff fluctuated three to tenfold during storms. Net calcium-ion concentrations from the carbonatestone runoff, a measure of stone dissolution, typically fluctuated twofold during these storms. High net sulfate and net calcium concentrations in the first effective runoff at the start of a storm indicated that atmospheric pollutants deposited on the stone surface during dry periods formed calcium sulfate minerals, an important process in carbonate stone dissolution. Dissolution of the carbonate stone generally increased up to twofold during coincident episodes of low rain rate (less than 5 millimeters per hour) and decreased rainfall (glass runoff) pH (less than 4.0); episodes of high rain rate (cloudbursts) were coincident with a rapid increase in rainfall pH and also a rapid decrease in the dissolution of carbonate-stone. During a storm, it seems the most important factors causing increased dissolution of carbonate stone are coincident periods of low rain rate and decreased rainfall pH. Dissolution of the carbonate stone decreased slightly as the rain rate exceeded about 5 millimeters per hour, probably in response to rapidly increasing rainfall pH during episodes of high rain rate and shorter contact time between the runoff and the stone surface. High runoff rates resulting from cloudbursts remove calcium sulfate minerals formed during dry periods prior to storms and also remove dissolution products formed in large

  12. Physicochemical aspects of decomposition of silica-alumina ores of argillites and green clays of Chashma-Sang Deposit of the Republic of Tajikistan by hydrochloric and nitric acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayumov, A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of work is to study the processes of decomposition of silica-alumina ores of argillites and green clays of Chashma-Sang Deposit of the Republic of Tajikistan by hydrochloric and nitric acids in temperature interval 20-98 deg C with the using of methods of selective extraction of valuable materials; elaboration of rational conditions of decomposition of raw material. Physicochemical properties of initial aluminium comprising ores, intermediate and final products of processing of argillites and green clays have been studied. Kinetic parameters of processes at acidic decomposition of argillites and green clays have been studied as well. The kinetic parameters of processes of decomposition of green clays and argillites by nitric and hydrochloric acids have been calculated. The flowsheet of complex processing of green clays and argillites of Chashma-Sang Deposit has been elaborated.

  13. Vascular factors in suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerskov, Simon; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Silke; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined clinical and imaging findings of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in relation to vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs), using a nested case-control design in a representative, population-based sample. Methods: From a population-based sample, 1,235 persons aged 70 years or older were examined with CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000. We identified 55 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., radiologic findings consistent with iNPH. Among these, 26 had clinical signs that fulfilled international guideline criteria for probable iNPH. These cases were labeled suspected iNPH. Each case was matched to 5 controls from the same sample, based on age, sex, and study cohort. Data on risk factors were obtained from clinical examinations and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, overweight, history of coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, and WMLs on CT were examined. Risk factors associated with iNPH with a p value <0.1 in χ2 tests were included in conditional logistic regression models. Results: In the regression analyses, suspected iNPH was related to moderate to severe WMLs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–17.6), while hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was related to hypertension (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.8), moderate to severe WMLs (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 2.1–20.3), and DM (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1–16.3). Conclusions: Hypertension, WMLs, and DM were related to clinical and imaging features of iNPH, suggesting that vascular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology. These findings might have implications for understanding disease mechanisms in iNPH and possibly prevention. PMID:26773072

  14. Mechanisms of callose deposition in rice regulated by exogenous abscisic acid and its involvement in rice resistance to Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinglan; Du, Haitao; Ding, Xu; Zhou, Yaodong; Xie, Pengfei; Wu, Jincai

    2017-12-01

    Callose is a plant cell wall polysaccharide controlled by β-1,3-glucanase and synthase. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important plant hormone. Exogenous ABA promotes rice resistance to pests. Whether exogenous ABA could reduce the decline in rice yield after brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) feeding is an important question, however, the mechanisms behind rice resistance induced by ABA remain obscure. Electronic penetration graph (EPG) recording indicated a significant increase in rice resistance to BPH, and the number of BPH eggs decreased significantly upon application of exogenous ABA. As the concentration of ABA increased, the reduction in rice yield decreased significantly after BPH feeding. Further studies showed that β-1,3-glucanase activity was significantly lower, but synthase activity was higher after ABA treatment than in controls. Our results demonstrated that exogenous ABA suppressed β-1,3-glucanase and induced synthase activity, and promoted callose deposition. This is an important defense mechanism that prevents BPH from ingesting phloem sap. These studies provide support for an insect-resistance mechanism after ABA treatment and provide a reference for the integrated management of other piercing-sucking pests. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Radiation induced deposition of copper nanoparticles inside the nanochannels of poly(acrylic acid)-grafted poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Güven, Olgun; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Atıcı, Ayse Bakar; Gorin, Yevgeniy G.; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, track-etched membranes (TeMs) with 400 nm average pore size were UV-grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) after oxidation of inner surfaces by H2O2/UV system. Carboxylate groups of grafted PAA chains were easily complexed with Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions. These ions were converted into metallic copper nanoparticles (NPs) by radiation-induced reduction of copper ions in aqueous-alcohol solution by gamma rays in the dose range of 46-250 kGy. Copper ions chelating with -COOH groups of PAA chains grafted on PET TeMs form polymer-metal ion complex that prevent the formation of agglomerates during reduction of copper ions to metallic nanoparticles. The detailed analysis by X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) confirmed the deposition of copper nanoparticles with the average size of 70 nm on the inner surface of nanochannels of PET TeMs. Samples were also investigated by FTIR, ESR spectroscopies to follow copper ion reduction.

  16. Nuclear Pedigree Criteria of Suspected HNPCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kładny Józef

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The criteria for the diagnosis of HNPCC established by the ICG-HNPCC are very restrictive as they do not allow for the diagnosis of a large number of "suspected HNPCC" cases - these are families which do no fulfill the strict diagnostic "Amsterdam criteria", but do present with several pedigree and clinical features characteristic for HNPCC. Several series of families suspected of harboring germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes have been studied for germline changes in DNA mismatch repair genes and a mutation rate of somewhere between 8-60% was found. Therefore a subgroup of members of the ICG-HNPCC has been working on pedigree/clinical diagnostic criteria for suspected HNPCC. Materials and methods Part I The study was based on two series of colorectal cancer (CRC cases: 1 HNPCC - this group comprised 190 patients affected by CRC from randomly selected families which fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria registered in Düsseldorf, Germany (102 cases of CRC, Denmark (18 CRCs, Leiden, Holland (23 CRCs and Szczecin, Poland (47 CRCs. 2 Consecutive CRCs - this group comprised 629 (78.0% of 806 individuals with CRC diagnosed in 1991-1997 in the city of Szczecin (ca. 400,000 of inhabitants, Poland. Nuclear pedigrees in both groups were compared for frequency of occurrence of clinical features, that have been shown to be associated with HNPCC. Part II 52 consecutive CRC cases from Szczecin, matching the criteria recognized in part I as appropriate for diagnosis of cases "suspected of HNPCC" were studied for the occurrence of germline hMSH2/hMLH1 constitutional mutations using "exon by exon" sequencing. Results The combination of features - i.e. the occurrence of an HNPCC associated cancer (CRC or cancer of the endometrium, small bowel or urinary tract in a 1st degree relative of a CRC patient; at least one of the patients being diagnosed under age of 50 - appeared to be strongly associated to HNPCC with an OR - 161. Constitutional

  17. International Suspect Screening: NORMAN Suspect Exchange meets the US EPA CompTox Chemistry Dashboard (ICCE 2017 Oslo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Members of the European NORMAN Network of Environmental Laboratories (www.norman-network.com) have many substance lists, including targets, suspects, surfactants, perfluorinated substances and regulated, partially confidential data sets of complex mixtures. The NORMAN Suspect Lis...

  18. The response of gene expression associated with lipid metabolism, fat deposition and fatty acid profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Gannan yaks to different energy levels of diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    Full Text Available The energy available from the diet, which affects fat deposition in vivo, is a major factor in the expression of genes regulating fat deposition in the longissimus dorsi muscle. Providing high-energy diets to yaks might increase intramuscular fat deposition and fatty acid concentrations under a traditional grazing system in cold seasons. A total of fifteen adult castrated male yaks with an initial body weight 274.3 ± 3.14 kg were analyzed for intramuscular adipose deposition and fatty acid composition. The animals were divided into three groups and fed low-energy (LE: 5.5 MJ/kg, medium-energy (ME: 6.2 MJ/kg and high-energy (HE: 6.9 MJ/kg diets, respectively. All animals were fed ad libitum twice daily at 08:00-09:00 am and 17:00-18:00 pm and with free access to water for 74 days, including a 14-d period to adapt to the diets and the environment. Intramuscular fat (IMF content, fatty acid profile and mRNA levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were determined. The energy levels of the diets significantly (P<0.05 affected the content of IMF, total SFA, total MUFA and total PUFA. C16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n9c account for a large proportion of total fatty acids. Relative expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA, fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4 was greater in HE than in LE yaks (P<0.05. Moreover, ME yaks had higher (P<0.05 mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, ACACA, FASN, SCD and FABP4 than did the LE yaks. The results demonstrate that the higher energy level of the diets increased IMF deposition and fatty acid content as well as increased intramuscular lipogenic gene expression during the experimental period.

  19. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  20. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by CuInS2 nanoparticles deposition onto TiO2 nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ronghua; Liu Yutang; Liu Chengbin; Luo Shenglian; Teng Yarong; Yang Lixia; Yang Renbin; Cai Qingyun

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The photocatalytic application of CuInS 2 with a direct band gap of about 1.5 eV and a high absorption coefficient remains unknown. → We describe an impulse electrodeposition approach to deposit CuInS 2 nanoparticles in uniform size of about 20 nm onto the top surface of the highly oriented TiO 2 NT arrays while minimizing the clogging of the tube entrances. → The novel photocatalyst exhibits a highly visible-light photocatalytic degradation activity for the target organic pollutant. → Moreover, the stability of the modified TiO 2 NT is good. → Therefore, CuInS 2 nanoparticles modified TiO 2 NT photocatalysts have potential utility in practical purification of organic wastewater. - Abstract: Surface modification of TiO 2 nanotube (NT) arrays with CuInS 2 nanoparticles (NPs) for photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was reported. A pulse electrodeposition technique was used to prepare the CuInS 2 NPs, and the resulted CuInS 2 NPs, with a uniform size of about 20 nm, were found to deposit on the top surface of the highly oriented TiO 2 NT while without clogging the tube entrances. Compared with the unmodified TiO 2 NT, the CuInS 2 NPs modified TiO 2 NT (CuInS 2 -TiO 2 NT) showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity towards 2,4-D under visible light. After 160 min irradiation, the removal rate of 2,4-D is 100% by using CuInS 2 -TiO 2 NT, much higher than 65.2% by using the unmodified TiO 2 NT in photoelectrocatalytic process. The increased photodegradation efficiency mainly results from the improved photocurrent density as results of enhanced visible-light absorption and decreased hole-electron recombination due to the presence of narrow-band-gap p-type semiconductor CuInS 2 .

  1. Believable Suspect Agents: Response and Interpersonal Style Selection for an Artificial Suspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnes, Merijn

    2016-01-01

    The social skills necessary to properly and successfully conduct a police interrogation can and need to be trained. In the thesis I will describe the steps I took towards a virtual character that can play the role of a suspect in a police interrogation training. Students of the police academy will

  2. Nonlinear optical studies on 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, Andreea [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Marinescu, Maria, E-mail: maria.marinescu@chimie.unibuc.ro [UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, Catalin, E-mail: catalin.constantinescu@inflpr.ro [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ion, Valentin; Mitu, Bogdana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Ionita, Iulian [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 405 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Dinescu, Maria [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); Emandi, Ana [INFLPR - National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele RO-077125, Bucharest (Romania); UB - University of Bucharest, Faculty of Chemistry, 90-92 Şoseaua Panduri, Sector 5, RO-010184, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-06-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A newly synthesized ferrocene-derivative exhibits SHG potential. • Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation is employed for thin film fabrication. • The optical properties of the films are investigated, presented and discussed. • At maximum laser output power, the SHG signal is strongly influenced by thin film thickness. - Abstract: We present results on a new, laboratory synthesized ferrocene-derivative, i.e. 4-(ferrocenylmethylimino)-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Thin films with controlled thickness are deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE), on quartz and silicon substrates, with the aim of evaluating the nonlinear optical properties for potential optoelectronic applications. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used as matrix, with 1% wt. concentration of the guest compound. The frozen target is irradiated by using a Nd:YAG laser (4ω/266 nm, 7 ns pulse duration, 10 Hz repetition rate), at low fluences ranging from 0.1 to 1 J/cm{sup 2}. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to probe the surface morphology of the films. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy reveal similar structure of the thin film material when compared to the starting material. The optical properties of the thin films are investigated by spectroscopic-ellipsometry (SE), and the refractive index dependence with respect to temperature is studied. The second harmonic generation (SHG) potential is assessed by using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800 nm, 60–100 fs pulse duration, 80 MHz repetition rate), at 200 mW maximum output power, revealing that the SHG signal intensity is strongly influenced by the films’ thickness.

  3. Exome Sequencing in Suspected Monogenic Dyslipidemias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitziel, Nathan O.; Peloso, Gina M.; Abifadel, Marianne; Cefalu, Angelo B.; Fouchier, Sigrid; Motazacker, M. Mahdi; Tada, Hayato; Larach, Daniel B.; Awan, Zuhier; Haller, Jorge F.; Pullinger, Clive R.; Varret, Mathilde; Rabès, Jean-Pierre; Noto, Davide; Tarugi, Patrizia; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Nohara, Atsushi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Risman, Marjorie; Deo, Rahul; Ruel, Isabelle; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Wilson, James G.; Rich, Stephen S.; Gupta, Namrata; Farlow, Deborah N.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Daly, Mark J.; Kane, John P.; Freeman, Mason W.; Genest, Jacques; Rader, Daniel J.; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Kastelein, John J.P.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Averna, Maurizio R.; Gabriel, Stacey; Boileau, Catherine; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2015-01-01

    Background Exome sequencing is a promising tool for gene mapping in Mendelian disorders. We utilized this technique in an attempt to identify novel genes underlying monogenic dyslipidemias. Methods and Results We performed exome sequencing on 213 selected family members from 41 kindreds with suspected Mendelian inheritance of extreme levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (after candidate gene sequencing excluded known genetic causes for high LDL cholesterol families) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. We used standard analytic approaches to identify candidate variants and also assigned a polygenic score to each individual in order to account for their burden of common genetic variants known to influence lipid levels. In nine families, we identified likely pathogenic variants in known lipid genes (ABCA1, APOB, APOE, LDLR, LIPA, and PCSK9); however, we were unable to identify obvious genetic etiologies in the remaining 32 families despite follow-up analyses. We identified three factors that limited novel gene discovery: (1) imperfect sequencing coverage across the exome hid potentially causal variants; (2) large numbers of shared rare alleles within families obfuscated causal variant identification; and (3) individuals from 15% of families carried a significant burden of common lipid-related alleles, suggesting complex inheritance can masquerade as monogenic disease. Conclusions We identified the genetic basis of disease in nine of 41 families; however, none of these represented novel gene discoveries. Our results highlight the promise and limitations of exome sequencing as a discovery technique in suspected monogenic dyslipidemias. Considering the confounders identified may inform the design of future exome sequencing studies. PMID:25632026

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peige Song

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has become a serious public health problem worldwide; however, the availability of information on the prevalence of NAFLD in the general pediatric population is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to reveal the prevalence and correlates of suspected NAFLD in Chinese children at the national level. Data from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys (CHNS was used. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure (BP were measured for children aged 7–18 years. Blood samples were collected and analyzed. Children were classified as having suspected NAFLD if common causes of liver disease were excluded, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were above the established thresholds (>22.1 IU/L for girls and >25.8 IU/L for boys. A percentage of 9.03% (75 out of 831 of Chinese children was found to have suspected NAFLD. Overweight and obesity according to BMI percentiles, abdominal obesity, hyperuricemia (uric acid (UA > 327 μmol/L, and elevated total cholesterol (TC were all detected as the correlates of childhood suspected NAFLD when adjusting for other factors. Our study revealed the prevalence of suspected NAFLD in general Chinese children at the national level for the first time. Our findings indicate that suspected NAFLD in children is associated with increasing childhood morbidities, further studies are needed to better understand the prevalence of childhood NAFLD and its correlates, and large-scale programs should be launched to screen NAFLD in the pediatric population in China.

  5. Deposition of acidifying compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.; Cape, J.N.; Sutton, M.A.; Mourne, R.; Hargreaves, K.J.; Duyzer, J.H.; Gallagher, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    Inputs of acidifying compounds to terrestrial ecosystems include deposition of the gases NO 2 , NO, HNO 2 , HNO 3 , NH 3 and SO 2 and the ions NO 3- , NH 4+ , SO 4 2- and H + in precipitation, cloud droplets and particles. Recent research has identified particular ecosystems and regions in which terrestrial effects are closely linked with specific deposition processes. This review paper identifies areas in which important developments have occurred during the last five years and attempts to show which aspects of the subject are most important for policy makers. Amongst the conclusions drawn, the authors advise that current uncertainties in estimates of S and N inputs by dry deposition should be incorporated in critical load calculations, and that, in regions dominated by wet deposition, spatial resolution of total inputs should be improved to match the current scales of information on landscape sensitivity to acidic inputs. 44 refs., 9 figs

  6. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  7. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  8. Lineup composition, suspect position, and the sequential lineup advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A; Gronlund, Scott D; Clark, Steven E

    2008-06-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate in the simultaneous lineup, and no sequential lineup advantage was found. This led the authors to hypothesize that protection from a sequential lineup might emerge only when an innocent suspect stands out from the other lineup members. In Experiment 2, participants viewed a simultaneous or sequential lineup with either the guilty suspect or 1 of 3 innocent suspects. Lineup fairness was varied to influence the degree to which a suspect stood out. A sequential lineup advantage was found only for the unfair lineups. Additional analyses of suspect position in the sequential lineups showed an increase in the diagnosticity of suspect identifications as the suspect was placed later in the sequential lineup. These results suggest that the sequential lineup advantage is dependent on lineup composition and suspect position. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  9. [Quantitative evaluation of printing accuracy and tissue surface adaptation of mandibular complete denture polylactic acid pattern fabricated by fused deposition modeling technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, K H; Wang, Y; Chen, H; Zhao, Y J; Zhou, Y S; Sun, Y C

    2017-06-09

    Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the adaptation of polylactic acid (PLA) pattern of mandibular complete denture fabricated by fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology. Methods: A mandibular complete denture digital model was designed through a complete denture design software based on a pair of standard maxillomandibular edentulous plaster model and their occlusion bases. Ten PLA mandibular complete dentures were printed with a FDM machine. The dentures were scanned with and without the plaster model using a three-dimensional (3D) scanner. In Geomagic software, the scanning data of printed dentures were registered to its computer aided design (CAD) data, and the printing error was analyzed using the multipoint registration command. For quantitatively evaluating the adaptation of the denture, the data of plaster model and PLA denture were registered to the whole data of denture located in the plaster model using the best-fit alignment command, the 3D deviation of the plaster model and tissue surface of the denture represent the space between them. The overall area was separated into three parts: primary stress-bearing area, secondary stress-bearing area and border seal area, and the average deviations of these three parts were measured. The values were analyzed using analysis of variance. Results: Compared with the CAD data, the printing error was (0.013±0.004) mm. The overall 3D deviation between PLA denture and plaster model was (0.164±0.033) mm, in which the primary stress-bearing area was (0.165± 0.045) mm, the secondary stress-bearing area was (0.153 ± 0.027) mm, the border seal area was (0.186 ± 0.043) mm. These showed a good fit in the majority parts of the FDM denture to the plaster model. No statistically significant difference was observed between the three areas ( F =1.857, P =0.175>0.05). Conclusions: Combined with the 3D scanning, CAD and FDM technology, a FDM 3D printing process of complete denture for injection moulding can be established

  10. Properties of Pt/C catalyst modified by chemical vapor deposition of Cr as a cathode of phosphoric acid fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang Joon; Joh, Han-Ik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Moon, Sang Heup

    2006-01-01

    Cr-modified Pt/C catalysts were prepared by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of Cr on Pt/C, and their performance as a cathode of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) was compared with the case of catalysts containing Cr added by impregnation (IMP). The catalyst prepared by CVD showed a higher activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than one prepared by IMP. There was an optimum amount of Cr that yielded the maximum mass activity of the catalyst because the gain in the intrinsic activity due to the promotional effect of Cr was counterbalanced by the loss of exposed Pt surface area as a result of the Cr introduction. Nevertheless, the activity increase at the optimum amount of Cr was greater for the CVD catalyst than for the IMP catalyst. Also, the optimum amount of Cr to yield the maximum activity was smaller for the former catalyst [Cr/Pt] CVD = 0.6, than for the latter, [Cr/Pt] IMP = 1.0. The enhancement of the Pt catalyst activity by Cr addition is attributed to two factors: changes in the surface Pt-Pt spacing and the electronic modification of the Pt surface. The formation of a Pt-Cr alloy, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction, decreased the lattice parameter of Pt, which was beneficial to the catalyst activity for ORR. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the binding energies of Pt electrons were shifted to higher energies due to Cr modification. Accordingly, the electron density of Pt was lowered and the Pt-O bond became weak on the Cr-modified catalysts, which was also beneficial to the catalyst activity for ORR. The promotion of oxygen reduction on Cr-modified catalysts was confirmed by measuring the cyclic voltammograms of the catalysts. All the above changes were made more effectively for catalysts prepared by CVD than for those prepared by IMP because the former method allowed Cr to interact more closely with the Pt surface than the latter, which was demonstrated by the characterization of catalysts in this study

  11. Bioelectric and Morphological Response of Liquid-Covered Human Airway Epithelial Calu-3 Cell Monolayer to Periodic Deposition of Colloidal 3-Mercaptopropionic-Acid Coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS Core-Multishell Quantum Dots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizat Turdalieva

    Full Text Available Lung epithelial cells are extensively exposed to nanoparticles present in the modern urban environment. Nanoparticles, including colloidal quantum dots (QDs, are also considered to be potentially useful carriers for the delivery of drugs into the body. It is therefore important to understand the ways of distribution and the effects of the various types of nanoparticles in the lung epithelium. We use a model system of liquid-covered human airway epithelial Calu-3 cell cultures to study the immediate and long-term effects of repeated deposition of colloidal 3-mercaptopropionic-acid coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell QDs on the lung epithelial cell surface. By live confocal microscope imaging and by QD fluorescence measurements we show that the QD permeation through the mature epithelial monolayers is very limited. At the time of QD deposition, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER of the epithelial monolayers transiently decreased, with the decrement being proportional to the QD dose. Repeated QD deposition, once every six days for two months, lead to accumulation of only small amounts of the QDs in the cell monolayer. However, it did not induce any noticeable changes in the long-term TEER and the molecular morphology of the cells. The colloidal 3-mercaptopropionic-acid coated CdSe-CdS/ZnS core-multishell QDs could therefore be potentially used for the delivery of drugs intended for the surface of the lung epithelia during limited treatment periods.

  12. The clinical course of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, E. J.; Kuijer, P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Brandjes, D. P.; Bossuyt, P. M.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism is known to a limited extent only. OBJECTIVE: To address this limited knowledge in a cohort in whom pulmonary embolism was proved or ruled out. METHODS: Consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism underwent

  13. 48 CFR 403.303 - Reporting suspected antitrust violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Antitrust Violations 403.303 Reporting suspected antitrust violations. Contracting officers shall report the circumstances of suspected violations of antitrust laws to the Office of Inspector General in accordance with... antitrust violations. 403.303 Section 403.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 48 CFR 1403.303 - Reporting suspected antitrust violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Antitrust Violations 1403.303 Reporting suspected antitrust violations. (a) Reports on suspected violations of antitrust laws as required by FAR 3.303 shall be prepared by the CO, reviewed by the SOL, and... antitrust violations. 1403.303 Section 1403.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  15. Detection of Rabies antigen in brains of suspected Rabid dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To detect the presence of rabies antigen in brains of suspected rabid dogs. Materials and Methods: Ninety six (96) brain specimens from suspected rabid dogs were examined for the presence of rabies antigen using Seller's staining technique and enzyme immunoassay. Results: The two techniques were both ...

  16. Selecting foils for identification lineups: matching suspects or descriptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliff, J L; Clark, S E

    2000-04-01

    Two experiments directly compare two methods of selecting foils for identification lineups. The suspect-matched method selects foils based on their match to the suspect, whereas the description-matched method selects foils based on their match to the witness's description of the perpetrator. Theoretical analyses and previous results predict an advantage for description-matched lineups both in terms of correctly identifying the perpetrator and minimizing false identification of innocent suspects. The advantage for description-matched lineups should be particularly pronounced if the foils selected in suspect-matched lineups are too similar to the suspect. In Experiment 1, the lineups were created by trained police officers, and in Experiment 2, the lineups were constructed by undergraduate college students. The results of both experiments showed higher suspect-to-foil similarity for suspect-matched lineups than for description-matched lineups. However, neither experiment showed a difference in correct or false identification rates. Both experiments did, however, show that there may be an advantage for suspect-matched lineups in terms of no-pick and rejection responses. From these results, the endorsement of one method over the other seems premature.

  17. Arthroscintigraphy in suspected rotator cuff rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratz, S.; Behr, T.; Becker, W.; Koester, G.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of arthroscintigraphy in suspected rotator cuff ruptures this new imaging procedure was performed 20 times in 17 patients with clinical signs of a rotator cuff lesion. The scintigraphic results were compared with sonography (n=20), contrast arthrography (n=20) and arthroscopy (n=10) of the shoulder joint. Methods: After performing a standard bone scintigraphy with intravenous application of 300 MBq 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) for landmarking of the shoulder region arthroscintigraphy was performed after an intraarticular injection of 99m-Tc microcolloid (ALBU-RES 400 μCi/5 ml). The application was performed either in direct combination with contrast arthrography (n=10) or ultrasound conducted mixed with a local anesthetic (n=10). Findings at arthroscopical surgery (n=10) were used as the gold standard. Results: In case of complete rotator cuff rupture (n=5), arthroscintigraphy and radiographic arthrography were identical in 5/5. In one patient with advanced degenerative alterations of the shoulder joint radiographic arthrography incorrectly showed a complete rupture which was not seen by arthroscintigraphy and endoscopy. In 3 patients with incomplete rupture, 2/3 results were consistant. A difference was seen in one patient with a rotator cuff, that has been already revised in the past and that suffered of capsulitis and calcification. Conclusion: Arthroscinitgraphy is a sensitive technique for detection of rotator cuff ruptures. Because of the lower viscosity of the active compound, small ruptures can be easily detected, offering additional value over radiographic arthrography and ultrasound, especially for evaluation of incomplete cuff ruptures. (orig.) [de

  18. Suspected synthetic cannabinoid toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keysa; Wells, Raegan J; McLean, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    To describe the effects of suspected synthetic cannabinoid (SC) toxicosis and the response to intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in a dog. A 2-year-8-month-old male Boxer dog was evaluated at an emergency hospital for progressive ataxia and inappropriate mentation. The initial physical examination identified marked hypothermia (32.7°C [90.9°F]), intermittent sinus bradycardia (60/min), stuporous mentation with intermittent aggression, and severe ataxia. Neurologic status deteriorated to comatose mentation within 2 hours of presentation. The initial diagnostic evaluation (eg, CBC, serum biochemistry profile, venous blood gas, and electrolyte determination) revealed a respiratory acidosis and thrombocytopenia. The owner reported that the dog was exposed to an SC containing Damiana leaf, Marshmallow leaf, and Athaea leaves. Initial treatment included IV fluids and supplemental oxygen. Mechanical ventilation was provided due to hypoventilation and periods of apnea. Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy was administered as a bolus (1.5 mL/kg) and continued as a continuous rate infusion (0.5 mL/kg/h) for a total of 6 hours. The dog became rousable and was weaned from mechanical ventilation approximately 15 hours following presentation. The dog was eating and walking with no ataxia, had a normal mentation at approximately 33 hours following presentation, and was discharged home at that time. Communication with the owners 5 days following discharge revealed that the dog was apparently normal. Based on this case and other reports in the literature regarding human exposures, SC ingestion may result in more severe clinical signs than marijuana ingestion in dogs. Significant clinical intervention may be necessary. Intravenous lipid emulsion treatment may be beneficial due to the lipophilicity of SC. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  19. Exogenous deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous deposits forming as a result of complex exogenous processes, passed under the influence of outside forces on the Earth surface. To them relate physical and chemical weathering, decomposition and decay of mineral masses, redistribution and transportation of material, forming and deposit of new minerals and ores steady on the earth surface conditions

  20. Seasonal variation among tuberculosis suspects in four countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabaera, Biggie; Naranbat, Nymadawa; Katamba, Achilles

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze monthly trends across a calendar year in tuberculosis suspects and sputum smear-positive cases based on nationally representative samples of tuberculosis laboratory registers from Moldova, Mongolia, Uganda and Zimbabwe. Out of the 47 140 suspects registered...... in the tuberculosis laboratory registers, 13.4% (6312) were cases. The proportion varied from country to country, Moldova having the lowest (9%) and Uganda the highest (21%). From the monthly proportion of suspects and cases among total suspects and cases, seasonal variations were most marked in Mongolia which, among...... attendance to diagnostic laboratory services, evidenced by the contrasting findings of Mongolia (extreme continental northern climate) compared to Uganda (equatorial climate). A combination of external and possibly endogenous factors seems to determine whether tuberculosis suspects and cases present...

  1. Spray deposition of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester blend under electric field for improved interface and organic solar cell characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Neha, E-mail: nchaturvedi9@gmail.com; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2016-01-01

    Spray process is used for the deposition of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend film under different voltages (0 V, 300 V, 500 V and 700 V) applied to the nozzle. The presence of the electric field during the spray process makes the P3HT:PCBM film smoother, uniform and more crystalline with well aligned domains. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study shows that PCBM rich surface is formed by application of the DC voltage (700 V) which improves the electron transport at the active layer and cathode interface. The application of electric field reduces the recombination at interfaces. The increased charge carrier separation between donor and acceptor at the interface and the crystallinity enhancement result in improved short circuit current density–voltage characteristics of Indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS) /P3HT:PCBM/Aluminum solar cell. The organic bulk-heterojunction solar cell using the electric field assisted spray deposited PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM layers exhibited 84% and 154% increment in the short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency, respectively in comparison to the solar cell having spray deposited PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM layers in the absence of the electric field. - Highlights: • Spray deposition of P3HT:PCBM is carried out. • Spray deposition under electric field is done. • Electric field application enhanced the crystallinity of the layers. • P3HT:PCBM film arranged in more ordered form with electric field • Efficiency of organic solar cell is enhanced with application of electric field.

  2. Audit of the practice of sputum smear examination for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounder, Shakti; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Khogali, Mohammed; Raikabula, Maopa; Harries, Anthony D

    2013-07-01

    In Fiji, patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) currently submit three sputum specimens for smear microscopy for acid-fast bacilli, but there is little information about how well this practice is carried out. A cross-sectional retrospective review was carried out in all four TB diagnostic laboratories in Fiji to determine among new patients presenting with suspected PTB in 2011: the quality of submitted sputum; the number of sputum samples submitted; the relationship between quality and number of submitted samples to smear-positivity; and positive yield from first, second and third samples. Of 1940 patients with suspected PTB, 3522 sputum samples were submitted: 997 (51.4%) patients submitted one sample, 304 (15.7%) patients submitted two samples and 639 (32.9%) submitted three samples. Sputum quality was recorded in 2528 (71.8%) of samples, of which 1046 (41.4%) were of poor quality. Poor quality sputum was more frequent in females, inpatients and children (0-14 years). Good quality sputum and a higher number of submitted samples positively correlated with smear-positivity for acid-fast bacilli. There were 122 (6.3%) patients with suspected PTB who were sputum smear positive. Of those, 89 had submitted three sputum samples: 79 (89%) were diagnosed based on the first sputum sample, 6 (7%) on the second sample and 4 (4%) on the third sample. This study shows that there are deficiencies in the practice of sputum smear examination in Fiji with respect to sputum quality and recommended number of submitted samples, although the results support the continued use of three sputum samples for TB diagnosis. Ways to improve sputum quality and adherence to recommended guidelines are needed.

  3. Polymer deposition morphology by electrospray deposition - Modifications through distance variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, K.; Schulze, R.-D.; Friedrich, J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospray deposition (ESD) of highly diluted polymers was examined with regard to the deposited surface structure. Only the flight distance (flight time) onto the resulting deposited surface was varied from 20 to 200 mm. An apparatus without any additional heating or gas flows was used. Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and polyallylamine (PAAm) in methanol were deposited on Si wafers. The polymer layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, derivatization reactions and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a grazing incidence unit. SEM images illustrated the changing structures of PAA and PAAm. For PAA the deposited structure changed from a smooth film (20 mm) to a film with individual droplets on the coated surface (100 mm and 200 mm), while for PAAm individual droplets can be seen at all distances. The ESD process with cascades of splitting droplets slows down for PAA after distances greater than 40 mm. In contrast, the ESD process for PAAm is nearly stopped within the first flight distance of 20 mm. Residual solvent analysis showed that most of the solvent evaporated within the first 20 mm capillary-sample distance. - Highlights: • We deposited polyacrylic acid and polyallylamine by electrospray ionization (ESI). • The morphology in dependence of flight distance (20 mm to 200 mm) was analyzed. • The amount of residual solvent after deposition was determined. • ESI-process slows down for polyacrylic acid after 40 mm flight distance. • ESI-Process is complete for polyallylamine within the first 20 mm

  4. Zn–Mn alloy coatings from acidic chloride bath: Effect of deposition conditions on the Zn–Mn electrodeposition-morphological and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukil, N., E-mail: nloukil87@gmail.com; Feki, M.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Zn-Mn co-deposition from an additives-free chloride bath is possible. • Effect of Mn{sup 2+} ion concentration and current density on Zn-Mn electrodeposition and particularly Mn content into Zn-Mn deposits were investigated. • A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the effect of Mn{sup 2+} ion concentration as well as the applied potential on Zn-Mn nucleation process. • Effect of current density on the morphology and structure of Zn-Mn alloys deposits. • A transition from crystalline to amorphous structure may occur in the Mn alloy electrodeposits at high current densities. - Abstract: Zn–Mn alloy electrodeposition on steel electrode in chloride bath was investigated using cyclic voltammetric, chronopotentiometric and chronoamperometric techniques. Cyclic voltammetries (CV) reveal a deep understanding of electrochemical behaviors of each metal Zn, Mn, proton discharge and Zn–Mn co-deposition. The electrochemical results show that with increasing Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration in the electrolytic bath, Mn{sup 2+} reduction occurs at lower over-potential leading to an enhancement of Mn content into the Zn–Mn deposits. A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the effect of Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration on Zn–Mn nucleation process. It was found that the nucleation process is not extremely affected by Mn{sup 2+} concentration. Nevertheless, it significantly depends on the applied potential. Several parameters such as Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration, current density and stirring were investigated with regard to the Mn content into the final Zn–Mn coatings. It was found that the Mn content increases with increasing the applied current density j{sub imp} and Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration in the electrolytic bath. However, stirring of the solution decreases the Mn content in the Zn–Mn coatings. The phase structure and surface morphology of Zn–Mn deposits are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning

  5. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seethalakshmi Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. Aims: This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. Results: 24/68 (35.29% cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8% patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Conclusion: Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  6. Molecular detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi from suspected scrub typhus cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Seethalakshmi; Menon, Thangam

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is under-diagnosed in India, because of low index of suspicion and also due to its nonspecific presentation, and lack of confirmatory diagnostic tests. This study was undertaken to diagnose scrub typhus in patients with undifferentiated fevers by serology and molecular methods. A total of 68 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected to have scrub typhus. After transportation to the laboratory, the serum was separated from the blood and subjected to rapid card test. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were subjected to DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). 24/68 (35.29%) cases showed the presence of antibody against scrub typhus by serology. 6/68 (8.8%) patients showed the presence of outer membrane protein antigen gene 56 kDa by nPCR. 5/24 serology positive cases showed the presence of 56 kDa outer membrane protein antigen gene by nPCR. A large number of cases positive by serology were negative by PCR which may indicate a low sensitivity of this test either due to low copy numbers or due to excess host DNA. Delay in treatment may increase disease severity and leads to higher mortality. Thus, molecular methods of diagnosis may aid in the early diagnosis of infection and enable prompt treatment. This is the first report on the diagnosis of scrub typhus in the suburbs of Chennai using molecular methods and reemphasizes the need for increased awareness of rickettsial infections in rural areas.

  7. Using Internet Artifacts to Profile a Child Pornography Suspect

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus K. Rogers; Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar

    2014-01-01

    Digital evidence plays a crucial role in child pornography investigations. However, in the following case study, the authors argue that the behavioral analysis or “profiling” of digital evidence can also play a vital role in child pornography investigations. The following case study assessed the Internet Browsing History (Internet Explorer Bookmarks, Mozilla Bookmarks, and Mozilla History) from a suspected child pornography user’s computer. The suspect in this case claimed to be conducting an...

  8. Talking heads : interviewing suspects from a cultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Beune, K.

    2009-01-01

    Although the literature on the interviewing of suspects has increased over the past decade, research on the use and effectiveness of police strategies and their boundary conditions is very rare. The present dissertation aims to fill this void by identifying behaviors that appeal to and persuade suspects to talk (i.e., influencing behavior), focusing on the effects of such behaviors and their dependency on cultural context (low-context vs. high-context). In doing so, we depart from a theoretic...

  9. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) Early Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the Early Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. Early and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for eliciting admissions. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The role of Athyrium distentifolium in reduction of soil acidification and base cation losses due to acid deposition in a deforested mountain area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tůma, Ivan; Fiala, Karel; Záhora, J.; Holub, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 354, 1-2 (2012), s. 107-120 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050616; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Ca2+ * Conductivity * Lysimetric water * Nitrogen * pH * Wet deposition Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.638, year: 2012

  11. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883 and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper L. Mfilinge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS, foregut (FG, midgut (MG, hindgut (HG, and faecal pellets (FPs indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, and branched fatty acids (BrFAs were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems.

  12. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  13. Effect of Polyelectrolyte and Fatty Acid Soap on the Formation of CaCO3 in the Bulk and the Deposit on Hard Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Alfredsson, Viveka; Tropsch, Juergen; Ettl, Roland; Nylander, Tommy

    2015-09-30

    The effects of sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA) as well as potassium oleate on the nucleation and calcium carbonate crystal growth on hard surfaces, i.e., stainless steel and silica, have been investigated at different temperatures. The relation between the surface deposition and the corresponding bulk processes has been revealed by combining dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ellipsometry. The aim was to further our understanding of the crystal deposition/growth mechanism and how it can be controlled by the presence of polyelectrolytes (NaPAA) or soap (potassium oleate). The addition of polyelectrolytes (NaPAA) or soap (potassium oleate) decreases the size of CaCO3 particles in bulk solution and affects both crystal structure and morphology in the bulk as well as on hard surfaces. The amount of particles on hard surfaces decreases significantly in the presence of both potassium oleate and NaPAA. This was found to be a consequence of potassium oleate or NaPAA adsorption on the hard surface as well as on the CaCO3 crystal surfaces. Here, the polymer NaPAA exhibited a stronger inhibition effect on the formation and growth of CaCO3 particles than potassium oleate.

  14. FORMATION AND ENANTIOSELECTIVE BIODEGRADATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) is formed by chlorination of drinking waters containing naturally occurring bromide. This haloacetic acid is a concern to public health because of suspected carcinogenicity and toxicity, and is a potential target of disinfectant byproduct regulations...

  15. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs among DUI suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Haukka, Jari; Lintonen, Tomi; Joukamaa, Matti; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2015-10-01

    The study seeks to increase understanding of the use of psychoactive prescription drugs among persons suspected of driving under the influence (DUI). We studied whether the use of prescribed psychoactive medication was associated with DUI, and examined the difference in the use of prescription drugs between DUI recidivists and those arrested only once. In this register-based study, persons suspected of DUI (n=29470) were drawn from the Register of DUI suspects, and an age- and gender-matched reference population (n=30043) was drawn from the Finnish general population. Data on prescription drug use was obtained by linkage to the National Prescription Register. The associations of DUI arrest and use of psychoactive prescription drugs in different DUI groups (findings for alcohol only, prescription drugs, prescription drugs and alcohol, illicit drugs) were estimated by using mixed-effect logistic regression. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs and DUI appeared to be strongly associated, with DUI suspects significantly more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to the reference population. Gender differences existed, with the use of benzodiazepines being more common among female DUI suspects. Moreover, DUI recidivists were more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to those arrested only once. In addition to alcohol and/or illicit drug use, a significant proportion of DUI suspects were using psychoactive prescription drugs. When prescribing psychoactive medication, especially benzodiazepines, physicians are challenged to screen for possible substance use problems and also to monitor for patients' alcohol or illicit drug use while being medicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Book Review: Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nash

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shavers, B. (2013. Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard: Using Digital Forensics and Investigative Techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Waltham, MA: Elsevier, 290 pages, ISBN-978-1-59749-985-9, US$51.56. Includes bibliographical references and index.Reviewed by Detective Corporal Thomas Nash (tnash@bpdvt.org, Burlington Vermont Police Department, Internet Crime against Children Task Force. Adjunct Instructor, Champlain College, Burlington VT.In this must read for any aspiring novice cybercrime investigator as well as the seasoned professional computer guru alike, Brett Shaver takes the reader into the ever changing and dynamic world of Cybercrime investigation.  Shaver, an experienced criminal investigator, lays out the details and intricacies of a computer related crime investigation in a clear and concise manner in his new easy to read publication, Placing the Suspect behind the Keyboard. Using Digital Forensics and Investigative techniques to Identify Cybercrime Suspects. Shaver takes the reader from start to finish through each step of the investigative process in well organized and easy to follow sections, with real case file examples to reach the ultimate goal of any investigation: identifying the suspect and proving their guilt in the crime. Do not be fooled by the title. This excellent, easily accessible reference is beneficial to both criminal as well as civil investigations and should be in every investigator’s library regardless of their respective criminal or civil investigative responsibilities.(see PDF for full review

  17. Distribution of heavy metals in a wood culture water catchment area under the influence of acid deposition as shown by the example of the Soese trough (Western Harz region); Verteilung von Schwermetallen in einem forstlich genutzten Wassereinzugsgebiet unter dem Einfluss saurer Deposition am Beispiel der Soesemulde (Westharz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreae, H. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    This thesis deals with the distribution and turnover of heavy metals in partial terrestrial ecosystems of the water catchment area of the Soese storage dam in the Western Harz region, a forested area affected by acid deposition. The metals investigated are cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. The work distinguishes three spatial areas: Regional heavy metal pollution is characterized via the establishment of nine deposition measuring sites (recent pollutant stress) in the field or under spruce stands and via cadastre-oriented surveying of element contents and accumulations in humus ground covers and mineral soils (historical pollutant stress). In-soil heavy metal turnovers are documented in five representative sites via investigation of the soil solution (years of measurement 1989-1991). In three sites, heavy metal turnovers are quantified via flow balances for the terrestrial ecosystem and the soil zone free of roots. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Verteilung und dem Umsatz von Schwermetallen in terrestrischen Teiloekosystemen des bewaldeten, durch saure Deposition beeinflussten Wassereinzugsgebiets der Soese-Talsperre im Westharz. Untersucht werden die Metalle Cadmium, Chrom, Kobalt, Kupfer, Nickel, Blei und Zink. In der Arbeit werden drei raeumliche Ebenen unterschieden: Die regionale Belastung wird ueber die Einrichtung von neun Depositionsmessstellen [rezente Belastung] im Freiland bzw. unter Fichtenbestaenden sowie ueber eine katasterorientierte Erfassung von Element-Gehalten und -Vorraeten in Humusauflagen und Mineralboeden [historische Belastung] charakterisiert. Die bodeninternen Umsaetze der Schwermetalle werden an fuenf repraesentativen Standorten anhand der Untersuchung der Bodenloesung dokumentiert (Messjahre 1989-1991). An drei Standorten werden die Schwermetall-Umsaetze ueber Flussbilanzen fuer das terrestrische Oekosystem und die undurchwurzelte Bodenzone quantifiziert. (orig.)

  18. Reducing Water Vapor Permeability of Poly(lactic acid Film and Bottle through Layer-by-Layer Deposition of Green-Processed Cellulose Nanocrystals and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Halász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly technique was applied to improve the barrier properties of poly(lactic acid (PLA films and bottles. The LbL process was carried out by the alternate adsorption of chitosan (CH (polycation and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC produced via ultrasonic treatment. Four bilayers (on each side of chitosan and cellulose nanocrystals caused 29 and 26% improvement in barrier properties in case of films and bottles, respectively. According to the results the LbL process with CH and CNC offered a transparent “green” barrier coating on PLA substrates.

  19. Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds: Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp. Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Pallab K.; Kapuscinski, Anne R.; Lanois, Alison J.; Livesey, Erin D.; Bernhard, Katie P.; Coley, Mariah L.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 84-day nutritional feeding experiment with dried whole cells of DHA-rich marine microalga Schizochytrium sp. (Sc) to determine the optimum level of fish-oil substitution (partial or complete) for maximum growth of Nile tilapia. When we fully replaced fish oil with Schizochytrium (Sc100 diet), we found significantly higher weight gain and protein efficiency ratio (PER), and lower (improved) feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake compared to a control diet containing fish oil (Sc0); and no significant change in SGR and survival rate among all diets. The Sc100 diet had the highest contents of 22:6n3 DHA, led to the highest DHA content in fillets, and consequently led to the highest DHA:EPA ratios in tilapia fillets. Schizochytrium sp. is a high quality candidate for complete substitution of fish oil in juvenile Nile tilapia feeds, providing an innovative means to formulate and optimize the composition of tilapia juvenile feed while simultaneously raising feed efficiency of tilapia aquaculture and to further develop environmentally and socially sustainable aquafeeds. Results show that replacing fish oil with DHA-rich marine Sc improves the deposition of n3 LC PUFA levels in tilapia fillet. These results support further studies to lower Schizochytrium production costs and to combine different marine microalgae to replace fish oil and fishmeal into aquafeeds. PMID:27258552

  20. Differential Diagnosis of Children with Suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Heard, Robert; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The gold standard for diagnosing childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is expert judgment of perceptual features. The aim of this study was to identify a set of objective measures that differentiate CAS from other speech disorders. Method: Seventy-two children (4-12 years of age) diagnosed with suspected CAS by community speech-language…

  1. Use of budesonide Turbuhaler in young children suspected of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Nikander, K

    1994-01-01

    The question addressed in this study was the ability of young children to use a dry-powder inhaler, Turbuhaler. One hundred and sixty five children suspected of asthma, equally distributed in one year age-groups from 6 months to 8 yrs, inhaled from a Pulmicort Turbuhaler, 200 micrograms budesonide...

  2. Spatial epidemiology of suspected clinical leptospirosis in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, C; Nelson, T A; Stephen, C

    2012-04-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world. A large outbreak of suspected human leptospirosis began in Sri Lanka during 2008. This study investigated spatial variables associated with suspected leptospirosis risk during endemic and outbreak periods. Data were obtained for monthly numbers of reported cases of suspected clinical leptospirosis for 2005-2009 for all of Sri Lanka. Space-time scan statistics were combined with regression modelling to test associations during endemic and outbreak periods. The cross-correlation function was used to test association between rainfall and leptospirosis at four locations. During the endemic period (2005-2007), leptospirosis risk was positively associated with shorter average distance to rivers and with higher percentage of agriculture made up of farms <0·20 hectares. Temporal correlation analysis of suspected leptospirosis cases and rainfall revealed a 2-month lag in rainfall-case association during the baseline period. Outbreak locations in 2008 were characterized by shorter distance to rivers and higher population density. The analysis suggests the possibility of household transmission in densely populated semi-urban villages as a defining characteristic of the outbreak. The role of rainfall in the outbreak remains to be investigated, although analysis here suggests a more complex relationship than simple correlation.

  3. PMS2 Involvement in Patients Suspected of Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, Renee C.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Westers, Helga; Jager, Paul O. J.; Rozeveld, Dennie; Bos, Krista K.; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Hollema, Harry; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.

    It is well-established that germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 cause Lynch syndrome. However, mutations in these three genes do not account for all Lynch syndrome (suspected) families. Recently, it was shown that germline mutations in another mismatch repair gene,

  4. Correlates and Suspected Causes of Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Theodore, Lea A.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates and suspected causes of the intractable condition obesity are complex and involve environmental and heritable, psychological and physical variables. Overall, the factors associated with and possible causes of it are not clearly understood. Although there exists some ambiguity in the research regarding the degree of happiness in…

  5. 48 CFR 3.303 - Reporting suspected antitrust violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... suspect. Paragraph (c) below identifies behavior patterns that are often associated with antitrust... offers; (2) A sudden change from competitive bidding to identical bidding; (3) Simultaneous price... turn in sequence as low bidder, or so that certain competitors bid low only on some sizes of contracts...

  6. Is extended biopsy protocol justified in all patients with suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the significance of an extended 10-core transrectal biopsy protocol in different categories of patients with suspected prostate cancer using digital guidance. Materials and Methods: We studied 125 men who were being evaluated for prostate cancer. They all had an extended 10-core digitally guided ...

  7. A suspected case of Addison's disease in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambacher, Bianca; Wittek, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A 4.75-year old Simmental cow was presented with symptoms of colic and ileus. The clinical signs and blood analysis resulted in the diagnosis of suspected primary hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease). Although Addison's disease has been frequently described in other domestic mammals, to our knowledge, this disease has not previously been reported in cattle.

  8. Talking heads : interviewing suspects from a cultural perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beune, K.

    2009-01-01

    Although the literature on the interviewing of suspects has increased over the past decade, research on the use and effectiveness of police strategies and their boundary conditions is very rare. The present dissertation aims to fill this void by identifying behaviors that appeal to and persuade

  9. 48 CFR 903.303 - Reporting suspected antitrust violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as described in FAR 3.301, and antitrust law violations as described in FAR 3.303, evidenced in bids... antitrust violations. 903.303 Section 903.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Reports of Suspected Antitrust...

  10. Suspected infection in afebrile patients : Are they septic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, Fernanda de Souza; Guedes, Gisele Giuliane; Santos, Thiago Martins; de Carvalho-Filho, Marco A

    We prospectively evaluated afebrile patients admitted to an emergency department (ED), with suspected infection and only tachycardia or tachypnea.The white blood cell count (WBC) was obtained, and patients were considered septic if leukocyte count was >12,000 μL-1 or <4000 μL-1 or with >10% of band

  11. Cognitive Linguistic Performances of Multilingual University Students Suspected of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…

  12. Lineup Composition, Suspect Position, and the Sequential Lineup Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Curt A.; Gronlund, Scott D.; Clark, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    N. M. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001) argued that sequential lineups reduce the likelihood of mistaken eyewitness identification. Experiment 1 replicated the design of R. C. L. Lindsay and G. L. Wells (1985), the first study to show the sequential lineup advantage. However, the innocent suspect was chosen at a lower rate…

  13. Pathologically confirmed autoimmune encephalitis in suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, P.; de Beukelaar, J.W.; Jansen, C.; Schuur, M.; van Duijn, C.M.; van Coevorden, M.H.; de Graaff, E.; Titulaer, E.; Rozemuller, A.J.M.; Sillevis Smitt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical features and presence in CSF of antineuronal antibodies in patients with pathologically proven autoimmune encephalitis derived from a cohort of patients with suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Methods: The Dutch Surveillance Centre for Prion Diseases

  14. DNA typing from vaginal smear slides in suspected rape cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aparecida da Silva

    Full Text Available In an investigation of suspected rape, proof of sexual assault with penetration is required. In view of this, detailed descriptions of the genitalia, the thighs and pubic region are made within the forensic medical service. In addition, vaginal swabs are taken from the rape victim and some of the biological material collected is then transferred to glass slides. In this report, we describe two rape cases solved using DNA typing from cells recovered from vaginal smear slides. In 1999, two young women informed the Rio de Janeiro Police Department that they had been victims of sexual assaults. A suspect was arrested and the victims identified him as the offender. The suspect maintained that he was innocent. In order to elucidate these crimes, vaginal smear slides were sent to the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory for DNA analysis three months after the crimes, as unique forensic evidence. To get enough epithelial and sperm cells to perform DNA analysis, we used protocols modified from the previously standard protocols used for DNA extraction from biological material fixed on glass slides. The quantity of cells was sufficient to perform human DNA typing using nine short tandem repeat (STR loci. It was 3.3 billion times more probable that it was the examined suspect who had left sperm cells in the victims, rather than any other individual in the population of Rio de Janeiro.

  15. Risk Factors and Bacterial Profile of Suspected Neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal septicaemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and a major health concern. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacterial profile, antibiotics susceptibility pattern and associated risk factors of suspected septicaemia in neonates in this locality. Five hundred and forty seven ...

  16. Is extended biopsy protocol justified in all patients with suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... Objective: To determine the significance of an extended 10-core transrectal biopsy protocol in different categories of patients with suspected prostate cancer using digital guidance. Materials and Methods: We studied 125 men who were being evaluated for prostate cancer. They all had an extended.

  17. Suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in rural South Africa - Sputum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three (125%) of the 24 patients with a discharge diagnosis other than TB (17 pneumonia, 3 old TB, 2 carcinoma of the lung, 1 bronchiectasis) turned out to have TB within the follow-up period; 2 of those had extrapulmonary TB Conclusion, SI produced a positive smear result in 29% of patients with suspected TB who had ...

  18. Comparison of clinically suspected injuries with injuries detected at whole-body CT in suspected multi-trauma victims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, L.; Peachey, T.; Skipper, N.; Adiotomre, E.; Chopra, A.; Marappan, B.; Kotnis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the accuracy of the trauma team leader's clinical suspicion of injury in patients who have undergone whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) for suspected polytrauma, and to assess the frequency of unsuspected injuries and specific patterns of injury at WBCT. Materials and methods: Requests for patients who underwent WBCT for suspected polytrauma from April 2011 to March 2014 were reviewed and each body area that was clinically suspected to be injured was recorded. Body areas were divided into the following groups based on anatomical regions covered in each segment of the WBCT examination: head (including facial bones); neck (including cervical spine); chest (including thoracic spine); and abdomen/pelvis (including lumbar spine). The formal radiology report for each study was reviewed and injuries found at CT were grouped into the same body areas. For each patient, the number of clinically suspected injured areas was compared to the number of confirmed injured areas at WBCT. Results: Five hundred and eighty-eight patients were included in the study. Thirty-two percent (186/588) had a normal scan. Ninety-three percent (546/588) had fewer injured body areas at WBCT than suspected. Four percent (27/588) had the equivalent number of injured areas at WBCT as suspected. Three percent (15/588) had more injured areas at WBCT than suspected. Fifty percent (263/527) with clinically suspected chest injuries were confirmed to have chest injuries at WBCT. This was lower for other areas: abdomen/pelvis 31% (165/535); head 29% (155/533); neck 13% (66/513). Four percent of (24/588) patients had unsuspected injuries found at WBCT. Seventy-five percent (18/24) of unsuspected injuries were considered as serious, where failure to treat would have the potential for significant morbidity. Most of these patients had severe injuries to other body areas that were correctly suspected. Of the 165 with abdominal/pelvic region injuries, there were associated injuries in the

  19. Infraordinary Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition Infraordinary Deposits presents three works in progress by PhD Fellow Espen Lunde Nielsen from the on-going PhD project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary: Social Coexistence through Everyday Spaces. The infraordinary is understood as the opposite of the extraordinary...... and as that which is ‘worn half-invisible’ by use. Nevertheless, these unregarded spaces play a vital role to the social dimension of the city. The selected projects (‘urban biopsies’) on display explore how people coexist through these spaces and within the city itself, either through events in real......, daily 8.45 – 15.00 Where: Aarhus School of Architecture, The Canteen, Nørreport 18, 8000 Aarhus C...

  20. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  1. Suspected resistance of MDT-MB in Multibacillary Leprosy of Hansen's disease: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudo Irawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to multidrug therapy (MDT is one of the complications in the treatment of Hansen’s disease/Morbus Hansen (MH. There are two types of resistancy, which are primary and secondary. MDT-multibacillary (MB resistance must be suspected when no clinical improvement and the acid-fast bacilli (AFB index is not reduced after 12 months of therapy. A 28-year-old woman with paresthesia on her face, arms and legs since 2.5 years ago, accompanied by thickening of the right posterior tibial nerve. The AFB examination showed a bacteriological index (BI of 15/6 and morphological index (MI of 0.50%. The second case, a 42-year-old man came with paresthetic lesions on his face, chest, back, both arms and legs since 2 years ago, accompanied by thickening of ulnar and lateral peroneal nerve. The BI was 12/5 and the MI was 0.40%. Both patients were diagnosed with borderline lepromatous type of MH and received MDT-MB for 12 months. Diagnosis of suspected resistance was established because no clinical improvement or any significant decrease of AFB index after completing the MDT treatment. The patients had secondary resistance after polymerase chain reaction evaluation showed that they were still rifampicin-sensitive. There was clinical improvement and significant decrease in FAB index after the patients continued the MDT-MB treatment with 600 mg additional rifampicin. The diagnosis of bacterial resistance should be made based on clinical evaluation before completion of treatment. Based on the two case reports, the resistance suspected may be secondary. Treatment using additional regimen can be initiated once the resistance has been proven.

  2. One-step radiolabelled biotin scintigraphy in patients with suspected vertebral infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzeri, E.; Erba, P.; Chinol, M.; Tascini, C.; Menichetti, F.; Paganelli, G.; Mariani, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Biotin (B), or vitamin H, belonging to the B-complex group is utilized by bacteria for acid synthesis by acetyl-CoA carboxylase. We evaluated the diagnostic potential per se of radiolabeled biotin without avidin pre-targeting, in patients with suspected vertebral bacterial infections. We evaluated 31 patients for suspected spine infection. All patients were selected on clinical ground, blood chemistry findings, back pain and fever. Patients were injected i.v. with 500 μg of DTPA-conjugated Biotin labelled with 111In (110-130 MBq); planar and SPECT scans were recorded starting 90 min post-injection. All patients underwent MR, or CT and some patients were imaged with either 99mTc-HMPAO-WBC and/or 67Ga-citrate. Diagnostic-quality imaging was obtained at 90 min and 4 hr after 111In-DTPA-Biotin injection. We observed only 2 false-negative results, while 24 studies were true-positive (4 performed during follow-up) and 10 true-negative (1 during follow-up) (91% sensitivity, 100% specificity). Either MR, CT or 99mTc-HMPAO-WBC had high proportions of either false-negative, false-positive or equivocal results (sensitivity/specificity around 50%). These preliminary results outline the high diagnostic potential of one-step 111In-DTPA-Biotin scintigraphy without avidin pre-targeting) in patients with suspected vertebral infection. The high true-positive and true-negative rate suggests that this system displays some specificity for bacterial infections. The high diagnostic accuracy of 111In-Biotin scintigraphy seems to be independent from antibiotic therapy, thus making this method very helpful relative to other imaging modalities in the clinical decision on starting proper therapy and for monitoring the efficacy of treatment. (author)

  3. Establishing and validating the fluorescent amyloid ligand h-FTAA (heptamer formyl thiophene acetic acid) to identify transthyretin amyloid deposits in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Katharina; Nilsson, K Peter R; Hammarström, Per; Urban, Peter; Meliss, Rolf Rüdiger; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Krüger, Sandra; Röcken, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Transthyretin-derived (ATTR) amyloidosis is a frequent finding in carpal tunnel syndrome. We tested the following hypotheses: the novel fluorescent amyloid ligand heptameric formic thiophene acetic acid (h-FTAA) has a superior sensitivity for the detection of amyloid compared with Congo red-staining; Amyloid load correlates with patient gender and/or patient age. We retrieved 208 resection specimens obtained from 184 patients with ATTR amyloid in the carpal tunnel. Serial sections were stained with Congo red, h-FTAA and an antibody directed against transthyretin (TTR). Stained sections were digitalized and forwarded to computational analyses. The amount of amyloid was correlated with patient demographics. Amyloid stained intensely with h-FTAA and an anti-TTR-antibody. Congo red-staining combined with fluorescence microscopy was significantly less sensitive than h-FTAA-fluorescence and TTR-immunostaining: the highest percentage area was found in TTR-immunostained sections, followed by h-FTAA and Congo red. The Pearson correlation coefficient was .8 (Congo red vs. h-FTAA) and .9 (TTR vs. h-FTAA). Amyloid load correlated with patient gender, anatomical site and patient age. h-FTAA is a highly sensitive method to detect even small amounts of ATTR amyloid in the carpal tunnel. The staining protocol is easy and h-FTAA may be a much more sensitive procedure to detect amyloid at an earlier stage.

  4. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO 2 take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV

  5. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  6. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  7. Methods for Characterisation of unknown Suspect Radioactive Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.; Grigorescu, E.L.; Luca, A.; Razdolescu, A.C.; Ivan, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents various identification and measurement methods, used for the expertise of a wide variety of suspect radioactive materials, whose circulation was not legally stated. The main types of examined samples were: radioactive sources, illegally trafficked; suspect radioactive materials or radioactively contaminated devices; uranium tablets; fire detectors containing 241 Am sources; osmium samples containing radioactive 185 Os or enriched 187 Os. The types of analyses and determination methods were as follows: the chemical composition was determined by using identification reagents or by neutron activation analysis; the radionuclide composition was determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry; the activity and particle emission rates were determined by using calibrated radiometric equipment; the absorbed dose rate at the wall of all types of containers and samples was determined by using calibrated dose ratemeters. The radiation exposure risk for population, due to these radioactive materials, was evaluated for every case. (author)

  8. Cholescintigraphy and ultrasonography in patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, K B; Sommer, W; Hahn, L

    1988-01-01

    The diagnostic power of combined cholescintigraphy and ultrasonography was tested in 67 patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis; of these, 42 (63%) had acute cholecystitis. The predictive value of a positive scintigraphy (PVpos) was 95% and that of a negative (PVneg) was 91% (n = 67......). The PVpos and PVneg of ultrasonography were 89% and 75%, respectively (n = 54), and these values did not achieve statistical significance when compared with those for scintigraphy. Inconclusive tests were 10% and 11%, respectively, but in no patient were both scintigraphy and ultrasonography inconclusive...... that in patients suspected of having acute cholecystitis cholescintigraphy should be the first diagnostic procedure performed. If the scintigraphy is positive, additional ultrasonographic detection of gallstones makes the diagnosis almost certain. If one diagnostic modality is inconclusive, the other makes a fair...

  9. Interdisciplinary action of nurses to children with suspected sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Leão Ciuffo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Understanding the role of nurses as members of interdisciplinary teams in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse. Methodology. This is a qualitative research based on the sociological phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. In 2008 were interviewed eleven nurses who worked in reference institutions for the care of child victims of sexual abuse in Rio de Janeiro. Results. The category called 'Interacting with other professionals in child care' emerged from the analysis of performance of professionals. The intersubjective relations between the nurses and the interdisciplinary team will enable to understand the intent of care from the perspective of social, emotional and psychological needs of children and their families. Conclusion. Interdisciplinarity favored the development of actions based on acceptance, listening and agreements on possible solutions in the care of children with suspected sexual abuse.

  10. Incidence of clinically suspected venous thromboembolism in British Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, B M; Patel, M S; Rudge, S; Best, A; Mangwani, J

    2018-05-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a major public health issue around the world. Ethnicity is known to alter the incidence of VTE. To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature investigating the incidence of VTE in British Indians. The aim of this study was to investigate the rates of symptomatic VTE in British Indian patients in the UK. Methods Patients referred to our institution between January 2011 and August 2013 with clinically suspected VTE were eligible for inclusion in the study. Those not of British Indian or Caucasian ethnicity were excluded. A retrospective review of these two cohorts was conducted. Results Overall, 15,529 cases were referred to our institution for suspected VTE. This included 1,498 individuals of British Indian ethnicity. Of these, 182 (12%) had confirmed VTE episodes. A further 13,159 of the patients with suspected VTE were coded as Caucasian, including 2,412 (16%) who had confirmed VTE events. VTE rates were a third lower in British Indians with clinically suspected VTE than in the equivalent Caucasian group. The British Indian cohort presented with VTE at a much earlier age than Caucasians (mean 57.0 vs 68.0 years). Conclusions This study suggests that British Indian patients have a lower incidence of VTE and are more likely to present at an earlier age than Caucasians. There was no significant difference in VTE type (deep vein thrombosis vs pulmonary embolism) among the ethnic groups. Clinicians should be aware of variations within ethnicities but should continue to adhere to existing VTE prevention guidance.

  11. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging in suspected multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lycklama a Nijeholt, G.J.; Bergers, E.; Castelijns, J.A.; Barkhof, F.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Polman, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the value of spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnostic work-up of multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty patients suspected of having MS were examined within 24 months after the start of symptoms. Disability was assessed, and symptoms were categorized as either brain or spinal cord. Work-up further included cerebrospinal fluid analysis and standard proton-density, T2-, and T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced brain and spinal cord MRI. Patients were categorized as either clinically definite MS (n = 13), laboratory-supported definite MS (n = 14), or clinically probable MS (n = 4); four patients had clinically probable MS, and in nine MS was suspected. Spinal cord abnormalities were found in 35 of 40 patients (87.5 %), consisting of focal lesions in 31, only diffuse abnormalities in two, and both in two. Asymptomatic spinal cord lesions occurred in six patients. All patients with diffuse spinal cord abnormality had clear spinal cord symptoms and a primary progressive disease course. In clinically definite MS, the inclusion of spinal imaging increased the sensitivity of MRI to 100 %. Seven patients without a definite diagnosis had clinically isolated syndromes involving the spinal cord. Brain MRI was inconclusive, while all had focal spinal cord lesions which explained symptoms and ruled out other causes. Two other patients had atypical brain abnormalities suggesting ischemic/vascular disease. No spinal cord abnormalities were found, and during follow-up MS was ruled out. Spinal cord abnormalities are common in suspected MS, and may occur asymptomatic. Although diagnostic classification is seldom changed, spinal cord imaging increases diagnostic sensitivity of MRI in patients with suspected MS. In addition, patients with primary progressive MS may possibly be earlier diagnosed. Finally, differentiation with atypical lesions may be improved. (orig.)

  12. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects’ perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects’ counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects’ perception by confronting them with statement-evidence incons...

  13. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features

    OpenAIRE

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A.; Stewart, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineup...

  14. Percutaneous cholecystocentesis in cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byfield, Victoria L; Callahan Clark, Julie E; Turek, Bradley J; Bradley, Charles W; Rondeau, Mark P

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the safety and diagnostic utility of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis (PUC) in cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Methods Medical records of 83 cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease that underwent PUC were retrospectively reviewed. Results At the time of PUC, at least one additional procedure was performed in 79/83 cats, including hepatic aspiration and/or biopsy (n = 75) and splenic aspiration (n = 18). Complications were noted in 14/83 cases, including increased abdominal fluid (n = 11), needle-tip occlusion (n = 1), failed first attempt to penetrate the gall bladder wall (n = 1) and pneumoperitoneum (n = 1). There were no reports of gall bladder rupture, bile peritonitis or hypotension necessitating treatment with vasopressor medication. Blood products were administered to 7/83 (8%) cats. Seventy-two cats (87%) survived to discharge. Of the cats that were euthanized (9/83) or died (2/83), none were reported as a definitive consequence of PUC. Bacteria were identified cytologically in 10/71 samples (14%); all 10 had a positive aerobic bacterial culture. Bile culture was positive in 11/80 samples (14%). Of the cases with a positive bile culture, cytological description of bacteria corresponded to the organism cultured in fewer than 50% of cases. The most common cytologic diagnosis was hepatic lipidosis (49/66). The most common histopathologic diagnosis was cholangitis (10/21). Conclusions and relevance PUC was safe in this group of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complications were likely associated with ancillary procedures performed at the time of PUC. Bile analysis yielded an abnormal result in nearly one-third of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complete agreement between bile cytology and culture was lacking. Further evaluation of the correlation between bile cytology and bile culture is warranted.

  15. MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis: an implemented program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael M.; Gustas, Cristy N.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Methratta, Sosamma T.; Hulse, Michael A.; Eggli, Kathleen D.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Mail Code H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Geeting, Glenn [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Emergent MRI is now a viable alternative to CT for evaluating appendicitis while avoiding the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. However, primary employment of MRI in the setting of clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis has remained significantly underutilized. To describe our institution's development and the results of a fully implemented clinical program using MRI as the primary imaging evaluation for children with suspected appendicitis. A four-sequence MRI protocol consisting of coronal and axial single-shot turbo spin-echo (SS-TSE) T2, coronal spectral adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR), and axial SS-TSE T2 with fat saturation was performed on 208 children, ages 3 to 17 years, with clinically suspected appendicitis. No intravenous or oral contrast material was administered. No sedation was administered. Data collection includes two separate areas: time parameter analysis and MRI diagnostic results. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI for pediatric appendicitis indicated a sensitivity of 97.6% (CI: 87.1-99.9%), specificity 97.0% (CI: 93.2-99.0%), positive predictive value 88.9% (CI: 76.0-96.3%), and negative predictive value 99.4% (CI: 96.6-99.9%). Time parameter analysis indicated clinical feasibility, with time requested to first sequence obtained mean of 78.7 +/- 52.5 min, median 65 min; first-to-last sequence time stamp mean 14.2 +/- 8.8 min, median 12 min; last sequence to report mean 57.4 +/- 35.2 min, median 46 min. Mean age was 11.2 +/- 3.6 years old. Girls represented 57% of patients. MRI is an effective and efficient method of imaging children with clinically suspected appendicitis. Using an expedited four-sequence protocol, sensitivity and specificity are comparable to CT while avoiding the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  16. MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis: case interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Michael M.; Brian, James M.; Methratta, Sosamma T.; Hulse, Michael A.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Eggli, Kathleen D.; Boal, Danielle K.B.

    2014-01-01

    As utilization of MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis becomes more common, there will be increased focus on case interpretation. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to share our institution's case interpretation experience. MRI findings of appendicitis include appendicoliths, tip appendicitis, intraluminal fluid-debris level, pitfalls of size measurements, and complications including abscesses. The normal appendix and inguinal appendix are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis: case interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael M.; Brian, James M.; Methratta, Sosamma T.; Hulse, Michael A.; Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Eggli, Kathleen D.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    As utilization of MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis becomes more common, there will be increased focus on case interpretation. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to share our institution's case interpretation experience. MRI findings of appendicitis include appendicoliths, tip appendicitis, intraluminal fluid-debris level, pitfalls of size measurements, and complications including abscesses. The normal appendix and inguinal appendix are also discussed. (orig.)

  18. Homocysteine plasma levels in patients suspected coronary artery disease: Relation to myocardial perfusion image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.Y.; He, Q.; Qu, W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is considerable epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and coronary artery disease (CAD), not all studies, especially prospective ones have shown such a relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between Hcy plasma levels and myocardial perfusion defect by SPECT in patients suspected CAD. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 238 patients suspected CAD (age: 60.65±10.43, male to female: 172: 66) was examined for Hcy, tetrahydrofolic acid (FH4), vitamine B12 and coronary angiography (CAG). Furthermore, 42 patients also underwent 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion images (MPI) to assess the myocardial perfusion. Results: There were 69 patients with normal CAG and 63, 60, 42 and 4 patients with 1 vessel, two vessel, 3 vessel and left main coronary stenosis. The plasma Hcy of this group was significantly increased, p 0.05. In patients with >=3 segments myocardial perfusion defect, 10 of them had normal Hcy, and 7 with hyperhomocysteinemia, in patients with 0.05). Conclusion: Our data may indicate that hyperhomocysteinemia represents an independent risk factor in patients with high possibility of CAD rather than a mark of myocardial ischemia or coronary stenosis

  19. The economics of cardiac biomarker testing in suspected myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Steve; Thokala, Praveen

    2015-03-01

    Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) is a common reason for emergency hospital attendance and admission. Cardiac biomarker measurement is an essential element of diagnostic assessment of suspected MI. Although the cost of a routinely available biomarker may be small, the large patient population and consequences in terms of hospital admission and investigation mean that the economic impact of cardiac biomarker testing is substantial. Economic evaluation involves comparing the estimated costs and effectiveness (outcomes) of two or more interventions or care alternatives. This process creates some difficulties with respect to cardiac biomarkers. Estimating the effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers involves identifying how they help to improve health and how we can measure this improvement. Comparison to an appropriate alternative is also problematic. New biomarkers may be promoted on the basis of reducing hospital admission or length of stay, but hospital admission for low risk patients may incur significant costs while providing very little benefit, making it an inappropriate comparator. Finally, economic evaluation may conclude that a more sensitive biomarker strategy is more effective but, by detecting and treating more cases, is also more expensive. In these circumstances it is unclear whether we should use the more effective or the cheaper option. This article provides an introduction to health economics and addresses the specific issues relevant to cardiac biomarkers. It describes the key concepts relevant to economic evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in suspected MI and highlights key areas of uncertainty and controversy. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Does this adult patient with suspected bacteremia require blood cultures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Bryan; Morris, Andrew M; Tomlinson, George; Detsky, Allan S

    2012-08-01

    Clinicians order blood cultures liberally among patients in whom bacteremia is suspected, though a small proportion of blood cultures yield true-positive results. Ordering blood cultures inappropriately may be both wasteful and harmful. To review the accuracy of easily obtained clinical and laboratory findings to inform the decision to obtain blood cultures in suspected bacteremia. A MEDLINE and EMBASE search (inception to April 2012) yielded 35 studies that met inclusion criteria for evaluating the accuracy of clinical variables for bacteremia in adult immunocompetent patients, representing 4566 bacteremia and 25,946 negative blood culture episodes. Data were extracted to determine the prevalence and likelihood ratios (LRs) of findings for bacteremia. The pretest probability of bacteremia varies depending on the clinical context, from low (eg, cellulitis: 2%) to high (eg, septic shock: 69%). Elevated temperatures alone do not accurately predict bacteremia (for ≥38°C [>100.3°F], LR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.4]; for ≥38.5°C [>101.2°F], LR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.1-2.0]), nor does isolated leukocytosis (LR, cultures should not be ordered for adult patients with isolated fever or leukocytosis without considering the pretest probability. SIRS and the decision rule may be helpful in identifying patients who do not need blood cultures. These conclusions do not apply to immunocompromised patients or when endocarditis is suspected.

  1. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in juvenile suspects of sex offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Jansen, Lucres M; Doreleijers, Theo A; Vermeiren, Robert; Minderaa, Ruud B; Hartman, Catharina A

    2009-02-01

    To investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in juvenile suspects of sex offenses. A group of 175 juvenile suspected sex offenders (all males, mean +/- SD age = 14.9 +/- 1.4 years) was compared with a matched healthy control group (N = 500, mean +/- SD age = 14.0 +/- 1.4 years) and a group of children with DSM-IV-diagnosed ASD (N = 114, mean +/- SD age = 14.2 +/- 1.9 years) with respect to autistic symptoms as measured by means of a standardized questionnaire, the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire. Furthermore, specific subgroups of sexual offenders, i.e., child molesters, solo peer offenders, and group offenders, were compared with regard to levels of ASD symptoms. The study was conducted from May 2003 to December 2006. Significantly higher levels of ASD symptoms were found in juvenile sex offenders than in healthy controls, while levels were lower than in the ASD group (F = 148.259, p symptoms than group offenders (F = 5.127, p symptoms are higher in juvenile suspects of sex offenses as compared to the healthy population, which argues for considering specific diagnostic assessment in this population, especially in solo offenders and child molesters. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Police officers' perceptions and experiences with mentally disordered suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxburgh, Laura; Gabbert, Fiona; Milne, Rebecca; Cherryman, Julie

    Despite mentally disordered suspects being over-represented within the criminal justice system, there is a dearth of published literature that examines police officers' perceptions when interviewing this vulnerable group. This is concerning given that police officers are increasingly the first point of contact with these individuals. Using a Grounded Theory approach, this study examined 35 police officers' perceptions and experiences when interviewing mentally disordered suspects. Current safeguards, such as Appropriate Adults, and their experiences of any training they received were also explored. A specially designed questionnaire was developed and distributed across six police forces in England and Wales. Nine conceptual categories emerged from the data that highlighted how police officers' level of experience impacted upon their perceptions when dealing with this cohort. As a consequence, a new model grounded within Schema Theory has emerged termed Police Experience Transitional Model. Implications include the treatment and outcome of mentally disordered suspects being heavily dependent on whom they encounter within the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Suspected Alzheimer's disease. Selection of outpatients for neuropsychological assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, S A; Henry, M; Deike, R; Ebert, A D; Wallesch, C-W

    2008-04-01

    Incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD) is frequently suspected by neurologists and psychiatrists, but diagnosis is difficult to establish. The aim of this report was to analyse to what extent suspicion is confirmed by a comprehensive neuropsychological examination intended to distinguish different types of dementia. Descriptive data analysis was used for investigating the differential diagnoses of 47 outpatients with suspected AD referred to a department of neuropsychology by physicians in private practice. Data analysis was based upon the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria of AD. Only 38% of the outpatients examined with suspected AD met the NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for AD or mixed dementia from a neuropsychological point of view, whereas 22% met criteria for other types of dementia. The remaining patients met criteria for distinct differential diagnoses (23%) or lacked pathological findings in neuropsychological functions (17%). Neuropsychology is an essential part in the differential diagnosis of mild to moderate dementias. It can aid in differential therapeutic considerations concerning the treatment of dementia, for example in selecting appropriate treatments or avoiding expensive but inappropriate ones.

  4. How useful is gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy in suspected childhood aspiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, H.D.; Adams, J.C.; Hayden, C.K.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy might be useful in assisting one in determining therapy for patients suspected of aspirating or becoming apneic secondary to gastroesophageal reflux. This, however, has not been our experience and in reviewing 23 patients with recurrent pneumonia and/or apnea who had gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy, we were able to detect aspiration in only one. This was especially significant since 13 (59%) of these patients had demonstrable reflux, and of these, eight were treated successfully for suspected aspiration even though none was demonstrated isotopically. To be sure, the demonstration of pulmonary aspiration with gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy had little influence on patient selection and response to therapy. For this reason we feel there is little justification in depending on the GRS for the specific purpose of trying to document pulmonary aspiration in infants and children who are refluxing. One of the more serious complications of gastroesophageal (GE) reflux is aspiration leading to recurrent pulmonary infections and/or apnea. However, it always has been difficult to demonstrate actual aspiration into the lungs, and to be sure, barium studies of the upper GI tract seldom reveal this complication. Recently, however, considerable interest has been generated in gastroesophageal scintigraphy (GRS) as a possible means of documenting such aspiration. Rationale for this stems from the fact that suspected patients can be studied over a longer period of time and in addition, delayed and overnight images can be obtained. However, our experience does not support GRS as being an adequate method for demonstrating aspiration.

  5. Thoracic computed tomography in patients with suspected malignant pleural effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traill, Zoee C.; Davies, Robert J.O.; Gleeson, Fergus V.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) prospectively in patients with suspected malignant pleural effusions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients referred for the investigation of a suspected malignant pleural effusion had contrast-enhanced thoracic CT, thoracoscopy, thoraco-centesis and pleural biopsy, either percutaneously or at thoracoscopy. Final diagnoses were based on histopathological or cytological analysis (n = 30), autopsy findings (n = 3) or clinical follow-up (n = 7). The pleural surfaces were classified at contrast-enhanced CT as normal or abnormal and, if abnormal, as benign or malignant in appearance using previously established CT criteria for malignant pleural thickening by two observers unaware of the pathological diagnosis. RESULTS: Pleural effusions were malignant in 32 patients and benign in eight patients. Pleural surfaces assessed at CT showed features of malignancy in 27 out of 32 patients with a malignant effusion (sensitivity 84%, specificity 100%). Overall, CT appearances indicated the presence of malignancy in 28 of 32 (87%) patients. All eight patients with benign pleural disease were correctly diagnosed by CT. CONCLUSION: Contrast-enhanced CT is of value in patients with suspected malignant pleural effusions. The previously established criteria for malignant pleural thickening of nodularity, irregularity and pleural thickness >1 cm are reliable in the presence of a pleural effusion. Traill, Z.C. et al. (2001)

  6. Performance of spray deposited poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer based bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Leona; Babu, R. Ramesh; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Kojima, Kenzo; Mizutani, Teruyoshi; Ochiai, Shizuyasu

    2012-01-01

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell devices were fabricated using the spray deposited poly [N-9″-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′,1′, 3′-benzothiadiazole)]/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend active layer. The spray coating parameters such as spraying time, substrate-nozzle distance for the deposition of active layers were analyzed. Optical absorption of the active layers was analyzed using UV–visible spectral studies in the wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm. The surface morphology of the active layers deposited with different parameters was examined using atomic force microscopy. Surface morphology of the active layers deposited with the substrate-nozzle distance of 20 cm and for 20 s shows smooth morphology with peak-valley value of 4 nm. The devices fabricated using the selected active layer show overall power conversion efficiency of 1.08%. - Graphical abstract: Current–voltage (J–V) characteristics of spray deposited PCDTBT:PC 61 BM active layer based solar cell device under illumination of AM 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm 2 . Highlights: ► Organic solar cells were fabricated using a spray deposited PCDTBT:PC61BM active layer. ► The active layers deposited with spray conditions show flat morphology. ► Using the selected active layers power conversion efficiency of 1.08% is obtained.

  7. Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because...

  8. Imaging trends in suspected appendicitis-a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Victoria F; Patlas, Michael N; Katz, Douglas S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess trends in the imaging of suspected appendicitis in adult patients in emergency departments of academic centers in Canada. A questionnaire was sent to all 17 academic centers in Canada to be completed by a radiologist who works in emergency radiology. The questionnaires were sent and collected over a period of 4 months from October 2015 to February 2016. Sixteen centers (94%) responded to the questionnaire. Eleven respondents (73%) use IV contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) as the imaging modality of choice for all patients with suspected appendicitis. Thirteen respondents (81%) use ultrasound as the first modality of choice in imaging pregnant patients with suspected appendicitis. Eleven respondents (69%) use ultrasound (US) as the first modality of choice in patients younger than 40 years of age. Ten respondents (67%) use ultrasound as the first imaging modality in female patients younger than 40 years of age. When CT is used, 81% use non-focused CT of the abdomen and pelvis, and 44% of centers use oral contrast. Thirteen centers (81%) have ultrasound available 24 h a day/7 days a week. At 12 centers (75%), ultrasound is performed by ultrasound technologists. Four centers (40%) perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in suspected appendicitis in adult patients at the discretion of the attending radiologist. Eleven centers (69%) have MRI available 24/7. All 16 centers (100%) use unenhanced MRI. Various imaging modalities are available for the work-up of suspected appendicitis. Although there are North American societal guidelines and recommendations regarding the appropriateness of the multiple imaging modalities, significant heterogeneity in the first-line modalities exist, which vary depending on the patient demographics and resource availability. Imaging trends in the use of the first-line modalities should be considered in order to plan for the availability of the imaging examinations and to consider plans for

  9. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  10. Herbal hepatotoxicity: suspected cases assessed for alternative causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Schulze, Johannes; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Eickhoff, Axel; Frenzel, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Alternative explanations are common in suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and account for up to 47.1% of analyzed cases. This raised the question of whether a similar frequency may prevail in cases of assumed herb-induced liver injury (HILI). We searched the Medline database for the following terms: herbs, herbal drugs, herbal dietary supplements, hepatotoxic herbs, herbal hepatotoxicity, and herb-induced liver injury. Additional terms specifically addressed single herbs and herbal products: black cohosh, Greater Celandine, green tea, Herbalife products, Hydroxycut, kava, and Pelargonium sidoides. We retrieved 23 published case series and regulatory assessments related to hepatotoxicity by herbs and herbal dietary supplements with alternative causes. The 23 publications comprised 573 cases of initially suspected HILI; alternative causes were evident in 278/573 cases (48.5%). Among them were hepatitis by various viruses (9.7%), autoimmune diseases (10.4%), nonalcoholic and alcoholic liver diseases (5.4%), liver injury by comedication (DILI and other HILI) (43.9%), and liver involvement in infectious diseases (4.7%). Biliary and pancreatic diseases were frequent alternative diagnoses (11.5%), raising therapeutic problems if specific treatment is withheld; pre-existing liver diseases including cirrhosis (9.7%) were additional confounding variables. Other diagnoses were rare, but possibly relevant for the individual patient. In 573 cases of initially assumed HILI, 48.5% showed alternative causes unrelated to the initially incriminated herb, herbal drug, or herbal dietary supplement, calling for thorough clinical evaluations and appropriate causality assessments in future cases of suspected HILI.

  11. How useful is gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy in suspected childhood aspiration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, H.D.; Adams, J.C.; Hayden, C.K.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy might be useful in assisting one in determining therapy for patients suspected of aspirating or becoming apneic secondary to gastroesophageal reflux. This, however, has not been our experience and in reviewing 23 patients with recurrent pneumonia and/or apnea who had gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy, we were able to detect aspiration in only one. This was especially significant since 13 (59%) of these patients had demonstrable reflux, and of these, eight were treated successfully for suspected aspiration even though none was demonstrated isotopically. To be sure, the demonstration of pulmonary aspiration with gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy had little influence on patient selection and response to therapy. For this reason we feel there is little justification in depending on the GRS for the specific purpose of trying to document pulmonary aspiration in infants and children who are refluxing. One of the more serious complications of gastroesophageal (GE) reflux is aspiration leading to recurrent pulmonary infections and/or apnea. However, it always has been difficult to demonstrate actual aspiration into the lungs, and to be sure, barium studies of the upper GI tract seldom reveal this complication. Recently, however, considerable interest has been generated in gastroesophageal scintigraphy (GRS) as a possible means of documenting such aspiration. Rationale for this stems from the fact that suspected patients can be studied over a longer period of time and in addition, delayed and overnight images can be obtained. However, our experience does not support GRS as being an adequate method for demonstrating aspiration. (orig.)

  12. Use of biomarkers in triage of patients with suspected stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Simone; Polidori, Gianluca; Pepe, Giuseppe; Chiarlone, Melisenda; Albani, Alberto; Pagnanelli, Adolfo; Grifoni, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    The absence of a rapidly available and sensitive diagnostic test represents an important limitation in the triage of patients with suspected stroke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the triage accuracy of a novel test that measures blood-borne biomarkers (triage stroke panel, TSP) and to compare its accuracy with that of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS). Consecutive patients with suspected stroke presenting to the Emergency Departments of three Italian hospitals underwent triage by a trained nurse according to the CPSS and had blood drawn for TSP testing. The TSP simultaneously measures four markers (B-type natriuretic peptide, D-dimer, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and S100β) presenting a single composite result, the Multimarker Index (MMX). Stroke diagnosis was established by an expert committee blinded to MMX and CPSS results. There were 155 patients enrolled, 87 (56%) of whom had a final diagnosis of stroke. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for CPSS was 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-0.84) and that of MMX was 0.74 (95% CI 0.66-0.82) (p = 0.285). Thus, both tests, when used alone, failed to recognize approximately 25% of strokes. The area under the ROC curve of the combination of the two tests (0.86, 95% CI 0.79-0.91) was significantly greater than that of either single test (p = 0.01 vs. CPSS and p vs. TSP). In an emergency care setting, a panel test using multiple biochemical markers showed triage accuracy similar to that of CPSS. Further studies are needed before biomarkers can be introduced in the clinical work-up of patients with suspected stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of inositol, inositol-generating phytase B applied alone, and in combination with 6-phytase A to phosphorus-deficient diets on laying performance, eggshell quality, yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid deposition in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyla, K; Mika, M; Duliński, R; Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J; Pustkowiak, H; Piironen, J

    2012-08-01

    polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio. In the CSM diets, the supplemental myo-inositol suppressed feed intakes, reduced egg production, had no effect on eggshell quality and reduced the deposition of eicosanoid fatty acids in yolks. When comparing the effects of feeding MCP, myo-inositol, and phytases on the nutritional quality of the eggs laid by the hens fed phosphorus-deficient CSM diets, it seems that the enhancements in nutritional quality cannot be attributed solely to higher phosphorus level or higher concentrations of myo-inositol.

  14. A Suspected Pelvic Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Elkattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit rare, the majority of identified bone lesions in pregnancy spare the pelvis. Once encountered with a pelvic bone lesion in pregnancy, the obstetrician may face a challenging situation as it is difficult to determine and predict the effects that labor and parturition impart on the pelvic bones. Bone changes and pelvic bone fractures have been well documented during childbirth. The data regarding clinical outcomes and management of pregnancies complicated by pelvic ABCs is scant. Highly suspected to represent an aneurysmal bone cyst, the clinical evaluation of a pelvic lesion in the ilium of a pregnant individual is presented, and modes of delivery in such a scenario are discussed.

  15. Investigation of suspected TRALI cases in 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Maček Kvanka

    2012-12-01

    Methods: In 2006–2011, eight suspected TRALI cases that met consensus clinical criteria and had chest radiograph were investigated in the Blood Transfusion Center of Slovenia. Patients and all donors of blood components transfused within 6 hours before the onset of acute respiratory distress were investigated for leukocyte antibodies against HLA class I and II antigens, and antibodies against neutrophil antigens HNA. All cases were investigated for patient, donor and blood component characteristics. In cooperation with clinicians, chest radiographs and alternative risk factors for acute lung injury (ALI were evaluated.

  16. Creating fair lineups for suspects with distinctive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkadi, Theodora; Wade, Kimberley A; Stewart, Neil

    2009-12-01

    In their descriptions, eyewitnesses often refer to a culprit's distinctive facial features. However, in a police lineup, selecting the only member with the described distinctive feature is unfair to the suspect and provides the police with little further information. For fair and informative lineups, the distinctive feature should be either replicated across foils or concealed on the target. In the present experiments, replication produced more correct identifications in target-present lineups--without increasing the incorrect identification of foils in target-absent lineups--than did concealment. This pattern, and only this pattern, is predicted by the hybrid-similarity model of recognition.

  17. Cytogenetic dosimetry in suspected cases of ionizing radiation occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S.; Silva, Francisco Cesar A. da

    2001-01-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is very useful in routine as well as in serious accident situations in which exposed individuals do not wear physical dosimeters. Since 1984, the technique of cytogenetic dosimetry has been used as a routine in our laboratory at IRD/CNEN to complement the data of physical dosimetry. In the period from 1984 to 2000, 138 cases of occupational overexposure of individual dosimeters were investigated by us. In total, only in 36 of the 138 cases investigated the overexposure was confirmed by cytogenetic dosimetry. The data indicates a total confirmation index of just 26% of the suspected cases.(author)

  18. Metallization on FDM Parts Using the Chemical Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Equbal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallization of ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene parts has been studied on flat part surfaces. These parts are fabricated on an FDM (fused deposition modeling machine using the layer-wise deposition principle using ABS as a part material. Electroless copper deposition on ABS parts was performed using two different surface preparation processes, namely ABS parts prepared using chromic acid for etching and ABS parts prepared using a solution mixture of sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2SO4/H2O2 for etching. After surface preparations using these routes, copper (Cu is deposited electrolessly using four different acidic baths. The acidic baths used are 5 wt% CuSO4 (copper sulfate with 15 wt% of individual acids, namely HF (hydrofluoric acid, H2SO4 (sulphuric acid, H3PO4 (phosphoric acid and CH3COOH (acetic acid. Cu deposition under different acidic baths used for both the routes is presented and compared based on their electrical performance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS. The result shows that chromic acid etched samples show better electrical performance and Cu deposition in comparison to samples etched via H2SO4/H2O2.

  19. A case of suspected 'Bickerstaff's encephalitis' and its CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moto, Atsufumi; Endo, Shunro; Ohmori, Tomoaki; Oka, Nobuo; Takaku, Akira

    1985-01-01

    A case of suspected ''Bickerstaff's encephalitis'' was presented with special reference to the CT findings. A 4-year-old girl exhibited fever and nausea after the beginning of December, 1983, followed by unsteady gait on January 1, 1984. She was admitted to another hospital and diagnosed by means of a spinalfluid examination as having aseptic meningitis. Her symptoms subsided transiently, but then she began again to suffer recurrently from unsteady gait on January 27. After that she developed dysarthria and dysphagia, a disturbance of eye movement was observed, and she became lethargic and disoriented. On February 6, she was transferred to our hospital. Plain CT scan on admission revealed a low-density area on the left cerebellar peduncle and the inferior medial part of the left temporal lobe. Moreover, the low-density area was heterogenously enhanced with the contrast medium. Angiography showed no abnormal findings. Considering these CT findings, we suspected a pontine tumor. Four days after her admission, however, her symptoms and signs began rapidly to subside, and also the abnormal findings on the CT scan diminished gradually as the symptoms were relieved. On March 2, she was discharged without any neurological abnormality. (author)

  20. PMS2 involvement in patients suspected of Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Renée C; Kleibeuker, Jan H; Westers, Helga; Jager, Paul O J; Rozeveld, Dennie; Bos, Krista K; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Hollema, Harry; Sijmons, Rolf H; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2009-04-01

    It is well-established that germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 cause Lynch syndrome. However, mutations in these three genes do not account for all Lynch syndrome (suspected) families. Recently, it was shown that germline mutations in another mismatch repair gene, PMS2, play a far more important role in Lynch syndrome than initially thought. To explore this further, we determined the prevalence of pathogenic germline PMS2 mutations in a series of Lynch syndrome-suspected patients. Ninety-seven patients who had early-onset microsatellite instable colorectal or endometrial cancer, or multiple Lynch syndrome-associated tumors and/or were from an Amsterdam Criteria II-positive family were selected for this study. These patients carried no pathogenic germline mutation in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6. When available, tumors were investigated for immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for PMS2. PMS2 was screened in all patients by exon-by-exon sequencing. We identified four patients with a pathogenic PMS2 mutation (4%) among the 97 patients we selected. IHC of PMS2 was informative in one of the mutation carriers, and in this case, the tumor showed loss of PMS2 expression. In conclusion, our study confirms the finding of previous studies that PMS2 is more frequently involved in Lynch syndrome than originally expected.

  1. Investigation of suspected chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, Jone Furlund; Næss, Halvor; Gjerde, Ivar Otto; Bødtker, Jørn Eilert; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn

    2016-02-09

    Chronic fatigue is a frequently occurring problem in both the primary and specialist health services. The Department of Neurology at Haukeland University Hospital has established a standard assessment for patients referred with suspected CFS/ME. This study reports diagnoses and findings upon assessment, and considers the benefit of supplementary examinations. Diagnoses and findings from examinations of 365 patients assessed for suspected CFS/ME are retrospectively reported. A total of 48 patients (13.2%) were diagnosed with CFS/ME, while a further 18 patients (4.9%) were diagnosed with post-infectious fatigue. Mental and behavioural disorders were diagnosed in 169 patients (46.3%), and these represented by far the largest group. Serious, but unrecognised somatic illness was discovered in two patients, while changes of uncertain significance were identified by MRI and lumbar puncture in a few patients. Fatigue is a frequently occurring symptom in the population. Thorough somatic and psychiatric investigation is necessary before referral to the specialist health services. Mental disorders and reactions to life crises are common and important differential diagnoses for CFS/ME. Long waiting times in the specialist health services may result in delayed diagnosis for these patients.

  2. The role of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Juettemann, S.; Amaya, B.; Rasinski, C.; Bloching, M.; Koenig, E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This is a prospective analysis of the value of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations. Materials and Methods: In 50 patients (43 children and young adults, 7 adults) with suspected inner ear malformation MRI (1.5 T) was performed. In addition, 42 of these patients underwent CT. For the analysis of the inner ear structures, the constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence with 0.7 mm slice thickness was used. Functional tests revealed a sensorineural hearing loss or deafness in 82 temporal bones (TB) and a combined hearing loss in 4 TB. The hearing loss was unilateral in 14 patients. MRI and CT findings were compared. Results: Imaging findings were normal in 58 TB. The pathological findings included inner ear malformations (35 TB), inflammatory changes (4 TB), partial obliteration of labyrinth (2 TB) and congenital aural atresia (1 TB). An isolated absence of the cochlear nerve (1 TB) could only be found by MRI. In the remaining cases, an inner ear malformation was diagnosed by MRI and CT with the same confidence but MRI was superior in displaying the fine details. Conclusions: MRI will become the method of choice in the diagnosis of inner ear malformations. (orig.) [de

  3. MRI diagnosis of suspected atlanto-occipital dissociation in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabb, B.C.; Frye, T.A.; Hedlund, G.L.; Vaid, Y.N.; Royal, S.A.; Grabb, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To demonstrate the utility of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the diagnosis of complete and partial ligamentous injuries in patients with suspected atlanto-occipital dissociation (AOD). Materials and methods. Five patients with suspected AOD had MR imaging performed within an average of 4 days after injury. MR scans were reviewed with specific analysis of craniocervical ligamentous structures. Charts were reviewed to obtain clinical information regarding presentation, treatment, hospital course, and outcome. Results. Two patients demonstrated MR evidence of complete AOD. One had disruption of all visualized major ligamentous structures at the craniocervical junction with anterolisthesis and evidence of cord damage. The second had injuries to the tectorial membrane, superior band of the cruciform ligament, apical ligament, and interspinous ligament at C 1-2. The remaining three patients sustained incomplete severance of the ligamentous structures at the craniocervical junction. All patients demonstrated subtle radiographic findings suggestive of AOD, including soft tissue swelling at the craniocervical junction without fracture. The two patients with complete AOD died. The three patients with partial AOD were treated with stabilization. On follow-up, these three children were asymptomatic following their craniocervical injury. Conclusion. MR imaging of acute AOD provides accurate identification of the craniocervical ligaments injured, classification of full versus partial ligamentous disruption, and analysis of accompanying spinal cord injury. This information is important for early appropriate neurosurgical management and preservation of neurologic function in survivors. (orig.)

  4. CT coronary angiographic evaluation of suspected anginal chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Alastair J; Newby, David E

    2016-02-15

    Non-invasive imaging plays a critical role in the assessment of patients presenting with suspected angina chest pain. However, wide variations in practice across Europe and North America highlight the lack of consensus in selecting the appropriate first-line test for the investigation of coronary artery disease (CAD). CT coronary angiography (CTCA) has a high negative predictive value for excluding the presence of CAD. As such, it serves as a potential 'gatekeeper' to downstream testing by reducing the rate of inappropriate invasive coronary angiography. Two recent large multicentre randomised control trials have provided insights into whether CTCA can be incorporated into chest pain care pathways to improve risk stratification of CAD. They demonstrate that using CTCA enhances diagnostic certainty and improves the targeting of appropriate invasive investigations and therapeutic interventions. Importantly, reductions in cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction appear to be attained through the more appropriate use of preventative therapy and coronary revascularisation when guided by CTCA. With this increasing portfolio of evidence, CTCA should be considered the non-invasive investigation of choice in the evaluation of patients with suspected angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease. NCT01149590, post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Value of noncontrast spiral CT for suspected acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Pil Yeob; Lee, Sang Wook; Kwon, Jae Soo; Sung, Young Soon; Rho, Myoung Ho; Chang, Jeong A.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy and clinical efficacy of noncontrast spiral CT in patients with suspected acute appendicitis. Over a six-month period, 100 patients with suspected acute appendicitis were prospectively evaluated with noncontrast spiral CT. All scans were obtained from the lower body of L3 to the symphysis pubis, with 5mm or 10mm collimation and pitch of 1 or 1.5, and without intravenous or oral contrast material. Diagnosis was established by means of surgical or clinical follow-up. Prospective diagnosis based on CT findings was compared with surgical results and clinical follow-up. Acute appendicitis was confirmed in 47 of 100 patients. On the basis of the Ct findings, SI patients were prospectively interpreted as positive for appendicitis, but in six the diagnosis was false-positive. Two of the 47 with acute appendicitis were prospectively interpreted as normal. The preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis was, thus, 45 true-positive, 47 true-negative, six false-positive and two false-negative yielding a sensitivity of 96%, a specificity of 89%, an accuracy of 92%, a positive predictive value of 88%, and a negative predictive value of 96%. Using CT, an alternative diagnosis was established in 14 patients. Noncontrast spiral CT is a useful technique for diagnosing acute appendicitis. =20

  6. Étude de la technique d'échange ionique avec compétition. Cas du dépôt de platine sur support solide acide par échange cationique Research on the Ion Exchange Technique with Competition. Case of Platinum Deposit on a Solid Acid Support by Cation Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude détaillée de la technique de dépôt de platine sur support acide par échange cationique avec compétition. Cette technique permet d'obtenir à la fois une dispersion quasi atomique et une répartition macroscopique homogène du métal sur la surface du solide. En l'absence de limitations diffusionnelles extra-granulaires, les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec les prévisions théoriques . This article is a detailed examination of the technique of depositing platinum on an acid support by cation exchange with compétition. This technique produces both a quasi-atomic dispersion and a homogeneous macroscopic distribution of the métal onthe surface of the solid. In the absence of extragranular diffusion limitations, experimental findings are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  7. Unfair Lineups Make Witnesses More Likely to Confuse Innocent and Guilty Suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Melissa F; Wade, Kimberley A; Strange, Deryn

    2016-09-01

    Eyewitness-identification studies have focused on the idea that unfair lineups (i.e., ones in which the police suspect stands out) make witnesses more willing to identify the police suspect. We examined whether unfair lineups also influence subjects' ability to distinguish between innocent and guilty suspects and their ability to judge the accuracy of their identification. In a single experiment (N = 8,925), we compared three fair-lineup techniques used by the police with unfair lineups in which we did nothing to prevent distinctive suspects from standing out. Compared with the fair lineups, doing nothing not only increased subjects' willingness to identify the suspect but also markedly impaired subjects' ability to distinguish between innocent and guilty suspects. Accuracy was also reduced at every level of confidence. These results advance theory on witnesses' identification performance and have important practical implications for how police should construct lineups when suspects have distinctive features. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Using Internet Artifacts to Profile a Child Pornography Suspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus K. Rogers

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital evidence plays a crucial role in child pornography investigations. However, in the following case study, the authors argue that the behavioral analysis or “profiling” of digital evidence can also play a vital role in child pornography investigations. The following case study assessed the Internet Browsing History (Internet Explorer Bookmarks, Mozilla Bookmarks, and Mozilla History from a suspected child pornography user’s computer. The suspect in this case claimed to be conducting an ad hoc law enforcement investigation. After the URLs were classified (Neutral; Adult Porn; Child Porn; Adult Dating sites; Pictures from Social Networking Profiles; Chat Sessions; Bestiality; Data Cleaning; Gay Porn, the Internet history files were statistically analyzed to determine prevalence and trends in Internet browsing. First, a frequency analysis was used to determine a baseline of online behavior. Results showed 54% (n = 3205 of the URLs were classified as “neutral” and 38.8% (n = 2265 of the URLs were classified as a porn website. Only 10.8% of the URLs were classified as child pornography websites. However when the IE history file was analyzed by visit, or “hit,” count, the Pictures/Profiles (31.5% category had the highest visit count followed by Neutral (19.3%, Gay Porn (17%, and Child Porn (16.6%. When comparing the frequency of URLs to the Hit Count for each pornography type, it was noted that the accused was accessing gay porn, child porn, chat rooms, and picture profiles (i.e., from Facebook more often than adult porn and neutral websites. The authors concluded that the suspect in this case was in fact a child pornography user and not an ad hoc investigator, and the findings from the behavioral analysis were admitted as evidence in the sentencing hearing for this case. The authors believe this case study illustrates the ability to conduct a behavioral analysis of digital evidence. More work is required to further validate the

  9. Economical Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard; Davis, Robert; Linford, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition is a self limiting deposition process that can produce films at a user specified height. At BYU we have designed a low cost and automated atomic layer deposition system. We have used the system to deposit silicon dioxide at room temperature using silicon tetrachloride and tetramethyl orthosilicate. Basics of atomic layer deposition, the system set up, automation techniques and our system's characterization are discussed.

  10. Challenges with diagnosing and investigating suspected active tuberculosis disease in military trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David; Webber, Bryant J; Hetrick, Steven M; Owen, Jerry B; Blasi, Audra A; Steele, Bernadette M; Yun, Heather C

    2017-08-01

    Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2016, a total of 14 U.S. and international military personnel in training at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX, were hospitalized due to suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB); of these, five personnel were diagnosed with active TB disease. Only one TB case had pulmonary symptoms, but these symptoms were not suggestive of TB. The incidence rate in the training population was 1.89 per 100,000 population (95% CI: 0.81, 4.42), with a higher rate when restricted to international military students attending the Defense Language Institute English Language Center. No instances of TB transmission were identified. The variety of atypical presentations and their resulting diagnostic and public health challenges prompted this retrospective review of all hospitalized cases. This case series highlights both the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion when TB is being considered in close congregate settings as well as the risk of overreliance on acid-fast bacilli staining and nucleic acid amplification testing for ruling out active pulmonary disease in young, otherwise healthy trainees. Practical solutions are suggested.

  11. A seasonal nitrogen deposition budget for Rocky Mountain National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K B; Carrico, C M; Kreidenweis, S M; Schichtel, B; Malm, W C; Collett, J L

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen deposition is a concern in many protected ecosystems around the world, yet few studies have quantified a complete reactive nitrogen deposition budget including all dry and wet, inorganic and organic compounds. Critical loads that identify the level at which nitrogen deposition negatively affects an ecosystem are often defined using incomplete reactive nitrogen budgets. Frequently only wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate are considered, despite the importance of other nitrogen deposition pathways. Recently, dry deposition pathways including particulate ammonium and nitrate and gas phase nitric acid have been added to nitrogen deposition budgets. However, other nitrogen deposition pathways, including dry deposition of ammonia and wet deposition of organic nitrogen, still are rarely included. In this study, a more complete seasonal nitrogen deposition budget was constructed based on observations during a year-long study period from November 2008 to November 2009 at a location on the east side of Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado, USA. Measurements included wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm, nitrate, and ammonium) concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen, and atmospheric gas phase concentrations of ammonia, nitric acid, and NO2. Dry deposition fluxes were determined from measured ambient concentrations and modeled deposition velocities. Total reactive nitrogen deposition by all included pathways was found to be 3.65 kg N x ha(-1) yr(-1). Monthly deposition fluxes ranged from 0.06 to 0.54 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1), with peak deposition in the month of July and the least deposition in December. Wet deposition of ammonium and nitrate were the two largest deposition pathways, together contributing 1.97 kg N x ha(-1)yr(-1) or 54% of the total nitrogen deposition budget for this region. The next two largest deposition pathways were wet

  12. Distemper in raccoons and foxes suspected of having rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.; Williams, F.P.

    1958-01-01

    1) Twenty-one raccoons and 3 red foxes were collected from areas where suspected rabies occurred. All were found to be nonrabid. 2) Distemper was diagnosed in 14 of the 21 raccoons by demonstrating intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in the brain and visceral tissues. Two of the 3 foxes were considered to have distemper; the clinical signs were typical and mouse inoculation tests were negative for rabies. 3) Deaths of the other 7 raccoons were attributed to: leishmaniasis 1, gastritis 1, bronchopneumonia 1, parasitism 2, car injury 1; 1 showed no significant lesions. The death of 1 fox was attributed to parasitism. 4) Distemper may be a frequent cause of death in raccoons and foxes, in epizootics which simulate rabies.

  13. Diagnosis of suspected venous thromboembolic disease in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Evans, A.L.; Owen, A.R.; Gleeson, F.V.

    2006-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease is a leading cause of maternal mortality during pregnancy. Early and accurate radiological diagnosis is essential as anticoagulation is not without risk and clinical diagnosis is unreliable. Although the disorder is potentially treatable, unnecessary treatment should be avoided. Most of the diagnostic imaging techniques involve ionizing radiation which exposes both the mother and fetus to finite radiation risks. There is a relative lack of evidence in the literature to guide clinicians and radiologists on the most appropriate method of assessing this group of patients. This article will review the role of imaging of suspected venous thromboembolic disease in pregnant patients, highlight contentious issues such as radiation risk, intravenous contrast use in pregnancy and discuss the published guidelines, as well as suggesting an appropriate imaging algorithm based on the available evidence

  14. Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Stacy M; Hatten, Kristin; Grant-Beuttler, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate difficulty with feedforward motor control and use varied compensatory strategies. To examine gross motor function changes following strength training in a child with motor control difficulties. A girl aged 6 years 11 months, with apraxia and hypotonia, and demonstrating motor delays consistent with DCD. Twenty-four strength training sessions were completed using a universal exercise unit. Postintervention scores significantly improved on the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition, and the Canadian occupational performance measure scores and raised the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire, revised 2007, scores above the range where DCD is suspected. Nonsignificant changes in strength were observed. Improved function and significant gains in manual coordination were observed following blocked practice of isolated, simple joint movements during strength training. Improved motor skills may be because of effective use of feedforward control and improved stabilization. Strength training does not rehearse skills using momentum, explaining nonsignificant changes in locomotor or locomotion areas.

  15. Management of suspected monogenic lung fibrosis in a specialised centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Borie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available At least 10% of patients with interstitial lung disease present monogenic lung fibrosis suspected on familial aggregation of pulmonary fibrosis, specific syndromes or early age of diagnosis. Approximately 25% of families have an identified mutation in genes mostly involved in telomere homeostasis, and more rarely in surfactant homeostasis. Beyond pathophysiological knowledge, detection of these mutations has practical consequence for patients. For instance, mutations involved in telomere homeostasis are associated with haematological complications after lung transplantation and may require adapted immunosuppression. Moreover, relatives may benefit from a clinical and genetic evaluation that should be specifically managed. The field of genetics of pulmonary fibrosis has made great progress in the last 10 years, raising specific problems that should be addressed by a specialised team.

  16. [Diagnostic strategy in patients with clinically suspected deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantoni, Margit Yvonne; Kristensen, M.; Brogaard, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The standard method for diagnosing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) involves determination of D-dimer and ultrasound scanning. In an attempt to reduce the number of ultrasound examinations we have supplemented this with a clinical probability estimate for DVT (DVT-score) over one year....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 508 consecutive patients presenting in the emergency room with suspected DVT had D-dimer and DVT-score performed. Patients with non-elevated D-dimer and a low or moderate DVT score received no treatment. The remainder had ultrasound scanning from the groin to the popliteal...... patients with normal D-dimer had high DVT-scores, none had DVT, so that the benefit from determining DVT-scores was modest. Ultrasound scanning revealed DVT in 85 out of 397 patients with elevated D-dimer. A repeat examination was performed in 91 patients with persisting symptoms, and disclosed DVT in two...

  17. Suspected seminal vesiculitis in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Jennifer J; Velguth, Karen E; Backues, Kay A

    2011-09-01

    A 32-year-old male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) underwent routine transrectal stimulation for semen collection as part of an artificial insemination program. The procedure consisted of a preinsemination semen collection followed by two consecutive days of semen collections for artificial insemination. The second day's sample contained large numbers of inflammatory cells, intracellular bacteria, and phagocytized sperm. Semen was submitted for culture and sensitivity. Culture revealed Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus intermedius, Kocuria roseus, and an unidentified gram-positive organism. Empirical antibiotic therapy with trimethoprim sulfa was initiated and then changed to enrofloxacin based on sensitivity panel results for a total of 28 days of treatment. Diagnostic semen collections were performed during treatment and 2 wk posttreatment to determine the success of therapy. Posttreatment collections revealed resolution of the inflammation. The origin of the infection was suspected to be the seminal vesicles.

  18. Unenhanced MR Imaging in adults with clinically suspected acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Achiam, Michael

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis or another surgery-requiring condition in an adult population scheduled for emergency appendectomy based on a clinical diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis. MATERIALS...... radiologists and one surgeon independent of each other and compared with surgical and pathological records. RESULTS: According to the surgical and histopathological findings 30 of 48 patients (63%) had acute appendicitis. Of the remaining 18 patients, 4 patients had no reasons for the clinical symptoms and 14...... patients had other pathology. For the three reviewers the performance of MRI in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis showed the following sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranges: 83-93%, 50-83% and 77-83%. Moderate (kappa=0.51) and fair (kappa=0.31) interobserver agreements in the MR diagnosis of acute...

  19. Optical spectroscopy of known and suspected Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; Fuller, G.A.; California Univ., Berkeley)

    1985-01-01

    Optical spectra of a number of suspected Herbig-Haro objects are presented. From these, the nature of these nebulosities are determined. Several of the nebulae are of very high density, perhaps due to their extreme youth. Extinctions measured toward DG Tau HH and the L1551 IRS 5 optical jet are in each case substantially less than the stellar values. It is suggested that this phenomenon reflects the existence of appreciably thick circumstellar dust disks around these, and two additional, exciting stars. Shock model diagnostics suggest that the emission lines in these Herbig-Haro nebulae arise in modest velocity shocks with sizable preshock densities in several cases. Radial velocities enable lower limits to be placed on the mass loss rates of those stars that have been detected in the radio continuum. 39 references

  20. First report of suspected ethylene glycol poisoning in 2 dogs in South Africa : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Keller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene glycol (anti-freeze toxicity is a serious emergency in both veterinary and human medicine. Ethylene glycol (E/G is the active anti-freeze principle in radiator water additives. It is odourless, colourless and has a sweet taste. As little as 5 mℓ or 20 mℓ is sufficient to kill a cat or a dog, respectively. Ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed and metabolised in the liver to oxalate, which is deposited as calcium oxalate in the kidneys causing irreversible damage. This report describes 2 dogs that were suspected to have ingested ethylene glycol. The report contains a description of the 3 stages of ethylene glycol toxicity as well as a short discussion of the treatment. Public awareness about the dangers of anti-freeze will help in limiting exposure of pets and humans to this potentially fatal toxin. Veterinarians need to be aware of anti-freeze toxicity as delayed recognition and treatment will lead to the death of the patient.

  1. Investigating suspected acute pulmonary embolism - what are hospital clinicians thinking?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, A.S.; Worthy, S.; Keir, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To assess local clinical knowledge of the appropriate investigation of suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and this compare with the 2003 British Thoracic Society (BTS) guidelines as a national reference standard. Methods: A clinical questionnaire was produced based on the BTS guidelines. One hundred and eight-six participants completed the questionnaires at educational sessions for clinicians of all grades, within a single NHS Trust. The level of experience amongst participants ranged from final year medical students to consultant physicians. Results: The clinicians were divided into four groups based on seniority: Pre-registration, Junior, Middle, and Senior. Forty-six point eight percent of all the clinicians correctly identified three major risk factors for PE and 25.8% recognized the definition of the recommended clinical probability score from two alternatives. Statements regarding the sensitivity of isotope lung imaging and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) received correct responses from 41.4 and 43% of participants, respectively, whilst 81.2% recognized that an indeterminate ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy (V/Q) study requires further imaging. The majority of clinicians correctly answered three clinical scenario questions regarding use of D-dimers and imaging (78, 85, and 57.5%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four groups for any of the eight questions. Conclusions: The recommended clinical probability score was unfamiliar to all four groups of clinicians in the present study, and the majority of doctors did not agree that a negative CTPA or isotope lung scintigraphy reliably excluded PE. However, questions based on clinical scenarios received considerably higher rates of correct responses. The results indicate that various aspects of the national guidelines on suspected acute pulmonary embolism are unfamiliar to many UK hospital clinicians. Further research is needed to identify methods to improve

  2. The impact of ultrasound in suspected acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracey, D.; McClure, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate prospectively the impact of an appendix ultrasound (US) service on the clinical management of patients presenting with suspected acute appendicitis. Materials and methods: The referring clinician completed a proforma for patients presenting with suspected acute appendicitis. Two visual analogue scales assessed clinical suspicion before and after knowledge of laboratory results. The clinician also indicated if they intended to operate had US been unavailable. During a 3-year period, 327 patients were examined by graded-compression US and diagnosed 'positive' or 'negative' for acute appendicitis. Findings were correlated with histopathology results. The referring clinician completed a retrospective audit questionnaire to assess user satisfaction. Results: Clinical suspicion was altered by knowledge of laboratory results. The decision to operate if US had been unavailable, was 'yes' in 70 cases (group A), 'no' in 231 (group B), and incomplete in 26 (group C). In group A, 31 patients (44.3%) had a negative US and 25 avoided surgery. US identified 39 cases of appendicitis and 37 appendicectomies confirmed appendicitis in 34 cases. In group B, 72 (31.2%) patients had a positive US and 66 appendicectomies confirmed 51 cases of appendicitis. The sensitivity of US was 94.7% in group A, 93.3% in group B and 93.8% overall. Specificity was 90.6% in group A, 91.2% in group B and 91.3% overall. US findings were contrary to intended surgical management in 103 cases. Management was altered in 97 cases (32.2%), with a positive outcome in 85 (28.2%). The referrers found US of appendix very useful in planning appropriate management. Conclusion: US of the appendix increases diagnostic accuracy, alters management and is more sensitive and specific than clinical impression, either alone, or in conjunction with laboratory results

  3. Results of photorefractive keratectomy in keratoconus suspects at 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Ozdek, S C; Konuk, O; Akata, F; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2000-01-01

    We studied the long-term results of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in keratoconus suspects detected by videokeratography (TMS). Bilateral inferior corneal steepening was detected in 6 candidates for PRK presenting with moderate myopia or astigmatism. Mean follow-up was 44.5 +/- 4.4 months (range, 38 to 54 mo). Mean spherical equivalent refraction was -5.18 +/- 1.60 D (mean sphere, -4.73 D; mean cyclinder, -0.92 D) which was stable for at least the preceding year. The quantitative measurement of inferior corneal steepening (I-S value) was greater than +1.60 (mean, 1.83 +/- 0.11) in all eyes. An Aesculap Meditec Mel 60 excimer laser was used for the PRK procedures and mean follow-up was 44.5 months. Postoperative pachymetric measurements were also performed in 6 eyes. Postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 in 8 eyes (66.6%) and 20/32 or better in all eyes with a mean postoperative spherical equivalent refraction of -0.70 +/- 0.74 D (mean sphere, -0.63 D; mean cyclinder, -0.39 D). Five eyes (41.6%) were within +/- 0.50 D spherical equivalent refraction. Inferior steepening was associated with thinning of the inferior cornea which was statistically significantly thinner than the superior thickness (Student's t-test, P < .05). There were no wound healing problems or any sign that the excimer laser adversely affected the cornea during follow-up. Photorefractive keratectomy seems to be a safe procedure for reducing or eliminating myopia or astigmatism in keratoconus suspect eyes-most probably forme fruste keratoconus-with a stable refraction, but this may be different in eyes with early keratoconus, known to be a progressive disease.

  4. Evaluation of basophil activation test in suspected food hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Patrizia; Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Testoni, Claudia; Pala, Gianni; Corsetti, Maura; Colombo, Giselda; Meriggi, Antonio; Moscato, Gianna

    2017-07-01

    Food hypersensitivity is characterized by a wide range of symptoms. The relationship between symptoms and food is more frequently suspected than objectively proven. Basophil activation test (BAT) is based on the evaluation of activation markers on blood basophils in vitro stimulated with drugs or allergens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAT when introduced in the routine work-up of suspected food hypersensitivity. BAT was requested in subjects with food adverse reactions when a discrepancy existed among history and skin prick test (SPT) and/or specific IgE. Data from 150 subjects were analysed using CD63 as basophil activation marker. Thirty controls were evaluated for cut-offs. Immunoblots was performed with the sera of representative subjects positive for BAT and negative for SPT and sIgE. 1,024 BAT were carried out, the agreement (positive/positive and negative/negative) was 78.5% for BAT vs. SPT and 78.3% for BAT vs. IgE. Atopic patients, but not atopic controls, more frequently had a positive BAT than non-atopic patients (P tested food) and both negative sIgE and SPT. Immunoblots revealed the presence of sIgE for the tested foods in representative patients with positive BAT, negative SPT and sIgE. Introduction of BAT in routine of food hypersensitivity, limited to subjects with a discrepancy between history and traditional tests, might be useful particularly when total IgE are low. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  5. Reliability of Examination Findings in Suspected Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Todd A; Ambroggio, Lilliam; Brokamp, Cole; Rattan, Mantosh S; Crotty, Eric J; Kachelmeyer, Andrea; Ruddy, Richard M; Shah, Samir S

    2017-09-01

    The authors of national guidelines emphasize the use of history and examination findings to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in outpatient children. Little is known about the interrater reliability of the physical examination in children with suspected CAP. This was a prospective cohort study of children with suspected CAP presenting to a pediatric emergency department from July 2013 to May 2016. Children aged 3 months to 18 years with lower respiratory signs or symptoms who received a chest radiograph were included. We excluded children hospitalized ≤14 days before the study visit and those with a chronic medical condition or aspiration. Two clinicians performed independent examinations and completed identical forms reporting examination findings. Interrater reliability for each finding was reported by using Fleiss' kappa (κ) for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for continuous variables. No examination finding had substantial agreement (κ/ICC > 0.8). Two findings (retractions, wheezing) had moderate to substantial agreement (κ/ICC = 0.6-0.8). Nine findings (abdominal pain, pleuritic pain, nasal flaring, skin color, overall impression, cool extremities, tachypnea, respiratory rate, and crackles/rales) had fair to moderate agreement (κ/ICC = 0.4-0.6). Eight findings (capillary refill time, cough, rhonchi, head bobbing, behavior, grunting, general appearance, and decreased breath sounds) had poor to fair reliability (κ/ICC = 0-0.4). Only 3 examination findings had acceptable agreement, with the lower 95% confidence limit >0.4: wheezing, retractions, and respiratory rate. In this study, we found fair to moderate reliability of many findings used to diagnose CAP. Only 3 findings had acceptable levels of reliability. These findings must be considered in the clinical management and research of pediatric CAP. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of routine imaging of suspected appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N; Marsden, M; Bottomley, S; Nagarajah, N; Scutt, F; Toh, S

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The misdiagnosis of appendicitis and consequent removal of a normal appendix occurs in one in five patients in the UK. On the contrary, in healthcare systems with routine cross-sectional imaging of suspected appendicitis, the negative appendicectomy rate is around 5%. If we could reduce the rate in the UK to similar numbers, would this be cost effective? This study aimed to calculate the financial impact of negative appendicectomy at the Queen Alexandra Hospital and to explore whether a policy of routine imaging of such patients could reduce hospital costs. Materials and methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all appendicectomies over a 1-year period at our institution. Data were extracted on outcomes including appendix histology, operative time and length of stay to calculate the negative appendicectomy rate and to analyse costs. Results A total of 531 patients over 5 years of age had an appendicectomy. The negative appendicectomy rate was 22% (115/531). The additional financial costs of negative appendicectomy to the hospital during this period were £270,861. Universal imaging of all patients with right iliac fossa pain that could result in a 5% negative appendicectomy rate would cost between £67,200 and £165,600 per year but could save £33,896 (magnetic resonance imaging), £105,896 (computed tomography) or £132,296 (ultrasound) depending on imaging modality used. Conclusions Negative appendicectomy is still too frequent and results in additional financial burden to the health service. Routine imaging of patients with suspected appendicitis would not only reduce the negative appendicectomy rate but could lead to cost savings and a better service for our patients.

  7. Low-fluorine Stockwork Molybdenite Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Hammarstrom, Jane; Piatak, Nadine M.

    2009-01-01

    Low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits are closely related to porphyry copper deposits, being similar in their tectonic setting (continental volcanic arc) and the petrology (calc-alkaline) of associated igneous rock types. They are mainly restricted to the Cordillera of western Canada and the northwest United States, and their distribution elsewhere in the world may be limited. The deposits consist of stockwork bodies of molybdenite-bearing quartz veinlets that are present in and around the upper parts of intermediate to felsic intrusions. The deposits are relatively low grade (0.05 to 0.2 percent Mo), but relatively large, commonly >50 million tons. The source plutons for these deposits range from granodiorite to granite in composition; the deposits primarily form in continental margin subduction-related magmatic arcs, often concurrent with formation of nearby porphyry copper deposits. Oxidation of pyrite in unmined deposits or in tailings and waste rock during weathering can lead to development of acid-rock drainage and limonite-rich gossans. Waters associated with low-fluorine stockwork molybdenite deposits tend to be nearly neutral in pH; variable in concentrations of molybdenum (10,000 ug/L); below regulatory guidelines for copper, iron, lead, zinc, and mercury; and locally may exceed guidelines for arsenic, cadmium, and selenium.

  8. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in multiple sclerosis patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with increased dietary intake of saturated fatty acids. For many years it has been suspected that this disease might be associated with an imbalance between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids. We determined erythrocyte membrane fatty acids levels in Hot ...

  9. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, Michel

    2014-01-01

    also a favorable uranium source if a large part of the U is hosted in the glassy matrix. The largest U deposit in the world, Olympic Dam in South Australia is hosted by highly fractionated high-K plutonic and volcanic rocks, but the origin of the U mineralization is still unclear. Anatectic pegmatoids containing disseminated uraninite which results from the partial melting of uranium-rich metasediments and/or meta-volcanic felsic rocks, host large low grade U deposits such as the Roessing and Husab deposits in Namibia. The evaluation of the potentiality for igneous rocks to represent an efficient U source represents a critical step to consider during the early stages of exploration for most U deposit types. In particular a wider use of the magmatic inclusions to determine the parent magma chemistry and its U content is of utmost interest to evaluate the U source potential of sedimentary basins that contain felsic volcanic acidic tuffs. (author)

  10. Felsic magmatism and uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    favorable uranium source if a large part of the U is hosted in the glassy matrix. The largest U deposit in the world, Olympic Dam in South Australia is hosted by highly fractionated high-K plutonic and volcanic rocks, but the origin of the U mineralization is still unclear. Anatectic pegmatoids containing disseminated uraninite which results from the partial melting of uranium-rich metasediments and/or metavolcanic felsic rocks, host large low grade U deposits such as the Rössing and Husab deposits in Namibia. The evaluation of the potentiality for igneous rocks to represent an efficient U source represents a critical step to consider during the early stages of exploration for most U deposit types. In particular a wider use of the magmatic inclusions to determine the parent magma chemistry and its U content is relevant to evaluating the U source potential of sedimentary basins that contain felsic volcanic acidic tuffs. (author)

  11. Unfair lineups make witnesses more likely to confuse innocent and guilty suspects

    OpenAIRE

    Colloff, Melissa F.; Wade, Kimberley A.; Strange, D.

    2016-01-01

    Eyewitness-identification studies have focused on the idea that unfair lineups (i.e., ones in which the police suspect stands out) make witnesses more willing to identify the police suspect. We examined whether unfair lineups also influence subjects’ ability to distinguish between innocent and guilty suspects and their ability to judge the accuracy of their identification. In a single experiment (N = 8,925), we compared three fair-lineup techniques used by the police with unfair lineups in wh...

  12. Amnioinfusion for potential or suspected umbilical cord compression in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2012-01-18

    Amnioinfusion aims to prevent or relieve umbilical cord compression during labour by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. To assess the effects of amnioinfusion for potential or suspected umbilical cord compression on maternal and perinatal outcome . We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011). Randomised trials of amnioinfusion compared with no amnioinfusion in women with babies at risk of umbilical cord compression in labour. The original review had one author only (Justus Hofmeyr (GJH)). For this update, two authors (GJH and T Lawrie) assessed 13 additional trial reports for eligibility and quality. We extracted data and checked for accuracy. We have included 19 studies, with all but two studies having fewer than 200 participants. Transcervical amnioinfusion for potential or suspected umbilical cord compression was associated with the following reductions: caesarean section overall (13 trials, 1493 participants; average risk ratio (RR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.83); fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations (seven trials, 1006 participants; average RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.74); Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (12 trials, 1804 participants; average RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.72); meconium below the vocal cords (three trials, 674 participants, RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.92); postpartum endometritis (six trials, 767 participants; RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.81) and maternal hospital stay greater than three days (four trials, 1051 participants; average RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.78). Transabdominal amnioinfusion showed similar trends, though numbers studied were small.Mean cord umbilical artery pH was higher in the amnioinfusion group (seven trials, 855 participants; average mean difference 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.06) and there was a trend toward fewer neonates with a low cord arterial pH (less than 7.2 or as defined by trial authors) in the amnioinfusion group (eight trials, 972

  13. Pre-admission antibiotics for suspected cases of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarsanam, Thambu D; Rupali, Priscilla; Tharyan, Prathap; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Thomas, Kurien

    2017-06-14

    Meningococcal disease can lead to death or disability within hours after onset. Pre-admission antibiotics aim to reduce the risk of serious disease and death by preventing delays in starting therapy before confirmation of the diagnosis. To study the effectiveness and safety of pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo, and different pre-admission antibiotic regimens in decreasing mortality, clinical failure, and morbidity in people suspected of meningococcal disease. We searched CENTRAL (6 January 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 6 January 2017), Embase (1980 to 6 January 2017), Web of Science (1985 to 6 January 2017), LILACS (1982 to 6 January 2017), and prospective trial registries to January 2017. We previously searched CAB Abstracts from 1985 to June 2015, but did not update this search in January 2017. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing antibiotics versus placebo or no intervention, in people with suspected meningococcal infection, or different antibiotics administered before admission to hospital or confirmation of the diagnosis. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data from the search results. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous data. We included only one trial and so did not perform data synthesis. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We found no RCTs comparing pre-admission antibiotics versus no pre-admission antibiotics or placebo. We included one open-label, non-inferiority RCT with 510 participants, conducted during an epidemic in Niger, evaluating a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone versus a single dose of intramuscular long-acting (oily) chloramphenicol. Ceftriaxone was not inferior to chloramphenicol in reducing mortality (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.56; N = 503; 308 confirmed meningococcal meningitis; 26 deaths; moderate-quality evidence), clinical failures (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.32 to

  14. [Colorectal Carcinoma with Suspected Lynch Syndrome: A Multidisciplinary Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R; Schneider, C; Büttner, R; Reinacher-Schick, A; Tannapfel, A; Fürst, A; Rüschoff, J; Jakobeit, C; Royer-Pokora, B; Möslein, G

    2015-12-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most frequent hereditary cancer syndrome, accounting for approximately 3-5 % of all colorectal cancers. In addition, it is the most frequent predisposing hereditary cause of endometrial cancer and is also associated with gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, cancer of the urinary tract as well as several other cancers. In clinical practise Lynch syndrome is frequently not detected and many clinicians admit uncertainties regarding diagnostic procedures. Also, counselling of patients is considered difficult regarding therapeutic - especially prophylactic surgical and chemopreventive options and recommendations. Based on a review of available literature we discuss optimized strategies for improved detection of suspected Lynch syndrome patients. The aim of this review is to establish a clinical algorithm of how to proceed on a diagnostic level and to discuss surgical options at the time of a colorectal cancer. In order to identify patients with Lynch syndrome, family history should be ascertained and evaluated in regards to fulfilment of the Amsterdam-II- and/or the revised Bethesda criteria. Subsequently immunohistochemical staining for the mismatch-repair-genes, BRAF testing for MLH1 loss of expression, as well as testing for microsatellite instability in some, followed by genetic counselling and mutation analysis when indicated, is recommended. Pathological identification of suspected Lynch syndrome is readily feasible and straightforward. However, the need of performing these analyses in the tumor biopsy at the time of (gastroenterological) diagnosis of CRC neoplasia is essential, in order to offer patients the option of a prophylactically extended surgery and - as recommended in the German S3 guidelines - to discuss the option of a merely prophylactical hysterectomy and oophorectomy (if postmenopausal) in women. Close cooperation between gastroenterologists, pathologists and surgeons is warranted, so that patients may benefit from options of

  15. Electro-Deposition Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The electro-deposition laboratory can electro-deposit various coatings onto small test samples and bench level prototypes. This facility provides the foundation for...

  16. Atmospheric Deposition Modeling Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on model results for dry and total deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cation species. Components include deposition velocities, dry...

  17. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  18. Cost analysis of inappropriate treatments for suspected dermatomycoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fiammenghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Superficial mycoses are estimated to affect more than 20-25% of the world’s population with a consistent increase over the years. Most patients referred to our clinic for suspected dermatomycoses have already been treated with pharmacotherapy, without a previous mycological examination and many show changes in the clinical manifestations. Indeed, some medications, such as steroids, antiviral, antibiotics and antihistamines are not able to erase a fungal infection, but also they can cause atypical clinical manifestations. The consequences of inappropriate treatment include delayed diagnosis, prolonged healing time, and additional costs. The aims of this study were (1 to evaluate the incidence of increased costs attributable to inappropriate therapy sustained by the National Health Service and patients and (2 to highlight the importance of mycological evaluation before starting treatment, in order to improve diagnostic accuracy. An observational retrospective and prospective study was performed from September 2013 to February 2014, in 765 patients referred to our center (University Hospital “ Federico II” in Naples, Italy, for suspected mycological infection. The following treatments (alone or in combination were defined as inappropriate: (1 cortisone in a patient with at least one positive site; (2 antifungals in (a patients with all negative sites or (b ineffective antifungal treatment (in terms of drug chosen, dose or duration in those with all positive sites; or (3 antibiotics; (4 antivirals or (5 antihistamines, in patients with ≥ 1 positive site. Five hundred and fifty patients were using medications before the assessment visit. The total amount of avoidable costs related to inappropriate previous treatments was € 121,417, representing 74% of the total treatment costs. 253/550 patients received drugs also after the visit. For these patients, the cost of treatment prescribed after mycological testing was € 42,952, with a decrease

  19. Hideout in steam generator tube deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Franklin, K.J.; Turner, C.W.

    1998-05-01

    Hideout in deposits on steam generator tubes was studied using tubes coated with magnetite. Hideout from sodium chloride solutions at 279 degrees C was followed using an on-line high-temperature conductivity probe, as well as by chemical analysis of solution samples from the autoclave in which the studies were done. Significant hideout was observed only at a heat flux greater than 200 kW/m 2 , corresponding to a temperature drop greater than 2 degrees C across the deposits. The concentration factor resulting from the hideout increased highly non-linearly with the heat flux (varying as high as the fourth power of the heat flux). The decrease in the apparent concentration factor with increasing deposit thickness suggested that the pores in the deposit were occupied by a mixture of steam and water, which is consistent with the conclusion from the thermal conductivity measurements on deposits in a separate study. Analyses of the deposits after the hideout tests showed no evidence of any hidden-out solute species, probably due to the concentrations being very near the detection limits and to their escape from the deposit as the tests were being ended. This study showed that hideout in deposits may concentrate solutes in the steam generator bulk water by a factor as high as 2 x 10 3 . Corrosion was evident under the deposit in some tests, with some chromium enrichment on the surface of the tube. Chromium enrichment usually indicates an acidic environment, but the mobility required of chromium to become incorporated into the thick magnetite deposit may indicate corrosion under an alkaline environment. An alkaline environment could result from preferential accumulation of sodium in the solution in the deposit during the hideout process. (author)

  20. Not the usual suspects: addressing layers of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Florencia; Vanderpoel, Sheryl

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges the traditional account of vulnerability in healthcare which conceptualizes vulnerability as a list of identifiable subpopulations. This list of 'usual suspects', focusing on groups from lower resource settings, is a narrow account of vulnerability. In this article we argue that in certain circumstances middle-class individuals can be also rendered vulnerable. We propose a relational and layered account of vulnerability and explore this concept using the case study of cord blood (CB) banking. In the first section, two different approaches to 'vulnerability' are contrasted: categorical versus layered. In the second section, we describe CB banking and present a case study of CB banking in Argentina. We examine the types of pressure that middle-class pregnant women feel when considering CB collection and storage. In section three, we use the CB banking case study to critique the categorical approach to vulnerability: this model is unable to account for the ways in which these women are vulnerable. A layered account of vulnerability identifies several ways in which middle-class women are vulnerable. Finally, by utilizing the layered approach, this paper suggests how public health policies could be designed to overcome vulnerabilities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 111indium-antimyosin immunoscintigraphy in suspected myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, T.; Schuemichen, C.; Joseph, A.; Moser, E.; Zeiher, A.

    1991-01-01

    111 Indium-monoclonal antimyosin scans were carried out in 21 patients with suspected myocarditis, confirmed by reduced ejection volume, pericardial effusion and clinical follow up in 12 patients. Coronary heart disease was excluded angiographically in all cases. Quantitative evaluation of myocardial 111 In-antimyosin accumulation 48 hours after injection showed a pathological uptake in 10/12 patients with increased heart/lung ratios (Q 48 >1,58). Ratios were also elevated in 2 patients with cardiomyopathy, 2 suffering from vasculitis and 1 with dermatomyositis. Four patients without proven cardiac disease had normal ratios (Q 48 ≤1,58). Examination after 24 hours was of limited value, depending on the residual blood pool activity. Visual analysis of the scans showed a high interobserver variation despite a positive correlation with quantitative analysis (48 h p.i.: r=0,72; p 111 In-antimyosin scan as a screening method prior to myocardial biopsy. However, scintigraphy cannot definitely elucidate the cause of myocardial damage. Therefore, myocardial biopsy is still recommended after positive antimyosin scans. (orig.) [de

  2. Acute aortic dissection in patient with suspected pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešanović Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aortic dissection is one of the most fatal vascular emergencies. Almost 40% of the patients do not reach hospital in time while more than quarter die in the first 24 hours after the dissection begins. Case Report: A 37-year old man was admitted to our hospital with severe anterior chest pain which had lasted for over a week. Suspected aortic dissection was rapidly confirmed using imaging modalities - MDCT chest scan and TTE, followed by an urgent surgical management - Bentall procedure. MDCT chest scan also discovered adrenal incidentaloma defined as malignant, pheochromocytoma like mass. Due to the critical state of the patient, there was not enough time for further endocrinologic testing. Discussion and conclusion: When treating patients with pheochromocytoma and acute aortic disection, it is crucial to obtain a stable hemodynamic state before the surgery, since they can trigger a severe hypertensive crisis due to high levels of cathecholamines induced chronic vasoconctriction. The most vulnerable periods are the induction of anesthesia and perioperative hemodynamic oscillations, so treating patients with short acting alpha- 1 adrenergic blocking agents preoperatively has proven to be helpful - Phentolamine. Both dissection of aorta and pheochromocytoma present challenges for anesthesiologists and early recognition of symptoms is essential in establishing the diagnosis and reducing the mortality rate.

  3. Suspected invasive placenta: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bour, Laurence; Place, Vinciane; Bendavid, Sandra; Fargeaudou, Yann; Portal, Jean-Jacques; Ricbourg, Aude; Sebbag, Delphine; Dohan, Anthony; Soyer, Philippe; Vicaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    To determine the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing invasive placenta (IP). MRI findings in 32 women with suspected IP were evaluated independently by four readers. Interobserver agreement was calculated with kappa (κ) statistics. Associations between MRI findings and IP were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI for the diagnosis of IP were estimated. Sixteen women (16/32; 50 %) had confirmed IP. Interobserver correlation for the diagnosis of IP was fair (κ = 0.40). Univariate analysis revealed that thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface (P < 0.0001) was the most discriminating MRI variable in the differentiation between normal and IP. Overall sensitivity and specificity of MRI for the diagnosis of IP were 84 % [95 % CI: 75-94 %] and 80 % [95 % CI: 66-93 %], respectively. Thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface was the most accurate finding (88 %) in the diagnosis of IP. Multivariate analysis revealed that thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface was the single independent predictor of IP (P = 0.0006; OR = 64.99). MR imaging has 84 % sensitivity [95 % CI: 75-94 %] and 80 % specificity [95 % CI: 66-93 %] for the diagnosis of IP. Thinning or focal defect of the uteroplacental interface is the most discriminating independent MR variable in differentiating between normal placenta and IP. (orig.)

  4. Managing suspect and counterfeit items in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    Some manufacturers and suppliers use inferior materials and processes to make substandard supplies whose properties can vary significantly from established standards and specifications. Other suppliers distribute items that they know do not meet the purchase requirements or provide documentation that misrepresent actual conformance to established specifications and standards. These substandard supplies, or suspect/counterfeit items (S/CIs), pose potential threats to the safety of workers, the public and the environment and may also have a detrimental effect on security and operations at nuclear facilities. Nuclear facilities often procure and use commercial-grade items and the quality assurance policies/procedures and procurement methods are not always properly applied to avoid the entry of S/Cls into those facilities. This publication offers practical guidance on how to apply existing quality assurance programmes to effectively prevent the procurement and use of S/Cls. In particular, it provides a practical method of applying the requirements and guidance contained in the IAEA Safety Series 50-C/SG-Q: Code and Safety Guides on Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Installations (1996), to the S/CIs issue

  5. [Suspected pathogenic mutation identified in two cases with oculocutaneous albinism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangmei; Zheng, Meiling; Zhang, Guilin; Hua, Ailing

    2015-08-01

    To detect potential mutations in genes related with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism I-IV and ocular albinism type I in two couples who had given births to children with albinism. All exons of the non-syndromic albinism related genes TYR, OCA2, TYRP-1, MITF, SLC45A2 and GPR143 were subjected to deep sequencing. The results were verified with Sanger sequencing. For the two female carriers, the coding region of the TYR gene was found to harbor a frameshift mutation c.925_926insC, which was also suspected to have been pathogenic. In one of the male partners, a nonsense mutations c.832C>T was found, which was also known to be pathogenic. Another male partner was found to harbor a TYR gene mutation c.346C>T, which was also known to be a pathogenic nonsense mutation. The coding region of the TYR gene c.925_926insC (p.Thr309ThrfsX9) probably underlies the OCA1 disease phenotype.

  6. Three suspected cases of sugammadex-induced anaphylactic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takazawa, Tomonori; Tomita, Yukinari; Yoshida, Nagahide; Tomioka, Akihiro; Horiuchi, Tatsuo; Nagata, Chie; Orihara, Masaki; Yamada, Makiko Hardy; Saito, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Sugammadex has a unique mechanism of action and is widely used because of its safety and efficacy. A few recent reports have described allergic reactions to clinical doses of sugammadex. We hereby describe another series of cases of possible anaphylaxis to sugammadex. We present three suspected cases of sugammadex-induced anaphylactic shock, including a 13-year-old boy who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy, a 75-year-old woman who underwent left knee arthroplasty, and a 34-year-old man who underwent left pansinectomy for sinobronchitis. All three patients received general anesthesia with rocuronium and their tracheas were intubated. Shortly after injection of sugammadex for reversal of rocuronium, all of them experienced a decrease in blood pressure along with mucocutaneous erythema. In the most severe case, reintubation after extubation was required due to difficulty in manual ventilation. All patients recovered with anti-allergic therapy. On later investigation, all three patients had a positive skin reaction to sugammadex. Our results suggest that physicians using sugammadex should be aware of the possibility of sugammadex-induced anaphylaxis.

  7. Control of Suspect/Counterfeit and Defective Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheriff, Marnelle L.

    2013-09-03

    This procedure implements portions of the requirements of MSC-MP-599, Quality Assurance Program Description. It establishes the Mission Support Alliance (MSA) practices for minimizing the introduction of and identifying, documenting, dispositioning, reporting, controlling, and disposing of suspect/counterfeit and defective items (S/CIs). employees whose work scope relates to Safety Systems (i.e., Safety Class [SC] or Safety Significant [SS] items), non-safety systems and other applications (i.e., General Service [GS]) where engineering has determined that their use could result in a potential safety hazard. MSA implements an effective Quality Assurance (QA) Program providing a comprehensive network of controls and verification providing defense-in-depth by preventing the introduction of S/CIs through the design, procurement, construction, operation, maintenance, and modification of processes. This procedure focuses on those safety systems, and other systems, including critical load paths of lifting equipment, where the introduction of S/CIs would have the greatest potential for creating unsafe conditions.

  8. Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferronato, Angela E; Gilio, Alfredo E; Vieira, Sandra E

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate the frequency of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and to analyze their characteristics at hospital admission and clinical outcomes. a historical cohort study was performed in a reference service for pertussis, in which the research of respiratory viruses was also a routine for infants hospitalized with respiratory problems. All infants reported as suspected cases of pertussis were included. Tests for Bordetella pertussis (BP) (polymerase chain reaction/culture) and for respiratory viruses (RVs) (immunofluorescence) were performed. Patients who received macrolides before hospitalization were excluded. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Among the 67 patients studied, BP tests were positive in 44%, and 26% were positive for RV. There was no etiological identification in 35%, and RV combined with BP was identified in 5%. All patients had similar demographic characteristics. Cough followed by inspiratory stridor or cyanosis was a strong predictor of pertussis, as well as prominent leukocytosis and lymphocytosis. Rhinorrhea and dyspnea were more frequent in viral infections. Macrolides were discontinued in 40% of patients who tested positive for RV and negative for BP. the results suggest that viral infection can be present in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and etiological tests may enable a reduction in the use of macrolides in some cases. However, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory virus infection, by itself, does not exclude the possibility of infection with BP. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Suspected zonisamide-related anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, Audrey; Sammut, Veronique

    2017-12-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for sudden onset of cluster seizures. CLINICAL FINDINGS At an emergency clinic, the cat had hyperimmunoglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia. On referral, treatment with levetiracetam, zonisamide, and phenobarbital initially provided good control of cluster seizure activity (attributable to epilepsy of unknow origin). Two weeks later, assessments revealed that serum phenobarbital concentration was within the ideal range but serum zonisamide concentration exceeded the recommended therapeutic range. The dosage of zonisamide was therefore decreased. Four days after dosage reduction, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy. Cytologic analysis of lymph node aspirate samples revealed a heterogeneous population of well-differentiated lymphocytes, interpreted as marked reactivity. Although neoplasia could not be ruled out, hypersensitivity to phenobarbital was suspected, and this treatment was discontinued. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Despite cessation of phenobarbital administration, generalized peripheral lymphadenopathy progressed and hyperglobulinemia and cytopenias developed. These abnormalities resolved after discontinuation of zonisamide administration. The cat remained seizure free with no recurrence of the aforementioned concerns after reinstitution of phenobarbital treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of zonisamide-related lymphadenopathy, hyperglobulinemia, and cytopenias in a cat. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is well documented in human medicine, but little information has been published in the veterinary medical literature. Although the effects of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in this cat were serious, these effects were reversible with treatment discontinuation.

  10. The Lawyer in the Dutch Interrogation Room: Influence on Police and Suspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W-J. Verhoeven (Willem-Jan); L. Stevens (Lonneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn many European countries, providing a suspect in custody with legal aid before the first police interrogation is a heavily debated issue. In this paper, we report on an exploratory study on the use of coercion by the police and the use of the right to silence by suspects in 70 Dutch

  11. Occurrence of antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in patients with suspected tick-borne encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kalinová

    2015-09-01

    None of the examined patients with suspected TBE had the disease confirmed. Hoever, as shown by the results, the relative risk of occurrence of anaplasmosis is higher in people examined for some another vector-borne disease (in this case TBE. Therefore, the performance of screening examinations in patients suspected of having any tick-borne disease is very important.

  12. [Breath tests in children with suspected lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, P Ángela; Furió, C Simone; Arancibia, A Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Up to 70% of the world population is lactose intolerance. However, there are no epidemiological studies among Chilean pediatric population affected by this condition. Clinical characterization of a series of children who underwent the lactose intolerance breath test for lactose intolerance study, establishing intolerance and malabsorption frequencies, the most frequent symptoms, and test performance depending on the origin. Patients under 18 years old who took the lactose intolerance breath test in the Gastroenterology Laboratory of the Catholic University of Chile, and who were admitted due to clinically suspected lactose intolerance. Malabsorption was considered when there was as an increase of ≥20ppm above the baseline (H2) or ≥34ppm of H2 and methane (CH4) combined. Intolerance was considered when the above was associated with a symptom intensity score ≥7 during registration. The analysis included194 patients aged 1 to17 years of age. Of these, 102 (53%) presented with malabsorption, and 53 (27%) were intolerant. The frequency of lactose intolerance varied from 7.1 to 45.4%, and it occurred more frequently at older ages. The most common reported symptoms were abdominal pain, bloating and rumbling. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance can be investigated from the first years of life using the lactose breath test plus a symptom questionnaire. An increase in the frequency of intolerance with age, and a greater number of positive tests, if they were requested by a gastroenterologist, were observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Suspect/Counterfeit Items Information Guide for Subcontractors/Suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmar, Nancy D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Michael J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-18

    Counterfeiting of industrial and commercial grade items is an international problem that places worker safety, program objectives, expensive equipment, and security at risk. In order to prevent the introduction of Suspect/Counterfeit Items (S/CI), this information sheet is being made available as a guide to assist in the implementation of S/CI awareness and controls, in conjunction with subcontractor's/supplier's quality assurance programs. When it comes to counterfeit goods, including industrial materials, items, and equipment, no market is immune. Some manufactures have been known to misrepresent their products and intentionally use inferior materials and processes to manufacture substandard items, whose properties can significantly cart from established standards and specifications. These substandard items termed by the Department of Energy (DOE) as S/CI, pose immediate and potential threats to the safety of DOE and contractor workers, the public, and the environment. Failure of certain systems and processes caused by an S/CI could also have national security implications at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Nuclear Safety Rules (federal Laws), DOE Orders, and other regulations set forth requirements for DOE contractors to implement effective controls to assure that items and services meet specified requirements. This includes techniques to implement and thereby minimizing the potential threat of entry of S/CI to LANL. As a qualified supplier of goods or services to the LANL, your company will be required to establish and maintain effective controls to prevent the introduction of S/CI to LANL. This will require that your company warrant that all items (including their subassemblies, components, and parts) sold to LANL are genuine (i.e. not counterfeit), new, and unused, and conform to the requirements of the LANL purchase orders/contracts unless otherwise approved in writing to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) contract administrator

  14. Unenhanced MR Imaging in adults with clinically suspected acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta, E-mail: elcha@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Balslev, Ingegerd, E-mail: inbal@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Achiam, Michael, E-mail: micach01@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Nielsen, Yousef W., E-mail: yujwni01@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Adamsen, Sven, E-mail: svad@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Gocht-Jensen, Peter, E-mail: petgoc01@heh.reginh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Brisling, Steffen K., E-mail: stkibr01@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Logager, Vibeke B., E-mail: viloe@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Thomsen, Henrik S., E-mail: heth@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis or another surgery-requiring condition in an adult population scheduled for emergency appendectomy based on a clinical diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis. Materials and methods: The prospective study included 48 consecutive patients (29 female, 19 male, 18-70 years old, mean age = 37.1 years). MRI examination was designed to be comfortable and fast; no contrast was administered. The sequences were performed during quiet respiration. The MRI findings were reviewed by two radiologists and one surgeon independent of each other and compared with surgical and pathological records. Results: According to the surgical and histopathological findings 30 of 48 patients (63%) had acute appendicitis. Of the remaining 18 patients, 4 patients had no reasons for the clinical symptoms and 14 patients had other pathology. For the three reviewers the performance of MRI in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis showed the following sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranges: 83-93%, 50-83% and 77-83%. Moderate ({kappa} = 0.51) and fair ({kappa} = 0.31) interobserver agreements in the MR diagnosis of acute appendicitis were found between the reviewers. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values for overall performance of MRI in detecting pelvic abnormalities were 100%, 75% (3 of 4 healthy patients were identified by MRI) and 98%, respectively. Conclusion: Unenhanced fast MRI is feasible as an additional fast screening before the appendectomy. It may prevent unnecessary surgeries. The fast MRI examination can be adequately performed on an MRI unit of broad range of field strengths.

  15. [Clinical characteristics and management of infants less than 1-year-old suspected with allergy to cow's milk protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errázuriz, Germán; Lucero, Yalda; Ceresa, Sergio; Gonzalez, Mónica; Rossel, Maureen; Vives, Andrés

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is highly prevalent in infants (2-5%). It has a wide clinical spectrum, and confirmation through an oral food challenge (OFC) is relevant for its differential diagnosis. Information on this topic is scarce in Chile. To describe the demographic and clinical features of infants with suspected CMPA. A retrospective study of patients<1 year-old, treated for suspected CMPA between 2009 and 2011. Demographic data, symptoms of atopy, nutrition at the time of diagnosis, CMPA symptoms, diagnostic studies, and response to treatment were recorded. Diet response at least 4 weeks after milk modification, and clinical behavior when suspected foods were added back to the diet were considered standard diagnostic criteria. Descriptive statistics were performed using Epiinfo ™ software. The study included 106 infants, of whom, 51% male, 80% term newborns, 74% with≥1 atopic parent, and 34% with ≥1 parent/sibling with food allergy. The median age at onset of symptoms was 1.5 months (range 1.5-2m). Almost half (46%) were breast-feeding≥6m, with 15% receiving formula milk since the neonatal period, and 49% before the third month. Common symptoms were: vomiting (63%), colic (49%), and bleeding on passing stools (41%). No anaphylaxis was identified, and 61% had≥2 symptoms at debut. Only 34% were subjected to OFC. The most frequently requested tests were, test patch (43%), prick test (40%), and blood in stools (37%). 43% breast feeding with exclusion diet, 24% extensively hydrolysed formula, 26% amino acid formula, and 7% others. Demographic characteristics and risk factors were similar to those previously described in international literature. Clinical presentation was early in life, and digestive symptoms predominated. OFC was underused for diagnosis, and most of the tests requested did not change management. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Selective screening in neonates suspected to have inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: 13 patients (32.5%) were diagnosed as having IEM, 7 of them (53.8%) had urea cycle defect, 2 (15.4%) had maple syrup urine disease, while methylmalonic acidemia, fatty acid oxidation defect, mitochondrial disease, and galactosemia were diagnosed in one patient each (7.7%). Out of these patients, 12 patients ...

  17. The elusive endogenous adipogenic PPARy agonists: lining up the suspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrally placed in the development of adipocytes is the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Ligand-mediated activation of PPARgamma happens early during adipogenesis and is thought to prime adipose conversion. Although several fatty acids and their derivat...

  18. The elusive endogenous adipogenic PPARγ agonists: Lining up the suspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenborg, Philip; Petersen, Rasmus K.; Kouskoumvekaki, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is the key decisive factor controlling the development of adipocytes. Ligand-mediated activation of PPARγ occurs early during adipogenesis and is thought to prime adipose conversion. Although several fatty acids and their d...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in the management of suspected spinal canal disease in patients with known malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughrey, Gareth J.; Collins, Conor D.; Todd, Susan M.; Brown, Nicola M.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of spinal canal disease in patients with known malignancy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-five patients underwent a total of 159 spinal MRI examinations over a three-year period. Patients were examined using a 1.0T magnet and a phased array surface spine coil. Sagittal T1 weighted spin echo and STIR sequences were routinely employed. Axial T1 and T2 weighted spin echo images were obtained at sites of identified pathology. Contrast enhanced sagittal and axial T1 weighted spin echo images were acquired when the unenhanced appearances did not correlate with the clinical findings or when the images suggested intradural or intramedullary disease. RESULTS: Malignant disease affecting the spinal cord or cauda equina was noted in 104/159 (65%) patients (extradural n= 78, intradural n= 20, intramedullary n= 7); one patient had evidence of both intradural and intramedullary deposits. Multiple levels of extradural cord/cauda equina compression were present in 18/78 patients (23%). The thoracic spine was the most frequently affected (74%). Bone elements were the major component of extradural compression in 11/78 patients (14%). Intradural metastases were multiple in 15/20 patients (75%). Four of the six solitary intramedullary metastases were situated in the conus medullaris. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spine is the investigation of choice in patients with known malignancy and suspected spinal canal disease. Contrast-enhanced images should be acquired when the unenhanced appearances do not correlate with the clinical findings or when they suggest intradural or intramedullary disease. Loughrey, G.J. (2000)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in the management of suspected spinal canal disease in patients with known malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughrey, Gareth J.; Collins, Conor D.; Todd, Susan M.; Brown, Nicola M.; Johnson, Richard J

    2000-11-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of spinal canal disease in patients with known malignancy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-five patients underwent a total of 159 spinal MRI examinations over a three-year period. Patients were examined using a 1.0T magnet and a phased array surface spine coil. Sagittal T1 weighted spin echo and STIR sequences were routinely employed. Axial T1 and T2 weighted spin echo images were obtained at sites of identified pathology. Contrast enhanced sagittal and axial T1 weighted spin echo images were acquired when the unenhanced appearances did not correlate with the clinical findings or when the images suggested intradural or intramedullary disease. RESULTS: Malignant disease affecting the spinal cord or cauda equina was noted in 104/159 (65%) patients (extradural n= 78, intradural n= 20, intramedullary n= 7); one patient had evidence of both intradural and intramedullary deposits. Multiple levels of extradural cord/cauda equina compression were present in 18/78 patients (23%). The thoracic spine was the most frequently affected (74%). Bone elements were the major component of extradural compression in 11/78 patients (14%). Intradural metastases were multiple in 15/20 patients (75%). Four of the six solitary intramedullary metastases were situated in the conus medullaris. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spine is the investigation of choice in patients with known malignancy and suspected spinal canal disease. Contrast-enhanced images should be acquired when the unenhanced appearances do not correlate with the clinical findings or when they suggest intradural or intramedullary disease. Loughrey, G.J. (2000)

  1. Modular plants for small deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Moral, A.; Otero, J.L.; Suarez, E.

    1985-01-01

    The large investment required to recover uranium from small deposits is the greatest obstacle to their economic development. Various concepts (caravan mill, pure mill or semimobile mill) have been elaborated in different countries. Studies have also been made in Spain to develop a simple and economic flowsheet suitable for the beneficiation of small uranium deposits. An acid heap-leaching and solvent extraction process was chosen because there is already a great deal of experience of it in Spain. Modifications were necessary to make the equipment easy to transport and also to have a low and reusable investment when this flowsheet is used for small deposits. The aim was to develop a modular plant with all the elements fitted in compact units that needs little site preparation and little time and effort to connect the units. A standard small portable crushing plant can be borrowed and the mining operation and heap construction can be put to contract. There is a solvent extraction unit (150 m 3 /d) in continuous operation (24 h/d) and concentrate precipitation and handling facilities. The whole of the equipment is standard and as light as possible. Little civil engineering is required and the erection of the plant only needs a few months. The uranium capacity of these modular plants is between 35 and 50 t U 3 O 8 /a. Special consideration has been paid to regulations and the environmental aspects. (author)

  2. Sulfur accumulation and atmospherically deposited sulfate in the Lake States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. David; George Z. Gernter; David F. Grigal; Lewis F. Ohmann

    1989-01-01

    Characterizes the mass of soil sulfur (adjusted for nitrogen), and atmospherically deposited sulfate along an acid precipitation gradient from Minnesota to Michigan. The relationship of these variables, presented graphically through contour mapping, suggests that patterns of atmospheric wet sulfate deposition are reflected in soil sulfur pools.

  3. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  4. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Ash deposits formed during fuel thermal conversion and located on furnace walls and on convective pass tubes, may seriously inhibit the transfer of heat to the working fluid and hence reduce the overall process efficiency. Combustion of biomass causes formation of large quantities of troublesome...... ash deposits which contain significant concentrations of alkali, and earth-alkali metals. The specific composition of biomass deposits give different characteristics as compared to coal ash deposits, i.e. different physical significance of the deposition mechanisms, lower melting temperatures, etc....... Low melting temperatures make straw ashes especially troublesome, since their stickiness is higher at lower temperatures, compared to coal ashes. Increased stickiness will eventually lead to a higher collection efficiency of incoming ash particles, meaning that the deposit may grow even faster...

  5. Geophysical examinations of deposits and old sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Geomagnetic total field measurements by proton magnetometers with memories form the systematic exploration of suspected surfaces of old sites and old sites of an important, flexible and reasonably priced geophysical process. From experience, there are two important main applications. These are firstly the detailed work on location problems jointly with and supplementing multi-temporal evaluations of the air picture and secondly to locate iron in deposits. The particular advantage of geo-magnetics is that even in the most difficult measurement conditions, with the aid of the suitable analytical method evaluation, clear results and practically usable information can be obtained. In comparison with this, other high resolution methods of measurement, such as electromagnetic charting, for example (problem of integral anomaly pictures which cannot be evaluated) and geo-radar (loam covering, trickled water saturation) are limited to a considerably narrower measurement and evaluation spectrum in practical applications. (orig.) [de

  6. Uraniferous surficial deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toens, P.D.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1980-10-01

    As a result of the discovery of uranium in surficial deposits of Tertiary to Recent age, in Australia and Southern Africa, increasing attention is being paid to the location and understanding of the genesis of these deposits. The paper discusses the definitions and terminology currently in use and a classification of these deposits is presented. It is concluded that in order to obtain a measure of clarity, the terms calcrete, gypcrete and dolocrete should not be used to describe the uraniferous valley-fill deposits of Southern Africa and Australia [af

  7. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for TB patients and suspects in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, J; Kizito, W; Njoroge, A; Wambua, N; Nganga, L; Mburu, M; Mansoer, J; Marum, L; Phillips, E; Chakaya, J; De Cock, K M

    2008-03-01

    Integrated tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services in a resource-constrained setting. Pilot provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) for TB patients and suspects. Through partnerships, resources were mobilised to establish and support services. After community sensitisation and staff training, PITC was introduced to TB patients and then to TB suspects from December 2003 to December 2005. Of 5457 TB suspects who received PITC, 89% underwent HIV testing. Although not statistically significant, TB suspects with TB disease had an HIV prevalence of 61% compared to 63% for those without. Of the 614 suspects who declined HIV testing, 402 (65%) had TB disease. Of 2283 patients referred for cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, 1951 (86%) were enrolled, and of 1727 patients assessed for antiretroviral treatment (ART), 1618 (94%) were eligible and 1441 (83%) started treatment. PITC represents a paradigm shift and is feasible and acceptable to TB patients and TB suspects. Clear directives are nevertheless required to change practice. When offered to TB suspects, PITC identifies large numbers of persons requiring HIV care. Community sensitisation, staff training, multitasking and access to HIV care contributed to a high acceptance of HIV testing. Kenya is using this experience to inform national response and advocate wide PITC implementation in settings faced with the TB-HIV epidemic.

  8. Uranium deposit types and resources of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, L.; Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    The uranium-related activities in Argentina begun in the 1950s and, as a result of the systematic exploration, several types of deposits have been discovered since then: volcanic and caldera-related, sandstone-hosted, vein spatially related to granite (intragranitic and perigranitic) and surficial. The deposits that have been the focus of the most important uranium exploitations are the ones that belong to the volcaniclastic type. These are localized in Permian formations associated with synsedimentary acid volcanism in the Sierra Pintada district (Mendoza province). The volcanic and caldera related type is also present in the Laguna Colorada deposit (Chubut province) located in the San Jorge basin (Cretaceous). Several important uranium mineralisations have been identified in Cretaceous fluvial sandstones and conglomerates, among which the most relevant is the Cerro Solo deposit (Chubut province) that corresponds to the paleochannel structure subtype. Other subtypes of sandstone model have been studied. For instance, the Don Otto deposit (Salta province), located in the Salta Group Basin (Cretaceous - Tertiary), belongs to the tabular U-V subtype. The roll front subtype can be also found in the Los Mogotes Colorados deposit (La Rioja province) which is hosted by Carboniferous continental sandstones. The uranium mineralisations in veins and disseminated episyenites within peraluminous leucogranites of the Sierras Pampeanas (Cordoba and San Luis provinces) represent other types of existing deposits. These granites are Devonian – Carboniferous and the related deposits are comparable to those from the Middle European Variscan. There are also other vein-type uranium deposits located in metamorphic basement in the periphery of high potassium calcalkaline granites (Sierras Pampeanas of Catamarca and La Rioja provinces), where the mineralisation control is mainly structural. The current uranium identified resources of the country are approximately 24,000 tU in the

  9. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caricato, A.P.; Arima, V.; Catalano, M.; Cesaria, M.; Cozzoli, P.D.; Martino, M.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.; Scarfiello, R.; Tunno, T.; Zacheo, A.

    2014-01-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  10. MAPLE deposition of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caricato, A.P., E-mail: annapaola.caricato@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Arima, V.; Catalano, M. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesaria, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cozzoli, P.D. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, A.; Rella, R. [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Scarfiello, R. [National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Tunno, T. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Zacheo, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL), CNR Istituto Nanoscienze, c/o Distretto Tecnologico, Via Arnesano n. 16, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    The matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) has been recently exploited for depositing films of nanomaterials by combining the advantages of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles and laser-based techniques. MAPLE-deposition of nanomaterials meeting applicative purposes demands their peculiar properties to be taken into account while planning depositions to guarantee a congruent transfer (in terms of crystal structure and geometric features) and explain the deposition outcome. In particular, since nanofluids can enhance thermal conductivity with respect to conventional fluids, laser-induced heating can induce different ablation thermal regimes as compared to the MAPLE-treatment of soft materials. Moreover, nanoparticles exhibit lower melting temperatures and can experience pre-melting phenomena as compared to their bulk counterparts, which could easily induce shape and or crystal phase modification of the material to be deposited even at very low fluences. In this complex scenario, this review paper focuses on examples of MAPLE-depositions of size and shape controlled nanoparticles for different applications highlights advantages and challenges of the MAPLE-technique. The influence of the deposition parameters on the physical mechanisms which govern the deposition process is discussed.

  11. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samir A; Berger, Robert L; McDermott, John; Gupta, Pranav; Monteith, David; Connor, Alyson; Lin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  12. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Climax-type porphyry molybdenum deposits, as defined here, are extremely rare; thirteen deposits are known, all in western North America and ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to mainly Tertiary. They are consistently found in a postsubduction, extensional tectonic setting and are invariably associated with A-type granites that formed after peak activity of a magmatic cycle. The deposits consist of ore shells of quartz-molybdenite stockwork veins that lie above and surrounding the apices of cupola-like, highly evolved, calc-alkaline granite and subvolcanic rhyolite-porphyry bodies. These plutons are invariably enriched in fluorine (commonly >1 percent), rubidium (commonly >500 parts per million), and niobium-tantalum (Nb commonly >50 parts per million). The deposits are relatively high grade (typically 0.1-0.3 percent Mo) and may be very large (typically 100-1,000 million tons). Molybdenum, as MoS2, is the primary commodity in all known deposits. The effect on surface-water quality owing to natural influx of water or sediment from a Climax-type mineralized area can extend many kilometers downstream from the mineralized area. Waste piles composed of quartz-silica-pyrite altered rocks will likely produce acidic drainage waters. The potential exists for concentrations of fluorine or rare metals in surface water and groundwater to exceed recommended limits for human consumption near both mined and unmined Climax-type deposits.

  14. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  15. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  16. 9 CFR 381.78 - Condemnation of carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. 381.78 Section 381.78 Animals and Animal... carcasses and parts: separation of poultry suspected of containing biological residues. (a) At the time of... to be not adulterated. (b) When a lot of poultry suspected of containing biological residues is...

  17. Anesthetic management in patients suspected of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease -A case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Chi Bum; Choi, Young Sil; Park, Eun Young; Chang, Dong Jin; Lee, Soo Kyung; Choi, Hyun; Moon, Hyun Soo

    2011-09-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder in which accumulation of the pathogenic prion protein induces neuronal damage and results in distinct pathologic features. This abnormal prion is an infectious protein and resistant to methods of sterilization currently being used. Therefore, management of definite, or suspected CJD patients requires additional precautions. We report our experience of a patient who had undergone brain biopsy for suspected of CJD. The patient was confirmed to have sporadic CJD.

  18. The role of bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of the suspected abused child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made of the radiographic and scintigraphic skeletal surveys of 261 children who were suspected victims of abuse. Radiography was positive in 105 children and produced false-negative results in 32; scintigraphy was positive in 120 children and produced false-negative results in two. Although radiography has traditionally been used to assess the skeletal injuries of battered children, the authors conclude that scintigraphy should be the screening procedure of choice for children suspected of having been abused

  19. Randomized clinical trial of preoperative dexamethasone on postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleif, J.; Kirkegaard, A.; Vilandt, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the effects of preoperative dexamethasone in acute surgical patients. This study examined the effects of 8 mg dexamethasone administered intravenously 30 min before surgery for suspected acute appendicitis. Methods: A multicentre, parallel-group, double......-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted at two university hospitals in Denmark. Adults undergoing laparoscopic surgery for suspected appendicitis were eligible for inclusion. Participants, healthcare staff and investigators were blinded until all data analysis had been done. The primary outcome...

  20. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.

    2017-10-31

    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  1. [Characteristics of communication systems of suspected occupational disease in the Autonomous Communities, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Gómez, Montserrat; Urbaneja Arrúe, Félix; García López, Vega; Estaban Buedo, Valentín; Rodríguez Suárez, Valentín; Miralles Martínez-Portillo, Lourdes; González García, Isabel; Egea Garcia, Josefa; Corraliza Infanzon, Emma; Ramírez Salvador, Laura; Briz Blázquez, Santiago; Armengol Rosell, Ricard; Cisnal Gredilla, José María; Correa Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Coto Fernández, Juan Carlos; Díaz Peral, Mª Rosario; Elvira Espinosa, Mercedes; Fernández Fernández, Iñigo; García-Ramos Alonso, Eduardo; Martínez Arguisuelas, Nieves; Rivas Pérez, Ana Isabel

    2017-03-17

    There are several initiatives to develop systems for the notification of suspected occupational disease (OD) in different autonomous communities. The objective was to describe the status of development and characteristics of these systems implemented by the health authorities. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on the existence of systems for the information and surveillance of suspected OD, their legal framework, responsible institution and availability of information. A specific meeting was held and a survey was designed and sent to all autonomous communities and autonomous cities (AACC). Information was collected on the existence of a regulatory standard, assigned human resources, notifiers, coverage and number of suspected OD received, processed and recognized. 18 of 19 AACC responded. 10 have developed a suspected OD notification system, 3 of them supported by specific autonomic law. The notifiers were physicians of the public health services, physicians of the occupational health services and, in 2 cases, medical inspectors. 7 AACC had specific software to support the system. The OD recognition rate of suspected cases was 53% in the Basque Country; 41% in Castilla-La Mancha; 36% in Murcia; 32.6% in the Valencian Community and 31% in La Rioja. The study has revealed an heterogeneous development of suspected OD reporting systems in Spain. Although the trend is positive, only 55% of the AACC have some type of development and 39% have specific software supporting it. Therefore unequal OD recognition rates have been obtained depending on the territory.

  2. Respiratory viral infections in infants with clinically suspected pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Ferronato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the frequency of respiratory viral infections in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and to analyze their characteristics at hospital admission and clinical outcomes. Methods: a historical cohort study was performed in a reference service for pertussis, in which the research of respiratory viruses was also a routine for infants hospitalized with respiratory problems. All infants reported as suspected cases of pertussis were included. Tests for Bordetella pertussis (BP (polymerase chain reaction/culture and for respiratory viruses (RVs (immunofluorescence were performed. Patients who received macrolides before hospitalization were excluded. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Results: Among the 67 patients studied, BP tests were positive in 44%, and 26% were positive for RV. There was no etiological identification in 35%, and RV combined with BP was identified in 5%. All patients had similar demographic characteristics. Cough followed by inspiratory stridor or cyanosis was a strong predictor of pertussis, as well as prominent leukocytosis and lymphocytosis. Rhinorrhea and dyspnea were more frequent in viral infections. Macrolides were discontinued in 40% of patients who tested positive for RV and negative for BP. Conclusion: the results suggest that viral infection can be present in hospitalized infants with clinical suspicion of pertussis, and etiological tests may enable a reduction in the use of macrolides in some cases. However, the etiological diagnosis of respiratory virus infection, by itself, does not exclude the possibility of infection with BP. Resumo: Objetivo: avaliar a frequência das infecções por vírus respiratórios em lactentes hospitalizados com suspeita clínica de coqueluche e analisar suas características admissionais e evolutivas. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo de coorte histórica, em um serviço sentinela para coqueluche, no qual a pesquisa de v

  3. Alluvial Deposits in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage maps alluvial deposits throughout Iowa. This generally would include areas of alluvial soils associated with modern streams that are identified on...

  4. 75 FR 20041 - Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... transmission to (202) 906- 6518; or send an e-mail to [email protected] . OTS will post... DD implements the Truth in Savings Act, part of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement...

  5. Modeled Wet Nitrate Deposition

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Modeled data on nitrate wet deposition was obtained from Dr. Jeff Grimm at Penn State Univ. Nitrate wet depostion causes acidification and eutrophication of surface...

  6. Uranium deposit research, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.; LeCheminant, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Research on uranium deposits in Canada, conducted as a prerequisite for assessment of the Estimated Additional Resources of uranium, revealed that (a) the uranium-gold association in rudites of the Huronian Supergroup preferably occurs in the carbon layers; (b) chloritized ore at the Panel mine, Elliot Lake, Ontario, occurs locally in tectonically disturbed areas in the vicinity of diabase dykes; (c) mineralization in the Black Sturgeon Lake area, Ontario, formed from solutions in structural and lithological traps; (d) the Cigar Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, has two phases of mineralization: monomineralic and polymetallic; (e) mineralization of the JEB (Canoxy Ltd.) deposit is similar to that at McClean Lake; (f) the uranium-carbon assemblage was identified in the Claude deposit, Carswell Structure; and (g) the Otish Mountains area, Quebec, should be considered as a significant uranium-polymetallic metallogenic province

  7. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  8. Speleothem (Cave Deposit) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, and other aspects of climate derived from mineral deposits found in caves. Parameter keywords describe what was measured...

  9. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of oxidised sulfur and nitrogen species at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, G.P.; Gillett, R.W.; Manins, P.C. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Peng Leong Chow; Fook Lim Sze [Malaysian Meteorological Service, Petaling Jaya (Malaysia); Kong Cheah Wai [Tenaga Nasional R and D Berhad, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2000-02-01

    Wet-only rainwater composition, acid-precursor gas mixing ratios and aerosol loading were determined from weekly-averaged samples at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, over the five year period from March 1993 to March 1998. Annual deposition fluxes of acidic sulfur and nitrogen species estimated from these data show this site to be heavily impacted by acidic deposition, with total oxidised sulfur plus nitrogen deposition in the range 277-480 meq m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Average contributions were 56% as sulfur species, 44% as nitrogen species, with wet deposition in this region of high rainfall accounting for 67% of total deposition. Thus total acid deposition fluxes were equivalent to levels that provided motivation for emissions reduction programs in both Europe and North America. The possibility of adverse environmental effects in Malaysia caused by acid deposition therefore merits serious consideration and assessment.

  10. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc., jasper (picture, landscape, red etc., common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc., silica masses (undivided, and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.. Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine, garnet (almandine and pyrope, tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  11. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilpolt, R.H.; Simov, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  12. Gemstone deposits of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinović, Zoran; Simić, Vladimir; Jelenković, Rade; Ilić, Miloje

    2016-06-01

    Gemstone minerals in Serbia have never been regarded as an interesting and significant resource. Nevertheless, more than 150 deposits and occurrences have been recorded and some of them preliminarily explored in the last 50 years. The majority of deposits and occurrences are located within the Serbo-Macedonian metallogenic province and the most significant metallogenic units at the existing level of knowledge are the Fruska Gora ore district, Cer ore district, Sumadija metallogenic zone, Kopaonik metallogenic zone and Lece-Halkidiki metallogenic zone. The most important genetic type of deposits is hydrothermal, particularly in case of serpentinite/peridotite as host/parent rock. Placer deposits are also economically important. The dominant gemstones are silica minerals: chalcedony (Chrysoprase, carnelian, bluish chalcedony etc.), jasper (picture, landscape, red etc.), common opal (dendritic, green, milky white etc.), silica masses (undivided), and quartz (rock crystal, amethyst etc.). Beside silica minerals significant gemstones in Serbia include also beryl (aquamarine), garnet (almandine and pyrope), tourmaline, fluorite, rhodochrosite, carbonate-silica breccia, carbonate-silica onyx, silicified wood, howlite, serpentinite, marble onyx, and kyanite. This paper aims to present an overview of Serbian gemstone deposits and occurrences and their position based on a simplified gemstone metallogenic map of Serbia, as well as genetic-industrial classification of gemstone deposits and gemstone varieties.

  13. Peri-Implant Endosseous Healing Properties of Dual Acid-Etched Mini-Implants with a Nanometer-Sized Deposition of CaP : A Histological and Histomorphometric Human Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; Albrektsson, Tomas; Hoffman, Maria; Johansson, Carina B.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this histological and histomorphometric study was to compare the early peri-implant endosseous healing properties of a dual acid-etched (DAE) surface (Osseotite (R), Implant Innovations Inc., Palm Beach Gardens, FL, USA) with a DAE surface modified with nanometer-sized calcium

  14. Identification of novel micropollutants in wastewater by a combination of suspect and nontarget screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, Christine; Ulrich, Nadin; Schulze, Tobias; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To detect site-specific, suspected and formerly unknown contaminants in a wastewater treatment plant effluent, we established a screening procedure based on liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS) with stepwise identification schemes. Based on automated substructure searches a list of 2160 suspected site-specific and documented water contaminants was reduced to those amenable to LC–HRMS. After searching chromatograms for exact masses of suspects, presumably false positive detections were stepwise excluded by retention time prediction, the evaluation of isotope patterns, ionization behavior, and HRMS/MS spectra. In nontarget analysis, peaks for identification were selected based on distinctive isotope patterns and intensity. The stepwise identification of nontarget compounds was automated by a plausibility check of molecular formulas using the Seven Golden Rules, an exclusion of compounds with presumably low commercial importance and an automated HRMS/MS evaluation. Six suspected and five nontarget chemicals were identified, of which two have not been previously reported as environmental pollutants. -- Highlights: • A LC–HRMS-based suspect and nontarget screening was applied to wastewater. • Manual data processing to identify candidate structures was accelerated by automated software-based procedure. • Identification was supported by sophisticated analytical methods such as deuterium exchange. • Eleven site-specific and formerly unknown compounds were identified. • We provide a framework to extend analytical procedures from target to suspect and nontarget compounds. -- A screening procedure based on liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS) with a systematic data evaluation was established, which allowed detecting suspected and formerly unknown contaminants in wastewater

  15. A Risk Prediction Model for In-hospital Mortality in Patients with Suspected Myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Duo; Zhao, Ruo-Chi; Gao, Wen-Hui; Cui, Han-Bin

    2017-04-05

    Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium that may lead to cardiac death in some patients. However, little is known about the predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with suspected myocarditis. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with suspected myocarditis by establishing a risk prediction model. A retrospective study was performed to analyze the clinical medical records of 403 consecutive patients with suspected myocarditis who were admitted to Ningbo First Hospital between January 2003 and December 2013. A total of 238 males (59%) and 165 females (41%) were enrolled in this study. We divided the above patients into two subgroups (survival and nonsurvival), according to their clinical in-hospital outcomes. To maximize the effectiveness of the prediction model, we first identified the potential risk factors for in-hospital mortality among patients with suspected myocarditis, based on data pertaining to previously established risk factors and basic patient characteristics. We subsequently established a regression model for predicting in-hospital mortality using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Finally, we identified the independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality using our risk prediction model. The following prediction model for in-hospital mortality in patients with suspected myocarditis, including creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), age, ventricular tachycardia (VT), New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, gender and cardiac troponin T (cTnT), was established in the study: P = ea/(1 + ea) (where e is the exponential function, P is the probability of in-hospital death, and a = -7.34 + 2.99 × [Ccr model demonstrated that a Ccr prediction model for in-hospital mortality in patients with suspected myocarditis. In addition, sufficient life support during the early stage of the disease might improve the prognoses of patients with

  16. Characterization of waste streams and suspect waste from largest Los Alamos National Laboratory generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukup, J.D.; Erpenbeck, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed waste stream characterization of 4 primary generators of low level waste at LANL was performed to aid in waste minimization efforts. Data was compiled for these four generators from 1988 to the present for analyses. Prior waste minimization efforts have focused on identifying waste stream processes and performing source materials substitutions or reductions where applicable. In this historical survey, the generators surveyed included an accelerator facility, the plutonium facility, a chemistry and metallurgy research facility, and a radiochemistry research facility. Of particular interest in waste minimization efforts was the composition of suspect low level waste in which no radioactivity is detected through initial survey. Ultimately, this waste is disposed of in the LANL low level permitted waste disposal pits (thus filling a scarce and expensive resource with sanitary waste). Detailed analyses of the waste streams from these 4 facilities, have revealed that suspect low level waste comprises approximately 50% of the low level waste by volume and 47% by weight. However, there are significant differences in suspect waste density when one considers the radioactive contamination. For the 2 facilities that deal primarily with beta emitting activation and spallation products (the radiochemistry and accelerator facilities), the suspect waste is much lower density than all low level waste coming from those facilities. For the 2 facilities that perform research on transuranics (the chemistry and metallurgy research and plutonium facilities), suspect waste is higher in density than all the low level waste from those facilities. It is theorized that the low density suspect waste is composed primarily of compactable lab trash, most of which is not contaminated but can be easily surveyed. The high density waste is theorized to be contaminated with alpha emitting radionuclides, and in this case, the suspect waste demonstrates fundamental limits in detection

  17. Air pollution: Tropospheric ozone, and wet deposition of sulfate and inorganic nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston

    2009-01-01

    The influence of air pollutants on ecosystems in the United States is an important environmental issue. The term “air pollution” encompasses a wide range of topics, but acid deposition and ozone are primary concerns in the context of forest health. Acid deposition partially results from emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia that are deposited in wet...

  18. Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 2. Current sources of acidity in acidic and low acid-neutralizing-capacity streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlihy, A.T.; Kaufmann, P.R.; Mitch, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined anion composition in National Stream Survey (NSS) data in order to evaluate the most probable sources of current acidity in acidic and low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) streams in the eastern United States. Acidic streams that had almost no organic influence (less than 10% of total anions) and sulfate and nitrate concentrations indicative of evaporative concentration of atmospheric deposition were classified as acidic due to acidic deposition. These acidic streams were located in small forested watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Highlands (an estimated 1950 km of stream length) and in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (1250 km). Acidic streams affected primarily by acidic deposition but also influenced by naturally occurring organic anions accounted for another 1180 km of acidic stream length and were located in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, plateau tops in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands, and the Florida Panhandle. The total length of streams acidic due to acid mine drainage in the NSS (4590 km) was about the same as the total length of acidic streams likely affected by acidic deposition (4380 km). Acidic streams whose acid anion composition was dominated by organics were located in Florida and the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. In Florida, most of the acidic streams were organic dominated, whereas about half of the streams in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain were organic dominated. Organic-dominated acidic streams were not observed in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast Highlands

  19. Model boiler studies on deposition and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; McVey, E.G.

    1977-09-01

    Deposit formation was studied in a model boiler, with sea-water injections to simulate the in-leakage which could occur from sea-water cooled condensers. When All Volatile Treatment (AVT) was used for chemistry control the deposits consisted of the sea-water salts and corrosion products. With sodium phosphate added to the boiler water, the deposits also contained the phosphates derived from the sea-water salts. The deposits were formed in layers of differing compositions. There was no significant corrosion of the Fe-Ni-Cr alloy boiler tube under deposits, either on the open area of the tube or in crevices. However, carbon steel that formed a crevice around the tube was corroded severely when the boiler water did not contain phosphate. The observed corrosion of carbon steel was caused by the presence of acidic, highly concentrated chloride solution produced from the sea-water within the crevice. Results of theoretical calculations of the composition of the concentrated solution are presented. (author)

  20. [Trace analysis of aristolochic acid A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yalin; Gao, Huimin; Wang, Zhimin; Zhang, Qiwei

    2010-12-01

    A HPLC method for limit detection of aristolochic acid A in the Chinese herbs containing aristolochic acid or suspected-containing aristolochic acid and their preparations was established. The samples were analyzed on an Alltima C18 column eluted with methanol-water-acetic acid (68:32:1.5) as the mobile phase. Flow rate was at 1.0 mL x min(-1) and the detection wavelength was at 390 nm. The calibration curve was linear over the range from 0.016 to 0.51 g (r = 0.9993) and LOD was 4 ng. The average recovery was 101.2% with RSD of 2.01%. The procedures of sample preparation were systematically investigated. The contents of aristolochic acid A in Radix et Rhizoma Asari bought from market or drugstore were fluctuated from 3.1 to 26.6 microg x g(-1) and 3 of 11 samples accorded with the quality requirement of current Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Among 15 batches samples of Chinese medicaments, only one sample was found to contain aristolochic acid A. The present investigation shows that the method is sensitive and repeatable and it could be used for the limit detection of aristolochic acid A in the Chinese herbal medicines containing trace amount of aristolochic acid A or suspected-containing aristolochic acid A and their preparations.

  1. Urban wet deposition nitrate: a comparison to non-urban deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of nitrate in both wet and dry deposition has both increased historically and currently, and recently parallels emissions in NO x . Since NO x is produced in amounts comparable to SO 2 , it is an important contributor to acid deposition, and is produced in higher amounts in urban areas due to concentrated sources. Prior to to this study, national acid deposition monitoring networks in the United States have been and remain established in non-urban areas. This research study consisted of a comparison of precipitation sampling and analysis of wet deposition nitrate and pH for each deposition event in each of two urban sites over a 15 mo period. Also, a comparison of urban data and data generated at a nearby non-urban NADP site was made by examination of both monthly and seasonal data. This research suggests that national monitoring programs should consider inclusion of urban and non-urban monitoring sites in order to achieve a more representative regional assessment. 24 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Suspect filler similarity in eyewitness lineups: a literature review and a novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Ryan J; Oriet, Chris; Price, Heather L

    2015-02-01

    Eyewitness lineups typically contain a suspect (guilty or innocent) and fillers (known innocents). The degree to which fillers should resemble the suspect is a complex issue that has yet to be resolved. Previously, researchers have voiced concern that eyewitnesses would be unable to identify their target from a lineup containing highly similar fillers; however, our literature review suggests highly similar fillers have only rarely been shown to have this effect. To further examine the effect of highly similar fillers on lineup responses, we used morphing software to create fillers of moderately high and very high similarity to the suspect. When the culprit was in the lineup, a higher correct identification rate was observed in moderately high similarity lineups than in very high similarity lineups. When the culprit was absent, similarity did not yield a significant effect on innocent suspect misidentification rates. However, the correct rejection rate in the moderately high similarity lineup was 20% higher than in the very high similarity lineup. When choosing rates were controlled by calculating identification probabilities for only those who made a selection from the lineup, culprit identification rates as well as innocent suspect misidentification rates were significantly higher in the moderately high similarity lineup than in the very high similarity lineup. Thus, very high similarity fillers yielded costs and benefits. Although our research suggests that selecting the most similar fillers available may adversely affect correct identification rates, we recommend additional research using fillers obtained from police databases to corroborate our findings.

  3. Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits: Chapter P in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2018-05-17

    Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits represent the largest repository of gold on Earth, largely due to the deposits of the Witwatersrand Basin, which account for nearly 40 percent of the total gold produced throughout Earth’s history. This deposit type has had a controversial history in regards to genetic models. However, most researchers conclude that they are paleoplacer deposits that have been modified by metamorphism and hydrothermal fluid flow subsequent to initial sedimentation.The deposits are found exclusively within fault-bounded depositional basins. The periphery of these basins commonly consists of granite-greenstone terranes, classic hosts for lode gold that source the detrital material infilling the basin. The gold reefs are typically located along unconformities or, less commonly, at the top of sedimentary beds. Large quartz pebbles and heavy-mineral concentrates are found associated with the gold. Deposits that formed prior to the Great Oxidation Event (circa 2.4 giga-annum [Ga]) contain pyrite, whereas younger deposits contain iron oxides. Uranium minerals and hydrocarbons are also notable features of some deposits.Much of the gold in these types of deposits forms crystalline features that are the product of local remobilization. However, some gold grains preserve textures that are undoubtedly of detrital origin. Other heavy minerals, such as pyrite, contain growth banding that is truncated along broken margins, which indicates that they were transported into place as opposed to forming by in situ growth in a hydrothermal setting.The ore tailings associated with these deposits commonly contain uranium-rich minerals and sulfides. Oxidation of the sulfides releases sulfuric acid and mobilizes various metals into the environment. The neutralizing potential of the tailings is minimal, since carbonate minerals are rare. The continuity of the tabular ore bodies, such as those of the Witwatersrand Basin, has allowed these mines to be the deepest in

  4. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  5. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  6. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  7. Deposition potential of polonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, H. G.

    1948-11-23

    The cathodic deposition potential for polonium in concentrations of 10{sup -13} normal and 8 x 10{sup -13} normal, the former being 100-fold smaller than the smallest concentrations previously studied, has been determined. The value is 0.64 volt on the hydrogen scale. Considering the various ways in which the graphs can reasonably be drawn, we consider the maximum possible error to be of the order of +- 0.03 volt. There is apparently no shift of deposition potential between concentrations of 10{sup -8} and 10{sup -13} normal, indicating that the Nernst equation is not applicable in these circumstances.

  8. Association between QRS duration on prehospital ECG and mortality in patients with suspected STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke; Frydland, Martin; Møller-Helgestad, Ole Kristian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: QRS duration has previously shown association with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytics, less is known in patients with suspected ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when assessing QRS duration on prehospital ECG. Thus......, the objective was to investigate the prognostic effect of QRS duration on prehospital ECG and presence of classic left and right bundle branch block (LBBB/RBBB) for all-cause mortality in patients with suspected STEMI. METHOD: In total 2105 consecutive patients (mean age 64±13years, 72% men) with suspected...... STEMI were prospectively included. QRS duration was registered from automated QRS measurement on prehospital ECG and patients were divided according to quartiles of QRS duration (111ms). Primary endpoint was all-cause 30-day mortality. Predictors of all-cause mortality were...

  9. A case report of suspected malignant hyperthermia where patient survived the episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Badoo, Shoaib; Naqeeb, Ruqsana

    2017-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia is rare inherited disorder in our part of the world; there are only few cases reported in literature in India who were suspected of having this condition. The overall incidence of malignant hyperthermia during general anesthesia is estimated to range from 1: 5000 to 1: 50,000-100,000 and mortality rate is estimated to be <5% in the presence of standard care. In India, there is no center where in vitro halothane caffeine contraction test is performed to confirm diagnosis in suspected cases. Second, dantrolene drug of choice for this condition is not freely available in market in India and is stored only in some hospitals in few major cities. Among the cases reported of suspected of malignant hyperthermia in India almost 50% have survived the condition despite nonavailability of dantrolene emphasizing role of early detection and aggressive management in these cases.

  10. A case report of suspected malignant hyperthermia where patient survived the episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia is rare inherited disorder in our part of the world; there are only few cases reported in literature in India who were suspected of having this condition. The overall incidence of malignant hyperthermia during general anesthesia is estimated to range from 1: 5000 to 1: 50,000–100,000 and mortality rate is estimated to be <5% in the presence of standard care. In India, there is no center where in vitro halothane caffeine contraction test is performed to confirm diagnosis in suspected cases. Second, dantrolene drug of choice for this condition is not freely available in market in India and is stored only in some hospitals in few major cities. Among the cases reported of suspected of malignant hyperthermia in India almost 50% have survived the condition despite nonavailability of dantrolene emphasizing role of early detection and aggressive management in these cases.

  11. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  12. Reactive polymer fused deposition manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Vlastimil; Rios, Orlando; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad E.; Johs, Alexander

    2017-05-16

    Methods and compositions for additive manufacturing that include reactive or thermosetting polymers, such as urethanes and epoxies. The polymers are melted, partially cross-linked prior to the depositing, deposited to form a component object, solidified, and fully cross-linked. These polymers form networks of chemical bonds that span the deposited layers. Application of a directional electromagnetic field can be applied to aromatic polymers after deposition to align the polymers for improved bonding between the deposited layers.

  13. FDG-PET of patients with suspected renal failure. Standardized uptake values in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Inoue, Tomio

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the effect of renal function on 2-[ 18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging and determine the clinical significance of renal function in this setting. We compared FDG distribution between normal volunteers and patients with suspected renal failure. Twenty healthy volunteers and 20 patients with suspected renal failure who underwent FDG-PET between November 2002 and May 2005 were selected for this study. We define ''patients with suspected renal failure'' as having a blood serum creatinine level in excess of 1.1 mg/dl. The serum creatinine level was examined once in 2 weeks of the FDG-PET study. Regions of interest were placed over 15 regions for semi-quantitative analysis: the white matter, cortex, both upper lung fields, both middle lung fields, both lower lung fields, mediastinum, myocardium of the left ventricle, the left atrium as a cardiac blood pool, central region of the right lobe of the liver, left kidney, and both femoris muscles. The mean standardized uptake values (SUVs) of brain cortex and white matter were higher in healthy volunteers than in renal patients. The mean SUVs of the mediastinum at the level of the aortic arch and left atrium as a cardiac blood pool were lower in healthy volunteers than in patients with suspected renal failure. These regions differed between healt